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Sample records for cefuroxime

  1. Clinical and diagnostic features of perioperative hypersensitivity to cefuroxime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, I S; Krøigaard, M; Mosbech, H;

    2015-01-01

    patients reacted in 15 minutes versus only 38/58 (65.5%) of negative patients. CONCLUSION: All patients with confirmed hypersensitivity to cefuroxime reacted within 15 minutes of administration, but so did 65.5% of cefuroxime negative patients, making timing of administration an unreliable predictor...... of causation in the perioperative setting. Provocations were always positive when carried out in skin test positive patients; however 8 patients had positive provocations only, highlighting the need for provocation in skin test negative patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  2. Effects of Implant-Associated Osteomyelitis on Cefuroxime Bone Pharmacokinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Mikkel; Bue, Mats; Koch, Janne;

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prolonged antibiotic therapy that is often needed for successful management of osteomyelitis may be related to incomplete penetration of antibiotics into the target site. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of implant-associated osteomyelitis on cefuroxime...

  3. The half-life and exposure of Cefuroxime varied in newborn infants after a Caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, G; Hyldig, N; Joergensen, J S;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: No information was available on how fast intravenous cefuroxime administered to pregnant women before a Caesarean section was cleared in newborn infants. This study investigated the drug's half-life and the exposure of healthy newborn infants after their mothers received the drug. METHODS......: Healthy mothers received a single dose of cefuroxime 15 to 60 minutes before skin incision. One blood sample was drawn from the umbilical cord and two blood samples were drawn from the infant after delivery. Total plasma cefuroxime (μg/ml) was measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. RESULTS......: Cefuroxime was given to 22 mothers, including two who had twins. The concentration of cefuroxime varied significantly among infants (p<0.001), while the rate of decline did not (p=0.24). The median cefuroxime half-life was 3.5 hours (range 2.9-5.5), which was approximately three times longer than in normal...

  4. Uveitis attack and drug reaction due to cefuroxime axetil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Canan; Duran, Arif; Kalafat, Utku Murat; Ocak, Tarık

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are natural or synthetic substances that are used to control bacterial infections because antibiotics are by definition only effective against bacteria. A 30-year-old female came to our emergency clinic complaining rubor in both eyes, especially in the left eye, with swelling, rubor and pain in ears, and eruption in lips extremities. In her anamnesis, it has been determined that she did not have any medical disease that requires regular utilization of drugs. After the patient received cefuroxime axetil for acute tonsillitis, she observed eruptions in lip extremities on the 3rd day, but she did not care about it. On the 5th day, rubor in both eyes and, especially in the left eye, have been developed, and complaints such as unable to look toward light and pain have started together with swelling, rubor, and pain in both ears. She came to our clinic because she was very much worried about the situation. In this study, we aimed to discuss a drug reaction characterized by face and ear skin observations, due to uveitis after the use of antibiotics including cefuroxime axetil for acute tonsillitis. PMID:26203731

  5. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFUROXIME SODIUM AND SULBACTAM SODIUM IN INJECTON

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    F.M. Patel et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cefuroxime is a 2nd-generation cephalosporin and Sulbactam is a β-Lactamase inhibitor. The combination formulation is used for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infection. Two new, simple, accurate and precise UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Cefuroxime Sodium (CEF and Sulbactam Sodium (SUL in their combined dosage forms. First method is based on simultaneous estimation of Cefuroxime at 279nm and Sulbactam at 259 nm, while other Q‐absorption Ratio method using two wavelengths, 259nm (λmax of SUL and 272nm (Isoabsorptive point. 0.01 N NaOH was the solvent used in all methods. Cefuroxime Sodium showed linearity in the range of 8-32μg/mL and Sulbactam sodium showed linearity in the range of 4-16μg/mL in all the methods. All methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were carried out. All methods were found to be accurate, precise and reproducible. These methods were applied to the assay of the drugs in marketed formulation, which were found in the range of 98.0% to 100.0% of the labelled value for both Cefuroxime and Sulbactam. Hence, the methods herein described can be successfully applied in quality control of combined pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  6. Ocular Toxicity after High-Dose Cefuroxime Injection into the Anterior Chamber

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    Harun Çakmak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antibiotics and, like penicillin derivatives, they show bacteriostatic effect by disrupting bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cefuroxime is a second generation cephalosporin and the use of intracameral cefuroxime after cataract surgery has been widely used in the endophthalmitis prophylaxis. A 78-year-old male patient was operated for cataracts in both eyes about 8 years ago. Ocular trauma has occurred in the left eye nine months ago. Vitrectomy surgery combined with intraocular lens extraction was performed and the patient was left aphakic. Secondary intraocular lens implantation was performed. In this paper, we present postoperative ocular findings in a patient who was given cefuroxime into the anterior chamber 2.5 times higher than the recommended dose (25 mg/ml after secondary intraocular lens implantation.

  7. Agar diffusion tests with cefuroxime disks for predicting ceftriaxone susceptibility among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae

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    Dias Cícero A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of agar diffusion tests using disks of cefuroxime (30µg for predicting ceftriaxone susceptibility in 33 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied. All 7 resistant isolates to ceftriaxone (MIC ³1.0 µg/ml exhibited zones of inhibition <28mm. The procedure can be easily adapted to clinical laboratories.

  8. Improvement in Dissolution Rate of Cefuroxime Axetil by using Poloxamer 188 and Neusilin US2

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    J Sruti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of fusion and surface adsorption techniques was used to enhance the dissolution rate of cefuroxime axetil. Solid dispersions of cefuroxime axetil were prepared by two methods, namely fusion method using poloxamer 188 alone and combination of poloxamer 188 and Neusilin US2 by fusion and surface adsorption method. Solid dispersions were evaluated for solubility, phase solubility, flowability, compressibility, Kawakita analysis, Fourier transform-infrared spectra, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction study, in vitro drug release, and stability study. Solubility studies showed 12- and 14-fold increase in solubility for solid dispersions by fusion method, and fusion and surface adsorption method, respectively. Phase solubility studies showed negative values for poloxamer 188 at various concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% indicating spontaneous nature of solubilisation. Fourier transform-infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry spectra showed that drug and excipients are compatible with each other. Powder X-ray diffraction study studies indicated that presence of Neusilin US2 is less likely to promote the reversion of the amorphous cefuroxime axetil to crystalline state. In vitro dissolution studies, T50% and mean dissolution time have shown better dissolution rate for solid dispersions by fusion and surface adsorption method. Cefuroxime axetil release at 15 min (Q15 and DE15 exhibited 23- and 20-fold improvement in dissolution rate. The optimized solid dispersion formulation was stable for 6 months of stability study as per ICH guidelines. The stability was ascertained from drug content, in vitro dissolution, Fourier transform-infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry study. Hence, this combined approach of fusion and surface adsorption can be used successfully to improve the dissolution rate of poorly soluble biopharmaceutical classification system class II drug cefuroxime axetil.

  9. Effectiveness of penicillin, dicloxacillin and cefuroxime for penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Jette Lindbjerg; Skov, Robert; Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates account for a fifth of cases of S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in Denmark, but little is known about treatment outcomes with penicillins or other antimicrobials. Here we compare penicillin, dicloxacillin and cefuroxime as definitive...... treatments in relation to 30 day mortality. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 588 penicillin-susceptible S. aureus cases at five centres from January 1995 to December 2010. Data on demographics, antimicrobial treatment, clinical signs and symptoms, and mortality at day 30 were collected. Hazard ratios...... (HRs) with 95% CIs associated with mortality were modelled using propensity-score-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Propensity-score-matched case-control studies were carried out. RESULTS: Definitive therapy with cefuroxime was associated with an increased risk of 30 day mortality...

  10. Pharmacokinetics of Cefuroxime in Cortical and Cancellous Bone Obtained by Microdialysis - a Porcine Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Mikkel; Forsingdal Hardlei, Tore; Bendtsen, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the pharmacokinetics of antimicrobials in bone have been investigated using bone biopsies, but this approach suffers from considerable methodological limitations. Consequently, new methods are needed. The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of the microdialysis...... (MD) technique for measurement of cefuroxime in bone, and to obtain pharmacokinetic profiles for the same drug in porcine cortical and cancellous bone. Measurements were conducted in bone-wax sealed and unsealed drill holes in cortical bone, in drill holes in cancellous bone and in subcutaneous tissue....... As reference, free and total plasma concentrations were also measured. The animals received a bolus of 1500 mg cefuroxime over 30 min. No significant differences between key pharmacokinetic parameters for sealed and unsealed drill holes in cortical bone were found. The mean area under the concentration...

  11. Studies on Novel Pantoprazole and Cefuroxime Axetil Tablets for Site Specific Delivery.

    OpenAIRE

    Putta Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    In this study core in coat tablets containing enteric coated Pantaprazole (PP) core and Cefuroxime axetil (CA) floating type coat formulation as single unit prepared by compression coating method. The tablets were evaluated for their various pre-compression, compression characteristics, in vitro drug release kinetics and stability studies. The analytical estimation of drugs was found to be accurate and precise. The results of rheological characteristics indicated that, the powder beds of both...

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime lysine after single intravenous, intraperitoneal, and intramuscular administration to rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-shan ZHAO; Ran YIN; Bin-bin WEI; Qing LI; Zhen-yuan JIANG; Xiao-hui CHEN; Kai-shun BI

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of cefuroxime lysine,a new second-generation of cephalosporin antibiotics,after intravenous (IV),intraperitoneal (IP),or intramuscular (IM) administration.Methods:Twelve male and 12 virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats,weighing from 200 to 250 g,were divided into three groups (n=4 for each gender in each group).The rats were administered a single dose (67.5 mg/kg) of cefuroxime lysine via IV bolus or IP or IM injection.Blood samples were collected and analyzed with a validated UFLC-MS/MS method.The concentration-time data were then calculated by compartmental and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic methods using DAS software.Results:After IV,IP or IM administration,the plasma cefuroxime lysine disposition was best described by a tri-compartmental,bi-compartmental or mono-compartmental open model,respectively,with first-order elimination.The plasma concentration profiles were similar through the 3 administration routes.The distribution process was rapid after IV administration:the value of t1/2(d) was 0.10±0.11h,1.36±0.65 h,and 1.25±1.01 h after IV,IP or IM administration.The AUMCo-∞ is markedly larger,and mean residence time (MRT)is greatly longer after IP administration:the value of AUMC0-∞ was 16.84±4.85,55.33±20.34,and 36.17±13.24 mg·h2/L; the value of MRT was 0.37±0.07 h,0.93±0.10 h,and 0.65±0.05 h after IV,IP or IM administration.The Cmax after IM injection was significantly higher than that in IP injection (73.51±12.46 vs 49.09±7.06 mg/L).There was no significantly sex-related difference in other pharmacokinetic parameters of cefuroxime lysine between male and female rats,except the value of AUC0-∞ via IM administration that was significantly larger in male rats than that in female rats (66.38±16.5 vs 44.23±6.37 mg·h/L).Conclusion:Cefuroxime lysine shows quick absorption after IV injection,a long retension after IP injection,and a high Cmax after IM injection.After IM administration the AUC0-∞ in

  13. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain ... will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using antibiotics when they are not needed ...

  14. Intracameral cefuroxime and moxifloxacin used as endophthalmitis prophylaxis after cataract surgery: systematic review of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness

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    Linertová R

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Renata Linertová,1,2 Rodrigo Abreu-González,3 Lidia García-Pérez,1,2 Marta Alonso-Plasencia,3 Luis Mateo Cordovés-Dorta,4 José Augusto Abreu-Reyes,4 Pedro Serrano-Aguilar2,5 1Fundación Canaria de Investigación y Salud (FUNCIS, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain; 2Red de Investigación en Servicios Sanitarios en Enfermedades Crónicas (REDISSEC, Madrid, Spain; 3Ophthalmology Service, University Hospital Ntra Sra de La Candelaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain; 4Ophthalmology Service, University Hospital of Canary Islands, La Laguna, Spain; 5HTA Unit, Canary Health Service, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain Abstract: Postoperative endophthalmitis is one of the most serious potential complications of ocular lens surgery. Its incidence can be reduced by means of antibiotic prophylaxis. Although the prophylactic use of intracameral cefuroxime has been extended, other drugs, such as moxifloxacin, have arisen as alternatives. We performed a systematic literature review on the effectiveness and efficiency of intracameral cefuroxime and moxifloxacin for the prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Several bibliographic databases were searched up to October 2010 and were updated up to January 2013. Outcomes were the onset of endophthalmitis after surgery and the cost-effectiveness ratio of using both antibiotic prophylaxis alternatives. The following were included: a clinical trial reported in two papers, six observational studies, and an economic evaluation. All studies assessed cefuroxime compared with another antibiotic prophylaxis or no prophylaxis. The only randomized controlled trial performed by the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery found that intracameral cefuroxime is significantly more effective than not using prophylaxis or the use of a topical antibiotic. The observational studies support these results. The economic evaluation compared different prophylaxis regimens and concluded that intracameral

  15. Fabrication of cefuroxime-impregnated calcium sulfate: Polycaprolactone composite implant for osteomyelitis

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    Gupta Himanshu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis is characterized as an inflammatory bone disease caused by pyrogenic bacteria. As oral bioavailabilities of antibiotics are low, a regimen of 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotic is necessary for adequate therapy. Although the dose of antibiotic administered systemically is high, therapeutically effective drug concentrations are not always achieved at the site of infection. This problem can be overcome by the use of local antibiotics from a biodegradable implant for chronic osteomyelitis that can deliver the drug at least for 6 weeks. The implant delivers high antibiotic concentration at tissue levels, obliterates dead space, aids bone repair and does not need to be removed. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a calcium sulfate and polycaprolactone (PCL-based composite biodegradable implantable delivery system of cefuroxime for the localized treatment of osteomyelitis that can deliver the drug for at least 6 weeks. The PCL and calcium sulfate composite system has not been studied yet. Interaction studies were carried out to check any incompatibility between the ingredients. Implants were prepared by a modified fabrication technique to avoid solvent use. The prepared implants were evaluated for various in vitro parameters like dimensions, hardness, tensile strength, drug release profile, sterility test and morphological changes in pellet before and after drug release. The pellets were also tested for microbiological efficacy and compared with a plain drug solution in different concentrations. Developed pellets are regular in shape and size with good tensile strength. The release profile displayed drug levels above the minimum inhibitory concentration continuously for up to 2 months. A wide zone of inhibition by the pellet against Staphylococcus aureus as compared with the drug solution proves its efficacy in the treatment of osteomyelitis. Results show that the developed calcium sulfate and PCL-based composite

  16. Relative efficacy of cefuroxime versus dicloxacillin as definitive antimicrobial therapy in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Bjarke; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Arpi, Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of cefuroxime with that of dicloxacillin as definitive antimicrobial therapy in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (MS-SAB) using a Danish bacteraemia database, information on the indication....... Information including demographics, antimicrobial therapy and clinical condition was obtained. The physician's note detailing the indication for starting empirical antimicrobial therapy was given special attention. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for 30 day and 90 day mortality were calculated using PS...... were identified and grouped into eight categories. There was no statistically significant difference in 30 day mortality between the two groups (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.68-1.52). Definitive antimicrobial therapy with cefuroxime was associated with increased 90 day mortality in a PS-adjusted multivariate...

