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Sample records for cefuroxime

  1. Bioavailability of cefuroxime axetil formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donn, K H; James, N C; Powell, J R

    1994-06-01

    Cefuroxime axetil tablets have proved effective for the treatment of a variety of community-acquired infections. A suspension formulation has been developed for use in children. Two studies have been conducted to determine if the cefuroxime axetil formulations are bioequivalent. In the initial randomized, two-period crossover study, 24 healthy men received 250-mg doses of suspension and tablet formulations of cefuroxime axetil every 12 h after eating for seven doses. Each treatment period was separated by 4 days. Comparisons of serum and urine pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that the suspension and tablet formulations of cefuroxime axetil are not bioequivalent. Following the initial bioequivalency study, 0.1 % sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was added to the suspension to assure the homogeneity of the granules during the manufacturing process. In the subsequent randomized, three-period crossover study, 24 healthy men received single 250-mg doses of three cefuroxime axetil formulations: suspension without SLS, suspension with SLS, and tablet. Again each treatment period was separated by 4 days. Pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated that while the suspension with SLS and suspension without SLS are bioequivalent, bioequivalence between the suspension with SLS and the tablet was not observed. Thus, the addition of the SLS surfactant to the suspension did not alter the bioavailability of the formulation.

  2. Cefuroxime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prilosec, in Zegerid), pantoprazole(Protonix), probenecid (Probalan) and ranitidine (Zantac). Your doctor may need to change the ... and out of reach of children. Store the tablets at room temperature and away from excess heat ...

  3. VAGINAL HYSTERECTOMY - CEFUROXIME, METRONIDAZOLE OR BOTH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAUER, FM; WIJMA, J; MANSON, WL

    1990-01-01

    A randomized double-blind prospective study on the efficacy of single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis compared cefuroxime versus metronidazole versus the combination of both agents in vaginal hysterectomy. Overall antibiotic prophylaxis was effective in abscess prevention (one abscess in 68 patients). I

  4. Effects of Implant-Associated Osteomyelitis on Cefuroxime Bone Pharmacokinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Mikkel; Bue, Mats; Koch, Janne;

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prolonged antibiotic therapy that is often needed for successful management of osteomyelitis may be related to incomplete penetration of antibiotics into the target site. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of implant-associated osteomyelitis on cefuroxime...... penetration into bone.  Methods: Implant-associated osteomyelitis using a Staphylococcus aureus strain was induced in the right tibia in ten pigs. After five days and following administration of 1500 mg of cefuroxime, measurements of cefuroxime were obtained using microdialysis for eight hours in the implant...... cavity up to MICs of 2 mg/L compared with the other tissues, but the time was shorter for higher MICs.  Conclusions: Cefuroxime penetration into infected cancellous bone was incomplete but comparable with that in healthy bone. The destructive bone processes associated with acute osteomyelitis reduced...

  5. Bioequivalence and Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Two Forms of Antibiotic, Cefuroxime Lysine and Cefuroxime Sodium, after Intravenous Infusion in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longshan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the bioequivalence and the population pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime lysine and cefuroxime sodium in healthy beagle dogs. A randomized 2-period crossover design in 18 healthy beagle dogs after receiving 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg of cefuroxime lysine or cefuroxime sodium was conducted. A 3-compartment open model was used as the basic model for the population pharmacokinetic study. Both of the antibiotics exhibited dose-proportional pharmacokinetics over the dose range of 20–80 mg/kg. The mean relative bioavailability of cefuroxime lysine versus cefuroxime sodium was 1.05 (range, 0.71 to 1.42, with a significant difference between males and females. The estimates of population pharmacokinetic of CL, V1, Q2, V2, Q3, V3 were 3.74 mL/h, 1.70 mL, 29.5 mL/min, 3.58 mL, 0.31 mL/min, and 158 mL for cefuroxime lysine and 4.10 mL/h, 1.00 mL, 38.5 mL/min, 4.19 mL, 0.06 mL/min, and 13.6 mL for cefuroxime sodium, respectively. The inter-individual variability was determined to be less than 29.1%. A linear pharmacokinetic was revealed for cefuroxime lysine and cefuroxime sodium in dogs after intravenous infusion, and the bioequivalence of these forms of the antibiotic was observed with the significant gender-related differences in mean relative bioavailability of cefuroxime lysine versus cefuroxime sodium.

  6. Blood concentrations of cefuroxime in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertholee, Daphne; ter Horst, Peter G. J.; Hijmering, Michel L.; Spanjersberg, Alexander J.; Hospes, Wobbe; Wilffert, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Patients with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery are at risk for severe postoperative infections. Prophylactic cefuroxime may help to reduce this risk, however sufficient concentrations, i.e. above the breakpoint (32 mg/L), are mandatory. The aim of this study is to evaluate the

  7. The half-life and exposure of cefuroxime varied in newborn infants after a Caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, G.; Hyldig, N.; Joergensen, J.S.;

    2016-01-01

    Aim: No information was available on how fast intravenous cefuroxime administered to pregnant women before a Caesarean section was cleared in newborn infants. This study investigated the drug's half-life and the exposure of healthy newborn infants after their mothers received the drug. Methods....... Exposure to cefuroxime in newborn infants may influence the gut microbiota and should be investigated further....

  8. Cefuroxime, rifampicin and pulse lavage in decontamination of allograft bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirn, M; Laitinen, M; Pirkkalainen, S; Vuento, R

    2004-03-01

    The risk of bacterial infection through allogenic bone transplantation is one of the major problems facing tissue banks. Different screening methods and decontamination procedures are being used to achieve a safe surgical result. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contamination rate in fresh frozen bone allografts after treating them with different decontamination methods. The allografts were contaminated by rubbing on the operating theatre floor for 60 min, after which they were rinsed either with sterile physiological saline, cefuroxime or rifampicin solution or they were washed with low-pressure pulse lavage of sterile physiological saline. Our findings show that low-pressure pulse lavage with sterile saline solution is very effective in removing bacteria from bone allograft, when compared with the antibiotic solutions tested.

  9. Unexpected death due to cefuroxime-induced disulfiram-like reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongmei; Zhang, Ji; Ren, Liang; Liu, Qian; Zhu, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Cefuoxime, a second-generation cephalosporin, is used in the treatment of Gram-positive infections. Here, we report a case cefuroxime-induced disulfiram-like reaction which led to sudden death of the patient. PMID:24014919

  10. Unexpected death due to cefuroxime-induced disulfiram-like reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cefuoxime, a second-generation cephalosporin, is used in the treatment of Gram-positive infections. Here, we report a case cefuroxime-induced disulfiram-like reaction which led to sudden death of the patient.

  11. Improvement in Dissolution Rate of Cefuroxime Axetil by using Poloxamer 188 and Neusilin US2

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    J Sruti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of fusion and surface adsorption techniques was used to enhance the dissolution rate of cefuroxime axetil. Solid dispersions of cefuroxime axetil were prepared by two methods, namely fusion method using poloxamer 188 alone and combination of poloxamer 188 and Neusilin US2 by fusion and surface adsorption method. Solid dispersions were evaluated for solubility, phase solubility, flowability, compressibility, Kawakita analysis, Fourier transform-infrared spectra, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction study, in vitro drug release, and stability study. Solubility studies showed 12- and 14-fold increase in solubility for solid dispersions by fusion method, and fusion and surface adsorption method, respectively. Phase solubility studies showed negative values for poloxamer 188 at various concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% indicating spontaneous nature of solubilisation. Fourier transform-infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry spectra showed that drug and excipients are compatible with each other. Powder X-ray diffraction study studies indicated that presence of Neusilin US2 is less likely to promote the reversion of the amorphous cefuroxime axetil to crystalline state. In vitro dissolution studies, T50% and mean dissolution time have shown better dissolution rate for solid dispersions by fusion and surface adsorption method. Cefuroxime axetil release at 15 min (Q15 and DE15 exhibited 23- and 20-fold improvement in dissolution rate. The optimized solid dispersion formulation was stable for 6 months of stability study as per ICH guidelines. The stability was ascertained from drug content, in vitro dissolution, Fourier transform-infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry study. Hence, this combined approach of fusion and surface adsorption can be used successfully to improve the dissolution rate of poorly soluble biopharmaceutical classification system class II drug cefuroxime axetil.

  12. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain ... will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using antibiotics when they are not needed ...

  13. Liquid antisolvent preparation of amorphous cefuroxime axetil nanoparticles in a tube-in-tube microchannel reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Zhen; Wang, Jie-Xin; Shao, Lei; Zhang, Hai-xia; Zhang, Qian-xia; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2010-08-16

    This article presents the preparation of nanoparticles of amorphous cefuroxime axetil (CFA) in a microporous tube-in-tube microchannel reactor (MTMCR). The experimental results indicated that CFA particle with a tunable size of 400-1400 nm could be achieved under a high throughput in the range of 1.5-6L/min. The average particle size decreased with increasing overall volumetric flow rate and decreasing CFA concentration, micropore size, and annular channel width. The produced CFA nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XRD, FT-IR, DSC and a dissolution test, which indicated that the nanosized CFA was amorphous and exhibited higher dissolution rate compared to the raw CFA. The MTMCR might offer a general and facile pathway for mass production of the nanoparticles of hydrophobic pharmaceuticals thanks to its high throughput capacity and excellent micromixing performance.

  14. Influence of Very Early Exposure of Cefuroxime on Gut Microbiota Composition of Infants Born by Caesarean Section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Bin Shamzir Kamal, Shamrulazhar; Hyldig, Nana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cefuroxime is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic. It is standard caesarean section (CS) procedure at many hospitals to administer the mother a single prophylactic dose (1500mg) before skin incision and hence before the umbilical cord is cut, indirectly exposing the foetus...... born by CS. Methods: 42 pregnant women (BMImothers were randomly assigned to either receiving cefuroxime before skin incision or immediately after the umbilical cord were cut. Faecal samples were collected from...... all infants at 10 days. GM composition were determined by MiSeq-based tag-encoded 16S rRNA gene targeted high throughput amplicon sequencing. Bacteria were cultured on selective and non-selective agar plates (aerobically and anaerobically) from the faecal samples and the bacterial strains were...

  15. Antibacterial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. alone and in combination with cefuroxime against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naser Jarrar; Awni Abu-Hijleh; Kamel Adwan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the antimicrobial activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and to investigate the synergistic effects of this extract combined with ceforuxime against methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA).Methods: The inhibitory and bactericidal activities of rosemary ethanol extract, alone and in combination with cefuroxime, were studied.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the ethanol extract of rosemary were in the range of 0.39-3.13 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were usually equal to or double that MICs. The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the ethanol extract of rosemary and cefuroxime indicated their synergistic effects against all MRSAs.Conclusions: The present work clearly demonstrates that rosemary has a key role in the elevation of susceptibility toβ-lactams.

  16. Simple and Robust Analysis of Cefuroxime in Human Plasma by LC-MS/MS: Application to a Bioequivalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingjiang; Huang, Mingzhu; Liu, Jian; Chen, Junchun; Shentu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    A simple, robust LC-MS/MS assay for quantifying cefuroxime in human plasma was developed. Cefuroxime and tazobactam, as internal standard (IS), were extracted from human plasma by methanol to precipitate protein. Separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-Aq (4.6 × 250 mm, 5  μ m) column under isocratic conditions. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 0.0525-21.0  μ g/mL (r = 0.9998). The accuracy was higher than 90.92%, while the intra- and interday precision were less than 6.26%. The extraction procedure provides recovery ranged from 89.44% to 92.32%, for both analyte and IS. Finally, the method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of a single 500 mg dose of cefuroxime axetil in 22 healthy Chinese male subjects under fasting condition. Bioequivalence was determined by calculating 90% Cls for the ratios of C max, AUC0-t , and AUC0-∞ values for the test and reference products, using logarithmic transformed data. The 90% Cls for the ratios of C max (91.4%~104.2%), AUC0-t (97.4%~110.9%), and AUC0-∞ (97.6%~111.1%) values were within the predetermined range. It was concluded that the two formulations (test for capsule, reference for tablet) analyzed were bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of absorption and the method met the principle of quick and easy clinical analysis.

  17. Validated Spectrophotometric Assay of Cefepime Hydrochloride and Cefuroxime Sodium Using a Tetrazolium Salt

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    Marwa S. Elazazy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of micro amounts of cefepime hydrochloride and cefuroxime sodium is described. The method is based on reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC by the cited drugs in slightly alkaline medium leading to formation of a highly colored formazan derivative. Different variables affecting the color development were investigated and optimized. Absorbance measurements were made at 483 nm. Under the proposed conditions, this method is applicable over concentration range of 4–50 µg ml-1 with molar absorpitivities ranging from 5.208 x 103–1.217 x 104 L.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell's sensitivities ranging from 1.007 x 10-3–2.727 x10-3 µg cm-2. The proposed method was successfully applied for analysis of the cited drugs in formulations and the recovery percentages ranged from 99.47 to 99.8%. The results obtained demonstrated that the proposed method is equally accurate, precise and reproducible as the reported methods thus it is recommended for quality control and routine analysis where time, cost effectiveness and high specificity of analytical techniques are of great importance.

  18. Cefuroxime axetil loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for enhanced activity against S. aureus biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupender; Vuddanda, Parameswara Rao; M R, Vijayakumar; Kumar, Vinod; Saxena, Preeti S; Singh, Sanjay

    2014-09-01

    The present research work is focused on the development of solid lipid nanoparticles of cefuroxime axetil (CA-SLN) for its enhanced inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus produced biofilm. CA-SLN was prepared by solvent emulsification/evaporation method using single lipid (stearic acid (SA)) and binary lipids (SA and tristearin (TS)). Process variables such as volume of dispersion medium, concentration of surfactant, homogenization speed and time were optimized. The prepared SLN were characterized for encapsulation efficiency, drug polymer interaction studies (DSC and FT-IR), shape and surface morphology (SEM and AFM), in vitro drug release, stability studies and in vitro anti biofilm activity against S. aureus biofilm. Among the process variables, increased volume of dispersion medium, homogenization speed and time led to increase in particle size whereas increase in surfactant concentration decreased the particle size. SLN prepared using binary lipids exhibited higher entrapment efficiency than the single lipid. DSC and FT-IR studies showed no incompatible interaction between drug and excipients. CA-SLN showed two folds higher anti-biofilm activity in vitro than pristine CA against S. aureus biofilm.

  19. Cefuroxime axetil loaded gastroretentive floating tabletsbased on hydrophilic polymers: preparation and in vitro evaluation

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    Snehamayee Mohapatra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the formulation and in vitro characterization of hydro dynamically balanced floating matrix tablets using Cefuroxime axetil (CA as model drug. Different excipients such as hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K15M, E5LV (gelling agent, sodium bicarbonate (gas generating agent and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS (solubility enhancer were used in order to optimize the drug release profile as well as floating property. Decrease in release characteristics with high viscous polymer were observed due to increased gel strength, tortuosity and length of drug diffusion path. Significant difference (p<0.5 in release rate was found at different concentration of SLS. The release mechanisms were explored and explained with zero order, first order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer and Hixson-Crowell equations. The release rate, extent and mechanism were governed by the content of polymer. The polymer content and amount of floating agent significantly affected the time required for 50%of drug release (t50%, mean dissolution time (MDT, release rate constant, and diffusion exponent (n.Kinetic modeling of dissolution profile revealed that the drug release mechanism could range from diffusion controlled to case II transport, which was co-dominated by diffusion polymer erosion in the release mechanism.

  20. Simple and Robust Analysis of Cefuroxime in Human Plasma by LC-MS/MS: Application to a Bioequivalence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjiang Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, robust LC-MS/MS assay for quantifying cefuroxime in human plasma was developed. Cefuroxime and tazobactam, as internal standard (IS, were extracted from human plasma by methanol to precipitate protein. Separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-Aq (4.6×250 mm, 5 μm column under isocratic conditions. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 0.0525–21.0 μg/mL (r=0.9998. The accuracy was higher than 90.92%, while the intra- and interday precision were less than 6.26%. The extraction procedure provides recovery ranged from 89.44% to 92.32%, for both analyte and IS. Finally, the method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of a single 500 mg dose of cefuroxime axetil in 22 healthy Chinese male subjects under fasting condition. Bioequivalence was determined by calculating 90% Cls for the ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ values for the test and reference products, using logarithmic transformed data. The 90% Cls for the ratios of Cmax (91.4%~104.2%, AUC0-t (97.4%~110.9%, and AUC0-∞ (97.6%~111.1% values were within the predetermined range. It was concluded that the two formulations (test for capsule, reference for tablet analyzed were bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of absorption and the method met the principle of quick and easy clinical analysis.

  1. Relative efficacy of cefuroxime versus dicloxacillin as definitive antimicrobial therapy in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Bjarke; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Arpi, Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of cefuroxime with that of dicloxacillin as definitive antimicrobial therapy in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (MS-SAB) using a Danish bacteraemia database, information on the indication for anti......OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of cefuroxime with that of dicloxacillin as definitive antimicrobial therapy in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (MS-SAB) using a Danish bacteraemia database, information on the indication...... for antimicrobial therapy, multivariate adjustment and propensity score (PS) matching. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. MS-SAB cases from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2008 were included from a total of seven hospitals in the greater Copenhagen area and seven hospitals in the North Denmark Region....... Information including demographics, antimicrobial therapy and clinical condition was obtained. The physician's note detailing the indication for starting empirical antimicrobial therapy was given special attention. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for 30 day and 90 day mortality were calculated using PS...

  2. COMPARISON OF IMIPENEM VERSUS CEFUROXIM PLUS TOBRAMYCIN AS EMPIRICAL THERAPY FOR FEBRILE GRANULOCYTOPENIC PATIENTS AND EFFICACY OF VANCOMYCIN AND AZTREONAM IN CASE OF FAILURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ERJAVEC, Z; DEVRIESHOSPERS, HG; VANKAMP, H; VANDERWAAIJ, D; HALIE, MR; DAENEN, SMGJ

    1994-01-01

    143 aplastic episodes with fever in 91 haematological patients with granulocytopenia were treated empirically in a randomized prospective study using either imipenem (Imi) or a combination of tobramycin and cefuroxim (T/C). Response after 72 h was significantly better in patients receiving Imi (44/7

  3. Perioperative cefuroxime pharmacokinetics in cardiac surgery Farmacocinética da cefuroxima na antibioticoprofilaxia de cirurgia cardíaca

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    Jorge Willian Leandro Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the plasma levels and to compare the pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime during and after surgery in adult patients with elective indication for coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: Seventeen patients received three 1.5-g bolus IV doses of cefuroxime, one every 12 hrs. Serial blood samples (3 mL were collected 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 hrs after the first dose (given during the intervention and after the second and third doses (postsurgery. Blood samples were centrifuged and stored frozen until being assayed. For assessment of the cefuroxime plasma levels by liquid chromatography, only 200 µL of plasma were required. Determination of cefuroxime plasma levels was followed by a pharmacokinetic (PK-modeling using PK Solutions 2.0 software. RESULTS: The kinetic parameters obtained remained unchanged after the first, second, and the third dose as follows: elimination half-life: 1.8 h, 1.9 h, and 1.8 h; clearance: 1.4, 1.5, and 1.5 mL/min/kg, respectively. Additionally, the apparent volume of distribution did not change during and after the intervention: 0.19, 0.25, and 0.22 L/kg, after the first, second, and the third dose, respectively. Since the drug has a low volume of distribution, plasma levels obtained after a 1.5-g IV bolus injection of cefuroxime decreased rapidly due to the high plasma clearance, with a consequent short half-life. CONCLUSIONS: The kinetic disposition of cefuroxime remains unaltered in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting; to reduce the fluctuation in plasma concentrations so that the antibiotic prophylaxis in the peri-operative period is guaranteed, the dose regimen should be reviewed.OBJETIVO: Investigar os níveis plasmáticos e comparar a farmacocinética da cefuroxima durante e após cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio. MÉTODOS: Dezessete pacientes receberam três doses intravenosas de 1,5 g de cefuroxima, a cada 12 horas. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue

  4. A validated stability indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of cefuroxime sodium and sulbactam sodium in injection dosage form

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    Falguni M Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A fixed dose combination of cefuroxime sodium (β lactam antibiotic and sulbactam sodium (β Lactamase inhibitor is used in ratio of 2:1 as powder for injection for the treatment of resistant lower respiratory tract and other infections. Aims: A simple, precise, and accurate ion-pair reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of cefuroxime Na(CEF and sulbactam Na(SUL in injection. Materials and Methods: Isocratic RP-HPLC separation was achieved on an ACE C 18 column (150×4.6 mm id, 5 μm particle size using the mobile phase 0.002 M tetrabutylammonium hydroxide sulfate (TBAH in 10 mm potassium di-hydrogen phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (86:14 v/v, pH 3.7 at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Results and Conclusion: The retention time of sulbactam Na and cefuroxime Na were 3.2 min and 10.2 min, respectively. The ion-pairing reagent improved the retention of highly polar sulbactam Na on reverse-phase column. The detection was performed at 210 nm. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, solution stability, and specificity. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, solution stability, and specificity. The method was linear in the concentration range of 10-100 μg/ml for cefuroxime Na and 5-50 μg/ml for sulbactam Na, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and 0.9998 for the respective drugs. The intraday precision was 0.13-0.21% and 0.48-0.65%, and the interday precision was 0.32-0.81% and 0.60-0.83% for cefuroxime Na and sulbactam Na, respectively. The accuracy (recovery was found to be in the range of 98.76-100.61% and 98.99-100.30% for cefuroxime Na and sulbactam Na, respectively. The drugs were found to degrade under hydrolytic and oxidative conditions. The drugs could be effectively separated from different degradation products, and hence the method can be used for stability analysis.

  5. Eradication of Biofilm-like Microcolony Structures of Borrelia burgdorferi by Daunomycin and Daptomycin but not Mitomycin C in Combination with Doxycycline and Cefuroxime

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    Jie eFeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. While the majority of Lyme disease patients can resolve their symptoms if treated promptly, 10-20% of patients suffer from prolonged symptoms called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS. Although the cause for PTLDS is unclear, one possibility is the presence of bacterial persisters not effectively cleared by the current Lyme antibiotics. Recent studies identified several drug candidates including daptomycin, daunomycin, doxorubicin, and mitomycin C that had good activity against B. burgdorferi persisters. However, their relative activities against B. burgdorferi persisters have not been evaluated under the same conditions. In this study, we tested the anti-persister activities of these drugs against both 7-day and 15-day old stationary phase cultures of B. burgdorferi individually as well as in combination with Lyme antibiotics doxycycline and cefuroxime (Ceftin. Our findings demonstrate daunomycin and daptomycin were more active than mitomycin C in single drug comparison at 10 and 20 µM, as well as in drug combinations with doxycycline and cefuroxime. In addition, daunomycin was more active than doxorubicin which correlated with their ability to stain and accumulate in B. burgdorferi. The two drug combination of doxycycline and cefuroxime was unable to eradicate biofilm-like microcolonies of B. burgdorferi persisters. However, the addition of either daunomycin or daptomycin to the doxycycline + cefuroxime combination completely eradicated the biofilm-like structures and produced no visible bacterial regrowth after 7 days and 21 days, while the addition of doxorubicin was unable to prevent regrowth at either 7 day or 21 day subculture. Mitomycin C in combination with doxycycline and cefuroxime caused no regrowth at 7 days but visible spirochetal regrowth occurred after 21 day subculture. Furthermore, we found that

  6. Enhancement in photocatalytic activity of NiO by supporting onto an Iranian clinoptilolite nano-particles of aqueous solution of cefuroxime pharmaceutical capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtaheri, Asieh; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2015-02-01

    NiO/nano-clinoptilolite (NiO-NCP) was prepared by ion exchanging process of the prepared ball-mill nano-clinoptilolite particles with nickel(II) chloride aqueous solution. The prepared composite was characterized by XRD, UV-Vis DRS, TEM and FT-IR and then used as a catalyst in the photodegradation of cefuroxime (CF) using Hg lamp. The best experimental parameters were obtained as: 0.025 g L-1 of the photocatalyst containing 13.3% NiO, 50 times diluted cefuroxime solution at pH 5. The degradation extent was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and the results were confirmed by HPLC and COD. The kinetics of the photodegradation process obeyed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  7. Development and Validation of a Rapid Turbidimetric Assay to Determine the Potency of Cefuroxime Sodium in Powder for Dissolution for Injection

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    Daniela C. M. Vieira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cefuroxime sodium is a second generation cephalosporin indicated for infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Although this drug is highly studied and researched regarding the antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, there are few studies regarding the development of analytical methodology for this cephalosporin. Thus, research involving analytical methods is essential and highly relevant to optimize its analysis in the pharmaceutical industry and guarantee the quality of the product already sold. This study describes the development and validation of a microbiological assay applying the turbidimetric method for the determination of cefuroxime, using Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 as micro-organism test and 3x3 parallel line assay design, with nine tubes for each assay, as recommended by the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The developed and validated method showed excellent results of linearity, seletivity, precision and robustness, in the concentration range from 30.0 to 120.0 mg/mL, with 100.21% accuracy and content 99.97% to cefuroxime sodium in injectable pharmaceutical form.

  8. Inoculum effect on growth-delay time of oxacillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis exposed to cefamandole, cefazolin, and cefuroxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourassowsky, E; van der Linden, M P; Crokaert, F

    1990-04-01

    Cephalosporins have been recommended as prophylactic antibiotics in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. The major function of these antibiotics is to protect patients against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis infections. The lowest inoculum amount responsible for infection during surgery is unknown but is probably low. To determine the comparative activities of cefazolin, cefuroxime, and cefamandole against S. aureus and S. epidermidis for prophylactic purposes, we selected five strains of S. aureus and S. epidermidis that presented homogeneous resistances to oxacillin. A continuously monitored turbidimetric method was used to evaluate cultures with variable inoculum sizes ranging from 10(6) to 1 CFU/ml and exposed to cefazolin, cefuroxime, and cefamandole at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 micrograms/ml. Growth was defined as an increase of 0.1 optical density unit. The relationship between the time required for growth, the antibiotic concentration, and the initial bacterial density showed that cefamandole was more active than cefazolin, which, in turn, was revealed to be more active than cefuroxime against S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

  9. The in vitro Antibacterial Activity of Florfenicol in Combination with Amoxicillin or Cefuroxime against Pathogenic Bacteria of Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Jin Choia, Eun-Mi Leea, Seung-Jin Lee, Md. Ahsanur Reza, Joong-Su Lee, Elias Gebru, Man-Hee Rhee and Seung-Chun Park*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro activity of florfenicol (F in combination with amoxicillin (AM or cefuroxime (CRM against pathogenic bacteria of animal origin, including E. coli, S. aureus, S. cholerasuis and P. mirabilis. The MIC of AM ranged from 16 to 256 μg/ml. The MBC of AM (64 μg/ml was four-fold higher than its MIC value (16 μg/ml for E. coli, and similar to the MIC for the other three species. The MIC of F ranged from 8 to 16 μg/ml. The MBC values of F for E. coli, S. aureus, and S. cholerasuis were eight-fold higher than the respective MIC values, and 32-fold higher than the MIC of P. mirabilis. The MIC of CRM ranged from 8 to 128 μg/ml. The MBC of CRM was the highest ( 256 μg/ml, except for E. coli. The F/AM combination resulted in synergism (FIC index  0.5 for E. coli, S. aureus, and P. mirabilis and in-difference (FIC index >1 for S. cholerasuis. For F/CRM combination, synergism (E. coli and S. cholerasuis and in-difference (S. aureus and P. mirabilis were observed. Killing rate study showed a 1.5 - > 3 log 10 cfu/ml reduction of E. coli with F/AM compared to AM or F alone. The highest activity of the combinations was observed when F comprised at least 50% of the combination. Further studies using many bacterial isolates and various proportion of each drug would reveal the potential of a combination product containing F and AM/CRM for use in veterinary practice.

  10. Propensity-matched analysis to compare the therapeutic efficacies of cefuroxime versus cefotaxime as initial antimicrobial therapy for community-onset complicated nonobstructive acute pyelonephritis due to Enterobacteriaceae infection in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, U-Im; Kim, Hyung Wook; Wie, Seong-Heon

    2015-05-01

    This study was performed to compare the therapeutic efficacy of cefuroxime with that of cefotaxime as initial antimicrobial therapies in women with complicated nonobstructive acute pyelonephritis (APN) caused by Enterobacteriaceae infections. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of a cefuroxime-treated group (n = 156) were compared with those of a cefotaxime-treated group (n = 166). Of these 322 women, 90 from each group were matched by propensity scores. The defervescence rates were not significantly different in the cefuroxime and cefotaxime groups at 72 h after the start of antimicrobial therapy (81.1% versus 78.9%, P = 0.709). The clinical and microbiological cure rates during the follow-up visits that were 4 to 14 days after the end of the antimicrobial therapies were not significantly different in the cefuroxime versus cefotaxime groups, which were 97.8% (87/89) versus 97.8% (87/89) (P > 0.999) and 89.5% (68/76) versus 90.7% (68/75) (P = 0.807), respectively. The median hospital stay duration and the median times to defervescence in the cefuroxime versus cefotaxime groups were 8 days (interquartile range [IQR], 7 to 10 days) versus 9 days (IQR, 7 to 11 days), respectively, and 55 h (IQR, 37 to 70 h) versus 55 h (IQR, 35 to 69 h), respectively. Bacteremia, extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, C-reactive protein levels of ≥ 15 mg/dl, and white blood cell counts of ≥ 15,000/mm(3) of blood had independent effects on the rates of early clinical failure. Our data suggest that the effects of cefuroxime are not different from those of cefotaxime when they are used as an initial antimicrobial treatments for community-onset complicated nonobstructive APN in women.

  11. Formulation design and evaluation of Cefuroxime axetil 125 mg immediate release tablets using different concentration of sodium lauryl sulphate as solubility enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fozia Israr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cefuroxime axetil immediate release tablets were formulated by direct compression method with different percentages of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS such as 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and also without SLS. Resulting batches of tablets were evaluated by both pharmacopeial and non-pharmacopeial methods to ascertain the physico-mechanical properties. Dissolution test were carried out in different medium like 0.07 M HCl, distilled water, 0.1M HCl of pH 1.2 and phosphate buffers at pH 4.5 and 6.8 to observe the drug release against the respective concentration of SLS used. Later, test formulations were compared by f1(dissimilarity and f2(similarity factors using a reference brand of cefuroxime axetil. Significant differences (p<0.05 in dissolution rate were recorded with the change in concentration of SLS in different media. Test formulation T3 containing 1% SLS was found to be best optimized formulation based on assay, disintegration, dissolution and similarity and dissimilarity factors.

  12. Thrombocytopenia induced by intravenous infusion of cefuroxime%头孢呋辛静脉滴注致血小板减少

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志恒; 杨波

    2011-01-01

    1例70岁女性患者拟行脑膜瘤切除术,术前因肺部感染给予头孢呋辛2 g溶于0.9%氯化钠溶液250 ml,1次/d静脉滴注。用药前血小板166×109/L,用药第2天血小板急剧下降至40×109/L,但无临床出血表现。考虑可能与头孢呋辛有关,遂停用该药,改用氧氟沙星,换药1 d后血小板上升至160×109/L。随后肺部感染好转,手术顺利完成。%A 70-year-old woman was planned to undergo meningeoma resection and received an IV infusion of cefuroxime 2 g dissolved in 250 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride once daily for a lung infection before operation. Her platelet count was 166 × 109/L before drug administration and, on day 2 of treatment, her platelet count rapidly dropped to 40 × 109/L, but no evidence of clinical bleeding. It was considered to be associated with cefuroxime, so the drug was withdrawn and switched to ofloxacin. One day after change to ofloxacin, her platelet count rose to 160 × 109/L. Thereafter, the pulmonary infection improved and the operation completed uneventfully.

  13. The Study of Compatible Stability of Cefuroxime Sodium for Injection and Oxytocin Injection%注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液配伍的稳定性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫民; 冯燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the compatible stability of Cefuroxime Sodium for injection with oxytocin injection. Methods The change of appearance,PH value and indissoluble particle in the mixture within 8 h at 20℃were observed after Cefuroxime Sodium for injection being combined with Oxytocin injection. The contents of drugs were determined by HPLC. Results No significant change was found in content,pH value,appearance and indissoluble particle in 8h after Cefuroxime Sodium injection being combined with Oxytocin injection. Conclusion There is no physical and chemical compatibility taboo when Cefuroxime Sodium for injection is combined with Oxytocin injection.%目的考察注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液配伍的稳定性。方法在20℃下8 h内考察注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液配伍后,其混合溶液的外观、pH及不溶性微粒变化,并用高效液相色谱法测定药物的含量。结果注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液配伍后,8 h内药物的含量、混合溶液pH、外观及不溶性微粒均无明显变化。结论注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液不存在理化性的配伍禁忌。

  14. Improvement of Determination Method for Related Substances in Cefuroxime Sodium by HPLC%HPLC法测定头孢呋辛钠有关物质的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周劲康

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To improve the: determination method for the related substances in ecfiiroximc sodium by HPLC. Method: A Phenomenex Luna C18( 250 mm ×4. 6 mm, 5 μm ) column was used, the mobile phase was composed of methanol-0. 1% phosphoric acid with linear gradient clution, the detection wavelength was 273 nm and the flow rate was 1. 0 ml · mill-1 . Result: The method was suitable for the determination of the related substances in cefuroxime sodium, the drug peak and the impurity peaks could be separated efficiently, cefuroxime showed a good linearity within the range of 0. 101 4-2.028 μg( r =0.999 9), and LOD and LOQ was 0. 105 ng and 0.351 ng, respectively. Conclusion: The improved method is simple, accurate and reproducible, and the determination result of the method is the same as that of the described method in China Pharmacopoeia ( 2010 ).%目的:改进用于头孢呋辛钠有关物质检测的HPLC方法.方法:选用Phenomenex Luna C18(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm)色谱柱,流动相为甲醇-0.1%磷酸溶液,梯度洗脱,检测波长为273 nm;流速为1.0 ml·min-1.结果:头孢呋辛与相邻杂质峰分离度符合要求,在0.101 4~2.028 μg范围内线性关系良好(r=0.999 9),检测限和定量限分别为0.105 ng和0.351 ng.结论:改进后的方法更快速、准确、专属性好,检测结果与2010版方法所得结果基本相同.

  15. 注射用头孢呋辛钠室温储存质量稳定性考察%Quality Stability of Cefuroxime Sodium for Injection's Storage at Room Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何英; 佘定平; 陈钦榜; 吴建龙

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究注射用头孢呋辛钠在室温(25℃)存放一定时间后的质量变化,为该药的储存管理提供参考。方法选取3个不同厂家的注射用头孢呋辛钠,置25℃下存放,分别于0,1,2,3个月时取样,按2010年版《中国药典(二部)》头孢呋辛钠项下方法,检查其性状、颜色、水分、pH、含量及有关物质是否符合规定。结果3批不同厂家的注射用头孢呋辛钠质量差异大,主要是颜色不符合要求。结论温度对头孢呋辛钠质量影响大,应警惕近效期药品因储存不当而缩短效期。%Objective To study the quality change of Cefuroxime Sodium for Injection at room temperature(25 ℃) for a certain time,and provide reference for the drug's storage management. Methods Cefuroxime Sodium for Injections from 3 manufacturers were selected and stored under room temperature at 25 ℃,The character,color,moisture content,pH,content and related substances of this drug were detected at 0,1,2,3 months respectively according to the provisions of cefuroxime sodium in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2010 version). Results The quality of Cefuroxime Sodium for Injection among the 3 manufacturers have significantly differences,the main problem was that the color was not in conformity with the requirements. Conclusion The temperature can significantly influence the stability of Cefuroxime Sodium for Injection,and should pay athention to the shortening of expiration date of the drugs due to poor storage.

  16. Clostridium difficile 027-associated pseudomembranous colitis after short-term treatment with cefuroxime and cephalexin in an elderly orthopedic patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søgaard Kirstine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 has become increasingly prevalent in European countries. The clinical picture varies from self-limiting diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis with toxic megacolon and ultimately death. Use of antibiotics is the principal risk factor; others include comorbidity, advanced age and hospitalization. However even with extensive knowledge of risk factors, it remains difficult to define “minimum risk,” as illustrated by the following case. Case presentation An 80-year-old Danish man in good health was hospitalized for a penetrating knee injury. He received 5 days of intravenous cefuroxime after surgical revision and was discharged with oral cephalexin. Post-discharge he suffered from abdominal discomfort and was readmitted with ileus 4 days after discharge, i.e. 10 days after initiation of antibiotic treatment. His condition deteriorated, and pseudomembranous colitis was diagnosed. Due to lack of response to vancomycin and metronidazole, a total colectomy was performed. Stool cultures were positive for CD 027. Conclusion Short-term use of cephalosporins may have induced CD 027 infection, and the patient’s age was the only identifiable risk factor for the fulminant course. Thus, even short-term prophylactic treatment with cephalosporins cannot be considered entirely safe.

  17. Inclusion complexes of cefuroxime axetil with β-cyclodextrin: Physicochemical characterization, molecular modeling and effect of l-arginine on complexation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Sapte

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion complexes of poorly water-soluble cephalosporin, cefuroxime axetil (CFA, were prepared with β-cyclodextrin (βCD with or without addition of l-arginine (ARG to improve its physicochemical properties. We also investigated the effect of ARG on complexation efficiency (CE of βCD towards CFA in an aqueous medium through phase solubility behaviour according to Higuchi and Connors. Although phase solubility studies showed AL (linear type of solubility curve in presence and absence of ARG, the CE and association constant (Ks of βCD towards CFA were significantly promoted in presence of ARG, justifying its use as a ternary component. The solid systems of CFA with βCD were obtained by spray drying technique with or without incorporation of ARG and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and saturation solubility and dissolution studies. The molecular modeling studies provided a better insight into geometry and inclusion mode of CFA inside βCD cavity. The solubility and dissolution rate of CFA were significantly improved upon complexation with βCD as compared to CFA alone. However, ternary system incorporated with ARG performed better than binary system in physicochemical evaluation. In conclusion, ARG could be exploited as a ternary component to improve the physicochemical properties of CFA via βCD complexation.

  18. Inclusion complexes of cefuroxime axetil withβ-cyclodextrin:Physicochemical characterization, molecular modeling and effect of L-arginine on complexation$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarika Sapte; Yogesh Pore

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion complexes of poorly water-soluble cephalosporin, cefuroxime axetil (CFA), were prepared withβ-cyclodextrin (βCD) with or without addition of L-arginine (ARG) to improve its physicochemical properties. We also investigated the effect of ARG on complexation efficiency (CE) ofβCD towards CFA in an aqueous medium through phase solubility behaviour according to Higuchi and Connors. Although phase solubility studies showed AL (linear) type of solubility curve in presence and absence of ARG, the CE and association constant (Ks) ofβCD towards CFA were significantly promoted in presence of ARG, justifying its use as a ternary component. The solid systems of CFA withβCD were obtained by spray drying technique with or without incorporation of ARG and characterized by differential scanning ca-lorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and sa-turation solubility and dissolution studies. The molecular modeling studies provided a better insight into geometry and inclusion mode of CFA insideβCD cavity. The solubility and dissolution rate of CFA were significantly improved upon complexation withβCD as compared to CFA alone. However, ternary system incorporated with ARG performed better than binary system in physicochemical evaluation. In conclu-sion, ARG could be exploited as a ternary component to improve the physicochemical properties of CFA viaβCD complexation.

  19. Efficacy of cefuroxime in prevention of infections in orthopedics department%头孢呋辛在骨科感染预防中的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈日勇; 金掌; 张立岩

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究头孢呋辛在骨科感染预防中的效果,为预防和降低骨科感染提供参考.方法 将医院2010年1月—2011年12月192例骨科手术患者随机分为两组,观察组96例患者,于术前给予头孢呋辛1.25 g,术后继续用药1~2 d;对照组96例患者,术前给予氨苄西林2 g,术后继续用药1~2 d,观察两组患者术后感染发生率、切口愈合情况及平均切口愈合时间.结果 观察组共发生医院感染2例,分别为骨髓炎、蜂窝组织炎各1例,感染率为2.08%,对照组共发生感染11例,分别为切口感染3例,开放骨折术后感染及骨髓炎各2例,蜂窝组织炎4例,感染率为11.46%,对照组感染率明显高于观察组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组平均切口愈合时间为(12.5±3.5)d,对照组平均切口愈合时间(16.5±5.5)d,观察组切口愈合状况:优72例,良22例,优良率97.92%,对照组优63例,良17例,优良率83.33%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 头孢呋辛在骨科感染预防中效果显著,明显降低了感染发生率,缩短切口愈合时间及提高愈合质量.%OBJECTIVE To study the efficacy of cefuroxime in the prevention of infections in orthopedics department so as to provide basis for the prevention of orthopedic infections. METHODS A total of 192 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery from Jan 2010 to Dec 2011 were chosen as the study objects. They were randomly divided into two groups, the observation group of 96 patients was taken with preoperative administration of 1. 25g of cefuroxime, and continued the medication for 1-2 days after the surgery. The control group of 96 patients was given with 2g of ampicillin, the patients continued to use for 1-2 days after the surgery. The incidence of infections, wound healing, and the average wound healing time of the two groups of patients were observed. RESULTS There were totally 2 cases with nosocomial infections in the observation group, 1

  20. Effects of intracameral cefuroxime injection on the prophylaxis of endophthalmitis after cataract surgeries:a Meta-analysis%前房内注入头孢呋辛预防白内障术后眼内炎的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓玉; 蒋林志

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of intracameral cefuroxime injection on the prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgeries, and compare endophthalmitis conditions between intracameral cefuroxime injection group and no intervention control group, using Meta analysis to search literatures at home and abroad. METHODS: By searching through Pubmed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, QVIP, CNKI, Wanfang, the literatures published from January 1 st 2006 to January 31 rd 2015 were collected. The data in five literatures about the effects of intracameral cefuroxime injection on the prophylaxis of endophthalmitis after cataract surgeries were analyzed. By extracting data, incidence of endophthalmitis after cataract surgeries with taking the preventive measures or not taking was compared by Review Manager 5. 2. Adopting fixed effect model, values of odds ratio ( OR) and 95% Confidence Interval ( 95% CI ) were recorded and compared, analyzed sensitivity analysis, excluded heterogeneity and calculated outcomes. RESULTS: After comparing the incidence of endophthalmitis from intracameral cefuroxime injection group and control group, the result was statistically significant [OR=0. 11 (P  方法:检索国内外数据库如 Pubmed、The Cochrane Library、EMBASE、维普中文科技期刊数据库、中国知网、万方数据库经审稿人审核发表选取2006-01-01/2015-01-31的关于前房内注入头孢呋辛与对照组无干预措施对白内障术后眼内炎预防作用的文章,共纳入5篇文献,通过提取数据,观察采取与未采取该预防措施后白内障术后眼内炎的发病率,应用Review Manager 5.2软件,采用固定效应模型,统计比较OR值和95%CI,进行敏感性分析,排除异质性,得出结果。  结果:Meta分析比较前房内注入头孢呋辛与对照组,以白内障术后眼内炎的发病率作为指标,统计结果差异有明显的统计学意义( OR=0.11,95%CI=0.07~0.18,P  结论:前房内注入

  1. 表面活性剂及高分子物质对头孢呋辛酯溶解特性的影响%Effect of surfactants and polymers on solubilization of cefuroxime axetil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭波红; 冯小菊; 张可擎; 晋晨晨

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the saturated solubility of cefuroxime axetil and study the effect of different surfactants and polymers on solubilization of cefuroxime axetil. Methods Cefuroxime axetil solution was prepared by using surfactants and various water-soluble polymers with different concentration including sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS), poloxamer 188, PVP K30, methyl cellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ( HPMC-E3、E5、E15、K4M、K15M、K100M ) . The maximum solubility of cefuroxime axetil was determined by UV spectrophotometry. Results The maximum solubility of cefuroxime axetil with the water-soluble polymers concentration range 0.1-2.0 mg·mL-1 was as follows:0.62 mg·mL-1 [ρ( SDS)=2.0 mg·mL-1 ] ,1.09 mg· mL-1[ρPVP K30)=2.0 mg·mL-1],0.54 mg·mL-1[ρ(F68)=2.0 mg·mL-1],1.48 mg·mL-1[ρ(HPMC)=1.0 mg·mL-1],1.23 mg·mL-1[ρ(MC)= 1.0 mg·mL-1]. Conclusion Cefuroxime axetil is a drug with little solubility. HPMC K100M with the concentration of 1.0 mg·mL-1 or HPMC K4M with the concentration of 0. 5 mg · mL-1 can change the behavior of drug crystallization and may be the most suitable solubilizer to cefuroxime axetil.%目的:测定头孢呋辛酯的饱和溶解度,并探讨不同的表面活性剂及水溶性高分子物质对其溶解特性的影响。方法选择表面活性剂十二烷基硫酸钠( SDS)、泊洛沙姆188( F68)及水溶性高分子物质聚维酮K30( PVP K30)、甲基纤维素( MC)、不同黏度的羟丙甲纤维素( HPMC-E3、E5、E15、K4M、K15M、K100M ),配成系列浓度的溶液,采用紫外分光光度法测定头孢呋辛酯在以上溶液中的最大溶解度。结果考察物质的质量浓度在0.1~2.0 mg·mL-1范围内时,头孢呋辛酯的最大饱和溶解度分别为:0.62 mg·mL-1[ρ(SDS)=2.0 mg·mL-1],1.09 mg·mL-1[ρ(PVP K30)=2.0 mg·mL-1],0.54 mg·mL-1[ρ(F68)=2.0 mg·mL-1],1.48 mg·mL-1[ρ(HPMC)=1.0 mg·mL-1],1.23 mg·mL-1[ρ(MC)=1.0 mg·mL-1]。结论头孢呋辛酯是水溶性较小的药物,在

  2. 头孢呋辛钠在肺气肿合并感染治疗中的应用分析%Application Analysis of Cefuroxime Sodium Medication in Treatment of Emphysema Complicated With Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春光

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore clinical effect of cefuroxime sodium medication in treatment of emphysema complicated with infection. MethodsChoose 43 patients of emphysema complicated with infection who are treated in hospital from March 2012 to March 2013 and separate them into two groups; patients in study group are given intravenous injection of cefuroxime sodium treatment, while patients in control group are given intravenous injection of penicillin treatment. And then compare treatment efficacy, clinical indicators and patients’ adverse reactions between two groups.Results Treatment efficacy in study group (95.83%) is higher than that in control group (78.95%); besides, indicators improvements are much more favorable and side-effect incidence is less than counterparts in control group; there is a treatment differential between two groups, and such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05).Conclusion Cefuroxime sodium is of efficacy and safety in treatment of emphysema complicated with infection with few adverse reactions; thus, it is quite worthwhile to be promoted.%目的:分析肺气肿合并感染应用头孢呋辛钠治疗的临床效果。方法选取2012年3月~2013年3月间我院收治的肺气肿合并感染患者43例,实验组应用头孢呋辛钠静滴治疗,对照组应用青霉素静滴治疗,比较两组治疗效果、临床指标、不良反应。结果实验组总有效率(95.83%)与对照组(78.95%)比较相对较高,各项观察指标改善显著,不良反应相对较少,两组患者临床效果差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论肺气肿合并感染应用头孢呋辛钠治疗效果良好,副作用少,安全可靠。

  3. Clinical Effect of Cefuroxime Sodium Combined Qingkailing for Treatment of Senile Emphysema Combined Infection%头孢呋辛钠联合清开灵治疗老年肺气肿合并感染的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙光亚

    2014-01-01

    目的:探析老年肺气肿合并感染应用头孢呋辛钠与清开灵联合疗法的临床效果研究。方法入选我院2013年1月-2013年12月老年肺气肿合并感染患者104例,按治疗方式的不同分入两组,每组52例。在常规治疗基础上,观察组施行头孢呋辛钠与清开灵联合疗法,对照组仅进行头孢呋辛钠疗法,观察两组的临床效果、临床症状缓解时间及不良反应情况。结果观察组、对照组的临床有效率分别为92.3%、75.0%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组的喘息、咳嗽、啰音、X线平片恢复情况显著优于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗后观察组、对照组的不良反应的发生率分别为7.6%、23.0%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论老年肺气肿合并感染患者进行头孢呋辛钠与清开灵联合疗法,可有效促进患者病情康复,临床效果确切,可靠安全,值得临床推广。%Objective To discuss and analyze the clinical effect of cefuroxime sodium combined qingkailing for treatment of senile emphysema combined infection. Methods 104 patients with senile emphysema combined infection during January 2013 to Decem-ber 2013 were chosen and divided into 2 groups each with 52 cases according to different treatment methods. On basis of routine treatment, observation group was given cefuroxime sodium combined qingkailing while control group was just given cefuroxime sodium. Clinical effect, relieving time of clinical symptoms and adverse reactions of the 2 groups were observed. Results Clinical effective rate of observation group and control group was separately 92.3% and 75.0%(P<0.05); conditions of asthma, cough, rale and X-ray recovery were obviously superior to control group(P<0.05);occurrence rate of adverse reactions of observation group and control group was separately 7.6% and 23.0%(P<0.05). Conclusion Cefuroxime sodium combined qingkailing for treatment of se

  4. 反相高效液相色谱法同时检测片剂中的头孢呋辛酯及奥硝唑%Simultaneous determination of cefuroxime axetil and ornidazole in tablet dosage form using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RANJANE Poonam N; GANDHI Santosh V; KADUKAR Sayali S; RANHER Sandeep S

    2008-01-01

    A simple, accurate and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of cefuroxime axetil and ornidazole in combined tablet dosage form has been developed. The method was performed with a HiQ-SiL C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm) and photodiode array (PDA) detector, using 0.01 mol/L potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate-methanol (56∶44, v/v) as the mobile phase and tinidazole as the internal standard. Beer's law obeys in the concentration ranges of 5-25 μg/mL and 10-50 μg/mL for cefuroxime axetil and ornidazole, respectively. The method has been successfully validated statistically and applied for the analysis of the drugs in pharmaceutical formulation.

  5. 痰热清注射液联合注射用头孢呋辛钠治疗痰热壅肺型社区获得性肺炎30例疗效观察%Investigation of Tanreqing injection combined with cefuroxime sodium for injection on the treatment of phlegm-heat obstructing lung syndrome in patient with community acquired pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季蓓

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察痰热清注射液联合注射用头孢呋辛钠治疗痰热壅肺型社区获得性肺炎的临床疗效。方法将60例痰热壅肺型社区获得性肺炎患者随机分为2组。治疗组30例予痰热清注射液联合注射用头孢呋辛钠治疗,对照组30例予注射用头孢呋辛钠治疗。2组疗程均为10 d。观察2组治疗前后中医症状、中医证候积分情况及临床疗效。结果2组治疗后咳嗽咳痰、气急、发热、恶心呕吐、口渴、乏力、食欲不振、全身不适、胸闷、小便短赤、便秘,舌苔黄腻及脉濡数或滑数等程度与本组治疗前比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组在咳嗽咳痰、恶心呕吐、口渴、便秘、食欲不振、全身不适、舌苔、脉象改善方面均优于对照组(P<0.05)。2组治疗后中医证候积分均较本组治疗前减少(P<0.01),且治疗后治疗组证候积分明显低于对照组(P<0.01)。治疗组总有效率93.33%,对照组总有效率83.33%,2组总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗组疗效优于对照组。结论痰热清注射液联合注射用头孢呋辛钠治疗痰热壅肺型社区获得性肺炎疗效确切。%Objective To observe effect of Tanreqing injection combined with cefuroxime sodium for injec-tion on the treatment of phlegm -heat obstructing lung syndrome in patient with community acquired pneumonia . Methods Sixty patients of phlegm -heat obstructing lung syndrome with community acquired pneumonia were ran-domly divided into two groups ,30 cases of each group .The treatment group was treated with Tanreqing injection com-bined with cefuroxime sodium for injection; the control group was treated with cefuroxime sodium for injection ,10 days for a course .The curative effect before and after treatment were evaluated by observing the main traditional Chi -nese medicine symptoms and signs in two groups .Results There were

  6. Micrométodo para quantificação de cefuroxima em plasma através da cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência: aplicação na profilaxia de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca Micromethod for plasma cefuroxime quantification through high performance liquid chromatography: application to the prophylaxy of patients submitted to cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Willian Leandro Nascimento

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta investigação foi desenvolver metodologia analítica adequada, simples e precisa para quantificação da cefuroxima plasmática para controle de pacientes cirúrgicos em profilaxia com esse antimicrobiano. Realizou-se a quantificação da cefuroxima na matriz biológica através da cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência CLAE-UV. Apenas 200 µL de plasma foram requeridos para a precipitação das proteínas com acetonitrila. Empregou-se coluna de fase reversa (NovaPak C18, 150 x 3,9 mm, 4 µm e os picos foram eluídos isocraticamente com fase móvel (tampão acetato 0,375 M, pH 5,0 e acetonitrila, 96:4, v/v, 0,8 mL/min em 12,5 min (cefuroxima e 4,0 min (vancomicina, padrão interno sendo os picos monitorados a 280 nm. Os limites de confiança são referidos a seguir: 0,2-100 µg/mL (linearidade, r² 0,9963, 0,1 µg/mL (sensibilidade: LD, 98,2% e 96,9% (exatidão intra- e inter-dias, 3,2% e 4,2% (precisão intra- e inter-dias, e boa estabilidade e recuperação (99,2%. A metodologia analítica foi aplicada para quantificação de cefuroxima no plasma de pacientes em profilaxia no período transoperatório de cirurgia cardíaca. Administraram-se 6 g i.v. bolus de cefuroxima nas 24 horas, divididas em 4 doses de 1,5 g; após a última dose no início do pós-operatório tardio, as concentrações plasmáticas médias foram de 108,0 µg/mL (zero, 32,8 µg/mL (3ª hora, 9,9 µg/mL (6ª hora, 3,4 µg/mL (9ª hora e 0,8 µg/mL (12ª hora. O método analítico descrito mostrou-se simples, rápido e seguro garantindo sensibilidade e seletividade suficientes para a quantificação da cefuroxima plasmática e monitoramento da antibioticoprofilaxia no paciente cirúrgico.An improved, simple, selective and sensitive micromethod based on HPLC-UV is described to determine cefuroxime plasma levels, a second generation cephalosporin. Once changes on pharmacokinetics of drugs in patients submitted to heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

  7. Effectiveness of penicillin, dicloxacillin and cefuroxime for penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Jette Lindbjerg; Skov, Robert; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl;

    2013-01-01

    compared with penicillin (adjusted HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.49-4.32). Other variables that were statistically significantly associated with 30 day mortality included increasing age, disease severity and a primary respiratory focus. Osteomyelitis/arthritis was associated with a lower risk of death than were other...

  8. Rising incidence of Enterococcus species in microbiological specimens from orthopedic patients correlates to increased use of cefuroxime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siesing, Peter Christian; Alva-Jørgensen, Jens Peter; Brodersen, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci are emerging causes of severe infections, including wound and bone infections in orthopedic patients. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the incidence of enterococci in tissue samples (biopsies) from orthopedic patients...

  9. 旋光法测定注射用头孢呋辛钠的含量%Determination of Sodium Cefuroxime injection by Polarimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢守霞; 董淳

    2003-01-01

    目的建立一种注射用头孢呋辛钠含量的测定方法.方法以水为溶剂,采用旋光法测定.结果在2~10 mg*ml-1的头孢呋辛钠浓度范围内,浓度与旋光度值呈良好的线性关系.回归方程:C=14.7490α+0.1742 (r=0.9999).平均回收率100.4% ,RSD=1.36%.结论所用方法操作简便、快捷准确,适合于该制剂的含量测定.

  10. 头孢呋辛酯颗粒剂人体生物等效性研究%A Study on Bioequivalence of Cefuroxime Axetil Granules in Healthy Volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 周学敏; 赵娜; 蔡文科

    2006-01-01

    目的:考察头孢呋辛酯颗粒剂及其片剂西力欣的人体生物等效性和药动学.方法:以头孢呋辛酯颗粒剂作受试制剂,西力欣片剂作参比制剂,20名健康男性志愿者交叉单剂量口服500 mg两种制剂.采用HPLC-UV法测定头孢呋辛血药浓度,色谱柱:Discovery C18(4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm),流动相:0.05 mol/L醋酸钠缓冲液(pH=3.9)-乙腈(89∶11),流速:1.0mL/min,检测波长:273 nm,进样量:50μl.应用BAPP2.0数据处理程序进行药动学及相对生物利用度分析.结果:受试制剂和参比制剂的Cmax分别为(5.75±1.54)和(5.73±1.62)mg/L,tmax分别为(1.5±0.3)和(1.5±0.2)h,t1/2分别为(1.67±0.28)和(1.67±0.26)h,AUC0-10h分别为(17.55±4.57)和(17.24±3.84)mg·h/L.受试制剂的相对生物利用度为(103.8±24.0)%.结论:头孢呋辛酯颗粒剂和西力欣片剂生物等效.

  11. 头孢呋辛单用或与鼻内氟替卡松联合应用治疗鼻炎鼻窦炎的比较CAFFS试验:随机对照试验%Comparison of Cefuroxime With or Without Intranasal Fluticasone for the Treatment of Rhinosinusitis The CAFFS Trial: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rowena J. Dolor; David L. Witsell; Anne S. Hellkamp

    2002-01-01

    @@ 背景:目前尚不知晓鼻内应用皮质类固醇治疗有慢性或复发性鼻窦症状的急性鼻炎鼻窦炎患者是否有益. 目的:评估有慢性既往史的急性鼻炎鼻窦炎患者在抗生素治疗的基础上加用鼻内皮质类固醇是否影响本病恢复的速度和比率.

  12. Efficacy and Cost-effectiveness of Sequential Therapy of Cefuroxime in the Prevention of Postoperative Infections in Gynecological Patients%头孢呋辛序贯疗法预防妇科术后感染疗效和成本-效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红星; 黎秀琼

    2008-01-01

    目的:评价头孢呋辛序贯疗法预防妇科术后感染的临床疗效和经济效果.方法:31l例妇科术后患者随机分为2组,序贯组(A组)155例:采用头孢呋辛0.75g~1.5g,iv gtt,bid,连用2d后改用头孢呋辛片剂500mg,po,bid,连用4~6d;对照组(B组)156例:采用头孢呋辛0.75g~1.5g,iv,gtt,连用5~7d,分别进行疗效及成本效果分析.结果:A、B两组手术切口的甲级愈合率分别为94.8%和96.8%,两组术后体温变化及不良反应无统计学差异;A组的成本效果比低于B组.结论:两组具有相似的临床疗效(P>0.05),但序贯疗法与单纯静脉输注治疗相比,显著降低了总医疗费用,具有药物经济学意义.

  13. Inlfuence of cefuroxime sodium on synaptic plasticity of parallel ifber-Purkinje cells in young rats%头孢呋辛钠影响幼鼠平行纤维-浦肯野细胞的突触可塑性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海燕; 任颖鸽; 李凌; 晋芙莉; 杜永平; 张月萍

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨头孢呋辛钠(CS)对Sprague-Dawley(SD)大鼠小脑浦肯野细胞(PCs)电生理功能的影响。方法将7 d龄(P7)SD大鼠分为早期用药Ⅰ组、Ⅱ组(P7~P14给药)和晚期用药组(P14~P21给药),均腹腔注射CS;以及早期用药对照组和晚期用药对照组,腹腔注射等容积的生理盐水(NS)。每组均10只。早期用药Ⅰ组及早期对照组于P15处死,早期用药Ⅱ组、晚期用药及晚期对照组于P22处死。采用全细胞膜片钳记录法,在小脑脑片上记录PCs的内向电流和动作电位,以及低频刺激平行纤维(PF)诱发的PCs兴奋性突触后电流(EPSC)的长时程抑制(LTD)现象。结果早期用药组和晚期用药组PCs内向电流幅值和动作电位峰值均略大于相应对照组,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);用药组的EPSC抑制程度均大于对照组(P0.05). All administration groups had a signiifcantly higher degree of EPSC inhibition than the control groups (P<0.01), and the early administration II group had a signiifcantly greater degree of EPSC inhibition than the late administration group (P<0.01).ConclusionsEarly CS exposure after birth affects the synaptic plasticity of PF-PCs in the cerebellum of young rats, which persists after drug withdrawal.