  17. Antibacterial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. alone and in combination with cefuroxime against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naser Jarrar; Awni Abu-Hijleh; Kamel Adwan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the antimicrobial activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and to investigate the synergistic effects of this extract combined with ceforuxime against methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA).Methods: The inhibitory and bactericidal activities of rosemary ethanol extract, alone and in combination with cefuroxime, were studied.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the ethanol extract of rosemary were in the range of 0.39-3.13 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were usually equal to or double that MICs. The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the ethanol extract of rosemary and cefuroxime indicated their synergistic effects against all MRSAs.Conclusions: The present work clearly demonstrates that rosemary has a key role in the elevation of susceptibility toβ-lactams.

  18. Removal of amoxicillin and cefuroxime axetil by advanced membranes technology, activated carbon and micelle-clay complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Mohammad; Al-Rimawi, Fuad; Dajani, Khuloud Jamal Khayyat; Khamis, Mustafa; Nir, Shlomo; Karaman, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    Two antibacterials, amoxicillin trihydrate and cefuroxime axetil spiked into wastewater were completely removed by sequential wastewater treatment plant's membranes, which included activated sludge, ultrafiltration (hollow fibre and spiral wound membranes with 100 and 20 kDa cut-offs), activated carbon column and reverse osmosis. Adsorption isotherms in synthetic water which employed activated carbon and micelle-clay complex (octadecyltrimethylammonium-montmorillonite) as adsorbents fitted the Langmuir equation. Qmax of 100 and 90.9 mg g(-1), and K values of 0.158 and 0.229 L mg(-1) were obtained for amoxicillin trihydrate using activated carbon and micelle-clay complex, respectively. Filtration of antibacterials in the ppm range, which yielded variable degrees of removal depending on the volumes passed and flow rates, was simulated and capacities for the ppb range were estimated. Stability study in pure water and wastewater revealed that amoxicillin was totally stable for one month when kept at 37°C, whereas cefuroxime axetil underwent slow hydrolysis to cefuroxime.

  19. Studies on Novel Pantoprazole and Cefuroxime Axetil Tablets for Site Specific Delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta Rajesh Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study core in coat tablets containing enteric coated Pantaprazole (PP core and Cefuroxime axetil (CA floating type coat formulation as single unit prepared by compression coating method. The tablets were evaluated for their various pre-compression, compression characteristics, in vitro drug release kinetics and stability studies. The analytical estimation of drugs was found to be accurate and precise. The results of rheological characteristics indicated that, the powder beds of both core formulations of PP are freely flowable and easily compressible. Acryl EZE coating over the core tablets protects PP from GI fluids and helps in release of drug in intestinal pH. These studies on coat granules indicated that, the granule beds of all the coat formulations of CA are easily compressible and that flow increases with the addition of glidants. The release rate of CA from HPMC K4M formulations is majorly by burst effect, since HPMCK4M (p<0.05 is relatively more hydrophilic and when swells it forms weaker gel. Also, the release of CA from guar gum and xanthan gum formulations follows zero order release (p<0.05. The guar gum when it swells forms thicker gels hence the release rate ‘k’ is small of the three diluents. Stability studies at 40°C / 75% RH indicated that there is no significant change in CA content for a period of 3 months. Therefore it could be concluded that the combination of PP and CA would be useful for improved ulcer therapy associated with symptomatic relief to the patient.

  20. Progress in the clinical pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime%头孢呋辛临床药动学的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵龙山; 李清; 何博赛; 王洁; 陈晓辉; 毕开顺

    2012-01-01

    目的 综述头孢呋辛钠和头孢呋辛酯的临床药动学的研究进展.方法 查阅国内外文献并进行分析归纳和总结.结果 头孢呋辛在组织和体液中分布广泛,消除快,体内药动学行为符合二室开放模型,头孢呋辛酯水解后以头孢呋辛的形式起作用,饮食影响头孢呋辛酯的生物利用度,在特殊人群中用药量需酌情减量,未见性别差异.结论 作为二代头孢类药物代表的头孢呋辛,已入选国家基本药物目录,但仍然需要检测患者血药浓度,避免抗生素滥用,实现个体化给药,达到临床的安全、合理、有效用药.%Objective To summarize the progress in the clinical pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime sodium and cefuroxime axile.Methods The literatures at home and abroad were consulted,analyzed and concluded.Results Cefuroxime is widely distributed in tissues and body fluids,and eliminated rapidly,with the pharmacokinetic profile in body best fitted by two-compartment open model,while cefuroxime axile is hydrolysed into cefuroxime which is in action.Food can effect the bioavailability of cefuroxime axile,and more attention should be paid for the special population using lower dosage.No gender differences were found for both formulations.Conclusions As the representation of the second-generation cephalosporins,cefuroxime has been listed in the Catalogue of Basic Medicines of the State,however,therapeutical drug monitoring of patients for cefuroxime should still be taken into consideration,so as to avoid the abuse of antibiotics,achieve individualized drug administration,and finally to come to be safe,reasonable and effective drug use in clinic.

  1. Eradication of Biofilm-like Microcolony Structures of Borrelia burgdorferi by Daunomycin and Daptomycin but not Mitomycin C in Combination with Doxycycline and Cefuroxime

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    Jie eFeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. While the majority of Lyme disease patients can resolve their symptoms if treated promptly, 10-20% of patients suffer from prolonged symptoms called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS. Although the cause for PTLDS is unclear, one possibility is the presence of bacterial persisters not effectively cleared by the current Lyme antibiotics. Recent studies identified several drug candidates including daptomycin, daunomycin, doxorubicin, and mitomycin C that had good activity against B. burgdorferi persisters. However, their relative activities against B. burgdorferi persisters have not been evaluated under the same conditions. In this study, we tested the anti-persister activities of these drugs against both 7-day and 15-day old stationary phase cultures of B. burgdorferi individually as well as in combination with Lyme antibiotics doxycycline and cefuroxime (Ceftin. Our findings demonstrate daunomycin and daptomycin were more active than mitomycin C in single drug comparison at 10 and 20 µM, as well as in drug combinations with doxycycline and cefuroxime. In addition, daunomycin was more active than doxorubicin which correlated with their ability to stain and accumulate in B. burgdorferi. The two drug combination of doxycycline and cefuroxime was unable to eradicate biofilm-like microcolonies of B. burgdorferi persisters. However, the addition of either daunomycin or daptomycin to the doxycycline + cefuroxime combination completely eradicated the biofilm-like structures and produced no visible bacterial regrowth after 7 days and 21 days, while the addition of doxorubicin was unable to prevent regrowth at either 7 day or 21 day subculture. Mitomycin C in combination with doxycycline and cefuroxime caused no regrowth at 7 days but visible spirochetal regrowth occurred after 21 day subculture. Furthermore, we found that

  2. Influence of four modes of administration on penetration of aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin into interstitial fluid and fibrin clots and on in vivo efficacy against Haemophilus influenzae.

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoie, G Y; Bergeron, M G

    1985-01-01

    The extravascular penetration and bactericidal activity of aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin against beta-lactamase-positive and -negative Haemophilus influenzae strains were compared in a rabbit model. All groups of animals received an identical total dose of 100 mg of either antibiotic per kg given by four different intravenous modes of administration including a single large injection, four intermittent injections, a continuous infusion, and an injection followed by an infusion. Aztreo...

  3. The in vitro Antibacterial Activity of Florfenicol in Combination with Amoxicillin or Cefuroxime against Pathogenic Bacteria of Animal Origin

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    Myung-Jin Choia, Eun-Mi Leea, Seung-Jin Lee, Md. Ahsanur Reza, Joong-Su Lee, Elias Gebru, Man-Hee Rhee and Seung-Chun Park*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro activity of florfenicol (F in combination with amoxicillin (AM or cefuroxime (CRM against pathogenic bacteria of animal origin, including E. coli, S. aureus, S. cholerasuis and P. mirabilis. The MIC of AM ranged from 16 to 256 μg/ml. The MBC of AM (64 μg/ml was four-fold higher than its MIC value (16 μg/ml for E. coli, and similar to the MIC for the other three species. The MIC of F ranged from 8 to 16 μg/ml. The MBC values of F for E. coli, S. aureus, and S. cholerasuis were eight-fold higher than the respective MIC values, and 32-fold higher than the MIC of P. mirabilis. The MIC of CRM ranged from 8 to 128 μg/ml. The MBC of CRM was the highest ( 256 μg/ml, except for E. coli. The F/AM combination resulted in synergism (FIC index  0.5 for E. coli, S. aureus, and P. mirabilis and in-difference (FIC index >1 for S. cholerasuis. For F/CRM combination, synergism (E. coli and S. cholerasuis and in-difference (S. aureus and P. mirabilis were observed. Killing rate study showed a 1.5 - > 3 log 10 cfu/ml reduction of E. coli with F/AM compared to AM or F alone. The highest activity of the combinations was observed when F comprised at least 50% of the combination. Further studies using many bacterial isolates and various proportion of each drug would reveal the potential of a combination product containing F and AM/CRM for use in veterinary practice.

  4. Thrombocytopenia induced by intravenous infusion of cefuroxime%头孢呋辛静脉滴注致血小板减少

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志恒; 杨波

    2011-01-01

    1例70岁女性患者拟行脑膜瘤切除术,术前因肺部感染给予头孢呋辛2 g溶于0.9%氯化钠溶液250 ml,1次/d静脉滴注。用药前血小板166×109/L,用药第2天血小板急剧下降至40×109/L,但无临床出血表现。考虑可能与头孢呋辛有关,遂停用该药,改用氧氟沙星,换药1 d后血小板上升至160×109/L。随后肺部感染好转,手术顺利完成。%A 70-year-old woman was planned to undergo meningeoma resection and received an IV infusion of cefuroxime 2 g dissolved in 250 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride once daily for a lung infection before operation. Her platelet count was 166 × 109/L before drug administration and, on day 2 of treatment, her platelet count rapidly dropped to 40 × 109/L, but no evidence of clinical bleeding. It was considered to be associated with cefuroxime, so the drug was withdrawn and switched to ofloxacin. One day after change to ofloxacin, her platelet count rose to 160 × 109/L. Thereafter, the pulmonary infection improved and the operation completed uneventfully.

  5. The Study of Compatible Stability of Cefuroxime Sodium for Injection and Oxytocin Injection%注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液配伍的稳定性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫民; 冯燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the compatible stability of Cefuroxime Sodium for injection with oxytocin injection. Methods The change of appearance,PH value and indissoluble particle in the mixture within 8 h at 20℃were observed after Cefuroxime Sodium for injection being combined with Oxytocin injection. The contents of drugs were determined by HPLC. Results No significant change was found in content,pH value,appearance and indissoluble particle in 8h after Cefuroxime Sodium injection being combined with Oxytocin injection. Conclusion There is no physical and chemical compatibility taboo when Cefuroxime Sodium for injection is combined with Oxytocin injection.%目的考察注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液配伍的稳定性。方法在20℃下8 h内考察注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液配伍后,其混合溶液的外观、pH及不溶性微粒变化,并用高效液相色谱法测定药物的含量。结果注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液配伍后,8 h内药物的含量、混合溶液pH、外观及不溶性微粒均无明显变化。结论注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液不存在理化性的配伍禁忌。

  6. 注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液配伍的稳定性观察%The Study of Compatible Stability of Cefuroxime Sodium for Injection and Oxytocin Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫民; 冯燕

    2014-01-01

    目的考察注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液配伍的稳定性。方法在20℃下8 h内考察注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液配伍后,其混合溶液的外观、pH及不溶性微粒变化,并用高效液相色谱法测定药物的含量。结果注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液配伍后,8 h内药物的含量、混合溶液pH、外观及不溶性微粒均无明显变化。结论注射用头孢呋辛钠和缩宫素注射液不存在理化性的配伍禁忌。%Objective To study the compatible stability of Cefuroxime Sodium for injection with oxytocin injection. Methods The change of appearance,PH value and indissoluble particle in the mixture within 8 h at 20℃were observed after Cefuroxime Sodium for injection being combined with Oxytocin injection. The contents of drugs were determined by HPLC. Results No significant change was found in content,pH value,appearance and indissoluble particle in 8h after Cefuroxime Sodium injection being combined with Oxytocin injection. Conclusion There is no physical and chemical compatibility taboo when Cefuroxime Sodium for injection is combined with Oxytocin injection.

  7. Improvement of Determination Method for Related Substances in Cefuroxime Sodium by HPLC%HPLC法测定头孢呋辛钠有关物质的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周劲康

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To improve the: determination method for the related substances in ecfiiroximc sodium by HPLC. Method: A Phenomenex Luna C18( 250 mm ×4. 6 mm, 5 μm ) column was used, the mobile phase was composed of methanol-0. 1% phosphoric acid with linear gradient clution, the detection wavelength was 273 nm and the flow rate was 1. 0 ml · mill-1 . Result: The method was suitable for the determination of the related substances in cefuroxime sodium, the drug peak and the impurity peaks could be separated efficiently, cefuroxime showed a good linearity within the range of 0. 101 4-2.028 μg( r =0.999 9), and LOD and LOQ was 0. 105 ng and 0.351 ng, respectively. Conclusion: The improved method is simple, accurate and reproducible, and the determination result of the method is the same as that of the described method in China Pharmacopoeia ( 2010 ).%目的:改进用于头孢呋辛钠有关物质检测的HPLC方法.方法:选用Phenomenex Luna C18(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm)色谱柱,流动相为甲醇-0.1%磷酸溶液,梯度洗脱,检测波长为273 nm;流速为1.0 ml·min-1.结果:头孢呋辛与相邻杂质峰分离度符合要求,在0.101 4~2.028 μg范围内线性关系良好(r=0.999 9),检测限和定量限分别为0.105 ng和0.351 ng.结论:改进后的方法更快速、准确、专属性好,检测结果与2010版方法所得结果基本相同.

  8. Clostridium difficile 027-associated pseudomembranous colitis after short-term treatment with cefuroxime and cephalexin in an elderly orthopedic patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søgaard Kirstine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 has become increasingly prevalent in European countries. The clinical picture varies from self-limiting diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis with toxic megacolon and ultimately death. Use of antibiotics is the principal risk factor; others include comorbidity, advanced age and hospitalization. However even with extensive knowledge of risk factors, it remains difficult to define “minimum risk,” as illustrated by the following case. Case presentation An 80-year-old Danish man in good health was hospitalized for a penetrating knee injury. He received 5 days of intravenous cefuroxime after surgical revision and was discharged with oral cephalexin. Post-discharge he suffered from abdominal discomfort and was readmitted with ileus 4 days after discharge, i.e. 10 days after initiation of antibiotic treatment. His condition deteriorated, and pseudomembranous colitis was diagnosed. Due to lack of response to vancomycin and metronidazole, a total colectomy was performed. Stool cultures were positive for CD 027. Conclusion Short-term use of cephalosporins may have induced CD 027 infection, and the patient’s age was the only identifiable risk factor for the fulminant course. Thus, even short-term prophylactic treatment with cephalosporins cannot be considered entirely safe.

  9. Effects of intracameral cefuroxime injection on the prophylaxis of endophthalmitis after cataract surgeries:a Meta-analysis%前房内注入头孢呋辛预防白内障术后眼内炎的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓玉; 蒋林志

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of intracameral cefuroxime injection on the prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgeries, and compare endophthalmitis conditions between intracameral cefuroxime injection group and no intervention control group, using Meta analysis to search literatures at home and abroad. METHODS: By searching through Pubmed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, QVIP, CNKI, Wanfang, the literatures published from January 1 st 2006 to January 31 rd 2015 were collected. The data in five literatures about the effects of intracameral cefuroxime injection on the prophylaxis of endophthalmitis after cataract surgeries were analyzed. By extracting data, incidence of endophthalmitis after cataract surgeries with taking the preventive measures or not taking was compared by Review Manager 5. 2. Adopting fixed effect model, values of odds ratio ( OR) and 95% Confidence Interval ( 95% CI ) were recorded and compared, analyzed sensitivity analysis, excluded heterogeneity and calculated outcomes. RESULTS: After comparing the incidence of endophthalmitis from intracameral cefuroxime injection group and control group, the result was statistically significant [OR=0. 11 (P  方法:检索国内外数据库如 Pubmed、The Cochrane Library、EMBASE、维普中文科技期刊数据库、中国知网、万方数据库经审稿人审核发表选取2006-01-01/2015-01-31的关于前房内注入头孢呋辛与对照组无干预措施对白内障术后眼内炎预防作用的文章,共纳入5篇文献,通过提取数据,观察采取与未采取该预防措施后白内障术后眼内炎的发病率,应用Review Manager 5.2软件,采用固定效应模型,统计比较OR值和95%CI,进行敏感性分析,排除异质性,得出结果。  结果:Meta分析比较前房内注入头孢呋辛与对照组,以白内障术后眼内炎的发病率作为指标,统计结果差异有明显的统计学意义( OR=0.11,95%CI=0.07~0.18,P  结论:前房内注入

  10. 光纤药物溶出度实时测定仪测定头孢呋辛酯片的溶出度%Process monitoring dissolution of Cefuroxime axetil tablets by fiber -chemical sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海燕; 张奇洲; 李莉; 陈坚; 李新霞

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To detect the dissolution of Cefuroxime axetil tablets,and to compare the production technology and internal quality of different manufacturers. METHODS The dissolubility of Cefuroxime axetil tablets was detected in 0. 1 mol·L-1 HC1 mediums by fiber - optic dissolution test( FODT) system,and compared with the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Ch P) method. RESULTS The dissolution results of measurement have not significant difference compared with the Ch P. The dissolution rate of samples exceeded 92% in 15 min and accorded with the Ch P. CONCLUSION FOOT monitors the dissolution of solid preparation without sampling and continuous detection, and gets overall data. Assessments of internal quality and preparation stability have been provided.%目的 检测头孢呋辛酯片的溶出度,比较不同厂家的生产工艺及质量.方法 采用光纤药物溶出度实时测定仪(FODT)检测头孢呋辛酯在0.1 mol·L-1盐酸中的溶出度,并与《中国药典》方法比较.结果 两种方法所得结果无显著差异,3个厂家头孢呋辛酯片的溶出过程基本相似,在15 min溶出>92%,均符合药典规定.结论 FODT法用于检测固体制剂溶出度,不需取样即可获得完整的溶出曲线和相关数据,为评价药品内在质量、制剂稳定性提供了参考.

  11. 光纤药物溶出度实时测定仪监测头孢呋辛酯片的溶出度%The Process Monitoring of the Dissolution of Cefuroxime Axetil Tablets with Fiber-optic Medicine Dissolution Process Real Time Test System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅小英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for the evaluation of the whole process of dissolution of Cefu-roxime Axetil Tablets and for preliminary assessment of their quality. Methods The release process of Cefuroxime Axetil Tablets was determined simultaneously with FODT-601 Fiber-optic Medicine Dissolution Process Real Time Test System. Results The dissolution rate of samples of each batch exceeded 85% in 15 min and accorded with the Ch. P 2010. Conclusion The technology used by each factory is stable.%目的 建立考察头孢呋辛酯片溶出过程的方法,初步评价制剂质量.方法 用光纤溶出度实时测定仪,以对照品法实时监测头孢呋辛酯片的溶出过程.结果 各批产品均在15 min溶出85%以上,溶出过程均相似,并符合《中国药典》2010年版(二部)的规定.结论 各企业内生产工艺稳定.

  12. Effects of combination of clarithromycin and cefuroxime sodium on mutant prevention concentration of Staphylococcus aureus%克拉霉素联用头孢呋辛对金黄色葡萄球菌预防耐药突变浓度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙小菲; 杨玉芳; 钟小斌; 邹小琴; 李萌; 覃巧; 张文宇

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the antibacterial effect and the mutant prevention ability of Clarithromycin (CLR) ,Cefuroxime sodium (CXM ) separately and jointly against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro .METHODS The minimal inhibitory concentrations(MIC) of CLR and CXM against Staphylococcus aureus were determined by agar plate dilution method when they were used separately and by chess board method when they were used in combina‐tion .The fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) were then calculated .The 1010 CFU/ml Staphylococcus aureus was enriched by meat infusion culture‐medium and the mutant prevention concentrations (MPC) were determined by agar plate dilution method and simple chess board method .The corresponding selection index SI(MPC/MIC) was then calculated .RESULTS The MIC ,MPC and SI of CLR were 4 .0 μg/ml ,25 .6 μg/ml ,and 6 .4 .The MIC , MPC and SI of CXM were 4 .0 μg/ml ,51 .2 μg/ml ,12 .8 .When used in combination ,the MIC of CLR and CXM was 4 .0 μg/ml and indifferent effect (FIC) was 2 .0 ,and had irrelevant effect .The MPC of CLR decreased from 25 .6 μg/ml when it was used alone to 8 .0 μg/ml when it was combined with CXM ,and the SI reduced from 6 .4 when it was used alone to 2 .0 after combination with CXM .The MPC of CXM decreased from 51 .2 μg/ml when it used alone to 8 .0 μg/ml when it was combined with CLR ,and the SI decreased from 12 .8 when it was used a‐lone to 1 .0 after combination with CLR .When CLR and CXM were combined and each of them reached the value of 8 .0 μg/ml ,it could inhibit the generation of resistant mutants .CONCLUSION The combination of CLR and CXM can reduce the MPC and SI of Staphylococcus aureus and enhance the ability of anti drug resistant mutants .%目的:在体外探讨克拉霉素(CLR)、头孢呋辛(CXM )单用及合用对金黄色葡萄球菌的抗菌作用和预防耐药突变的能力。方法采用琼脂平板倍比稀释法和棋盘法分别测定CLR、CXM 单用及联用时对金黄色

  13. No Resistance to Penicillin, Cefuroxime, Cefotaxime, or Vancomycin in Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Group B Streptococcus is a primary source of pneumonia, which is a leading cause of death worldwide. During the last few decades, there has been news of growing antibiotic resistance in group B streptococci to penicillin and different antibiotic agents. This clinical study retrospectively analyzes antimicrobial resistance in inpatients who were diagnosed with group B streptococcal pneumonia. Methods: All of the required information from inpatients who were identified to have group...

  14. Rising incidence of Enterococcus species in microbiological specimens from orthopedic patients correlates to increased use of cefuroxime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siesing, Peter Christian; Alva-Jørgensen, Jens Peter; Brodersen, Jakob;

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci are emerging causes of severe infections, including wound and bone infections in orthopedic patients. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the incidence of enterococci in tissue samples (biopsies) from orthopedic patients and consumpt...

  15. Control Effect of Different Doses of 20% Cefuroxime Insect Amine SG on Rice BPH (Brown Palnthopper)%不同剂量20%呋虫胺SG对水稻褐飞虱的防效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱昌稳

    2014-01-01

    [目的]验证20%呋虫胺SG防治水稻褐飞虱的效果.[方法]设7个处理,研究不同剂量20%呋虫胺SG对水稻褐飞虱的防效.[结果]20%呋虫胺SG对褐飞虱成虫和若虫均有较好的防治效果,且持效期达16 d以上并随着使用剂量的增加防效也增加.[结论]20%呋虫胺SG是水稻田防治褐飞虱较为安全的理想药剂.

  16. 头孢呋辛单用或与鼻内氟替卡松联合应用治疗鼻炎鼻窦炎的比较CAFFS试验:随机对照试验%Comparison of Cefuroxime With or Without Intranasal Fluticasone for the Treatment of Rhinosinusitis The CAFFS Trial: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rowena J. Dolor; David L. Witsell; Anne S. Hellkamp

    2002-01-01

    @@ 背景:目前尚不知晓鼻内应用皮质类固醇治疗有慢性或复发性鼻窦症状的急性鼻炎鼻窦炎患者是否有益. 目的:评估有慢性既往史的急性鼻炎鼻窦炎患者在抗生素治疗的基础上加用鼻内皮质类固醇是否影响本病恢复的速度和比率.

  17. Inlfuence of cefuroxime sodium on synaptic plasticity of parallel ifber-Purkinje cells in young rats%头孢呋辛钠影响幼鼠平行纤维-浦肯野细胞的突触可塑性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海燕; 任颖鸽; 李凌; 晋芙莉; 杜永平; 张月萍

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨头孢呋辛钠(CS)对Sprague-Dawley(SD)大鼠小脑浦肯野细胞(PCs)电生理功能的影响。方法将7 d龄(P7)SD大鼠分为早期用药Ⅰ组、Ⅱ组(P7~P14给药)和晚期用药组(P14~P21给药),均腹腔注射CS;以及早期用药对照组和晚期用药对照组,腹腔注射等容积的生理盐水(NS)。每组均10只。早期用药Ⅰ组及早期对照组于P15处死,早期用药Ⅱ组、晚期用药及晚期对照组于P22处死。采用全细胞膜片钳记录法,在小脑脑片上记录PCs的内向电流和动作电位,以及低频刺激平行纤维(PF)诱发的PCs兴奋性突触后电流(EPSC)的长时程抑制(LTD)现象。结果早期用药组和晚期用药组PCs内向电流幅值和动作电位峰值均略大于相应对照组,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);用药组的EPSC抑制程度均大于对照组(P0.05). All administration groups had a signiifcantly higher degree of EPSC inhibition than the control groups (P<0.01), and the early administration II group had a signiifcantly greater degree of EPSC inhibition than the late administration group (P<0.01).ConclusionsEarly CS exposure after birth affects the synaptic plasticity of PF-PCs in the cerebellum of young rats, which persists after drug withdrawal.