  14. Adoption of intracameral antibiotic prophylaxis of endophthalmitis following cataract surgery: update on the ESCRS Endophthalmitis Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To determine the use of intracameral cefuroxime at the end of cataract surgery since the beneficial results were first reported by the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons Endophthalmitis Study Group in 2006, 250 ophthalmic surgeons affiliated with both public and private hospitals and clinics across Europe were surveyed. The questions regarded their awareness of the results of the ESCRS endophthalmitis study and their current use or non-use of intracameral antibiotics in their cataract procedures. Seventy-four percent of respondents said they always or usually use intracameral antibiotics in their cataract surgery procedures. The most frequently cited reasons for not using cefuroxime or other intracameral antibiotics was the lack of an approved commercial preparation and related anxieties regarding the risk of dilution errors and contamination. More than 90% of respondents said they would use cefuroxime if an approved single-unit dose product were commercially available.

  15. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Dundas Ltd, Meath

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To determine the use of intracameral cefuroxime at the end of cataract surgery since the beneficial results were first reported by the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons Endophthalmitis Study Group in 2006, 250 ophthalmic surgeons affiliated with both public and private hospitals and clinics across Europe were surveyed. The questions regarded their awareness of the results of the ESCRS endophthalmitis study and their current use or non-use of intracameral antibiotics in their cataract procedures. Seventy-four percent of respondents said they always or usually use intracameral antibiotics in their cataract surgery procedures. The most frequently cited reasons for not using cefuroxime or other intracameral antibiotics was the lack of an approved commercial preparation and related anxieties regarding the risk of dilution errors and contamination. More than 90% of respondents said they would use cefuroxime if an approved single-unit dose product were commercially available.

  16. Susceptibility of clinical Moraxella catarrhalis isolates in British Columbia to six empirically prescribed antibiotic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandet, Tamara; Whitehead, Sue; Blondel-Hill, Edith; Wagner, Ken; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Moraxella catarrhalis is a commensal organism of the respiratory tract that has emerged as an important pathogen for a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract infections including otitis media and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Susceptibility testing of M catarrhalis is not routinely performed in most diagnostic laboratories; rather, a comment predicting susceptibility based on the literature is attached to the report. The most recent Canadian report on M catarrhalis antimicrobial susceptibility was published in 2003; therefore, a new study at this time was of interest and importance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates from British Columbia to amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, clarithromycin, cefuroxime, levofloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. METHODS: A total of 117 clinical M catarrhalis isolates were isolated and tested from five Interior hospitals and two private laboratory centres in British Columbia between January and December 2012. Antibiotic susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates was characterized using the Etest (E-strip; bioMérieux, USA) according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. RESULTS: All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, clarithromycin, levofloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. One isolate was intermediately resistant to cefuroxime, representing a 99.15% sensitivity rate to the cephem agent. Cefuroxime minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) inhibiting 50% and 90% of organisms (MIC50 and MIC90) were highest among the antibiotics tested, and the MIC90 (3 μg/mL) of cefuroxime reached the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint of susceptibility. DISCUSSION: The antibiotic susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates evaluated in the present study largely confirms the findings of previous surveillance studies performed in Canada. Cefuroxime MICs are in the high end of the sensitive range and the MIC50 and MIC90

  17. Beneficial antimicrobial effect of the addition of an aminoglycoside to a β-lactam antibiotic in an E. coli porcine intensive care severe sepsis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Skorup

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether the addition of an aminoglycoside to a ß-lactam antibiotic increases the antimicrobial effect during the early phase of Gram-negative severe sepsis/septic shock. A porcine model was selected that considered each animal's individual blood bactericidal capacity. Escherichia coli, susceptible to both antibiotics, was given to healthy pigs intravenously during 3 h. At 2 h, the animals were randomized to a 20-min infusion with either cefuroxime alone (n = 9, a combination of cefuroxime+tobramycin (n = 9, or saline (control, n = 9. Blood samples were collected hourly for cultures and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Bacterial growth in the organs after 6 h was chosen as the primary endpoint. A blood sample was obtained at baseline before start of bacterial infusion for ex vivo investigation of the blood bactericidal capacity. At 1 h after the administration of the antibiotics, a second blood sample was taken for ex vivo investigation of the antibiotic-induced blood killing activity. All animals developed severe sepsis/septic shock. Blood cultures and PCR rapidly became negative after completed bacterial infusion. Antibiotic-induced blood killing activity was significantly greater in the combination group than in the cefuroxime group (p<0.001. Growth of bacteria in the spleen was reduced in the two antibiotic groups compared with the controls (p<0.01; no difference was noted between the two antibiotic groups. Bacterial growth in the liver was significantly less in the combination group than in the cefuroxime group (p<0.05. High blood bactericidal capacity at baseline was associated with decreased growth in the blood and spleen (p<0.05. The addition of tobramycin to cefuroxime results in increased antibiotic-induced blood killing activity and less bacteria in the liver than cefuroxime alone. Individual blood bactericidal capacity may have a significant effect on antimicrobial outcome.

  18. Bacteriology in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted to hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette V; Janner, Julie H; Nielsen, Susanne D;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the bacterial flora and antimicrobial sensitivity in sputum from patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in order to recommend the best empirical treatment for these patients. The survey was a retrospective study of a...... for AECOPD we recommend either cefuroxime for intravenous treatment or amoxicillin-clavulanate for oral treatment....

  19. Comparative in vitro activity of ceftobiprole against staphylococci displaying normal and small-colony variant phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eiff, Christof; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Becker, Karsten; Peters, Georg

    2005-01-01

    The antistaphylococcal activity of ceftobiprole was compared with those of cefuroxime, linezolid, and moxifloxacin by using the agar dilution method. Apart from three strains with small-colony variant phenotypes, all Staphylococcus aureus isolates tested were inhibited by < or =2 microg/ml of ceftob

  20. Early secondary suture versus healing by second intention of incisional abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Bagi, P; Christoffersen, I

    1988-01-01

    A controlled trial was set up to compare the treatment of wound abscesses, occurring after laparotomy, with either early secondary suture combined with cefuroxime and metronidazole given intravenously or by healing by second intention. The secondary suture was performed two days after wound...... drainage and resulted in a significant reduction (p less than 0.01) in healing time without complications. No reinfections occurred....

  1. Bartholinitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae : Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Bartholin′s gland abscesses have been thought to be caused by colonizing micro-organisms of the perineal region. We encountered an interesting case of acute Bartholins abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a primigravida. The abscess was incised and drained. The patient was treated with Cefuroxime. This case is presented for its rarity.

  2. Drug: D00914 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs in Japan [BR:br08301] 6 Agents against pathologic organisms and parasites 61 Antibiotics 613 Acting mainl...INN) S SENSORY ORGANS S01 OPHTHALMOLOGICALS S01A ANTIINFECTIVES S01AA Antibiotics S01AA27 Cefuroxime D00914

  3. Investigating a new drug delivery nano composite membrane system based on PVA/PCL and PVA/HA(PEG) for the controlled release of biopharmaceuticals for bone infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Taoyu; Stylios, George K; Giannoudi, Marilena; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2015-12-01

    The capability for sustained and gradual release of pharmaceuticals is a major requirement in the development of a guided antimicrobial bacterial control system for clinical applications. In this study, PVA gels with varying constituents that were manufactured via a refreeze/thawing route, were found to have excellent potential for antimicrobial delivery for bone infections. Cefuroxime Sodium with poly(ethylene glycol) was incorporated into 2 delivery systems poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA), by a modified emulsion process. Our results indicate that the Cefuroxime Sodium released from poly(e-caprolactone) in PVA was tailored to a sustained release over more than 45 days, while the release from hydroxyapatite PVA reach burst maximum after 20 days. These PVA hydrogel-systems were also capable of controlled and sustained release of other biopharmaceuticals.

  4. Simultaneous determination of 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Sheng Wu; Jin Lan Zhang; Yan Ling Qiao; Yi Lin Wang; Zhi Rong Chen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was established and validated to determine the 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products, including 1 (ceftazidime), 2 (cefaclor), 3 (cefdinir), 4 (ampicillin), 5 (cefalexin), 6 (ceftezole), 7 (cefotaxim), 8 (cefradine), 9 (cefuroxime), 10 (cephazoline), 11 (cefathiamidine), 12 (cefoperazone), 13 (cafalotin), 14 (piperacillin).

  5. Haemophilus influenzae with Non-Beta-Lactamase-Mediated Beta-Lactam Resistance: Easy To Find but Hard To Categorize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaare, Dagfinn; Lia, Astrid; Hannisdal, Anja; Tveten, Yngvar; Matuschek, Erika; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik

    2015-11-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogen, and beta-lactams are first-line drugs. Resistance due to altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (rPBP3) is frequent, and susceptibility testing of such strains is challenging. A collection of 154 beta-lactamase-negative isolates with a large proportion of rPBP3 (67.5%) was used to evaluate and compare Etest (Haemophilus test medium [HTM]) and disk diffusion (EUCAST method) for categorization of susceptibility to aminopenicillins and cefuroxime, using MICs generated with broth (HTM) microdilution and clinical breakpoints from CLSI and EUCAST as the gold standards. In addition, the proficiency of nine disks in screening for the rPBP3 genotype (N526K positive) was evaluated. By Etest, both essential and categorical agreement were generally poor (<70%), with high very major errors (VME) (CLSI, 13.0%; EUCAST, 34.3%) and falsely susceptible rates (FSR) (CLSI, 87.0%; EUCAST, 88.3%) for ampicillin. Ampicillin (2 μg) with adjusted (+2 mm) zone breakpoints was superior to Etest for categorization of susceptibility to ampicillin (agreement, 74.0%; VME, 11.0%; FSR, 28.3%). Conversely, Etest was superior to 30 μg cefuroxime for categorization of susceptibility to cefuroxime (agreement, 57.1% versus 60.4%; VME, 2.6% versus 9.7%; FSR, 7.1% versus 26.8%). Benzylpenicillin (1 unit) (EUCAST screening disk) and cefuroxime (5 μg) identified rPBP3 isolates with highest accuracies (95.5% and 92.2%, respectively). In conclusion, disk screening reliably detects rPBP3 H. influenzae, but false ampicillin susceptibility is frequent with routine methods. We suggest adding a comment recommending high-dose aminopenicillin therapy or the use of other agents for severe infections with screening-positive isolates that are susceptible to aminopenicillins by gradient or disk diffusion.

  6. Haemophilus influenzae with Non-Beta-Lactamase-Mediated Beta-Lactam Resistance: Easy To Find but Hard To Categorize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lia, Astrid; Hannisdal, Anja; Tveten, Yngvar; Matuschek, Erika; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogen, and beta-lactams are first-line drugs. Resistance due to altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (rPBP3) is frequent, and susceptibility testing of such strains is challenging. A collection of 154 beta-lactamase-negative isolates with a large proportion of rPBP3 (67.5%) was used to evaluate and compare Etest (Haemophilus test medium [HTM]) and disk diffusion (EUCAST method) for categorization of susceptibility to aminopenicillins and cefuroxime, using MICs generated with broth (HTM) microdilution and clinical breakpoints from CLSI and EUCAST as the gold standards. In addition, the proficiency of nine disks in screening for the rPBP3 genotype (N526K positive) was evaluated. By Etest, both essential and categorical agreement were generally poor (<70%), with high very major errors (VME) (CLSI, 13.0%; EUCAST, 34.3%) and falsely susceptible rates (FSR) (CLSI, 87.0%; EUCAST, 88.3%) for ampicillin. Ampicillin (2 μg) with adjusted (+2 mm) zone breakpoints was superior to Etest for categorization of susceptibility to ampicillin (agreement, 74.0%; VME, 11.0%; FSR, 28.3%). Conversely, Etest was superior to 30 μg cefuroxime for categorization of susceptibility to cefuroxime (agreement, 57.1% versus 60.4%; VME, 2.6% versus 9.7%; FSR, 7.1% versus 26.8%). Benzylpenicillin (1 unit) (EUCAST screening disk) and cefuroxime (5 μg) identified rPBP3 isolates with highest accuracies (95.5% and 92.2%, respectively). In conclusion, disk screening reliably detects rPBP3 H. influenzae, but false ampicillin susceptibility is frequent with routine methods. We suggest adding a comment recommending high-dose aminopenicillin therapy or the use of other agents for severe infections with screening-positive isolates that are susceptible to aminopenicillins by gradient or disk diffusion. PMID:26354813

  7. Audit of antibiotic therapy in surgical neonates in a tertiary hospital in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osifo Osarumwense

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the outcome of commonly used antibiotic combinations in surgical neonates in sub-Saharan African settings. Methods: A retrospective analysis that determines the outcome of commonly combined antibiotics in surgical neonates between January 2006 and December 2008 at two referral paediatric surgical centres in Benin city was carried out. Results: Ampicillin ampiclox, metronidazole, gentamicin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone were variously combined in the management of 161 neonates with a mean age at presentation of 9.2 ± 2.6 days, mean weight 3.1 ± 1.4 kg and a male:female ratio 1.6:1. Polymicrobial postoperative wound infections and sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and anaerobes, were mainly encountered. The most common aerobes isolated from wound cultures were S. aureus and P. aeroginosa while the ones from that of blood cultures were E. coli and K. pneumonia. Overall postoperative infections recorded were: wound infection 19 (11.8%, sepsis 16 (9.9% and sepsis-related deaths 6 (3.7%. Conclusion: Combinations of gentamicin/metronidazole/cefuroxime and gentamicin/cefuroxime were adequate for gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal neonatal operations, respectively, in these sub-Saharan African settings, which may be useful in similar regions.

  8. Ability of medical students to calculate drug doses in children after their paediatric attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshikoya KA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dose calculation errors constitute a significant part of prescribing errors which might have resulted from informal teaching of the topic in medical schools. Objectives: To determine adequacy of knowledge and skills of drug dose calculations in children acquired by medical students during their clinical attachment in paediatrics.Methods: Fifty two 5th year medical students of the Lagos State University College of Medicine (LASUCOM, Ikeja were examined on drug dose calculations from a vial and ampoules of injections, syrup and suspension, and tablet formulation. The examination was with a structured questionnaire mostly in the form of multiple choice questions.Results: Thirty-six (69.2% and 30 (57.7% students were taught drug dose calculation in neonatal posting and during ward rounds/ bed-side teaching, respectively. Less than 50% of the students were able to calculate the correct doses of each of adrenaline, gentamicin, chloroquine and sodium bicarbonate injections required by the patient. Dose calculation was however relatively better with adrenalin when compared with the other injections. The proportion of female students that calculated the correct doses of quinine syrup and cefuroxime suspension were significantly higher than those of their male counterparts (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively; Chi-square test. When doses calculated in mg/dose and mL/dose was compared for adrenalin injection and each of quinine syrup and cefuroxime suspension, there were significant differences (adrenaline and quinine, p=0.005; adrenaline and cefuroxime, p=0.003: Fischer’s exact test. Dose calculation errors of similar magnitude to injections, syrup and suspension were also observed with tablet formulation.Conclusions: LASUCOM medical students lacked the basic knowledge of paediatric drug dose calculations but were willing to learn if the topic was formally taught. Drug dose calculations should be given a prominent consideration in the undergraduate medical

  9. Case Fatality among Patients Hospitalized for Community-acquired Pneumonia according to Initial Antibiotic Treatment. A Comparison of Two Case Series

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    Luis Alberto Corona Martínez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: community-acquired pneumonia is one of the major health problems worldwide and in the hospital of Cienfuegos.Objective: to determine the changes in the relationship between the type of antimicrobial agent used empirically at admission and case fatality for community-acquired pneumonia in two case series designed at different times.Methods: an observational, descriptive study was conducted to compare two case series of patients hospitalized due to the condition under study. The relationship between the antimicrobial agents selected (amoxicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime and case fatality was analyzed taking into account potentially confounding variables. In the statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions, and Fisher's exact test was applied, with a 95% confidence level (p <.05. Results: in the two case series, the same pattern was observed in terms of the antimicrobial agents associated with the lowest and highest case fatality: cefuroxime and cefotaxime, respectively. In contrast to the A series, the B series showed a more uniform behavior of case fatality with the use of the antimicrobials selected, which meant a considerable reduction in case fatality among patients treated initially with third-generation cephalosporins in the B series. In this sense, the most significant impact on case fatality was observed in patients receiving ceftriaxone.Conclusions: cefuroxime remains the initial empirical antimicrobial agent associated with the lowest case fatality among patients with community-acquired pneumonia. In the second case series, a clear reduction in case fatality was found in patients treated with ceftriaxone and cefotaxime.

  10. Brevundimonas vesicularis septic arthritis in an immunocompetent child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Yael; Zmira, Samra; Amir, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Septic arthritis is a rapidly destructive form of joint disease. The most common causative agents in children are Staphylococcus aureus and Kingella kingae, followed by group A Streptococcus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and in neonates, enterobacteracea and group B Streptococcus. In this paper, we describe a previously healthy toddler with septic arthritis of the shoulder joint caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis. Prompt treatment with cefuroxime resulted in a full recovery. This is the first report of septic arthritis in humans caused by this microorganism, and the first description of B. vesicularis infection in an immunocompetent child.

  11. Study of volatile compounds from the radiosterilization of solid cephalosporins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbarin, N.; Crucq, A.S.; Tilquin, B. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    The use of {gamma}-rays is a promising method to sterilize thermosensitive drugs. Although radiosterilization does not modify drugs activity, this mode of sterilization produces new radiolytic products. This study is devoted to the analysis of volatile compounds which may induce a modification of odour. The volatile compounds produced by radiolysis of cefotaxime, cefuroxime and ceftazidime, three cephalosporins, were analyzed by gas chromatography with a headspace sampling. They were detected and identified by mass and infrared spectrometry. An explanation of their origin is proposed. (Author).

  12. ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius

    antibiotics can select for the ESBL-producing E.coli, even anti-Grampositive antibiotics as dicloxacillin and clindamycin showed selective abilities. While dicloxacillin has no effect on anaerobic Gram-negatives, this is the case for clindamycin. The selective abilities of other beta-lactam antibiotics varied......, with selection identified by cefotaxime, cefuroxime and penicillin. The triple-case control study showed that exposure to antibiotics is not a good predictor for risk of UTI with ESBL-producing E.coli. There were few differences between the case groups when compared to the uninfected group. However, when case...

  13. [A case of successful antibiotic therapy of legionnaires' disease with lesions of the lungs and heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamotaev, I P; Sokolova, V I; Kamnev, Iu V; Bormotova, M S

    1990-06-01

    Pulmonary affections in patients with legionellosis are the main ones. The affections of the heart, gastrointestinal tract and other organs and systems are less frequent. Some characteristic features of the legionellosis clinical process in the case described are indicated. The torpid process of chronic bronchitis, the two-phase pattern of the disease, dyspnea at 3-4 month intervals, intermissions, edema and failure of complex therapy with antibiotics and cardiac glycosides provided a tentative diagnosis of Legionella pneumonia with affection of the myocardium. The importance of early serological diagnosis (enzyme immunoassay) was shown. A new approach to the treatment of legionellosis with cefuroxime was of interest.

  14. STUDY OF ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST OF MODERN GENERATION OF DRUGS AGAINST UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Singh et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasal infection or sinusitis is an inflammation of nasal passages caused by both viral and bacteriological pathogens. Antimicrobial resistance has universally recognized as growing problem concern about suitable therapy for nasal infection. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility against nasal infecting microorganisms. 50 clinical samples were taken from OPD of GMC Hospital, Bhopal (MP, India. Of the samples analyzed, 47 bacterial strains were isolated out of which 29 strains were of Gram positive bacteria (8 strains were of Staphylococcus aureus, 6 of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 7 of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 8 of Corynebacterium diptheriae and 18 strains were of Gram negative bacteria (8 of Escherichia coli, 6 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 4 of Neisseria meningitidis. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed by disc diffusion method according to the reference criteria of clinical and laboratory standard institute guidelines. In the present study antibiotic susceptibility pattern results showed maximum level of resistance in gram positive strains S. aureus 8 (100%, S. epidermidis 6 (100% and C. diptheriae (8 (100% against penicillin, S. aureus 8 (100%, S. epidermidis 6 (100% and S. pneumoniae 7 (100% were resistant to Cefuroxime, S. aureus 7 (87.5%, S. epidermidis 6 (100%, S. pneumoniae 7 (100% and C. diptheriae (8 (100% were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin whereas, rest of gram positive strains showed satisfactory antibiotic susceptibility against chloramphenical, cefazolin, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and tetracyclin. Similarly for gram negative strains multi-drug resistance was observed in 8 (100% isolates of E. coli against aztreonam, cefdinir, cefixime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin, P. aeruginosa 6 (100% were resistant to aztreonam, cefdinir, cefixime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime

  15. Interaction of oxyimino beta-lactams with a class C beta-lactamase and a mutant with a spectrum extended to beta-lactams.

    OpenAIRE

    Nukaga, M; Tsukamoto, K; Yamaguchi, H; Sawai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The class C beta-lactamase of Citrobacter freundii GN346 is a typical cephalosporinase comprising 361 amino acids, and substitution of the glutamic acid at position 219 in the enzyme by lysine was previously shown to broaden its substrate spectrum to oxyimino beta-lactams (K. Tsukamoto, R. Ohno, and T. Sawai, J. Bacteriol. 172:4348-4351, 1990). To clarify this spectrum extension from the kinetic point of view, the interactions of cefuroxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam with the wild-type and m...

  16. Rectal prolapse in a child: an unusual presentation of Clostridium difficile-associated pseudomembranous colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Ching; Yang, Yao-Jong; Lee, Chung-Ta

    2011-04-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis after short-course antibiotics is rare in children. We report a 14-month-old girl who presented with rectal prolapse complicated with Clostridium difficile-associated pseudomembranous colitis after a 4-day course of oral cefuroxime for treatment of acute otitis media. Abdominal sonogram showed a pelvic mass, and computed tomography revealed thickened wall of the rectum. Sigmoidoscopy demonstrated discrete yellowish plaques adherent to an edematous mucosa. Stool cultures for C difficile were positive and C difficile toxins A and B were detected in her stool. Histological examination of colonic biopsy showed superficial erosion of the mucosa and the adherent pseudomembranes. She achieved a full recovery after discontinuing cefuroxime. Our case implied that C difficile infection should be considered in children presenting with rectal prolapse, especially when they are taking or have recently received antibiotic therapy. Supportive therapy and discontinuation of antibiotics are generally sufficient for patients with C difficile-associated pseudomembranous colitis who present with mild diarrheal illness.

  17. Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in an academic hospital setting: a 5-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stocka-Łabno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens–Johnson syndrome are acute life-threatening mucocutaneous reactions to drugs. The aims of the study were to identify these drugs and characterize population prone to these reactions. Materials and Methods: Data including demographics, culprit drug, clinical characteristics, course of disease, treatment given, and therapeutic responses were retrospectively collected from medical records of 31 patients admitted to Department of Dermatology from January 2009 to December 2014. Results: Drugs most commonly involved in Stevens–Johnson syndrome were antimicrobials: ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, cefuroxime, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, clindamycin, co-trimoxazole (50% of patients and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: ibuprofen, naproxen, metamizole, piroxicam (29% of patients. Drugs involved in toxic epidermal necrolysis were antimicrobials: sulfasalazine, co-trimoxazole, cefuroxime, clindamycin (71% of patients and anticonvulsants: lamotrigine (29% of patients. The comorbidities’ characteristic for the group of patients affected by toxic epidermal necrolysis were psychiatric and autoimmune disorders. The most common complication was infection. Two patients died and in both cases the cause of death was sepsis. Conclusion: The study indicates that in observed population drugs with the highest risk of most severe reactions are lamotrigine (anticonvulsant and antimicrobials (most commonly sulfonamides, therefore it is advisable to consider carefully administration of these drugs, especially to patients with history of autoimmune reactions.

  18. Occurrence of multidrug resistance to oral antibiotics among Escherichia coli urine isolates from outpatient departments in Germany: extended-spectrum β-lactamases and the role of fosfomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresken, Michael; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Hafner, Dieter; Wresch, Rebecca; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    The in vitro activities of fosfomycin and seven other antibiotics commonly used for oral treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) were evaluated for 499 Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples during a nationwide laboratory-based surveillance study in 2010. Overall, the highest resistance rates were found for amoxicillin (42.9%), followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (32.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (30.9%), ciprofloxacin (19.8%), cefuroxime (10.0%), cefpodoxime (8.6%) and cefixime (8.2%). One-half of the isolates (n=252; 50.5%) were fully susceptible to the eight drugs, whilst only 6 strains (1.2%) were resistant to fosfomycin. Combined resistance to amoxicillin, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and SXT was detected in 29 isolates (5.8%). Moreover, 40 isolates (8.0%) produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), including CTX-M-type ESBLs detected in 39/40 isolates (97.5%) and a TEM-52 ESBL in 1 strain (2.5%). The predominant CTX-M-type ESBL was CTX-M-15 (27/39; 69.2%). Of the 27 CTX-M-15 producers, 19 (70.4%) belonged to the clonal lineage E. coli O25b-ST131. All but one ESBL-producing strains were fosfomycin-susceptible. In view of the emergence of multidrug resistance to standard oral antibiotics, these data support that oral fosfomycin (trometamol salt) may represent a valuable option in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs.

  19. Clinical observations associated with proven and unproven cases in the ESCRS study of prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Peter

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To describe cases of postoperative endophthalmitis in the European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons (ESCRS) study of the prophylaxis of endophthalmitis, compare characteristics of unproven cases and cases proven by culture or polymerase chain reaction, and compare the characteristics with those in other reported series. SETTING: Twenty-four ophthalmology units in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. METHODS: Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze data for statistical association of signs and symptoms in cases with proven or unproven endophthalmitis. Specific data describing characteristics of the cases were compared between the 2 types of cases. RESULTS: Data from 29 endophthalmitis cases were analyzed. Swollen lids and pain were statistically associated with proven cases of endophthalmitis on univariable regression analysis. Multivariable analysis indicated that swollen lids and an opaque vitreous were associated with proven cases. Five cases of endophthalmitis occurred in the cefuroxime-treated groups. No case of streptococcal infection occurred in the cefuroxime-treated groups. However, cases of infection due to streptococci showed striking differences in visual acuity and were associated with earlier onset. Characteristics in the 29 cases parallel results in previous studies, such as the Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study, although the addition of a control group in the ESCRS study elicited additional findings. CONCLUSION: Swollen lids, pain, and an opaque vitreous were statistically associated with proven endophthalmitis cases in the ESCRS study.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children in Beijing, 1997-2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Lian; YAO Kai-hu; YU Sang-jie; LIU Zun-jie; QIAN Jing; SHEN Xu-zhuang; YANG Yong-hong

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A, the molecular characteristics of this serotype are yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the homology of the serotype 19A in China.Methods Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing were done to these forty-nine serotype 19A isolates to investigate the relationship between the strains prevalent in Beijing and other regions. Results From 1997 to 2006, the percentage of serotype 19A isolates increased. The susceptibility rate to penicillin and amoxicillin decreased and the resistance rate to cefuroxime increased. ST320 was the most prevalent ST, followed by ST3546. There were six new STs identified in our study. The serotype 19A strains were classified into six different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. ST320, which was associated with two different PFGE patterns (A and D), accounted for 32 isolates, and ST3546, which was associated with two PFGE patterns (B and E), accounted for eightConclusions From 2003 onwards, ST320 was the most common ST and the rate of resistance to cefuroxime increased significantly. Further long-term surveys of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A are required to monitor ST prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in this important human pathogen.

  1. Treatment of Haemophilus bacteremia with benzylpenicillin is associated with increased (30-day mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thønnings Sara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal antibiotic treatment strategies of Haemophilus infections are still needed. Therefore, 30-day case fatality rate (CFR of Haemophilus bacteremia and efficacy of various antibiotic treatment regimes were studied. Methods All episodes of Haemophilus bacteremia in the former Copenhagen County during the period 2000-9 were included in the study. Clinical and biochemical findings and outcome were collected retrospectively from medical records. Results 105 consecutive episodes were identified (median age: 69 years, with only 4 children H. influenzae, and 11% to other Haemophilus species. Pneumonia was the most common primary focus (in 48%, and 58% of the patients had Charlson comorbidity index > 1. Definitive antibiotic therapy was in 26 cases benzylpenicillin, in 12 cases aminopenicillins, in 50 cases cefuroxime and in 16 cases broadspectrum antibiotics, whereas 1 palliative case died without start of therapy. Whereas the use of broadspectrum antibiotics was related to the severity of the disease (admittance to ICU, need for assisted ventilation or hemodialysis, septic shock, no significant difference in clinical features was demonstrated for therapy with benzylpenicillin, aminopenicillin or cefuroxime, except benzylpenicillin was rarely administered to immunosuppressed patients. The CFR was 22% (23/105. The choice of empiric antibiotic therapy was not significantly associated with mortality (adequate vs. inadequate treatment: 23% (21/93 vs. 17% (2/12, respectively, P > 0.05. In contrast, definite antibiotic therapy with cefuroxime or aminopenicillins resulted in a significantly lower CFR than treatment with benzylpenicillin (12% (6/50 or 0% (0/12 vs. 39% (10/26, respectively, Log rank test P  0.02. When adjustments were made for other identified risk factors in bivariate logistic regression analysis, treatment with cefuroxime was still were found to be associated with a significantly lower CFR than for

  2. MICROORGANISMS ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY DETERMINATION IN URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalova O.V.

    2016-06-01

    the range of 3,0x106 CFU/ml to 3,0x109 CFU/ml, and the most bacterial isolates content was equal 1,5x109 CFU/ml. Among the most commonly identified microorganisms Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. were often detected in 5,3x108 CFU/ml concentrations. For Streptococcus spp. and Proteus mirabilis that value was 1,5x109 CFU/ml; for Klebsiella pneumonia - 3,0x108 CFU/ml; for Candida spp. - 3,0x106 CFU/ml respectively. The most common microorganisms (which frequency of occurrence in urine was ≥ 5% were: E. coli (14,5±4,7%, Str. agalactiae and St. haemolyticus (10,9±4,2%; St. aureus and Pr. mirabilis (7,3±3,5%; St. epidermidis, Kl. pneumoniae, St. hominis, Candida spp. (5,4±3,0%. While analyzing obtained results we concluded that meropenem was the most effective drug, 78,7% of all cultures had the sensitivity to it. The sensitivity to gatifloxacin had 73,7% of cultures; to tigecycline – 71,1% of isolates; to amikacin -67,3% of cultures; to moxifloxacin – 59,6% of isolates; to two drugs (levofloxacin and pefloxacin - 55,8% of isolates respectively. It was found that Staphylococcus aureus appeared to be resistant to vancomycin, ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefazolin, azithromycin, linezolid. This species and St. epidermidis and St. hominis isolates were multi-drug resistant to four or more drugs from different groups. All Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were insensitive to cefuroxime. All Escherichia cultures were resistant to cefuroxime, Proteus - to cefuroxime, ampicillin and cefazolin. E. coli, Pr. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, Ps. aeruginosa, Ac. haemolyticus had multi-drug resistance. In addition, (73,1 ± 6,1% of all 52 bacterial isolates obtained were resistant to amoxiclav. Conclusions. 1. The most common microorganisms (which incidence in urine were ≥ 5% are: Escherichia coli (14,5±4,7%, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (10,9±4,2%; Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis (7,3±3,5%; Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella

  3. TEM-1 AND ROB-1 PRESENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE STRAINS, ISTANBUL, TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvat, Nuray; Nazik, Hasan; Berkiten, Rahmiye; Öngen, Betigül

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of 235 Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates from Istanbul Medical Faculty Hospital, Turkey were determined against 19 antibiotics by disc diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of those found resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxim, chloramphenicol and meropenem were measured using E-test. Ampicillin-resistant isolates producing beta-lactamase as demonstrated by a nitrocefin assay were analyzed for the presence of TEM-1 and ROB-1 genes by PCR. Eleven percent of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin (10 µg/ml), of which 73% were beta-lactamase positive and carried TEM-1 gene, but none were positive for ROB-1 gene. All isolates susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (20/10 µg/ml), azithromycin (15 µg/ml), aztreonam (30 µg/ml), cefotaxime (30 µg/ml), ceftriaxone (30 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (5 µg/ml), levofloxacin (5 µg/ml), and telithromycin (15 µg/ml) but 24%, 15%, 4%, 4%, 2%, 1%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 µg/ml), tetracycline (30 µg/ml), cefaclor (30 µg/ml), clarithromycin (15 µg/ml), cefuroxime (30 µg/ml), meropenem (10 µg/ml), chloramphenicol (30 µg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (10/10 µg/ml), nalidixic acid (30 µg/ml), and fosfomycin (30 µg/ml), respectively. MIC values of three cefuroxime-resistant isolates was 24, 48 and > 256 µg/ml, respectively; of two meropenem-resistant strains > 256 µg/ml; and of two chloramphenicol-susceptible isolates (by disc diffusion method) 6 µg/ml (considered as intermediate susceptible). Multiple- antibiotics resistance was detected in 15% of the strains, with resistance to 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 antibiotics in 8.5%, 4%, 2%, 0.5% and 0.5% of the isolates, respectively. By identifying beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, empirical therapy with beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and second generation cephalosporins would be inappropriate for such patients (approximately 3%). Our findings will

  4. Long-Term Evolution Studies of E. Coli under Combined Effects of Simulated Microgravity and Antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Ott, Mark C.; Pierson, Duane L.; Fox, George E.; Tran, Quyen

    2016-07-01

    Multiple spaceflight and simulated microgravity experiments have shown changes in phenotypic microbial characteristics such as microbial growth, morphology, metabolism, genetic transfer, antibiotic and stress susceptibility, and an increase in virulence factors. However, while these studies have contributed to expand our understanding of the short-term effects of spaceflight or simulated microgravity on biological systems, it remains unclear the type of responses subsequent to long-term exposure to space environment and microgravity in particular. As such, organisms exposed to the space environment for extended periods of time may evolve in unanticipated ways thereby negatively impacting long duration space missions. We report here for the first time, an experimental study of microbial evolution in which the effect of long-term exposure to Low Shear Modeled MicroGravity (LSMMG) on microbial gene expression and physiology in Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655 was examined using functional genomics, and molecular techniques with and without simultaneous exposure to broad spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol. E. coli cells were grown under simulated microgravity for 1000 generations in High Aspect Ratio Vessels (HARVs) that were either heat-sterilized (115 deg C, 15 min) or by using/rinsing the HARVs with a saturated solution of the broad-spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol. In the case of the cells evolved using the antibiotic sterilized HARVs, the expression levels of 357 genes were significantly changed. In particular, fimbriae encoding genes were significantly up-regulated whereas genes encoding the flagellar motor complex were down-regulated. Re-sequencing of the genome revealed that a number of the flagellar genes were actually deleted. The antibiotic resistance levels of the evolved strains were analyzed using VITEK analyzer. The evolved strain was consistently resistant to the antibiotics used (viz., Ampicillin, Cefalotin, Cefurox-ime, Cefuroxime Axetil

  5. PREVALENCE OF PERINATAL INFECTION IN SOUTHERN ODISH A, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanti Kumari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM: This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalenc e of perinatal bacterial infection in southern part of Odisha. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant women presenting with premature rupture of membrane (PROM, preterm labour, fever, vaginal discharge (VD, urinary tract infections and previou s bad obstetric history were included in the study groups. Besides newborns < 7 days old admitte d to Paediatrics Department were also included. High vaginal swab and blood sample were c ollected from mother whereas from neonate cord blood and umbilical swab were taken. METHODS: Microscopy, culture for aerobic bacteria and serology for C. trachomatis were done. RESULT: Total number of cases proven to have microbiological infections based upon laborator y results. Maximum percentage of PNI cases were primigravida belonging to the age group of 20-30years and most common bacterial infections were caused by S. aureus & C. trachomati s. Ampicillin, Cefuroxime & Gentamicin were found to be the most effective antibiotics for bact erial isolates.

  6. Ease with VITEK 2 systems, biomerieux in identification of non-lactose fermenting bacteria including their antibiotic drug susceptibility: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmitha Simgamsetty

    2016-03-01

    Results: Out of the 186 strains, 50 strains were isolated from tracheal aspirate, 47 from pus/wound infections, 43 from blood cultures, 25 from urine, 20 from sputum and one from central line tip. The VITEK-2 compact system identified all the strains with a level of 95-99% probability. Most of the strains were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Acientobacter baumannii. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were most susceptible to Meropenem (72% and least susceptible to Cefuroxime and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (0% while Sphingomonas paucimobilis showed resistance to all the antibiotics tested. Conclusions: Care in detection, evaluation of effective antibiotic options, and judicious use of antibiotics by instituting antibiotic policy for combination therapy and rigorous infection control measures will help us to fight against these multidrug resistant NFGNB during the effective management of patients. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 813-817

  7. Advances in pneumococcal antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Hoon

    2013-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance and serotypes in Streptococcus pneumoniae have been evolving with the widespread use of antibiotics and the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). Particularly, among various types of antimicrobial resistance, macrolide resistance has most remarkably increased in many parts of the world, which has been reported to be >70% among clinical isolates from Asian countries. Penicillin resistance has dramatically decreased among nonmeningeal isolates due to the changes in resistance breakpoints, although resistance to other β-lactams such as cefuroxime has increased. Multidrug resistance became a serious concern in the treatment of invasive pneumococcal diseases, especially in Asian countries. After PCV7 vaccination, serotype 19A has emerged as an important cause of invasive pneumococcal diseases which was also associated with increasing prevalence of multidrug resistance in pneumococci. Widespread use of PCV13, which covers additional serotypes 3, 6A and 19A, may contribute to reduce the clonal spread of drug-resistant 19A pneumococci.

  8. Etiology of acute otitis media and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in Chilean children <5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblut, Andres; Napolitano, Carla; Pereira, Angelica; Moreno, Camilo; Kolhe, Devayani; Lepetic, Alejandro; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged Haemophilus influenzae (40.3% [56/139]) were predominant among the cultures that showed bacterial growth (85% [139/164]). All Streptococcus pneumoniae positive episodes were serotyped, 19F (21%) and 14 (17%) were the predominant serotypes; all Haemophilus influenzae strains were nontypeable. Streptococcus pneumoniae were resistant to penicillin (5%) and erythromycin (33%); Haemophilus influenzae were resistant to ampicillin (14%) and cefuroxime and cefotaxime (2% each).AOM in Chilean children is predominantly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Use of a broad spectrum vaccine against these pathogens might aid the reduction of AOM in Chile.

  9. Six cases of Aerococcus sanguinicola infection: Clinical relevance and bacterial identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.; Jensen, K.T.; Ostergaard, C.;

    2008-01-01

    Aerococcus sanguinicola is a Gram-positive coccus first described in 2001. Infections in humans are rare but the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and improved phenotypic methods has facilitated the identification of A. sanguinicola. We report here 6 cases of A. sanguinicola bacteraemia, 2 of which...... were associated with infective endocarditis. Most patients were elderly (median age 70 y) and had underlying neurological disorders including dementia, cerebral degeneration, and myelomeningocele. The primary focus of infection was the urinary tract in 3 cases and the gallbladder in 1; no focus...... was detected in 2 cases. Long-term prognosis was poor reflecting the frailty of the patients. All strains were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, cefuroxime, vancomycin, erythromycin, and rifampicin. The optimal treatment of infection with A. sanguinicola has yet to be determined Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  10. In vitro susceptibility of six fluoroquinolones against invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from 1996 to 2001 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Y; Fung, C P; Wang, C C; Chu, M L; Siu, L K

    2003-01-01

    A total of 331 invasive nonduplicated Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from three sampling periods during 1996 to 2001 were tested for susceptibility to recently developed fluoroquinolones. Five major serotypes, 23F, 6B, 14, 19F, and 3, were frequently encountered in this collection. Penicillin nonsusceptible isolates constituted 52.9% from 1996 to 1997, 61.6% from 1998 to 1999, and 60.0% from 2000 to 2001. Fifty-seven percent of the isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, 56.5% to ceftriaxone, 54.1% to cefepime, and 52.6% to cefuroxime. Macrolide-susceptible isolates constituted less than 14% of the total sample, and no vancomycin-resistant isolates were detected. For fluoroquinolones, MIC90 was lowest for gemifloxacin (MIC90 = fluoroquinolones are very effective against invasive S. pneumoniae isolates in Taiwan. Nevertheless, emerging fluoroquinolone resistance should be acknowledged and clinicians alerted. Surveillance should be carried out to monitor any changes in antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 1042 strains of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus: comparison from 1985 to 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebana, J; Castillo, A; Peis, J; Baca, P; Piedrola, G

    1991-06-01

    A total of 1042 strains of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus isolated between 1985 and 1989 were tested to study the evolution of their sensitivity to penicillin, amoxycillin, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, tetracycline, erythromycin, spiramycin, acetyl spiramycin, lincomycin and clindamycin. The strains were taken from stock cultures and isolated from human saliva and dental plaque. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by an agar dilution method. Except for spiramycin and acetyl spiramycin, all the antibiotics inhibited 100% of the strains with concentrations less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml. Microorganisms from both species underwent a slow progressive loss of sensitivity to all the antibiotics over a 5-year period of study, showing statistically significant results in most cases.

  12. [Evaluation of an automated procedure determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabaut, A; Durosoir, J L; Meyran, M

    1982-06-01

    The ABAC system allows to distribute simultaneously and automatically a standardized inoculum into microtube-cuvettes containing in lyophilized broth medium twofold serial dilutions of the antibiotics. After an 18 hours incubation time, The system prints automatically the MIC. We have compared the MIC of beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefamandole, cefuroxime and cefotaxime) and 6 aminoglycoside (gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmycin, amikacin, kanamycin, lividomycin) obtained by the ABAC system and by the Agar dilution method for 302 gram negative bacilli. We also made a comparison of the MIC of 8 antibiotics (oxacillin, oleandomycin, spiramycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, doxycycline, vancomycin) obtained by the 2 methods for 117 Staphylococcus aureus strains. The evaluation shows that the reproducibility of the results obtained by the ABAC system is good. The statistical analysis shows that the correlation between the MIC obtained with the 2 methods is excellent and that there is no significant discrepancy.

  13. Kurthia gibsonii as a sexually transmitted zoonosis: From a neglected condition during World War II to a recent warning for sexually transmitted disease units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Kövesdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Zoonotic sexual transmission. Aims: Identification of unknown microorganisms causing sexually transmitted zoonotic infection was a common effort of clinicians and the laboratory. Settings and Design: A male patient had recurring urethritis and balanitis after having repeated unprotected penetrative sexual intercourse with female piglets. He claimed allergy to metals and plastics. Routine microbiological tests were carried out. Materials and Methods: Specimens from the urethra, glans, rectum, throat, urine, and blood were cultured. Subsequently, isolates were tested for their biochemical activity and antibiotic susceptibility. Results: Kurthia gibsonii was isolated from both urethra and glans. No other concomitant infection was detected. The patient was cured with oral cefuroxime for 15 days and topical gentamicin cream for 2 months. Conclusion: This is the first reported zoophilic infection by Kurthia spp. Fecal contamination of animals' genital tract was the possible source of infection. Immune disturbance of the patient might predispose to opportunistic Kurthia infection.

  14. Multiple drug resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from Chicken samples collected from Mhow and Indore city of Madhyapradesh

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    Kaskhedikar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen antibacterial agents belonging to 9 different groups of antibiotics viz. aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, fluroquinolones, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, penicillin and polymixin were used for in vitro sensitivity testing of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fifteen samples of chicken collected from retail shops in Mhow city. The sensitivity (100% was attributed to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin followed by oxytetracycline (50%. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and colistin antibiotics. That means, none of the isolates were found to be sensitive for penicillin and polymixin group of antibiotics. Multiple drug resistance was also observed in all A. hydrophila isolates. Out of total isolates, 100% were resistant to two antimicrobial drugs and 50% to three drugs. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 31-32

  15. Voltammetric and theoretical studies of electrochemical behavior of cephalosporins at the mercury electrode

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    Nikolić Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the adsorption and electroreduction behavior of cefpodoxime proxetil, cefotaxime, desacetylcefotaxime, cefetamet, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and cefuroxime axetile at the mercury electrode surface has been performed using Cyclic (CV, Differential Pulse (DPV, and Adsorptive Stripping Differential Pulse Voltammetry (AdSDPV. The Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR study of the seven cephalosporins adsorption at the mercury electrode has been based on the density functional theory DFT-B3LYP/6-31G (d,p calculations of molecular orbitals, partial charges and electron densities of analytes. The DFT-parameters and QSPR model explain well the process of adsorption of the examined cephalosporins. QSPR study defined that cefalosporins with lower charge of sulphur in the thiazine moiety, lower electron density on the nitrogen atom of the N-O bond, higher number of hydrogen bond accepting groups, and higher principal moment of inertia should express high adsorption on the mercury electrode. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172033

  16. [Comparative susceptibility of Ochrobactrum anthropi, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosidans and Bordetella bronchiseptica against 35 antibiotics including 17 beta-lactams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, C; Bizet, J

    1995-04-01

    Ochrobactrum anthropi, formerly known as "Achromobacter sp." or CDC group Vd has been isolated from water, hospital environment (antiseptic solutions, dialysis fluids ... ). O. anthropi is a Gram negative, motile, strictly aerobic, oxydase positive and non-fermentative bacteria with a strong urease activity. The susceptibility of 13 strains of O. anthropi was determined by agar diffusion method and compared to those of type strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The MICs of 20 antimicrobial agents confirmed the distinct phenotype susceptibility of O. anthropi. All the strains of O. anthropi are sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin, nalidixic acid, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin, colistin, sulphonamides and rifampicin and resistant to ampicillin, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid, ticarcillin, mezlocillin, cefuroxime, cefamandol, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazon, ceftazidime, cefsulodin, aztreonam, streptomycin, kanamycin, pipemidic acid, chloramphenicol, erythromicin, pristinamycin, trimethoprim and fosfomycin. O. anthropi is implicated in nosocomial infections. O. anthropi was the species with the greatest resistance to beta-lactamins.

  17. Moxifloxacin Induced Seizures -A Case Report.

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    Jiana Shi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old female patient developed a generalized tonic-clonic seizure on the 6th day after treatment with moxifloxacin 400 mg daily intravenously for appendicitis. This patient had atrial fibrillation and history of a surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage, with impaired renal function and liver function, but without history of seizures. Moxifloxacin was discontinued and switched to cefuroxime. The patient remained seizure-free at discharge four days later. The naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score was 4, indicating a possible adverse reaction to moxifloxacin. The potential risk factors related to moxifloxacin-induced seizures are discussed. It highlights that preexisting central nervous system disease, elderly female with lower bodyweight and severe renal impairment may be the risk factors involved in moxifloxacin-induced seizures.

  18. Developmental pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in preterm and term neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elisabet I; Sandström, Marie; Honoré, Per Hartvig;

    2009-01-01

    for concentration monitoring. This study was performed to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in preterm and term neonates and to identify and quantify relationships between patient characteristics and IIV. A secondary aim was to evaluate cystatin C as a marker for gentamicin clearance...... was included as the primary covariate according to an allometric power model. Other evaluated covariates were age (postmenstrual age, gestational age [GA], postnatal age [PNA]), markers for renal function (serum creatinine, serum cystatin C) and concomitant medication with cefuroxime, vancomycin or indometacin...... as having a significant influence on the central volume of distribution, with a preterm neonate having a larger central volume of distribution per kilogram of bodyweight than a term neonate. Cystatin C and creatinine were not correlated with gentamicin clearance in this study population. The external...

  19. Evaluation of Eight Different Cephalosporins for Detection of Cephalosporin Resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik; Veldman, K

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamases in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. A total of 138 E. coli and 86 Salmonella isolates with known beta......-resistant but cephalosporin-susceptible, 56 ESBL isolates and 19 isolates with plasmidic AmpC, as well as 10 ampC hyper-producing E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration distributions and zone inhibitions varied with the tested compound. Ampicillin-resistant isolates showed reduced susceptibility to the cephalosporins...... compared to ampicillin-susceptible isolates. Cefoperazone, cefquinome, and cefuroxime were not useful in detecting isolates with ESBL or plasmidic AmpC. The best substances for detection were cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, and ceftriaxone, whereas ceftazidime and ceftiofur were not as efficient. Ceftriaxone may...

  20. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro profile based interaction with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells of alginate-chitosan-silica biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaure, Paul Catalin; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Yang, Chih-Hui; Chifiriuc, Carmen Mariana; Lin, Yung-Sheng

    2013-01-30

    This work is focused on the fabrication of a new drug delivery system based on polyanionic matrix (e.g. sodium alginate), polycationic matrix (e.g. chitosan) and silica network. The FT-IR, SEM, DTA-TG, eukaryotic cell cycle and viability, and in vitro assay of the influence of the biocomposite on the efficacy of antibiotic drugs were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated the biocompatibility and the ability of the fabricated biocomposite to maintain or improve the efficacy of the following antibiotics: piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, piperacillin, imipenem, gentamicin, ceftazidime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and cefazolin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 reference strains.

  1. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of cephalosporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancu Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of six extensively used cephalosporin antibiotics (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefuroxim, ceftazidim, ceftriaxon. The determination of cephalosporins was performed at a pH 6.8, using a 25 mM phospate - 25 mM borate mixed buffer, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 °C. We achieved a baseline separation in approximately 10 minutes. The separation resolution was increased by addition of an anionic surfactant, 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, to the buffer solution. The proposed separation was evaluated on the basis of detection and quantification limits, effective electrophoretic mobility and relative standard deviation for migration times and peak areas.

  2. The bactericidal activity of β-lactam antibiotics is increased by metabolizable sugar species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsing, Mette; Bentin, Thomas; Givskov, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    Here, the influence of metabolizable sugars on the susceptibility of Escherichia coli to β-lactam antibiotics was investigated. Notably, monitoring growth and survival of mono- and combination-treated planktonic cultures showed a 1000- to 10 000-fold higher antibacterial efficacy of carbenicillin...... and cefuroxime in the presence of certain sugars, whereas other metabolites had no effect on β-lactam sensitivity. This effect was unrelated to changes in growth rate. Light microscopy and flow cytometry profiling revealed that bacterial filaments, formed due to β-lactam-mediated inhibition of cell division......, rapidly appeared upon β-lactam mono-treatment and remained stable for up to 18 h. The presence of metabolizable sugars in the medium did not change the rate of filamentation, but led to lysis of the filaments within a few hours. No lysis occurred in E. coli mutants unable to metabolize the sugars, thus...

  3. Etiology of acute otitis media and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in Chilean children <5 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblut, Andres; Napolitano, Carla; Pereira, Angelica; Moreno, Camilo; Kolhe, Devayani; Lepetic, Alejandro; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged Streptococcus pneumoniae (41.7% [58/139]) and Haemophilus influenzae (40.3% [56/139]) were predominant among the cultures that showed bacterial growth (85% [139/164]). All Streptococcus pneumoniae positive episodes were serotyped, 19F (21%) and 14 (17%) were the predominant serotypes; all Haemophilus influenzae strains were nontypeable. Streptococcus pneumoniae were resistant to penicillin (5%) and erythromycin (33%); Haemophilus influenzae were resistant to ampicillin (14%) and cefuroxime and cefotaxime (2% each). AOM in Chilean children is predominantly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Use of a broad spectrum vaccine against these pathogens might aid the reduction of AOM in Chile. PMID:28178138

  4. Fabrication, Characterization, and Evaluation of Bionanocomposites Based on Natural Polymers and Antibiotics for Wound Healing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Rădulescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research activity was to obtain a biocompatible nanostructured composite based on naturally derived biopolymers (chitin and sodium alginate loaded with commercial antibiotics (either Cefuroxime or Cefepime with dual functions, namely promoting wound healing and assuring the local delivery of the loaded antibiotic. Compositional, structural, and morphological evaluations were performed by using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analytical techniques. In order to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the biocompatibility of the obtained composites, we performed the tetrazolium-salt (MTT and agar diffusion in vitro assays on the L929 cell line. The evaluation of antimicrobial potential was evaluated by the viable cell count assay on strains belonging to two clinically relevant bacterial species (i.e., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  5. Biotic and abiotic degradation of four cephalosporin antibiotics in a lake surface water and sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Muxian; Wang, Lianhong; Ji, Rong

    2010-09-01

    Cephalosporins are widely used veterinary and human antibiotics, but their environmental fate and impacts are still unclear. We studied degradation of four cephalosporins (cefradine, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and cefepime) from each generation in the surface water and sediment of Lake Xuanwu, China. The four cephalosporins degraded abiotically in the surface water in the dark with half-lives of 2.7-18.7d, which were almost the same as that in sterilized surface water. Under exposure to simulated sunlight, the half-lives of the cephalosporins decreased significantly to 2.2-5.0d, with the maximal decrease for ceftriaxone from 18.7d in the dark to 4.1d under the light exposure. Effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and nitrate on photodegradation of the cephalosporins were compound-specific. While DOM (5 mg L(-1)) stimulated the photodegradation of only cefradine (by 9%) and cefepime (by 34%), nitrate (10 microM) had effects only on cefepime (stimulation by 13%). Elimination rates of the cephalosporins in oxic sediment (half-lives of 0.8-3.1d) were higher than in anoxic sediment (half-lives of 1.1-4.1d), mainly attributed to biodegradation. The data indicate that abiotic hydrolysis (for cefradine, cefuroxime, and cefepime) and direct photolysis (for ceftriaxone) were the primary processes for elimination of the cephalosporins in the surface water of the lake, whereas biodegradation was responsible for the elimination of the cephalosporins in the sediment. Further studies are needed on chemical structure, toxicity, and persistence of transformation products of the cephalosporins in the environment.

  6. Preliminary exploration of the development of a collagenous artificial dura mater for sustained antibiotic release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; DONG Hui; KANG Cheng-gui; LIN Cheng; YE Xun; ZHAO Yuan-li

    2013-01-01

    Background Intracranial infection is one of the most common complications of open craniocerebral injury and of conventional craniotomy in neurosurgery.The presence of blood-brain barrier leads to lower drug concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid than in the venous blood.Increasing the intravenous dosage or frequency carries the risk of systemic adverse reactions or infections in other parts of the body.Developing an artificial dura mater (ADM) for sustained antibiotic release for use during neurosurgery can solve the problems perfectly.Methods Three types of drug-loaded ADMs made of collagen and containing cefuroxime sodium,ceftriaxone sodium,or norvancomycin were prepared.The antibacterial activity and sustained release characteristics of the ADMs were examined using bacteriostatic and release tests.Results Single-layered collagen based ADMs (40 mm×50 mm×5 mm) containing 18 mg cefuroxime sodium or ceftriaxone sodium were not suitable for continued development because of drug preservation and stability issues.Using smaller ADMs (20 mm×30 mm×7 mm),containing 4.86 mg of norvancomycin,with increased collagen density and a three-layered film with two outer drug-free films above and below the antibiotic layer resulted in sustained cumulative release of 2.91 mg (59.9%) of norvancomycin over 72 hours.The similar factor (f2) comparison method proved that products from a same batch were statistically significant similar (f2 >50).Conclusions Artificial ADMs made of collagen can be processed to provide a mature dural repair material for the sustained release of norvancomycin.This system may provide a basis for developing sustained release materials for other drugs.

  7. [Drugs and retinal disorders: A case/non-case study in the French pharmacovigilance database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Nicolas; Chavant, François; Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Leveziel, Nicolas; Pérault-Pochat, Marie-Christine

    2016-09-01

    Retina is the part of the eye suffering most damage from pharmaceutical molecules. Drug-induced retinopathies have been described but data are scarce and sometimes conflicting especially concerning its potential seriousness. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between drugs and retinal disorders using the French Pharmacovigilance data. We used the case/non-case method in the French PharmacoVigilance Database (FPVD) to identify drugs able to induce retinopathies. Cases were reports of retinal disorders in the FPVD between January 2008 and December 2012. Non-cases were all other reports during the same period. To assess the association between retinopathy and drug intake, we calculated the odds-ratio (OR) [with their 95% confidence intervals] for all drugs associated with at least 3 cases of retinopathy. Among the 123 687 adverse drug reactions recorded during the studied period, we identified 164 cases of retinal disorders. Significant associations were found for 11 drugs. The main therapeutic classes were antirhumatismals (hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine and etanercept: 18 cases), anti-infective (ribavirine, PEG-interferon-alfa-2a and cefuroxime: 16 cases) and antineoplastic drugs (imatinib and letrozole: 8 cases. Three other drugs were also found: raloxifene (5 cases), erythropoietin beta (4 cases) and ranibizumab (3 cases). Taking into account the limits of the methodology, our study confirmed the association between retinopathy and some expected drugs such as aminoquinolines, interferons, imatinib or ranibizumab. Other drugs like erythropoietin beta, cefuroxime, letrozole and etanercept were significantly associated with retinal disorders although this was not or poorly described in the literature. Thus, further prospective studies are necessary to confirm such associations.

  8. The identification, typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jing; Li, Lulu; Du, Yijun; Wang, Shourong; Wang, Jinwen; Luo, Yanbo; Che, Jie; Lu, Jinxing; Liu, Hui; Hu, Guangchun; Li, Jixia; Gong, Yanwen; Wang, Guisheng; Hu, Ming; Shiganyan; Liu, Yuqing

    2014-06-04

    The biological characteristics and molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with mink hemorrhagic pneumonia from Shandong province of eastern China were determined in this study. From 2010 to 2011, 30 mink P. aeruginosa isolates were identified from lung, fecal and feed samples of clinical cases and subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SpeI. The P. aeruginosa isolates belonged to four serotypes-21 of type G, four of type I, three of type M, one of type B, and one non-typable strain. The strains were divided into four large groups as determined by PFGE. Isolates from the group 2 were highly homologous and were obtained from the same region as an epidemic. All of the isolates were sensitive to piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin and resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxime and cefuroxime axetil. A high frequency of resistance was found to ampicillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, cefotetan, ceftriaxone, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (96.7%). Resistance to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin was less common (13.3%). There was no relationship between antibiotic resistance and serotype distribution of the isolates. The epidemic serotype of P. aeruginosa from the mink hemorrhagic pneumonia in Shandong province was type G, which was a clone of commonly found in this province. These findings reveal the genetic similarities and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of P. aeruginosa from clinical cases of mink hemorrhagic pneumonia and will facilitate the prevention and control of the disease in Shandong province of China.

  9. Influence of human urine to antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli producing β-lactamase of different types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ž. Žagar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of human urine on the antibiotic susceptibilities of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains producing different types of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL. The study was performed on 26 ESBL negative strains of K. pneumoniae, 80 K. pneumoniae strains producing SHV-ESBLs (52-SHV-5, 31- SHV-2 and 7- SHV-12, 94 E. coli strains harbouring TEM- ESBLs and 14 E. coli strains possessing CTX-M group 1 β-lactamases. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxycillin alone and combined with clavulanate (co-amoxilcav, cephalexin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were performed in parallel in Mueller-Hinton broth and urine by broth microdilution method. With ESBL negative strains, urine increased MIC90 of amoxycillin alone and combined with clavulanate, cephalexin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Against SHV-5 producers, an increase in MIC90 was observed with cefotaxime, cefepime and ciprofloxacin when the test was performed in urine. SHV-2 producers showed elevated MIC90 of ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and cefepime in the presence of urine, in contrast to SHV-12 producers which displayed elevated MIC90 only for cefotaxime. Urine increased MIC90 of amoxycillin/clavulanate, ceftazidime and cefepime against CTX-M producers, and of amoxycillin/clavulanate, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime and ciprofloxacin for TEM producers. According to our results the activity of antibiotics used for the treatment of urinary tract infection could be overestimated by a standard in vitro testing. However, most of antibiotics used for the treatment of urinary tract infection achieve very high concentration in urine and that could abrogate the reduction of antimicrobial activity by biological fluid.