  18. Cefadroxil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the skin, throat, tonsils, and urinary tract. Cephalexin is in a class of medications called cephalosporin ... Avycaz), ceftibuten (Cedax), ceftriaxone (Rocephin), cefuroxime (Zinacef), or cephalexin (Keflex); penicillin antibiotics, or any other medications. Also ...

  19. Adoption of intracameral antibiotic prophylaxis of endophthalmitis following cataract surgery: update on the ESCRS Endophthalmitis Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To determine the use of intracameral cefuroxime at the end of cataract surgery since the beneficial results were first reported by the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons Endophthalmitis Study Group in 2006, 250 ophthalmic surgeons affiliated with both public and private hospitals and clinics across Europe were surveyed. The questions regarded their awareness of the results of the ESCRS endophthalmitis study and their current use or non-use of intracameral antibiotics in their cataract procedures. Seventy-four percent of respondents said they always or usually use intracameral antibiotics in their cataract surgery procedures. The most frequently cited reasons for not using cefuroxime or other intracameral antibiotics was the lack of an approved commercial preparation and related anxieties regarding the risk of dilution errors and contamination. More than 90% of respondents said they would use cefuroxime if an approved single-unit dose product were commercially available.

  20. In vitro susceptibilities of Borrelia burgdorferi to five oral cephalosporins and ceftriaxone.

    OpenAIRE

    Agger, W A; Callister, S M; Jobe, D A

    1992-01-01

    We determined the in vitro susceptibilities of eight Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to five oral cephalosporins. MICs for B. burgdorferi 297 were 23 micrograms/ml (cephalexin), 45 micrograms/ml (cefadroxil), 91 micrograms/ml (cefaclor), 0.13 microgram/ml (cefuroxime), 0.8 microgram/ml (cefixime), and 0.02 microgram/ml (ceftriaxone). When B. burgdorferi isolates were exposed to concentrations twice the MIC of cefuroxime, cefixime, or ceftriaxone, at least 72 h of incubation was required to kill...

  1. Streptococcus pyogenes udgående fra tonsilfokus som mulig årsag til alvorlig sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimoradi, Jalal; Lisby, Gorm; Jeppesen, Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    treated with V-penicillin, but developed septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and treatment was changed to cefuroxime and clindamycin. She recovered fully. This case combined with other studies illustrates that SP infections have become more severe. Clindamycin should be added...

  2. Resistance to Mercury and Antimicrobial Agents in Streptococcus mutans Isolates from Human Subjects in Relation to Exposure to Dental Amalgam Fillings

    OpenAIRE

    Leistevuo, Jorma; Järvinen, Helinä; Österblad, Monica; Leistevuo, Tiina; Huovinen, Pentti; Tenovuo, Jorma

    2000-01-01

    Resistance to cefuroxime, penicillin, tetracycline, and mercury is reported for 839 Streptococcus mutans isolates from 209 human study subjects. The MICs of these drugs did not differ for isolates from one dental amalgam group and two nonamalgam subsets: a group with no known exposure to amalgam and a group whose members had their amalgam fillings removed.

  3. Bartholinitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae : Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Bartholin′s gland abscesses have been thought to be caused by colonizing micro-organisms of the perineal region. We encountered an interesting case of acute Bartholins abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a primigravida. The abscess was incised and drained. The patient was treated with Cefuroxime. This case is presented for its rarity.

  4. Study of the Electrophoretic Behavior of Cephalosporins by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Hancu; Adina Sasebeşi; Aura Rusu; Hajnal Kelemen; Adriana Ciurba

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was the characterization of the electrophoretic behavior of cephalosporins from different generation having different structural characteristics in order to develop a rapid, simple and efficient capillary electrophoretic method for their identification and simultaneous separation from complex mixtures. Methods: Ten cephalosporin derivatives (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ce...

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Clinical Sources of Dolosigranulum pigrum Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    LaClaire, L.; Facklam, R

    2000-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibilities of 27 clinical isolates of Dolosigranulum pigrum were determined. All were susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, clindamycin, levofloxacin, meropenem, penicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, rifampin, tetracycline, and vancomycin. Fifteen of the isolates were intermediate to chloramphenicol. One isolate was resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Two isolates were susceptible, 10 were intermediate, and 15 were resistant to erythromycin.

  6. Early secondary suture versus healing by second intention of incisional abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Bagi, P; Christoffersen, I

    1988-01-01

    A controlled trial was set up to compare the treatment of wound abscesses, occurring after laparotomy, with either early secondary suture combined with cefuroxime and metronidazole given intravenously or by healing by second intention. The secondary suture was performed two days after wound...

  7. Bacteriology in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted to hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette V; Janner, Julie H; Nielsen, Susanne D;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the bacterial flora and antimicrobial sensitivity in sputum from patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in order to recommend the best empirical treatment for these patients. The survey was a retrospective study of a...... for AECOPD we recommend either cefuroxime for intravenous treatment or amoxicillin-clavulanate for oral treatment....

  8. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Certain Cephalosporins in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Mahmoud A.; Osama H. Abdelmageed; Tamer Z. Attia

    2009-01-01

    A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of abs...

  9. Antimicrobial-induced endotoxaemia in patients with sepsis in the field of acute pyelonephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giamarellos-Bourboulis E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro results have shown that antimicrobial agents may induce the Gram-negative bacteria to release endotoxins (LPS, which in turn, could trigger the secretion of cytokines from monocytes. AIMS: To compare the effect of cefuroxime, netilmicin or ciprofloxacin on serum levels of LPS and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha. METHODS: Seventy-four patients with acute pyelonephritis caused by Gram-negative bacteria and signs of sepsis were randomly assigned to receive one of three intravenous regimens of cefuroxime, netilmicin or ciprofloxacin. Blood samples were collected before therapy and at specified time intervals for 96 hours after the initiation of treatment for the determination of serum levels of LPS and of TNFalpha. RESULTS: Patients treated with cefuroxime presented an early peak of LPS and of TNFalpha in serum two hours after the initiation of treatment compared to the other study groups. After that time interval, concentrations of LPS and TNFalpha were similar in all the study groups. Fever accompanied by endotoxaemia was still detected for 48 hours after the start of therapy in 36, 37.5 and 36% of patients treated with cefuroxime, netilmicin and ciprofloxacin respectively. The corresponding figures for these agents at 72 hours were 28, 12.5 and 24%, respective and 12, 4.2 and 4% at 96 hours (P value not significant. CONCLUSIONS: With the exception of an early peak in the serum levels of LPS and TNFalpha in patients treated with cefuroxime, no significant difference could be detected amongst the study groups as far as their effect on serum levels of LPS and TNFalpha were concerned. This suggests that these three antimicrobial agents may be administered safely at the early stages of sepsis.

  10. Investigating a new drug delivery nano composite membrane system based on PVA/PCL and PVA/HA(PEG) for the controlled release of biopharmaceuticals for bone infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Taoyu; Stylios, George K; Giannoudi, Marilena; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2015-12-01

    The capability for sustained and gradual release of pharmaceuticals is a major requirement in the development of a guided antimicrobial bacterial control system for clinical applications. In this study, PVA gels with varying constituents that were manufactured via a refreeze/thawing route, were found to have excellent potential for antimicrobial delivery for bone infections. Cefuroxime Sodium with poly(ethylene glycol) was incorporated into 2 delivery systems poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA), by a modified emulsion process. Our results indicate that the Cefuroxime Sodium released from poly(e-caprolactone) in PVA was tailored to a sustained release over more than 45 days, while the release from hydroxyapatite PVA reach burst maximum after 20 days. These PVA hydrogel-systems were also capable of controlled and sustained release of other biopharmaceuticals. PMID:26747917

  11. Considering Respiratory Tract Infections and Antimicrobial Sensitivity: An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the sensitivity and resistance of status of antibiotics for respiratory tract infection (RTI. Throat swab culture and sensitivity report of 383 patients revealed sensitivity profiles were observed with amoxycillin (7.9%, penicillin (33.7%, ampicillin (36.6%, co-trimoxazole (46.5%, azithromycin (53.5%, erythromycin (57.4%, cephalexin (69.3%, gentamycin (78.2%, ciprofloxacin (80.2%, cephradine (81.2%, ceftazidime (93.1%, ceftriaxone (93.1%. Sensitivity to cefuroxime was reported 93.1% cases. Resistance was found with amoxycillin (90.1%, ampicillin (64.1%, penicillin (61.4%, co-trimoxazole (43.6%, erythromycin (39.6%, and azithromycin (34.7%. Cefuroxime demonstrates high level of sensitivity than other antibiotics and supports its consideration with patients with upper RTI.

  12. The effect of ranitidine on postoperative infectious complications following emergency colorectal surgery: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, F; Jensen, L S; Christiansen, P M;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To study the potential effect of ranitidine on postoperative infectious complications following emergency colorectal surgery. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was carried out in three university clinics and two county hospitals in Denmark. PATIENTS AND...... i.v. placebo (group II). All patients were given 1.5 g metronidazole plus 3.0 g cefuroxime at the time of surgery. Patients with perforation of the colon or rectum were given metronidazole and cefuroxime for further 3 days. All patients were assessed daily until discharge from the hospital. Thirty...... < 0.05). Wound infection, intraabdominal abscess, septicemia, and pneumonia were 12.9%, 5.2%, 3.8% and 14%, respectively in group I. In group II, the infectious complications were 16.1%, 6.8%, 6.9% and 22%, respectively. Twelve patients (13.8%) in the placebo group developed more than one complication...

  13. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) Indices of Antibiotics Predicted by a Semimechanistic PKPD Model: a Step toward Model-Based Dose Optimization▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Elisabet I.; Cars, Otto; Friberg, Lena E.

    2011-01-01

    A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model that characterizes the full time course of in vitro time-kill curve experiments of antibacterial drugs was here evaluated in its capacity to predict the previously determined PK/PD indices. Six drugs (benzylpenicillin, cefuroxime, erythromycin, gentamicin, moxifloxacin, and vancomycin), representing a broad selection of mechanisms of action and PK and PD characteristics, were investigated. For each drug, a dose fractionation study was simulated, ...

  14. Susceptibility of Nocardia asteroides to 46 antibiotics, including 22 beta-lactams.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutmann, L; Goldstein, F W; Kitzis, M D; Hautefort, B; Darmon, C; Acar, J F

    1983-01-01

    Twelve Nocardia asteroides isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 46 antibiotics by the agar dilution method. N-Formimidoyl thienamycin was the most active of 22 beta-lactam antibiotics, inhibiting 11 of the 12 strains at 1 microgram/ml. Penicillins, including ureidopenicillins, showed poor activity. Cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and especially cefuroxime had the best activities of the cephalosporins tested. Among the other antibiotics, amikacin and minocycline, respectively, inhibited a...

  15. Simultaneous determination of 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Sheng Wu; Jin Lan Zhang; Yan Ling Qiao; Yi Lin Wang; Zhi Rong Chen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was established and validated to determine the 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products, including 1 (ceftazidime), 2 (cefaclor), 3 (cefdinir), 4 (ampicillin), 5 (cefalexin), 6 (ceftezole), 7 (cefotaxim), 8 (cefradine), 9 (cefuroxime), 10 (cephazoline), 11 (cefathiamidine), 12 (cefoperazone), 13 (cafalotin), 14 (piperacillin).

  16. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of cephalosporins

    OpenAIRE

    Hancu Gabriel; Kelemen Hajnal; Rusu Aura; Gyéresi Árpád

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and simple capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of six extensively used cephalosporin antibiotics (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefuroxim, ceftazidim, ceftriaxon). The determination of cephalosporins was performed at a pH 6.8, using a 25 mM phospate - 25 mM borate mixed buffer, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 °C. We achieved a baseline separation in approximately 10 minutes. The separation resolution was increased by a...

  17. In vitro susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and six other antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, H; Tenovuo, J; Huovinen, P

    1993-01-01

    The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and to six commonly used, systemic antibacterial agents (amoxicillin, cefuroxime, penicillin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, tetracycline, and erythromycin) was studied for 424 clinical isolates from 116 children and students. The MIC of chlorhexidine for all isolates was < or = 1 micrograms/ml. No resistance to the other antimicrobial agents was detected. Although widely exposed to various antimicrobial agents, S. mutans has remaine...

  18. Electron spin resonance studies of some irradiated pharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibella, M.; Crucq, A-S.; Tilquin, B. E-mail: tilquin@cham.ucl.ac.bc; Stocker, P.; Lesgards, G.; Raffi, J

    2000-03-01

    Five antibiotics belonging to the cephalosporins and penicillins groups have been irradiated: anhydrous ampicilline acid, amoxicilline acid trihydrate, cefuroxime sodium salt, cloxacilline sodium salt monohydrate and ceftazidime pentahydrate. ESR studies have been carried out, showing the influence of irradiation and storage parameters on the nature and concentration of the free radicals trapped. These results may be used to detect an irradiation treatment on such pharmaceuticals. (author)

  19. In-vitro Wirksamkeit von Moxifloxacin und Linezolid gegen Staphylococcus aureus-, Streptococcus pneumoniae- und Enterococcus spp.-Isolate in Abhängigkeit vom Testmedium und der Keimlokalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, Cornelia

    2004-01-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Untersuchung der zuvor nicht bekannten Beeinflussung der Aktivität von bestimmten Antibiotika durch unterschiedliche Testnährmedien. Zu diesem Zweck wird die Aktivität von Moxifloxacin, Linezolid, Penicillin G, Oxacillin und Cefuroxim gegen Bakterienisolate der Spezies S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, E. faecalis und E. faecium in Bouillon und Blut getestet. Des Weiteren wird die Aktivität von Moxifloxacin und Linezolid gegen intrazellulär in humanen Granulozyten...