  10. Profiling of β-lactam selectivity for penicillin-binding proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Ozden; Tsui, Ho-Ching T; Winkler, Malcolm E; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    Selective fluorescent β-lactam chemical probes enable the visualization of the transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) at different stages of bacterial cell division. To facilitate the development of new fluorescent probes for PBP imaging, we evaluated 20 commercially available β-lactams for selective PBP inhibition in an unencapsulated derivative of the D39 strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Live cells were treated with β-lactam antibiotics at different concentrations and subsequently incubated with Bocillin FL (Boc-FL; fluorescent penicillin) to saturate uninhibited PBPs. Fluorophore-labeled PBPs were visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence scanning. Among 20 compounds tested, carbapenems (doripenem and meropenem) were coselective for PBP1a, PBP2x, and PBP3, while six of the nine penicillin compounds were coselective for PBP2x and PBP3. In contrast, the seven cephalosporin compounds tested display variability in their PBP-binding profiles. Three cephalosporin compounds (cefoxitin, cephalexin, and cefsulodin) and the monobactam aztreonam exhibited selectivity for PBP3, while only cefuroxime (a cephalosporin) was selective for PBP2x. Treatment of S. pneumoniae cultures with a sublethal concentration of cefuroxime that inhibited 60% of PBP2x activity and less than 20% of the activity of other PBPs resulted in formation of elongated cells. In contrast, treatment of S. pneumoniae cultures with concentrations of aztreonam and cefoxitin that inhibited up to 70% of PBP3 activity and less than 30% of other PBPs resulted in no discernible morphological changes. Additionally, correlation of the MIC and IC50s for each PBP, with the exception of faropenem, amdinocillin (mecillinam), and 6-APA, suggests that pneumococcal growth inhibition is primarily due to the inhibition of PBP2x.

  11. 常用抗生素在体外环境中对血清肿瘤标志物检测的影响%Effects of commonly used antibiotics in vitro environment on detection of serum tumor markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔梅; 邢长永; 甄君

    2011-01-01

    Objeetive To discuss the effects of 11 commonly used antibiotics in vitro environment on the detection of serum tumor markers. Methods To select 50 samples of serum tumor markers and 20 normal serum samples respectively,and to join in the serum of eleven commonly used antibiotics, and to detect AFP, CEA, CA125, CA153 and CA199 five types of tumor markers before and after the content changes by chemiluminescence immunoassay and to analyse the result by using the t-test. Results Joined the penicillin lactic acid sodium, acyclovir, ciprofloxacin and sodium chloride, ceftazidime, cefuroxime sodium, ornidazole tablets, ceph radine, the value of AFP was different after detection (P<0.05). Accession of chloride, ceftazidime, cefuroxime sodium, cephradine, azithromycin dihydrogen phosphate after CEA value differences (P<0. 05). Joined acyclovir, cefuroxime sodium, cephradine, imide cilasatin sodium CA125 after testing was different (P<0.05). In joining the penicillin sodium, cefuroxime sodium, piperacillin sodium and sulbactam sodium(2 : 1),ornidazole tablets,acyclovir CA199 detection value when there was a difference(P<0.05). In joining the penicillin sodium, cefuroxime sodium, piperacillin sodium and sulbactam sodium (2 : 1),ornidazole films, polyimide cilasatin sodium, ceftazidime CA153 detection value after differences ( P< 0. 05 ). Conclusion In most of the 11 commonly used antibiotics on tumor markers except gentamicin sulfate, they have clinical significance to improve the accuracy of tumor markers by exclude drug interference factors.%目的 探讨十一种常用抗生素在体外环境中对血清肿瘤标志物含量的影响.方法 50份肿瘤患者血清和20份正常血清中分别加入11种常用抗生素,采用免疫化学发光法检测AFP、CEA、CA125、CA153和CA199五种肿瘤标志物前后含量的变化,采用 T检验进行统计学分析.结果 加入青霉素钠、阿昔洛韦、乳酸环丙沙星氯化钠、头孢他啶、头孢呋辛

  12. Extended-spectrum -lactamases and the antibiotic resistance in uropathogeni escherichia coli in children%儿童泌尿系感染产 ESBLs 大肠埃希菌的检测及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永忠; 李玉珍; 盛学梅; 黄永辉; 余连芝

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解儿童泌尿系感染分离大肠埃希菌中产 ESBLs 菌株的发生率和产 ESBLs 菌株和非产 ES-BLs 的耐药性。方法儿童泌尿系感染分离的产 ESBLs 大肠埃希菌48株,通过 CLSI 表型确证试验(纸片增强法)检测产 ESBLs 菌株,琼脂稀释法进行药敏试验。结果48株儿童泌尿系感染分离的大肠埃希菌中,产 ESBLs 菌株的发生率为45.8%(22/48),其中复杂性尿路感染产 ESBLs 菌株高达66.7%(12/18)。产 ESBLs 菌株对氨苄西林,第一、二代头孢菌素,头孢噻肟耐药显著;对头孢他啶、头孢吡肟和阿莫西林/克拉维酸耐药率超过30%;对头孢哌酮/舒巴坦、头孢美唑、阿米卡星耐药率在30%以下;对美罗培南耐药率为0。非产 ESBLs 菌株对氨苄西林,第一、二代头孢菌素类耐药率较高,对其他抗菌药物均较为敏感。产 ESBLs 菌株对第一、二代头孢菌素,头孢噻肟,头孢他啶,头孢吡肟耐药率显著高于非产 ESBLs 菌株(P <0.05)。结论儿童泌尿系感染分离大肠埃希菌中产 ESBLs菌株的发生率较高,产 ESBLs 菌株多重耐药显著,临床应加强检测和监测。%Objective To investigate the prevalence of extended-spectrum -lactamases(ESBLs)and the antibiotic resistance in uropathogeni escherichia coli in children. Methods A total of 48 uropathogenic escherichia coli strains isola-ted,ESBLs-producers were detected by CLSI phenotypic confirmatory test and susceptibilities were tested by agar dilution method. Results 45. 8% of isolates were ESBLs producers in those isolates,and ESBLs-producers account for 66. 7%strains in the complicated urinary tract infection. ESBLs producers were highly resistant to ampicillin,cefazolin,cefuroxime and cefotaxime. The resistant rate of ceftazidime,cefepime,amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was more than 30% ,cefoperazone-sulbactam,cefmetazole and aimikacin was less than 30% ,none was resistant to meropenem in

  13. Analysis of Antibiotic Use in 224 Surgical Cases in Beijing Fangshan District First Hospital%北京市房山区第一医院224份手术病历抗菌药物应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀云; 刘洋; 周秋峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解北京市房山区第一医院(以下简称“我院”)手术患者中抗菌药物的使用情况、使用特点及存在的问题,为临床合理应用抗菌药物提供参考。方法:随机抽取2013年我院224份手术病历,对患者情况、抗菌药物使用情况、手术情况、切口类别等进行统计分析。结果:224份病历中,Ⅰ类切口手术68例,占30.4%,抗菌药物使用率为29.4%,主要使用的抗菌药物为注射用头孢呋辛;Ⅱ类切口手术137例,占61.2%,主要使用的抗菌药物为注射用头孢呋辛、注射用头孢拉定、注射用头孢西丁、注射用奥硝唑、头孢呋辛酯片等。结论:我院手术患者抗菌药物的使用情况基本合理,但在抗菌药物使用剂量、频次、使用时间及联合用药等方面仍存在问题,需要继续加强抗菌药物合理使用的培训与宣传工作,促进临床合理用药。%OBJECTIVE:To investigate the status quo , characteristics and problems in the antibiotic use in surgical cases in Beijing Fangshan District First Hospital ( hereinafter referred to as “our hospital”) for reference of clinical rational use of antibiotics .METHODS:A total of 224 records of surgical cases in our hospital were randomly selected in 2013 for statistical analysis regarding patients'status, antibiotic use, surgery, incision type etc.RESULTS:Of the 224 cases, 68(30.4%) underwent type Ⅰincision surgery with 29.4%treated with antibiotics, predominantly cefuroxime for injection; 137 ( 61.2%) underwent type Ⅱ incision surgery , for whom the antibiotics including cefuroxime sodium for injection , cefradine for Injection , ornidazole for Injection and cefuroxime axetil tablets were used predominantly .CONCLUSIONS:The antibiotic use in surgical cases in our hospital was basically rational; however , there are still problems in dose , frequency and time of administration and combination therapy .It is important to

  14. Clinical effect of antibiotics sequential therapy for children bronchial pneumonia in rural areas%抗菌素序贯疗法在治疗农村儿童支气管肺炎的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄剑飞; 李榕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore clinical effect of antibiotics sequential therapy for children bronchial pneumonia in rural areas. Methods From January 2007 to January 2010,266 outpatients with bronchial pneumonia in our hospital were randomly divided into two groups. Sequential therapy group (133 cases) was treated by intervenous drop infusion of cefuroxime sodium,then changed to oral cefu-roxime sodium after clinical symptoms and physical signs were improved remarkably. Control group was treated by intervenous drop infusion of cefuroxime sodium continuously. The total duration of treatment for both groups was 7 to 10 days. Results The effective rates in the treatment group and control group were 94. 0% and 91. 0% , statistically significant with no difference ( P 〉 0. 05 ). There were no significant differences in the recovery time of clinical symptom and physical sign in both groups (P 〉0.05). Compared with the control group, the infusion time, chairside time and medical expense were all markedly reduced ( P 〈 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Antibiotics sequential therapy for children bronchial pneumonia has the advantage of high efficiency, convenience and low expense. It can be used in rural areas, especially remote areas and it is worthy of clinical application in primary hospitals.%目的 探讨序贯疗法治疗农村儿童支气管肺炎的疗效.方法 选取2007年1月-2010年1月该院门诊收治的266例支气管肺炎患儿,随机分为序贯组(133例)和对照组(133例).序贯组短期静脉用头孢呋辛钠直至病情相对稳定后改用口服头孢呋辛钠,对照组采用持续足疗程静脉滴注头孢呋辛钠.两组总疗程均为7~10 d.结果序贯组总有效率为94.0%,对照组总有效率为91.0%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两组症状、体征恢复时间比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);与对照组比较,序贯组输液天数、就诊天数显著较缩短,医疗费用显著降低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 抗菌

  15. DRUG RESISTANCE AND DETECTION OF HAEMOHPILUS INFLUENZAE AND HAEMOPHILUS PARAINFLUENZAE IN SENILE PATIENTS WITH RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS%老年呼吸道感染病人流感和副流感嗜血杆菌检测及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙冰梅; 牛爱荣; 江秀爱

    2012-01-01

    %. The sensitive of H. influenzae to cefotaximei cefuroxime, azitromycin, levofloxactni and chloormycetin reached 80%, and that of H. parainfluenzae to cefotaxime, cefuroxime,azithromycin , and chlormycetin reached 80%. Conclusion The strains of H. parainfluenzae isolated from RTI in senile patients were more than the strains of H. influenza. There was also a high prevalence of beta-lactamases of both of them. Cefotaxime and cefuroxime should be the first choice for the therapy for this condition. Ampicillin and bactrim are no more used in empirical treatment.

  16. 儿童鼻部携带肺炎链球菌的研究%Nasal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 袁林; 俞桑洁; 杨永弘

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried in the nose among children in Beijing and the distribution of serotypes,and to analyze the risk factors for nasal carriage of penicillin non-susceptible S.pneumoniae.Methods A disk diffusion test was applied to detect the antimicrobial susceptibilities of S.pneumoniae to erythromycin,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,chloramphenicol and tetracycline.The E test was applied to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of penicillin,cefuroxime,cefotaxime,augmentin and imipenem.S.pneumoniae isolates were serotyped by the Quellung reaction.Results S.pneumoniae that was resistant to penicillin or cefuroxime was not found,but S.pneumoniae intermediate resistant to penicillin and cefuroxime accounted for 8.2% and 2.1%,respectively.All of the isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime,augmentin and imipenem.S.pneumonia that was resistant to erythromycin,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were extremely numerous,accounting for 72%,70% and 79%,respectively.Five serotypes(19,6,14,23,17)accounted for 54.7%,and nontypables accounted for 20.6% of all the S.pneumoniae.Previous history of otitis media was a risk factor we found for nasal carriage of penicillin non-susceptible S.pneumoniae.Conclusions Continued surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of S.pneumoniae is necessary.A larger scale investigation is needed to identify if the 7 or 9-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine is appropriate for Chinese children.%目的了解北京地区儿童鼻部携带的肺炎链球菌对抗生素的敏感性以及血清型分布,分析鼻部携带青霉素非敏感肺炎链球菌的危险因素.方法用纸片扩散法检测肺炎链球菌对红霉素,复方新诺明,氯霉素和四环素的敏感性;E-试验确定青霉素,头孢呋新,头孢噻肟,安灭菌和亚胺培南的最小抑菌浓度;Quellung反应确定肺炎链球菌的血清型.结果未发现对青霉素和头

  17. 淋菌对β-内酰胺类抗菌药物的药敏试验结果回顾性分析%Drug susceptibility tests of neisseria gonorrhoeae to β-lactams antibiotics:a retrospective analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明章; 沈翠芬; 吴原; 张晓祥; 王翔

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解淋菌对β-内酰胺类抗菌药物的敏感性,为淋病的防治提供科学依据.方法 回顾性分析纸片扩散法检测86株淋菌对6种β-内酞胺类抗菌药物的药敏试验结果,产色头孢硝噻吩法检测β-内酰胺酶.结果 质粒介导的产青霉素酶淋菌阳性菌株30株,占34.88%;淋菌对青霉素、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、头孢他啶、头孢曲松、头孢吡肟的敏感率分别为8.14%,75.58%,90.70%,93.02%,86.05%,94.19%;青霉素的药物敏感性显著低于头孢呋辛,差异有统计学意义(X2=80.36,P<0.01);头孢呋辛的药物敏感性比头孢曲松的药物敏感性低,差异无统计学意义,但是头孢呋辛有5株耐药菌株;头孢噻肟、头孢他啶、头孢曲松、头孢吡肟的敏感率,差异无统计学意义.结论 第三、四代头孢菌素可作为治疗淋菌感染的一线药物.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the β-lactams susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and provide scientific basis for the treatment and prevention of gonorrhea. METHODS A retrospective survey was conducted. β-lactams susceptibility tests were tested by Disk diffusion, and βlactamase was determined by nitrocefin. RESULTS Plasmid mediated penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae(PPNG) were 30 straines(34. 88 %). Susceptive rates of penicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cefepime were 8. 14%, 75. 58%, 90.70%, 93. 02%, 86. 05% and 94. 19%, respectively. The sensitivity of penicillin was lower than that of cefuroxime with significant difference(x2 =80.36, P<0. 001). The sensitivity of cefuroxime was lower than that of ceftriaxone without significant difference (x2 =3.04, P = 0. 08), while there were 5 resistant strains for cefuroxine. There was no significant difference (x2=4.08,P= 2. 53) among the sensitivities of cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cefepime. CONCLUSION The third generation of cephalosporins such as cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and the

  18. 上海地区119家医院2009-2011年头孢菌素类药利用分析%Analysis of the Utilization of Cephalosporin Antibacterial Drugs in 119 Hospitals from Shanghai Area during 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石卫峰; 归成; 李晓宇; 刘皋林

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utilization and tendency of cephalosporin antibacterial drugs in hospitals from Shanghai area. METHODS: The utilization of cephalosporins in 119 hospitals of Shanghai area during 2009 - 2011 was analyzed statistically in respect of main categories, consumption sum, DDDs and DDC, etc. RESULTS: The consumption sum of cephalosporins reached a peak in 2010 and decreased obviously in 2011. The consumption sum of oral cephalosporins showed a small increase and that of injections showed a downward trend. Over the 3 years, cefaclor, cefixime and cefdinir ranked the top 3 in the list of consumption sum; and cefuroxime axetil, cefaclor and cefixime ranked the top 3 in the list of DDDs; cefotiam, cefuroxime and cefoxi-tin occupied the top 3 in the list of consumption sum and DDDs of injections. CONCLUSIONS: The management of clinical application of cephalosporin antibacterial drugs should continue to be strengthened so as to ensure effective, safe and economical use of drugs in the clinic.%目的:评价上海地区医院头孢菌素类药的应用现状和趋势.方法:对2009-2011年上海地区119家医院头孢菌素类药的主要品种、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日均费用(DDC)等进行统计、分析.结果:该地区医院头孢菌素类药的销售金额在2010年达到高峰,2011年出现明显下降;口服剂的销售金额呈现小幅增长,注射剂的销售金额有下降趋势;3年来,头孢克洛、头孢克肟和头孢地尼的销售金额在口服剂中排名前3位,头孢呋辛酯、头孢克洛和头孢克肟的DDDs排名前3位,头孢替安、头孢呋辛和头孢西丁在注射剂中占销售金额和DDDs排名的前3位.结论:应继续加强头孢菌素类的临床应用管理,以确保临床用药的有效、安全和经济.

  19. 2008-2010年产气肠杆菌分布特征与耐药性分析%Clinical distribution and drug resistance of Enterobacter aerogenes from 2008 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵进良; 冯乐; 吴良娟; 何梅; 王春新

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical distribution and drug resistance of Enterobacter aero genes from 2008 to 2010 to provide the scientific evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment. METHODS The distribution and drug resistance of E. Aerogenes isolated from 2008 to 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS Totally 570 strains of E. Aerogenes were mainly isolated from sputum (334 strains), urine (121 strains) and blood (-32 strains) .accounting for 58. 6% ,21. 2% and 5. 6% , respectively. The drug resistant rates to ampicillin.cefotaxim, cefoxitin, cefazolin, cefuroxime sodium, cefuroxime were more than 50. 0%. All isolates of E. Aerogenes distributed in many departments were more sensitive to carbapenem,amikacin and gentamicin. CONCLUSION E. Aerogenes clinical strains are mostly multidrug-resistant. Rational use of antibiotics is important for the containment of the resistance of E. Aerogenes.%目的 分析2008-2010年产气肠杆菌分离株的临床分布及耐药性特点,为临床医师诊断和治疗提供依据.方法 对2008-2010年住院患者各类标本分离到的产气肠杆菌,进行标本分布和耐药性回顾性统计分析.结果 3年内共分离出产气肠杆菌570株,主要来源于痰334株,占58.6%、尿液121株,占21.2%和血液32株,占5.6%,主要分布在呼吸内科220株,占38.6%、ICU174株,占30.5%和神经外科42株,占7.4%;药敏结果显示,对氨苄西林、头孢噻肟、头孢西丁、头孢唑林、头孢呋辛酯及头孢呋辛钠耐药率均>50.0%,对阿米卡星、庆大霉素、亚胺培南和美罗培南有较好的敏感性.结论 产气肠杆菌多为多药耐药,临床医师应根据药敏结果合理选择抗菌药物,以延缓产气肠杆菌耐药性的产生.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance in respiratory pathogens isolated in Brazil during 1999-2000

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    Critchley Ian A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the respiratory pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis to commonly tested and prescribed agents was investigated during 1999-2000 and compared with results obtained during a previous 1997-1998 study. Of 448 isolates of S. pneumoniae collected and tested in 1999-2000, 77.2% were susceptible, 19.9% were intermediate, and 2.9% were resistant to penicillin, demonstrating that there were no major changes in susceptibility to penicillin from 1997-1998 (77.1% susceptible, 18.7% intermediate, 4.2% resistant. All S. pneumoniae isolates from 1999-2000 were susceptible to levofloxacin and vancomycin, and >90% were susceptible to the beta-lactams (amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftriaxone, and cefuroxime and macrolides (azithromycin and clarithromycin, showing that susceptibility to these agents also remained unchanged since 1997-1998. The most notable increase in resistance between the two studies was demonstrated by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, which increased from 23.4% to 38.6%. Penicillin resistance correlated with resistance to beta-lactams, macrolides, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in both studies. In H. influenzae, the prevalence of beta-lactamase-producing isolates remained unchanged (10.6% in 1999-2000; 11.0% in 1997-1998. All H. influenzae isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, and azithromycin, and showed no change between the two studies. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was present in 40.1% of isolates in 1999-2000, and in 45.2% in 1997-1998. In M. catarrhalis, the prevalence of beta-lactamase-producing isolates was unchanged (97.9% in 1999-2000; 98.0% in 1997-1998. The most active agents against M. catarrhalis were azithromycin (MIC90, <0.03 mug/ml and levofloxacin (MIC90, 0.03 mug/ml. Overall, these results suggest that, in Brazil, between 1999-2000 and 1997-1998, there have been no significant changes in the

  1. Etiología y sensibilidad bacteriana en infección urinaria en niños. Hospital Infantil Club Noel y Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

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    Iris de Castaño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common renal disease in childhood. To find the etiologic microorganism and an early adequate antibiotic therapy are essential to avoid permanent kidney injuries. Objectives: To know the etiologic bacteria and their antibiotic sensibility in urine cultures of children with UTI consulting University Hospital and Club Noel Hospital in Cali, Colombia. Methodology: A total of 123 children under 14 years of age that came into Emergency Service or outpatient clinics at University Hospital or Club Noel Hospital with clinical suspicion of UTI from August 2004 to February 2005 were included in a descriptive transversal study. Urine cultures were taken by supra-pubic aspiration, urine catheterization or mid strain urine. UTI definition was based on colony counts according to recollection method. Positive urine cultures, type of bacteria and antibiotic sensibility were considered for the analysis. Children having either urine cultures with colony counts inferior to recollection method, asymptomatic bacteriuria, occasional catheterization, immunosuppression, vesicostomy or previous admission to intensive care unit, were excluded. Results: Among 123 children entering to the study, 31 were eliminated for colony counts inferior to the recollection method. A total of 123 urine cultures were left for the analysis: 50% of urine cultures were obtained by catheterization, 33% via mid void stream and 17% by supra-pubic aspiration; 58% of patients were females. Escherichia coli was cultured in 72% of the cases, Klebsiella in 16.4%, Proteus 2.5% and other type of bacteria account for 9%. Antibiotics and antibacterials with sensibility over 80% were: cefixime, norfloxocin, cefuroxime, cefprozil, nalidixic acid, ceftriaxone, amikacin, and gentamicin. Intermediate sensibility from 61 to 70%: amoxicillin-clavulinic, cefaclor, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin. Sensibility under 60% was found for amoxicillin, ampicillin

  2. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

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    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Treatment of Pediatric Bronchial Pneumonia with Three Kinds of Cephalosporins%三种头孢类药物治疗小儿支气管肺炎的成本-效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦梦春

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cefuroxime sodium,ceftizoxime sodium and, ceftriaxone sodium in respect to the treatment of pediatric bronchial pneumonia,so as to provide optimal clin-ical treatment protocol.Methods:Collect 152 discharged patients with pediatric bronchial pneumonia in de-partment of pediatrics in some hospital ,divide them into group A,B and C,Treat them with cefuroxime sodi-um ,ceftizoxime sodium ceftriaxone sodium respectively,make retrospective evaluation and analysis on the three treatment methods based on CEA.Results:There was no obvious difference between the three treatment protocols (P >0.05),the overall effective rate of the three groups was 94.44%,93.48%,96.15%respectively and cost-effectiveness was 34.40,35.35,32.72 respectively.Conclusion:it is the optimal protocol to treat ped-iatric bronchial pneumonia with ,ceftriaxone sodium.%目的::评价头孢呋辛钠、头孢唑肟钠、头孢曲松钠治疗小儿支气管肺炎的成本-效果,为临床提供最佳治疗方案。方法:收集某院儿科支气管肺炎患儿出院病历152份,分为 A、B、C3组,分别给予头孢呋辛钠(A)、头孢唑肟钠(B)、头孢曲松钠(C)治疗,运用药物经济学成本-效果分析方法对3种治疗方案的成本-效果进行回顾性评价分析。结果:3种治疗方案无显著性差异(P >0.05),总有效率分别为94.44%、93.48%、96.15%,成本-效果比分别为34.40、35.35、32.72。结论:头孢曲松钠(C 组)为治疗小儿支气管肺炎的较佳方案。

  4. Inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by the compound Qingre granules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yi-yun; WANG Hong; ZHANG Shu-wen; WANG Bao-en

    2010-01-01

    Background The infection rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing yearly due to the overprescription of antibiotics. Traditional Chinese compound medicines are less inclined to induce bacterial resistance in the clinical setting because of their multi-acting mechanisms. However, most current research is limited to bacteriostasis in vitro using single extracts or formulations. Plasma pharmacology is an in vitro method, using what is called "medicine serum". The aim of this study was to investigate whether the medicine serum of compound Qingre granules (QRKL) alone or in combination with antibiotics may treat MRSA infection in the clinic.Methods An animal model of MRSA resistance was created by injecting rabbits with the standard strain of MRSA ATCC43300. Infected rabbits were treated with QRKL by intragastric administration. Sixty minutes after the last intragastric administration, serum was obtained from the rabbits by heart puncture to obtain what is termed "medicine serum". The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of QRKL, medicine serum alone, or serum combined with antibiotics was assessed by agar dilution. Results were compared with the growth of sixteen isolates of MRSA. Results The MIC of QRKL to the standard strain ATCC43300 was 10.00 mg/ml. The MIC_(90)of vancomycin was 1.00 ug/ml, which, when combined with QRKL, dropped to 0.50 μg/ml. The MIC_(90) of cefuroxime alone was 512.00 μg/ml- This level also decreased to 256.00 μ g/ml when combined with QRKL. The addition of QRKL thus significantly reduced the MIC of both cefuroxime and vancomycin compared with antibiotics alone (P <0.01). The MIC90 of vancomycin with medicine serum decreased to 0.50 μ g/ml, and the MIC of vancomycin with medicine serum also descended compared with using vancomycin alone (P<0.01).Conclusions The growth of MRSA can be inhibited by QRKL or medicine serum of QRKL in vitro. The addition of QRKL results in increased sensitivity of MRSA to

  5. Follow-up after infants younger than 2 months of age with urinary tract infection in Southern Israel: epidemiologic, microbiologic and disease recurrence characteristics

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    Evgenia Gurevich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timing of most recurrences after neonatal urinary tract infection is during the first year of life, with peak incidence 2–6 months after the initial infection. Information on the microbiologic characteristics of recurrent urinary tract infection episodes in relation to the microbiology of the initial episodes is limited. Objectives To analyze the epidemiologic/microbiological characteristics of 1st and recurrent urinary tract infection in infants <2 months of age. Methods A retrospective study including all infants <2 months of age with urinary tract infection admitted during 2005–2009 and followed till the age of 1 year. Results 151 neonates were enrolled (2.7% of all 5617 febrile infants <2 months of age admitted. The overall incidence of urinary tract infection occurring during the first 2 months of life was 151/73,480 (0.2% live births during 2005–2009 in southern Israel (2.1 cases/1000 live births. One pathogen was isolated in 133 (88.1%; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., Morganella morganii, Proteus spp., and Enterobacter spp. represented the most common pathogens (57.9%, 12.2%, 7.9%, 6.7%, 6.1%, and 5%, respectively. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, and cefuroxime-axetil were the most commonly recommended prophylactic antibiotics (45%, 13.2%, and 8%, respectively. Twenty-three recurrent urinary tract infection episodes were recorded in 20 (13.2% patients; 6/23 (26% were diagnosed within one month following 1st episode. E. coli was the most frequent recurrent urinary tract infection pathogen (12/23, 52.2%. No differences were recorded in E. coli distribution between first urinary tract infection vs. recurrent urinary tract infection. Seventeen (74% recurrent urinary tract infection episodes were caused by pathogens different (phenotypically from those isolated in 1st episode. Recurrent urinary tract infection occurred in 25.0%, 8.3%, and 0 patients recommended trimethoprim

  6. Biocompatible cephalosporin-hydroxyapatite-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coatings fabricated by MAPLE technique for the prevention of bone implant associated infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş [Bucharest University Hospital, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Bucharest (Romania); Grumezescu, Valentina [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Andronescu, Ecaterina [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Holban, Alina Maria [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 1–3 Portocalelor Lane, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Research Institute of the University of Bucharest –ICUB, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai, E-mail: grumezescu@yahoo.com [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Socol, Gabriel [Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Oprea, Alexandra Elena [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Rădulescu, Marius [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); and others

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • HAp/PLGA thin coatings by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation. • Anti-adherent coating on medical surfaces against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa colonization. • Coatings with potential applications in implant osseointegration. - Abstract: In this study we aimed to obtain functionalized thin films based on hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HAp/PLGA) containing ceftriaxone/cefuroxime antibiotics (ATBs) deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The prepared thin films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and infra red (IR) analysis. HAp/PLGA/ATBs thin films sustained the growth of human osteoblasts, proving their good biocompatibility. The microscopic evaluation and the culture-based quantitative assay of the E. coli biofilm development showed that the thin films inhibited the initial step of microbial attachment as well as the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on the respective surfaces. This study demonstrates that MAPLE technique could represent an appealing technique for the fabrication of antibiotics-containing polymeric implant coatings. The bioevaluation results recommend this type of surfaces for the prevention of bone implant microbial contamination and for the enhanced stimulation of the implant osseointegration process.

  7. Spectrum and Sensitivity of Bacterial Keratitis Isolates in Auckland

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    S. Marasini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The bacteria isolated from severe cases of keratitis and their antibiotic sensitivity are recognised to vary geographically and over time. Objectives. To identify the most commonly isolated bacteria in keratitis cases admitted over a 24-month period to a public hospital in Auckland, New Zealand, and to investigate in vitro sensitivity to antibiotics. Methods. Hospital admissions for culture-proven bacterial keratitis between January 2013 and December 2014 were identified. Laboratory records of 89 culture positive cases were retrospectively reviewed and antibiotic sensitivity patterns compared with previous studies from other NZ centres. Results. From 126 positive cultures, 35 species were identified. Staphylococcus was identified to be the most common isolate (38.2%, followed by Pseudomonas (21.3%. Over the last decade, infection due to Pseudomonas species, in the same setting, has increased (p≤0.05. Aminoglycosides, cefazolin, ceftazidime, erythromycin, tetracycline, and doxycycline were 100% effective against tested isolates in vitro. Amoxicillin (41.6%, cefuroxime (33.3%, and chloramphenicol (94.7% showed reduced efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria, whereas penicillin (51% and ciprofloxacin (98.8% showed reduced efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions. Despite a shift in the spectrum of bacterial keratitis isolates, antibiotic sensitivity patterns have generally remained stable and show comparability to results within the last decade from NZ centres.

  8. Imported anthropogenic bacteria may survive the Antarctic winter and introduce new genes into local bacterial communities

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    Brat Kristian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied dynamic changes in anthropogenic bacterial communities at a summer-operated Czech research base (the Mendel Research Station in the Antarctic during 2012 and 2013. We observed an increase in total numbers of detected bacteria between the beginning and the end of each stay in the Antarctic. In the first series of samples, bacteria of Bacillus sp. predominated. Surprisingly, high numbers of Gram-positive cocci and coliforms were found (including opportunistic human pathogens, although the conditions for bacterial life were unfavourable (Antarctic winter. In the second series of samples, coliforms and Gram-positive cocci predominated. Dangerous human pathogens were also detected. Yersinia enterocolitica was identified as serotype O:9. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed medium-to-high resistance rates to ampicillin, cefalotin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin-clavulanate and gentamicin in Enterobacteriaceae. 16S rRNA sequencing showed high rates of accordance between nucleotide sequences among the tested strains. Three conclusions were drawn: (1 Number of anthropogenic bacteria were able to survive the harsh conditions of the Antarctic winter (inside and outside the polar station. Under certain circumstances (e.g. impaired immunity, the surviving bacteria might pose a health risk to the participants of future expeditions or to other visitors to the base. (2 The bacteria released into the outer environment might have impacts on local ecosystems. (3 New characteristics (e.g. resistance to antibiotics may be introduced into local bacterial communities.

  9. Spectrum and Sensitivity of Bacterial Keratitis Isolates in Auckland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, S.; Dean, S. J.; Ormonde, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The bacteria isolated from severe cases of keratitis and their antibiotic sensitivity are recognised to vary geographically and over time. Objectives. To identify the most commonly isolated bacteria in keratitis cases admitted over a 24-month period to a public hospital in Auckland, New Zealand, and to investigate in vitro sensitivity to antibiotics. Methods. Hospital admissions for culture-proven bacterial keratitis between January 2013 and December 2014 were identified. Laboratory records of 89 culture positive cases were retrospectively reviewed and antibiotic sensitivity patterns compared with previous studies from other NZ centres. Results. From 126 positive cultures, 35 species were identified. Staphylococcus was identified to be the most common isolate (38.2%), followed by Pseudomonas (21.3%). Over the last decade, infection due to Pseudomonas species, in the same setting, has increased (p ≤ 0.05). Aminoglycosides, cefazolin, ceftazidime, erythromycin, tetracycline, and doxycycline were 100% effective against tested isolates in vitro. Amoxicillin (41.6%), cefuroxime (33.3%), and chloramphenicol (94.7%) showed reduced efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria, whereas penicillin (51%) and ciprofloxacin (98.8%) showed reduced efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions. Despite a shift in the spectrum of bacterial keratitis isolates, antibiotic sensitivity patterns have generally remained stable and show comparability to results within the last decade from NZ centres. PMID:27213052

  10. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gardea, Ma Carmen E; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Eroza-de la Vega, Gilberto; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Pérez-Recoder, María Concepción; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, María Del Carmen; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2016-06-16

    Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB) phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates), Escherichia coli (2/7), and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3). In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks.

  11. Novel Genes Related to Ceftriaxone Resistance Found among Ceftriaxone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains Selected In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zijian; Lai, Wei; Liu, Min; Hua, Zhengshuang; Sun, Yayin; Xu, Qingfang; Xia, Yue; Zhao, Yue; Xie, Xiaoyuan

    2016-04-01

    The emergence of ceftriaxone-resistantNeisseria gonorrhoeaeis currently a global public health concern. However, the mechanism of ceftriaxone resistance is not yet fully understood. To investigate the potential genes related to ceftriaxone resistance inNeisseria gonorrhoeae, we subcultured six gonococcal strains with increasing concentrations of ceftriaxone and isolated the strains that became resistant. After analyzing several frequently reported genes involved in ceftriaxone resistance, we found only a single mutation inpenA(A501V). However, differential analysis of the genomes and transcriptomes between pre- and postselection strains revealed many other mutated genes as well as up- and downregulated genes. Transformation of the mutatedpenAgene into nonresistant strains increased the MIC between 2.0- and 5.3-fold, and transformation of mutatedftsXincreased the MIC between 3.3- and 13.3-fold. Genes encoding the ABC transporters FarB, Tfq, Hfq, and ExbB were overexpressed, whilepilM,pilN, andpilQwere downregulated. Furthermore, the resistant strain developed cross-resistance to penicillin and cefuroxime, had an increased biochemical metabolic rate, and presented fitness defects such as prolonged growth time and downregulated PilMNQ. In conclusion, antimicrobial pressure could result in the emergence of ceftriaxone resistance, and the evolution of resistance ofNeisseria gonorrhoeaeto ceftriaxone is a complicated process at both the pretranscriptional and posttranscriptional levels, involving several resistance mechanisms of increased efflux and decreased entry.

  12. Antibiotic resistance profiles among mesophilic aerobic bacteria in Nigerian chicken litter and associated antibiotic resistance genes1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olonitola, Olayeni Stephen; Fahrenfeld, Nicole; Pruden, Amy

    2015-05-01

    The effect of global antibiotic use practices in livestock on the emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens is poorly understood. There is a paucity of data among African nations, which suffer from high rates of antibiotic resistant infections among the human population. Escherichia (29.5%), Staphylococcus (15.8%), and Proteus (15.79%) were the dominant bacterial genera isolated from chicken litter from four different farms in Zaria, Nigeria, all of which contain human pathogenic members. Escherichia isolates were uniformly susceptible to augmentin and cefuroxime, but resistant to sulfamethoxazole (54.5%), ampicillin (22.7%), ciprofloxacin (18.2%), cephalothin (13.6%) and gentamicin (13.6%). Staphylococcus isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and sulfamethoxazole, but resistant to tetracycline (86.7%), erythromycin (80%), clindamycin (60%), and penicillin (33.3%). Many of the isolates (65.4%) were resistant to multiple antibiotics, with a multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) ≥ 0.2. sul1, sul2, and vanA were the most commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes among the isolates. Chicken litter associated with antibiotic use and farming practices in Nigeria could be a public health concern given that the antibiotic resistant patterns among genera containing pathogens indicate the potential for antibiotic treatment failure. However, the MARI values were generally lower than reported for Escherichia coli from intensive poultry operations in industrial nations.

  13. Antibiotic combinatorial approach utilized against extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL bacteria isolates from Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria

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    Ruth A. Afunwa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antibiotic options in the treatment of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing bacteria are very limited. The purpose of this study was to analyze several commonly applied antibiotics in quite various novel combinations for use against ESBL-producing bacteria isolates.Methods: Total of 460 samples of urine, throat and anal swab were collected from volunteers and patients from nursery, primary and secondary schools and from other individuals in the community. Hospital and community isolates comprised of 65% and 35% respectively. The identification and characterization of the isolates were done by standard culturing and in vitro antibiotic sensitivity procedures.Results: The antibiotic combination studies showed that the combination of gentamicin with the other antibiotics had predominantly synergistic effects. The percentage synergistic effect for the combinations of gentamicin/pefloxacin was 69%, gentamicin/[Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid] 72%, gentamicin/ceftriaxone 68%, gentamicin/cefuroxime 81.9%, and gentamicin/ciprofloxacin 80.6%, against the community and hospital derived ESBL producing organisms of both Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas species.Conclusion: Good antimicrobial monitoring exercise and corresponding antimicrobial screening activities should work towards a dynamic approach to generate effective treatment options using combination therapy.

  14. Diagnosis and management of acute otitis media in the urgent care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, George H

    2002-04-01

    The prevalence of otitis media is increasing, which affects health care resource utilization across all segments, including the urgent care setting. One of the greatest challenges in the management of acute otitis media (AOM) is the effective treatment of cases caused by pathogens that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Whereas the production of beta-lactamases among strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis is an important consideration for antimicrobial therapy, the high prevalence of resistance to penicillin and other classes of antibiotics among strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae represents a greater clinical concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently convened the Drug Resistant S. pneumoniae Therapeutic Working Group to develop evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of AOM in an era of prevalent resistance. The recommendations from this group included amoxicillin as the preferred first-line drug because of the demonstrated activity against penicillin-intermediate and -resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, using higher dosages of up to 90 mg/kg per day in certain settings. For patients in whom initial treatment is unsuccessful after 3 days, the recommended agents included high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanate (for activity against beta-lactamase-producing pathogens), clindamycin, cefuroxime axetil, or 1 to 3 doses of intramuscular ceftriaxone. The principles set forth in these guidelines can assist the therapeutic decisionmaking process for practitioners in the urgent care setting.

  15. Antibiotic sensitivity of Enterobacteriaceae at a tertiary care center in India

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    Summaiya Mulla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: It has been observed that various microorganisms are acquiring resistance to most of the available potent antibiotics; hence, there is a need for every hospital to follow the use of antibiotics according to antibiotic sensitivity pattern in that particular hospital or geographical area. It has been reported that Enterobacteriaceae group of microorganisms are increasingly acquiring resistance to many antibiotics and this resistance varies geographically. As there is a short of recent data with respect to Indian hospital, this particular study was designed with the aim of establishing sensitivity pattern of Enterobacteriaceae group of microorganisms to various antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Data of antibiotic sensitivity from December 2010 to April 2011 of different Enterobacteriaceae was taken from the Department of Microbiology, Govt. Medical College, Surat. Sensitivity of different Enterobacteriaceae was shown as using descriptive statistics. Results: E. coli (55.6% and Klebsiella (31.2% were the most frequent bacteria isolated. Enterobacteriaceae were very less sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (13.7%, chloramphenicol (7.6%, cefoperazone (14.4%, cefixime (15.7%, and cefuroxime (17.6. Sensitivity to aztreonam was 32.7%. Sensitivity to carbapenem group of drugs included in this study, i.e., meropenem was 69.8%. Highest sensitivity was shown for ceftazidime (74.1%. E. coli is more sensitive to meropenem as compared with Klebsiella. Conclusion: Sensitivity of Enterobacteriaceae group of microorganisms to known antibiotics is decreasing. Decreased sensitivity to carbapenem group of antibiotics is a matter of concern.

  16. Analysis of the drug-resistant characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the respiratory tract and CTX-M ESBL genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S Y; Pan, K Y; Liu, X Q; Xie, X Y; Dai, X L; Chen, B J; Wu, X Q; Li, H Y

    2015-10-05

    The main aim of this study was to understand the relationship between the drug-resistant characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae and CTX-M-type extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), and to detect the distributions of CTX-M-type ESBLs in clinically isolated strains. CTX-M ESBL genes isolated from the clinical samples were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and identified by sequence analysis; the antibiotic susceptibility of the samples was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. One hundred and five strains among the 246 isolated strains of K. pneumoniae tested positive for ESBL production (42.68%); 92 of these produced CTX-M ESBLs. Of the 92 CTX-M ESBL strains, 81 produced CTX-M-1 ESBLs and 11 produced CTX-M-25 ESBLs. Fifty-seven of the CTX-M-1 ESBL- and six of the CTX-M-25 ESBL-producing bacteria had CTX-M ESBL genes that coexisted in the plasmid and chromosome. The Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility method revealed that CTX-M ESBL-positive strains showed a higher rate of resistance to cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, levofloxacin, and cotrimoxazole, compared to the CTX-M ESBL-negative strains (P ESBL genes were commonly observed in the K. pneumoniae isolated from respiratory tract samples; these were significantly associated with the drug-resistant characteristics of K. pneumoniae to β-lactam antibiotics.

  17. [Lyme disease--clinical manifestations and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is a systemic infectious disease that can present in a variety of clinical manifestations. The disease is caused by a group of spirochaetes--Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato or Lyme borrelia--that are transmitted to humans by the bite of Ixodes ticks. Lyme disease is the most common arthropode-borne infectious disease in many European countries including Germany. Early localized infection is typically manifested by an erythema migrans skin lesion, in rarer cases as a borrelial lymphocytoma. The most common early disseminated manifestation is (early) neuroborreliosis. In adults, neuroborreliosis appears typically as meningoradiculoneuritis. Neuroborreliosis in children, however, is typically manifested by meningitis. In addition, multiple erythema migrans lesions and Lyme carditis occur relatively frequently. The most common manifestation oflate Lyme disease is Lyme arthritis. Early manifestations (and usually also late manifestations) of Lyme disease can be treated successfully by application of suitable antibacterial agents. For the treatment of Lyme disease, doxycycline, certain penicillins such as amoxicillin and some cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime axetil) are recommended in current guidelines. A major challenge is the treatment of chronic, non-specific disorders, i. e., posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome and "chronic Lyme disease". Prevention of Lyme disease is mainly accomplished by protecting against tick bites. Prophylactic administration of doxycycline after tick bites is generally not recommended in Germany. There is no vaccine available for human beings.

  18. Pulse lavage washing in decontamination of allografts improves safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirn, M; Laitinen, M; Vuento, R

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the bacterial contamination rate of 140 femoral head allografts after rinsing the allografts in different decontamination solutions. Bacterial screening methods and cleansing effect of antibiotics (cefuroxime and rifampicin) and pulse lavage were compared. Swabbing and taking small pieces of bone for culture were the screening methods used. Both methods proved to be quite unreliable. Approximately one-fourth of the results were false negative. Culturing small pieces of bone gave the most accurate and reliable results and, therefore, can be recommended as a bacterial screening method. The use of antibiotics in allograft decontamination is controversial. In prophylactic use antibiotics include risks of allergic reactions and resistant development and our results in the present study show that antibiotics do not improve the decontamination any better than low-pressure pulse lavage with sterile saline solution. Therefore, pulse lavage with sterile saline solution can be recommended for allograft decontamination. Our results demonstrate that it decreases bacterial bioburden as effectively as the antibiotics without persisting the disadvantages.

  19. In-vitro activity of 21 antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Brussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordts, B; Vanhoof, R; Hubrechts, J M; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1982-02-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 21 antimicrobial agents was measured for 80 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Brussels in 1978. Bimodal distributions were found for penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin, and cephalexin. Of the strains, 17.5% were relatively resistant to penicillin G (MIC greater than 0.08 microgram/ml) 27.5% to ampicillin (MIC greater than 0.16 microgram/ml), 23.8% to amoxycillin, and 43.3% to carbenicillin. Cefotaxime was the most active antibiotic, with MICs in the nanogram range; 3.8% and 5% of the strains were relatively resistant to cephaloridine and cephalexin respectively, but no strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefuroxime, or cefotaxime. Resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, erythromycin, and spiramycin (MIC greater than 1 microgram/ml) was found in 6.3%, 2.5%, 5%, and 51.3% of the strains respectively. A very good correlation was present between chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol, with 16.3% and 10% of relatively resistant strains respectively. Only two isolates showed an MIC greater than 1.25 microgram/ml for rifampicin, and 10% of the strains needed greater than or equal to 12 microgram/ml of spectinomycin for complete inhibition of growth. A very high energy was found for the 20 : 1 combination of sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim, with only one isolate resistant to this combination. None of the strains tested produced beta-lactamase.

  20. [Typing and sensitivity of meningococci isolated in Switzerland 1988-1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, P; Pepey, B; Hirschel, B; Auckenthaler, R

    1992-02-15

    Since 1906 severe infections due to Neisseria meningitidis have been reported in Switzerland. The clinical application of antimicrobial agents reduced the mortality rate due to meningococcal infections from 82% before 1939 to 22% after 1942. However, the annual incidence remained at about 1.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. During the years 1988 to 1990, 177 strains isolated in Switzerland have been typed with a dot ELISA using 15 different monoclonal antibodies. The distribution of serogroups was as follows: A (0.6%), B (70.6%), C (22.6%), and W135 (0.6%), while 5.6% could not be assigned to a serogroup. The most common associations of serogroup, serotype and subtype were: B:15:P1.16 (15.3%), B:4:P1.15 (13.6%), and C:2a:P1.2 (9.0%). The susceptibility of 174 strains was determined by an agar-dilution procedure. All strains were susceptible to cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, minocycline and spiramycin. One strain showed reduced sensitivity to penicillin (MIC = 0.25 mg/l), while another strain was resistant to rifampicin, 3% were resistant of erythromycin and 75% to sulfadiazine.

  1. Frequency of Blood Culture Isolates and their Antibiogram in a Teaching Hospital

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    Subha Shrestha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bloodstream infections are associated with significant patient morbidity and mortality. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns should guide the choice of empiric antimicrobial regimens for patients with bacteremia. Methods: Blood sample received from the patient attending Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital from March 2013 – August, 2013 were subjected to for culture. Isolate identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by standard microbiological method Results: Out of the total 2,766 blood samples, 13.3% showed bacterial growth. The percentage of neonatal septicemia was 13.3%. Staphylococcus aureus (28% was the most common isolates followed by Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi (22%, Coagulase negative Staphylococci (9.5%, Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi ((7.6% and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.6%. 26.3% of the isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were oxacillin resistant. Most of the gram positive organisms were susceptible to amikacin and vancomycin and showed high level resistance to cefuroxime and cotrimoxazole. Out of 109 isolates of typhoid bacilli, 95.3% were resistant to nalidixic acid ,79% to ciprofloxacin and 60.5% to ofloxacin. More than 50% of the isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli showed resistance to cephalosporins and cotrimoxazole. Acinetobacter spp showed high resistance (more than 60% to ceftriaxone and ofloxacin. More than 20% of the isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to ciprofloxacin and amikacin. Conclusions: Ongoing surveillance for antimicrobial susceptibility remains essential, and will enhance efforts to identify resistance and attempt to limit its spread. Keywords: antibiotic; bacteria; blood stream infections.

  2. PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE ASSESSMENT OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN MILK SAMPLES FROM SELECTED DAIRY FARMS

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    Murugaiyah Marimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and bacteriological assessment of subclinical mastitis and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates from dairy cows in different farms around Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 120 milk samples from 3 different farms were randomly collected and tested for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test (CMT, as well as for bacterial culture for isolation, identification and antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent bacteria was Staphylococcus sp. (55%, followed by Bacillus sp., (21% and Corynebacterium sp., (7%, Yersinia sp. and Neisseria sp. both showed 5% prevalence, other species with prevalence below 5% are Acinetobacter sp., Actinobacillus sp., Vibrio sp., Pseudomonas sp., E.coli, Klebsiella sp. and Chromobacter sp. Selected Staphylococcus sp. showed a mean antimicrobial resistance of 73.3% to Ampicillin, 26.7% to Penicillin, Methicillin and Compound Sulphonamide each, 20% to Oxacillin, Amoxycillin and Cefuroxime, 13.3% to Polymyxin B, Erythromycin, Ceftriaxone and Azithromycin and 6.7% to Streptomycin, Clindamycin, Lincomycin and Tetracycline each. This study indicates the need for urgent and effective control measures to tackle the increase in prevalence of subclinical mastitis and their antimicrobial resistance in the study area.

  3. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Bacterial Isolates from Urine Specimen of Patients with Complaints of Urinary Tract Infections in Awka, Nigeria

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    Perpetua A. Ekwealor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs account for one of the major reasons for most hospital visits and the determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens will help to guide physicians on the best choice of antibiotics to recommend to affected patients. This study is designed to isolate, characterize, and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the pathogens associated with UTI in Anambra State Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Anambra State, Nigeria. Clean catch urine samples of inpatient and outpatient cases of UTI were collected and bacteriologically analyzed using standard microbiological procedures. Antibiogram was done by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The most prevalent isolates were S. aureus (28%, E. coli (24.6%, and S. saprophyticus (20%. The antibacterial activities of the tested agents were in the order of Augmentin < Ceftazidime < Cefuroxime < Cefixime < Gentamicin < Ofloxacin < Ciprofloxacin < Nitrofurantoin. It was found that all the organisms were susceptible in varying degrees to Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin. It was also observed that all the bacterial species except Streptococcus spp. have a Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI greater than 0.2. For empiric treatment of UTIs in Awka locality, Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin are the first line of choice.

  4. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Bacterial Isolates from Urine Specimen of Patients with Complaints of Urinary Tract Infections in Awka, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwealor, Perpetua A.; Ugwu, Malachy C.; Ezeobi, Ifeanyi; Amalukwe, George; Ugwu, Belinda C.; Okezie, Ugochukwu; Stanley, Catherine; Esimone, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for one of the major reasons for most hospital visits and the determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens will help to guide physicians on the best choice of antibiotics to recommend to affected patients. This study is designed to isolate, characterize, and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the pathogens associated with UTI in Anambra State Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Anambra State, Nigeria. Clean catch urine samples of inpatient and outpatient cases of UTI were collected and bacteriologically analyzed using standard microbiological procedures. Antibiogram was done by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The most prevalent isolates were S. aureus (28%), E. coli (24.6%), and S. saprophyticus (20%). The antibacterial activities of the tested agents were in the order of Augmentin < Ceftazidime < Cefuroxime < Cefixime < Gentamicin < Ofloxacin < Ciprofloxacin < Nitrofurantoin. It was found that all the organisms were susceptible in varying degrees to Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin. It was also observed that all the bacterial species except Streptococcus spp. have a Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI) greater than 0.2. For empiric treatment of UTIs in Awka locality, Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin are the first line of choice. PMID:27200093

  5. The Resistance Phenotype and Molecular Epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Bloodstream Infections in Shanghai, China, 2012–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shu-zhen; Wang, Su; Wu, Wen-man; Zhao, Sheng-yuan; Gu, Fei-fei; Ni, Yu-xing; Guo, Xiao-kui; Qu, Jie-ming; Han, Li-zhong

    2017-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.pneumoniae) is a common nosocomial pathogen causing bloodstream infections. Antibiotic susceptibility surveillance and molecular characterization will facilitate prevention and management of K. pneumoniae bloodstream infections. K. pneumoniae isolates causing bloodstream infections were consecutively collected between January 2012 and December 2015 in Shanghai. Eighty isolates (20 per year) were randomly selected and enrolled in this study. Drug susceptibility were determined by the disk diffusion method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), carbapenemases, and seven housekeeping genes of K. pneumoniae. eBURST was used for multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). More than 50% isolates were resistant to cefuroxime, ampicillin-sulbactam, and piperacillin, while carbapenems had lower resistant rates than other antibiotics. Of the 80 isolates, 22 produced ESBLs, and 14 were carbapenemase producers. In the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, the most common ESBL genes were blaSHV and blaCTX−M. Thirteen carbapenemase producers harbored blaKPC−2 and one other carried blaNDM−5. ST11 (14/80) was the most frequent sequence type (ST), followed by ST15 (7/80) and ST29 (4/80). Our data revealed high prevalence of antibiotic resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from bloodstream infections but their genetic diversity suggested no clonal dissemination in the region. Also, one K. pneumoniae isolate harbored blaNDM−5 in this study, which was firstly reported in Shanghai. PMID:28280486

  6. A Simple Assay to Screen Antimicrobial Compounds Potentiating the Activity of Current Antibiotics

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    Junaid Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance continues to pose a significant problem in the management of bacterial infections, despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Here, we suggest a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform assay to screen antimicrobial compounds from natural products or synthetic chemical libraries for their potential to work in tandem with the available antibiotics against multiple drug-resistant bacteria. The aqueous extract of Juglans regia tree bark was tested against representative multiple drug-resistant bacteria in the aforementioned assay to determine whether it potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics. The aqueous extract of J. regia bark was added to Mueller-Hinton agar, followed by a lawn of multiple drug-resistant bacteria, Salmonella typhi or enteropathogenic E. coli. Next, filter paper discs impregnated with different classes of antibiotics were placed on the agar surface. Bacteria incubated with extract or antibiotics alone were used as controls. The results showed a significant increase (>30% in the zone of inhibition around the aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin discs compared with bacteria incubated with the antibiotics/extract alone. In conclusion, our assay is able to detect either synergistic or additive action of J. regia extract against multiple drug-resistant bacteria when tested with a range of antibiotics.

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae "putative serotype 6E" isolates from Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jin Yang; Park, In Ho; So, Thomas Man-kit; Lalitha, M K; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Yasin, Rohani Md; Carlos, Celia C; Perera, Jennifer; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Van, Pham Hung; Shibl, Atef M; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae “putative serotype 6E” isolates from Asian countries were investigated. A total of 244 S. pneumoniae serogroup 6 isolates obtained from 11 Asian countries were included in this study. Of the 244 serogroup 6 isolates, 101 (41.4%) were typed as "putative serotype 6E," followed by serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D (27.0, 20.1, 5.7, and 5.7%, respectively). Multilocus sequence typing revealed that clonal complex (CC) 90, including ST90 and its variants, was the most prevalent clonal group of "putative serotype 6E" isolates (n = 63; 62.4%). CC146 and CC315 were also found frequently in some of the countries. Most of the "putative serotype 6E" isolates showed very high resistance rates against cefuroxime, erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, probably due to their highly resistant to antimicrobials clone, CC90. Our results indicate that “putative serotype 6E” is prevalent in Asian countries. The clonal dissemination of "putative serotype 6E" isolates was also identified.

  8. [Activity of cefpodoxime and other oral beta-lactams against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae with different susceptibilities to penicillin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, A; Robledo, O; Lerma, M; Giménez, M J; Cebrián, L; Casal, J; Aguilar, L; Gómez-Lus, M L

    2006-03-01

    This study explores the influence on the intrinsic activity of different oral beta-lactams of beta-lactamase production in Haemophilus influenzae and penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three substudies were performed: a) a general susceptibility study, analyzing 550 strains received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout February and March 2005; b) a study on the influence of penicillin resistance on the activity of beta-lactams, analyzing 251 penicillin-susceptible strains (MICor=2 mg/l) randomly chosen among those received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout 2005; and c) an H. influenzae susceptibility study analyzing 150 strains received by Instituto Valenciano de Microbiologia throughout 2005. A total of 71% of S. pneumoniae strains were susceptible to penicillin, 21% exhibited intermediate resistance and 8% strains presented full resistance. H. influenzae beta-lactamase production rate was 18.6%. Of the non-beta-lactamase-producing strains, 3% were not susceptible to ampicillin. Cefpodoxime and cefixime exhibited the highest intrinsic activity against H. influenzae, while amoxicillin and cefpodoxime were the most active compounds against S. pneumoniae. All H. influenzae strains were susceptible to oral cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The increase in penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae influenced cefixime, cefaclor and cefuroxime to a higher degree than amoxicillin and cefpodoxime.

  9. Community acquired pneumonia due to gram negative bacilli and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern in a tertiary care centre

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    Ashish Jitendranath

    2016-08-01

    Results: During the study period in 120 cases of pneumonia, there was growth of pathogenic organism. Among the GNB isolated Klebsiella spp was the most common organism isolated at 33.9% followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli at 22.1%. Out of the 53 gram negative samples isolated 4 (7% were Amp C positive, 10 (18.8% were ESBL positive and there was one single case of MBL. The antibiotic sensitivity showed that all the isolates were sensitive to colisitin (100%, while Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas spp, and Escherichia coli were 100% sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. Resistance pattern of all the isolates showed that the isolates exhibited high resistance to amoxycillin-clavulunate, cefuroxime and cotrimoxazole. While resistance against ceftazidime and cefipime was >40%. On the other hand, isolates showed a low level of resistance against piperacillin tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam. Extremely low level of resistance was observed against imipenem and meropenem, while colistin showed no resistance among the isolates obtained in this study. Conclusions: The study showed that gram-negative bacteria and P. aeruginosa form a relevant part of the microbial pattern of CAP in patients who require hospitalization, particularly those with severe CAP. Initiating antibiotics with gram negative coverage should be considered in this subgroup of patients since initiating the correct antibiotic plays a critical role in the outcome of pneumonia. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3121-3124

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of antibacterials on human bronchial epithelial cells

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    Hatz Rudolf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Bronchial epithelial cells (hu-BEC have been claimed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory airway diseases like COPD. In this context IL-8 and GM-CSF have been shown to be key cytokines. Some antibiotics which are routinely used to treat lower respiratory tract infections have been shown to exert additional immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated whether these effects can also be detected in hu-BEC. Methods Hu-BEC obtained from patients undergoing lung resections were transferred to air-liquid-interface (ALI culture. These cultures were incubated with cefuroxime (CXM, 10-62.5 mg/l, azithromycin (AZM, 0.1-1.5 mg/l, levofloxacin (LVX, 1-8 mg/l and moxifloxacin (MXF, 1-16 mg/l. The spontaneous and TNF-α (10 ng/ml induced expression and release of IL-8 and GM-CSF were measured using PCR and ELISA in the absence or presence of these antibiotics. Results The spontaneous IL-8 and GM-CSF release was significantly reduced with MXF (8 mg/l by 37 ± 20% and 45 ± 31%, respectively (both p Conclusion Using ALI cultures of hu-BEC we observed differential effects of antibiotics on spontaneous and TNF-α induced cytokine release. Our data suggest that MXF and AZM, beyond bactericidal effects, may attenuate the inflammatory process mediated by hu-BEC.

  11. Antibiotic prophylaxis: different practice patterns within and outside the United States

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    Schwartz SG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stephen G Schwartz,1 Andrzej Grzybowski,2 Harry W Flynn Jr1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Poznan City Hospital, Poznan, Poland Abstract: Endophthalmitis remains a rare but important cause of visual loss. Prophylaxis strategies are important to reduce rates of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery, intravitreal injection, and other procedures. There is substantial variability between the US and the rest of the world. During cataract surgery, intracameral antibiotics are commonly used in many nations, especially in Europe, but are less commonly used in the US. A randomized clinical trial from the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons reported an approximately fivefold reduction in endophthalmitis rates associated with intracameral cefuroxime but these results are controversial. There are no randomized clinical trials regarding endophthalmitis associated with intravitreal injection. Topical antibiotics are commonly used in many nations, but are less commonly used in the US. At this time, there is no global consensus and it appears unlikely that additional major clinical trials will conclusively define the optimal endophthalmitis prophylaxis techniques. Keywords: cataract surgery, endophthalmitis, intracameral antibiotic, intravitreal injection, prophylaxis

  12. Assessment of the in vitro bioactive properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from native ecological niches of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Ana B; Ulcuango, Mario; Yépez, Lucía; Tenea, Gabriela N

    Lactic acid bacteria are known for their biotechnological potential. In various regions of Ecuador numerous indigenous biological resources are largely undocumented. In this study, we evaluated the potential probiotic characteristics and antagonistic in vitro properties of some lactic acid bacteria from native niches of the subtropical rain forests of Ecuador. These isolates were identified according to their morphological properties, standard API50CH fermentation profile and RAPD-DNA polymorphism pattern. The selected isolates were further evaluated for their probiotic potential. The isolates grew at 15°C and 45°C, survived at a pH ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 in the presence of 0.3% bile (>90%) and grew under sodium chloride conditions. All selected isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, amoxicillin and cefuroxime and some showed resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin and tetracycline. Moreover, the agar well diffusion assay showed that the supernatant of each strain at pH 3.0 and pH 4.0, but not at pH 7.0 exhibited increased antimicrobial activity (inhibition zone >15mm) against two foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the antagonistic activity against two foodborne pathogens and the probiotic in vitro potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from native biota of Ecuador.

  13. Cefditoren: Comparative efficacy with other antimicrobials and risk factors for resistance in clinical isolates causing UTIs in outpatients

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    Hatzaki Despina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate a possible role of Cefditoren, a recently marketed in Greece third-generation oral cephalosporin in urinary infections of outpatients. Methods During a multicenter survey of Enterobacteriaceae causing UTIs in outpatients during 2005–2007, Cefditoren MICs were determined by agar dilution method in a randomly selected sample of uropathogens. Susceptibility against 18 other oral/parenteral antimicrobials was determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. Results A total of 563 isolates (330 Escherichia coli, 142 Proteus mirabilis and 91 Klebsiella spp was studied; MIC50/MIC90 of Cefditoren was 0.25/0.5 mg/L respectively, with 97.1% of the isolates being inhibited at 1 mg/L. All 12 strains producing ESBLs or AmpC enzymes were resistant to cefditoren. Susceptibility rates (% for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime axetil, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fosfomycin were 93.1- 94.1- 96.8-93.1-71.9 and 92.8% respectively. Cefditoren MIC was significantly higher in nalidixic/ciprofloxacin non-susceptible strains; resistance to cefditoren was not associated with resistance to mecillinam, fosfomycin nitrofurantoin and aminoglycosides. Multivariate analysis demonstrated history of urinary infection in the last two weeks or three months as risk factors for cefditoren resistance. Conclusions Cefditoren exhibited enhanced in vitro activity against the most common uropathogens in the outpatient setting, representing an alternative oral treatment option in patients with risk factors for resistance to first-line antibiotics.

  14. Vaginal foreign body mimicking cervical cancer in postmenopausal woman – case study

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    Michał Ciebiera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case report of a 73-year-old, postmenopausal woman with detailed history of breast cancer and oncology treatment including tamoxifen therapy. She presented at the clinic of gynecology and obstetrics with recurrent inflammation of the urinary and genital tract and suspicion of a cervical mass. She also presented occasional abdominal complaints and malodorous vaginal discharge. These symptoms were observed in the patient for several years. Before hospitalization she received many kinds of empirical, antimicrobial treatment such as chlorquinaldol, metronidazole, nifuratel, and nystatin. She did not receive further guidance from doctors about the causes of ailments and further diagnostic and treatment capabilities. In our clinic a detailed diagnostic process including ultrasound transvaginal examination and a minisurgical procedure revealed the presence of a vaginal foreign body (which turned out to be a plastic, shampoo bottle cap surrounded by a mass of inflamed tissue mimicking a cervical tumor. All symptoms and complaints subsided after surgical removal of the foreign body and antibacterial therapy with metronidazole and cefuroxime. Our study draws attention to the need of thorough gynecological care including prophylaxis, especially in the case of complaints of an intimate nature. Even trivial, frequently occurring disorders can be dangerous and require proper and responsible doctor’s supervision and management through the healing process.

  15. Antipneumococcal activity of ceftobiprole, a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowska, Klaudia; Hoellman, Dianne B; Lin, Gengrong; Clark, Catherine; Credito, Kim; McGhee, Pamela; Dewasse, Bonifacio; Bozdogan, Bülent; Shapiro, Stuart; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2005-05-01

    Ceftobiprole (previously known as BAL9141), an anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cephalosporin, was very highly active against a panel of 299 drug-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci, with MIC(50) and MIC(90) values (microg/ml) of 0.016 and 0.016 (penicillin susceptible), 0.06 and 0.5 (penicillin intermediate), and 0.5 and 1.0 (penicillin resistant). Ceftobiprole, imipenem, and ertapenem had lower MICs against all pneumococcal strains than amoxicillin, cefepime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, or cefdinir. Macrolide and penicillin G MICs generally varied in parallel, whereas fluoroquinolone MICs did not correlate with penicillin or macrolide susceptibility or resistance. All strains were susceptible to linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. Time-kill analyses showed that at 1x and 2x the MIC, ceftobiprole was bactericidal against 10/12 and 11/12 strains, respectively. Levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were each bactericidal against 10 to 12 strains at 2x the MIC. Azithromycin and clarithromycin were slowly bactericidal, and telithromycin was bactericidal against only 5/12 strains at 2x the MIC. Linezolid was mainly bacteriostatic, whereas quinupristin-dalfopristin and daptomycin showed marked killing at early time periods. Prolonged serial passage in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ceftobiprole failed to yield mutants with high MICs towards this cephalosporin, and single-passage selection showed very low frequencies of spontaneous mutants with breakthrough MICs towards ceftobiprole.

  16. Role of anaerobes in acute pelvic inflammatory disease

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    Saini S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pouch of Douglas aspirates were collected from 50 women with history and examination suggestive of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID and 20 healthy women admitted for tubal ligation served as control. A total of 57 microorganisms were isolated from 37 patients out of 50 in study group. Of 37 positive cultures 21(56.7% were monomicrobial and 16(43.2% were polymicrobial. Most common symptom in study group was lower abdominal pain (90%, vaginal discharge (70% and irregular bleeding (40% and 30% patients had history of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD implantation. The predominant aerobic isolates were Escherichia coli, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CONS, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae while common anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus spp. Our study shows that cefotaxime, cefuroxime and gentamicin may be used for gram negative aerobic bacilli; cloxacillin, cephaloridine and erythromycin for aerobic gram positive cocci and amikacin and ceftazidime for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus for optimum therapy of acute PID it is beneficial to keep in mind major conceptual changes and therapeutic realities that have influenced current understanding of acute PID and have affected the choice of therapy.

  17. Role of anaerobes in acute pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, S; Gupta, N; Batra, G; Arora, D R

    2003-01-01

    Pouch of Douglas aspirates were collected from 50 women with history and examination suggestive of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and 20 healthy women admitted for tubal ligation served as control. A total of 57 microorganisms were isolated from 37 patients out of 50 in study group. Of 37 positive cultures 21(56.7%) were monomicrobial and 16(43.2%) were polymicrobial. Most common symptom in study group was lower abdominal pain (90%), vaginal discharge (70%) and irregular bleeding (40%) and 30% patients had history of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) implantation. The predominant aerobic isolates were Escherichia coli, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CONS), Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae while common anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus spp. Our study shows that cefotaxime, cefuroxime and gentamicin may be used for gram negative aerobic bacilli; cloxacillin, cephaloridine and erythromycin for aerobic gram positive cocci and amikacin and ceftazidime for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus for optimum therapy of acute PID it is beneficial to keep in mind major conceptual changes and therapeutic realities that have influenced current understanding of acute PID and have affected the choice of therapy.

  18. Biocompatible cephalosporin-hydroxyapatite-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coatings fabricated by MAPLE technique for the prevention of bone implant associated infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Socol, Gabriel; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Rădulescu, Marius; Surdu, Adrian; Trusca, Roxana; Rădulescu, Radu; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Stan, Miruna S.; Constanda, Sabrina; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    In this study we aimed to obtain functionalized thin films based on hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HAp/PLGA) containing ceftriaxone/cefuroxime antibiotics (ATBs) deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The prepared thin films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and infra red (IR) analysis. HAp/PLGA/ATBs thin films sustained the growth of human osteoblasts, proving their good biocompatibility. The microscopic evaluation and the culture-based quantitative assay of the E. coli biofilm development showed that the thin films inhibited the initial step of microbial attachment as well as the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on the respective surfaces. This study demonstrates that MAPLE technique could represent an appealing technique for the fabrication of antibiotics-containing polymeric implant coatings. The bioevaluation results recommend this type of surfaces for the prevention of bone implant microbial contamination and for the enhanced stimulation of the implant osseointegration process.

  19. Impact of cold atmospheric pressure argon plasma on antibiotic sensitivity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührmann, Anne; Matthes, Rutger; Kramer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Die antimikrobielle Wirksamkeit von kaltem Atmosphärendruckplasma (CAP), auch als gewebeverträgliches Plasma (TTP) bezeichnet, könnte eine aussichtsreiche Option zur Eradikation von Methicillin-empfindlichen ebenso wie von Methicillin-resistenten Staphylococcus aureus-Stämmen sein, die oft chronische Wunden kolonisieren. Bisher wurde der Einfluss von CAP auf die Antibiotikaempfindlichkeit von S. aureus kaum untersucht. Da eine Veränderung der Antibiotikaempfindlichkeit für die Wundbehandlung relevant sein könnte, sollte der Einfluss von CAP auf die Empfindlichkeit verschiedener S. aureus-Stämme gegen unterschiedliche Antibiotika untersucht werden.Methode: Im Agardiffusionstest wurden Antibiotikatestplättchen mit Cefuroxim, Gentamicin, Oxacillin, Vancomycin, Ciprofloxacin, Co-Trimoxazol, Clindamycin und Erythromycin eingesetzt. Die Teststämme wurden auf Agar ausplattiert und mit CAP exponiert, bevor die Testplättchen aufgelegt wurden. Nach 24 h Bebrütung wurden die Inhibitionszonen gemessen und statistisch auf Unterschiede geprüft.Ergebnisse: In den meisten Fällen war die Einfluss von CAP auf die Antibiotikaempfindlichkeit zu vernachlässigen. Für zwei Stämme wurde die Empfindlichkeit gegenüber β-Lactam-Antibiotika signifikant herabgesetzt. Schlussfolgerung: Da CAP die Antibiotikaempfindlichkeit beeinflussen kann, sollten vor beabsichtigter kombinierter lokaler CAP-Behandlung und gleichzeitiger systemischer Antibiotikagabe Interaktionen in vitro untersucht werden, um unerwünschte Kombinationseffekte auszuschließen.

  20. Community-acquired urinary tract infection in hospitalized children: etiology and antimicrobial resistance. A comparison between first episode and recurrent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakran, Waheeb; Smolkin, Vladislav; Odetalla, Ahmad; Halevy, Raphael; Koren, Ariel

    2015-05-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in infants and children, and Escherichia coli is the leading pathogen. The aims of this study were to compare first episode of UTI with recurrent infection, reveal organisms that cause UTI, uropathogen resistance, and presence of bacteria producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). The first-UTI group included 456 children. E coli was the leading pathogen (80.5%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in 1.5%. The uropathogens were resistant to gentamicin (3.41%) and cefuroxime (5.71%), and highly resistant to cefamezin (37.39%). The recurrent-infection group included 106 children. E coli was also the leading pathogen, but 7.5% of the isolates were P aeruginosa (P = .002 compared with first-episode group); 6.6% were ESBL-producing bacteria compared with 1.1% in the first-episode group (P = .002). E coli is the leading pathogen in both groups. P aeruginosa and ESBL-producing bacteria were more common in the recurrent infection group.

  1. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons among commensal Escherichia coli isolates from infants and elderly persons

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    Kõljalg Siiri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to compare the presence of the intI1 gene and its associations with the antibiotic resistance of commensal Escherichia coli strains in children with/without previous antibiotic treatments and elderly hospitalized/healthy individuals. Methods One-hundred-and-fifteen intestinal E. coli strains were analyzed: 30 strains from 10 antibiotic-naive infants; 27 from 9 antibiotic-treated outpatient infants; 30 from 9 healthy elderly volunteers; and 28 from 9 hospitalized elderly patients. The MIC values of ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole were measured by E-test and IntI1 was detected by PCR. Results Out of the 115 strains, 56 (49% carried class 1 integron genes. Comparing persons without medical interventions, we found in antibiotic-naive children a significantly higher frequency of integron-bearing strains and MIC values than in healthy elderly persons (53% versus 17%; p Conclusion The prevalence of integrons in commensal E. coli strains in persons without previous medical intervention depended on age. The resistance of integron-carrying and non-carrying strains is more dependent on influencing factors (hospitalization and antibiotic administration in particular groups than merely the presence or absence of integrons.

  2. A Case of Giant Hepatic Hydatid Cyst Infected with Morganella morganii and the Literature Review

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    Ismail Necati Hakyemez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst disease is a common worldwide zoonosis. Most of the cysts are located in the liver. Abscess formation due to infection of the cyst is an important complication. M. morganii, a Gram-negative Bacillus, is a quite rare cause of liver abscess. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with complaints of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain located in the right-upper quadrant. Her history was positive for hepatic hydatid cyst disease ten years ago. Physical examination revealed a painful mass filling the right-upper quadrant and extending down to umbilicus. Indirect hemagglutinin test for hydatid cyst was positive at a titer of 1/320. Giant liver abscess due to infected hydatid cyst was found in computed tomography scan. Surgeons performed cystectomy and cholecystectomy. Cefazoline, cefuroxime, and metronidazole were administered empirically, but all the three agents were replaced with intravenous ceftriaxone after M. morganii was isolated from the cultures of the abscess material. Clinical signs of the patient resolved at the second week of treatment, and she was discharged.

  3. A Case of Giant Hepatic Hydatid Cyst Infected with Morganella morganii and the Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, Ismail Necati; Sit, Mustafa; Aktas, Gulali; Tas, Tekin; Mengeloglu, Fırat Zafer; Kucukbayrak, Abdulkadir

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid cyst disease is a common worldwide zoonosis. Most of the cysts are located in the liver. Abscess formation due to infection of the cyst is an important complication. M. morganii, a Gram-negative Bacillus, is a quite rare cause of liver abscess. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with complaints of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain located in the right-upper quadrant. Her history was positive for hepatic hydatid cyst disease ten years ago. Physical examination revealed a painful mass filling the right-upper quadrant and extending down to umbilicus. Indirect hemagglutinin test for hydatid cyst was positive at a titer of 1/320. Giant liver abscess due to infected hydatid cyst was found in computed tomography scan. Surgeons performed cystectomy and cholecystectomy. Cefazoline, cefuroxime, and metronidazole were administered empirically, but all the three agents were replaced with intravenous ceftriaxone after M. morganii was isolated from the cultures of the abscess material. Clinical signs of the patient resolved at the second week of treatment, and she was discharged.

  4. [Enterobacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in northern Lebanon (1998-2001)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamze, Monzer; Dabboussi, Fouad; Izard, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of local enterobacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Between 1 January, 1998, and 31 December, 2001, we studied the sensitivity of 2,238 Enterobacteria to 26 different antibiotic agents in northern Lebanon, in the Microbiology department and Laboratory of the Islami Hospital, Tripoli, Lebanon. We used the diffusion disk method and complied with the guidelines of the French Microbiology Society antibiogram committee. Urinary samples were the most frequent source (67.5%), followed by blood cultures (12.7%). The dominant species in blood cultures was S. typhi (44.7%). We found 194 strains that produced extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL), with the highest prevalence in Serratia spp. (44.3%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.7%), Escherichia coli (20.7%) and Klebsiella oxytoca (11.3%). The global susceptibility of these strains to aminopenicillin was 15%; it reached 30% when combined with clavulanic acid. Susceptibility of the ESBL strains to these agents was 0%. The global susceptibility (and that of the ESBL strains, when greater than 0%) to other antibiotics was as follows: ticarcillin 38.5%, piperacillin 38.5%, piperacillin-tazobactam 88% (64%), imipenem 99.4%, (100%), cefalexin 41%, cefoxitin 65% (40.3%), cefuroxime 75%, amikacin 89%, chloramphenicol 30%, gentamicin 78% (42%), tetracycline 28% (16%), minocycline 30% (18.4%), colistin 67% (75%), nitrofuran 40% (45%), cotrimoxazol 40% (13%), nalidixic acid 53% (5.6%), pefloxacin 63% (23%), ciprofloxacin 71% (39%), and levofloxacin 72% (47%).

  5. Development and validation of a fast and uniform approach to quantify β-lactam antibiotics in human plasma by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Pieter; De Bock, Lies; T'jollyn, Huybrecht; Boussery, Koen; Van Bocxlaer, Jan

    2013-01-15

    Monitoring of plasma antibiotic concentrations is necessary for individualization of antimicrobial chemotherapy dosing in special patient populations. One of these special populations of interest are the post-bariatric surgery patients. Until today, little is known on the effect of this procedure on drug disposition and efficacy. Therefore, close monitoring of antimicrobial plasma concentrations in these patients is warranted. A fast and uniform ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (MS/MS) has been developed and qualified for the simultaneous quantification of β-lactam antibiotics in human plasma. Compounds included in this multi-component analysis are: amoxicillin, ampicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, piperacillin, cefuroxime, cefadroxil, flucloxacillin, meropenem, cefepime, ceftazidime, tazobactam, linezolid and cefazolin. After spiking of five different stable isotope labelled internal standards, plasma samples were prepared for UPLC-MS/MS analysis by mixed-mode solid phase extraction. The developed method was proven to be free of (relative) matrix effects and proved to be reliable for the quantification of 12 out of 13 β-lactam antibiotics. As a proof of concept the method has been applied to plasma samples obtained from a healthy volunteer treated with amoxicillin. The analytical method is suitable for use in a therapeutic drug monitoring setting, providing the clinician with reliable measurements on β-lactam antibiotic plasma concentrations in a timely manner.

  6. Class Ⅰ integron with a novel cassette array in an ESBL-producing multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Gu; Mingqing Tong; Wangsheng Zhao; Shiyang Pan; Yuanhua Wei; Peijun Huang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the molecular mechanism of integron mediated multi-resistance in an ESBL-producingK. Pneumoniae NJ 12 isolate. Methods: Susceptibility test was carried out by Kirby-Bauer method. Class Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ integrons were detected by integrase gene PCR with primers that annealed to conserved regions of integron-encoded integrase genes intIl, intI2 and intI3.The variable region of integron was amplified by integron PCR with primers that targeted the conserved flanking regions, and the PCR product was sequenced. Six aminoglycoside modifying-enzyme genes, including ant ( 2")- Ⅰ , ant ( 3")- Ⅰ , aac (3)- Ⅰ , aac ( 3 )- Ⅱ , aac (6')- Ⅰ , and aac (6')- Ⅱ, were detected. Results: K. Pneumoniae NJ 12 was resistant to nine antibiotics, including piperacillin,ampicillin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, streptomycin, gentamicin and amikacin. This isolate was shown that there was positive with class Ⅰ integron, ant(2")- Ⅰ , ant(3")- Ⅰ , aac(3)-Ⅱ and aac(6')- Ⅰ modifying-enzyme genes. Neither class Ⅱ nor Ⅲ integron was detected; DNA sequencing of the fragment amplified by integron PCR revealed a novel cassette array aadB-cat-blaoxa-10/aadA1. Conclusion: Class Ⅰ integron with a novel cassette array in an ESBL-producing multidrug-resistant K. Pneumoniae NJ 12 isolate was reported from Nanjing area of China, with the GenBank accession number DQ141319.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients with a clinically confirmed diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lismond, Ann; Carbonnelle, Sylviane; Verhaegen, Jan; Schatt, Patricia; De Bel, Annelies; Jordens, Paul; Jacobs, Frédérique; Dediste, Anne; Verschuren, Frank; Huang, Te-Din; Tulkens, Paul M; Glupczynski, Youri; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the in vitro susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from patients with confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to β-lactams, macrolides and fluoroquinolones and the association of non-susceptibility and resistance with serotypes/serogroups (STs/SGs), patient's risk factors and vaccination status. Samples (blood or lower respiratory tract) were obtained in 2007-2009 from 249 patients (from seven hospitals in Belgium) with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of CAP [median age 61 years (11.6% aged 94% ST19A), 73.5% resistant to macrolides and 18-21% intermediate to β-lactams; and SG6, 33% resistant to clarithromycin. Apparent vaccine failures: 3/17 for 7-valent vaccine (children; ST6B, 23F); 16/29 for 23-valent vaccine (adults ST3, 7F, 12F, 14, 19A, 22F, 23F, 33F). Isolates from nursing home residents, hospitalised patients and patients with non-respiratory co-morbidities showed increased MICs for amoxicillin, all β-lactams, and β-lactams and macrolides, respectively. Regarding antibiotic susceptibilities: (i) amoxicillin is still useful for empirical therapy but with a high daily dose; (ii) cefuroxime axetil and macrolides (but not telithromycin) are inappropriate for empirical therapy; and (iii) moxifloxacin and levofloxacin are the next 'best empirical choice' (no resistant isolates) but levofloxacin will require 500 mg twice-daily dosing for effective coverage.

  8. Antibiotic resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae isolated from respiratory tract specimens

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    Hikmet Eda Aliskan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are two of the major pathogens in respiratory infections, treatment is usually started empirically. The aim of this study was to detect in vitro resistance rates of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae strains isolated from different lower respiratory clinical samples to the antibotics which are used for therapy of infections due to these pathogens. Material and Methods: Seventy seven S.pneumoniae and 117 H.influenzae strains, isolated from patients were included in the study. S.pneumoniae isolates which gave an inhibition zone diameter of >20 mm for oxacillin were considered susceptible for penicilin. For the isolates which had an oxacillin zone diameter of 2 mg/l and 31.1 % were intermediately resistant to parenteral penicillin. Resistance rates to antibiotics were as follows: erythromycin 40 %, trimethoprim/sulphametoxazole (TMP/SMX 54.5 % and ofloxacin 6.4%. beta-lactamases were detected in 15.6% of the H.influenzae isolates by nitrocefin positivity. Conclusion: H.influenzae strains (8.6% were identified as beta-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR strains. Resistance rates for other antibiotics were as follows: ampicillin 28.6%, cefaclor 36.5% , cefuroxime 30.1%, clarithromycin 9.6%, cloramphenicol 7% and TMP-SMX 43.9%. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 201-207

  9. Increasing Trend of Resistance to Penicillin, Tetracycline, and Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Pakistan (1992–2009

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    Kauser Jabeen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergence and spread of drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is global concern. We evaluated trends of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae over years 1992–2009 in Pakistan. Resistance rates were compared between years (2007–2009 and (1992–2006. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI criteria using the disk diffusion methodology against penicillin, ceftriaxone, tetracycline and ofloxacin. Additional antibiotics tested in 100 strains isolated during 2007–2009, included cefotaxime, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefipime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cefixime, cefpodoxime, spectinomycin and azithromycin. Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 was used as control. Chi-square for trend analysis was conducted to assess resistance trend over the study period. During study period significant increase in combined resistance to penicillin, tetracycline and ofloxacin was observed (P value <0.01. Resistance rates during the two study period also increased significantly (P value <0.01. Ceftriaxone resistance was not observed. None of the isolates were found to be resistant or with intermediate sensitivity to additional antibiotics. Our findings suggest that penicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline should not be used in the empirical treatment of gonorrhea in Pakistan. Ceftriaxone and cefixime should be the first line therapy; however periodic MICs should be determined to identify emergence of strains with reduced susceptibility.

  10. Characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates causing urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Giorgio; Biscaro, Valeria; Gargiulo, Franco; Caruso, Arnaldo; De Francesco, Maria Antonia

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) has been implicated in urinary tract infections but the microbiological characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of these strains are poorly investigated. In this study, 87 isolates recovered from urine samples of patients who had attended the Spedali Civili of Brescia (Italy) and had single organism GBS cultured were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular characterization of macrolide and levofloxacin resistance, PCR-based capsular typing and analysis of surface protein genes. By automated broth microdilution method, all isolates were susceptible to penicillin, cefuroxime, cefaclor, and ceftriaxone; 80%, 19.5% and 3.4% of isolates were non-susceptible to tetracycline, erythromycin, and levofloxacin, respectively. Macrolide resistance determinants were iMLS(B) (n=1), cMLS(B) (n=10) and M (n=5), associated with ermTR, ermB and mefA/E. Levofloxacin resistance was linked to mutations in gyrA and parC genes. Predominant capsular types were III, Ia, V, Ib and IX. Type III was associated with tetracycline resistance, while type Ib was associated with levofloxacin resistance. Different capsular type-surface protein gene combinations (serotype V-alp2, 3; serotype III-rib; serotype Ia-epsilon) were detected. A variety of capsular types are involved in significant bacteriuria. The emergence of multidrug resistant GBS may become a significant public health concern and highlights the importance of careful surveillance to prevent the emergence of these virulent GBS.

  11. Clinical implications of antibiotic resistance for management of acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J O

    1998-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance to available antimicrobial agents has been constant since the introduction of the sulfonamides in the 1930s. Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae are a concern now because of the importance of these pathogens in infections of the respiratory tract in infants and children. Amoxicillin remains the drug of choice for initial episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) although increase of the dosage schedule to 80 mg/kg/day has been recommended by some investigators. There are 15 additional antimicrobial agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the indication of AOM. All approved drugs are clinically effective but some have been suggested to have priority for patients who fail amoxicillin: amoxicillin-clavulanate; an oral cephalosporin such as cefuroxime axetil; and intramuscular ceftriaxone. Management of the child with severe and recurrent disease should include antibiotic prophylaxis but the increased incidence of resistance requires selective use. Prevention of infection may be achieved by innovative techniques for interference with attachment of bacteria to the nasal mucosa such as administration of oligosaccharides in a nasal spray. The currently available polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines have limited immunogenicity in infants, but the vaccine is useful in children 2 years of age and older who still have recurrent AOM. Children with frequent AOM during the prior respiratory season are candidates also for influenza virus vaccine. If medical management fails to prevent new episodes of AOM in children with severe and recurrent disease, placement of tympanostomy tubes and possible adenoidectomy should be considered.

  12. Surgical infections: a microbiological study

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    Santosh Saini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgical infections are mostly polymicrobial, involving both aerobes and anaerobes. One hundred seventeen cases comprised of abscesses (n=51, secondary peritonitis (n=25, necrotizing fascitis (n=22 and wounds with devitalized tissues (n=19 were studied. The number of microorganisms isolated per lesion was highest in secondary peritonitis (2.32. The aerobe/ anaerobe ratio was 0.81 in secondary peritonitis and 1.8 in necrotizing fascitis. Most secondary peritonitis (80%, necrotizing fascitis (75% and wounds with devitalized tissues (66.7% were polymicrobial. Common microorganisms isolated in our study were E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis and Peptostreptococcus spp. The most effective antibiotics for S. aureus were clindamycin (79.1% and cefuroxime (70.8%. For Gram-negatives (Klebsiella spp., E. coli and Proteus spp., the most effective antibiotics were cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was maximally sensitive to amikacin (35.2% and ciprofloxacin (35.2%. The greatest degree of multidrug resistance to all the drugs was found in P. aeruginosa (52.9%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (33.3%, Proteus spp. (33.3%, E. coli (22.2%, and S. aureus (12.5%. All the anaerobes that we isolated were 100% sensitive to metronidazole and chloramphenicol, followed by clindamycin (95% to 100%. Apart from antibiotic therapy, non-antimicrobial methods, such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy and debridement also play an important role in the treatment of surgical infections.

  13. Microbiological Assessment of Poultry Feeds within Ilorin, Nigeria

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    Ismaila Olawale SULE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The poultry feeds were obtained from 20 different poultry pens and their microbial contents were assessed. The antibiotics resistance patterns of the bacterial isolates were also determined. The bacterial count ranged from 5.0 × 103 to 1.76 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal count ranged from 3.5 × 104 to 1.9 × 105 cfu/g. The bacterial species isolated were Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus pyogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus roseus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus hominis, while the fungal species isolated were Saccharomyces cerevisisae, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp., Humicola grisea, Aspergillus fumigatus, Hansenula sp. and Humicola fuscoatra. All the bacterial isolates were resistant to ceftazidime and cefuroxime and all the isolates were resistant to at least three antibiotics. Ofloxacin produced the highest zone of inhibition, followed by gentamicin, and then erythromycin. The presence of some pathogenic microorganisms in the poultry feeds revealed high level of contaminations. It is recommended that poultry feeds should be made from good quality grains and it should be prevented from environmental or other contamination.

  14. Characteristics of gonococci isolated from men with urethritis in Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hattawi, K; Ison, C A

    1996-02-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae were collected from men attending out-patient clinics in Dubai. The susceptibility to a range of therapeutic antibiotics and their auxotype and serotype was determined. The plasmid content of all penicillinase-producing strains was also analysed. Thirty-six strains of N. gonorrhoeae were isolated from specimens collected from 79 patients over a 24-day period. Of the 36 isolates, 9(25%) were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and 15 (42%) were chromosomally resistant N. gonorrhoeae (CMRNG). CMRNG exhibited higher levels of resistance to cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and erythromycin than PPNG. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and spectinomycin. Three (8%) isolates showed reduced susceptibility (MIC, > or = 0.25 mg/l) to ciprofloxacin. Six isolates of PPNG carried the 4.4 MD and three the 3.2 MD penicillinase encoding plasmid. The total gonococcal population was phenotypically diverse, with 12 serovars, 6 auxotypes and 21 A/S classes. Gonorrhoea was found to be a major cause of urethritis in Dubai and the strains exhibited high levels of resistance to penicillin.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance and BRO genotyping of Moraxella catarrhalis isolates from respiratory tract in children%儿童呼吸道卡他莫拉菌分离株耐药性与BRO基因分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王频佳; 谢成彬; 吴雨露

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate antimicrobial resistance and beta-lactamase production of Moraxella catarrhalis isolates from respiratory tract in children and to understand the characteristics of BRO beta-lactamase gene. Methods From June 2011 to Sep-tember 2012, 401 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were obtained from respiratory tract in children. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of commonly-used antibiotics were determined by microbroth dilution assay, and beta-lactamase production was detected by Nitroceifn disk test. PCR combining restriction endonuclease analysis was employed to do the BRO genotyping. Results 96.5%iso-lates were beta-lactamase positive (387/401), MIC (MIC50/MIC90) values and resistant rates of beta-lactamase producing isolates were higher than those of non beta-lactamase producing isolates for ampicillin, cefaclor and cefuroxime (P<0.05). The positive rate of BRO gene was 99.2%in beta-lactamase producing isolates (384/387), consisting of 93.0%BRO-1 isolates and 7.0%BRO-2 isolates. MIC50 and MIC90 values of BRO-1+isolates were higher than those of BRO-2+isolates for ampicillin, cefaclor, cefuroxime and azithromycin. Conclusions The beta-lactamase production rate is high in Moraxella catarrhalis isolates from respiratory tract in children. BRO-1 type was the dominant genotype of beta-lactamase producing isolates, having more inlfuence than BRO-2 type in the inlfuence on some beta-lactams and macrolides.%  目的调查儿童呼吸道卡他莫拉菌分离株产β内酰胺酶情况和耐药性,以及菌株BRO酶基因特征。方法2011年6月至2012年9月,从儿童呼吸道分离卡他莫拉菌401株;用微量肉汤稀释法测定常用抗生素最低抑菌浓度,用Nitroceifn纸片法检测β-内酰胺酶,用PCR扩增结合限制性内切酶分析方法对分离株进行BRO基因分型。结果401株卡他莫拉菌的β-内酰胺酶产酶率为96.5%(387/401);产酶株对氨苄西林、头孢克洛、头孢呋辛的MIC50

  16. 249株流感嗜血杆菌的分离与耐药性分析%Analysis on Isolation and Antibiotic Resistance of 249 Strains of Haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹敏晖; 曹友德; 李浩; 蔡瑞云

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解流感嗜血杆菌(Hi)的检出状况与耐药情况,指导临床合理用药.方法 统计分析2007-2010年我院Hi的分离与耐药情况.结果 在1052份痰及咽拭子标本中分离出Hi 210株,在242份胆汁标本中分离出Hi 16株,在203份胸腹水标本中分离出Hi 12株,在163份眼、耳拭子标本中分离出Hi 11株.体外药敏结果显示Hi对复方磺胺甲恶哇耐药性最高为63.5%,氨苄西林次之为46.2%,而对阿莫西林/棒酸、利福平、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、亚氨培南敏感,耐药率≤2.0%.结论 Hi在呼吸道标本中的检出率最高,眼、耳拭子标本中次之,在胆汁、胸腹水中亦有检出.建议眼、耳拭子及胆汁、胸腹水标本作细菌培养时也应同时接种哥伦比亚血平板(COS)、淋球菌选择性平板(VCA)及嗜血杆菌选择性平板(HAE),Hi感染的治疗应首选复方阿莫西林、头孢二代或三代类抗生素.%Objective To investigate the isolation rate and antibiotic resistance rate of Haemophilus influenzae, and to guide the rational use of antibiotic therapy in clinical practice. Methods The data about the isolation rate and antibiotic resistance rate of Haemophilus influenzae from 2007 to 2010 were analyzed with SPSS11.0 statistical software. Results Totally 210 strains of Haemophilus influenzae were isolated from 1,052 specimens of sputum and pharyngeal secretion, 16 strains isolated from 242 bile specimens, 12 strains isolated from 203 hydrothoraxs specimens, and 11 strains isolated from 163 specimens of eye or ear secretion. In vitro drug- sensitivity test showed that the resistance rate of Haemophilus influenzae to trimethoprime sulfanomicles was the highest (63.5%), followed by ampicillin (46.2%). But the resistance rates to amoxicillin/clavalanic acid, rifampicine, cefuroxime, cefotaxime and imipenem were very low (≤2.0%). Conclusions Heamophilus influenzae could be isolated from the secretions of respiratory track, eye, ear, bile

  17. Efficacy of antibiotics applied for prevention of incision infections in general surgery patients during perioperative period%普外科患者围手术期应用抗菌药物预防切口感染的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永忠

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较普外科围手术期应用抗菌药物与术后应用抗菌药物预防切口感染效果,探讨围手术期规范应用抗菌药物的临床价值.方法 随机选择普外科手术患者520例,按照随机数字法分规范组及对照组各260例,规范组参照卫生部《抗菌药物临床应用指导原则》应用头孢唑林或头孢呋辛;对照组术前、术中未用药,术后应用头孢唑林或头孢呋辛静脉滴注.结果 规范组术后发热率为16.54%、退热时间(4.12±2.34)d、切口感染率为1.92%,与对照组比较,差异无统计学意义;规范组术后住院时间为(8.23±2.34)d,短于对照组的(11.78±3.17)d,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 普外科手术术前应用单剂、术后短时间应用抗菌药物预防切口感染是有效、可行的模式,值得临床使用.%OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of perioperative application of antibiotics and postoperative application of antibiotics in the prevention of incision infection in general surgery department , and to explore the clinical value of application of antibiotics during perioperative period. METHODS A total of 520 patients who underwent general surgery were randomly selected and divided into the observation group and control group with 260 cases in each. According to Guidelines for Clinical Application of Antibiotic, the observation group was treated with cefazolin or cefuroxime; the control group did not use antibiotics before or during the operation, postoperative application of cefazolin or cefuroxime was performed through intravenous infusion. RESULTS The rate of fever in the observation group was 16. 54% , antipyretic time was (4. 12 ±2. 34) d, the rate of incision infection was 1. 92%, as compared with the control group, the differences were not statistically significant. The hospitalization duration of the observation group was (8. 23 i2. 34)d which was shorter than(ll. 78i3. 17)d of the control group , the difference was

  18. Analysis of the bacteria distribution and drug resistance in patients with medistream urine%尿路感染者中段尿细菌分布及耐药情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾娟; 张春访; 张建林; 陈相

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the bacteria distribution and drug resistance in patients with medistream urine.Meth-ods 140 patients with medistream urine were identified and determined by Semi-automatic system and susceptibility analyzers. Results(1) Gram-negative bacteria occupied 58.6% in medistream urine. (2) The rate of drug resistance of Escherichia coli to penicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime and levofloxacin was higher, respectively. The rate of drug resistance of Klebsiella pneumo-niae to cefotaxime was higher. The rate of drug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cefuroxime, cefotaxime and cotrimoxa-zole was 100%. (3) The rate of drug resistance of Staphylococcus to penicilin, and cefotaxime was higher, respectively. The rate of drug resistance of Enterococcus to gentamicin, amikacin and erythromycin was 100%, respectively.Conclusion Pathogenic bacteria are always multidrug-resistant, it is necessary to focus on the etiology examination and the rational use of antibiotics so as to reduce the drug resistance rate.%目的:了解140例患者中段尿培养检出细菌的分布及耐药情况。方法:对患者中段尿液阳性标本,采用半自动细菌鉴定分析仪及药敏分析仪进行鉴定和药敏分析。结果:(1)中段尿培养检出病原菌以革兰氏阴性菌为主,占58.6%。(2)革兰氏阴性菌中,大肠埃希菌对青霉素、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟及左氧氟沙星的耐药率均较高;肺炎克雷伯菌对头孢噻肟的耐药率较高;铜绿假单胞菌对头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟和复方新诺明的耐药率均达到100.0%。(3)革兰氏阳性菌中,葡萄球菌属对青霉素和头孢噻肟的耐药率较高;肠球菌属对庆大霉素、阿米卡星和红霉素的耐药率均达到100.0%。结论:临床上应加强对中段尿检测,病原菌对抗菌药物存在多药耐药性,指导临床合理用药,降低耐药率。

  19. 江苏省南京地区肺炎链球菌对β-内酰胺类抗生素耐药及传播机制%Resistance and transfer mechanism of β-lactam resistant streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Nanjing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晶晶; 苗立云; 李燕; 蔡后荣

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨南京地区肺炎链球菌临床分离株对β-内酰胺类抗生素的耐药性及耐药机制,了解其主要突变类型及耐药传播方式。方法2010-2012年,从南京地区7家大医院共收集了130株肺炎链球菌临床分离株,检测其对14种常见抗生素的敏感性,对β-内酰胺类高耐株中耐药相关基因 pbp1A、pbp2B、pbp2X 进行扩增,用限制性内切酶长度多态性分析(RFLP)方法进行分子生物学分型,了解其传播方式。结果南京地区肺炎链球菌青霉素不敏感率为74.6%,其中23.1%中介,51.5%耐药。头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、头孢吡肟、头孢曲松、阿莫西林、美罗培南的耐药率分别为69.2%、17.7%、12.3%、3.1%、6.2%、16.9%,儿童耐药率较成人高。青霉素与其他β-内酰胺类抗生素的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)水平呈正相关。有5株分子分型为 A1-B1-X1型的多药耐药株可能为克隆传播。结论南京地区儿童分离株对青霉素的耐药率偏高,且伴有其他β-内酰胺类抗生素的交叉耐药,分子分型结果显示存在小范围的阿莫西林耐药株的克隆传播。%Objective To explore the prevalence,mechanism and dissemination of β-lactam resistant streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Nanjing area.Methods A collection of 130 strains of streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from seven teaching hospitals in Nanjing between 2010 and 2012 were included in this study.MICs of 14 common antibiotics were determined by agar dilution test. pbp1A、pbp2B、pbp2X genes were amplified.All the isolates were analyzed by pbp fingertyping to e-valuate their gene relateness. Results The resistance rates of clinical isolates to penicillin, cefuroxime ,cefotaxime ,cefepime ,ceftiaxone ,amoxicillin and meropenem were 5 1 .5 % ,6 9 .2 % , 17.7%,12.3%,3.1%,6.2%,16.9% respectively.The penicillin resistant rate in children was higher than that in adult.A good correlation

  20. 我院2006-2010年抗菌药物用量与大肠埃希菌耐药的相关性分析%Correlation of Antibacterials Consumption and Drug Resistance of Escherichia coli in Our Hospital from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建平; 周红辉; 肖建宁

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the change of drug resistance of Escherichia coli and explore the relation between its development and antibacterials consumption to provide reference for antibacterials management. METHODS: Retrospective review was used to calculate the DDDs of 13 kinds of antibacterialsper 100 persons per day and resistant rate of Escherichia coli. The correlation of antibacterials consumption and drug resistance was analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. RESULTS: Consumption of expensive antibacterials increased year by year, contrary to ordinary ones. Drug resistance of Escherichia coli to various antibacterials also increased year by year. The consumptions of gentamycin, ampicillin, piperacillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, ceftri-axome, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and imipenem/cilastin were related to the drug resistance of Escherichia coli to amikacin, gentamycin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime in varying degree. CONCLUSION: High resistance rate has been found in Escherichia coli to various antibacterials. Antibacterials consumption is related to drug resistance of Escherichia coli.%目的:了解我院大肠埃希菌耐药性的现状和变迁,探讨其发展与抗菌药物用量之间的关系,为抗菌药物管理提供依据.方法:采用回顾性调查方法,计算13种抗菌药物平均每日每百张床位所消耗的用药频度(DDDs)及同期大肠埃希菌的耐药率,用SPSS 17.0统计软件对抗菌药物用量与耐药率进行相关性分析.结果:高档次的抗菌药物用量逐年增长,低档次的抗菌药物用量逐年缩减.大肠埃希菌对多种抗菌药物呈广泛耐药,且逐年增长.庆大霉素、氨苄西林、哌拉西林/舒巴坦、头孢唑林、头孢呋辛、头孢西丁、头孢曲松、头孢他啶、环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星、亚胺培南/西司他丁的用量与大肠埃希菌对阿米卡星、庆大霉素、氨苄西林、头孢唑林、头

  1. In vitro activity of Yinhua Miyan Ling%银花泌炎灵体外抗菌作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耘; 吕媛; 刘健; 薛峰; 杨维维; 张佳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluation in vitro activity and synergy of Yin-hua Miyan Ling against main clinical isolated strains.Methods All of 285 stains from 18 tertiary hospitals in recent three years were studied. Minimal inhibition concentrations ( MIC ) were tested by Agar dilution method and combination effects were measured by Checkerboard method. Results Yinhua Miyan Ling showed more in vitro activity against Sta-phylococcus and Proteus mirabilis, MIC values from 3.13~6.25 mg・ mL-1 . On the other hand, Yinhua Miyan Ling showed the same antibiotic activi-ty against extended-spectrumβlactamases ( ESBLs) positive and nega-tive strains or methecillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus.Syner-gy was detected with Yinhua Miyan Ling in combination with amoxillin/clavulanate, cefuroxime and levofloxacin against gram-positive strains, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA).Against E.faecalis, synergy was observed in Yinhua Miyan Ling and cefuroxime. Additive effect was found between Yinhua Miyan Ling and amoxillin/clavulanate against 100%E.coli.Conclusion Synergy was found with Yinhua Miyan Ling in combination withβlactams and quinolones against gram -positive strains and additive effect was found against gram-negative bacilli.%目的:评价银花泌炎灵体外抗菌活性及与临床常用抗菌药物的体外联合作用。方法对来自全国18家医院近3年临床分离的285株菌进行了最低抑菌浓度( MIC)测定, MIC测定用琼脂二倍稀释法,联合药敏测定采用棋盘法。结果银花泌炎灵对葡萄球菌和奇异变形杆菌具有较好的抗菌活性,MIC值在3.13~6.25 mg・ mL-1。不论细菌是否产超广谱β内酰胺酶( ESBLs)或是否为甲氧西林耐药株或是否为环丙沙星耐药株,银花泌炎灵均表现出同样的抗菌作用。联合药敏结果显示,银花泌炎灵与阿莫西林/克拉维酸、头孢呋辛以及左氧氟沙星联合对革兰阳性菌,特别是

  2. 青岛地区部分医院临床分离嗜血杆菌的耐药性分析%Analysis of antibiotic resistance in the clinical isolates of Haemophilus from some hospitals in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江秀爱; 孙冰梅; 王淑惠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibiotic resistance in the clinical strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae isolated from some hospitals in Qingdao. Shandong Province to provide basis for rational treatment of the infections caused by Haemophilus. Methods A total of 182 clinical strains of Haemophilus were identified by manual method and MicSCAN4 semi-automatic analyzer with HNID identification plate. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by Kirby-Bauer method. Beta lactamases were detected with nitrocefin disk. Results The clinical Haemophilus isolates included 74 strains of H. Influenzae and 108 strains of H. Parainfluenzae. The prevalence of beta-lactamase was 44. 6% in H. Influenzae and 50. 9% in H. Parainfluenzae. About 55. 4% of the H. Influenzae strains and 49. 1 % of the H. Parainfluenzae strains were susceptible to ampicillin, 50.7% of the H. Influenzae strains and 28. 8% of the H. Parainfluenzae strains were susceptible to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. More than 80% of all the Haemophilus strains were sensitive to cefotaxime, cefuroxime, azithromycin, levofloxacin, or chloramphenicol. Conclusions Most of the Haemophilus strains isolated from respiratory tract infections in Qingdao hospitals was H. Parainfluenzae with high prevalence of beta-lactamases. Antibiotics such as cefotaxime and cefuroxime can be chosen for the treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus. The Haemophilus isolates are increasingly resistant to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, which should not be used as empirical treatment for Haemophilus infections.%目的 了解山东省青岛地区部分医院临床分离流感嗜血杆菌和副流感嗜血杆菌的耐药性,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 用手工法和MIC SCAN4半自动细菌鉴定分析仪,HNID鉴定板对分离培养的182株嗜血杆菌进行菌种鉴定.用纸片琼脂扩散(K-B)法进行药敏试验,采用头孢硝噻吩纸片法进

  3. Solid-phase extraction in combination with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis: the ultra-trace determination of 10 antibiotics in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ning; Huang, Peiting; Hou, Xiaohong; Li, Zhen; Tao, Lei; Zhao, Longshan

    2016-02-01

    A novel method, solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SPE-DLLME), was developed for ultra-preconcentration of 10 antibiotics in different environmental water samples prior to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection. The optimized results were obtained as follows: after being adjusted to pH 4.0, the water sample was firstly passed through PEP-2 column at 10 mL min(-1), and then methanol was used to elute the target analytes for the following steps. Dichloromethane was selected as extraction solvent, and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) as dispersive solvent. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1) (sulfamethoxazole, cefuroxime axetil), 5-1000 ng mL(-1) (tinidazole), 10-1000 ng mL(-1) (chloramphenicol), 2-1000 ng mL(-1) (levofloxacin oxytetracycline, doxycycline, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin) and 1-400 ng mL(-1) (sulfadiazine) with a good precision. The LOD and LOQ of the method were at very low levels, below 1.67 and 5.57 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative recoveries of the target analytes were in the range from 64.16% to 99.80% with relative standard deviations between 0.7 and 8.4%. The matrix effect of this method showed a great decrease compared with solid-phase extraction and a significant value of enrichment factor (EF) compared with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and analysis of antibiotics in different water samples with satisfactory results.

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern and Their Beta-Lactamase Encoding Genes among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai M. Zafer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamases (MBL and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL in P. aeruginosa isolates collected from two different hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and phenotypic screening for ESBLs and MBLs were performed on 122 P. aeruginosa isolates collected in the period from January 2011 to March 2012. MICs were determined. ESBLs and MBLs genes were sought by PCR. The resistant rate to imipenem was 39.34%. The resistance rates for P. aeruginosa to cefuroxime, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, aztreonam, and piperacillin/tazobactam were 87.7%, 80.3%, 60.6%, 45.1%, and 25.4%, respectively. Out of 122 P. aeruginosa, 27% and 7.4% were MBL and ESBL, respectively. The prevalence of blaVIM-2, blaOXA-10-, blaVEB-1, blaNDM-, and blaIMP-1-like genes were found in 58.3%, 41.7%, 10.4%, 4.2%, and 2.1%, respectively. GIM-, SPM-, SIM-, and OXA-2-like genes were not detected in this study. OXA-10-like gene was concomitant with VIM-2 and/or VEB. Twelve isolates harbored both OXA-10 and VIM-2; two isolates carried both OXA-10 and VEB. Only one strain contained OXA-10, VIM-2, and VEB. In conclusion, blaVIM-2- and blaOXA-10-like genes were the most prevalent genes in P. aeruginosa in Egypt. To our knowledge, this is the first report of blaVIM-2, blaIMP-1, blaNDM, and blaOXA-10 in P. aeruginosa in Egypt.

  5. Diurnal variations in the occurrence and the fate of hormones and antibiotics in activated sludge wastewater treatment in Oslo, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plosz, Benedek Gy., E-mail: benedek.plosz@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349, Oslo (Norway); Leknes, Henriette [Norwegian Institute for Air Research NILU, 2027 Kjeller (Norway); Liltved, Helge; Thomas, Kevin V. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    We present an assessment of the dynamics in the influent concentration of hormones (estrone, estriol) and antibiotics (trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin) in the liquid phase including the efficiency of biological municipal wastewater treatment. The concentration of estradiol, 17-{alpha}-ethinylestradiol, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, chlortetracycline, cefuroxime, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide were below the limit of detection in all of the sewage samples collected within this study. Two different types of diurnal variation pattern were identified in the influent mass loads of selected antibiotics and hormones that effectively correlate with daily drug administration patterns and with the expected maximum human hormone release, respectively. The occurrence of natural hormones and antimicrobials, administered every 12 hours, shows a daily trend of decreasing contaminant mass load, having the maximum values in the morning hours. The occurrence of antibiotics, typically administered every 8 hours, indicates a daily peak value in samples collected under the highest hydraulic loading. The efficiency of biological removal of both hormones and antibiotics is shown to be limited. Compared to the values obtained in the influent samples, increased concentrations are observed in the biologically treated effluent for trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin, mainly as a result of deconjugation processes. Ciprofloxacin is shown as the predominant antimicrobial compound in the effluent, and it is present at quantities approximately 10 fold greater than the total mass of the other of the compounds due to poor removal efficiency and alternating solid-liquid partitioning behaviour. Our results suggest that, to increase the micro-pollutant removal and the chemical dosing efficiency in enhanced tertiary treatment, significant benefits can be derived from the optimisation of reactor design and the development of control schemes that

  6. [Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Kolczyńska, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal flora can be a reservoir of bacteria caused acute otitis media in children. The aim of the study was to identify microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities of pathogens from the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with acute otitis media. The study comprised 128 children ages 1 year to 14 years with diagnosed of acute otitis media with purulent discharge. The nasopharyngeal and middle ear samples were collected at the same time. Agar, chocolate, blood and Chapman plates were inoculated for isolation of bacteria. The plates were incubated at 37 degrees C and examined at 24 hours. The susceptibility of bacteria was determined by disk diffusion technique containing concentration gradients for following antibiotics: penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, erythromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. 196 organisms from nasopharynx and 325 organisms from middle ear were isolated. Most frequent cultured bacteria were: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis--75.6% in nasopharynx and 77.8% in middle ear. We observed statistically significant (p bacteria from nasopharynx and 81.8% of bacteria from middle ear. Most organisms were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole--60.7% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 62.6% of bacteria from middle ear. Penicillin resistance was observed in 25.0% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 25.6% of bacteria from middle ear. The correlation in resistance of bacteria between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin (r = 0.4886) and between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and penicillin (r = 0.5027) was observed. Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media is similar. In that case susceptibility of bacteria from the nasopharynx can be useful for empirical treatment of acute otitis media in children.

  7. [Bacterial flora in children with recurrent acute otitis media].

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    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Kolczyńska, Magdalena

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the study was to identify microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities of pathogens from middle ear in children with recurrent acute otitis media and acute otitis media. The study comprised 83 children--42 with recurrent acute otitis media and 41 with acute otitis emdia classified for paracentesis. Agar, chocolate, blood and Chapman plates were inoculated for isolation of bacteria. The plates were incubated at 37 degrees C and examined at 24 hours. The susceptibility of bacteria was determined by disk diffusion technique containing concentration gradients for following antibiotics: penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, erythromycin, azithromycin, clinadamycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. 217 organisms from middle ear in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 131 organisms from middle ear in children with acute otitis media were isolated. Most frequent cultured bacteria were: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis--71.4% in recurrent acute otitis media and 47.3% in acute otitis media. We observed statistically significant (p acute otitis media older than 2 years. The best susceptibility was observed to amoxicillin/clavulanate (79.7% of bacteria in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 83.2% of bacteria in children with acute otitis media). The most of organisms presented resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole--65.9% of bacteria in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 62.6% of bacteria in children with acute otitis media. Our investigation showed that resistance to bacteria increase in children with recurrent acute otitis media, most frequent appear in children older than 2 years and depend on number of episodes of acute otitis media and day care.

  8. Actinobaculum shaalii: a new uropathogen?

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    Valentina Felice

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Actinobaculum schaalii is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive rod-shaped species phylogenetically related to Actinomyces. A. schaalii is an emerging pathogen causing urinary tract infections (UTI in both children and adults; although, as part of the human genitourinary tract flora, it is frequently overlooked or considered as a contaminant. While the phenotypic identification of A. schaalii is difficult, the recent Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-Of-Flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF technology could represent a promising tool for its identification. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective study including all known cases (n=7 of A. schaalii infections occurred (between July 2013 and November 2013 at the Microbiology Laboratory of the A. Cardarelli Hospital, in Campobasso (Italy. Results. All the 7 A. schaalii collected strains, resulted in vitro susceptible to most of the drugs commonly used for urinary tract infections, but resistant to ciprofloxacin, a first-line antibiotic in the treatment of prostatitis. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefuroxime, gentamicin, piperacillin-tazobactam, vancomicin, tetracycline (no EUCAST breakpoints. All except two isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime; 3/7 and 5/7 strains were clindamicin and levofloxacin resistant, respectively. Conclusions. As most antibiotics empirically prescribed for UTI (mainly fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole are not effective against A. schaalii, the appropriate onset of treatment was delayed by an average of 2.8 days. The implementation of the newer MALDI TOF technology in routine diagnostic procedures may allow a more reliable and rapid identification of A. schaalii in future.

  9. Poliartritis y tenosinovitis grave por Streptococcus agalactiae en un paciente con hipoesplenia funcional Severe polyarthritis and tenosynovitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a patient with functional hyposplenia

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    Domingo C. Balderramo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La artritis por Streptococcus agalactiae es infrecuente. No conocemos publicaciones de casos sobre la afección tendinosa por este microorganismo. Se presenta una mujer de 46 años que consultó por fiebre, poliartralgias, mialgias, diarrea y vómitos. Como antecedentes presentaba carcinoma papilar de tiroides e hipoesplenia funcional. Al examen se encontraba hemodinámicamente inestable, febril, con artritis de mano izquierda, muñecas, codos, hombro derecho y tobillo izquierdo. Presentaba tenosinovitis en ambos pies y en la mano izquierda. Los hemocultivos y el cultivo de la bursa olecraniana derecha fueron positivos para S. agalactiae. La ecografía mostró signos de tenosinovitis del tibial anterior izquierdo. Completó 20 días de tratamiento endovenoso con cefazolina y 12 días de cefuroxima oral. El cuadro articular revirtió completamente en 60 días. El Streptococcus agalactiae puede causar, en forma infrecuente, un síndrome de poliartritis, tenosinovitis y fiebre similar al producido por la infección gonocócica.Cases of arthritis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae are infrequent and in our knowledge there are no case reports of tenosynovitis caused by S. agalactiae. A 46-year-old woman presented with fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia, diarrhea and vomiting. She had a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma and functional hyposplenia. She was febrile, with arthritis in hands, wrists, elbows, right shoulder and left ankle joints, and presented tenosynovitis in both feet and left hand. Blood and right olecranon bursa sample cultures were positive for S. agalactiae. An ultrasound scan made at the musculus tibialis anterior of left foot revealed signs of tenosynovitis. She was treated with intravenous cefazolin for 20 days and oral cefuroxime for 12 days. The joint involvement completely subsided in 60 days. Streptococcus agalactiae can cause, infrequently, a polyarthritis and tenosynovitis syndrome similar to disseminated gonococcal

  10. Encouraging good antimicrobial prescribing practice: A review of antibiotic prescribing policies used in the South East Region of England

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    Mayon White Richard T

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good prescribing practice has an important part to play in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Whilst it was perceived that most hospitals and Health Authorities possessed an antibiotic policy, a review of antibiotic policies was conducted to gain an understanding of the extent, quality and usefulness of these policies. Methods Letters were sent to pharmacists in hospitals and health authorities in across the South East region of the National Health Service Executive (NHSE requesting antibiotic policies. data were extracted from the policies to assess four areas; antibiotic specific, condition specific, patient specific issues and underpinning evidence. Results Of a possible 41 hospital trusts and 14 health authorities, 33 trusts and 9 health authorities (HAs provided policies. Both trust and HA policies had a median publication date of 1998 (trust range 1993-99, HA 1994-99. Eleven policies were undated. The majority of policies had no supporting references for the statements made. All policies provided some details on specific antibiotics. Gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were the preferred aminoglycoside and quinolone respectively with cephalosporins being represented by cefuroxime or cefotaxime in trusts and cephradine or cephalexin in HAs. 26 trusts provided advice on surgical prophylaxis, 17 had meningococcal prophylaxis policies and 11 covered methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. There was little information for certain groups such as neonates or children, the pregnant or the elderly. Conclusion There was considerable variation in content and quality across policies, a clear lack of an evidence base and a need to revise policies in line with current recommendations.

  11. Beta- lactam antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in non-typeable haemophilus influenzae by up-regulating carbohydrate metabolism.

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    Wu, Siva; Li, Xiaojin; Gunawardana, Manjula; Maguire, Kathleen; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Schaudinn, Christoph; Wang, Charles; Baum, Marc M; Webster, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth) stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL) of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended.

  12. Nanohybrid based on antibiotic encapsulated layered double hydroxide as a drug delivery system.

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    Khan, Sher Bahadar; Alamry, Khalid A; Alyahyawi, Nedaa A; Asiri, Abdullah M; Arshad, Muhammad Nadeem; Marwani, Hadi M

    2015-02-01

    Nanohybrid of cefuroxime (CFO) with layered double hydroxide (LDH) has been prepared, and the rate of dissolution and bioavailability of CFO using nanohybrid as a drug delivery system has been broadly studied. The intercalation process was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The CFO contents were found to be 19.0 wt% in the nanohybrid. The release mechanism of CFO was investigated with respect to anion and pH of the dissolution media such as gastric, intestinal and blood simulated media. The effect of pH was evaluated on the release of CFO from nanohybrid, and the dissolution of CFO from the nanohybrid was found to be a slow process at pH 4.0, 6.8, and 7.4. Further the addition of Cl ion and PAM in release media did not affect the release rate of drug at pH 4.0 and 6.8, while at pH 7.4, Cl ion and PAM have significant role on the drug release. At pH 1.2, the release study shows that LDH dissolved in the acidic medium and CFO released in its molecular form. The release behavior suggests two mechanisms that are responsible for the release of CFO from nanohybrid: weathering (dependent on the pH) and ion exchange (highly dependent on the anions). Surface reactions mediated by solid weathering ruled the release in gastric fluid, whereas anion exchange determined CFO release in lysosomal, intestinal, and blood medium. In order to evaluate the drug release mechanism, the released data were fitted by mathematical models describing various kinetic.

  13. Presence Of Multi Drug Resistant Coliform Bacteria Isolated From Biofilm Of Sachet And Borehole Waters Sold In Abakaliki Metropolis Ebonyi State Nigeria.