  20. Moxifloxacin Induced Seizures -A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Jiana Shi; Huimin Xu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A 73-year-old female patient developed a generalized tonic-clonic seizure on the 6th day after treatment with moxifloxacin 400 mg daily intravenously for appendicitis. This patient had atrial fibrillation and history of a surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage, with impaired renal function and liver function, but without history of seizures. Moxifloxacin was discontinued and switched to cefuroxime. The patient remained seizure-free at discharge four days later. The naranjo adverse drug...

  1. Pharmacokinetics and bacteriological efficacy of cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, and moxalactam in experimental Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    McCracken, G H; Nelson, J.D.; Grimm, L

    1982-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and bacteriological efficacy of cefoperazone, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and moxalactam were evaluated in the experimental rabbit meningitis model of Haemophilus influenzae type b or Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. The cerebrospinal fluid penetration of these beta-lactam antibiotics was from 3 to 14% and was greater in Haemophilus-infected that in pneumococcus-infected animals. With the exception of moxalactam, the antibacterial activity in cerebrospinal fluid and chang...

  2. Antibiotic Selection of Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 in a Mouse Intestinal Colonization Model

    OpenAIRE

    Boetius Hertz, Frederik; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The ability of different antibiotics to select for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli remains a topic of discussion. In a mouse intestinal colonization model, we evaluated the selective abilities of nine common antimicrobials (cefotaxime, cefuroxime, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and amdinocillin) against a CTX-M-15-producing E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) isolate with a fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype. Mice ...

  3. Haemophilus influenzae with Non-Beta-Lactamase-Mediated Beta-Lactam Resistance: Easy To Find but Hard To Categorize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lia, Astrid; Hannisdal, Anja; Tveten, Yngvar; Matuschek, Erika; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogen, and beta-lactams are first-line drugs. Resistance due to altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (rPBP3) is frequent, and susceptibility testing of such strains is challenging. A collection of 154 beta-lactamase-negative isolates with a large proportion of rPBP3 (67.5%) was used to evaluate and compare Etest (Haemophilus test medium [HTM]) and disk diffusion (EUCAST method) for categorization of susceptibility to aminopenicillins and cefuroxime, using MICs generated with broth (HTM) microdilution and clinical breakpoints from CLSI and EUCAST as the gold standards. In addition, the proficiency of nine disks in screening for the rPBP3 genotype (N526K positive) was evaluated. By Etest, both essential and categorical agreement were generally poor (<70%), with high very major errors (VME) (CLSI, 13.0%; EUCAST, 34.3%) and falsely susceptible rates (FSR) (CLSI, 87.0%; EUCAST, 88.3%) for ampicillin. Ampicillin (2 μg) with adjusted (+2 mm) zone breakpoints was superior to Etest for categorization of susceptibility to ampicillin (agreement, 74.0%; VME, 11.0%; FSR, 28.3%). Conversely, Etest was superior to 30 μg cefuroxime for categorization of susceptibility to cefuroxime (agreement, 57.1% versus 60.4%; VME, 2.6% versus 9.7%; FSR, 7.1% versus 26.8%). Benzylpenicillin (1 unit) (EUCAST screening disk) and cefuroxime (5 μg) identified rPBP3 isolates with highest accuracies (95.5% and 92.2%, respectively). In conclusion, disk screening reliably detects rPBP3 H. influenzae, but false ampicillin susceptibility is frequent with routine methods. We suggest adding a comment recommending high-dose aminopenicillin therapy or the use of other agents for severe infections with screening-positive isolates that are susceptible to aminopenicillins by gradient or disk diffusion. PMID:26354813

  4. Audit of antibiotic therapy in surgical neonates in a tertiary hospital in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osifo Osarumwense

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the outcome of commonly used antibiotic combinations in surgical neonates in sub-Saharan African settings. Methods: A retrospective analysis that determines the outcome of commonly combined antibiotics in surgical neonates between January 2006 and December 2008 at two referral paediatric surgical centres in Benin city was carried out. Results: Ampicillin ampiclox, metronidazole, gentamicin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone were variously combined in the management of 161 neonates with a mean age at presentation of 9.2 ± 2.6 days, mean weight 3.1 ± 1.4 kg and a male:female ratio 1.6:1. Polymicrobial postoperative wound infections and sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and anaerobes, were mainly encountered. The most common aerobes isolated from wound cultures were S. aureus and P. aeroginosa while the ones from that of blood cultures were E. coli and K. pneumonia. Overall postoperative infections recorded were: wound infection 19 (11.8%, sepsis 16 (9.9% and sepsis-related deaths 6 (3.7%. Conclusion: Combinations of gentamicin/metronidazole/cefuroxime and gentamicin/cefuroxime were adequate for gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal neonatal operations, respectively, in these sub-Saharan African settings, which may be useful in similar regions.

  5. Optimizing antibiotic therapy of group IV community-acquired pneumonia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziublyk Ya.O.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical and economical effectiveness of differentiated antibacterial therapy of group IV patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Materials and methods. 42 patients, admitted to the hospital with severe CAP without risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection were randomized in three groups in 1:1:1 ratio. All patients received sequential antibacterial therapy with i.v. amoxicillin/clavulanate or ceftriaxone, or ertapenem in combination with azithromycin switched to oral amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefuroxime axetil in combination with oral azithromycin or levofloxacin, respectively, after initial improvement in 3–4 days. A comparative effectiveness analysis was performed based on clinical, laboratory and economic data. Results. Treatment outcomes in all subgroups of patients were similar: in 1st subgroup the cure rate was (28,6  12,1 %, improvement – in (49,4  13,2 % of patients; in 2nd and 3rd subgroups the cure/improvement rates were (35,7  12,8 and (42,9 13,2 %, respectively (р  0,05. Conclusion. Antibacterial therapy, always empiric and differentiated depending on severity of disease, con¬comitant conditions and previous use of antibiotics within 3 months of the onset of the disease, is a milestone of treatmet of CAP patients. A sequential antibiotic therapy with either aminopenicillin (amoxicillin/clavulanate of 3rd generation cephalosporin (ceftriaxone/cefuroxime axetil in combination with macrolide (azithromycin or carbapenem (ertapenem, followed by levofloxacin is recommended in hospitalized clinical group IV CAP patients without risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection. In current group of patients pharmacoeconomic analysis confirmed the expediency of administration a sequential antibiotic therapy with parenteral amoxicillin/clavulanat or ceftriaxone in combination with azithromycin, followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanat or cefuroxime axetil in combination with

  6. Ability of medical students to calculate drug doses in children after their paediatric attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshikoya KA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dose calculation errors constitute a significant part of prescribing errors which might have resulted from informal teaching of the topic in medical schools. Objectives: To determine adequacy of knowledge and skills of drug dose calculations in children acquired by medical students during their clinical attachment in paediatrics.Methods: Fifty two 5th year medical students of the Lagos State University College of Medicine (LASUCOM, Ikeja were examined on drug dose calculations from a vial and ampoules of injections, syrup and suspension, and tablet formulation. The examination was with a structured questionnaire mostly in the form of multiple choice questions.Results: Thirty-six (69.2% and 30 (57.7% students were taught drug dose calculation in neonatal posting and during ward rounds/ bed-side teaching, respectively. Less than 50% of the students were able to calculate the correct doses of each of adrenaline, gentamicin, chloroquine and sodium bicarbonate injections required by the patient. Dose calculation was however relatively better with adrenalin when compared with the other injections. The proportion of female students that calculated the correct doses of quinine syrup and cefuroxime suspension were significantly higher than those of their male counterparts (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively; Chi-square test. When doses calculated in mg/dose and mL/dose was compared for adrenalin injection and each of quinine syrup and cefuroxime suspension, there were significant differences (adrenaline and quinine, p=0.005; adrenaline and cefuroxime, p=0.003: Fischer’s exact test. Dose calculation errors of similar magnitude to injections, syrup and suspension were also observed with tablet formulation.Conclusions: LASUCOM medical students lacked the basic knowledge of paediatric drug dose calculations but were willing to learn if the topic was formally taught. Drug dose calculations should be given a prominent consideration in the undergraduate medical

  7. Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome associated with psoriasis vulgaris and orofacial impetiginization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Galus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome (MRS is a disease of unknown etiology, usually restricted to the orofacial region, characterized by reccurent orofacial swelling, relapsing facial palsy and plicated tongue. We report case of MRS associated with psoriasis in a 25-year-old woman. The patient has been treated with satisfying results with a combination of Cetirizine, Cefuroxime axetil and Mupirocin ointment; psoriatic eruptions were successfully treated with 10 % salicylic-sulphuric ointment twice a day. MRS syndrome is a rare disease and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of labial swelling and facial palsy.

  8. STUDY OF ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST OF MODERN GENERATION OF DRUGS AGAINST UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Singh et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasal infection or sinusitis is an inflammation of nasal passages caused by both viral and bacteriological pathogens. Antimicrobial resistance has universally recognized as growing problem concern about suitable therapy for nasal infection. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility against nasal infecting microorganisms. 50 clinical samples were taken from OPD of GMC Hospital, Bhopal (MP, India. Of the samples analyzed, 47 bacterial strains were isolated out of which 29 strains were of Gram positive bacteria (8 strains were of Staphylococcus aureus, 6 of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 7 of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 8 of Corynebacterium diptheriae and 18 strains were of Gram negative bacteria (8 of Escherichia coli, 6 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 4 of Neisseria meningitidis. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed by disc diffusion method according to the reference criteria of clinical and laboratory standard institute guidelines. In the present study antibiotic susceptibility pattern results showed maximum level of resistance in gram positive strains S. aureus 8 (100%, S. epidermidis 6 (100% and C. diptheriae (8 (100% against penicillin, S. aureus 8 (100%, S. epidermidis 6 (100% and S. pneumoniae 7 (100% were resistant to Cefuroxime, S. aureus 7 (87.5%, S. epidermidis 6 (100%, S. pneumoniae 7 (100% and C. diptheriae (8 (100% were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin whereas, rest of gram positive strains showed satisfactory antibiotic susceptibility against chloramphenical, cefazolin, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and tetracyclin. Similarly for gram negative strains multi-drug resistance was observed in 8 (100% isolates of E. coli against aztreonam, cefdinir, cefixime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin, P. aeruginosa 6 (100% were resistant to aztreonam, cefdinir, cefixime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime

  9. Cloning of a Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum Chromosomal Gene (blaACME) Encoding an Extended-Spectrum Class A β-Lactamase Related to the Bacteroides Cephalosporinases and the VEB-1 and PER β-Lactamases

    OpenAIRE

    Rossolini, Gian Maria; Franceschini, Nicola; Lauretti, Laura; Caravelli, Berardo; Riccio, Maria Letizia; Galleni, Moreno; Frère, Jean-Marie; Amicosante, Gianfranco

    1999-01-01

    In addition to the BlaB metallo-β-lactamase, Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum CCUG 4310 (NCTC 10585) constitutively produces a 31-kDa active-site serine β-lactamase, named CME-1, with an alkaline isoelectric pH. The blaACME gene that encodes the latter enzyme was isolated from a genomic library constructed in the Escherichia coli plasmid vector pACYC184 by screening for cefuroxime-resistant clones. Sequence analysis revealed that the CME-1 enzyme is a new class A β-lactamase ...

  10. Interaction of oxyimino beta-lactams with a class C beta-lactamase and a mutant with a spectrum extended to beta-lactams.

    OpenAIRE

    Nukaga, M; Tsukamoto, K; Yamaguchi, H; Sawai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The class C beta-lactamase of Citrobacter freundii GN346 is a typical cephalosporinase comprising 361 amino acids, and substitution of the glutamic acid at position 219 in the enzyme by lysine was previously shown to broaden its substrate spectrum to oxyimino beta-lactams (K. Tsukamoto, R. Ohno, and T. Sawai, J. Bacteriol. 172:4348-4351, 1990). To clarify this spectrum extension from the kinetic point of view, the interactions of cefuroxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam with the wild-type and m...