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    Okafor Collins Onyebuchi Okeke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the presence of multi drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis in Ebonyi State Nigeria. Five hundred 500 samples of water comprising 250 each from selected brand of sachet water retailers and borehole water dispensers from seven locations were sampled for the detection of coliform bacteria from biofilm and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility using commercially prepared antibiotic discs. Results revealed a high faecal contamination level in sachet waters as Gospel 36 72 Aqua Rapha 30 60 and Bejoy 18 36 were the highest among the sachet water brands examined with Nene and Rock Tama sachet water brands having the lowest contamination level of 612 and 1326 respectively. Borehole samples results revealed that Aboffia had 27 76.93 samples contaminated with faecal bacteria while Azugwu 11 28.5 Azuiyiokwu 18 50 Azuiyiudene 2980 Kpirikpiri 24 66.63 PrescoNtezi 1646.15 and Udensi 22 61.54. Escherichia coli Enterobacter spp and Klebsiella spp were the major contaminants of both sachet and borehole water samples. The bacteria isolates from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters were susceptible to only three of the antibiotics used namely nitrofurantoin amoxycilin and ampicillin. The bacteria were completely resistant to ciprofloxacin tetracycline norbactinnorfloxacin ofloxacin cefuroxime and gentamicin. This showed that they exhibit multi-drug resistance pattern which is a common feature of medically important biofilm bacteria. We therefore report the presence of multi-drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis Ebonyi State Nigeria.

  14. Incidence of antibiotics resistance among uropathogens in Omani children presenting with a single episode of urinary tract infection.

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    Sharef, Sharef W; El-Naggari, Mohamed; Al-Nabhani, Dana; Al Sawai, Ali; Al Muharrmi, Zakaria; Elnour, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common community-acquired infections. Different organisms can be the cause of UTI in children, with resistance to antibiotics becoming a significant problem in the choice of treatment. Worldwide studies have documented the prevalence of uropathogens in different countries. However, there is no previous study documenting the incidence of different uropathogens in Oman. We aim to report the most common uropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns in children presenting with documented, single episode UTI at a tertiary hospital in Oman. A retrospective analysis of all Omani children below 14 years who presented with a case of first documented UTI to SQUH between September 2008 and August 2012 was conducted. Data were obtained from the patients' electronic records in the hospital information system. Data were then analyzed using SSPS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences program, Version 20, IBM, Chicago, IL, USA). In the retrospective review of all urine cultures, 438 positive urine cultures were identified. Out of those, 208 (47.5%) belonged to children with their first episode of UTI. Thirty-three patients were excluded and 75 patients were included in the final analysis. Escherichia coli was the most frequently encountered uropathogen in our cohort (69%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae infection (17%). Nearly half (46.6%) of these two common organism were resistant to Cotrimoxazole, while 31% of them were resistant to Augmentin. Twenty-four percent of the E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains were resistant to Cefuroxime, and only 10% were resistant to nitrofurantoin. Both Augmentin and Cotrimoxazole should not be the first line antibiotics to treat UTI.

  15. FREQUENCY, URINALYSIS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF PATHOGENS CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN ENUGU STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA

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    Uju M.E. Dibua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency and causative agent(s of urinary tract infections (UTIs in individuals with symptoms of urinary tract infections in Enugu State of Southeast Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture. Methods: The study involved 211 individuals (149 females and 62 males clinically suspected for UTI. Urine samples were collected by the mid-stream ‘clean catch' method and tested using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested using the Kirby-Bauer technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results: Microscopy of centrifuged urine samples showed 16 patients had pyuria while 54 had pus cells. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in 14 samples. Urinalysis performed with urine samples showed 17 had protein; seven were nitrite positive and three had moderate to high glucose concentration. Fifty-four urine samples (36.2% from females and 12 (19.4% from males showed significant growth upon culture. Gram stain and biochemical tests identified nine different organisms with Escherichia coli as the most common isolated species. Forty three randomly selected strains were further tested for their susceptibility against a panel of antibiotics. Thirty isolates (81.08% were resistant to four or more antibiotics with the highest resistance shown by E. coli (76.67%. All the Gram- negative isolates were resistant to Ampicilox, Cefuroxime and Amoxicillin. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections were found more in females in the area under study. As found in other studies, E. coli was the most predominant isolate, although other organisms seem to be on the increase.

  16. The Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella typhi among Patients Attending a Military Hospital in Minna, Nigeria

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    N. U. Adabara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat to human health posed by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is of growing concern to medical practice. This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Salmonella typhi isolated from blood specimen. One hundred blood samples were collected from suspected typhoid fever patients in 31 Artillery Brigade Medical Centre, Minna, and were analyzed for S. typhi while antibiotic sensitivity testing was done Kirby-Bauer method. Sixty (60.0% samples out of the total 100 were positive for bacterial growth. The organisms isolated 2 include Salmonella typhi; 45 (75.0%, Shigella; 6 (10.0%, E. coli; 3 (5.0%, Klebsiella; 3 (5.0%, Enterobacter; 2 (3.3%, and Citrobacter; 1 (1.7%. Result of the sensitivity test showed that the isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics; ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, amoxicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and augmentin, which are the drug of choice routinely used in the study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. They were however sensitive to chloramphenicol and ofloxacin, which, unfortunately, are not used in this study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. There appear to be multiple drug resistant (MDR strain of S. typhi in the study area. These may be as a result of overdependence or uncontrolled use of the few available antibiotics and/or inaccurate or inconclusive diagnosis resulting in the development and spread of resistant strains of S. typhi. The study, therefore, highlights the need for a strong collaboration between the physicians and the laboratory in the choice of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases in order to discourage the development of resistant strain of bacterial pathogen.

  17. Multiple Antibiotic Resistances of Vibrio Isolates from Coastal and Brackish Water Areas

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    S. Manjusha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to assess the occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistances in Vibrio spp. from different (brackish and marine environments. Water samples from nine marine landing sites and two coastal inland aquaculture farms were screened for the Vibrio spp. and assessed their resistance to twenty-two different antibiotics, which are commonly encountered in the aquatic ecosystem. Tissue samples (shrimp, mussel and sepia were tested from the sampling site with highest antibiotic resistance. Of the total 119 Vibrio isolates, 16. 8% were susceptible to all antibiotics. Of the resistant (83.19% Vibrio strains, 30.3% were resistant against three antibiotics, 55.5% were resistant against 4-10 antibiotics, 14.14% were resistant against more than 10 antibiotics and 54% have shown multiple antibiotics resistance (MAR. Antibiotic resistance index was higher in Coastal 3, 6, Aqua farm 2 in isolates from water samples and all the tissues tested. Interestingly, incidence of antibiotic resistance in isolates from water samples was comparatively lower in aquaculture farms than that observed in coastal areas. Highest incidence of antibiotic resistance was evident against Amoxycillin, Ampicillin, Carbencillin and Cefuroxime followed by Rifampicin and Streptomycin and lowest against Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Chlortetracycline, Furazolidone, Nalidixic acid, Gentamycin Sulphafurazole, Trimethoprim, Neomycin and Amikacin irrespective of the sampling sites. Results from various tissue samples collected from the sites of highest antibiotic resistance indicated that antibiotic resistance Vibrio spp. collected from fish and tissue samples were higher than that of water samples. Overall results indicated that persistent use of antibiotics against diseases in human beings and other life forms may pollute the aquatic system and their impact on developing antibiotic resistant Vibrio spp. may be a serious threat in addition to the use of

  18. Antibiotic selection of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 in a mouse intestinal colonization model.

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    Boetius Hertz, Frederik; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2014-10-01

    The ability of different antibiotics to select for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli remains a topic of discussion. In a mouse intestinal colonization model, we evaluated the selective abilities of nine common antimicrobials (cefotaxime, cefuroxime, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and amdinocillin) against a CTX-M-15-producing E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) isolate with a fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype. Mice (8 per group) were orogastrically administered 0.25 ml saline with 10(8) CFU/ml E. coli ST131. On that same day, antibiotic treatment was initiated and given subcutaneously once a day for three consecutive days. CFU of E. coli ST131, Bacteroides, and Gram-positive aerobic bacteria in fecal samples were studied, with intervals, until day 8. Bacteroides was used as an indicator organism for impact on the Gram-negative anaerobic population. For three antibiotics, prolonged colonization was investigated with additional fecal CFU counts determined on days 10 and 14 (cefotaxime, dicloxacillin, and clindamycin). Three antibiotics (cefotaxime, dicloxacillin, and clindamycin) promoted overgrowth of E. coli ST131 (P organisms. Only clindamycin treatment resulted in prolonged colonization. The remaining six antibiotics, including ciprofloxacin, did not promote overgrowth of E. coli ST131 (P > 0.95), nor did they suppress Bacteroides or Gram-positive organisms. The results showed that antimicrobials both with and without an impact on Gram-negative anaerobes can select for ESBL-producing E. coli, indicating that not only Gram-negative anaerobes have a role in upholding colonization resistance. Other, so-far-unknown bacterial populations must be of importance for preventing colonization by incoming E. coli.

  19. 207株肺炎克雷伯菌临床分布及耐药性分析%Clinical distribution and drug resistance analysis of 207 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙绍芬; 黎铁斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析临床分离肺炎克雷伯菌对抗菌药物的耐药性.方法 对临床分离肺炎克雷伯菌用纸片扩散法(K-B)或微量稀释法对16种抗菌药物进行药物敏感试验.结果 产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)肺炎克雷伯菌59株,对头孢曲松、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、头孢哌酮、头孢噻吩、复方新诺明、美洛西林有很高的耐药率,分别是91.53%、91.53%、100.00%、100.00%、93.22%、72.88%和91.53%,甚至出现多重耐药菌株.结论 产ESBLs肺炎克雷伯菌耐药情况非常严重,应加强医院感染监测和控制措施.%Objective To analyse the drug resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods the disk diffusion method (KB) or mi cro dilution method (MIC) was used to detect the resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates to 16 kinds of antibacte rial drugs. Results There were 59 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended spectrum |3 lactamase (ESBLs) ,and they had high resistance rates to ceftriaxone(91. 53%) ,cefuroxime(91. 53%) , cefotaxime(100. 00%) ,cefoperazone(100. 00%) ,cepha lothin(93. 22%) ,co trimoxazole(72. 88%) ,mezlocillin(91. 53%) respectively. There are even multi drug resistant strains were de tected. Conclusion The drug resistance of ESBLs producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is very serious. The hospital infection surveil lance and control measures should be strengthen.

  20. Acinetobacter baumannii Infection in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

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    AMK AL Jarousha

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To perform a prospective case control study of blood stream infection to determine the infection rate of Acine­tobac­ter baumannii and the risk factors associated with mortality."nMethods:   From February 2004 to January 2005, 579 consecutive episodes of blood stream infection were obtained at two neo­na­tal intensive care units Al Nasser and Al Shifa hospitals in Gaza City. Forty (6.9% isolates of A. baumannii were ob­tained from the neonates under 28 d. Most of the isolates (92% were from hospitalized patients in the intensive care units."nResults: Community acquired infection was 8%.  Sixty three percent of the patients were males. The isolates of A. bauman­nii were resistant to commonly used antibiotics while being sensitive to meropenem (92.5%, imipenem (90%, chloram­pheni­col (80%, ciprofloxacin (75%, gentamicin (57.5%, ceftriaxone (50%, amikacin (37.5%, cefuroxime and ce­fo­taxime (35%. Over all crude mortality rate was 20% with much higher crude mortality among patients with noso­co­mial infec­tion.  Based on logistic regression, the following factors were statistically significant: weight < 1500g, age < 7 d, mean of hospitalization equal 20 days, antibiotic use, and mechanical ventilation, when compared to the control group (P< 0.05."nConclusion:  Infection rate of nosocomial blood stream infection was considerable and alarming in neonatal intensive care unit infants and associated with a significant excess length of NICU stay and a significant economic burden.  

  1. A review of prophylactic antibiotics use in plastic surgery in China and a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge-hong; Hou, Dian-ju; Fu, Hua-dong; Guo, Jing-ying; Guo, Xiao-bo; Gong, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for plastic surgical procedures at our hospital, and to perform a systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of prophylactic antibiotics in plastic surgery. The records of patients who received plastic surgical procedures with Class I surgical incisions between 2009 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. A systematic literature review was conducted for studies examining the use of prophylactic antibiotics for Class I surgical wounds. A total of 13,997 cases with Class I surgical incisions were included. Prophylactic antibiotics were given in 13,865 cases (99.1%). The antibiotics used were primarily cefuroxime, clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin sodium, and gentamicin. The average duration of administration was 4.84 ± 3.07 (range, 1-51) days. Antibiotics were administered postoperatively in >99% of cases while preoperative antibiotic administration was only given in 32 cases (0.23%). Wound infections occurred in 21 cases for an overall infection rate of 0.15%. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. There was marked variation in the timing of antibiotic administration with antibiotics given pre-, peri-, and postoperatively. Of studies that compared the use of prophylactic antibiotics with placebo, a reduction in wound infections was noted in 4 trials and no difference was noted in 6 trials. No significant difference in infection rates was shown between the prophylactic and postoperative arms. In conclusion, prophylactic antibiotics are overused in plastic surgical procedures. Evidence-based guidelines for the use of prophylactic antibiotics in plastic surgical procedures are needed.

  2. Dexamethasone therapy for bacterial meningitis. Results of two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, M H; Freij, B J; Syrogiannopoulos, G A; Chrane, D F; Hoyt, M J; Stewart, S M; Kennard, B D; Olsen, K D; McCracken, G H

    1988-10-13

    We enrolled 200 infants and older children with bacterial meningitis in two prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of dexamethasone therapy in addition to either cefuroxime (Study 1) or ceftriaxone (Study 2). Altogether, 98 patients received placebo and 102 received dexamethasone (0.15 mg per kilogram of body weight every six hours for four days). At the beginning of therapy, the clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients in the treatment groups were comparable. The mean increase in the cerebrospinal fluid concentration of glucose and the decreases in lactate and protein levels after 24 hours of therapy were significantly greater in those who received dexamethasone than in those who received placebo (glucose, 2.0 vs. 0.4 mmol per liter [36.0 vs. 6.9 mg per deciliter], P less than 0.001; lactate, 4.0 vs. 2.1 mmol per liter [38.3 vs. 19.8 mg per deciliter], P less than 0.001; and protein, 0.64 vs. 0.25 g per liter [64.0 vs. 25.3 mg per deciliter], P less than 0.05). One patient in the placebo group in Study 1 died. As compared with those who received placebo, the patients who received dexamethasone became afebrile earlier (1.6 vs. 5.0 days; P less than 0.001) and were less likely to acquire moderate or more severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (15.5 vs. 3.3 percent; P less than 0.01). Twelve patients in the two placebo groups (14 percent) had severe or profound bilateral hearing loss requiring the use of a hearing aid, as compared with 1 (1 percent) in the two dexamethasone groups (P less than 0.001). We conclude that dexamethasone is beneficial in the treatment of infants and children with bacterial meningitis, particularly in preventing deafness.

  3. Diversity of uropathogens and their resistogram in diabetic and non-diabetic patients in sub Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India: A case control study

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    Rajat Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both symptomatic and asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs are thought to occur more frequently in diabetic patients. Local data about the antimicrobial resistance of Uropathogens should be available for proper therapeutic interventions of UTI. Objective: To evaluate the spectrum of the Uropathogens and their profiles of antimicrobial resistance on a series of diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A Case-Control study with 100 participants was conducted targeting the Diabetic and Non-diabetic population, symptomatic or asymptomatic for UTI. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done on each of the isolates and the results of the antibiogram were compared with that of control group (nondiabetic group. The statistical analysis was done by Chi-Square Test, Fisher exact test using statistical product and service solutions formerly known as Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0 Version. Results: Most common isolate responsible for UTI was Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Citrobacter, Acinetobacter and Candida. 93.3% and 86.6% of the isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid respectively for Non Diabetics. Whereas isolates from diabetic group were 77.7 and 50% sensitive to Amikacin and Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid respectively. Highest resistance was seen for Cefuroxime for the isolates from both diabetic and non-diabetic group with 53.3 and 72.2% respectively. Significant difference in resistance pattern was observed in Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, piperacillin- tazobactam and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid. Conclusion: Culture of urine and susceptibility testing of isolated organisms is strongly advocated in the clinical management of impending complication in diabetic individuals.

  4. The status of drug resistance and ampC gene expression in Enterobacter cloacae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志慧; 李兰娟; 俞云松; 马亦林

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of the drug resistance and the ampC gene expression of Enterobacter cloacae. Methods Disk diffusion tests were made for detecting the susceptibility of antimicrobial agents against Enterobacter cloacae. AmpC gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and verified by DNA sequencing. AmpC gene expression was analyzed according to antimicrobial agent sensitive phenotype.Results The sensitivity rates of 144 strains to imipenam, cefepime and cefoperazone/sulbactam were 98.61%, 65.97% and 63.89%, respectively. The sensitivity rates of 144 strains to other antimicrobial agents were lower. Among the 144 strains 120 were found to be positive by PCR for ampC. The PCR product showed high homology to the GenBank ampC sequence. Stably derepressed strains, hyperinducible strains and unexpressing or lower level expressing strains accounted for 30.0% (36/120), 37.5% (45/120), and 32.5% (39/120), respectively. Fifty-six out of 120 strains (46.67%) also produced extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). The hyperinducible strains were highly sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents except amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefuroxime, while the stably derepressed strains were only sensitive to imipenam and cefepime. However, sensitivity to cefepime decreased if the strains also produced ESBLs. Conclusions The durg resistant status of Enterobacter cloacae is severe. Clearing out the expressive status of ampC gene will be helpful in selection of antimicrobial agents in the treatment of clinical infection.

  5. Risk factors for acute endophthalmitis following cataract surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    He Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute endophthalmitis is one of the most serious complications of cataract surgery and often results in severe visual impairment. Several risk factors for acute postoperative endophthalmitis (POE following cataract surgery have been reported but the level of evidence and strength of association is varied. The purpose of this study was to critically appraise published reports on and to summarize clinical risk factors associated with acute POE which could be easily assessed by ophthalmologists for the introduction and implementation of preventive measure. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was performed. Six databases were searched with no limits on the year or language of publication. Study-specific odds ratios (Ors or relative risk (RR of each risk factor were pooled using a random effect model. RESULTS: A total of 6 686 169 participants with 8 963 endophthalmitis in 42 studies were analyzed. Of the nine risk factors identified in our systematic review and meta-analysis, extra- or intracapsular cataract extraction, a clear corneal incision, without intracameral cefazolin (1 mg in 0.1 ml solution, without intracameral cefuroxime (1 mg in 0.1 ml solution, post capsular rupture, silicone intraocular lenses and intraoperative complications were found strongly associated with acute endophthalmitis. Other significant factors with a lower strength of association (risk estimates generally 1.5 or less were male gender and old age (85 years and older. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides summary data on the risk factors for acute POE. Identifying patients at high risk of this sight-threatening eye disease is important from both the public health and clinical perspectives as this would facilitate detection of disease before the onset of irreversible visual loss enabling earlier intervention.

  6. [The diagnosis and therapy of first community acquired urinary tract infection in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Dan; Grossman, Zachi

    2009-11-01

    A first urinary tract infection (UTI) in childhood is more prevalent in females Circumcision generally protects males from UTI, however, during the month following the procedure, the prevalence of infection increases up to 12 times in circumcised boys when compared with those not circumcised. Almost all the infections are caused by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria of which E. coli are responsible for 70-90% of the cases. Signs and symptoms of UTI vary in different age groups. Factors associated with the likelihood of UTI are: non-circumcised male, fever > 40 degrees C, and a fever > 39 degrees C for more than 48 hours with no other focus of infection on physical examination. Urinalysis and urine microscopy are screening tests for UTI. In children with clinical symptoms and signs suggesting UTI, the results of these tests have a positive predictive value (if both are positive), or negative predictive value (if both are negative) approximating 100%. The definitive diagnosis of UTI is based on the urine culture. Bag urine culture is associated with a very high rate of contamination. Therefore, in non-toilet trained children, urine culture should be obtained directly from the urinary bladder either by supra pubic aspiration or in and out transurethral catheterization. Mid stream clean voided urine specimens obtained from circumcised males in the first months of life are also acceptable. Depending on the clinical presentation, oral therapy can begin from as early as two months of age, and the recommended empiric drugs for first febrile UTI are cefuroxime axetil, or amoxicillin clavulanate. Cephlexin is recommended for cystitis.

  7. Microbial colonization of biopolymeric thin films containing natural compounds and antibiotics fabricated by MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, PO Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Surdu, A.V.; Grumezescu, A.M.; Oprea, A.E.; Trusca, R.; Vasile, O. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Polizu Street No. 1–7, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Dorcioman, G.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, PO Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihaiescu, D. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Organic Chemistry, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Enculescu, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chifiriuc, M.C. [Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest—ICUB, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Boehm, R.D.; Narayan, R.J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chrisey, D.B. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • We deposited thin composite quercetin/polyvinylpyrrolidone/antibiotic films with close resemblance to the starting/drop-cast composition by MAPLE. • Quercetin flavonoid shows an anti-biofilm activity comparable to that of the tested large-spectrum antibiotics (norfloxacin or cefuroxime), especially in case of 72 h biofilms. • These results could account for the possible use of quercetin as an alternative to antibiotics to combat the mature biofilms developed on different substrates. • MAPLE may be used to produce implantable medical devices that provide a relatively long term in vitro stability and resistance to the growth of microorganisms. - Abstract: Although a great number of antibiotics are currently available, they are often rendered ineffective by the ability of microbial strains to develop genetic resistance and to grow in biofilms. Since many antimicrobial agents poorly penetrate biofilms, biofilm-associated infections often require high concentrations of antimicrobial agents for effective treatment. Among the various strategies that may be used to inhibit microbial biofilms, one strategy that has generated significant interest involves the use of bioactive surfaces that are resistant to microbial colonization. In this respect, we used matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) involving a pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) to obtain thin composite biopolymeric films containing natural (flavonoid) or synthetic (antibiotic) compounds as bioactive substances. Chemical composition and film structures were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Films morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antimicrobial assay of the microbial biofilms formed on these films was assessed by the viable cell counts method. The flavonoid-containing thin films showed increased resistance to microbial colonization

  8. Screening of pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

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    Alzahrani Alhusain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inroduction: Of the "top ten" sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are ranked second and fifth, respectively, worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the pregnant women for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and to detect antimicrobial resistance pattern of N. gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, hospital-based analysis of a random sample of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia. Endocervical and high vaginal swabs were collected both from pregnant women and female patients attending gynecology clinic with lower genital tract infection (control group. C. trachomatis antigen was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. N. gonorrhoeae was detected by culture and identification of isolates, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 13.0 and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: C. trachomatis antigen was detected in 10.5% (10/95 and 34.4% (35/102 of pregnant women and control group, respectively (P < 0.001. The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae among pregnant women was 0.0% compared to 7.8% (8/102 among the control group (P < 0.01. N. gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin (62.5%, tetracycline (50%, ampicillin (25%, amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (25% and ciprofloxacin (37.5%, while they were susceptible to cefepime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, spectinomycin, and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for C. trachomatis infection should be included in the antenatal care in this area. The detection rate of both organisms among the control group highlights the importance of preventive strategies. Certain antibiotics previously used in treating gonorrhea are no longer effective.

  9. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M enzymes carried by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun CHENG; Ying YE; Ying-ying WANG; Hui LI; Xu LI; Jia-bin LI

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M-β-lactamases carried by 5 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and 3 Escherichia coli isolates collected from 4 hospitals in Hefei, China. Methods: The purified PCR products were ligated with pGEM-Teasy vectors, expressed, and sequenced. The complete genes of the CTX-M-β-lactamases were ligated with the pHSG398 vector to express prokaryotic recombi-nant proteins. Plasmids were extracted by rapid alkaline lysis protocol, and the PCR method was performed to determine whether the prokaryotic expression was successful or not. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested and the phenotypes of transformants were determined according to criteria recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The kinetic parameters of enzymes were confirmed. The isoelectric points (pI) were determined by isoelectric focusing assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and plasmid profiling were performed. Results: The PCR products had 1101 nucleotides and were determined as CTX-M-46, CTX-M-47, CTX-M-48, CTX-M-49, and CTX-M-50. All strains were resistant to cefotaxime, but most of them were susceptible or intermediate to ceftazidime. The phenotypes of novel enzymes were determined as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Penicillin G, cephalothin, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime were determined to good substrates, whereas ceftazidime hydrolysis was not detected. The pI of the 5 novel CTX-M-βlactamases were 8.0. CTX-M-derivatives could be the multiplex genesis in our area. Conclusion: This is the first report of these 5 novel plasmid-mediated CTX-M ESBL produced from China in the world. Mo-lecular typing reveals notably different origin in genes encoding different CTX-M variants of 8 strains.

  10. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gardea, Ma. Carmen E.; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Eroza-de la Vega, Gilberto; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Pérez-Recoder, María Concepción; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, María del Carmen; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p < 0.05) and fecal (p < 0.001) coliform counts, whereas the lowest total coliform counts were recorded in spring. Significant differences between sampling sites were observed, where samples from sites 6, 8, and 11 had the highest total coliform counts (p < 0.009), whereas samples from site 9 exhibited the lowest one. From the microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB) phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates), Escherichia coli (2/7), and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3). In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks. PMID:27322297

  11. Prevalence of Device-associated Nosocomial Infections Caused By Gram-negative Bacteria in a Trauma Intensive Care Unit in Libya

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    Abdulaziz Zorgani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Device-associated nosocomial infections (DANIs have a major impact on patient morbidity and mortality. Our study aimed to determine the distribution rate of DANIs and causative agents and patterns of antibiotic resistance in the trauma-surgical intensive care unit (ICU. Methods: Our study was conducted at Abusalim Trauma Hospital in Tripoli, Libya. All devices associated with nosocomial infections, including central venous catheters (CVC, endotracheal tubes (ETT, Foley’s urinary catheters, chest tubes, nasogastric tubes (NGT, and tracheostomy tubes, were removed aseptically and examined for Gram-negative bacteria (GNB. Results: During a one-year study period, 363 patients were hospitalized; the overall mortality rate was 29%. A total of 79 DANIs were identified, the most common site of infection was ETT (39.2%, followed by urinary catheters (19%, NGTs (18%, tracheostomy tubes (11%, CVCs (10%, and chest tubes (3%. The most frequently isolated organisms were Klebsiella pneumonia, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30%, 20%, and 14%, respectively. Extremely high resistance rates were observed among GNB to ampicillin (99%, cefuroxime (95%, amoxicillin-clavulante (92%, and nitrofurantoin (91%. Lower levels of resistance were exhibited to amikacin (38%, imipenem (38%, and colistin (29%. About 39% of the isolates were defined as multi-drug resistant (MDR. Overall, extended spectrum β-lactmase producers were expressed in 39% of isolates mainly among K. pneumonia (88%. A. baumannii isolates exhibited extremely high levels of resistance to all antibiotics except colistin (100% sensitive. In addition, 56.3% of A. baumannii isolates were found to be MDR. P. aeruginosa isolates showed 46%–55% effectiveness to anti-pseudomonas antibiotics. Conclusion: High rates of DANI’s and the emergence of MDR organisms poses a serious threat to patients. There is a need to strengthen infection control within the ICU environment

  12. Serotypes and patterns of antibiotic resistance in strains causing invasive pneumococcal disease in children less than 5 years of age.

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    Chunfeng Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The serotypes and patterns of antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae strains that cause invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in infants were analyzed to provide guidance for clinical disease prevention and treatment. METHODS: The clinical features of confirmed IPD were evaluated in 61 patients, less than 5 years of age, who were admitted to our hospital between January 2009 and December 2011. The serotypes and antibiotic resistance of strains of S.pneumoniae were determined using the capsular swelling method and the E-test. RESULTS: A total of 61 invasive strains were isolated. The serotype distribution of those isolates were 19A (41.0%, 14 (19.7%, 19F (11.5%, 23F (9.8%, 8 (4.9%, 9V (4.9%, 1 (3.3%, and 4, 6B, and 20 (each 1.6%. The percentage of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, and cotrimoxazole were 100%, 86.9%, and 100%, respectively. The percentage of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefepime, and meropenem were 42.6%, 18.0%, 82.0%, 18.0%, 13.1%, 13.1%, and 36.1%, respectively. The percentage of multidrug-resistant strains was 95.6%. Strains of all serotypes isolated in this study were highly resistant to erythromycin, cotrimoxazole, and clindamycin. Strains with serotype 19A had the highest rates of resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Serotype 19A strains were most frequently isolated from children with IPD treated in our hospital. The strains causing IPD are highly resistant to antibiotics.

  13. Mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding protein 2x: importance of the C-terminal penicillin-binding protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated domains for beta-lactam binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Patrick; Todorova, Katya; Sauerbier, Julia; Hakenbeck, Regine

    2012-06-01

    Penicillin-binding protein 2x (PBP2x) mutations that occur during the selection with beta-lactams are located within the central penicillin-binding/transpeptidase (TP) domain, and are believed to mediate resistance by interfering with the formation of a covalent complex of the active site serine with the antibiotic. We now investigated the effect of two point mutations found in two independently obtained laboratory mutants that are located at the surface of the TP domain with their side chains facing outside (G422D respectively R426C). They have no significant effect on resistance to cefotaxime in vivo or on binding to Bocillin™FL to the active site in vitro using purified PBP2x derivatives, thus apparently do not affect the active site directly. In contrast, in silico modeling revealed that they affect van der Waal's interactions with the PASTA1 (PBP and serine/threonine kinase associated) domain of the C-terminal extension and a noncovalent cefuroxime molecule found in the X-ray structure of an acylated PBP2x, suggesting some effect of the mutations on the interaction of the TP domain with PASTA1 and/or with the antibiotic associated with PASTA1. The effect of the PASTA domains on covalent binding of PBP2x to Bocillin FL was then investigated using a series of soluble truncated PBP2x derivatives. Deletion of 127 C-terminal residues, that is, of both PASTA domains, decreased binding dramatically by ∼90%. Surprisingly, deletion of only 40 amino acids resulted in the same phenotype, whereas the absence of 30 amino acids affected binding marginally by 10%, documenting a crucial role of the C-terminal domain for beta-lactam binding.

  14. [Alcaligenes xylosoxidans bacteremia in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Zeynep Alp; Ozdemir, Nihal; Celik, Nigar; Celkan, Tiraje

    2009-07-01

    Alcaligenes xylosoxidans which is an aerobic, non-fermentative gram-negative bacillus found in aqueous environments and human flora, can lead to opportunistic infections. It causes infections in elderly, immunocompromised patients, patients with chronic disorders or premature infants. In this report, a case of A. xylosoxidans bacteremia that developed in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was presented. Four-years-old male patient under ALL induction therapy was admitted with symptoms of lethargy, headache, somnolence, and fever (39 degrees C). Cerebrospinal fluid, blood, throat and urine cultures were taken from the patient and empirical treatment with sulbactam cefoperazon and amikacin was initiated. Blood cultures in BacT Alert 3D (Bio Merieux, France) revealed the growth of a gram-negative coccobacillus. The agent which was non-fermentative, indol and H2S negative, was identified as A. xylosoxidans by API 20 NE (Bio Merieux, France). Since fever continued under the current antibiotic treatment, the therapy was switched to imipenem (90 mg/kg 3x/day) and the patient's condition improved markedly after 24 hours. Disc diffusion susceptibility testing of the isolate revealed that it was resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, amikacin, netilmicin and gentamicin; susceptible to amoxicillin clavulanate, piperacillin tazobactam, seftazidime, cefepime, imipenem and ciprofloxacin. Following 14 days of imipenem therapy, the patient recovered and discharged from the hospital on routine follow-up. It is important to consider A. xylosoxidans as a possible causative agent particularly in the infections that develop in high risk patients at oncology, dialysis and neonatal intensive care units.

  15. A surveillance study of antimicrobial resistance of gram-negative bacteria isolated from intensive care units in eight hospitals in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günseren, F; Mamikoğlu, L; Oztürk, S; Yücesoy, M; Biberoğlu, K; Yuluğ, N; Doğanay, M; Sümerkan, B; Kocagöz, S; Unal, S; Cetin, S; Calangu, S; Köksal, I; Leblebicioğlu, H; Günaydin, M

    1999-03-01

    This study was carried out with the participation of eight hospitals in Turkey to determine the frequency of gram-negative bacteria isolated in intensive care units (ICU) and to compare their resistance rates to selected antibiotics. Aerobic gram-negative bacteria isolated from ICUs during 1996 were studied. Antibiotic susceptibilities to imipenem, ceftazidime, ceftazidime-clavulanate, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefepime, cefodizime, cefuroxime, piperacillin/tazobactam, amoxycillin-clavulanate, gentamicin, amikacin and ciprofloxacin were determined by Etest. A total of 748 isolates were obtained from 547 patients. The majority of organisms were isolated from the respiratory (38.8%) and urinary tracts (30.9%). Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequently isolated gram-negative species (26.8%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (26.2%). Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Enterobacter spp. were the other commonly isolated organisms. High resistance rates were observed for all antibiotics studied. Imipenem appeared to be the most active agent against the majority of isolates. Although resistance rates exceeded 50%, ciprofloxacin, cefepime and amikacin were found to be relatively effective. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production appeared to be a major mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. In contrast to ceftazidime-clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam showed poor activity against organisms thought to produce ESBL, suggesting the presence of an enzyme resistant to tazobactam action. This study has yielded high rates of resistance in aerobic gram-negative isolates from ICUs in Turkey. High resistance rates to all the other antibacterials studied leave imipenem as the only reliable agent for the empirical treatment of ICU infections in Turkey.

  16. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico

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    Ma. Carmen E. Delgado-Gardea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p < 0.05 and fecal (p < 0.001 coliform counts, whereas the lowest total coliform counts were recorded in spring. Significant differences between sampling sites were observed, where samples from sites 6, 8, and 11 had the highest total coliform counts (p < 0.009, whereas samples from site 9 exhibited the lowest one. From the microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates, Escherichia coli (2/7, and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3. In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks.

  17. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Isolated from Bovine Fresh Milk (POLA SENSITIVITAS ANTIBIOTIK TERHADAP STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS DAN ESCHERICHIA COLI YANG DIISOLASI DARI SUSU SAPI SEGAR

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    Lucia Ratna Winata Muslimin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the sensitivity of S.aureus and E. coli isolated fromfresh milk against against several antibiotics and to determine the safety of the milk for humancomsumsion. Milk was collected from milking diary cow and was used for the bacterial isolation. E.coli were were identified using Total Plate Count (TPC, Gram staining, their growth on Endo Agarand Eosin MethyleneBlue Agar, Biochemical analysis including glucose, lactose, sucrose,maltose, andsorbitol would be followed by Sorbitol Mac Conkey Agar Test for the identification of E.coliO157:H7.The isolation and identification of S.aureus were performed using Gram stain, TPC, growth on BairdParker Agar and Mannitol Salt Agar. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were differentiated by coagulaseand catalase tests. The antibiotic sensitivity tests for both S. aureus and E.coli were carried out usingthe following antibiotics: ampicillin, bacitracin, vancomycin, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, cefotamine,cefuroxime, cefepime, cefazoline, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, doxycycline, amikacin,kanamycin, neomycin, ertapenem, meropenem, imipenem, erythromycin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid,ciprofloxacin, levofloxacine, norfloxacine, ofloxacin, and novobiocin. Fresh milk obtained from thefarm was positive for S.aureus and E.coli and resistant to most antibiotics tested. The best antibioticsfor S. aureus were imipenem (54.1 mm, ampicillin (42.3 mm, cefazolin (41.6 mm, doxycycline (41.15mm, and for E.coli were Imipenem (30.1 mm, ertapenem (29.5 mm, and meropenem (25.35 mm. Thebovine fresh milk examined was contaminated by S.aureus and E.coli and to some extent, were alsoresistant to most antibiotics tested.

  18. Beta- lactam antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in non-typeable haemophilus influenzae by up-regulating carbohydrate metabolism.

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    Siva Wu

    Full Text Available Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended.

  19. Physician behaviour for antimicrobial prescribing for paediatric upper respiratory tract infections: a survey in general practice in Trinidad, West Indies

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    Ramdhanie Joseph

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are among the most frequent reasons for physician office visits in paediatrics. Despite their predominant viral aetiology, URTIs continue to be treated with antimicrobials. We explored general practitioners' (GPs prescribing behaviour for antimicrobials in children (≤ 16 years with URTIs in Trinidad, using the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as a reference. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 92 consenting GPs from the 109 contacted in Central and East Trinidad, between January to June 2003. Using a pilot-tested questionnaire, GPs identified the 5 most frequent URTIs they see in office and reported on their antimicrobial prescribing practices for these URTIs to trained research students. Results The 5 most frequent URTIs presenting in children in general practice, are the common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis and acute otitis media (AOM in rank order. GPs prescribe at least 25 different antibiotics for these URTIs with significant associations for amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefaclor, cefuroxime, erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin (p 30 years were more likely to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold (p = 0.014. Severity (95.7% and duration of illness (82.5% influenced doctors' prescribing and over prescribing in general practice was attributed to parent demands (75% and concern for secondary bacterial infections (70%. Physicians do not request laboratory investigations primarily because they are unnecessary (86% and the waiting time for results is too long (51%. Conclusions Antibiotics are over prescribed for paediatric URTIs in Trinidad and amoxicillin with co-amoxiclav were preferentially prescribed. Except for AOM, GPs' prescribing varied from the CDC guidelines for drug and duration. Physicians recognise antibiotics are overused and consider parents expecting antibiotics and a concern for secondary

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China.

  1. Antibiotic resistance and molecular typing among cockle (Anadara granosa) strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahilah, A M; Laila, R A S; Sallehuddin, H Mohd; Osman, H; Aminah, A; Ahmad Azuhairi, A

    2014-02-01

    Genomic DNA of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were characterized by antibiotic resistance, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. These isolates originated from 3 distantly locations of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka (East coastal areas), Malaysia. A total of 44 (n = 44) of tentatively V. parahaemolyticus were also examined for the presence of toxR, tdh and trh gene. Of 44 isolates, 37 were positive towards toxR gene; while, none were positive to tdh and trh gene. Antibiotic resistance analysis showed the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were highly resistant to bacitracin (92%, 34/37) and penicillin (89%, 33/37) followed by resistance towards ampicillin (68%, 25/37), cefuroxime (38%, 14/37), amikacin (6%, 2/37) and ceftazidime (14%, 5/37). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were resistant towards chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, streptomycin and vancomycin. Antibiogram patterns exhibited, 9 patterns and phenotypically less heterogenous when compared to PCR-based techniques using ERIC- and RAPD-PCR. The results of the ERIC- and RAPD-PCR were analyzed using GelCompare software. ERIC-PCR with primers ERIC1R and ERIC2 discriminated the V. parahaemolyticus isolates into 6 clusters and 21 single isolates at a similarity level of 80%. While, RAPD-PCR with primer Gen8 discriminated the V. parahaemolyticus isolates into 11 clusters and 10 single isolates and Gen9 into 8 clusters and 16 single isolates at the same similarity level examined. Results in the presence study demonstrated combination of phenotypically and genotypically methods show a wide heterogeneity among cockle isolates of V. parahaemolyticus.

  2. Pure drug nanoparticles in tablets: what are the dissolution limitations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Desmond [Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences (Singapore); Ogawa, Keiko [Nitto Denko Co. Ltd., Medical Division (Japan); Cutler, David J.; Chan, Hak-Kim, E-mail: kimc@pharm.usyd.edu.a [University of Sydney, Advanced Drug Delivery Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15 (Australia); Raper, Judy A. [University of Wollongong, Vice Chancellor' s Unit (Australia); Ye Lin [University of Sydney, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering (Australia); Yun, Jimmy [Nanomaterials Technology Pty. Ltd. (Singapore)

    2010-06-15

    There has been increasing interests for drug companies to incorporate drug nanoparticles into their existing formulations. However, technical knowledge in this area is still in its infancy and more study needs to be done to stimulate growth in this fledging field. There is a need to scrutinize the performance of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets, particularly relating formulation variables to their dissolution performance. Application of the pure form, synthesized without the use of surfactants or stabilizers, is often preferred to maximize drug loading and also to minimize toxicity. Cefuroxime axetil, a poorly water-soluble cephalosporin antibiotic, was used as the model drug in the formulation development. Drug release rate, tablet disintegration time, tensile strength and energy of failure were predominantly influenced by the amount of super-disintegrant, amount of surfactant, compression force and diluent species, respectively. The compression rate had minimal impact on the responses. The main hurdle confronting the effective use of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets is the difficulty in controlling aggregation in solution, which could potentially be aggravated by the tabletting process. Through the use of elevated levels of surfactants (8 w/w% sodium dodecyl sulphate), drug release from the nanoparticle preparation was enhanced from 58.0 {+-} 2.7% to 72.3 {+-} 0.7% in 10 min. Hence, it is recommended that physical formulations for pure drug nanoparticles be focused on the particle de-aggregation step in solution, if much higher rates are to be desired. In conclusion, even though pure drug nanoparticles could be easily synthesized, limitations from aggregation may need to be overcome, before successful application in tablets can be fully realized.

  3. 2004-2009年濮阳市儿童肺炎链球菌、流感嗜血杆菌耐药性调查%An investigation of antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Hemophilus influenzae isolated from children in Puyang between 2004 and 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜秉兴; 罗代平; 李建军; 孙迎军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the situation of resistance of S.pneumoniae,H.influenzae isolated from clinical samples of Department of pediatrics in recent six years in Puyang city and the prevalent biotype of H.influenzae in our region.Methods Identification of bacteria was conducted with API-NH strip and Vitek 2 compact.H.influenzae is classified into distinct biotypes on the basis of ornithine decarboxylase,urease,and indole activities of API-NH strip.The minimal inhibitory concentrations were measured by broth microdilution method.Results Penicillin-susceptible and non-penicillin-susceptible S.pneumoniae were 48.9% and 51.1%,respectively.The sensitive rates of S.pneumoniae to amoxicillin,amoxicillin/clavulanic acid,ceftriaxone,cefuroxime,levofloxacin,vancomycin,clindamycin,erythromycin were 75.0%,92.0%,93.6%,84.0%,100.0%,100.0%,34.1% and 8.5%,respectively.The rate of producing β-lactamases of H.influenzae was 40.5%.Biotype I,II and III were predominant(85.9%).The sensitive rates of H.influenzae to ampicillin,amoxicillin/clavulanic acid,ceftriaxone,cefuroxime,levofloxacin and azithromycin were 73.0%,100.0%,100.0%,96.3%,100.0% and 93.3%,respectively.Conclusions The resistant of S.pneumoniae isolated from children in the area had become a severe problem.Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid,ceftriaxone,cefuroxime were the most active antibacterials against S.pneumoniae and H.influenzae.H.influenzae was highly susceptible to the azithromycin.%目的 调查濮阳市近6年从儿科临床标本中分离的肺炎链球菌、流感嗜血杆菌的耐药性状况及本地流感嗜血杆菌流行的生物型.方法 用API-NH和Vitek 2 compact对菌株进行鉴定.依据API-NH条中的鸟氨酸脱羧酶、脲酶及吲哚试验将流感嗜血杆菌分为不同的生物型.用微量肉汤稀释法分别测定其最低抑菌浓度.结果 青霉素敏感肺炎链球菌(PSSP)与青霉素不敏感肺炎链球菌(PNSP) 分别占48.9%、51.1%.肺炎链球菌对阿莫西林、阿莫西林/克

  4. 肺炎链球菌生物膜形成厚度与青霉素最低抑菌浓度的关系%The relationship between Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青; 施毅; 朱素华; 高卫卫; 孙禾; 苏欣

    2014-01-01

    Objective Streptococcus pneumoniae can form biofilms .The aim of this study was to investigate the biofilm forma-tion of Streptococcus pneumoniae and the relationship with antibiotic resistance of penicillin etc . Methods A total of 147 clinical iso-lates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were collected from 7 teaching hospitals in Nanjing from 2010 to 2012.Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of penicillin, erythromycin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone were determined by agar dilution method .Streptococcus pneumoniae with various penicillin MIC was selected randomly as follow:MIC≤0.065μg/mL, 0.5μg/mL, 2μg/mL and≥4μg/mL, which was incuba-ted to form biofilms in 96-well plates and 24-well plates for 24 hours.The A values at 570 nm was measured and the biofilm was observed through confocal laser scanning microscope ( CLSM) . Results The biofilm semi-quantitative detection and CLSM both displayed that all strains formed biofilms.The A value of the group which penicillin MIC was ≤0.065μg/mL (0.228 ±0.063) was higher than the 0.5μg/mL group (0.200 ±0.061) and the≥4μg/mL group (0.186 ±0.050) (P0.05).The A value of the group which erythromycin MIC was ≤0.5μg/mL (0.211 ±0.068) was higher than the ≥4μg/mL group (0.201 ±0.052) (P>0.05).The A value of the group sensitive to cefuroxime (0.216 ±0.062) was higher than the group resistant to cefuroxime (0.196 ±0.054) (P<0.05). Conclusion Streptococcus pneumoniae can form biofilms .Streptococcus pneumoniae with high antibiotics MIC has a trend of weakened biofilm formation .%目的:肺炎链球菌可形成生物膜。文中旨在研究青霉素不同最低抑菌浓度(minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC)的肺炎链球菌生物膜形成厚度的差别。方法收集2010年11月至2012年10月南京军区南京总医院、江苏省人民医院、江苏省中医院、南京医科大学第二附属医院、南京市鼓楼医院、东南大学附属中大医院、南京市第一医院等7家医院共147

  5. Infecção urinária na gravidez: análise dos métodos para diagnóstico e do tratamento Urinary infection in pregnancy: analysis of diagnostic methods and treatment

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    Geraldo Duarte

    2002-08-01

    aspects and the complications of symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI during pregnancy of patients who were hospitalized. Methods: a total of 136 pregnant women with a clinical diagnosis of pyelonephritis were studied. The studied parameters were: age and parity of patients, gestational age of diagnosis, epidemiologic aspects, laboratory evaluation for UTI, treatment and clinic evolution, prophylaxis and complications. Results: pyelonephritis was diagnosed at the same proportions at all gestational ages. The incidence of UTI was higher among primigravidae. Only 29.3% of the pregnant women had a previous history of UTI; 57.0% were anemic and 93.0% had altered urinalysis. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent uropathogen (75.8% of cases, with low percentages of sensitivity to ampicillin (60.6% and high percentages of sensitivity to cefuroxime (95,5%. The highest rate of clinical improvement was obtained for the pregnant women treated with cefuroxime (95.7%. Prophylaxis was needed in 11.0% of the patients. Preterm labor occurred in 33.3% of the pregnant women who delivered in our service and preterm delivery occurred in 18.9%. Conclusions: the present results support the need for an early diagnosis and effective treatment of UTI in pregnant women in order to prevent the frequent occurrence of perinatal complications such as premature labor and delivery. We emphasize the need of a periodical evaluation of the pattern of sensitivity of the etiologic agents to the antimicrobials allowed for use during pregnancy, with cefuroxime being adopted as the antibiotic of choice for the treatment of UTI during pregnancy.

  6. Comparative in vitro activity of tigecycline and other antimicrobial agents against Shigella species from Kuwait and the United Arab of Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Wafaa; Rotimi, V O; Pal, T; Sonnevend, Agnes; Dimitrov, T S

    2010-01-01

    Shigella species isolated from stool samples of symptomatic patients of all age groups at the Mubarak Al Kabir Hospital and Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kuwait and Tawam Hospital, UAE during a 2-year period were investigated for their susceptibility to tigecycline and several other antibiotics by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using the E test method. A total of 100 and 42 strains were collected from UAE and Kuwait, respectively. The extent of drug resistance in the Shigella spp. isolates from these two countries was analyzed by criteria recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Amikacin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and tigecycline had excellent activities against all isolates from UAE and Kuwait with MIC(90s) of 12, 0.094, 4, 0.012, 0.25, 0.032, 3 and 0.25 microg/ml and 4, 1, 4, 0.125, 0.38, 0.19, 3 and 0.25 microg/ml, respectively. Half of all isolates from both countries were resistant to ampicillin. None of the isolates in Kuwait was resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid compared with 22% in UAE. Resistance to chloramphenicol was recorded in 50 and 36% of the isolates in Kuwait and UAE, respectively. The percentages of non-susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were very high in Kuwait and UAE (76% vs. 92% and 76% vs. 98%, respectively). Notably, one isolate, S. flexneri, from UAE had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC, 0.25 microg/ml). Four (2.8%) of the isolates were ESBL producers by the E test ESBL method but could not be confirmed by PCR using primers for bla(CTX-M), bla(SHV) and bla(TEM). In conclusion, Shigella spp. isolated from symptomatic patients in Kuwait and the UAE demonstrated high rates of resistance to the first-line antibiotics but very susceptible to the carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and tigecycline. Tigecycline holds promise as a potential drug of choice for the therapy of

  7. BPI700-Fcγ1700 chimeric gene expression and its protective effect in a mice model of the lethal E. coli infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background Infections caused by gram-negative bacteria (GNB) often lead to high mortality in common clinical settings. The effect of traditional antibiotic therapy is hindered by drug-resistant bacteria and unneutralizable endotoxin. Few effective methods can protect high risk patients from bacterial infection. This study explored the protection of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2)-bacteriacidal permeability increasing protein 700 (BPI700) -fragment crystallizable gamma one 700 (Fcγ1700) chimeric gene transferred mice against the minimal lethal dose (MLD) of E.coli and application of gene therapy for bacterial infection.Methods After AAV2-BPI700-Fcγ1700 virus transfection,dot blotting and Western blotting were used to detect the target gene products in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells (CHO-K1cells). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical assay were carried out to show the target gene expression in mice. Modified BPI-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify the target gene products in murine serum. The protection of BPI700-Fcγ1700 gene transferred mice was examined by survival rate after MLD E. coli challenge. Colony forming unit (CFU) count, limulus amebocyte lysate kit and cytokine kit were used to quantify the bacteria, the level of endotoxin, and proinflammatory cytokine.Results BPI1-199-Fc(1 protein was identified in the CHO-K1 cell culture supernatant, injected muscles and serum of the gene transferred mice. After MLD E. coli challenge, the survival rate of AAV2-BPI700-Fc(1700 gene transferred mice (36.7%) was significantly higher than that of AAV2-enhanced green fluorescent protein (AAV2- EGFP) gene transferred mice (3.3%) and PBS control mice (5.6%). The survival rate of AAV2-BPI700-Fc(1700 gene transferred mice treated with cefuroxime sodium was 65.0%. The bacterium number in main viscera, the levels of endotoxin and proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrcsis factor-α and interleukin-1β) in serum of the AAV2-BPI

  8. Community acquired infections in older patients admitted to hospital from care homes versus the community: cohort study of microbiology and outcomes

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    Marwick Charis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residents of care homes are at risk of colonisation and infection with antibiotic resistant bacteria, but there is little evidence that antibiotic resistance among such patients is associated with worse outcomes than among older people living in their own homes. Our aim was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and clinical outcomes in older patients admitted to hospital with acute infections from care homes versus their own homes. Methods We enrolled patients admitted to Ninewells Hospital in 2005 who were older than 64 years with onset of acute community acquired respiratory tract, urinary tract or skin and soft tissue infections, and with at least one sample sent for culture. The primary outcome was 30 day mortality, adjusted for age, sex, Charlson Index of co-morbidity, sepsis severity, presence of resistant isolates and resistance to initial therapy. Results 161 patients were identified, 60 from care homes and 101 from the community. Care home patients were older, had more co-morbidities, and higher rates of resistant bacteria, including MRSA and Gram negative organisms resistant to co-amoxiclav, cefuroxime and/or ciprofloxacin, overall (70% versus 36%, p = 0.026. 30 day mortality was high in both groups (30% in care home patients and 24% in comparators. In multivariate logistic regression we found that place of residence did not predict 30 day mortality (adjusted odds ratio (OR for own home versus care home 1.01, 95% CI 0.40-2.52, p = 0.984. Only having severe sepsis predicted 30 day mortality (OR 10.09, 95% CI 3.37-30.19, p  Conclusions Older patients admitted with acute infection had high 30 day mortality. Patients from care homes were more likely to have resistant organisms but high levels of antimicrobial resistance were found in both groups. Thus, we recommend that antibiotic therapies active against resistant organisms, guided by local resistance patterns, should be considered for

  9. Embolia pulmonar séptica secundária à tromboflebite jugular: um caso de síndrome de Lemierre Septic pulmonary embolism secondary to jugular thrombophlebitis: a case of Lemierre's syndrome

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    Denise Rossato Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Lemierre é caracterizada pela infecção aguda da orofaringe, complicada por trombose venosa jugular interna secundária à tromboflebite séptica, e por infecções metastáticas a vários órgãos distantes-mais freqüentemente os pulmões. Relatamos um caso de síndrome de Lemierre em uma mulher de 56 anos que se apresentou com massa cervical à direita e febre. Trombose venosa jugular interna foi demonstrada na ecografia. A tomografia computadorizada de tórax revelou múltiplas opacidades em ambos os pulmões. Uma biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica foi realizada por suspeita de metástases pulmonares. O exame anatomopatológico revelou êmbolos sépticos em parênquima pulmonar. Retrospectivamente, a paciente relatou história de faringite duas semanas antes da hospitalização. Após o diagnóstico, foi tratada com antibióticos de amplo espectro (cefuroxima por 7 dias e azitromicina por 5 dias e, posteriormente, devido à persistência de febre, cefepime por 7 dias. A tomografia computadorizada de tórax, realizada um mês após, mostrou resolução das opacidades.Lemierre's syndrome is characterized by acute oropharyngeal infection, complicated by internal jugular venous thrombosis secondary to septic thrombophlebitis, and by metastatic infections in various distant organs-most commonly in the lungs. We report a case of Lemierre's syndrome in a 56-year-old female who presented with right-sided neck mass and fever. Right internal jugular venous thrombosis was demonstrated on an ultrasound. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed multiple opacities throughout both lungs. An open surgical biopsy was performed due to suspicion of pulmonary metastases. Anatomopathological examination revealed septic emboli in lung parenchyma. Retrospectively, the patient reported a history of pharyngitis two weeks prior to hospitalization. After the diagnosis had been made, the patient was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics (cefuroxime

  10. Distribution of CTX-M group I and group III β-lactamases produced by Escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrar, Samyyia; Vajeeha, Ayesha; Ul-Ain, Noor; Riaz, Saba

    2017-02-01

    Extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M type is worrisome issue in many countries of the world from past decade. But little is known about CTX-M beta-lactamase producing bacteria in Pakistan. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the distribution of CTX-M beta-lactamase producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using phenotypic and molecular techniques. A total of 638 E. coli and 338 Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from patients attending two hospitals and one diagnostic Centre in Pakistan during 2013-2015. ESBL production was screened by double disc synergism, combination disc (cefotaxime and ceftazidime with clavulanic acid) and E-test. These strains were further characterized by PCR (CTX-M I, CTX-M III) and sequencing. After ribotyping of strains accession numbers were obtained. These isolates were highly resistant to cephalosporins, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, and cefuroxime but susceptible to carbapenems, sulfzone, amikacin and tazocin. Multiple antibiotic resistances index (MAR) revealed that 51% of E. coli strains fell in the range of 0.61-0.7 and 39% of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains fell in the range of 0.71-0.8. 64% Double disc synergism (DDS), 76.4% combination disc (CD), 74% E-test showed ESBL positivity in strains. In E. coli ESBL genes blaCTX-M-I and blaCTX-M-III were detected in 212 (72.1%) and 25 (8.5%) respectively. In Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL genes blaCTX-M-I and blaCTX-M-III were detected in 89 (82.4%) and 10 (9.2%). Combination of both genes blaCTX-M-I and blaCTX-M-III were found in 16 (5.4%) of E. coli strains and 5 (4.6%) of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Sequencing revealed that CTXM-15 was predominately present in the CTX-M-I group. The prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates was high and the majority of them positive for blaCTX-M-I as compared to blaCTX-M-III. These findings highlight the need to further investigate the epidemiology of other CTX-M beta

  11. Detection and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains among rural chickens in the arid region of north-eastern Nigeria

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    Yaqub A Geidam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the prevalence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC strains among adult apparently healthy rural chickens slaughtered in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Cloacal swabs were examined by Gram staining, biochemical tests such as indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer and citrate (IMVC tests and serotype by standard slide agglutination test with antisera against somatic antigen using six monospecific “O” antisera to E. coli belonging to the avian pathogenic E. coli group namely O1, O2, O26, O78, O86 and O141. The sensitivity of the isolated APEC strains to 10 antibiotics of human and veterinary use was also determined. Results: Out of a total of 510 samples examined, 356 (69.8% were positive for E. coli. Of this number 20 (5.6% samples were positive for O1, 20 (5.6% for O2, 0 (0% for O26, 25 (7.0% for O78, 25 (7.0% for O86 and 24 (6.7% for O141 serotypes. The remaining 242 (68.0% E. coli isolates were non typable with the 6 sera of avian pathogenic E. coli strains used for the study. The sensitivity profile of the isolates showed complete resistance of all the isolates against ampicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid and cefuroxime, while on the other hand all the isolates showed very high susceptibility to oxofloxacin followed by ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. The result of this study suggests that multiple-antimicrobial-resistant APEC isolates are present in rural chickens in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria. In addition to animal health problems created by the resistant strains, there may also be potential danger posed to human health because these strains could easily infect humans through the food chain. Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that multiple-antimicrobial-resistant APEC isolates are present in rural chickens in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria. Consequently, introduction of surveillance programs to monitor antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria is strongly recommended in

  12. Vigilants Factor of Childhood Urinary Tract Infections and Antibiotic Resistance in One Tourism Region

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    Gokhan Aydemir

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Nowadays, it has become quite difficult to set on empiric treatment of the urinary tract infections (UTI due to the levels of antibiotic resistance showing local differences. In our study, we aimed to find out what the antibiotic resistance, the region factors of UTI and we also wanted to observe wheather this resistance shows differences betwen diffirent age groups. METHOD: In this study we made inquiry of six questions with patient parents about region factors effects of UTI. Two hundred children who applied to pediatrics policlinic of Ahu Hetman Hospital with urinary system complaints or diagnosed to have (UTI while hospitalizing and with positive urinary culture results were included in the study. There were no known chronic disorders or no frequent recurrence of UTI history in the patients. The subjects were divided into three groups as 1 under 1 year old; 2 between 1-6 years old; 3 over 6 years old. Then the frequency of the pathogens was examined in terms of the resistance levels occurring against the antibiotics. RESULTS: The range of age the patients was between 1 and 192 months. The reproducing pathogens were Escherichiacoli 86% (n=172, Klebsiella pneumoniae 8% (n=16, Proteus mirabilis 4% (n=8 and Enterococcus spp 2% (n=4 respectively. While there was high resistance to amoxycilline (75.8%, ureidopenicillines (%46.4, 1st generation cephalosporin, (48.4% and cotrimaksazole (43.1%; there was low resistance to imipenem (1.7%, amicasin (5.6% and 3rd generation cephalosporins (14.7%. According to thes age groups, in Group 1 (¡U12 months the most effective agents were netilmicine (13%, gentamicine (13% and ceftriakson (17%; in addition to these, we can add cefuroxim-axetil (22.7% in Group 2 (12-72 months and nitrofrantoin (11% in Group 3. Under 1 year old groups didn't include this inquiry about UTL in tourism region. We made this study with a hundred seventy pation's parents ( upper of one year children than we observed some of

  13. Studio preliminare sul possibile utilizzo del sistema Uro-Quick per l’esecuzione rapida di antibiogrammi su ceppi provenienti da reparti di terapia intensiva

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    Elisabetta Pezzati

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available L’Uro-Quick, un sistema automatizzato ampiamente utilizzato per lo screening delle batteriurie sui campioni d’urina, è stato precedentemente impiegato per la valutazione della sensibilità agli antibiotici negli uropatogeni e per l’identificazione di resistenze ben caratterizzate veicolate da diverse specie batteriche. In questo studio sono stati esaminati utilizzando la metodica classica Kirby-Bauer per la determinazione dell’antibiotico sensibilità patogeni isolati durante il periodo settembre 2003 - marzo 2004 in reparti di terapia intensiva di un grande ospedale italiano e i risultati sono stati confrontati con quelli ottenuti con il nuovo sistema rapido Uro-Quick. L’antibiotico (in concentrazione appropriata è stato introdotto in una cuvetta Uro-Quick contenente 2 ml di Mueller-Hinton brodo, successivamente sono stati addizionati 0.5 ml di sospensione del ceppo da saggiare (5x105 CFU/ml. Una cuvetta priva di farmaco è stata utilizzata come controllo. Dopo 3 o 5 ore di incubazione (per i ceppi Gram-negativi o Gram-positivi rispettivamente i risultati sono stati interpretati nel seguente modo: l’assenza di sviluppo indicava sensibilità, mentre una curva di crescita analoga a quella del controllo rappresentava un ceppo resistente. I microrganismi Gram-negativi sono stati saggiati con ciprofloxacina (CIP, ampicillina (AM, piperacillina (PIP, aztreonam (ATM, amoxicillina-clavulanato (AMC, piperacillina/tazobactam (TZP, imipenem (IPM, ceftazidime (CAZ, cefotaxime (CTX, cefepime (CFP, cefuroxime (CXM, ceftriaxone (CRO, amikacina (AN, gentamicina (GM e trimethoprim-sulfametossazolo (SXT. I Gram-positivi, invece, sono stati saggiati con ciprofloxacina (CIP, clindamicina (CM, eritromicina (E, rifampicina (RA, ampicillina (AM, penicillina (P, oxacillina (OXA, imipenem (IPM, gentamicina (GM, streptomicina (S, tetraciclina (TE, trimethoprim – sulfametazolo (SXT, vancomicina (VA e linezolid (LZD. Sono stati esaminati 197 ceppi Gram

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance analysis of 278 strains Klebsiella pneumoniae from sputum%278株痰肺炎克雷伯菌耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵世峰; 张丽霞

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the antimicrobial resistance of 278 strains klebsiella pneumoniae from sputum sample. Methods Klebsiella pneumoniae was cultured and isolated from sputum, The strain identification, antimicrobial susceptibility test and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) identification were measured by VITEK-32 full automated microbiology analyzer. Results The antimicrobial resistance percentage to ampicillin was 98.56%, imipenem was 0, Piperacillin/ tazobactam was 9.7%, amikacin was 12.23%, ampicillin/sulbactam、ciprofloxacin、ceftriaxone、nitrofurantoin、cefepime gentamicin and tobramycin was lower than 30%, to cefazolin、sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim、cefuroxime、cefuroxime axetil and levofloxacin was between 30% and 40%. The percentage of ESBLs strains was 19.06%, The resistance percentage of ESBLs strains was higher than non-ESBLs strains. Conclusion Klebsiella pneumoniae from sputum was resistant to quite a few of antibiotics, was sensitive to imipenem. The resistance percentage to ampicillin was the highest. The resistance percentage of ESBLs strains was higher than non-ESBLs strains.%目的 分析痰肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药性.方法 使用VITEK-32全自动微生物分析系统进行细菌的鉴定、药物敏感性试验及ESBLs检测.结果 278株痰肺炎克雷伯菌对AMP的耐药率98.56%.对IMI耐药率为0,对TZP耐药率为9.7%,AMK为12.23%,对AMPS、CIP、CTR、FD、FEP、GM、TOB耐药率均在30%以下,对CZ、SXT、ROX、ROXA、LEV耐药率均在30%~40%之间.产ESBLs株占19.06%,产ESBLs株对多种抗生素的耐药率高于不产ESBLs株,差异有统计学意义.结论 痰肺炎克雷伯菌多种抗生素耐药,对IMI均敏感,对AMP耐药率最高,产ESBLs株耐药率高于不产ESBLs株.

  15. Phage type and sensitivity to antibiotics of Staphylococcus aureus film-forming strains isolated from airway mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Voronkova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Today film-forming strains of bacteria play very important role in clinical pathology. Staphylococci are ones of most dangerous of them. This bacteria can determine different pathological processes, for example, complication of airway mucosa. The ability to form a biofilm is one of the main properties of nosocomial strains. These strains should be monitored and their carriers are to be properly treated. To determine the origin of staphylococci strains we used bacteriophages from the International kit. The aim of research was to determine the phage type of staphylococci film-forming strains, that were isolated from naso-pharingial mucosa. Phage typing has been carried out for 16 film-forming strains of S. aureus. To solve this problem, we used the International phage kit by Fisher’s method. As a result, sensitivity to phages from the International kit showed 53.8% of studied strains of S. aureus. 64.3% of sensitivity strains were lysed by one of the phage, 21.4% – were by two of the phages, 14.3% – by three of the phages. Isolates were sensitive to phages: 81 – 42.9%, 75 – 35.7%, 28.6% were sensitive to phages 47 and 53. All cases of detection of sensitivity to phage 47 coincided with the ability to form biofilm. Among non-film-forming strains there was no sensitive strains for this phage. Film-forming strains resist to erythromycin (62.5%, ciprofloxacin (43.8%, gentamicin (56.3%, tetracycline (87.5%, amoxicillin (93.8%, and cefuroxime (37.5%. All cases of sensitivity to phage 47 coincided with resistance to erythromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. For two of these strains, we also defined resistance to gentamicin and for one of them – to ciprofloxacin. Results of research allowed to relate the bacterial cultures for determining the type. This may have implications for studying of film-forming ability, because surface structures of bacterial cell take place in this process. Belonging of an isolate to specific phage type may

  16. Analysis of antibiotics in pediatric patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection%抗生素在儿科急性上呼吸道感染患者中的使用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the use of antibiotics in children patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in township hospitals.Methods:566 cases of prescriptions of children patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection were randomly selected.The use of antibiotics were analyzed.Results:The prescriptions of antibiotics use reached 513 cases,and the use rate was 91% .The most used was the first generation cephalosporin antibiotics,cefuroxime sodium,the allergic person with clindamycin injection,all for a single drug,the single drug rate was 100%.467 cases were the use of antibiotics for intravenous infusion;the intravenous infusion rate was 91% ;46 cases were oral antibiotics.Conclusion:The township health center has antibiotic use irrational phenomenon in the treatment of children patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection,and the proportion of infusion is high.%目的:调查急性上呼吸道感染患儿在乡镇卫生院抗生素的使用情况。方法:随机抽查急性上呼吸道感染患儿的处方566张,分析抗生素的使用情况。结果:使用抗生素的处方达513张,使用率达91%;使用最多的是第一代头孢类抗生素,头孢呋辛钠、有过敏者用注射用克林霉素,全部为单一用药,单一用药率100%;静脉输液使用抗生素的467张,静脉输液率91%,口服使用抗生素46张。结论:乡卫生院在治疗患儿急性上呼吸道感染时存在抗生素使用不合理现象,且输液比例较高。

  17. 3种清洁手术抗菌药物预防使用情况调查%Surveillance of antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing three kinds of clean surgical procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季闽春; 孙光春; 宋锦飞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To collect some information on antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing clean surgical procedure such as inguinal hernia repair, thyroidectomy and breast surgery in a hospital. Methods Retrospectively surveyed with medical record about antimicrobial prophylaxis for in - patients in surgerical department between May and Dec in 2010. We recorded information about gender and age of patients, types of operations, appropriate of antimicrobial choice, administration, duration and cost,and complied with guidelines. Results Two hundred and sixty - six records were reviewed, patients aged from 2 to 88 years old (median ; 52 years ). Cefuroxime was the most frequently used antibiotics. Major irrationally antimicrobial prophylaxis were improper timing, duration, excess postoperatively use, inappropriate drug selection, frequency and infusion diluents. Conclusion Strategies should be made to standardize the duration of peroperation antibiotic use, restricting antibiotic prophylaxis for clean operation and medical satffs trained to promote rational prophylaxis in clinical practice.%目的 了解本院腹外疝、甲状腺和乳房3种清洁手术抗菌药物预防使用情况.方法 回顾性调查手术科室2010年5至12月住院患者的病历,包括患者的基本情况、手术类型、抗菌药物的品种、给药途径、疗程和费用等,并与指南比较和分析.结果 共266份病历,病人年龄2 ~ 88岁(中位数:52岁).头孢呋辛是最常预防使用的抗菌药物.不合理用药主要为给药时机不当、术后用药时间过长、药物选择、用药频度及溶媒不当等.结论 医院应该建立和完善清洁手术围手术期抗菌药物预防使用的管理制度,加强对医务人员的培训,促使临床合理用药.

  18. Investigation of common pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance in gerontism with bronchieetasis concurrent infection.%老年支气管扩张合并感染的常见病原菌及其耐药性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许立; 张锡林

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查分析老年支气管扩张合并感染的常见病原菌及其耐药情况,为临床合理应用抗菌药物提供依据.方法 对189例老年支气管扩张合并感染的住院患者的痰培养和药敏结果进行回顾性调查分析.结果 189例患者病原菌检测阳性122例,阳性率为64.6%,病原菌以革兰阴性杆菌为和真菌为主,分别占59.5%和10.8%;主要致病的革兰阴性杆菌对头孢呋辛、氨苄西林等药物耐药率高,对β-内酰胺类、碳青酶烯类、氨基糖甙类和喹诺酮类药物的耐药率相对较低.结论 老年支气管扩张合并感染病原菌以革兰阴性杆菌和真菌为主要条件致病菌,主要致病菌耐药率高,建议在药敏指导下用药.在未取得细菌药敏结果前可根据其病原菌分布特点经验性选择抗生素,宜采用联合抗菌药物治疗.%To investigate common pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance m gerontism with bronchiectasis concurrent infection, to make reasonable use of antibacterials. Methods Retrospectively analyzed sputum culture and drug sensitivity of 189 old patients with bronchiectasis concurrent infection. Results 122 people had masculine pathogenic bacteria, the masculine rate was 64.6%, then the rate of gram negative bacilli (GNB) was 59.5%, fungus was 10.8%; the drug resistance rate of GNB to Cefuroxime and Ampicillin was high, but to β-lactam antibiotics, carbapenem antibiotics, aminoglycosides and quinolones was low. Conclusion The main pathogenic bacteria in gerontism with bronchiectasis concurrent infection was gram negative bacilli and fungus, the rate of drug resistance was high, used antibiotics on the basis of drug sensitivity, selected antibiotics on the basis of the disposition feature of pathogenic bacteria, there was the best to use combination antibacterial drug therapy.

  19. Drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria isolated in military sanatorium 2010%2010年度部队疗养院病原菌的耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 王俊虹; 刁秋霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria isolated in military sanatorium in 2010. Methods 1856 clinical samples, including sputum, blood, urine, stool, throat swab, wound secretion, puncture fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid, isolated from the hospitalized patients underwent culture of pathogenic bacteria. The isolated pathogenic bacteria were identified by BBL Crystal bacteria analyzer, and drug susceptibility test was conducted by using Kirby-Bauer paper dispersion method. Results 418 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated, 71.3% being Gram-negative bacteria, 27.0% Gram-positive and 1.7% fungus. The Gram-negative bacteria were multi-drug resistant to piperacillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, compound sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, and imipenem. Most of the isolated bacteria were resistant to ceftazidime, cefepime, and levofloxacin. Only cefoperazone/sulbactam retained some antibacterial effects. Conclusion The drug resistance of the bacteria isolated in military sanatorium is severe. Reasonable use of antibacterials is necessary.%目的 调查分析部队疗养院2010年度主要病原菌的耐药情况.方法 采用BBL Crystal型细菌 鉴定仪对一家部队疗养院2010 年度住院的1089 例患者临床分离出的病原菌进行鉴定,同时采用 Kirby-Bauer纸片扩散法进行药敏试验.结果 共分离出病原菌418株,其中革兰阴性菌298株,占71.3%; 革兰阳性菌113株,占27.0%;真菌7株,占1.7%.革兰阴性菌对哌拉西林、氨苄西林、头孢唑啉、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、复方磺胺甲硝唑、阿米卡星、亚胺培南具有多重耐药;大多数菌对头孢他啶、头孢吡肟、左氧氟 沙星具有耐药性;仅头孢哌酮/舒巴坦对大多数菌有较好的抗菌效果.结论 部分革兰阴性杆菌和革兰阳 性球菌耐药情况较为严重,临床上应合理使用抗生素.

  20. 猪大肠杆菌和葡萄球菌的分离鉴定及耐药性分析%Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Drug Resistance on E.coli and Staphylococcus in Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑红; 王京仁; 成钢; 曾文虎

    2012-01-01

    对湘西北地区某猪场患病的仔猪的粪便及病变的脾脏、肝脏、淋巴结、肺脏、肾水肿液进行病原菌分离鉴定,并用Kirby-Bauer法测定分离菌株对15种抗菌药的敏感性.结果表明,患病仔猪分离到大肠杆菌和猪葡萄球菌两种细菌.其中大肠杆菌对庆大霉素、头孢呋肟、丁胺卡那霉素、四环素、先锋必素敏感,对氯霉素、氧哌嗪青霉素、先锋五号、头孢曲松钠、新霉素中介,对羧苄青霉素、强力霉素、青霉素、氨苄青霉素、红霉素有较高的耐药性.葡萄球菌对先锋霉素V、丁胺卡那霉素敏感,对头孢曲松钠中介,对其他抗生素耐药.其中大肠杆菌对药物敏感率、中介率、耐药率均为33.33%;葡萄球菌的敏感率为13.33%,中介率为6.67%,耐药率为80.00%.%he pathogen were isolated and identified on feces of sick piglets and disease of the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, lung, kidney edema fluidin a pig farm in Hunan northwestern region. Susceptibility of 15 kinds antimicrobial drug was determined with the Kirby-Bauer for isolated strains. The results showed piglets were infected with E. coli and Staphylococcus. Escherichia coli was sensitive to gentamicin, cefuroxime, Amikacin, tetracycline, cefoperazone sodium, to chloramphenicol, piperacillin, pioneer V, ceftriaxone, neomycin was intermediate, to carbenicillin, doxycycline, penicillin, ampicillin, erythro-mycin had a higher resistance. Staphylococcus was sensitive to pioneer V, Amikacin, to ceftriaxone was intermediate, on the other antibiotic was resistance. Which was 33.33% the rate of drug sensitivity, intermediate and resistance to E. coli. Which was 13. 33% sensitive rate, intermediate rate was 6. 67%, resistance rate was 80. 00% to Staphylococcus.

  1. Activities of ceftobiprole and other cephalosporins against extracellular and intracellular (THP-1 macrophages and keratinocytes) forms of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Glupczynski, Youri; Duval, Valérie; Joris, Bernard; Tulkens, Paul M; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2009-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic intracellular organism. Although they poorly accumulate in eukaryotic cells, beta-lactams show activity against intracellular methicillin (methicillin)-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) if the exposure times and the drug concentrations are sufficient. Intraphagocytic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains are susceptible to penicillins and carbapenems because the acidic pH favors the acylation of PBP 2a by these beta-lactams through pH-induced conformational changes. The intracellular activity (THP-1 macrophages and keratinocytes) of ceftobiprole, which shows almost similar in vitro activities against MRSA and MSSA in broth, was examined against a panel of hospital-acquired and community-acquired MRSA strains (MICs, 0.5 to 2.0 mg/liter at pH 7.4 and 0.25 to 1.0 mg/liter at pH 5.5) and was compared with its activity against MSSA isolates. The key pharmacological descriptors {relative maximal efficacy (E(max)), relative potency (the concentration causing a reduction of the inoculum halfway between E(0) and E(max) [EC(50)]), and static concentration (C(s))} were measured. All strains showed sigmoidal dose-responses, with E(max) being about a 1 log(10) CFU decrease from the postphagocytosis inoculum, and EC(50) and C(s) being 0.2 to 0.3x and 0.6 to 0.9x the MIC, respectively. Ceftobiprole effectively competed with Bocillin FL (a fluorescent derivative of penicillin V) for binding to PBP 2a at both pH 5.5 and pH 7.4. In contrast, cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, or ceftriaxone (i) were less potent in PBP 2a competitive binding assays, (ii) showed only partial restoration of the activity against MRSA in broth at acidic pH, and (iii) were collectively less effective against MRSA in THP-1 macrophages and were ineffective in keratinocytes. The improved activity of ceftobiprole toward intracellular MRSA compared with the activities of conventional cephalosporins can be explained, at least in part, by its greater ability to bind

  2. Perú: Evaluación de la Calidad de Discos de Sensibilidad Antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Obregón

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la calidad de 24 lotes de discos de sensibilidad antimicrobiana de dos marcas, una de fabricación nacional y otra de fabricación extranjera (USA, ambas comercializadas en el mercado peruano, empleando la norma M2-A5 del NCCLS. Se evaluaron lotes de discos ß-lactámicos de Amoxicilina/Ácido Clavulánico 20/10 µg, Ampicilina 10 µg, Cefotaxime 30 µg, Ceftazidime 30 µg, Ceftriaxone 30 µg, Cefuroxime 30 µg, Oxacilina 1 µg, Penicilina 10 UI, y lotes de discos no ß-lactámicos de Ácido Nalidíxico 30 µg, Amicacina 30 µg, Ciprofloxacina 5 µg, Clindamicina 2 µg, Cloranfenicol 30 µg, Eritromicina 15 µg, Estreptomicina 10 µg, Gentamicina 10 µg, Norfloxacina 10 µg, Vancomicina 30 µg, frente a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 y Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, utilizando el Método Kirby-Bauer. Los diámetros de zona de inhibición antibiótica obtenidos experimentalmente fueron comparados con los valores indicados en la norma, utilizando la Prueba de Límites de Confianza. Sólo el 50% del total de los lotes de discos evaluados cumplieron satisfactoriamente los requisitos de la norma, mientras que el 66,7% de los lotes de discos de fabricación extranjera cumplió con dichos requisitos. El 50% de los lotes de discos nacionales y extranjeros (Amicacina, Estreptomicina y Gentamicina presentaron comportamiento similar, (Prueba de Hipótesis sobre Promedios pero sólo el lote de discos de Gentamicina de fabricación extranjera cumplió con la norma M2-A5. La elevada proporción de lotes de discos evaluados que obtuvieron resultados no conformes, plantea la necesidad de realizar un mayor número de evaluaciones a fin de conocer la real situación de la calidad de los discos de sensibilidad antimicrobiana disponibles en el Perú, debido a su particular importancia en el diagnóstico clínico.

  3. Isolation and identification of multidrug resistant Citrobacter freundii from diseased soft -shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis%一株多重耐药中华鳖源弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛烁君; 斯广杰; 任晓金; 石婷婷; 章烨; 王卓瑞; 章晓栋

    2015-01-01

    从患典型鳃腺炎病中华鳖(Pelodiscus sinensis)肝脏和腹水处进行细菌接种,分离获得一株细菌。综合菌落形态,16 S rRNA 序列进化分析和 API 细菌生化鉴定系统判定,所得菌株为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii)(SX43)。动物回归实验显示,分离株对小鼠的半数致死量(LD50)为106.5 CFU,显示该菌株具有较强的致病性,可从实验幼鳖体内再次分离到相同的病原菌。常用药物的抗菌敏感性测定显示,菌株 SX43对头孢哌酮、头孢曲松、头孢呋辛、复方新诺明、氯霉素高度敏感。%One bacteria was isolated from liver and ascites of diseased soft- shelled turtles( Pelodiscus sinensis) suffered with parotitis, on the colony morphology, Gram’s staining, API ID32E bacterial biochemical identification system and se-quence analysis of 16S rRNA gene, the isolate bacteria was identified as Citrobacter freundii, named SX43.Healthy soft -shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) were used for experimental infection with bacterial suspension, the same bacterium could be recovered.Isolate SX43 was demonstrated virulence potential in mouse models, with the median lethal dose (LD50 ) in mice at 10 6.5 CFU.The susceptibility test to antibiotics demonstrated that the bacterial strain SX43 was suscepti-ble to cefoperazone, rocephin, cefuroxim, co -trimoxazole, chloramphenicol.

  4. Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections – implementation of the recommendations of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO in nursing homes for the elderly in Frankfurt am Main, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heudorf, Ursel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections range among the most frequent infections not only in hospital patients but also in residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly. Urinary catheters are the greatest risk factor for urinary tract infections. In the guidance paper on the “prevention of infections in nursing homes” (2005 as well as in the updated recommendations for the “prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections” (2015, the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO has recommended adequate preventive measures. In 2015, the implementation of these KRINKO recommendations was investigated.Method: All of Frankfurt’s 40 nursing homes were evaluated using a checklist based on the KRINKO recommendations. The evaluation included assessing the availability of operating instructions, appropriate indications for the placement of catheters etc. Age, sex and duration of catheterization, as well as current and previous infections within the past 6 months were documented for every resident with a catheter.Results: In 35 (87.5% of the nursing homes, operating instructions for the handling of urinary tract catheters were available. The decision as to whether a catheter is indicated is made by physicians, while its placement is often delegated to the nursing service. Typically, silicon catheters are used. In three-quarters of the nursing homes, regular intervals of 4–6 weeks for changing catheters were reported. On the respective survey day, 7.3% of the residents were catheterized. On the survey day, 3.6% (4.2% and in the previous 6 months a total of 28% (28.9% of the residents had a urinary tract infection (prevalence of antibiotic therapy in parentheses. Ciprofloxacin was used most often followed by cefuroxime and cotrimoxazole.Discussion: In the current evaluation, fewer nursing home residents were catheterized than in previous years and the rate of urinary tract infections was low

  5. 不同种类抗生素影响重症肌无力小鼠神经肌肉接头处的传递功能%Effect of different kinds of antibiotics on transmission function at neuromuscular junction in mice with myasthenia gravis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓敏; 王云甫; 胡芳; 吕永宁; 刘昌勤; 曹学兵; 杨汉菊; 徐楚鸿

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is recently found that some kinds of antibiotics can aggravate the obstruction of neuromuscular junction(NM J) transmission,exacerbate myasthenia gravis (MG). Hitherto, there are few reports about the effect of antibiotics on transitive function on animal models. Along with the appearance of new antibiotics, the effects of the antibiotics on NMJ transitive function need to be further observed.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics, fluoroquinolone antibiotics and cephalosporin antibiotics on the transitive function of NMJ in MG, and to provide an experimental basis for using those antibiotics securely in clinic and for selecting those antibiotics to treat MG properly.DESIGN: Randomized controlled study based on experimental animals.SETTING: Department of nosocomial infection, neurology and pharmacy in a university hospital.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted at the Neurological Institute of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from March 2002 to January 2003. Totally 150 healthy female C57BL/6mice, 6 - 8 weeks old, weighting 18 - 20 g, were divided randomly into 4groups: normal group( n = 10), MG group( n = 10), saline group( n = 10)and antibiotics group( n = 120) . Mice in antibiotics group were divided randomly again into gentamicin group, etimicin group, ciprofloxacin group,fleroxacin group, cefuroxime group and cephradine group, with 20 mice in each group.INTERVENTIONS: C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the acetylcholine receptor(AChR) protein in complete Fruend' s adjuvant(CFA) to establish experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis(EAMG) . Mice in saline group were injected normal saline and mice in antibiotics group were injected antibiotics(10 mg/kg), lasted 14 days. Mice in MG group were without any treatments. On the 7th day after the last immunization and the 14th day after the antibiotics treatments, MG scores was evaluated, repetitive nerve stimulation(RNS) and the levels of

  6. Infective myositis A one-case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daoyou Zhou; Jianwen Guo; Yan Huang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infective myositis is rare. The retrospective report of clinical data and symptoms from one patient with infective myositis will hopefully provide more information for clinicians in the diagnosis of this disease. METHODS: A male patient, 65 years old, was admitted with "fever and muscle pain since four days ago, accompanied by inertia of all limbs for one day", to the First Department of Neurology, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine on April 25th, 2005. Following admission, a history of diseases was record, and detailed physical and neurological examinations were performed. During the examination, symmetrical myasthenia appeared, tendon reflex disappeared, and creatine kinase levels were increased 500 times higher than normal. The patient was primarily diagnosed with hypokalemic periodic paralysis, myositis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and upper respiratory infection. Subsequently, the patient was treated with the following: cefuroxime for infection, potassium supplements, breviscapin for promoting blood circulation through the removal of stasis, and ATP/CO-A for myocardial nutrition. Antiviral drugs were not administered. However, laboratory samples were continuously monitored. Creatine kinase levels decreased to normal, and muscle pain was obviously relieved following antibiotics treatment. The results led to a final diagnosis of infective myositis.RESULTS: Four days after treatment (April 29th), muscular tenderness and throat congestion were obviously improved (+/-). The neurological examination showed the patient was conscious, cooperated with treatment, and had normal intellect. No abnormalities of the cranial nerve were observed upon examination. Proximal and distal muscle strength and muscular tensions of the four limbs were all normal. Reflexes of the right biceps brachii muscle and its tendon were decreased, and knee tendon and Achilles tendon reflex were not induced. A Babinski reflex was not detected. The neurological

  7. Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections - implementation of the recommendations of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) in nursing homes for the elderly in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudorf, Ursel; Gasteyer, Stefanie; Müller, Maria; Samoiski, Yvonne; Serra, Nicole; Westphal, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Ziel: Nicht nur in Krankenhäusern, auch in Altenpflegeheimen zählen Harnwegsinfektionen zu den häufigsten nosokomialen Infektionen der Bewohner. Das größte Risiko für eine Harnwegsinfektion sind Harnwegskatheter. In den Empfehlungen „Infektionsprävention in Heimen“ (2005) und „Prävention und Kontrolle Katheter-assoziierter Harnwegsinfektionen“ (2015) hat die Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention (KRINKO) geeignete Präventionsmaßnahmen empfohlen. Im Jahr 2015 wurde in allen Frankfurter Altenpflegeheimen die Umsetzung dieser KRINKO-Empfehlungen untersucht.Methode: Alle 40 Altenpflegeheime wurden anhand einer auf Grundlage dieser Empfehlungen erstellten Checkliste überprüft. Neben allgemeinen Arbeitsanweisungen, Indikationen etc. wurden bei allen Bewohnern mit Katheter Alter, Geschlecht, die Liegedauer des Katheters und Harnwegsinfekte aktuell und in den letzten 6 Monaten erfragt.Ergebnisse: In 35 (87,5%) der Altenpflegeheime lagen Arbeitsanweisungen zum Umgang mit Harnwegskathetern vor. Die Indikation für einen Harnwegskatheter wird von Ärzten gestellt, das Legen des Katheters wird häufig an den Pflegedienst delegiert; in aller Regel werden Silikonkatheter gelegt. In drei Viertel der Heime wurden feste Intervalle zum Katheterwechsel von 4–6 Wochen angegeben. Am jeweiligen Erhebungstag waren 7,3% der Bewohner mit einem Katheter versorgt. 3,6% (4,2%) von ihnen hatten am Erhebungstag, insgesamt 28% (28,9%) von ihnen in den vorangegangenen 6 Monaten eine Harnwegsinfektion (Prävalenz der Antibiotikatherapie in Klammern). Ciprofloxacin wurde am häufigsten eingesetzt, gefolgt von Cefuroxim und Cotrimoxazol.Diskussion: Bei der aktuellen Erhebung waren weniger Altenpflegeheimbewohner in Frankfurt mit Harnwegskathetern versorgt als in früheren Jahren und die Rate der Harnwegsinfektionen war niedrig. Dies spricht für einen zunehmend zurückhaltenderen und offenbar weitgehend sachgerechten Umgang mit Harnwegskathetern. Auch die

  8. Analysis of drug resistance and acinetobacter baumannii detection in our hospital from 2012 to 2014%2012-2014年我院鲍曼不动杆菌检出情况及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立军; 孙倩倩; 吴玲玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze drug resistance and acinetobacter baumannii detection in our hospital from 2012 to 2014. Methods A total of 587 plants of acinetobacter baumannii were separated from sputum,urine,secretion in Health Clin-ics of Taian Military Sub - command hospitalization and outpatients from 2012 to 2014,drug susceptibility test was performed. Results Acinetobacter baumannii isolation rate showed no significant differences from 2012 to 2014(P > 0. 05);acinetobacter baumannii to ampicillin and cefazolin,cefuroxime,cefoxitin and amoxicillin/ rod acid resistance were higher,mainly from the sputum and secretion in checked out,detection rate was respectively 90. 6﹪ ,3. 6﹪ . Conclusion Acinetobacter baumannii can cause nosocomial infection,the hospital should pay attention to monitoring of acinetobacter baumannii,rationally use the an-timicrobial agents,reduce the resistance.%目的:分析2012—2014年我院鲍曼不动杆菌检出情况及耐药性。方法选取2012—2014年山东省泰安军分区卫生所住院和门诊患者送检的痰液、尿液、分泌物等分离出的鲍曼不动杆菌587株,均进行药敏试验。结果2012—2014年鲍曼不动杆菌分离率比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);鲍曼不动杆菌对氨苄青霉素、头孢唑啉、头孢呋辛、头孢西丁及阿莫西林/棒酸的耐药率均较高,主要从痰液和分泌物中检出,检出率分别为90.6﹪、3.6﹪。结论鲍曼不动杆菌易引发医院感染,医院应重视对鲍曼不动杆菌的监测,合理使用抗菌药物,降低其耐药性。

  9. Trends in antibacterial resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in the USA: update from PROTEKT US Years 1–4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Steven D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of resistance to established antibiotics among key bacterial respiratory tract pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a major healthcare problem in the USA. The PROTEKT US study is a longitudinal surveillance study designed to monitor the susceptibility of key respiratory tract pathogens in the USA to a range of commonly used antimicrobials. Here, we assess the geographic and temporal trends in antibacterial resistance of S. pneumoniae isolates from patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections collected between Year 1 (2000–2001 and Year 4 (2003–2004 of PROTEKT US. Methods Antibacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined centrally using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI broth microdilution method; susceptibility was defined according to CLSI interpretive criteria. Macrolide resistance genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results A total of 39,495 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected during 2000–2004. The percentage of isolates resistant to erythromycin, penicillin, levofloxacin, and telithromycin were 29.3%, 21.2%, 0.9%, and 0.02%, respectively, over the 4 years, with marked regional variability. The proportion of isolates exhibiting multidrug resistance (includes isolates known as penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and isolates resistant to ≥ 2 of the following antibiotics: penicillin; second-generation cephalosporins, e.g. cefuroxime; macrolides; tetracyclines; and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole remained stable at ~30% over the study period. Overall mef(A was the most common macrolide resistance mechanism. The proportion of mef(A isolates decreased from 68.8% to 62.3% between Year 1 and Year 4, while the percentage of isolates carrying both erm(B and mef(A increased from 9.7% to 18.4%. Over 99% of the erm(B+mef(A-positive isolates collected over Years 1–4 exhibited multidrug resistance. Higher than previously

  10. Relationship between antibiotic resistance and sickle cell anemia: preliminary evidence from a pediatric carriage study in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donkor ES

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Eric S Donkor,1 Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko,2 Christabel C Enweronu-Laryea3 1Department of Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana; 3Department of Child Health, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, GhanaBackground: Antibiotics are frequently used among people with sickle cell anemia (homozygous SS or HbSS disease, especially for prophylaxis. However, the relationship between antibiotic resistance and people with HbSS disease has not been adequately studied, especially in the developing world. The objectives of the study were (1 to compare antibiotic resistance patterns of nasal Staphylococcus aureus between children with HbSS disease and children without HbSS disease (healthy children and (2 to evaluate nasopharyngeal carriage of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae among children with HbSS disease.Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study, and the subjects were children under 12 years old. Nasal swabs were collected from 50 children with HbSS disease and 50 children without HbSS disease. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from another group of 92 children with HbSS disease. The nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs were cultured for S. aureus and S. pneumoniae, respectively. Susceptibility testing was carried out on the S. aureus and S. pneumoniae isolates for various antibiotics, including penicillin, ampicillin, cefuroxime, erythromycin, cloxacillin, and cotrimoxazole.Results: The carriage rates of S. aureus among pediatric subjects with HbSS disease and those without HbSS disease were 48% and 50%, respectively (P > 0.05. S. pneumoniae carriage among the pediatric subjects with HbSS disease was 10%. Antibiotic resistance patterns of S. aureus carried by children with HbSS disease and children without HbSS disease were similar, and the S. aureus resistance rates were >40% for the various

  11. 环杓关节炎症55例临床分析%Clinical analysis on 55 cases of cricoarytenoid arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢福权; 傅明

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨环杓关节炎的诊断与治疗经验。方法回顾性分析55例环杓关节炎的临床资料,总结诊断要点,探讨治疗方案。患者分为两组,A 组予口服地塞米松片和二氟尼柳片治疗,B 组予口服头孢呋辛酯片治疗。结果A 组的治愈率为80%,B 组的治愈率为20%,经过统计学分析 P <0.05,具有统计学意义。随访时间为2个月至1年,治愈病例均未见复发。结论环杓关节炎临床症状以喉痛、声音嘶哑、吞咽困难为主,喉镜下见杓区黏膜红肿,声带可呈弓形隆起。口服地塞米松片和二氟尼柳片可能是治疗环杓关节炎的最佳治疗方法。%Objective To investigate the experiences of diagnosis and treatment for cricoarytenoid arthritis.Methods Clinical datas of 55 patients with cricoarytenoid arthritis were retrospectively studied, summarized the main points of diagnosis and treatment.The patients were randomly divided into two groups:patients in group A (n =30) were given oral medicine of dexamethasone and diflunisal,patients in group B (n =25) were given oral medicine of cefuroxime axetil.Results 24 cases were cured in group A,the cure rate was 80%.5 cases were cured in group B, the cure rate was only 20%.The difference between the two groups was statistically significant ( P <0.05).The patients were followed up for two months to one year, and none recrudesce occurred in the cured cases.Conclusions Clinical symptoms of cricoarytenoid arthritis are sore throat, hoarseness and difficulty swallowing.The mucosa of interarytenoidea is swollen and the vocal cords are bow -shaped under laryngoscope.The best treatment of cricoarytenoid arthritis may be to give oral medicine of dexamethasone and diflunisal.

  12. Large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of renal calculi in a spina bifida patient: lessons we learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidyanathan S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Subramanian Vaidyanathan,1 Azi Samsudin,2 Gurpreet Singh,3 Peter L Hughes,4 Bakul M Soni,1 Fahed Selmi1 1Regional Spinal Injuries Center, Southport and Formby District General Hospital, Southport, UK; 2Department of Urology, Whiston Hospital, Prescot, UK; 3Department of Urology, 4Department of Radiology, Southport and Formby District General Hospital, Southport, UK Introduction: Paraplegic patients are at greater risk of developing complications following ureteroscopic lithotripsy because of urine infection associated with neuropathic bladder, difficulties in access due to altered anatomy of urinary bladder and urethra, spinal curvature, spasticity, and contractures. We report the occurrence of large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopy and discuss lessons we learn from this case.Case report: A 48-year-old male patient with spina bifida underwent ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy and ureteric stenting for left ureteric stone and staghorn calculus with hydronephrosis; laser lithotripsy was repeated after 3 months; both procedures were performed by a senior urologist and did not result in any complications. Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy was performed 5 months later by a urological trainee; it was difficult to negotiate the scope as vision became poor because of bleeding (as a result of the procedure. Postoperatively, hematuria persisted; temperature was 39°C. Cefuroxime was given intravenously followed by gentamicin for 5 days; hematuria subsided gradually; he was discharged home. Ten days later, this patient developed temperature, the urine culture grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ciprofloxacin was given orally. Computed tomography (CT of the urinary tract, performed 4 weeks after ureteroscopy, revealed a 9×7 cm subcapsular collection on the left kidney compressing underlying parenchyma. Percutaneous drainage was not feasible because of severe curvature of spine. Isotope renogram revealed deterioration in left renal function from 30

  13. Genotypes and phenotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olowe OA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe,1 Bukola W Aboderin,1,2 Olayinka O Idris,3 Victor O Mabayoje,4 Oluyinka O Opaleye,1 O Catherine Adekunle,1 Rita Ayanbolade Olowe,1 Paul Akinniyi Akinduti,5 Olusola Ojurongbe1 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Medical Microbiology Unit, Pathology Department, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria; 3Department of Microbiology, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria; 4Department of Haematology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 5Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria Purpose: To characterize the prevalence of hemolytic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC with a multidrug-resistant pattern in different age groups in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods: Nonrepetitive E. coli isolates were collected from 202 subjects with or without evidence of diarrhea. Each isolate was biochemically identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. A sorbitol fermentation test of all the E. coli isolates was done and the minimum inhibitory concentration of suspected STEC was measured by the standard broth microdilution method to determine antibiotic resistance. The genotypes of stx1, stx2, and hlyA were determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: The majority of subjects were aged ≥40 years (41.6% and were female (61.9%. Of the 202 subjects, 86.1% had STEC isolates (P<0.05. A high rate of STEC isolates resistant to amoxicillin (90.6%, cefotaxime (77.7%, and cefuroxime (75.7% was observed. Resistance to amoxicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime was demonstrated with a minimum inhibitory concentration >16 µg/mL in 13.9%, 11.4%, and 10.4% of the isolates, respectively. The prevalence of stx1, stx2, and hlyA was 13.9%, 6.9%, and 2.0%, respectively; 5.5% of

  14. 武汉地区儿童流感嗜血菌耐药性的分析%Antibiotic resistance of haemophilus influenzae isolated from children in Wuhan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 虞涛; 鲍连生; 余星

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the antibiotic resistance of Heamophilus influenzae isolated from children in Wuhan area. METHODS A total of 2212 strains of H. influenzae isolated from hospitalized children were collected between Jan 2009 and Jun 2010, bacterial susceptibility testing was carried out by using Kirby-Bauer and E-test method. The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2008. The variance of antibiotics resistance was analyzed by Chi-squared methods. RESULTS The antibiotics resistance rates of 2212 strains of H. influenzae to azithromycin, ampicillin/sulbactam, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, meropenem, cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone were 1. 45%, 3. 89%, 35. 71%, 75. 50%, 0. 36%, 0. 59%, 2. 53% and 2. 26%, respectively.CONCLUSION The resistant rates of H. influenzae isolated from the children in Wuhan area to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole are high, and the drug resistance situation is grim, the monitoring of the drug sensitivity and the rational use of antibiotics should be strengthened in clinics.%目的 了解武汉地区儿童呼吸道感染流感嗜血菌(HIN)的耐药情况. 方法 收集医院2009年1月-2010年6月住院患儿分离的流感嗜血菌2212株,采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)进行抗菌药敏试验,对其进行β-内酰胺酶测定,按CLSI 2008年版判断结果 ,使用χ2检验分析耐药性的变化.结果 2212株流感嗜血菌对阿奇霉素、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、氨苄西林、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶、美罗培南、头孢呋辛、头孢克洛、头孢曲松的耐药率分别为:1.45%、3.89%、35.71%、75.50%、0.36%、0.59%、2.53%、2.26%. 结论 武汉地区儿童分离流感嗜血菌对氨苄西林及磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶的耐药率高,耐药形势严峻,临床应加强对其的药敏监测并合理使用抗菌药物.

  15. [The comparison of antibiotic susceptibilities of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates in transition from CLSI to EUCAST].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süzük, Serap; Kaşkatepe, Banu; Avcıküçük, Havva; Aksaray, Sebahat; Başustaoğlu, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    .004), cefuroxime axetil (20.13% and 77.18%, respectively; p= 0.000) and levofloxacin (73.83% and 67.11%, respectively; p= 0.044). No statistically differences between two standards for ampicillin (32.89% and 36.24%, respectively; p= 0.219), ampicillin-sulbactam (65.77% and 69.13%, respectively; p= 0.216), ciprofloxacin (72.48% and 71.14%, respectively; p= 0.392) and imipenem (94.63% and 95.30%, respectively; p= 0.426) were determined. In this transitional period, continuity of cooperation between the clinician and microbiology laboratory should be kept forefront and the maintenance of local surveillance studies should be provided by taking into account the changes in antibiotic susceptibility results.

  16. Salvage procedures in lower-extremity trauma in a child with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gothner Martin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fractures of the lower extremity are a common type of childhood injury and many can be treated without surgery. Dislocated and open fractures are an indication for fracture stabilization via either intramedullary nailing or, in the case of complicated fractures, external fixation. But if complications are likely because of diseases and disabilities (for example, a neuropathy that can complicate the post-operative procedure and rehabilitation, what options does one have? Case presentation We report a nine-year-old Caucasian girl who had hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I and who was admitted with a grade I open tibia fracture after a fall from a small height. Plain radiographs showed a dislocated tibia and fibula fracture. An open reduction with internal fixation with a compression plate osteosynthesis was performed, and soft tissue debridement combined with an external fixateur was undertaken. Three months later, she was re-admitted with localized swelling and signs of a local soft tissue infection in the middle of her tibia. Plain radiographs showed a non-union of the tibia fracture, and microbiological analysis confirmed a wound infection with cefuroxime-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Because of the non-union, the osteosynthesis was replaced with an Ilizarov external fixateur, and appropriate antibiotic therapy was initiated. Four months after the initial accident, the fracture was consolidated and we removed the external fixateur. Conclusions If there is a pre-existing neuropathy and if disease makes it difficult for a child to follow all post-operative instructions, salvage procedures should be kept in mind in case of complications. There are multiple therapeutic options, including osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing systems, cast therapy, or an external fixateur like the Ilizarov or Taylor spatial frame system. The initial use of an external fixateur such as an Ilizarov or Taylor spatial frame in

  17. 新生儿血培养常见病原菌与抗生素耐药%Bacterial spectrum of neonatal blood cultures and antibiotic resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔曙东; 邵小松; 胡毓华; 章晔; 陈筱青; 管亚飞

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解新生儿血培养细菌种类及抗生素耐药情况.方法 收集662份新生儿血培养标本,对其中培养结果阳性的45份标本进行细菌分类和抗生素耐药分析.结果 甲氧西林敏感凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(MSCNS)占首位,其次是耐甲氧西林凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(MRCNS)、金黄色葡萄球菌、革兰氏阴性杆菌.在非头孢菌素类的抗生素中,对青霉素耐药的比例最高(87.18%),其次是红霉素;对头孢菌素及头霉素类耐药皆在50%以上,其中头孢呋肟耐药比例达100%.结论 新生儿条件致病菌感染比例增加,抗生素使用导致非自然选择耐药菌感染增多.%Objective To study the bacterial spectrum of neonatal blood cultures and antibiotic resistance Methods Six hundred and sixty-two blood cultures from newborn infants were collected.Forty-five positive bacterial blood cultures were performed by classification of bacteria and antibiotic resistance analysis. Results Methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci samples occupied the first place, which was followed in an order of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci >staphylococcus aureus>Gram-negative bacillus samples. Among antibiotic resistant bacteria (expect cephalosporin and cephamycins), penicillin-resistant bacteria occupied the first place(87. 18%), which was followed by erythromycir-resistant bacteria. Cephalosporin and cephamycins resistant bacteria were at least 50%, in which cefuroxime-resistant bacteria were 100%. Conclusion The incidence of coagulase-negative staphylococci sepsis in newborn infants increases. Non-natural selection based antibiotic-resistant bacteria infection is increased because of the extensive use of antibiotics.

  18. Prevalence of Moraxella catarrhalis in the nasopharyngeal specimen from 1082 hospitalized children with respiratory infection and the drug resistance of the isolates%1 082例呼吸道感染住院患儿鼻咽部携带卡他莫拉菌状况及其耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐萍; 史伟; 曾海玲; 丁维; 王诚; 姚开虎; 文德年

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence ofMoraxella catarrhalis in the nasopharyngeal region of children with respiratory infection and the sensitivity ofMoraxella catarrhalis isolates to common antimicrobial drugs.MethodsNasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 1 082 children with respiratory infection, andMoraxella catarrhalis strains were isolated. The E-test method and disc diffusion test were used to determine the sensitivity of these strains to 11 common antimicrobial drugs. The test results were interpreted with reference to the standards of European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), and British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC). The nitroceifn disc method was used to detect whether the isolated strains produced β-lactamase.ResultsAmong the 1 082 children with respiratory infection, 77 (77/1 082, 7.12%) carriedMoraxella catarrhalis in the nasopharyngeal region. All the strains produced β-lactamase. With reference to all the three standards, all the strains were sensitive to amoxycillin-clavulanate and had a susceptibility rate of >95%towards ciprolfoxacin and tetracycline. According to the EUCAST and CLSI standards, the susceptibility rate of the strains towards sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was as high as 98.7%, and more than 80% of all strains were sensitive tothe three cephalosporins detected; however, with reference to the BSAC standard, only 2.6% of the strains were sensitive to cefuroxime, with an intermediate rate of 44.2% and a drug resistance rate of 53.2%. The rate of resistance to ampicillin was 81.8%. According to the CLSI standard, the non-susceptibility rate of the strains to erythromycin was 79.2%, and according to the EUCAST or BSAC standards, their non-susceptibility rate reached 90.9%; more than one third of the strains (27/77, 35.1%) had a minimal inhibitory concentration of >256 mg/L.ConclusionsAll of theMoraxella catarrhalis isolates in the

  19. 中国部分食品分离单增李斯特菌的抗菌药物敏感性及耐药基因检测%Detection of drug susceptibility and resistant genes in selected food borne Listeria monocytogens in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天姝; 王艳; 贺春月; 叶正兴; 王毅; 许柯; 俞骅; 汪永禄; 张兰荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the drug susceptibility and relationship between antibiotic resistant genes and resistant phenotype in selected food borne Listeria monocytogenes strains in China. Methods The drug susceptibility of 203 food borne Listeria monocytogenes strains was detected by broth micro dilution test as recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A total of 20 antibiotics, including gentamicin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline, imipenem, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, cephalothin, rifampin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sufamethoxazole, ampicillin-sulbactam, norfloxacin, polymyxin B sulfate, nitrofurantoin, clindamycin and cefuroxime, were used in the drug susceptibility test. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted to detect 9 resistance genes and transposon Tn916. Results The resistant rates of the food borne Listeria monocytogenes strains to polymyxin B sulfate, nitrofurantoin, cefuroxime, clindamycin, tetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol were 98. 52% , 55. 66% , 50. 25% , 12. 81% , 2. 46% , 1. 97% , 0. 99% , 0. 99% and 0. 49% , respectively. In the 203 food borne Listeria monocytogenes strains, tetM gene was only found in 5 tetracycline-resistant strains,3 of which were positive for Tn916. Conclusion Different levels of antibiotic resistance were detected in the tested food borne Listeria monocytogens, in which 83 strains were multi-drug resistant, demonstrating the risk of causing food borne Listeria monocytogenes infection Therefore, we should enhance the management of antibiotic use, insure food safety and improve public health.%目的 了解我国部分食品中分离单增李斯特菌的抗菌药物敏感性和耐药性,探讨单增李斯特菌耐药基因的携带与耐药表型的关系.方法 采用微量肉汤稀释法对2005-2011年从我国7个省市/地区食品分离的203株单增李斯特菌进行庆大霉素、氨苄西林、头孢噻吩、

  20. 2010-2012年流感嗜血杆菌耐药性监测%2010-2012 surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙姗姗; 喻华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of haemophilus influenzae ,and to pro-vide reference for reasonable use of antibiotics .Methods Clinical isolates from patients in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2012 were identified by VITEK2-compact automatic identification system , bacterial susceptibility tests were per-formed on strains by ATB system , the results were determined according to the guidelines of CLSI in 2012,and β-lactamase was detected by nitrocefin disk diffusion method .WHONET5.6 software was applied for data analysis .Results A total of 201 strains of haemophilus influenzae were obtained from our hospital in recent three years .Among them,193 strains were from sputum specimen (96.0%),6 from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen (2.9%),2 from blood specimen (1.1%).As for the distribution of haemophilus influenzae in clinical departments ,the top three were respiratory department (104 strains, 51. 7%),surgical department (31 strains,15.4%) and ICU (27 strains,13.4%).The results of bacterial susceptibility tests showed that haemophilus influenzae was sensitive to rifampicin , ampicillin,chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole with a rate of 45.5%,73.4%,87.5%and 87.1%respectively,and that the sensitive rate of haemophilus influenzae to amoxicillin /clavu-lanic acid,cefotaxime,cefaclor,tetracycline, cefuroxime and ofloxacin was higher than 90%.Isolates from adults were more sensitive to ampicillin and rifampicin than those from children ,but for tetracycline , isolates from children were more sensitive than those from adults .52 strains were positive to β-lactamase with a rate of 25.9%, and the rate of β-lactamase positive strains from children was significantly higher than that from adults .Conclusion Haemophilus influenzae has a higher resistant rate to rifampicin.Amoxicillin /clavulanate,cefotaxime,cefaclor,cefuroxime and ofloxacin are still the effective antibiotics for the control of haemophilus influenzae

  1. The role of antibiotic prophylaxis in mesh repair of inguinal hernias: A randomized, double- blind,placebo- controlled study%腹股沟无张力疝修补术前一次性使用抗生素的随机、双盲、空白对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小军; 王小强; 龙延滨; 段降龙; 张瑞鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for tension-free repair of inguinal hernia. Methods A randomized, prospective double-blind control trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for tension-free mesh repair in 180 cases of inguinal hernia from March 2007 to March 2008. Intravenous cefuroxime ( 1.5 g ) was given immediately before the surgery in two groups followed by postoperative administration of cefuroxime 1.5 g twice a day for 3 days in test group compared with NS infusion in the control group. Postoperatively 16 patients (8. 89 per cent) could not be contacted at any point, giving a response rate of91. 11%. The total number of subjects for per- protocol (PP) analysis was 180, 84 cases in test group and 80 cases in control group. Results Complete data were available for 164 patients, 3 ( 1.83 per cent) developed surgical site infection (SSI) including 2 cases of surgical site infection in test group and 1 case of superficial incision surgical site infection in control group. The differences were not statistically significant. The time to follow up was 12 -29 months, the mean follow up time in test group was (15.6 ±2.2) months and (18 ±3)months in control group respectively. 93.33% patients in test group were followed up and 88. 89% patients in control group. There were not hernia recurrence and side effect of antibiotics reported in the two groups.Conclusions To prevent SSI, it is necessary to use preoperative antibiotics prophylaxis just one time for inguinal hernia repair.%目的 探讨腹股沟无张力疝手术后是否需要使用抗生素.方法 按照随机双盲法,前瞻性的研究分析2007年3月至2008年3月陕西省人民医院普通外科收治的180例腹股沟疝无张力疝修补手术后患者.两组术前30 min均给予二代头孢菌素1.5 g,术后试验组连用3 d,而对照组仅给予生理盐水输注.术后16例患者无法联系随访,入组率为91

  2. Infecção urinária na gravidez Urinary tract infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Duarte

    2008-02-01

    these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of monofluorinated quinolones, if there is an indication, norfloxacin is believed to be a good alternative to cefuroxime. In cases in which UTI prophylaxis is indicated, chemotherapeutic agents are preferred, among them nitrofurantoin, with care taken to avoid its use at the end of pregnancy due to the risk of kernicterus for the neonate.

  3. 2005-2009年温州育英儿童医院下呼吸道感染患儿肺炎链球菌耐药性分析%Resistance analysis of Streptococcus pnemoniae in children with lower respiratory tract infection in Wenzhou area between 2005 and 2009.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石燕华; 李昌崇; 张海邻; 林立; 胡晓光; 张维溪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) to common antimicrobial drugs in children with lower respiratory tract infection in Wenzhou area between 2005.1 and 2009.12. Methods Susceptibility data of lower respiratory tract infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children discharged from Jan.2005 to Dec.2009 were reviewed. The children hospitalized in Yuying Children's Hospital affiliated to Wenzhou Medical College.Lower respiratory tract infection included bronchitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Results Totally 643 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were found; in the S years, the order of top ten rates in the drug resistance was as follows: erythromycin 99.3%, azithromycin 98.6%, chlorine lincomycin Su 98.3%, sulfamethoxazole 95.0%, cefaclor 94.6%, cefuroxime 94.1 %, tetracycline 93.6%,penicillin 93.2%,meropenem 87.4%,cefotaxime 77.9%.There was non-Vancomycin-resistant strain. The comparisons between penicillin-susceptible streptococcus pneumoniae and penicillin non-susceptible streptococcus pneumoniae to erythromycin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime, cefaclor, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxi-cillin and meropenem were all P 0.05. The comparisons between erythromy-cin-susceptible streptococcus pneumoniae and erythromycin non-susceptible streptococcus pneumoniae to clindamycin,penicillin, tetracycline and azithromycin were all P 0.05. Conclusion The situation of SPresistance in children from Wenzhou with lower respiratory tract infection is grim. The levels of different drugs increased year by year in different degrees, which should be paid enough dinical attetion.%目的 分析下呼吸道感染儿童肺炎链球菌(SP)对常用抗生素的药敏情况.方法 采用回顾性分析方法,收集2005年1月至2009年12月温州医学院附属育英儿童医院住院患儿痰培养SP阳性且临床诊断为下呼吸道感染(包括支气管炎、毛细支气管炎、肺炎等)病例的药敏资料,分析其肺炎链球

  4. 呼吸道嗜血杆菌属的生物学分型及耐药性分析%Biological typing and drug resistance analysis of Haemophilus strains from respiratory tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江秀爱; 赵自云; 姜蓓; 乔显森

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate season distribution,biological typing and drug resistant of Haemophitus in Qingdao Central Hospital.Methods The sputum and throat swab were collected from patients with respiratory tract infection,221 Haemophilus strains were identified and typed by the manual method and MicSCAN4 automatic analyzer,HNID identification plate.Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by Kirby-Bauer method,and cephalosporins nitrate thiophene paper method was used to detect β-lacta-mase.Results A total of 96 strains of Haemophilus influenzae(1.6%)were isolated,10(10.4%)strains of Haemophilus influenzae were identified as type Ⅰ,31(32.3%)as type Ⅱ,40(41.7%)as typeⅢand 1 5(1 5.6%)as other types.A total of 125 strains Hae-mophitus parl influenzae(2.1%)were isolated,1 5 (12.0%)strains of Haemophilus parl influenzae were identified as type Ⅰ,23 (18.4%)as typeⅡ,69(55.2%)as type Ⅲ and 18(14.4%)as type Ⅳ,other types were not identified.The highest infected rate was in winter.Resistance rate of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophitus parl influenzae to ampicillin were 40.6% and 44.8%,to tri-methoprim-sulfamethoxazole were 5 1.0% and 66.4%.The prevalence ofβ-lactamase of all strains were 40.6%and 44.8%.But sus-ceptible rates of Haemophilus to cefotaxime,cefuroxime,meropenem,chloramphenicol were over 90.0%.Conclusion The respira-tory tract infections to Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophitus parl influenzae is more frequently found in winter.Type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ are the most prevalent types.The resistance rates of Haemophilus to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are in-creasing,should not be used as empirical treatment of Haemophilus infection.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime,cefuroxime,meropen-em could be chosen for the treatment of respiratory tract infection caused by Haemophilus.%目的:了解该院临床分离嗜血杆菌属的季节分布、生物学分型及耐药性。方法收集呼吸道感染患者的痰液和咽拭

  5. 呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌的生物学分型与耐药基因的相关性研究%The correlation study between biological typing and drug resistance gene of respiratory haemophilus influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江秀爱; 王荣; 张秀云; 乔显森

    2015-01-01

    (PCR).Results:Seven biotypes (Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ、Ⅵ、Ⅶ) were detected among 110 cases of clinical isolated haemophilus,The main types were type Ⅱ (38strains,34.5%)and type Ⅲ (46 strains, 41.8%),and typeⅧwas not detected.a total of 45 strains of TEM gene and ROB gene were detected, 93.3%as TEM gene, 6.7%as ROB gene. winter infection rate was the highest.Drug resistance of the strains agains ampicillin was 40.9%, The prevalence of beta lactamase of all strains was 40.9%. The drug resistance rate to cefotaxime,cefuroxime and chloramphenicol was over 90%.,the resistant strain was not detected to meropenem. Conclusions:The respiratory tract infections of Haemophilus influenzae were more prevalent in winter and TrpyⅡand typeⅢwere the most prevalent types.The drug resistance of Haemophilus influenzae to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is increasing ,should not be used as an empirical treatment of Haemophilus infection. suggesting that the cefotaxime , cefuroxime and meropenem could serve as an ideal option for the treatment.