  11. Clinical observations associated with proven and unproven cases in the ESCRS study of prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Peter

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To describe cases of postoperative endophthalmitis in the European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons (ESCRS) study of the prophylaxis of endophthalmitis, compare characteristics of unproven cases and cases proven by culture or polymerase chain reaction, and compare the characteristics with those in other reported series. SETTING: Twenty-four ophthalmology units in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. METHODS: Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze data for statistical association of signs and symptoms in cases with proven or unproven endophthalmitis. Specific data describing characteristics of the cases were compared between the 2 types of cases. RESULTS: Data from 29 endophthalmitis cases were analyzed. Swollen lids and pain were statistically associated with proven cases of endophthalmitis on univariable regression analysis. Multivariable analysis indicated that swollen lids and an opaque vitreous were associated with proven cases. Five cases of endophthalmitis occurred in the cefuroxime-treated groups. No case of streptococcal infection occurred in the cefuroxime-treated groups. However, cases of infection due to streptococci showed striking differences in visual acuity and were associated with earlier onset. Characteristics in the 29 cases parallel results in previous studies, such as the Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study, although the addition of a control group in the ESCRS study elicited additional findings. CONCLUSION: Swollen lids, pain, and an opaque vitreous were statistically associated with proven endophthalmitis cases in the ESCRS study.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children in Beijing, 1997-2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Lian; YAO Kai-hu; YU Sang-jie; LIU Zun-jie; QIAN Jing; SHEN Xu-zhuang; YANG Yong-hong

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A, the molecular characteristics of this serotype are yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the homology of the serotype 19A in China.Methods Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing were done to these forty-nine serotype 19A isolates to investigate the relationship between the strains prevalent in Beijing and other regions. Results From 1997 to 2006, the percentage of serotype 19A isolates increased. The susceptibility rate to penicillin and amoxicillin decreased and the resistance rate to cefuroxime increased. ST320 was the most prevalent ST, followed by ST3546. There were six new STs identified in our study. The serotype 19A strains were classified into six different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. ST320, which was associated with two different PFGE patterns (A and D), accounted for 32 isolates, and ST3546, which was associated with two PFGE patterns (B and E), accounted for eightConclusions From 2003 onwards, ST320 was the most common ST and the rate of resistance to cefuroxime increased significantly. Further long-term surveys of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A are required to monitor ST prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in this important human pathogen.

  13. Occurrence of multidrug resistance to oral antibiotics among Escherichia coli urine isolates from outpatient departments in Germany: extended-spectrum β-lactamases and the role of fosfomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresken, Michael; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Hafner, Dieter; Wresch, Rebecca; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    The in vitro activities of fosfomycin and seven other antibiotics commonly used for oral treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) were evaluated for 499 Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples during a nationwide laboratory-based surveillance study in 2010. Overall, the highest resistance rates were found for amoxicillin (42.9%), followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (32.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (30.9%), ciprofloxacin (19.8%), cefuroxime (10.0%), cefpodoxime (8.6%) and cefixime (8.2%). One-half of the isolates (n=252; 50.5%) were fully susceptible to the eight drugs, whilst only 6 strains (1.2%) were resistant to fosfomycin. Combined resistance to amoxicillin, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and SXT was detected in 29 isolates (5.8%). Moreover, 40 isolates (8.0%) produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), including CTX-M-type ESBLs detected in 39/40 isolates (97.5%) and a TEM-52 ESBL in 1 strain (2.5%). The predominant CTX-M-type ESBL was CTX-M-15 (27/39; 69.2%). Of the 27 CTX-M-15 producers, 19 (70.4%) belonged to the clonal lineage E. coli O25b-ST131. All but one ESBL-producing strains were fosfomycin-susceptible. In view of the emergence of multidrug resistance to standard oral antibiotics, these data support that oral fosfomycin (trometamol salt) may represent a valuable option in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs.

  14. Treatment of Haemophilus bacteremia with benzylpenicillin is associated with increased (30-day mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thønnings Sara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal antibiotic treatment strategies of Haemophilus infections are still needed. Therefore, 30-day case fatality rate (CFR of Haemophilus bacteremia and efficacy of various antibiotic treatment regimes were studied. Methods All episodes of Haemophilus bacteremia in the former Copenhagen County during the period 2000-9 were included in the study. Clinical and biochemical findings and outcome were collected retrospectively from medical records. Results 105 consecutive episodes were identified (median age: 69 years, with only 4 children H. influenzae, and 11% to other Haemophilus species. Pneumonia was the most common primary focus (in 48%, and 58% of the patients had Charlson comorbidity index > 1. Definitive antibiotic therapy was in 26 cases benzylpenicillin, in 12 cases aminopenicillins, in 50 cases cefuroxime and in 16 cases broadspectrum antibiotics, whereas 1 palliative case died without start of therapy. Whereas the use of broadspectrum antibiotics was related to the severity of the disease (admittance to ICU, need for assisted ventilation or hemodialysis, septic shock, no significant difference in clinical features was demonstrated for therapy with benzylpenicillin, aminopenicillin or cefuroxime, except benzylpenicillin was rarely administered to immunosuppressed patients. The CFR was 22% (23/105. The choice of empiric antibiotic therapy was not significantly associated with mortality (adequate vs. inadequate treatment: 23% (21/93 vs. 17% (2/12, respectively, P > 0.05. In contrast, definite antibiotic therapy with cefuroxime or aminopenicillins resulted in a significantly lower CFR than treatment with benzylpenicillin (12% (6/50 or 0% (0/12 vs. 39% (10/26, respectively, Log rank test P  0.02. When adjustments were made for other identified risk factors in bivariate logistic regression analysis, treatment with cefuroxime was still were found to be associated with a significantly lower CFR than for

  15. Neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; aetiology, antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhada Tumaini V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal sepsis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among young infants. The aetiological agents as well as their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents are dynamic. This study determined aetiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical outcome of neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital. Methods Three hundred and thirty neonates admitted at the Muhimbili National Hospital neonatal ward between October, 2009 and January, 2010 were recruited. Standardized questionnaires were used to obtain demographic and clinical information. Blood and pus samples were cultured on MacConkey, blood and chocolate agars and bacteria were identified based on characteristic morphology, gram stain appearance and standard commercially prepared biochemical tests. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was performed for ampicillin, cloxacillin, gentamicin, amikacin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone on Mueller Hinton agar using the Kirby Bauer diffusion method. Results Culture proven sepsis was noted in 24% (74/330 of the study participants. Isolated bacterial pathogens were predominantly Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli. Klebsiella spp 32.7% (17/52 was the predominant blood culture isolate in neonates aged below seven days while Staphylococcus aureus 54.5% (12/22 was commonest among those aged above seven days. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pus swabs isolate for both neonates aged 0–6 days 42.2% (98/232 and 7–28 days 52.3% (34/65. Resistance of blood culture isolates was high to ampicillin 81.1% (60/74 and cloxacillin 78.4% (58/74, moderate to ceftriaxone 14.9% (11/74 and cefuroxime 18.9% (14/74, and low to amikacin 1.3% (1/74. Isolates from swabs had high resistance to ampicillin 89.9% (267/297 and cloxacillin 85.2 (253/297, moderate resistance to ceftriaxone 38.0% (113/297 and cefuroxime 36.0% (107/297, and low resistance to amikacin 4.7% (14/297. Sepsis was higher in neonates with fever and

  16. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains determined by disk diffusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes Caballero, R; Acosta Giraldo, J C; Sosa Puente, J; Guzmán Hernández, D; Gutiérrez González, O; Llop Hernández, A

    1999-01-01

    The Gonoccocus Laboratory of "Pedro Kourí" Tropical Medicine Institute carried out a study of in vitro susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to penicillin, tetracycline, cefuroxime ceftriaxone, cefotaxine and ciprofoxacin by means of a disk diffusion method with the culture medium agar base GC plus supplement. In the first phase, the method was standardized and the reference N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 strain was used whereas in the second phase, 50 gonococcal strains isolated in 8 provinces during 1995 and 1996 were examined. The results of such standardization confirmed that the antimicrobial susceptibility values were within the allowable limits. 52 and 34% of strains were resistant to penicillin and tetracycline respectively and all of them showed susceptibility to the rest of evaluated antimicrobial drugs. We recommend the use of the disk diffusion method for surveillance of gonococci resistance to these drugs in our country. PMID:10887570

  17. Six cases of Aerococcus sanguinicola infection: Clinical relevance and bacterial identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.; Jensen, K.T.; Ostergaard, C.;

    2008-01-01

    Aerococcus sanguinicola is a Gram-positive coccus first described in 2001. Infections in humans are rare but the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and improved phenotypic methods has facilitated the identification of A. sanguinicola. We report here 6 cases of A. sanguinicola bacteraemia, 2 of which...... were associated with infective endocarditis. Most patients were elderly (median age 70 y) and had underlying neurological disorders including dementia, cerebral degeneration, and myelomeningocele. The primary focus of infection was the urinary tract in 3 cases and the gallbladder in 1; no focus...... was detected in 2 cases. Long-term prognosis was poor reflecting the frailty of the patients. All strains were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, cefuroxime, vancomycin, erythromycin, and rifampicin. The optimal treatment of infection with A. sanguinicola has yet to be determined Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  18. Ease with VITEK 2 systems, biomerieux in identification of non-lactose fermenting bacteria including their antibiotic drug susceptibility: our experience

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    Susmitha Simgamsetty

    2016-03-01

    Results: Out of the 186 strains, 50 strains were isolated from tracheal aspirate, 47 from pus/wound infections, 43 from blood cultures, 25 from urine, 20 from sputum and one from central line tip. The VITEK-2 compact system identified all the strains with a level of 95-99% probability. Most of the strains were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Acientobacter baumannii. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were most susceptible to Meropenem (72% and least susceptible to Cefuroxime and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (0% while Sphingomonas paucimobilis showed resistance to all the antibiotics tested. Conclusions: Care in detection, evaluation of effective antibiotic options, and judicious use of antibiotics by instituting antibiotic policy for combination therapy and rigorous infection control measures will help us to fight against these multidrug resistant NFGNB during the effective management of patients. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 813-817

  19. Multiple drug resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from Chicken samples collected from Mhow and Indore city of Madhyapradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskhedikar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen antibacterial agents belonging to 9 different groups of antibiotics viz. aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, fluroquinolones, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, penicillin and polymixin were used for in vitro sensitivity testing of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fifteen samples of chicken collected from retail shops in Mhow city. The sensitivity (100% was attributed to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin followed by oxytetracycline (50%. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and colistin antibiotics. That means, none of the isolates were found to be sensitive for penicillin and polymixin group of antibiotics. Multiple drug resistance was also observed in all A. hydrophila isolates. Out of total isolates, 100% were resistant to two antimicrobial drugs and 50% to three drugs. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 31-32

  20. Antibiotic selection of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 in a mouse intestinal colonization model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The ability of different antibiotics to select for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli remains a topic of discussion. In a mouse intestinal colonization model, we evaluated the selective abilities of nine common antimicrobials (cefotaxime, cefuroxime, dicloxacillin...... day, antibiotic treatment was initiated and given subcutaneously once a day for three consecutive days. CFU of E. coli ST131, Bacteroides, and Gram-positive aerobic bacteria in fecal samples were studied, with intervals, until day 8. Bacteroides was used as an indicator organism for impact on the Gram....... coli ST131 (P > 0.95), nor did they suppress Bacteroides or Gram-positive organisms. The results showed that antimicrobials both with and without an impact on Gram-negative anaerobes can select for ESBL-producing E. coli, indicating that not only Gram-negative anaerobes have a role in upholding...

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in western Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Kofler, H; Brezinka, C; Guggenbichler, J P; Dierich, M P

    1993-01-01

    From January to October 1992 24 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical specimens were collected at the Federal Public Health Laboratory in Innsbruck (Austria) and screened for resistance to penicillin G, erythromycin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacine, and silver nitrate. Patients originated from the Austrian provinces Salzburg, Tirol, and Vorarlberg, and presented with manifest gonorrhoea. Two of 24 isolates were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae. Both strains were isolated from men who had just returned from Thailand or Kenya. The isolate from Africa was also resistant to tetracycline. Five of 24 infections were acquired abroad, sex tourism being involved in four cases. The antimicrobial resistance pattern found in gonococci in western Austria revealed that topical silver nitrate and erythromycin are equally acceptable for use in prophylaxis of neonatal ophthalmia. Penicillin is still the drug of choice in the treatment of endemic infections. If gonorrhoea has been acquired abroad, especially in Asia or Africa, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin or ciprofloxazine are recommended for therapy. PMID:8333204

  2. Voltammetric and theoretical studies of electrochemical behavior of cephalosporins at the mercury electrode

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    Nikolić Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the adsorption and electroreduction behavior of cefpodoxime proxetil, cefotaxime, desacetylcefotaxime, cefetamet, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and cefuroxime axetile at the mercury electrode surface has been performed using Cyclic (CV, Differential Pulse (DPV, and Adsorptive Stripping Differential Pulse Voltammetry (AdSDPV. The Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR study of the seven cephalosporins adsorption at the mercury electrode has been based on the density functional theory DFT-B3LYP/6-31G (d,p calculations of molecular orbitals, partial charges and electron densities of analytes. The DFT-parameters and QSPR model explain well the process of adsorption of the examined cephalosporins. QSPR study defined that cefalosporins with lower charge of sulphur in the thiazine moiety, lower electron density on the nitrogen atom of the N-O bond, higher number of hydrogen bond accepting groups, and higher principal moment of inertia should express high adsorption on the mercury electrode. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172033

  3. Moxifloxacin Induced Seizures -A Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiana Shi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old female patient developed a generalized tonic-clonic seizure on the 6th day after treatment with moxifloxacin 400 mg daily intravenously for appendicitis. This patient had atrial fibrillation and history of a surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage, with impaired renal function and liver function, but without history of seizures. Moxifloxacin was discontinued and switched to cefuroxime. The patient remained seizure-free at discharge four days later. The naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score was 4, indicating a possible adverse reaction to moxifloxacin. The potential risk factors related to moxifloxacin-induced seizures are discussed. It highlights that preexisting central nervous system disease, elderly female with lower bodyweight and severe renal impairment may be the risk factors involved in moxifloxacin-induced seizures.

  4. MICROORGANISMS ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY DETERMINATION IN URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

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    Shapovalova O.V.