  6. Analysis of usage of antibacterial drugs of outpatient services in the first quarter of 2014 of Zhenyuan People's Hospital%镇沅县人民医院2014年第一季度门诊抗菌药物使用情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓柳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the usage of antibacterial drugs of outpatient services of our hospital to provide reference for clinical rational drug use. Methods 719 prescriptions of antibacterial drugs in outpatient services were ex-tracted from the system of our hospital from December 26,2013 to March 25,2014 applying prescription evaluation software,DDDs,rationality and economy of antibacterial drugs were evaluated through HIS system inquiring about the proportion of antimicrobial prescription,the total usage and consumption amount of antibacterial drugs at the same peri-od. Results Antimicrobial prescription accounted for 19.13%of the common prescription in outpatient services,the dis-ease mainly in the respiratory system,digestive system,genitourinary system infection;administration (80.53%) was main-ly intravenous injection;only 52 prescriptions (7.23%) was unreasonable use,among them the unqualified selection of drugs accounted for the highest (73.08%);the former 3 types of antibacterial drugs use of higher frequency was cephalosporins , macrolides , Beta lactamase inhibitory type , cefuroxime sodium for injection in ordering of DDDs and consumption amount were listed in first. Conclusion When antimicrobial drugs were used,the patient’s condition,the characteristics of pathogenic micro-organisms,the antibacterial spectrum,indicatio and adverse reaction of drug,price of drug and other factors should be considered fully to further improve the level of rational use of antibacterial drugs to make patient’s medication achieve real safety,effectiveness,economy.%目的:了解本院门诊抗菌药物的使用情况,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法应用处方点评软件从本院系统中抽取2013年12月26日~2014年3月25日门诊抗菌药物处方719张,并通过HIS系统查询同时期门诊抗菌药物处方比例、门诊抗菌药物总使用量及消耗金额,评估抗菌药物使用频度(DDDs)、合理性及经济性。结果门诊抗菌

  7. Determination of cefoperazone and sulbactam by LC-MS/MS in plasma and ultrafiltrate of patients undergone continuous renal replacement therapy%液相色谱-串联质谱法测定连续肾脏替代治疗患者血浆及超滤液中头孢哌酮与舒巴坦浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王睿华; 程龙妹; 曲恒燕; 郝光涛; 刘泽源; 夏鹄

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a sensitiv e and specific LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of cefoperazone and sulbactam in plasma and ultrafiltrate of patients undergone continuous renal replacement therapy(CRRT). Methods Cefuroxime axetil was used as the internal standard,the plasma samples were separated on an WatersAtlantis dC18 column (150 mm× 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm). A tandem mass spectrometer equipped with ESI was used as the detector and operated in the mode of multiple reaction monitoring.Quantitive analysis of[M-H]-ions were m/z 644.1→528.1(cefoperazone), m/z 231.8→188.0(sulbactam) and m/z 509.3→206.9(the internal standard, IS), respectively. Results The linear range of cefoperazone and sulbactam in human plasma and ultrafiltrate were(10-500) and(6-300)μg/ml, respectively. Extraction recoveries were more than 90.0%, and intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation was less than 15%. The matrix effect of plasma and ultrafiltrate showed that the matrix effect of the two media had little influence on the measurement of cefoperazone, sulbactam and IS. Conclusion The method is simple, fast, and highly sensitive. The two drugs can be detected simultaneously in the same sample. It is appropriate to monitor drug concentration in plasma and ultrafiltrate of the patients undergone CRRT. Sieving coefficient could be calculated and provide an accurate basis for dose adjustment.%目的:建立液相色谱-串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS)测定连续肾脏替代治疗(continuous renal replacement therapy, CRRT)患者血浆及超滤液中头孢哌酮与舒巴坦浓度。方法以头孢呋辛酯为内标,采用WatersAtlantis dC18色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5.0μm)进行分离,通过串联质谱仪,以多反应监测方式进行测定。用于定量分析的离子对分别是m/z 644.1→528.1(头孢哌酮)、m/z 231.8→188.0(舒巴坦)和m/z 509.3→206.9〔头孢呋辛酯,内标(IS)〕。结果头孢哌酮在10~500

  8. Study on the Drug Resistance of Bacterial Pneumonia and Antibiotics in Our Hospital%我院细菌性肺炎的病原学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹达天; 王秀川

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究我院细菌性肺炎患者对不同抗生素的耐药性.方法 共120例感染有细菌性肺炎患者,进行不同抗生素的药敏试验、抑菌圈大小和治愈人数的研究.结果 细菌对一线抗菌药物的耐药比例为28.3%.二线抗生素,如亚胺培南西司他丁钠、羧噻吩青霉素钠-棒酸钾的耐药的比例分别为:2.5%、4.2%.对三线抗生素的耐药比例为0%.一线抗生素中,氧哌嗪青霉素和阿奇霉素的抑菌圈最小,头孢呋肟、左氧氟沙星其次;二线抗生素其次;三线抗生素的抑菌圈最大.通过使用一二线抗生素,100%的患者可达到抗菌和治疗疾病的效果.结论 我院细菌性肺炎患者对不同抗生素的耐药性研究效果满意,且用一线和二线抗生素就能达到较好的临床效果.%Objective To study the drug resistance of bacterial pneumonia to different antibiotics in Wenchang district of Hainan province.Methods 120 patients with bacterial pneumonia were given drug sensitivity test of different antibiotics.The size of inhibition zone and curative rate were studied.Results The bacterial in patients had high drug resistance to first-line antibacterials such as Piperacillin ( 34/120 = 28.3% );the resistance to second-line antibiotics such as imipenem and cilasatin sodium,ticarcillin sodiumpotassium clavulanate was bad ( 2.5% ,4.2% ); the resistance rate to third-line antibiotics was 0%.Among first-line antibiotics, piperacillin and azithromycin had the smallest size of inhibition zone, cefuroxime and levofloxacin were the second.The size of all the second-line antibiotics were rather large.Vancomycin had the biggest inhibition zone among third-line antibiotics.Patients can obtain good effect through the use of firstline and second-line antibiotics.Conclusion The study effect of drug resistance of bacterial pneumonia to different antibiotics is satisfactory in our hospital.The use of first-line and second-line antibiotics can obtain better

  9. In vitro drug sensitivity analysis of Legionella pneumophila isolated from cooling tower in Shijiazhuang%石家庄市冷却塔水中嗜肺军团菌体外药物敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉梅; 秦丽云; 张慧贤; 王苋; 周吉坤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the drug sensitivity and resistance of Legionella pneumophila isolated from six hospital cooling towers of Shijizhuang. Methods Eight major categories and 26 kinds of antibiotics drug test on 30 strains of Legionella pneumophila isolated from hospital cooling tower by using K-B disk diffusion method. The drug susceptibility testing results were reported refer to the national Health Industry Standard Paper film method (antimicrobial WS/T125 -1999). Results The sensitivity of 30 strains of Legionella pneumophila to Cefuroxime, doxycycline, tetracycline, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, rifampicin and ofloxacin was 100%, and they presented different levels of resistance to cefazolin, aztreonam, ampicillin, cephalothin, ceftazidime, tobramycin and cefoxitin. Experimental strains produced eight kinds of resistance spectrum, they were multi-drug resistant strains. Conclusion Resistance is more common to penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides among 30 starins of Legionella pneumophila. Macrolides, quinolones, rifampicin is superior to the other kinds of antibiotics in vitro susceptibility test, respectively, and these antibiotics can be used as the first choice in clinical therapy of Legionella infections.%目的 了解分离自石家庄市6家医院冷却塔水的嗜肺军团菌的药物敏感性.方法 采用K-B纸片扩散法对30株分离自冷却塔水的嗜肺军团菌进行8大类26种抗生素的药敏实验,参照WS/T125-1999《中华人民共和国卫生行业标准纸片法抗菌药物敏感试验标准》读取结果.结果 30株嗜肺军团菌均对头孢呋辛、强力霉素、四环素、链霉素、环丙沙星、左旋氧氟沙星、莫西沙星、红霉素、阿奇霉素、克拉霉素、利福平、氧氟沙星共12种抗生素敏感,对头孢唑林、氨曲南、氨苄西林、头孢噻吩、头孢他啶、妥布霉素、头孢西丁共7种抗生素均产生

  10. 根据我院第三季度致病菌流行情况及耐药性分析促进医院合理用药%According to my Courtyard third quarter of Pathogens of epidemic Situation and Analysis of resistance to Promote Rational drug use in hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡耀中

    2014-01-01

    Objective Through comparative analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in our hospital,and provide the basis for clinical rational use of antimicrobial drugs standard. Methods The epidemiology and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in microbial experimental data reports in our hospital from 2013 July to September were col ected from underlying infection rate statistics, analysis.Results The third quarter of 2013 specimens in 3 180 cases, bacterial culture and drug sensitive test training+were detected in 18 species of bacteria,a total of 277 cases,accounting for 8.7%,including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiel a pneumoniae, Bauman Acinetobacter ranked in the top 6 position;antibacterial drugs in the hospital the amount of sales of the top 10 were Cefoperazone/sulbactam sodium, Alosi Lin,etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection,meropenem and ornidazole injection and clindamycin, cefuroxime sodium,ceftriaxone sodium,cefazolin and amoxicil in/clavulanate potassium.Conclusion The antimicrob ial drug use process exists unreasonable, should further strengthen the supervision of the antibacterial drugs, improve the level of clinical rational use of drugs.%目的:通过对比致病菌对我院抗菌药物敏感性及耐药性的分析,为规范临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法对我院2013年7月至9月感染患者送检标本的微生物实验数据报告的致病菌流行情况及耐药率进行统计并分析。结果2013年第三季度送检标本3180例,细菌培养及培养+药敏检测共检测出细菌18种,共计277例,占8.7%,其中大肠埃希菌、表皮葡萄球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、铜绿假单胞菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、鲍曼不动杆菌排在前6位;本院销售金额排名前10位的抗菌药物分别为头孢哌酮/舒巴坦钠、阿洛西林、依替米星氯化钠注射液、美罗培南、奥硝

  11. 2013年-2014年长沙地区儿童感染流感嗜血杆菌的分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡方兴; 石国民; 沈辉

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解儿童分离流感嗜血杆菌(Hi)的分布及耐药情况,为临床合理使用抗菌药物、预防和控制感染提供依据。方法:收集长沙市中心医院、长沙市第三医院、长沙市第一医院,2013年1月~2014年2月儿童各类临床标本Hi分离株249株,采用梅里埃全自动微生物鉴定仪进行菌种鉴定,纸片扩散法(K- B法)进行药敏试验,头孢硝噻酚试验检测β-内酰胺酶。结果:儿童Hi以冬季和春季分离率较高,为38.15%、29.32%,以1-3岁儿童分离率最高,占总数的51.8%。Hi 噁对氨苄西林、复方磺胺甲唑、头孢呋辛的耐药率较高,依次为81.12%、63.45%、38.96%,对氨苄西林/舒巴坦、头孢曲松、头孢噻肟、环丙沙星、氧氟沙星、洛美沙星、左氧氟沙星、四环素的敏感率均高于70%。结论:Hi 噁对氨苄西林和复方磺胺甲唑耐药严重,而β-内酰胺酶抑制剂、第2、3代头孢类药物、阿奇霉素可作为优先选择药物。%Objective To investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Haemophilus influenza in children, and provide a guidline for prevention , clinical diagnosis and rational use of antibiotics. Methods 249 strains of Haemophilus influenza from various clinical specimens were col ected from the Third hospital of Changsha , the First hospital of Changsha and Changsha Central Hospital from Jan 2013 to Feb 2014.Al of them were identified by VITEK 2 com-pact .The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method,and the nitrocefin phenol test was performed byβ- lacta-mase test. Results Results The isolation rate of Haemophilus influenza in winter and in spring was higher,were 38.15%and 29.32%.there was a high influenza rate in children from 1 to 3 years old. Haemophilus influenza was resistant to ampicil in ,compound sulfamethoxazole and cefuroxime, were81.12%,63.45%and 38.96% , while was sensitive to ampicil in

  12. Actual State of Haemophilus Influenza in Children with Respiratory Tract Infection in Xiaogan%孝感地区儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌感染现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳华; 刘东华; 鲁艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infections state and antibiotic resistance of Haemophilus influenza in children with respiratory tract infection in Xiaogan,so as to provide basis for medical treatment and to guide the reasonable use Haemophilus influenza in clinic. Methods The specimens of clinical sputum and swabes samples from children outpatient and be hospitalized with respiratory tract infection were collected,incubated and identified from January 2008 to January 2010 in Xiaogan. Drug susceptibility test was conducted by kirby-bauer method. Nitrocefin slip test was applied to detect β-lactamase. Results Totally 92 Haemophilus influenza strains were isolated during 2008 -2010. The resistance rate to ampicillin.smz + tmp, chloramphenicol, levofloxacin,ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, ampicillin/sulbactam were 43. 5% , 57. 6% , 3. 3% , 26% , 4.3% ,2.2% ,4.3% ,8.7% , and 8. 7% respectively. The prevalence of p-lactamase was 32.6%. Conclusion The high drug antibiotic resistance and β-lactamase positive rate of Haemophilus influenza isolated from respiratory tract infection of children by multi-resistance in Xiaogan were serious. It must be paid highly attention by clinicians. The use of the second,third generation of cephalosporin and β-lactamase was the first choice of treatment.%目的 研究孝感地区儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌感染现状及耐药性,为临床抗感染治疗提供依据,以便有效指导临床合理用药.方法 对孝感市中心医院2008年1月-2010年1月儿科门诊及住院患儿呼吸道感染患儿的鼻咽分泌物及深部吸痰,进行细菌培养,菌种鉴定,并用K-B法进行药敏试验,头孢硝噻酚试验检测β-内酰胺酶.结果2年间共分离出Hi 92株,对氨苄西林、复方新诺明、氯霉素的耐药率较高,分别为43.5%、57.6%、26%,对左氧氟沙星、环丙沙星、阿奇霉素、头孢噻肟、头孢呋辛、氨苄西林/舒巴坦的敏感性均较高,耐药率分别为3

  13. 48株流感嗜血杆菌耐药性分析及β-内酰胺酶基因检测%Analysis on antimicrobial resistance and beta-lactamases gene detection of 48 haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂和翠; 王中新; 沈继录

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解本地区流感嗜血杆菌的分布及耐药性,为指导临床合理用药提供依据.方法 k-B法进行药敏试验,玻片法测定β-内酰胺酶.PCR扩增TEM及ROB型β-内酰胺酶基因.结果 48株流感嗜血杆菌主要分布于呼吸内科和门诊.对复方新诺明、四环素和氨苄西林耐药率分别为62.50%、35.42% 和22 92%;阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾、氨曲南耐药率为12.50%;氨苄西林/舒巴坦、头孢噻肟、头孢拉定、头孢曲松、阿奇霉素、氯霉素耐药率为8.33%;头孢吡肟、头孢呋辛、环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星耐药率为6.25%.哌拉西林/三唑巴坦、亚胺培南敏感率高为100%.10株氨苄西林耐药菌株均产β-内酰胺酶,产酶率为20.83%,且均检测到TEM基因.结论 复方新诺明和四环素已不再适于临床治疗流感嗜血杆菌引起的感染.氨苄西林仍可作为临床经验用药.哌拉西林/三唑巴坦和亚胺培南抗菌活性高,可望作为治疗耐氨苄西林流感嗜血杆菌感染的理想用药.喹诺酮类药物耐药率高,应引起重视.流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西林耐药的主要机制为产TEM型β-内酰胺酶.%To investigate antimicrobial resistance and genotypes of β-lactamase of in this erea , and guide clinical rational drug use effectively. Methods Kirby-Bauer method was applied for the drug susceptibility test and nitrocefin slide test was used to detect β-lactamase. The genotypes of β-lactamase were detected by PCR. Results A total of 48 strains of haemophilus influenzae were mainly distributed in department of respiratory and outpatient service. The resistant straint to compound sulf-amethoxazole, ampicillin and tetrocycline were 62. 50% , 35. 42% ,22. 92% respectively, the resistant rate to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftriaxome, aztreonam, ciprofloxa-cin and levofloxacin was 12.50% ,the resistant rate to ampicillin-sulbactam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, azithromycin, chlorampheniol was 8. 33% ;the

  14. 74株流感嗜血杆菌的耐药性分析%Analysis the Antibiotic Resistance of 74 Strains Haemophitus Influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江秀爱; 赵自云; 朱婕

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution and the antibiotic resistance of clinical isolates of haemophilus influenzae for guiding antibiotic practice. Method: 74 clinical isolates of haemophilus influenzae were identificated by MicSCAN4 semi-automatic analyzer and HNID identification plate. Antimierobial susceptibility was tested by Kirby-Bauer method, and Beta-laetamases were detected by nitrucefin filter paper method. Result: 134 clinical isolates of haemophilus infiuenzae were mainly collected from sputum,throat swabs and other respiratory tract specimens, accounting for 97.2%. Resistance rate of haemophilus infiuenzae to TMP/SMZ was the highest,as high as 48.6% ,and that to ampicillin was 42.9% ,while up to 90% of haemophilus influenzae were susceptible to cefotaxime, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, azithromycin,amoxicillin/clavulanie acid,The prevalence of beta-lactamase of all strains was 41.0%. Conclusion: The haemophilus influenzae isolates were mainly isolated from respiratory tract specimens. It shows sensitive to the majority of antibiotics, but more than 48.6% strains are non-sensitive to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.Trimethoprim-suffamethoxazole is unsuitable to treat infections caused by haemophilus influenzae for experiential therapy.%目的:了解流感嗜血杆菌临床分离菌株的分布及耐药性,给临床合理用药提供依据.方法:对74株流感嗜血杆菌利用Mic SCAN4半自动细菌分析仪、HNID鉴定板进行菌种鉴定.用纸片琼脂扩散(K-B)法作药敏试验,采用头孢硝噻吩滤纸片法进行β-内酰胺酶检测.结果:临床分离流感嗜血杆菌74株,主要分离自痰液、咽拭子等呼吸道标本,占97.2%.复方新诺明的耐药率最高48.6%,氨苄西林42.9%.对头孢噻肟、头孢呋辛、氯霉素、阿奇霉素、阿莫西林/棒酸具有较高的敏感性,敏感性均在90%以上,β-内酰胺酶检出率41.0%.结论:流感嗜血杆菌主要分离自呼吸道标本,大多数抗菌药物

  15. 医院感染鲍氏不动杆菌的临床特点及耐药分析%Clinical characteristics and drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii in hospital infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 王仙园; 周娟; 于庆华

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate clinical characteristics and drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii in our hospital and to provide the basis for controlling hospital infection .METHODS A retrospective analysis was applied to the clinical data of 229 patients with hospital infection from 2011 to 2012 .The clinical characteristics and drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii strains in hospital infection were analyzed .The software SPSS10 .0 was used for statistical analysis .RESULTS There were 3 strains in 2011 and 18 strains in 2012 ,the hospital infection rates were 1 .97% and 12 .24% respectively .The difference was significant(P<0 .01) .Totally 21 A .baumannii strains were all from sputum specimens and respiratory tract was the first infection site .The 21 A .baumannii strains in hospital infection were resistant to antibiotics such as cefazolin ,cefuroxime ,aztreonam ,cefoperazone , ceftriaxone ,ceftazidime ,piperacillin ,norfloxacin ,gentamicin ,amikacin ,tobramycin ,ampicillin ,chlorampheni‐col ,and ciprofloxacin but sensitive to imipenem .CONCLUSION A .baumannii is the major pathogenic bacteria in hospital infection and shows an increasing trend year by year .Clinical nursing staff should strengthen the preven‐tion and control measures according to bacteriological characteristics .%目的:了解医院鲍氏不动杆菌的临床特点及耐药性,为控制医院感染提供参考依据。方法回顾性分析医院2011-2012年299例医院感染患者临床资料,分析鲍氏不动杆菌的临床特点及耐药性,数据采用SPSS10.0进行统计处理。结果2011、2012年鲍氏不动杆菌感染分别为3、18例,感染率分别为1.97%、12.24%,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);21株鲍氏不动杆菌均来自痰培养标本,呼吸道为首发感染部位;21株鲍氏不动杆菌对头孢唑林、头孢呋辛、氨曲南、头孢哌酮、头孢曲松、头孢他啶、哌拉西林、诺氟沙星、庆大霉素、阿

  16. Infecção urinária em menores de 15 anos: etiologia e perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana em hospital geral de pediatria Urinary tract infection in children under 15 years: etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility in a children's hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Swei Lo

    2010-12-01

    the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the most prevalent pathogen, Escherichia coli. METHODS: Retrospective study conducted from urine cultures of a single bacterial species, at a concentration > 10(5 colonies forming units/mL. The children included in the study were treated in the Pediatric Emergency Care Unit of the University Hospital of the University of Sao Paulo from January, 2006 to December, 2007. In order to analyze Escherichia coli antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, cases with recurrent urinary tract infection and/or carriers of uropathy were excluded. RESULTS: Among 176 urinary tract infection patients, 133 (76% were females. Children less than two years old presented the highest prevalence of urinary tract infection (84 cases; 48%. E. coli was the main agent (122 cultures - 69% of the total. There were high rates of E. coli antimicrobial susceptibility to second and third-generation cephalosporins (cefuroxime and ceftriaxone, 100%, aminoglycosides (amikacin, 100%, gentamicin, 96.4%, nalidixic acid (97.3%, nitrofurantoin (98.2% and quinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, 98.2%; moderate susceptibility to first-generation cephalosporin (cephalothin, 78.4%; low susceptibility to ampicillin (38.7% and sufamethoxazole-trimethoprim (55%. CONCLUSIONS: E. coli remains the most prevalent bacterial pathogen of community acquired urinary tract infection. Given the low in vitro susceptibility of these bacteria to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and ampicillin, these drugs should not be elected as the initial choice for treatment.

  17. 淋巴瘤化疗患者医院感染病原菌分析及护理对策%Pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in lymphoma patients undergoing chemotherapy and nursing countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小艳

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the distribution of the pathogens causing nosocomial infections in lymphoma patients undergoing chemotherapy so as to guide the clinical nursing. METHODS A total of 120 patients with nosocomial infections were chosen as the study objects during the chemotherapy of lymphoma, The oral cavity, sputum, urine,and blood were sampled for the bacterial cultured and drug susceptibility testing. RESULTS The nosocomial infections frequently occurred in 7 to 14 days after the chemotherapy. Of all the patients investigated, there were 89(74. 17%) patients with pulmonary infections, 19 (15. 83%) patients with urinary tract infections, and 12 (10. 00%) patients with other infections. A total of 196 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated,among which Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli were the predominant species and were highly sensitive to imipenem, the drug resistance rates were 0 and 1. 39%, respectively, while the two species were not sensitive to amikacin, gentamicin, ampicillin, piperacillin, cefuroxime, axtreonam, ciprofloxacin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, cefepime and meropenem. Totally 34 patients were tested with the fungal infections, and Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus, and Mucoraceae were the most prevalent pathogens. CONCLUSION It is necessary to strengthen the nursing interventions in the patients undergoing lymphoma chemotherapy so as to prevent the nosocomial infections. It is of great significance in guiding the clinical treatment to perform the bacterial culture and drug susceptibility testing.%目的 观察淋巴瘤化疗患者医院感染病原菌的分布特点,为临床护理工作提供指导.方法 选取120例淋巴瘤化疗期间并发医院感染的患者,留取口腔、痰、尿、血液等进行细菌培养及药敏试验.结果 医院感染多发生于化疗的7~14 d;本组患者肺部感染89例,占74.17%,泌尿系感染19例,占15.83%,其他感染12例,占10.00%;培养共检出病原菌196

  18. 外科重症监护室气管插管患者肺部感染的细菌药敏分析%Bacterial susceptibility analysis of pulmonary infection patients in the surgical intensive care unit with endotracheal intubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓良; 苏艳丽; 何家花

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the bacterial susceptibility effects of pulmonary infection in the surgical intensive care unit patients with endotracheal intubation.MethodsSelected 120 pulmonary infection in the surgical intensive care unit with endotracheal intubation from August 2012 to February 2014 in our hospital, the incidence of pulmonary infection and clini-cal data were to investigate; the pathogens were isolated in the pulmonary infection patients and were given the six kinds of drugs sensitivity analysis.ResultsThere were 43 cases of pulmonary infection, the rate was 35.8%, 4 cases were died. Multiple multivariate conditional logistic regression model showed that age, catheterization, vascular catheter, the joint use of antibiot-ics were the major independent risk factors of pulmonary infection and there were 43 cases were isolated pathogens included 28 cases were Gram-negative bacteria, 11 cases were Gram-positive bacteria, 4 cases were fungi. The Gram-negative bacteria to cefuroxime, levofloxacin, cefazolin sensitivity rates were relatively low.ConclusionThe pulmonary infection in the surgical in-tensive care unit with endotracheal intubation is relatively high, the prognosis is relatively poor and the mostly bacteria is Gram-negative bacteria, we should actively reasonable choice the rational antibiotics based on susceptibility circumstances.%目的:探讨外科重症监护室气管插管患者肺部感染的细菌药敏情况。方法:选择2012年8月~2014年2月在我院外科重症监护室诊治的120例患者,对肺部感染发病情况与临床资料进行调查;分离肺部感染患者的病原菌并纳入六种药物的药敏分析。结果:120例患者发生肺部感染43例,发生率为35.8%,其中死亡4例。多元多因素条件logistic回归模型结果发现年龄、导尿、动静脉插管、联合使用抗生素是导致肺部感染的主要独立危险因素。43例患者分离出病原菌43株,其中革兰氏阴性菌28

  19. 随州地区阴道加德纳菌生物型分布及药敏结果分析%Biotype distribution and drug sensitivity of gardnerella vaginalis in suizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明水; 刘杨; 李玲

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the current situation of infection and biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis in suizhou area. METHODS Gardnerella vaginalis strains were isolated and cultured from vaginal secretions of Obstetrics and gynecology patients, either inpatients or outpatients. The isolated strains were typed by Piot. Susceptibility test was performed by K-B method. RESULTS The overall detection rate of GV in 326 patients suffered vaginopathy was 35.9%, all types were detected with the exception of 7 types. The sensitivity of ciprofloxacin, gentamycin,ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime, azithromycin, arilin, SMZ-TMP, tazocin, and sulperazonewere49.6%, 21.4%, 35.0%, 56.4%, 66.7%, 59.0%, 87.2%, 54.7%, 46.2%,84.6%, 96.6%and 86.3% respectively. CONCLUSION The majority of types of GV isolated from BV suffers in the suizhou area are type 1,5,6 which are comparatively susceptive to cefepime, SMZ-TMP, tazocin, and sulperazone while are more resistant to ampicillin, arilin and aminoglycosides antibacterials.%目的 了解随州地区阴道加德纳菌(GV)的感染情况及生物型分布情况,分析药敏结果 为临床提供有价值的参考依据. 方法 对妇产科门诊和住院患者的宫颈或阴道分泌物进行分离培养,对分离的菌株进行鉴定并采用Piot分型法分型,再采用K-B法检测抗菌药物敏感性. 结果 326例细菌性阴道病(BV)患者GV的总检出率为35.9%,除7型外其余各型均检测到;GV对环丙沙星、庆大霉素、氨苄西林、头孢唑林、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、头孢吡肟、阿奇霉素、甲硝唑、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、头孢哌酮/舒巴坦的敏感率分别为49.6%、21.4%、35.0%、56.4%、66.7%、59.0%、87.2%、54.7%、46.2%、84.6%、96.6%、86.3%. 结论 随州地区BV患者分离出的GV主要为1、5、6型,对头孢吡肟、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶以及哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、头孢哌酮/舒巴坦有

  20. 疏风解毒胶囊治疗急性化脓性扁桃体炎57例%Shufeng Detoxification Capsules for Treating Acute Suppurative Tonsillitis in 57 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东彤

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of Shufeng Detoxification Capsules in treating acute suppurative tonsillitis. Methods Totally 110 patients with acute suppurative tonsillitis were randomized into the treatment group( n=57)and the control group( n=53) according to the sequence of seeing doctor. The control group received cefuroxime and other conventional treatment,while on this basis the treatment group was added with Shufeng Detoxification Capsules. According to the clinical situation,the fever patients was given the defervesce treatment. The sore throat disappearance time,defervesce time and clinical effect after 5 d were observed and compared between the two groups. The throat condition was followed up. Results The sore throat disappearance time and defervesce time in the treatment group were significantly shorter than those in the control group( P < 0. 05);the effective rate in the observation group was 98. 25%,which is significantly higher than 86. 79% in the control group with( P < 0. 05);the follow up after 1 month showed that 4 cases of pharyngeal discomfort in the treatment group had the history of chronic tonsillitis,while in 11 cases of pharyngeal discomfort in the control group,9 cases had the history of chronic tonsillitis,the difference was statistically significant( P < 0. 05). Conclusion Shufeng Detoxification Capsules combined with the anti-infective therapy can accelerate the recovery in the patients with acute suppu-rative tonsillitis,especially can block the chronic process of acute attack of chronic tonsillitis and reach the long term efficacy.%目的:观察疏风解毒胶囊治疗急性化脓性扁桃体炎的临床疗效。方法将110例患者按就诊顺序随机分为治疗组57例和对照组53例。对照组患者给予头孢呋辛等常规治疗,治疗组患者在对照组基础上加用疏风解毒胶囊治疗;发热患者根据临床情况给予退热治疗。观察两组患者咽痛消失时间、退热时间,5d后

  1. Antibiotic prophylaxis compliance for clean-contaminated wounds in a district hospital in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syachroni Syachroni

    2016-01-01

    hospital in Jakarta during periodof January 1 to December 31, 2013. The data came from medical records of adult subjects who underwentsurgery with criteria clean-contaminated wound except caesareans. The standard for antibiotic based onIndonesian Ministry of Health Decree No. 2406/2011 for national antibiotics guidelines and internationalstandard guidelines for surgical prophylaxis.Results: A total of 626 subjects were included in the study. Gynecological (49.5% and genitourinary surgery(32.6% were the most frequent of surgeries performed. More than 80% of the surgery were elective. Mostcommonly administered antibiotic preoperatively as well as postoperatively was ceftriaxone (49.8%,ampicillin/sulbactam (11.7% and cefuroxime (8.3%. Overall antibiotics prophylaxis appropriatenessshowed 96.8% in surgery procedures, 21.5% in choice of antibiotic and only 2.3% in time administrationthat given 60 min before first skin incision.Conclusions: The compliance of antibiotics prophylactic for clean-contaminated wounds in a districthospital Jakarta has not been in conformity with the national guideline and international standards. (HealthScience Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:57-62Keywords: antibiotic, clean-contaminated, compliance, prophylaxis, surgery.

  2. 性病患者金黄色葡萄球菌感染耐药性研究%Drug Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in Patients with Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋静; 贾继辉; 张志强; 王晓燕; 张利宁

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the infection of Staphylococcus aureus inurinary and reproductive system after the male sexually transmitted diseases and the drug-resistance to different antibiotics.It′s aim is to help doctors to use antibiotics rationally.METHODS Using the U.S.NCCLS antibacterial disk susceptibility test,we measured drug-resistance of S.aureus from the male sexual urinary tract and prostate gland.RESULTS In commonly used 33 antibiotics,the drug-resistance rates of S.aureus to cefoperazone,amikacin,cefuroxime,cefazolin,neomycin,ceftriaxone,cefotaxime,ceftazidime are low,they are25.8%,26.5%,27.6%,29.9%,30.8%,36.1%,41%,43.9%,respectively.The drug-resistance rates to penicillin,quinolone antibacterials,the other aminoglycosides,erythromycin,clindamycin,doxycycline,spectinomycin are high,they are between 70% to 100%.There are 20 strains of S.aureus resistant to more than 20 sorts of antibiotics.Only making vancomycin susceptible test of 2 strains of S.aureus,they are both drug-resistant.CONCLUSIONS S.aureus are in the first place in urinary and reproductive system inflammation after the male sexually transmitted diseases.These bacteria have higher drug-resistance to different antibiotics and they are multiple resistant,we should pay attention to prevalance and spread of vancomycin-resistant S.aureus.%目的研究男性性病后泌尿生殖系金黄色葡萄球菌感染及其对各类抗生素的耐药性,旨在协助指导临床合理用药。方法采用美国NCCLS药敏试验纸片扩散法,检测从男性尿道及前列腺液标本中分离的金黄色葡萄球菌的耐药性。结果金黄色葡萄球菌对常用33种抗生素的耐药率以头孢哌酮、阿米卡星(丁胺卡那)、头孢呋辛、头孢唑林、新霉素、头孢曲松(头孢三嗪)、头孢噻肟、头孢他啶耐药率较低,分别为25.8%、26.5%、27.6%、29.9%、30.8%、36.1%、41%、43.9%;青霉素类、氟喹诺酮类、其他氨基糖苷类、红霉素、氯林可霉素、

  3. Comparison of improving newborn oral medication compliance%提高新生儿口服给药依从性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何苑谷; 黄芳泳; 甘翠莲; 江文

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To improve newborn oral medication compliance for maximum effect and reduce adverse reaction.Methods:100 newborns with needing oral cefuroxime axetil tablets were randomly divided into two groups.The observation group and the control group were given early contact and sucking in 30 minutes after birth.After the doctors maked out doctor's advice,the observation group were given medical health education for puerpera and oral medication when sucking 5 minutes.The control group administrated a drug at conventional unified time.The neonatal reflex of two group was compared,and the differences of no sucking,blow bubbles,nausea and vomiting, spill medicine and other resisting action impacted on the next time sucking.Results:Neonatal mouth blowing bubbles,neonatal nausea and vomiting and spill medicine were significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The newborn medication compliance of using the temperature 37 ℃ 12.5%~15% glucose water in meal feeding has good effect.Neonatal mouth blowing bubbles,neonatal nausea and vomiting and spill medicine occur less, and the newborn is quiet sleep.There is no significant difference between distance time needed for active suck next time.%目的:提高新生儿口服给药依从性,发挥最大的疗效、减少不良反应。方法:将100例需要口服头孢呋辛酯片的新生儿随机分成两组,观察组和对照组均出生30 min内行早接触早吸吮,观察组医师开出医嘱后对产妇进行用药健康教育和吸吮5 min时口服给药,对照组常规统一时间给药。比较两组新生儿反应:不吸吮、口吹泡泡,恶心、呕吐、溢药等抗拒动作,对下次吸吮的影响等方面的差异。结果:观察组新生儿口吹泡泡、新生儿恶心呕吐、溢药等发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:采用温度37℃12.5%~15%葡萄糖水在餐时喂药新生儿服药依从性效果好,新生儿口吹泡泡、恶心、呕吐

  4. Microbiological Study On Respiratory Tract Infections In Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *A. H. Eldeeb and **E.M. Khashan

    2006-09-01

    .48%, amoxycillin-clavulanic (62.34%, cefuroxime (62.09%, lincomycin (61.83%, vancomycin (61.07%, chloramphenicol (57%, cephalexin (48.35%, cephapirin (45.29%, erythromycin (44.78%, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (43%. Amoxycillin and tetracycline were the least active ((36.64% and 32.06% respectively. Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to amoxycillin were tested for B-lactamase production. Out of the tested strains, 62.5% were B- lactamase producers and it may be responsible for the resistance to amoxycillin. In conclusion, the study revealed that evaluation of respiratory tract infections and antimicrobial susceptibility is still in need for more studies. This is due to the continuous development of newly resistant strains and the relatively little number of isolates in some species. Moreover, the differences in the previous antimicrobial treatment, the history of subclinical infections and the immune status of patients involved in each study have increased the difficulty in evaluation.

  5. 医院鲍曼不动杆菌耐药性与抗菌药物使用相关性分析%Correlation Analysis of Drug Resistance of Acinetobacter Baumannii and Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇为民

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the drug resistance of acinetobacter baumannii and its correlation with antibiotics use. Methods Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated from specimen of sputum, blood and urine of inpatients between Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2011. Drug sensitive test were performed by disc diffusion test (k-b). Data of antibiotics use in hospital Drug monitoring database were collected for calculating AUD. The relationship between drug resistance of acinetobacter baumannii and AUD were analysied by Pearson methods. Results The drug resistance rate of acinetobacter baumannii was increased between 2009 and 2011, in which resistance rate to cefuroxime Sodium ranked the top, followed by ciprofloxacin, piperacillin sodium/ tazobactam sodium. There were correlation between resistance of acinetobacter baumannii and AUD of ceftazidime ( =0.871, =0.024), meropenem ( =0.897,=0.015) and imipenem (r=0.993,P=0.000). Conclusion Drug resistance of acinetobacter baumannii is associated with increased use of antibiotics, which can be regulated by rational clinical medication.%目的观察医院鲍曼不动杆菌的耐药性,分析其与抗药药物使用情况的相关性。方法收集2009年1月~2011年12月扬州市江都人民医院住院患者的痰液、血液、尿液等送检标本中分离的鲍曼不动杆菌,采用 K-B 纸片扩散法进行药敏试验,从医院抗菌药物监测网数据库查取相关药物的使用情况,计算抗菌药物使用强度(AUD),采用 Pearson 相关法分析耐药率与 AUD 的相关性。结果从2009年~2011年鲍曼不动杆菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药率普遍呈上升趋势,其对头孢呋辛钠的耐药率最高,其次为环丙沙星、哌拉西林钠/他唑巴坦钠。头孢他啶、美罗培南、亚胺培南的药物 AUD 与耐药率之间有正相关性(r=0.871,=0.024;r=0.897,P=0.015;r=0.993,=0.000)。结论抗菌药物使用情况与耐药率之间存在一定相关性,临床合理用药可在一定程度上降低耐药率。

  6. 小儿下呼吸道感染肺炎链球菌耐药性分析%Drug resistance analysis on streptococcus pneumoniae from lower respiratory tract infection in children patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄诚花; 李林祖; 莫伟雄; 吕波; 何俊君; 黄天然

    2013-01-01

    Objective To learn about the drug resistance condition of streptococcus pneumoniae in children patients in our hospital.Methods We analyzed the drug resistance status of streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in children' s sputum for 3 consecutive times from Jan 2010 to Jan 2012.The disc diffusion method (K-B method) was used,the results of susceptibility testing was according to NCCL200 version control quality control standard of judgment,judging intermediary,resistance and sensitive.Statistical analysis used SPSS 13.0 statistical software,data of each group was compared with Chi-squared methods.Results All strains were sensitive to vancomycin,followed by levofloxacin (drug resistance rate 3.3%),strains of erythromycin resistance rates was the highest (90.2%),followed by clindamycin (89.3%).Cotrimoxazole,penicillin (82.7%) sensitive rates were on a downward treud.And drug resistance rates of amoxicillin potassium clavulanate,mezlocillin sulbactam,cefuroxime and cefotaxime were 13.1%,16.4%,18.9% and 19.7% respectively.Conclusion For pediatric winter respiratory infections,streptococcus was very common especially in infants and young children,early drug use was ineffective and prone to complications,concurrent empyema,lung abscess,pneumonia,myocarditis,and even septic shock,it is necessary to carry out dynamic monitoring in drug resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae to guide clinical selection of antibiotics,to improve the cure rate and reduce complications.%目的 了解我院住院患儿感染肺炎链球菌的耐药性状况.方法 收集儿科2010年1月至2012年1月患儿连续3次痰培养肺炎链球菌进行耐药分析.采用纸片扩散法(K-B法),药敏试验结果按NCCL200版判断标准,对照质控菌株判断敏感、中介、耐药.结果 所有菌株对万古霉素敏感,耐药率为0,左氧氟沙星敏感率率较高,耐药率为3.3%,菌株对红霉素的耐药率最高,其次为克林霉素.红霉素、克林霉素耐药率为90

  7. 96株儿童肺炎链球菌耐药情况分析%Resistance of 96 strains of streptococcus pneumoniae in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊有; 姜静; 蒋德升; 尚宁; 施毅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate antibiotic resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae to children in Nanjing.Methods Totally 96 strains of streptococcus pneumoniae were collected to test the MICs of various antibiotics by agar dilution method according to the approved standard of CLIS.Results Among 96 strains of streptococcus pneumoniae ,63 (65.6%) strains were resistant to penicillin ( MIC≥2 mg/L).87.5% ,29.2%,8.3% and 4.2% of streptococcus pneumoniae were resistant against the cefuroxime,cefotaxim,amoxicillin ,and ceftriaxone ,retrospectively.The resistance rates to other antibiotic agents, such as erythromycin, azithromycin,tetracycline,and Chloram-phenicol were 96.9% ,95.8% ,95.8% ,94.8%, respectively.All 96 strains of streptococcus pneumoniae were sensitive to vancomycin, tigocycline and linezolid.Conclusion The antibiotic resistance to streptococcus pneumoniae is serious in Nanjing.Most of them are multi-resistant strains.Except for vancomycin,tigecycline,linezolid, and ceftriaxone, most antibiotic agents have lost the reactivities against streptococcus pneumoniae.%目的 了解南京地区儿童感染肺炎链球菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药性.方法 琼脂稀释法测定96株肺炎链球菌对14种抗菌药物最低抑菌浓度.结果 96株肺炎链球菌中,耐青霉素肺炎链球菌(penicillin resist streptococcus pneumoniae,PRSP)最小抑菌浓度(minimal inhibitory concentration,MIC)≥2mg/L的检出率为65.6%;头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、阿莫西林、头孢曲松的耐药率依次为87.5%、29.2%、8.3%和4.2%;红霉素、四环素、阿奇霉素和克林霉素耐药率分别为96.9%、95.8%、95.8%、94.8%;万古霉素、替加环素、利奈唑胺均敏感.结论 南京地区儿童肺炎链球菌对青霉素、红霉素、阿奇霉素、克林霉素和四环素、头孢呋辛等抗生素耐药性高,应注意合理选择用药.

  8. Distribution and drug resistance analysis of Streptococcus pneumonia and Haemophilus influenzae%肺炎链球菌和流感嗜血杆菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静; 韦桂雪

    2013-01-01

    . The resistance rates of Haemophilus influenzae to ampicillin、cotrimoxazole and cefuroxime were high, and 64.17%Haemophilus influenzae producedβ-lactamase. The resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to erythromycin、chloramphenicol、tetracycline、clindamycin were serious, and there were 47 (56.63%) isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were penicillin non-susceptible (PNSP). Conclusions:The resistance of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were serious. Monitoring the resistance of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae will help to reduce the generation of resistant strains.

  9. The risk factor analysis of drug resistance in 48 children with streptococcus pneumonia%48例儿童链球菌肺炎发生耐药性的危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄冰红; 刘智飞

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨链球菌肺炎( SP)儿童患者发生耐药菌感染的危险因素以及常见药物耐药情况。方法选取我院儿科病房48例儿童链球菌肺炎患者,对临床分离的48株肺炎链球菌进行药敏试验,针对常见抗菌药物耐药情况以及发生耐药性的危险因素进行分析。结果肺炎链球菌对红霉素、阿奇霉素的耐药率分别为93.75%和91.67%,对氨苄西林、头孢呋辛、头孢曲松敏感率分別为77.1%、83.33%、87.5%。单因素分析显示,年龄、使用疫苗以及就诊前应用抗生素等因素存在统计学差异(P﹤0.05),是儿童链球菌肺炎发生耐药菌感染的危险因素。并表现出多重耐药,尤其对青霉素和红霉素耐药的菌株。结论本医院所在儿科病房患儿链球菌肺炎耐药形势严峻,对多种抗生素呈广泛的不同程度的耐药,引起耐药的危险因素较多,应动态监测肺炎链球菌的耐药情况,合理选择抗生素,提高疗效。%Objective To explore the risk factors of drug resistance in 48 children with streptococcus pneu-monia. Methods 48 strains of streptococcus pneumonia were given drug sensitivity test. According to common anti-microbial resistance, the risk factors of drug resistance were analyzed. Results The drug resistance of streptococcus pneumonia to erythromycin and azithromycin was respectively 93. 75% and 91. 67%. The sensitivity to ampicillin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone was 77. 1%, 83. 33% and 87. 5% respectively. Single factor analysis showed there were significant differences in age, the use of vaccines and antibiotics use before hospital (P<0. 05). It showed multiple drug resistance, especially to penicillin and erythromycin. Conclusion The drug resistance of streptococcus pneu-monia in the department of paediatrics is serious, showing a certain resistance to many antibiotics. There are many reasons causing the drug resistance, which should be given dynamic monitoring

  10. 头孢唑肟与其他5种抗生素体外抗菌活性比较%In vitro antibacterial activity of ceftizoxime in comparison with five other agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永红; 刘健; 钟巍; 郝风兰; 杨维维

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the in vitro antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of ceftizoxime and other 5 antibiotics. Method NCCLS agar dilution method was used for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations. Results Five hundred seventy bacterial strains including 367 Gram-negative and 203 Gram-positive isolates were examined. Ceftizoxime was a potent antibiotic against Enterobacteriacaea and Streptococcus, no resistant strain was found in E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, Sh. sonnei,Sh. flexneri, P. mirabilis, M. morganii, H. influenza, S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae and M. catarralis. The MICs of ceftizoxime against major Enterobacteriacaea were comparable to those of ceftriaxone, and superior to those of ceftazidime and cefuroxime. S. marcescens was most susceptible to ceftizoxime in the agents tested with MIC50 and MIC90 of 0. 5mg/L. Conclusion Ceftizoxime still kept highly antibacterial activity after 15 years clinical application in China, it can be used as empiric therapeutic agent in the treatment of moderate and severe bacterial infections.%目的比较头孢唑肟与其他5种抗生素对临床分离菌的体外抗菌活性.方法用NCCLS2002年发布的琼脂平板法测定抗生素的最低抑菌浓度.结果本研究共测定细菌570株,其中革兰氏阴性菌367株,革兰氏阳性菌203株.头孢唑肟对肠杆菌科细菌与链球菌具有强大抗菌活性,大肠埃希氏菌、肺炎克雷伯氏菌、产气肠杆菌、志贺氏菌、奇异变形菌、摩根摩氏菌、流感噬血杆菌、肺炎链球菌、化脓链球菌、无乳链球菌、粘膜炎莫拉氏菌对头孢唑肟100%敏感.头孢唑肟对大多数肠杆菌科细菌MIC值与头孢曲松相近,远低于头孢他啶和头孢呋辛.头孢唑肟对液化沙雷氏的菌抗菌活性为所有检测药物中最强的一个,MIC50与MIC90均为0.5mg/L.结论头孢唑肟应用于临床15年后仍保持强大抗菌活性,本品可用于中重度细菌感染的经验性治疗.

  11. 128株流感嗜血菌对抗菌药物耐药性分析%Drug resistance of 128 strains of haemophilus influenzae to antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有忠; 都青; 李娜

    2011-01-01

    目的 对襄樊市中医院2008-2009年临床微生物室分离出的流感嗜血菌耐药性及耐药趋势进行回顾性分析,为指导临床合理用药提供科学依据;同时优化检测方法,提高检出率.方法 对128株流感嗜血菌进行β-内酰胺酶测定,采用K-B法进行体外药敏试验.结果 128例流感嗜血菌中,产β-内酰胺酶率为28.69%,对氨苄西林、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、头孢噻肟、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶、头孢呋辛、环丙沙星、阿奇霉素、左氧氟沙星、氯霉素、亚胺培南的耐药率分别为47.66%、15.63%、28.91%、56.25%、27.34%、19.53%、19.53%、29.69%、46.09%、0.结论 流感嗜血菌对亚胺培南、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、环丙沙星、阿奇霉素的敏感性较高,临床医师可选择这些药物进行治疗.%OBJECTIVE To retrospectively analyze the drug resistance trend and drug resistance of Haemophiius influenzae isolated from clinical microorganism room in the Xiangfan Traditional Chinese Medicine H ospital in the whole year of 2009, to provide scientific data for the clinical on rational drug use and optimize the detection method and improve the detection rate. METHODS The determination of β-lactamase was performed on 128 strains of HI and drug sensitivity was tested in vitro by using the method of Kirty-Bauer. RESULTS In 128 strains of H. influenzae, the β-lactamase producing rate was 28.69%, the drug resistant rates to ampicillin, ampicillin sulbactam,cefotaxime, cotrimoxazole, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, levofloxacin, chloramphenicol and imipenem were 47. 66%, 15. 63%, 28. 91%, 56. 25%, 27. 34%, 19. 53%, 19. 53%, 29.69%, 46. 09% and 0,respectively. CONCLUSION H. influenzae is sensitive to imipenem, ampicillin/sulbactam, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin, the clinicians can choose these drugs for the treatment.

  12. Etiología y sensibilidad bacteriana en infección urinaria en niños. Hospital Infantil Club Noel y Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2007-06-01

    gentamicina. Mostraron sensibilidad intermedia entre 61% y 70%: amoxacilina-clavulanato, cefaclor, ciprofloxacina, nitrofurantoína y baja sensibilidad (<60%: amoxacilina, ampicilina, cefadroxilo, cefalexina, cefradina, trimetoprim-sulfa, ampicilina-sulbactan, cefalotina, cefazolina.Conclusiones: Escherichia coli fue la bacteria que más produjo infección urinaria en la población estudiada. Para el manejo ambulatorio se recomiendan como medicamentos empíricos de primera línea los antibióticos orales que mostraron mayor sensibilidad como cefuroxime, cefproxil, cefixime y ácido nalidíxico, mientras se procesa el urocultivo. A pesar de la buena sensibilidad que mostró la norfloxacina, se debe reservar su uso sólo en casos especiales donde haya resistencia a los antibióticos mencionados antes. Debe evitarse en primera instancia el uso de medicamentos como cefalexina, trimetoprim, ampicilina y amoxacilina. Si el estado clínico del paciente amerita hospitalización, los medicamentos parenterales recomendados serían: ceftriazone o amikacina.

  13. Changes of drug-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in pediatric intensive care unit%儿科重症监护病房铜绿假单胞菌耐药性变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽杰; 孙莹; 宋文良; 张智洁; 刘春峰

    2012-01-01

    ,we analvzed the susceptibility patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Method The age distribution,outcome of patients,sources of strains and susceptibility patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in PICU from Jan 1,2007 to Dec 31,2011 were analyzed.Susceptibility to amikacin,piperacillin/tazobactam,aztreonam, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, cefepime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime,ceftriaxone,ceftazidime,cefoperazone/sulbactam,cephazolin,cefuroxime,and polymyxin were determined by the disk-diffusion technique (K-B test method) and broth microdilution.P.aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was used as reference strain.Result Seventy-five patients were Pseudomonas aeruginosa positive.26(34.7% ) were < 6 m,49 ( 65.4% ) were < 2 y.The percentages of cases who were Pseudomonas aerugiosa positive in different age groups in the same time was basically similar; 18 (24.0%) cases died. Pseudomonas aeruginosa accounted for 10.9% of G- germs s,6.5% of all pathogens in 2010-2011.Of the 126 strains,83(65.9%) were from sputum sample,31 (24.6% ) were from catheter sample of tracheal eannula, 10 (7.9%) were from blood sample and 2( 1.6% )were from secretion sample.The sensitivity to antibiotics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in pediatric common treatments was 72.4% to cefoperazone/sulbaetam,71.5% to meropenem,48.4% to imipenem,66.7% to ceftazidime,49.2% to piperacillin/tazobactam1. Absolute resistance to ampicillin,cephazolin,cefuroxime and cefotaxime. Multiple-drug resistance was still severe,but a decreasing tendency was observed,90.5% in 2007,81.3% in 2008,51.1% in 2009,53.8% in2010,33.3% in 2011.Pan-drug resistance in different years was similar,12.5% in 2008,2.2% in 2009,7.7% in 2010,6.7% in 2011. Conclusion The condition of drug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was still rigorous, we should conduct surveillance and prevent abusing antibiotics in order to avoid exacerbating drug resistance. We should improve

  14. 社区呼吸道感染肺炎链球菌对头孢妥仑的耐药机制研究%Mechanisms of cefditoren-resistance in the strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜娟; 褚云卓; 段穷; 曹彬; 刘勇; 孙自镛; 俞云松; 杨启文; 徐英春; 孙宏莉; 陈民钧; 王辉; 张嵘; 卓超; 胡云建

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the mechanisms of cefditoren-resistance in the clintcal strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods Thirty-seven strains of S. pneumoniae with cefditoren MICs of ≥ 1 mg/L were isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in 10 teaching hospitals from January 2009 to January 2010. Six strains of S. pneumoniae with cefditoren MICs of ≤0. 5 mg/L were collected as control group. Broth microdilution method was used to determine the MICs of penicillin, amoxicillirrclavulanic acid, cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefditoren, ceftriaxone, azithromycin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and vancomycin, Multiplex-PCR was used to determine the serotypes of all the test isolates, PCR was used to amplify the genes of pbp2b, pbp\\a, pbp2x and murM in 43 clinical isolates. PCR products were digested by restriction enzyme to analyze the DNA fingerprints. One to five FCR products exhibiting the same DNA fingerprint pattern were sequenced. Amino acid sequences were then compared to the sequence of S. pneumoniae strain R6 to analyze the mutations in the conserved motifs of PBP genes, especially for SXXK box, SXN box and KT(S)G box. Results Isolates were divided into three groups according to the susceptibility profile: Cl group included 3 strains which were susceptible to penicillin and with cefditoren MIC of≤0. 5 mg/L; C2 group included 3 strains which were intermediate to penicillin and with cefditoren MIC of≤O, 5 mg/L; R group included 37 strains which were intermediate to penicillin and with cefditoren MIC of 1-4 mg/L Isolates from group R were all susceptible to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and vancomycin, and resistant to cefuroxime, cefaclor, azithromycin and clarithromycin. Only 8.2% and 5.4% of the isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ceftriaxone, separately. The serotyping results indicated that 37 isolates of group R included 35 isolates with type 19F, 1 with type 14 and 1 with type 19A. The conserved motifs

  15. 2009-2010年中国六城市成人社区获得性呼吸道感染病原菌耐药性监测%Antimicrobial susceptibility of community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens isolated from adults in China during 2009 and 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 刘勇; 张嵘; 俞云松; 孙自镛; 卓超; 倪语星; 胡必杰; 刘亚丽; 陈民钧; 徐英春; 孙宏莉; 杨启文; 胡云建; 曹彬; 褚云卓

    2012-01-01

    .流感嗜血杆菌和卡他莫拉菌对多数抗菌药物敏感,耐药率<5%(流感嗜血杆菌16/313,卡他莫拉菌4/86);此外,13.1%(41/313)的流感嗜血杆菌和91.7%(79/86)的卡他莫拉菌产β-内酰胺酶.结论 PRSP所占比例明显增高,常规用药如大环内酯类及头孢菌素类的敏感性逐渐降低,莫西沙星对大多数呼吸道病原菌仍保持较高的抗菌活性.%Objective To investigate the drug-resistance rates of community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens isolated from adults in China during 2009 and 2010.Methods A total of 1793 strains ( S.aureus 421,S.pneumoniae 420,K.pneumoniae 404,H. influenzae 313,other Streptococcus. spp 149,and M.catarrhalis 86) of non-duplicated community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens were isolated from 11 hospitals in 6 cities.The MIC values were determined by the broth microdilution method,and the production of β-lactamase was tested using a nitrocefin-based test.Results All of the S.aureus isolates were methicillin-sensitive (MSSA).Of the MSSA isolates,less than 1% (4/421) was resistant to β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, about 13.1% (55/421) and 9% (38/421) resistant to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin,and 57% (240/421),53.2% (224/421),and 88.7% ( 373/421 ) resistant to azithromycin,clarithromycin,and penicillin,respectively.No S.aureus isolates resistant to vancomycin were detected in this study. Based on different criteria,the percentages of penicillin-sensitive S. pneumoniae (PSSP),penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP),and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) were 24.4% ( 102/420),27.3% (115/420),48.3% (203/420) (Oral) and 1.9% (8/420),9% (38/420),89.1% ( 374/420 ) ( parenteral ),respectively. The resistance rates of S.pneumonia to azithromycin,clarithromycin,cefaclor,cefuroxime,ceftriaxone and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid were 88.2% (370/420),87.4% (367/420),45.3% ( 190/420),41.9% ( 176/420),10.2% (43/420),and 5.2% (22

  16. 新生儿化脓性脑膜炎病原菌分布特点及耐药性分析%Analysis of pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance in neonatal purulent meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏丽; 胡钱红; 麦菁芸; 林振浪

    2015-01-01

    /20) vs.12.0%(11/92),x2 =4.872,P < 0.05).Drug sensitivity tests showed that all the Gram-positive bacterial isolates were sensitive to linezolid.Staphylococci were resistant to penicillin,and most of them were resistant to erythromycin,oxacillin and cefazolin; 77.8% of CNS isolates were methicillin-resistant staphylococcus.No Streptococcus and Enterococcus faecalis was resistant to penicillin.None of enterococci was resistant to vancomycin.Among the Gram-negative bacterial isolates,more than 40% of Escherichia coli were resistant to commonly used cephalosporins such as cefuroxime,cefotaxime and ceftazidime,and all of them were sensitive to amikacin,cefoperazone sulbactam and imipenem.Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were all resistant to ampicillin,cefuroxime,cefotaxime and ceftazidime,but none of them was resistant to piperacillin tazobactam and imipenem.Of the 112 patients,69 were cured,23 improved,9 uncured and 11 died.There were 47 cases(42.0%)with poor prognosis,they had abnormal head imageology,severe complications and some cases died,13 of 18 (72.2%) patients with meningitis caused by Streptococcus died.Conclusion Escherichia coli,CNS and Streptococcus are the predominant pathogens responsible for neonatal purulent meningitis over the past ten years.There were increasing numbers of cases with Streptococcus meningitis which are more common in early onset meningitis with adverse outcome,therefore careful attention should be paid in clinic.Linezolid should be used as a new choice in intractable neonatal purulent meningitis cases caused by gram positive bacteria.%目的 了解新生儿化脓性脑膜炎病原菌的分布特点及耐药性情况,为临床合理治疗提供依据.方法 对2004年1月至2013年12月温州医科大学附属育英儿童医院新生儿科收治的112例病原菌培养阳性的新生儿化脓性脑膜炎(其中男64例、女48例)的病原菌分布特点、药敏试验、颅脑影像学资料及治疗转归等临床资料进行

  17. Tratamiento de la neumonía del adulto adquirida en la comunidad TREATMENT OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Díaz F.

    2005-04-01

    so antibiotic treatment is empirically prescribed. In Chile, one third of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain isolates has diminished susceptibility to penicillin; in-vitro erythromycin resistance is about 10-15% and cefotaxime resistance 2-10%. It is recommended to classify patients with community acquired pneumonia in four risk categories: Group 1: patients under 65 years without co-morbidities, in ambulatory attendance. Treatment: oral amoxicillin 1 g TID, 7 days. Group 2: patients over 65 years and / or co-morbidities, in ambulatory attendance. Treatment: oral amoxicillin/clavulanate 500/125 mg TID or 875/125 mg BID, or cefuroxime 500 mg BID, 7 days. Group 3: patients admitted to general wards with criteria of moderate severity. Treatment: ceftriaxone 1-2 g once a day or cefotaxime 1 g TID, IV, 7-10 days. Group 4: patients with severe CAP that must be interned into ICU. Treatment: ceftriaxone 2 g once a day or cefotaxime 1 g TID, IV, associated to erythromycin 500 QID, levofloxacin 500-1.000 mg once a day, or moxifloxacin 400 mg/once a day, IV, 10-14 days. In the presence of allergy to or treatment failure with betalactam drugs and/or positive serology for Mycoplasma, Chlamydia or Legionella sp it is recommended to add: erythromycin 500 mg QID, IV or oral, oral clarithromycin 500 mg BID, or oral azythromycin 500 mg once a day

  18. 临床分离副溶血弧菌药敏表型和毒力特征分析%Antimicrobial resistance and virulence characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宇峰; 范艳艳; 黄艳飞; 王玫; 鲁辛辛

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解临床分离的副溶血弧菌的耐药性及毒力特征.方法 通过医生工作站获取患者临床资料并通过实验室信息管理系统(LIS)统计2009至2012年北京同仁医院肠道门诊细菌性腹泻病原菌种类及数量;纸片扩散法检测副溶血弧菌对15种抗生素的耐药表型;PCR技术检测直接溶血毒素(TDH)基因(tdh)、TDH-相关溶血毒素基因(trh)和两个Ⅲ型分泌系统2基因(T3SS2α、T3SS2β).结果 副溶血弧菌在细菌性腹泻中所占比例为37.90%(274/723),居于首位.216株副溶血弧菌对氨苄西林、头孢噻吩、头孢呋辛、阿米卡星4种抗生素的耐药率分别为100% (216/216)、44.91% (97/216)、24.07%(52/216)、9.26%(20/216).对另外11种抗生素敏感或中度敏感.216株副溶血弧菌中tdh携带率为96.76%(209/216),trh携带率为1.39% (3/216);T3SS2携带率为100%,其中213株只携带T3SS2α,2株只携带T3SS2β,1株同时携带T3SS2α和T3SS2β.结论 副溶血弧菌对氨苄西林耐药率最高,对其他抗生素不同程度耐药.造成人类腹泻的副溶血弧菌主要是tdh阳性菌株;Ⅲ型分泌系统在菌株致病中起重要作用.%Objective To explore drug resistance and virulence characteristics of clinically isolated Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP).Methods The patient records were reviewed.The laboratory information system was employed to count the quantity of bacterial diarrhea pathogens at our intestinal clinic from 2009 to 2012.The drug resistant phenotype was tested by the method of disk diffusion.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect thermo-stable direct hemolysin (TDH) gene (tdh),TDH-related hemolysin gene (trh) and type Ⅲ secretion system 2 (T3SS2α,T3SS2β).Results The VP infection rate was 37.90% (274/723).Susceptibility test showed that the resistance rates of ampicillin,cefalotin,cefuroxime and amikacin were 100% (216/216),44.91% (97/216),24.07% (52/216),9.26% (20/216).The other 11 kinds

  19. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    , viruses and fungi belong to the healthy flora and do no harm. Ten percent of healthy children even bear all the time in the tonsils with no clinical signs. In these children decolonization is not necessary. Therefore, microbiological screening tests in children without symptoms are senseless and do not justify an antibiotic treatment (which is sometimes postulated by the kindergartens. The acute tonsillitis should be treated with steroids (e.g. dexamethasone, NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofene and betalactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin or cefuroxime. With respect to the symptom reduction and primary healing the short-term late-generation antibiotic therapy (azithromycin, clarithromycin or cephalosporine for three to five days is comparable to the long-term penicilline therapy. There is no difference in the course of healing, recurrence or microbiological resistance between the short-term penicilline therapy and the standard ten days therapy. On the other hand, only the ten days antibiotic therapy has proven to be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritic diseases. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease is currently 0.5 per 100,000 children of school age. The main morbidity after tonsillectomy is pain and the late haemorrhage. Posttonsillectomy bleeding can occur till the whole wound is completely healed, which is normally after three weeks. Life-threatening haemorrhages occur often after smaller bleedings, which can spontaneously cease. That is why every haemorrhage, even the smallest, has to be treated properly and in ward. Patients and parents have to be informed about the correct behaviour in case of haemorrhage with a written consent before the surgery.The handout should contain important addresses, phone numbers and contact persons. Almost all cases of fatal outcome after tonsillectomy were due to false management of haemorrhage. Haemorrhage in small children can be especially life-threatening because of the lower blood volume and the danger of

  20. Analysis of nasopharyngeal carriage rate and antibiotic resistance of Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from children with respiratory tract infections%呼吸道感染患儿卡他莫拉菌携带情况及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小平; 史伟; 熊维; 彭拥军; 袁林; 田进; 姚开虎; 陈长会

    2016-01-01

    December in 2015,and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were tested and collected.The antibiotic susceptibility was tested by E-test method and disc diffusion tests,and susceptibility was judged according to breakpoints in European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST),Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI 2014)and British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy(BSAC).β-lactamase activity was determined by the chromogenic cephalosporin nitrocefin.Results The nasopharyngeal carriage rate of Moraxella catarrhalis was 9.6% (101/1 054 cases) in children aged 1 month to 12 years old,major in winter (13.8%,52/378 cases) among children younger than 3 years old(10.5%,90/860 cases).The carriage rate was low in summer(4.0%,8/200 cases).The positive rate of β-lactamase was 99.0% (100/101 cases).All of the isolates were sensitive to Amoxycillin-Clavulanate.Most of the isolates were sensitive to Cephalosporin antibiotics according to EUCAST and CLSI 2014 criteria.According to CLSI 2014,the resistance rate to Erythromycin was 15.8% (16/101 cases).The resistance rate to Ampicillin was 68.3% (69/101 cases)on the basis of the BSAC breakpoints,and the intermediate rate and resistant rate to Cefuroxime were 45.5% (46/101 cases)and 49.5% (50/101 cases),respectively.Conclusions Moraxella catarrhalis was mostly seen among children younger than 3 years old with respiratory tract infections,especially in winter.The results indicated that 99.0% of the isolates were positive in β-lactamase,but all of the isolates were sensitive to Amoxycillin-Clavulanate.

  1. 新乡地区13年儿童与成人大肠埃希菌的耐药性动态监测及对比分析%DRUG RESISTANCE DYNAMIC SURVEILLANCE AND CONTRAST ON ESCHERICHIA COLI BETWEEN CHILDREN AND ADULTS FOR 13 YEARS IN XINXIANG AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 王淑娟; 王华; 申明凤

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To dynamically monitor the drug resistance of Escherichia coli identified from clinic between children and adults in Xinxiang area for 13 years (1997-2009), and understand the drug resistance to clinical routine antibacterial medicines and contrast them. [Methods] We did sensitivity experiments by 28 antibacterial medicines to Escherichia coli (4037 from adults and 685 from children) identified from clinic during 13 years. [Results] The antibacterial medicines of high sensitivity to Escherichia coli were imipenetn, raoropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazonc/sulfbactalm and polymyiin B etc for children team and adults team. The antibacterial medicines of low sensitivity were ceftazidme, amikacin and cefepime. For other antibacterial medicines, especially amicillin, the resistance rate was higher. The resistance rates of adults team were universally higher than its of children team, such as cefuroxime, ceftriaxone and cefepime, peniciline, trimethoprim/sul-famethoxazole, netilnu'cn, the most 4-quinolones medicines and tetracycline etc. The differences were all significant mostly. Except choramphenicol had the significant decent, the resistance rates of antibacterial medicines almost had the hoist trend in 13 years. The difference was significant mostly. In recent three years, the resistance rates of some antibacterial medicines, such as amicillin, imipenem and levefloxacin had the fall trend, and the differences were significant. The prduced ESBl^ rates were 46.3% of children team and 49.6% of adults team separately. [Conclusion] Aim at the dynamic surveillance the drug resistance and difference of diversity between the children team and the adults team, the resistance rates to adults were not applied to children in order to improve the antibacterial medicines' treat effect. The resistance results of adults and children should be dynamic monitored periodically separately for clinical doctor to reasonable use antibacterial medicines in different

  2. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    fungi belong to the healthy flora and do no harm. Ten percent of healthy children even bear strepptococcus pyogenes all the time in the tonsils with no clinical signs. In these children decolonization is not necessary. Therefore, microbiological screening tests in children without symptoms are senseless and do not justify an antibiotic treatment (which is sometimes postulated by the kindergartens). The acute tonsillitis should be treated with steroids (e.g. dexamethasone), NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofene) and betalactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin or cefuroxime). With respect to the symptom reduction and primary healing the short-term late-generation antibiotic therapy (azithromycin, clarithromycin or cephalosporine for three to five days) is comparable to the long-term penicilline therapy. There is no difference in the course of healing, recurrence or microbiological resistance between the short-term penicilline therapy and the standard ten days therapy. On the other hand, only the ten days antibiotic therapy has proven to be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritic diseases. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease is currently 0.5 per 100,000 children of school age. The main morbidity after tonsillectomy is pain and the late haemorrhage. Posttonsillectomy bleeding can occur till the whole wound is completely healed, which is normally after three weeks. Life-threatening haemorrhages occur often after smaller bleedings, which can spontaneously cease. That is why every haemorrhage, even the smallest, has to be treated properly and in ward. Patients and parents have to be informed about the correct behaviour in case of haemorrhage with a written consent before the surgery. The handout should contain important addresses, phone numbers and contact persons. Almost all cases of fatal outcome after tonsillectomy were due to false management of haemorrhage. Haemorrhage in small children can be especially life-threatening because of the lower blood volume

  3. Discólisis percutánea con ozono: nuestra experiencia Percutaneous ozone discolysis: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castro

    2009-10-01

    (85,4%, regular para 4 (9,8%, y solamente 2 (4,9% la calificaron de mala. Conclusiones: La discólisis percutánea con ozono se muestra como una técnica eficaz y segura en el tratamiento del dolor lumbar irradiado secundario a hernia de disco lumbar.Objective: To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous discolysis using ozone in the treatment of symptomatic lumbar hernia. Material and methods: We performed a prospective observational study in 41 patients diagnosed with symptomatic lumbar hernia, in whom we performed 49 percutaneous discolysis procedures introducing ozone in the lumbar region between February 2004 and February 2009. All the procedures were performed in the operating room under radiological guidance, with aseptic conditions, local anaesthesia and sedation. The ozone was introduced into the lumbar disc (5 to 7 ml, in the epidural (5 to 7 ml and periradicular spaces (5 to 7 ml at a concentration of 27 Ìg. In all patients, 1500 mg of cefuroxime was administrated intravenously as a prophylactic measure. The effectiveness of the treatment was based on pain control according to the visual analogue scale before the procedure (VAS 0, at 30 days (VAS 1, at 90 days (VAS 3 and at 6 months (VAS 6, and by means of Lattinen's test before treatment and at the end of the study. All the patients were asked about the possible adverse effects of the treatment and a survey was carried out on patient satisfaction with the technique. Results: We performed 49 percutaneous ozone discolysis procedures in 41 patients. The initial mean VAS was 7.37 ± 0.96 and subsequent values were 2.41 ± 2.17 at 1 month, 1.80 ± 2.31 at 3 months and 2.05 ± 2.45 at 6 months, with statically significant differences in the three measurements. The initial mean Lattingen index was 12.68 ± 2.32 and was 6.07 ± 2.91 at 6 months, representing a statically significant reduction. Adverse effects occurred in only five patients (12.2%: four mild transient headaches and one symptomatic

  4. 新生儿早发型败血症43例病原菌分布及耐药性分析%Pathogen distribution and antimictobial resistance of 43 cases of early onset neonatal septicemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶冯; 昌宏

    2013-01-01

    .3% ), and secondly of meticillin resistant, staphylococcus epidermidis, and streptococcus agalactiae with the same percentage of 9. 3% . G- pathogenic bacteria are mainly composed of escherichia coli ( 20.9% ), and of about 9.3% Klebsiella pneumoniae and 4.6% Acinetobacter baumannii. Except streptococcus agalactiae is sensitive to the penicillin, other G + coccus have high drug-resistant on the penicillin, oxacillin, ceftriaxone, clindamycin and erythrocin. But no such resistant was observed for rifampicin, levofloxacin, linezolid and vancomycin. G- pathogenic bacteria has a high drug-resistant on penicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime sodium, cefuroxime and cefoxitin, but a low resistant on cefoperazone sodium and sulbactam sodium, carbapenem and fluoroquinolones. Conclusions Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are the main pathogenic bacteria which induce the early-onset septicemia of neonate. It should use the correct antibiotics based on their drug sensitive result.

  5. Problem analysis of preventive usage of antibiotics in 2730 cases of cesarean sections in perioperative period%2730例剖宫产围手术期抗菌药物预防使用存在问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景旺; 王燕鸽; 张小周

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the problems of prophylaxis usage of antibiotics in cesarean sections to improve rational use of antibiotics and reduce the rate of surgical sites infection. Methods Retrospective analysis of antibiotics usage for 2730 cases of cesarean sections in perioperative period in our hospital from January 2013 to September 2014 was made. Results The rate of using antibiotics to prevent infections after cesarean sections among 2730 cases was 100%. There were 1723 cases which were used single type of antibiotics (63.11%), 1007 cases which were used two types of antibiotics (36.89%) and no cases which were using three or more types of antibiotics. The usage of antibiotics last 2 to 7 days, and most of them used for 5 days. The most frequently used preventive antibiotics was Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium, and the most frequently two combined used preventive antibiotics were cefuroxime for injection and ornidazole injection. In the evaluation on rational usage of antibiotics, 648 cases were prevented rationally in the cesarean sections (23.74%), and 2082 cases were irrationally prevented (76.26%). Conclusion There exists numerous irrational preventive usage of antibiotics in cesarean sections, including irrational choice of antibiotics, non-conformance between administration dosage and interval and package insert, wrong choice or overlarge volume of solvent, postoperative infusion of prophylaxis antibiotics, too long prophylaxis usage course, irrational combined application of antibiotics and irrational administration in numerous medical records. It is suggested that prophylaxis usage of antibiotics in cesarean sections should be interfered with guiding principles of clinical use of antibiotics and guide of perioperative preventive application of antimicrobial agents.%目的:通过探讨我院剖宫产手术抗菌药物的应用存在的问题,提高医院合理应用抗菌药物水平,降低手术部位的感染率。方法采用

  6. 2012~2014年铜绿假单胞菌耐药性变迁及抗菌药物应用分析%The change of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance and the use of antibi-otics during 2012 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立兰; 安儒峰

    2015-01-01

    .8%). The isolation rate of multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRPA) was 19.0%and the isolation rate of pan-drug resistant P. aeruginosa (PDRPA) was 5.5%. According to the resistance monitoring results, the antimicrobial resistance rate of P. aeruginosa to amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and gentamicin were less than 10.0%, the antimicrobial resistance rate to meropenem, piperacillin, ciprofloxacin, cefepime, ceftazidime, imipenem, levofloxacin and aztreonam varied at 12.4%-23.9%. The DDDs showed that the use intensity of cefuroxime, cefoperazone-sulbactam and levofloxacin ranked in the top 4 for three consecutive years, while that of meropenem and imipenem stayed a relatively low level, the use intensity of aztre-onam reduced substantially. Conclusion P. aeruginosa was the main cause of respiratory tract and burn wound infec-tion, the detection rate of showed an upward trend from 2012 to 2014, while the detection rate of multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRPA) and pan-drug resistant P. aeruginosa (PDRPA) has declined. The resistance rate of P. aerugi-nosa to commonly used antimicrobial agents was decreased. Therefore, the work of monitoring drug resistance and pro-moting rational application of antibiotics should be strengthened.

  7. 2007-2011年儿童院内感染病原微生物种类及其耐药率变化趋势%Survey on pathogenic microorganisms in children diagnosed with hospital onset of infections and their tendency of drug resistant rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宛传丹; 秦一鸣; 宋逸萍; 马月琴; 邹学军

    2013-01-01

    , and en-terococcus infection increased by years. Resistant rates of Escherichia coli to Cefazolin, Cefuroxime and Ceftazidime raised up and the discrepancy was significant ( all P <0. 05). The tendency of resistant rates of Ampicillin and Trimethoprim-sul-famethoxazole and Levofloxacin wasn' t significant ( all P > 0. 05). Resistant rate of Enterococcus erythromycin and Penicillin G were above 60% and these rates were increased for years (all P < 0. 05). No discrepancy was detected about rates of high level Centamicin, Levofloxacin and Ampicillin in Enterococcus. Staphylococcus infection was less than other infections. Conclusions The chief pathogenic microorganism in respiratory tract infection and alimentary infection was virus. Escherichia coli was the most common microorganism associated with infections in our local children infections, which resistant rate to cephalosporins antibiotic was increased per year. Meanwhile, the proportion of Enterococcus infection in children infections was increasing year by year. The distribution of the pathogens and drug resistance existed regional disparity. It' s very important to select reasonable drugs for treating pathogens according to the regional pathogen drug resistant spectra.

  8. 诺卡菌感染26例临床特点分析%Clinical analysis of 26 cases of nocardiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄慧; 陆志伟; 徐作军

    2010-01-01

    other cases with Nocardia undifferentiated. Result of antimicrobial susceptibility was unavailable in 10cases. Among the other 16 results, 7 strains of nocardia were resistant to trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMPco). Six cases were treated with a single drug, 5 cases with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 1 with minocycline. The other patients were given combination treatment,including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,amikacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin- clavulanic acid, streptomycin, evofloxacin, ciprofloxacin,minocycline and imipenem. Four patients died, 2 patients relapsed and the other 20 cases cured.Conclusions For immunosuppressed patients, nocardia infections should be considered when they had moderate to high fever and respiratory manifestations, especially accompanied with subcutaneous and/or brain abscess, and the chest radiology showed patchy infiltrates and/or consolidations. Further specific microbiological studies and sufficient therapy should be obtained as quickly as possible.%目的 分析诺卡菌感染病例的临床特点,提高对该病的诊治水平.方法 回顾性分析北京协和医院1990年1月至2010年1月收治的26例诺卡菌感染病例的临床资料.结果 26例中,男10例,年龄29~80岁,平均(52±14)岁;女16例,年龄15~71岁,平均(42±17)岁.其中增殖性疾病2例,慢性肾病3例(1例接受肾移植),糖尿病、胸部外伤史及库欣综合征各1例,无基础病、自身免疫病及慢性肺部疾病者各6例;26例中11例曾服用过糖皮质激素.临床表现为中高度发热25例,咳嗽22例,咳痰19例,胸膜炎性胸痛10例,咯血8例,肺部湿性啰音10例,5例合并皮肤感染,4例合并颅内脓肿.影像学表现为肺部斑片状及实变影21例,空洞10例.合并胸腔积液13例,双侧胸部受累15例.26例中仅4例经合格痰培养确诊,胸腔积液培养阳性8例,BALF培养阳性2例,支气管镜下吸取物培养阳性1例,皮下脓肿液培养阳性4例,CT引导下经

  9. 肿瘤医院粘质沙雷菌所致院内下呼吸道感染情况分析%Analysis of Serratia marcescens causing hospital-acquired lower respiratory tract infection in cancer hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王久惠; 叶波; 贾红; 李舸; 魏晋勇

    2011-01-01

    cancer (27%) or lung cancer(45% )who had accepted operation, chemoeherapy or radiotherapy. Serratia marcescens showed varies degree of drug-resistance to the antibiotics commonly used at present. It showed high rate of drug-resistance of over 50% to Amoxicilin, Ticarcilin, Cefoxitin and Cefuroxime. The sensitivity ratio to Imipenem, Piperacilin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefoperazone/sulbactam,cefepime, amikacin and Levofioxacin were all over 80%. But most of the drug-resistance ratio increased grandually. Conclusion For the tumor patients especially with easophagus cancer,lung cancer who had accepted operation or several courses of chmotherapy or radiotherapy in cancer hospital, the occurence of serratia marcescens causing hospital-acquired infection should be taken consideration. Timely microbiologicaltesting is necessary in order to select antibiotics according drug-sensitivityresults as early as possible. Serratia marcescens shows high drug-resistence to semisynthetic penicillin, second-generation cephalosporins,and different degree of drug-resistence to third-generation cephalosporins which should be paid more attention to by the clinical doctors.

  10. Analysis on ESBLs genotypes and drug resistance of hospital-acquired uropathogenic E .coli%医院获得性尿路感染大肠埃希菌ESBLs基因型与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐春进; 杨淑雅; 赵瑞珂; 余佳佳; 邱骏; 张险峰; 钱雪峰; 韩清珍; 徐杰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the characteristics of drug resistance and ESBLs genotypes of hospital-acquired uropathogenic E .coli(HA-UPEC) for guiding clinical antibacterial drug use of urinary tract infection and controlling hospital-acquired infections .Methods A total of 168 HA-UPEC strains isolated from the inpatients were collected .The PCR amplification was used to detect the main ESBLs genotypes and their resistance characteristics to common 16 kinds of antibiotics were analyzed .Results The resistance rates of 168 strains of HA-UPEC to com-pound sulfamethoxazole ,ampicillin ,cefazolin ,cefuroxime ,cefotaxime ,ceftriaxone ,and ciprofloxacin were up to more than 70% .Among 16 kinds of common antibacterial drugs ,cefoperazone/sulbactam ,piperacillin/tazobactam ,amikacin and imipenem had lower resistance rate .Compared with non-ESBLs producing E .coli ,ESBLs-producing E .coli showed higher resistance to penicillins ,cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones .According to the drug susceptibility spectrum ,168 strains of HA-UPEC were divided into five supergroups group A-E ,and ESBLs producing E .coli strains were mainly distributed in the group A ,B and C .CTX-M was main ESBL genotype(109 strains) ,followed by TEM (48 strains) .59 strains produced ≥ 2 kinds of ESBLs and ESBLs was not detected in 3 strains .The relation a-nalysis between drug resistance cluster grouping and ESBLs genotypes displayed that TEM had the highest distribu-tion rate in the group D(65 .2% ) ;SHV was not detected in the group C ,SHV had different distribution in the group A and B ;the CTX-M distribution difference among 4 groups had no statistical significance(P> 0 .05) ,OXA was not detected in the group B and differently distributed between A and B groups .Conclusion The drug resistance of ES-BLs-producing E .coli is serious .The different distribution of four ESBLs genotypes may be one of causes for UPES-BLs drug resistance difference ,and TEM genotype is more sensitive .The CTX-M and SHV

  11. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    fungi belong to the healthy flora and do no harm. Ten percent of healthy children even bear strepptococcus pyogenes all the time in the tonsils with no clinical signs. In these children decolonization is not necessary. Therefore, microbiological screening tests in children without symptoms are senseless and do not justify an antibiotic treatment (which is sometimes postulated by the kindergartens). The acute tonsillitis should be treated with steroids (e.g. dexamethasone), NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofene) and betalactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin or cefuroxime). With respect to the symptom reduction and primary healing the short-term late-generation antibiotic therapy (azithromycin, clarithromycin or cephalosporine for three to five days) is comparable to the long-term penicilline therapy. There is no difference in the course of healing, recurrence or microbiological resistance between the short-term penicilline therapy and the standard ten days therapy. On the other hand, only the ten days antibiotic therapy has proven to be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritic diseases. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease is currently 0.5 per 100,000 children of school age. The main morbidity after tonsillectomy is pain and the late haemorrhage. Posttonsillectomy bleeding can occur till the whole wound is completely healed, which is normally after three weeks. Life-threatening haemorrhages occur often after smaller bleedings, which can spontaneously cease. That is why every haemorrhage, even the smallest, has to be treated properly and in ward. Patients and parents have to be informed about the correct behaviour in case of haemorrhage with a written consent before the surgery. The handout should contain important addresses, phone numbers and contact persons. Almost all cases of fatal outcome after tonsillectomy were due to false management of haemorrhage. Haemorrhage in small children can be especially life-threatening because of the lower blood volume

  12. [Tonsillitis and sore throat in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, K

    2014-03-01

    fungi belong to the healthy flora and do no harm. Ten percent of the healthy children bear even streptococcus pyogenes all the time in the tonsils with no clinical signs. In these children decolonization is not necessary. Therefore, microbiological screening tests in children without symptoms are senseless and do not justify an antibiotic treatment (which is sometimes postulated by the kindergartens). The acute tonsillitis should be treated with steroids (e.g. dexamethasone), NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofene) and betalactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin or cefuroxime). With respect to the symptom reduction and primary healing the short-term late-generation antibiotic therapy (azithromycin, clarithromycin or cephalosporine for 3 to 5 days) is comparable to the long-term penicilline therapy. There is no difference in the course of healing, recurrence or microbiological resistance between the short-term penicilline therapy to the standard 10 days therapy, as well. On the other hand, only the 10 days antibiotic therapy has prooven to be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritic diseases. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease is currently 0.5 per 100.000 children in school age. The main morbidity after tonsillectomy is pain and the late hemorrhage. Posttonsillectomy bleeding can occur till the whole wound is completely healed, which is normally after 3 weeks. Life-threatening hemorrhages occur often after smaller bleedings, which can spontaneously cease. That is why every hemorrhage, even the smallest, has to be treated properly and in ward. Patients and parents have to be informed about the correct behavior in case of hemorrhage with a written consent before the surgery. The handout should contain important adresses, phone numbers and contact persons. Almost all cases of fatal outcome after tonsillectomy were due to false management of hemorrhage. Especially in small children hemorrhage can be life-threatening because of the lower blood volume and the

  13. Adverse reaction analysis of cephalosporin antibiotics%头孢菌素类抗生素的不良反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马星海

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析临床常用头孢菌素类抗生素的不良反应,为临床合理用药提供参考依据。方法收集本院2011年3月~2014年3月应用头孢菌素类抗生素药物出现不良反应的128例患者作为研究对象,分析头孢菌素类抗生素药物的应用情况和不良反应发生情况。结果<10岁的儿童(31.3%)和跃60岁的老人(37.5%)是头孢菌素类抗生素出现不良反应的易感人群;不良反应发生率最高的药物是头孢曲松钠,占21.9%,其次是头孢替安(14.1%)、头孢替唑钠(9.4%)、头孢硫脒(7.8%)、头孢呋辛钠(7.8%)、盐酸头孢吡肟(7.8%);静脉滴注给药途径的不良反应发生率最高,为53.9%,其次为口服(19.5%)、静脉推注(14.1%)、肌内注射(12.5%);主要累及的器官为皮肤(35.2%),其次是呼吸系统(20.3%)、循环系统(15.6%)、消化系统(14.1%)和神经系统(10.2%)。结论头孢菌素类抗生素的不良反应好发人群为儿童和老年人,静脉滴注给药途径的发生率最高,因此,临床用药时要充分考虑患者的体质和药物类型,降低不良反应发生率,提高临床合理用药。%Objective To analyze the adverse reactions of clinical commonly used cephalosporin antibiotics,to provide reference for clinical rational use of drugs. Methods 128 patients with adverse reactions caused by cephalosporin an-tibiotics in our hospital from March 2011 to March 2014 were selected as the study subjects.The usage of cephalosporin antibiotics and the occurrence of adverse reactions was analyzed. Results Children under 10 years old (31.3%) and old people over 60 years old (37.5%) was susceptible populations to the adverse reactions of cephalosporin antibiotics.The drug with the highest incidence of adverse reactions was ceftriaxone(21.9%),followed by cefotiam (14.1%),ceftezole sodi-um(9.4%),cefathiamidine(7.8%),cefuroxime sodium(7.8%) and cefepime dihydrochloride(7.8%).The incidence of adverse reactions was the

  14. Investigation of the pathogenic bacteria infection and drug resistance in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013 and analysis of the prevention and nursing control measures%2013年新生儿重症监护病房病原菌感染情况及耐药性调查与护理防控措施分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓玲; 李晖; 钟巧; 林春燕; 刘珺

    2014-01-01

    negative bateria were checked out which accounted for 5.66% and 4 cases of positive bateria were checked out which accounted for 4.30%.The detectable rate was 1.37%(7/510). The contrast difference was obvious(χ2=45.045, P<0.05) compared with that 11.08%(139/1254) in group B.②The drug resistance of Escherichia coli, which had the highest detection rate of pathogenic bacteria, against tetracycline, ampicillin and other common antibiotics was stronger and it was more sensitive to meropenem, chloramphenicol and other drugs. The sensitivity of streptococcus agalactiae, whose detection rate was the second, to chlorine lincomycin, erythromycin and other drugs was lower and was almost no resistance to ampicillin, Cefuroxime sodium and other drugs. The resistance of Staphylococcus aurous and Klebsiella pneumonia against ampicillin was stronger. Such drugs as clinical medicine should be avoided to enhance the curative effect. Conclusion Escherichia coli, no Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aurous are highest NICU detection rate of three kinds of pathogenic bacteria in our hospital in 2013. To effectively re-duce the neonatal cross infection risks, the hospital should further implement the NICU management measures, strengthen disinfection and isolation, monitoring, routine work and so on, strictly follow the principle of aseptic opera-tion, control of the amount of antibiotic drug and create conditions for their newborn resistance and immunity enhance-ment.

  15. Biofilm detection of Pathogenic Bacteria in Old Male Urinary Infections and analysis of drug resistance%老年男性尿路感染病原菌生物膜检测及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余祖辉

    2012-01-01

    . 44%, fungi and other pathogens accounting for 9. 67%. The biofilm detection rate of gram-positive bateria was 40. 54%, and that of gram-negative bacteria was 41. 11%. The isolated pathogens were mainly Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Proteus, accounting for 53. 87% , 15. 75% and 7. 74% , respectively, and the biofilm detection rate were 41.03%, 45.61%, 39. 29% respectively. The resistant rate of the pathogens with boifilm was higher than that without biofilm(P<0. 01). CONCLUSION This study indicated that the old male urinary infection was mainly caused by E. coli, Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Proteus. The antibiotics with higher resistant rate are ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, cefuroxime axetil and penicillin. The resistant rate of pathogenic bacteria with biofilm is far higher than those without biofilm.

  16. The Detection of Bacteria and Resistance in Children Community-acquired Pneumonia%小儿社区获得性肺炎的细菌学检测和耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树青; 沈玲; 徐风芝; 韩炳鑫

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analysis the bacterial etiology and resistance in children community-acquired pneumonia in Weifang . Methods 2526 children were included in this study since January 2005.The standard operation procedure of clinical test and VITEK-60 were used to separate and indentify bacteria .And disk diffusion method was used for the antibiotics sensitive test .Results ①Pathogens were detected in 52.90% of study patients.Bacteria accounted for 1417 isolates,Gram positive coccus for 61.75% and Gram negative bacilli ( G-) for 38.2%.Eight bacteria such as Group A streptococcus ,Streptococcus pneumoniae ,E.coli,Staphylococcus aureus ,Epidermis staphy-lococcus,Klebsiella pneumoniae ,Group D streptococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa represented the greatest proportion with 79.1%.②Group A streptococcus was sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics ,and 62.34%resistance to erythromycin .For Streptococcus pneumoniae ,the rate of resistance to penicillin was 21.5%,and to cefuroxime,ceftriaxone,amoxicillin,piperacillin/tazobactam were 7.6%~13.0%.For Staphy-lococcus aureus and Epidermis staphylococcus ,the rates of resistance to penicillin and erythromycin were 81%~90%,and to other β-lactam antibiotics were 30%.For E.coli,the rate of resistance to ampicillin was 92.4%,and to otherβ-lactam antibiotics and amikacin were 20%~30%.Klebsiella pneumoniae was resist to most antibiotics ,except ciprofloxacin ,cefoperazone/sulbactam ,piperacillin/tazobactam .For Pseudo-monas aeruginosa,the rate of resistance to ceftriaxone was 46.5%,to cefoperazone/sulbactam,piperacillin/tazobactam,amikacin,ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin were 0 ~4.2%.Conclusion Group A streptococcus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus , Epidermis staphylococcus ,Klebsiella pneumoniae ,Group D streptococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa arewere the common pathogens of community -ac-quired pneumonia in children in Weifang .Streptococcus pneumoniae iswas resistance to penicillin .Gram negative bacilli iswas

  17. The Seasonal Characteristics of Children with Streptococcus Pneumoniae and Pathogen Resistance Analysis%儿童链球菌性肺炎的季节特点及病原菌的耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范慧子; 许晓红; 张佳慧; 张志程; 刘丽晓

    2013-01-01

    Objective:We want to learn the situation of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin and the other antibiotics usually used for the children who had gotten sick of pneumonia and gotten recovery at our hospital by the retrospective analysis.Methods:We selected all the medical records of the children who received our treatments at our hospital and recovered from January,2008 to January,2012 because of Childhood pneumonia(CP),and those patients with other diseases were excluded.All the reports about bacteria isolated,cultured,resistance were reviewed.There were altogether 388 S.pneumoniae susceptibility results were retrospectively analyzed.Results:During the selected period,we found that childhood pneumonia which caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae had distinctive seasonal characteristics.CP had a high incidencein winter and spring especially at autumn and winter alternating periods.From January,2008 to January,2012,the rate of resistance to Penicillin in Streptococcus pneumoniae is 48.9%,53.8%,52.6% and 55.7% respectively and the rate of resistance to Penicillin showed an increasing trend year by year.In our present study,we found that the rate of resistance to clinical commonly used antibiotics such as Cefuroxime,Azithromycin,Erythromycin,Tetracycline,Clindamycin,Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was higher than that of the previous reports,and their rates of resistance were 77.8%,82.0%,86.9%,79.9%,80.9% and 69.1%,respectively.Although the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae was more serious than ever,there were a few kinds of antibiotics used clinically which still had a higher sensitivity to it.These antibiotics which were sensitive to Streptococcus pneumoniae included Cefotaxime,Ceftriaxone,Meropenem,Vancomycin,Ofloxacin and Linezolid.Our present research provides a good trade-offreferenee on the use of antibiotics in the treatments of Childhood pneumonia reduced by Streptococcus pneumoniae for the pediatrician

  18. Resistance surveillance of major pathogens for adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: a multicenter study 2012%2012年中国成人社区获得性呼吸道感染主要致病菌耐药性的多中心研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春江; 张菲菲; 王占伟; 曹彬; 徐修礼; 孙宏莉; 张嵘; 胡云健; 刘智勇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate antimicrobial resistance among pathogens responsible for adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections from 11 hospitals of China.Methods From January to December 2012,a total of 599 strains causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infection were collected from 11 hospitals,including 381 Streptococcus pneumonia,137 Haemophilus influenza,and 81 Moraxella catarrhalis.The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibacterial agents was determined by agar dilution method.Results Of all the strains,50% (300/599 strains) were from adults more than 60 years old and only 16.2% (97/599 strains) were from patients aged less than 40 years.According to oral penicillin breakpoints,56.7% (216/381 strains) of Streptococcus pneumoniae were penicillin nonsusceptible strains (PNSSP).More than 90% (345/381 strains) and 39.9% (152/381 strains)-50.7% (193/381 strains) of Streptococcus pneumoniae were resistant to macrolides and oral cephalosporins respectively,but over 97.8% (372/381 strains) and 99% (377/381 strains) were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin.PNSSP strains exhibited significant higher resistance to ceftriaxone,amoxicillin/clavulanate,cefaclor and cefuroxime compared with penicillin susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP).The susceptibility rates of Haemophilus influenza to the antimicrobial agents were over 90% except for ampicillin (71.5%,272/381 strains) and cefaclor (75.2%,286/381 strains).The prevalence of β-lactamase positive Haemophilus influenza were 21.9% (30/137 strains),and β-lactamase positive Haemophilus influenza strains were more resistant to ampicillin,cefaclor,chloramphenicol and tetracycline compared with β-1actamase-negative strains.Moraxella catarrhalis strains were extremely susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested except for clindamycin,azithromycin and clarithromycin.Conclusions The activities of macrolides and oral cephalosporins against Streptococcus

  19. Drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing respiratory tract infection in children%儿童呼吸道感染肺炎链球菌的耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金国强; 吴俭; 陈晓; 刘赟; 余伟

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing respiratory tract infec-tion in children so as to provide guidance for reasonable clinical use of antibiotics .METHODS A total of 5 060 chil-dren with respiratory tract infection ,who were treated in the hospital from Aug 2011 to Feb 2014 ,were enrolled in the study ,then the sputum specimens were collected and cultured ,and the isolation rate of S .pneumoniae was observed ;the drug susceptibility testing was performed to analyze the drug resistance of S .pneumoniae ,and the drug resistance rates of the penicillin-sensitive S .pneumoniae (PSSP ) and penicillin-resistant S .pneumoniae (PRSP) to various antibiotics were observed and compared .RESULTS Of 5 060 children with respiratory tract in-fection ,400 children were detected positive for S .pneumoniae with the detection rate of 7 .91% .The drug resist-ance rates of the S .pneumoniae to erythromycin ,tetracycline ,clindamycin ,and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were no less than 85 .00% ,the drug susceptibility rates to chloramphenicol ,cefaclorand ,and cefuroxime were no less than 78 .00% ;the S .pneumoniae strains were highly susceptible to vancomycin ,levofloxacin ,and amoxicil-lin/clavulanic acid ,with the drug susceptibility rates of 100 .00% ;the drug resistance rates of the PRSP to β-lac-tams ,erythromycin ,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ,and quinolones were significantly higher than those of the PSSP ,there was significant difference (P<0 .05);the multidrug-resistant rate of the PRSP strains was 90 .63% , the PSSP strains 54 .93% ,with statistical significance (P<0 .05) .CONCLUSION The situation of drug resistance of the S .pneumoniae causing respiratory tract infection in the children is harsh ;it is necessary to reasonably use antibiotics during the clinical treatment according to the results of the drug susceptibility testing so as to promote the early recovery of the children .%目的:探讨医院儿童呼吸道感染肺炎

  20. Changes in the antibiotic resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae before and after the implementation of special antibacterial drug management system%特殊抗菌药物管理制度实行前后肺炎克雷伯菌耐药率变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴丽淑; 祁伟; 魏殿军; 于树云; 杨夏

    2015-01-01

    ,cefuroxime ,ceftriaxone ,ceftazidime were high ,being 44 .7% ,44 .5% ,47 .2% ,44 .4% ,and 44 .4% respectively before the implementation of special antibacterial drug management system , which were changed into 38 .1% , 38 .3% , 41 .3% , 38 .1% , and 38 .1% after the implementation .The resistance rates to cefoperazone/sulbactam ,piperacillin/tazobactam and amikacin were low , being 11 .9% ,12 .7% ,and 5 .0% respectively before the implementation and 11 .7% ,11 .2% ,and 4 .4%respectively after the implementation ,with significant difference (P<0 .05) .No strains resistant to meropenem and imipenem were found .The commonly used antibiotic DDD showed that after the implementation of special antibacterial drug management system the doses of cefepime ,meropenem ,imipenem were reduced .CONCLUSION The study on antibiotic resistance rates of K .pneumoniae can be used as a reference for the clinical medication . The changes in the resistance rate after the implementation of special antibacterial drug management system provide reference for clinical antibacterial management .

  1. Freqüência e percentual de suscetibilidade de bactérias isoladas em pacientes atendidos na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza Frequency and susceptibility percentile of bacteria isolated in patients assisted in the intensive care unit of the General Hospital of Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2007-06-01

    suscetibilidade para ciprofloxacina. Os S. aureus e SCN foram isolados principalmente do cateter, sendo suscetíveis à vancomicina (100%. CONCLUSÃO: Os patógenos que mais causaram infecções na UTI do HGF foram Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, S aureus e SCN.INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial infections are prominent problem in hospital environment, mainly in intensive care units (ICU, where innumerous factors favoring the development of these infections are found. Objectives: To determine the frequency and the antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria isolated from ICU patients in the General Hospital of Fortaleza (HGF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bacteria were isolated in culture medium and the identification and test of susceptibility to antimicrobials was performed using MicroScan WalkWay automation device. RESULTS: From January to December of 2002, 34% of specimens from tracheal secretion; 10% from catheter cultures; 26% from urine and 30% from the blood yielded isolates. Specimens more frequent in tracheal secretion were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16% e Klebsiella pneumoniae (15%. In catheter cultures, we found high prevalence of Staphylococcus negative coagulase (SNC (25% and Staphylococcus aureus (25%; in urine, Klebsiella pneumoniae (16% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14% were the most prevalent. From blood, we isolated mostly SNC (41% and Staphylococcus aureus (17%. About antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from tracheal secretion, we found a high sensitivity to piperacilin and high resistance to ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated fom tracheal secretion showed high sensibility to imipenem, but no resistance to other antimicrobials althogeter. Susceptibility to ceftazidime was 54%. Isolates from catheters showed broad resistance pattern (ampicillin/sulbactam, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, gentamicin, piperacillin/tazobactam, piperacillin, ticarcillin

  2. 某院妇产科住院患者的无乳链球菌感染情况及耐药性研究%Research of infectious situation and drug resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae in patients of the department of gynecology and obstetrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽滨; 聂署萍; 陆学东; 林立鹏; 邓凤娴

    2016-01-01

    cultivated vaginal swab speci‐mens of pregnant women were 730 ,among which ,12 samples were positive Streptococcus agalactiae ,which accounted for 1 .64% . The total number of cultivated vaginal swab specimens of gynecological patients was 583 ,among which ,6 samples were positive Streptococcus ,which accounted for 1 .03% .The number of first fetal pregnant women was 505 ,among which ,8 cases carried with Streptococcus .And the positive rate was 1 .59% .The number of second fetal pregnant women was 227 ,among which ,4 cases car‐ried with Streptococcus agalactiae .And the positive rate was 1 .76% .The difference between the two groups had no statistical sig‐nificance(P>0 .05) .All positive Streptococcus agalactiae strains had high sensitivity to cephalosporin antibiotics ,while there were no strains resistant to cefoperazone ,cefuroxime sodium and ceftriaxone ,and the sensitive rate was 100% .In addition ,the resistant rates of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were as high as 38 .89% and 27 .78% .Conclusion The Streptococcus agalactiae infected rate of patients in obstetrical department is higher than that of patients in gynecology department .Streptococcus agalactiae strains have high sensitivity to cephalosporin antibiotics ,while ,they have high resistance to quinolone antibiotics .

  3. CHINET 2010 surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Haemophilus in fluenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in China%2010中国CHINET流感嗜血杆菌和卡他莫拉菌耐药性监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泓; 张小江; 徐元宏; 沈继录; 俞云松; 杨青; 胡云建; 艾效曼; 魏莲花; 吴玲; 单斌; 孔菁; 杜艳; 黄文祥; 贾蓓; 胡付品; 朱德妹; 王传清; 王爱敏; 孙自镛; 陈中举; 卓超; 苏丹虹; 徐英春

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibiotic resistance of clinical strains of Haemopkilus influenzae (HI) and Moraxella catarrhalis (MC) isolated from different regions in china during 2010. Methods Clinical strains of HI and MC were collected from 9 general hospitals and 2 children's hospitals, Kirby-Bauer method and agar dilution method were used to determine the susceptibilities of these strains. Results were analyzed according to the CLSI 2010 breakpoints. Beta-lactamases were detected by nitrocefin disk test. Results Among the 734 clinical strains of HI, the resistance rate to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicilliru ampicillin-sulbactam, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin was 64, 5% , 31, 7% , 14, 5% , 12. 5% and 14. 2% , respectively, About 90% of these HI strains were still susceptible to cefotaxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, azithromycin, or cefuroxime. The resistance rate to ampicillin and the prevalence of β -lactamases in the HI strains from children (35.1%, 30. 1%) were higher than in the strains from adults (26. 6% and 24. 1 % ). The resistance rate to ciprofloxacin was 4. 0% in the HI strains from children , significantly lower than in the strains from adults (17. 0% , P<0, 05), The overall prevalence of β-lactamases was 28. 1 % in the HI strains. There are 39 HI strains resistant to ampicillin but β-lactamase negative. The 214 clinical strains of MC kept highly susceptible to second and third cephalosporins, amoxillin-clavulanic acid, levofloxacin, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (96. 7%-100%). About 45. 1 % of these MC strains were resistant to azithromycin. The prevalence of β-lactamases was 96. 7% in these MC strains. Conclusions HI and MC are stably susceptible to cephalosporins, beta-lac tarn-lactamase inhibitor combinations as well as quinolones. Production of β-lactamase is still the major mechanism of ampicillin resistance in these two bacterial species. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism of antibiotic resistance in the

  4. 2010~2013年重庆医科大学附属永川医院抗菌药物调查分析%Analysis the use of antibiotic in the Yongchuan hospital Chongqing Medical University during 2010-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中良; 金梅

    2014-01-01

    ~2013 ,Cephalosporins and Macrolides antibiotics has been in the forefront on the sorting of DDDs . The DDDs of antifungal drugs increased year by year ,quinolones and nitroimidazoles was declining .The DDDs of Clarithromycin tablets ,Azithromycin enteric-coated capsules and Roxithromycin Capsules in the front row .2011-2013 ,the DDC of Cefuroxime in-creased the larger from 15 .37 to 68 .06 .Conclusion The antibacterial drug sales amount of drug sales amount is reduced year by year from 2010 to 2013 ,and the application of antimicrobial agents is given priority to Cephalosporins ,Antifungal drug sustained growth ,Macrolides antibiotics and Penicillins keep at a high level .

  5. 57株流感嗜血杆菌的耐药性分析及分布%Resistance analysis and distribution of haemophilus influenzae bacillus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕾

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解本院急性呼吸道感染患者临床分离出的流感嗜血杆菌的耐药性及菌株分布情况,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法采用法国梅里埃API NH鉴定条进行菌株鉴定,头孢硝噻吩检测菌株产β-内酰胺酶情况,纸片扩散法检测菌株的药敏情况。结果2012年4月至2012年7月本院临床分离的57株流感嗜血杆菌中有38株对氨苄西林耐药,耐药率66.7%;29株β-内酰胺酶阳性,占50.9﹪;对复方新诺明、头孢呋辛、四环素、阿莫西林/克拉维酸和氯霉素的耐药率依次为82.5%(47/57)、22.8%(13/57)、15.8%(9/57)、12.3%(7/57)和8.8%(5/57),对头孢噻肟、美罗培南、左氧氟沙星和阿奇霉素均敏感。57株流感嗜血杆菌中有12株(21.1%)来源10岁以下患儿,4株(7.0%)来源于30~40岁的患者,41株(71.9%)来源于50岁以上的患者。结论流感嗜血杆菌对临床常用抗菌药物的耐药率相差很大,本院引起的呼吸道感染多见于老年和儿童患者,临床上应根据本院的流行特点合理选用抗菌药物。%Objective To study the resistance and distribution of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from patients with acute respiratory infections in our hospital, and provide a basis for rational use of antimicrobial agents. Method French Merieux APINH identification strips were used for strain identiifcation;β-lactamase of strains were detected by cephalosporin nitroceifn;Antibiotic susceptibility of strains were tested through the disk diffusion assay. Results Total of 57 strains of Haemophilus inlfuenzae were isolated during April 2012 to July 2012. There were 38 strains were resistant to ampicillin, with the resistance rate was 66.7%; 29 strains produced β-lactamase, accounting for 50.9%. The resistance rates to cotrimoxazole, cefuroxime, tetracycline, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and chloramphenicol were 82.5%(47/57), 22.8%(13/57), 15.8%(9/57), 12

  6. 儿童中心静脉置管相关性血流感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析%Analysis of the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria of children′s PICC related bloodstream infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智英; 罗学群; 余慕雪

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in peripherally insert‐ed central catheter (PICC) related bloodstream infection on children ,and to provide the foundation for the clinical prevention and treatment .METHODS The clinical data of 72 children with PICC related bloodstream infection were chosen in our hospital from Jan .2009 to Jan .2014 ,the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacte‐ria were analyzed .SPSS13 .0 was adopted for a statistic analysis .RESULTS Totally 98 strains of pathogenic bacte‐ria were isolated and identified ,including 48 strains of gram‐positive bacteria (48 .98% ) ,37 strains of gram‐nega‐tive bacteria (37 .75% ) and 13 strains of fungi (13 .27% ) .The main gram‐positive bacteria were with high resist‐ance to penicillin ,erythromycin and ampicillin G ,and the resistance rate was 61 .11% ~100 .00% .The gram‐neg‐ative bacteria were with high resistance to ceftazidime ,cefepime ,cefuroxime and ampicillint ,and the resistance rate was 58 .30% ~88 .89% .Fungi were sensitive to itraconazole ,amphotericin B ,fluconazole and flucytosine , and the resistance rate was less than 20 .00% ;The children with the PICC indwelling time less than 7 days accaunted for 6 .9% ,while the children with the indwelling time more than 21days accounted for 50 .00% ;with the increase of the indwelling time ,the proportion of the chlidren with blooclstream infections was increased . CONCLUSION To strengthen the monitoring of pathogenic bacteria in PICC related bloodstream infections can help us better understand the dynamic changes of pathogenic bacteria in bloodstream infection .It′s benefit for guiding the clinical rational use of antimicrobial drugs and improving the clinical effect to master the drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria .%目的:分析儿童中心静脉置管(PICC )相关性血流感染的感染病原菌分布及其耐药性,为临床防治奠

  7. Analysis of antibiotics susceptibility and isolation of Haemophilus unsusceptible to azithromycin%阿奇霉素非敏感嗜血杆菌的分离及其药敏试验观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海平; 易思华; 张羿; 姚立琼; 陈保锦; 金凤玲

    2012-01-01

    azithromycin unsusceptible haemophilus, with isolation rate of 21. 48% , and isolation rate had the trend to ascend during the four years. In 389 azithromycin unsusceptible haemophilus, Haemophilus parahaemolyticus accounted for 308 (79. 18%), Haemophilus influenzae only accounted for 81 (20. 82%). The resistant rate of azithromycin unsusceptible Haemophilus influenzae to amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid, ampicillin/sul bactam, cefuroxime was higher than that of azithromycin unsusceptible Haemophilu parahaemolyticus, and both of them were with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone, cefpodoxime, aztreonam, meropenem, levofloxacin. The resistant rate of azithromycin unsus ceptible haemophilus to ampicillin increased year by year from 2008 to 2011. Compared with susceptible strains, azithromycin un susceptible Haemophilus influenzae had a significantly higher resistant rate or unsusceptible rate to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbac tam, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, levofloxacin. But for Haemophilus parahaemolyticus, azithromycin unsusceptible strains had a nota ble higher resistant and unsusceptible rate to the test antimicrobials. Conclusion Azithromycin unsusceptible haemophilus might in crease year by year, with high resistant and unsusceptible rate to commonly used antibiotics.

  8. Pathogens and risk factors of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis%腹膜透析相关性腹膜炎病原菌及其危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 吕晶; 李文冬; 辛小龙

    2016-01-01

    antimicrobial use.Methods Clinical data of 120 patients with PD-related peritonitis in a hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Results 91 cases (75.83%)showed positive result in bacterial culture,93 pathogenic strains were cultured,inclu-ding 73 (78.49%)gram-positive and 13 (13.98%)gram-negative bacterial strains,the most common gram-positive bacteria was Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=38,40.86%),and the main gram-negative bacteria was Escherichia coli (n =3,3.23%).Gram-positive strains had high resistance rates to penicillin,erythromycin,and oxacillin (93.65%,69.57%,and 64.41 % respectively),while resistance rates to vancomycin and linezolid were both low (2.90% and 1 .47% respectively),and were sensitive to teicoplanin,tigecycline,and nitrofurantoin.Gram-negative bacteria had high resistance rates to cefazolin,cefuroxime,and ampicillin(50.00%,37.50%,and 37.50% respec-tively),but were sensitive to imipenem,tobramycin,and piperacillin.Resistance rates of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria to gentamicin and levofloxacin were both low.Non-standard operation during dialysate exchange was the most common cause of peritonitis (56.67%),most peritonitis were gram-positive bacterial infection (79.41 %);while gram-negative bacteria were the main pathogens of diarrhea-induced peritonitis (52.63%).The cure rates of gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria,and negative-cultured peritonitis were 92.96%, 76.92%,and 86.21% respectively,difference was not statistically significant(χ2 =3.39,P =0.18).Conclusion Gram-positive bacteria are major pathogens in PD-related peritonitis,and are usually caused by the bacteria through dialy-sis catheter due to non-standard operation during dialysate exchange.First-generation cephalosporins are not recom-mended as empirical therapy against gram-positive bacteria,while vancomycin is still the best choice.Third-genera-tion cephalosporins and aminoglycosides are recommended as empirical therapy against gram

  9. 髋关节置换术后感染的微生物特点及药敏分析%Analysis of microbiology and antibiotic susceptibility in 131 cases of prosthetic hip infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙长鲛; 周勇刚; 柴伟; 王岩

    2014-01-01

    hip arthroplasty specimens so as to provide clinical recommendations for empiric prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotics therapy.Methods A retrospective review was conducted for hospitalized patients of prothetic hip infections during two-staged revision between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013.Suspicious intraoperative tissues were cultured and microbiological data sets and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria were analyzed .Results A total of 131 patients met the inclusion criteria.Micro-organisms were isolated in 96 patients.The negative culture rate was 26.7%.Nearly half of primary diseases were of fractures and 31.29% of all infected patients had previous surgery.Gram-positive isolates were the most common genus encountered (n=81, 74.3%), followed by Gram-negative isolates ( n =22, 20.2%) and fungal isolates ( n =6, 5.5%).Polymicrobial infections accounted for 11.5%.Coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most common causative organism of infection (n=42, 38.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (19.3%).The proportion of isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus was 29.36%for all organisms and 44.4%for Staphylococcus.Gram-negative isolates were dominated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.Fungal isolates were dominated by Candida albicans.Enterococcus was the most common causative organism of polymicrobialinfection.The results of antibiotic susceptibility showed cefazolin and cefuroxime were poorly susceptible to coagulase negative staphylococci ( CNS ) and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus ( MRS ).Some third and fourth-generation cephalosporins also had problems of bacterial resistance to Gram-negative isolates.Some antibiotics such as vancomycin , linezolid and rifampin were sensitive to Gram-positive isolates. Some antibiotics such as amikacin piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone/sulbactam, levofloxacinareand carbapenems were sensitive to Gram-negative isolates.Conclusion Most infections are caused by staphylococci.The proportion

  10. Analysis in trend transition of resistant pathogens in a hospital from 2008 to 2013%我院2008~2013年病原菌耐药变迁趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莹; 李玉英; 张献

    2015-01-01

    cefuroxime ,oxacillin.The resistance rates of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, clindamycin were higher than 60% in 2013.Conclusion The nosocomial infection pathogens are dominated by Gram-negative bacteria in the hospital from 2008 to 2013 ,and the fungal infections are on the rise . The resistance rate of clinical common pathogens resistant to commonly used antibacterial agents presents an increasing trend .We should strengthen the surveillance on bacterial resistance and the management of rational use of antibacterial agents for the effective durg resistance and nosocomial infection control .

  11. Distribution and evolvement of resistance profiles of the pathogens in children diagnosed with urinary tract infection in Children's Hospital of Fudan University in the recent 10 years%上海地区复旦大学附属儿科医院近10年儿童泌尿道感染病原菌分布及其耐药性变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷丽军; 王爱敏; 薛建昌; 宋建明; 何磊燕; 王传清

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and evolvement of resistance profiles of the pathogens isolated from children diagnosed with urinary tract infection (UTI).Methods The pediatric patients who were diagnosed with UTI in Children's Hospital of Fudan University from January 2001 to December 2010 were enrolled in this retrospective study.The clean catch midstream urine samples were collected and the pathogens were isolated by culture.Bacterial susceptibility test was performed by following a protocol of the standardized Kirby Bauer (KB) method.The enumeration data were analyzed by chi square test and the tendency of drug resistant rate was analyzed by curvilinear regression.Results A total of 10 686 pathogen strains were isolated during the past 10years.The major pathogen was Escherichia coli which counted for 38% -56% of the isolates.However,the proportion of Enterococcus faecalis (0 - 17%,F =34.075,P =0.000) and Enterococcus faecium (3 % - 15 %,F =7.139,P =0.028) increased rapidly.The resistant rates of Escherichia coli to cefazolin,cefuroxime sodium,cefotaxime and ceftazidime were 35.8%- 62.3%(F=215.735,P=0.000),33.1% -57.0%(F=70.674,P=0.000),19.0% -56.5%(F=52.355,P=0.000) and 2.1%-23.5%(F=16.807,P=0.003),respectively.The resistant rate of Escherichia coli to ciprofloxacin was 23.4% - 33.8 % (F=0.989,P=0.349),while the resistant rate of Escherichia coli to amikacin and cefoperozone/sulbactam were both less than 7%.There was no Escherichia coli isolate showing resistant to imipenem.The resistant rates of Enterococcus faecium to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin were higher than 60.0% and 50.0%,respectively,while the resistant rate of Enterococcus faecalis to these two antibiotics decreased from 40.0% to 9.6 % (F =17.497,P =0.009) and 60.0% to 21.6% (F=12.826,P=0.009),respectively.The resistant rate of Enterococcus faecium to nitrofurantoin decreased from 32 % (in the year of 2002) to 9.4% (in the year of 2010,F=34

  12. 尿路感染大肠埃希菌遗传种系分型及其耐药性的相关性探讨%Escherichia coli urinary tract infection germ line genetic typing and correlation of drug resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅俪凡; 王荣聪; 焦石

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate different E.coli urinary tract infection germ line genetic typing and drug resistance of relevance.Methods Select our hospital between January 2013 and March 2014 separation of 122 strains within 48 h after admission e.coli urinary tract infection and 108 strains after 48 h after admission urinary tract infection e.coli as a clinical research objects,all samples are selected from mid-stream specimen of urine,urinary tract infection patients with isolated within 48 h after admission in patients with urinary tract infection e.coli as a community infected bacteria,isola-ted after 48 h after admission in patients with urinary tract infection e.coli bacteria for hospital infec-tion,mining API20E enterobacteriaceae bacteria identification kit with the French company ATB mi-crobial identification of strains,semi-automatic analyzer with producer diffusion method determination of urinary tract infection of e.coli drug sensitivity,contrast different genetic types of tie points urina-ry tract infections e.coli resistance,produce broad-spectrum beta lactamase(extended spectrum beta lactamases,ESBLs ) rate and the distribution of infection in hospital and community infection. Results Among the 230 strains of Escherichia coli,138 strains of producing strains were detected, and 34 strains of ESBLs and AmpC were detected by ESBLs76 and AmpC.230 strains of Escherichia coli to antibiotics resistance:resistance to commonly used antibiotics in clinic from top to bottom in turn:cotrimoxazole 81 .7%,piperacillin,pull Westwood 76.7%,74.2% of ampicillin,ampicillin sul-bactam 61 .7%,butylamine card that mildew element 61 .7%,cefuroxime 60.8%,cephalosporins cef-podoxime 59.2%,ammonia aztreonam 59.2%,pethidine pull Xin Lin He cling to Zun 32.5%,ce-fazolin 68.3%,gentamicin 57.5%,cephalosporins cefotaxime 43.3%,cefotaxime cefepime 38.3%, cefotaxime and 33.3% of cefoxitin,imipenem 0.8%.①According to the test results,and no bacterial infection in the community and

  13. Analysis of clinical distribution and drug resistance of bloodstream infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae%肺炎克雷伯菌血流感染的临床分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查翔远; 宋有良; 林建; 崔小玲; 潘晓龙; 倪世峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical distribution and antimicrobial resistance of bloodstream infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae .Methods Patients with bloodstream infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in Tongling People's Hospital in Anhui province from January 2008 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed.Results A total of 71 cases were found with bloodstream infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, the top three clinical distribution departments were infectious diseases department, ICU and oncology de-partment, and the top three complications were pulmonary infection, malignant tumor, biliary tract infection as well as diabetes mellitus. There were 24 strains of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, accounting for 33.8%among 71 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the blood samples, in which 18 (52.9%) strains of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae among 34 hospital acquired infection cases and 6 ( 1 6 .2%) strains of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae among 3 7 community acquired infection cases;the positive rate of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains among hospital acquired infection cases was significantly higher than that of community acquired in-fection cases(χ2 =10.680, P=0.05).Among 71 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, no imipenem or meropenem-resistant isolate was found, and the resistance rates to amikacin, levofloxacin, ciprofIoxacin, cefoxitin, cefepime, cefoperazone/sulbactam and piperacillin/tazobactam were low(<20%) .The resistance rates of stains isolated from hospital acquired infection cases to piperaeillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cef-operazone/sulbactam, ampicillin/sulbactam, ticareillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefazolin, cefoperazone, cefuroxime, ceftazi-dime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and aztreonam were significantly higher than those of stains isolated from community acquired infection cases. The resistance rates of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains to 20 antimicrobial

  14. 0~1岁儿童急性肺炎病原学研究及用药合理性分析%Etiological research and medication rationality analysis of acute pneumonia in 0~1 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓晖; 张楠; 黄芳

    2013-01-01

    -four infants hospitalized during Dec 2010 to Nov 2012 were selected.The throat swabs were sent to the Beijing Disease Prevention and Control Center for rapid nucleic acid test for influenza; the sputum was sent to the bacteriological laboratory of the hospital for the bacterial culture.Children drug utilization index (cDUI)was used to assess the rationality of the medication amount of antibiotic drugs.For defined daily dose statistic (DDDs),the larger the value of DDDs,the more frequent the clinical use of the drug.Results In the confirmed cases of acute pneumonia,21 cases were of viral infection,9cases were of bacterial infection and 4 cases were of mixed infection.The probability of bacterial pneumonia (4/9) was higher than that of viral pneumonia(5/21) in the case with underlying disease (P <0.001) ;the virus detection rate(12/21) of children with contact history with respiratory tract infection patients was higher than bacteria detection rate(4/9)(P =0.01).In case of no risk of cross infection,the infants were more susceptible to bacterial infection (P =0.006).The sputum culture of 25 cases of positive virus detection showed 13 cases of colonization of conditional pathogenic bacteria and 4 cases of pathogenic bacteria.The ratio of combination use of antibiotic drugs in case of bacterial infection (4/9) was higher than that in mixed infection (1/4) (P =0.001).The durations of the use of antibiotic drugs for every group showed no statistical difference (P =0.29).This research involved 7 antibiotic drugs.The medication frequencies and durations of ceftriaxone (DDDs =1813.45,total medication duration =187 days) and cefuroxirne (DDDs =1513.73,total medication duration =162 days) were higher than those of the other 5 antibiotic drugs.The cDUI of all drugs ≤ 1.0.The decreasing order of drugs by cDUI was amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium (cDUI =1.0),cefuroxime (cDUI=0.89),ceftriaxone (cDUI =0.87),azithromycin oral agent and cefepime (cDUI =0.80),midecamycin oral agent (c

  15. 鲍曼不动杆菌生物膜形成能力与生物膜相关基因及耐药性之间的关系%Correlation between the biofilm-forming ability, biofilm-related genes and antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩欣欣; 李庆淑; 申丽婷; 胡丹; 曲彦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the biofilm-forming ability and the distribution of biofilm-related genes in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates as well as antimicrobial resistance,to analyze their relationships with the bacterial resistance phenotype.Methods A prospective study was conducted.Biofilm models of 70 strains Acinetobacter baumannii collected in Chengwu County People's Hospital from October 2012 to October 2013 were constructed using 96-well polystyrene plate.In order to analyze the biofilm-forming ability,a qualitative and quantitative analysis was conduct by crystal violet staining assay.And the antimicrobial resistance of different biofilm-forming ability strains was compared including imipenem,amikacin,meropenem,cefepime,sulbactam cefoperazone,trimethoprim,levofloxacin,gentamicin,ciprofloxacin,cefotaxime,ceftizoxime,aztreonam,piperacillin,ceftriaxone,cefuroxime.In addition,the expressions of biofilm-related gene Bap,bfs and intI1 were tested with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.Results Among 70 strains Acinetobacter baumannii,40 strains were multi-drug resistant (57.14%) and 6 strains were pan-drug resistant (8.57%); 68 strains had biofilm-forming ability (97.14%),14 of which were weakly positive,20 were positive and 34 were strongly positive.The antimicrobial resistant rate of Acinetobacter baumannii to imipenem,amikacin,meropenem and cefepime was decreased,it was 30.00%,32.86%,38.57% and 41.43%,respectively.However,the antimicrobial resistant rates to other commonly used antibiotics were all higher than 50%.The drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii to levofloxacin (85.71%,45.00%,38.24%,x2=9.225,P=0.010),cefepime (71.43%,45.00%,29.41%,x2=7.222,P=0.027),gentamicin (78.57%,55.00%,38.24%,x2 =6.601,P=0.037) was significantly decreased when biofilm-forming ability reinforced (weakly positive,positive,hadro-positive).Bap gene positive rate of weakly positive,positive and strong positive biofilm-forming strains