    2016-06-01

    the range of 3,0x106 CFU/ml to 3,0x109 CFU/ml, and the most bacterial isolates content was equal 1,5x109 CFU/ml. Among the most commonly identified microorganisms Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. were often detected in 5,3x108 CFU/ml concentrations. For Streptococcus spp. and Proteus mirabilis that value was 1,5x109 CFU/ml; for Klebsiella pneumonia - 3,0x108 CFU/ml; for Candida spp. - 3,0x106 CFU/ml respectively. The most common microorganisms (which frequency of occurrence in urine was ≥ 5% were: E. coli (14,5±4,7%, Str. agalactiae and St. haemolyticus (10,9±4,2%; St. aureus and Pr. mirabilis (7,3±3,5%; St. epidermidis, Kl. pneumoniae, St. hominis, Candida spp. (5,4±3,0%. While analyzing obtained results we concluded that meropenem was the most effective drug, 78,7% of all cultures had the sensitivity to it. The sensitivity to gatifloxacin had 73,7% of cultures; to tigecycline – 71,1% of isolates; to amikacin -67,3% of cultures; to moxifloxacin – 59,6% of isolates; to two drugs (levofloxacin and pefloxacin - 55,8% of isolates respectively. It was found that Staphylococcus aureus appeared to be resistant to vancomycin, ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefazolin, azithromycin, linezolid. This species and St. epidermidis and St. hominis isolates were multi-drug resistant to four or more drugs from different groups. All Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were insensitive to cefuroxime. All Escherichia cultures were resistant to cefuroxime, Proteus - to cefuroxime, ampicillin and cefazolin. E. coli, Pr. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, Ps. aeruginosa, Ac. haemolyticus had multi-drug resistance. In addition, (73,1 ± 6,1% of all 52 bacterial isolates obtained were resistant to amoxiclav. Conclusions. 1. The most common microorganisms (which incidence in urine were ≥ 5% are: Escherichia coli (14,5±4,7%, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (10,9±4,2%; Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis (7,3±3,5%; Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella

  5. Impact of antibiotic restriction on resistance levels of Escherichia coli: a controlled interrupted time series study of a hospital-wide antibiotic stewardship programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Jonas Bredtoft; Andreasen, Viggo; Jarløv, Jens Otto;

    2016-01-01

    of E. coli. Results were directly compared with data from the control hospital utilizing a subtracted time series (STS). RESULTS: Direct comparison with the control hospital showed that the ASP was associated with a significant change in the level of use of cephalosporins [-151 DDDs/1000 bed-days (95......% CI -177, -126)] and fluoroquinolones [-44.5 DDDs/1000 bed-days (95% CI -58.9, -30.1)]. Resistance of E. coli showed a significant change in slope for cefuroxime [-0.13 percentage points/month (95% CI -0.21, -0.057)] and ciprofloxacin [-0.15 percentage points/month (95% CI -0.26, -0.038)]. CONCLUSIONS...

  6. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of cephalosporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancu Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of six extensively used cephalosporin antibiotics (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefuroxim, ceftazidim, ceftriaxon. The determination of cephalosporins was performed at a pH 6.8, using a 25 mM phospate - 25 mM borate mixed buffer, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 °C. We achieved a baseline separation in approximately 10 minutes. The separation resolution was increased by addition of an anionic surfactant, 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, to the buffer solution. The proposed separation was evaluated on the basis of detection and quantification limits, effective electrophoretic mobility and relative standard deviation for migration times and peak areas.

  7. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E-coli and Klebsiella strains in the Copenhagen area of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerulf, A.; Hansen, D.S.; Sandvang, D.;

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the frequency of ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella strains in the Greater Copenhagen area. Four collections of strains were investigated: A) 380 consecutive E. coli and Klebsiella isolates primarily from urine, B) 200 gentamicin-resistant E. coli...... and Klebsiella isolates primarily from urine, C) 210 consecutive E. coli isolates from blood cultures, and D) 68 cefuroxime-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella isolates primarily from urine. Only one strain per patient was included. Strains with a zone diameter for cefpodoxime <= 23 mm were tested by a...... and AmpC (n=1). In conclusion, the frequency of ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella isolates was low in the Copenhagen area of Denmark (0.8 %). The most common ESBL genes found in our study were ctx-m and shv genes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  8. THE STUDY OF THE BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PROBIOTIC LACTOBACILLUS SPP. STRAINS UNDER AEROBIC AND MICROAEROPHILIC CULTIVATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babych E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological properties (growth characteristics, adhesive activity and sensitivity to antimicrobial of probiotic Lactobacillus strains were studied under different gas composition of incubation atmosphere. It was found that the number of viable lactobacilli cells in the one dose of investigated probiotic preparations was lower than it was claimed by the manufacturer. Gas composition of incubation atmosphere affects cell viability of probiotic strains. The number of colony forming units of lactobacilli under microaerophilic conditions increased in 1,19-1,33 times as compared with aerobic conditions. It was proved that adhesive activity of probiotic Lactobacillus strains and sensitivity to 2th, 3th, 4th generations of cephalosporins (cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime and tetracyclines (doxycycline also increased under microaerophilic conditions. The changes of the biological properties of lactobacilli under different cultivation conditions require further study for optimization of correction of dysbiotic disorders.

  9. A case of Gaucher's disease progressing to liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, C R; Debnath, M R; Nabi, N; Khan, N A; Chakraborty, S

    2013-04-01

    We are going to present a 17 year old female with Gaucher's disease. The patient presented with fever, cough, respiratory distress & abdominal heaviness. There was mild pallor, redness of palm of hands & raised temperature. Liver was hugely enlarged along with splenomegaly. X-ray chest showed non specific bronchiectatic change in both lungs. Ultrasonography of abdomen revealed marked hepatosplenomegaly with no ascites. Bone marrow examination showed cellular marrow with plenty of megakaryocytes. Most of the cells were smear cells & there was histiocytes proliferation & infiltration of bone marrow by small atypical cells. Histologically, lipid was found in hepatocytes in moderate amount. The portal areas showed high lipid contents in macrophages. Different clinical findings & incidental diagnosis of lipid storage disease submerged us in diagnostic dilemma. We give conservative treatment with antibiotic cefuroxime, syrup lactulose & vitamins and this patient was improved. PMID:23715368

  10. Developmental pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in preterm and term neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elisabet I; Sandström, Marie; Honoré, Per Hartvig;

    2009-01-01

    for concentration monitoring. This study was performed to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in preterm and term neonates and to identify and quantify relationships between patient characteristics and IIV. A secondary aim was to evaluate cystatin C as a marker for gentamicin clearance...... was included as the primary covariate according to an allometric power model. Other evaluated covariates were age (postmenstrual age, gestational age [GA], postnatal age [PNA]), markers for renal function (serum creatinine, serum cystatin C) and concomitant medication with cefuroxime, vancomycin or indometacin...... as having a significant influence on the central volume of distribution, with a preterm neonate having a larger central volume of distribution per kilogram of bodyweight than a term neonate. Cystatin C and creatinine were not correlated with gentamicin clearance in this study population. The external...

  11. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro profile based interaction with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells of alginate-chitosan-silica biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaure, Paul Catalin; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Yang, Chih-Hui; Chifiriuc, Carmen Mariana; Lin, Yung-Sheng

    2013-01-30

    This work is focused on the fabrication of a new drug delivery system based on polyanionic matrix (e.g. sodium alginate), polycationic matrix (e.g. chitosan) and silica network. The FT-IR, SEM, DTA-TG, eukaryotic cell cycle and viability, and in vitro assay of the influence of the biocomposite on the efficacy of antibiotic drugs were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated the biocompatibility and the ability of the fabricated biocomposite to maintain or improve the efficacy of the following antibiotics: piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, piperacillin, imipenem, gentamicin, ceftazidime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and cefazolin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 reference strains.

  12. Fabrication, Characterization, and Evaluation of Bionanocomposites Based on Natural Polymers and Antibiotics for Wound Healing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Rădulescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research activity was to obtain a biocompatible nanostructured composite based on naturally derived biopolymers (chitin and sodium alginate loaded with commercial antibiotics (either Cefuroxime or Cefepime with dual functions, namely promoting wound healing and assuring the local delivery of the loaded antibiotic. Compositional, structural, and morphological evaluations were performed by using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analytical techniques. In order to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the biocompatibility of the obtained composites, we performed the tetrazolium-salt (MTT and agar diffusion in vitro assays on the L929 cell line. The evaluation of antimicrobial potential was evaluated by the viable cell count assay on strains belonging to two clinically relevant bacterial species (i.e., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  13. Long-Term Evolution Studies of E. Coli under Combined Effects of Simulated Microgravity and Antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Ott, Mark C.; Pierson, Duane L.; Fox, George E.; Tran, Quyen

    2016-07-01

    Multiple spaceflight and simulated microgravity experiments have shown changes in phenotypic microbial characteristics such as microbial growth, morphology, metabolism, genetic transfer, antibiotic and stress susceptibility, and an increase in virulence factors. However, while these studies have contributed to expand our understanding of the short-term effects of spaceflight or simulated microgravity on biological systems, it remains unclear the type of responses subsequent to long-term exposure to space environment and microgravity in particular. As such, organisms exposed to the space environment for extended periods of time may evolve in unanticipated ways thereby negatively impacting long duration space missions. We report here for the first time, an experimental study of microbial evolution in which the effect of long-term exposure to Low Shear Modeled MicroGravity (LSMMG) on microbial gene expression and physiology in Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655 was examined using functional genomics, and molecular techniques with and without simultaneous exposure to broad spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol. E. coli cells were grown under simulated microgravity for 1000 generations in High Aspect Ratio Vessels (HARVs) that were either heat-sterilized (115 deg C, 15 min) or by using/rinsing the HARVs with a saturated solution of the broad-spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol. In the case of the cells evolved using the antibiotic sterilized HARVs, the expression levels of 357 genes were significantly changed. In particular, fimbriae encoding genes were significantly up-regulated whereas genes encoding the flagellar motor complex were down-regulated. Re-sequencing of the genome revealed that a number of the flagellar genes were actually deleted. The antibiotic resistance levels of the evolved strains were analyzed using VITEK analyzer. The evolved strain was consistently resistant to the antibiotics used (viz., Ampicillin, Cefalotin, Cefurox-ime, Cefuroxime Axetil

  14. Antibiotic prevention of postcataract endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Flesner, Per; Andresen, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    Endophthalmitis is one of the most feared complications after cataract surgery. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of intracameral and topical antibiotics on the prevention of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL......, Cochrane Library and EMBASE databases revealed one randomized trial and 17 observational studies concerning the prophylactic effect of intracameral antibiotic administration on the rate of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. The effect of topical antibiotics on endophthalmitis rate was reported by one...... with the use of intracameral antibiotic administration of cefazolin, cefuroxime and moxifloxacin, whereas no effect was found with the use of topical antibiotics or intracameral vancomycin. Endophthalmitis occurred on average in one of 2855 surgeries when intracameral antibiotics were used compared to one...

  15. Skin infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllegger, Robert R; Häring, Nina S; Glatz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of infectious diseases can occur in pregnancy. Their acquisition, clinical presentation, and course during gestation may be altered due to an impairment of the maternal cellular immunity. Some infectious diseases can lead to serious consequences for the mother or the offspring, including congenital malformations. This review describes in detail the clinical presentation, course, management, and associated maternal and fetal risks of selected viral (varicella-zoster virus infections, condylomata acuminata), fungal (candida vulvovaginitis), bacterial (Lyme borreliosis), and parasitic (scabies) infections. The treatment options are critically reviewed. First-line therapies include acyclovir and varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin for varicella-zoster virus infections, surgical modalities for genital warts, topical clotrimazole and oral fluconazole for Candida vulvovaginitis, amoxicillin and cefuroxime for Lyme borreliosis, and permethrin for scabies. A synopsis of maternal and fetal risks of other important infections is also included. PMID:27265075

  16. Analysis of prescriptions dispensed at community pharmacies in Nablus, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, A F; Sweileh, W M; Zyoud, S H; Al-Jabi, S W; Shamseh, F F Bni; Odah, A

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the prescription quality and prescribing trends of private clinicians in Nablus governorate, Palestine. A total of 363 prescriptions were collected from a random sample of 36 community pharmacies over a study period of 288 working hours. Data regarding elements in the prescription and the types of drugs prescribed were analysed. Physician-related variables were mostly noted, however, patient's address and weight were absent in all prescriptions and less than half included age and sex. Information regarding strength of the medications prescribed was missing in over 70% of prescriptions. Other drug-related variables like frequency and instruction of use were present in over 80% of prescriptions. Antimicrobial agents were the most commonly prescribed followed by NSAIDs/analgesics. Amoxicillin alone or in combination was the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents followed by cefuroxime. Prescription writing quality in Nablus is deficient in certain aspects and improvement is required. PMID:20799538

  17. The bactericidal activity of β-lactam antibiotics is increased by metabolizable sugar species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsing, Mette; Bentin, Thomas; Givskov, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    Here, the influence of metabolizable sugars on the susceptibility of Escherichia coli to β-lactam antibiotics was investigated. Notably, monitoring growth and survival of mono- and combination-treated planktonic cultures showed a 1000- to 10 000-fold higher antibacterial efficacy of carbenicillin...... and cefuroxime in the presence of certain sugars, whereas other metabolites had no effect on β-lactam sensitivity. This effect was unrelated to changes in growth rate. Light microscopy and flow cytometry profiling revealed that bacterial filaments, formed due to β-lactam-mediated inhibition of cell division......, rapidly appeared upon β-lactam mono-treatment and remained stable for up to 18 h. The presence of metabolizable sugars in the medium did not change the rate of filamentation, but led to lysis of the filaments within a few hours. No lysis occurred in E. coli mutants unable to metabolize the sugars, thus...

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anticonvulsant activities of some new 3-[2- (5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl/4-carbethoxymethylthiazol-2-yl) imino-4-thiazolidinon-5-ylidene]-5-substituted/nonsubstituted 1H-indole-2-ones and investigation of their structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintaş, Handan; Ateş, Oznur; Uyde-Doğan, B Sönmez; Alp, F Ilkay; Kaleli, Deniz; Ozdemir, Osman; Birteksöz, Seher; Otük, Gülten; Atana, Dilek; Uzun, Meltem

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, 20 new compounds having 3-[2-(5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl) imino-4-thiazolidinon-5-ylidene]-5-substituted/nonsubstituted 1H-indole-2-one (I-XII) and 3-[2-(4-carbethoxymethylthiazol-2-yl)imino-4-thiazoldinon-5-ylidenel-5-substituted/nonsubstituted IH-indole-2-one (XIII-XX) systems were synthesized. The structures were confirmed by spectral methods (UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 13C-DEPT (135), electron impact mass spectrometry) and elemental analysis. All compounds were tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 1539, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 14153, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Microsporum gypseum (NCPF-580), Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum and some of them were found to be active. Especially, compound I was more active than cefuroxime sodium (CAS 56238-63-2) which was used as a standard, and the activity of compound XII was close to that of cefuroxime sodium against Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. Primary screening for antituberculous activity was conducted at 6.25 microg/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in BACTEC 12B medium using the BACTEC 460 radiometric system. The anticonvulsant activities of selected prototoype compounds (I, IV-VI, VIII, XI, XIII, XVI-XVIII) administered at doses of 50-200 mg/kg (i.p.) were evaluated using the pentetrazol test (PTZ) in mice. PMID:16618017

  19. Effectiveness of Nalidixic Acid and Commonly Used Antibiotics Against Pathogens of Urinary System

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    Keramettin Yanik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Medicines for treatment Urinary tractinfections in common population are ineffective due to long usage and developing resistance. Nowadays quinolones are first choise for empiric treatment this infections. Nalidixic acid is first used quinolone type antimicrobial in this group. Because of developing resistance and side effects new quinolones have found treatment instead of nalidixic acid. For urinary system infections. In our study we aimed to compare resistance to nalidixic acid, fosfomycin and other frequently used oral antimicrobials. Material and Method: We studied 314 urine specimens from Medical Faculty Hospital%u2019s various clinic in microbiology laboratory. After 24 hours incubation the bacteria%u2019s media that cultured were examined. Bacteria were identified with conventional and automatic systems (Vitec® 2 Compact - bioMérieux, France. Antibiotic suseptibility tested were made with Cirby-Bauer method and evaluateda eccording to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute standards. Results: 241 (79,8% E.coli, 53 (16,9% Klebsiella spp. 11 (3,5% Proteus spp. and 9 Enterobacter spp. bacteria were identified from urine samples.. All strains resistant rate belong to Enterobacteriaceae to nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin were given 42.3% 41.4 %, 32.8 %, 28.6%, 31.5 %, 14.6% 8.5 % respectively. Mostly isolated bacterial from urine was E.coli with high potency to fosfomycin with 2.9% resistance rate was followed by nitrofurantion (resistance rate 6,9%, Cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid resistance rate were 6.2%, 30.2%, %32.3, %35.3, %46.4, %46.8 in order. Discussion: As result resistance to nalidixic acide not decreased despite not being in use for a long time and were determined that fosfomycin more susceptible fortreatment urinary tract infections.

  20. Profiling of β-lactam selectivity for penicillin-binding proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Ozden; Tsui, Ho-Ching T; Winkler, Malcolm E; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    Selective fluorescent β-lactam chemical probes enable the visualization of the transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) at different stages of bacterial cell division. To facilitate the development of new fluorescent probes for PBP imaging, we evaluated 20 commercially available β-lactams for selective PBP inhibition in an unencapsulated derivative of the D39 strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Live cells were treated with β-lactam antibiotics at different concentrations and subsequently incubated with Bocillin FL (Boc-FL; fluorescent penicillin) to saturate uninhibited PBPs. Fluorophore-labeled PBPs were visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence scanning. Among 20 compounds tested, carbapenems (doripenem and meropenem) were coselective for PBP1a, PBP2x, and PBP3, while six of the nine penicillin compounds were coselective for PBP2x and PBP3. In contrast, the seven cephalosporin compounds tested display variability in their PBP-binding profiles. Three cephalosporin compounds (cefoxitin, cephalexin, and cefsulodin) and the monobactam aztreonam exhibited selectivity for PBP3, while only cefuroxime (a cephalosporin) was selective for PBP2x. Treatment of S. pneumoniae cultures with a sublethal concentration of cefuroxime that inhibited 60% of PBP2x activity and less than 20% of the activity of other PBPs resulted in formation of elongated cells. In contrast, treatment of S. pneumoniae cultures with concentrations of aztreonam and cefoxitin that inhibited up to 70% of PBP3 activity and less than 30% of other PBPs resulted in no discernible morphological changes. Additionally, correlation of the MIC and IC50s for each PBP, with the exception of faropenem, amdinocillin (mecillinam), and 6-APA, suggests that pneumococcal growth inhibition is primarily due to the inhibition of PBP2x. PMID:25845878

  1. Influence of human urine to antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli producing β-lactamase of different types

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    Ž. Žagar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of human urine on the antibiotic susceptibilities of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains producing different types of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL. The study was performed on 26 ESBL negative strains of K. pneumoniae, 80 K. pneumoniae strains producing SHV-ESBLs (52-SHV-5, 31- SHV-2 and 7- SHV-12, 94 E. coli strains harbouring TEM- ESBLs and 14 E. coli strains possessing CTX-M group 1 β-lactamases. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxycillin alone and combined with clavulanate (co-amoxilcav, cephalexin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were performed in parallel in Mueller-Hinton broth and urine by broth microdilution method. With ESBL negative strains, urine increased MIC90 of amoxycillin alone and combined with clavulanate, cephalexin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Against SHV-5 producers, an increase in MIC90 was observed with cefotaxime, cefepime and ciprofloxacin when the test was performed in urine. SHV-2 producers showed elevated MIC90 of ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and cefepime in the presence of urine, in contrast to SHV-12 producers which displayed elevated MIC90 only for cefotaxime. Urine increased MIC90 of amoxycillin/clavulanate, ceftazidime and cefepime against CTX-M producers, and of amoxycillin/clavulanate, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime and ciprofloxacin for TEM producers. According to our results the activity of antibiotics used for the treatment of urinary tract infection could be overestimated by a standard in vitro testing. However, most of antibiotics used for the treatment of urinary tract infection achieve very high concentration in urine and that could abrogate the reduction of antimicrobial activity by biological fluid.

  2. Incidence and transferability of antibiotic resistance in the enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater

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    Mohammad Zubair Alam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the occurrence of antibiotic resistance and production of β-lactamases including extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESβL in enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater. Among sixty-nine isolates, tested for antibiotic sensitivity, 73.9% strains were resistant to ampicillin followed by nalidixic acid (72.5%, penicillin (63.8%, co-trimoxazole (55.1%, norfloxacin (53.6%, methicillin (52.7%, cefuroxime (39.1%, cefotaxime (23.2% and cefixime (20.3%. Resistance to streptomycin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, and doxycycline was recorded in less than 13% of the strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC showed a high level of resistance (800-1600 µg/mL to one or more antibiotics. Sixty three (91% isolates produced β-lactamases as determined by rapid iodometric test. Multiple antibiotic resistances were noted in both among ESβL and non-ESβL producers. The β-lactamases hydrolyzed multiple substrates including penicillin (78.8% isolates, ampicillin (62.3%, cefodroxil (52.2%, cefotoxime (21.7% and cefuroxime (18.8%. Fifteen isolates producing ESβLs were found multidrug resistant. Four ESβL producing isolates could transfer their R-plasmid to the recipient strain E. coli K-12 with conjugation frequency ranging from 7.0 x 10-3 to 8.8 x 10-4. The findings indicated that ESβL producing enteric bacteria are common in the waste water. Such isolates may disseminate the multiple antibiotic resistance traits among bacterial community through genetic exchange mechanisms and thus requires immediate attention.

  3. Intracellular activity of antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus in a mouse peritonitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anne; Hessler, Jonas H R; Skov, Robert L; Blom, Jens; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2009-05-01

    Antibiotic treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections is often problematic due to the slow response to therapy and the high frequency of infection recurrence. The intracellular persistence of staphylococci has been recognized and could offer a good explanation for these treatment difficulties. Knowledge of the interplay between intracellular antibiotic activity and the overall outcome of infection is therefore important. Several intracellular in vitro models have been developed, but few experimental animal models have been published. The mouse peritonitis/sepsis model was used as the basic in vivo model exploring a quantitative ex vivo extra- and intracellular differentiation assay. The intracellular presence of S. aureus was documented by electron microscopy. Five antibiotics, dicloxacillin, cefuroxime, gentamicin, azithromycin, and rifampin (rifampicin), were tested in the new in vivo model; and the model was able to distinguish between their extra- and intracellular effects. The intracellular effects of the five antibiotics could be ranked as follows as the mean change in the log(10) number of CFU/ml (Delta log(10) CFU/ml) between treated and untreated mice after 4 h of treatment: dicloxacillin (3.70 Delta log(10) CFU/ml) > cefuroxime (3.56 Delta log(10) CFU/ml) > rifampin (1.86 Delta log(10) CFU/ml) > gentamicin (0.61 Delta log(10) CFU/ml) > azithromycin (0.21 Delta log(10) CFU/ml). We could also show that the important factors during testing of intracellular activity in vivo are the size, number, and frequency of doses; the time of exposure; and the timing between the start of infection and treatment. A poor correlation between the intracellular accumulation of the antibiotics and the actual intracellular effect was found. This stresses the importance of performing experimental studies, like those with the new in vivo model described here, to measure actual intracellular activity instead of making predictions based on cellular pharmacokinetic and MICs. PMID

  4. 常用抗生素在体外环境中对血清肿瘤标志物检测的影响%Effects of commonly used antibiotics in vitro environment on detection of serum tumor markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔梅; 邢长永; 甄君

    2011-01-01

    Objeetive To discuss the effects of 11 commonly used antibiotics in vitro environment on the detection of serum tumor markers. Methods To select 50 samples of serum tumor markers and 20 normal serum samples respectively,and to join in the serum of eleven commonly used antibiotics, and to detect AFP, CEA, CA125, CA153 and CA199 five types of tumor markers before and after the content changes by chemiluminescence immunoassay and to analyse the result by using the t-test. Results Joined the penicillin lactic acid sodium, acyclovir, ciprofloxacin and sodium chloride, ceftazidime, cefuroxime sodium, ornidazole tablets, ceph radine, the value of AFP was different after detection (P<0.05). Accession of chloride, ceftazidime, cefuroxime sodium, cephradine, azithromycin dihydrogen phosphate after CEA value differences (P<0. 05). Joined acyclovir, cefuroxime sodium, cephradine, imide cilasatin sodium CA125 after testing was different (P<0.05). In joining the penicillin sodium, cefuroxime sodium, piperacillin sodium and sulbactam sodium(2 : 1),ornidazole tablets,acyclovir CA199 detection value when there was a difference(P<0.05). In joining the penicillin sodium, cefuroxime sodium, piperacillin sodium and sulbactam sodium (2 : 1),ornidazole films, polyimide cilasatin sodium, ceftazidime CA153 detection value after differences ( P< 0. 05 ). Conclusion In most of the 11 commonly used antibiotics on tumor markers except gentamicin sulfate, they have clinical significance to improve the accuracy of tumor markers by exclude drug interference factors.%目的 探讨十一种常用抗生素在体外环境中对血清肿瘤标志物含量的影响.方法 50份肿瘤患者血清和20份正常血清中分别加入11种常用抗生素,采用免疫化学发光法检测AFP、CEA、CA125、CA153和CA199五种肿瘤标志物前后含量的变化,采用 T检验进行统计学分析.结果 加入青霉素钠、阿昔洛韦、乳酸环丙沙星氯化钠、头孢他啶、头孢呋辛

  5. 儿童鼻部携带肺炎链球菌的研究%Nasal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 袁林; 俞桑洁; 杨永弘

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried in the nose among children in Beijing and the distribution of serotypes,and to analyze the risk factors for nasal carriage of penicillin non-susceptible S.pneumoniae.Methods A disk diffusion test was applied to detect the antimicrobial susceptibilities of S.pneumoniae to erythromycin,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,chloramphenicol and tetracycline.The E test was applied to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of penicillin,cefuroxime,cefotaxime,augmentin and imipenem.S.pneumoniae isolates were serotyped by the Quellung reaction.Results S.pneumoniae that was resistant to penicillin or cefuroxime was not found,but S.pneumoniae intermediate resistant to penicillin and cefuroxime accounted for 8.2% and 2.1%,respectively.All of the isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime,augmentin and imipenem.S.pneumonia that was resistant to erythromycin,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were extremely numerous,accounting for 72%,70% and 79%,respectively.Five serotypes(19,6,14,23,17)accounted for 54.7%,and nontypables accounted for 20.6% of all the S.pneumoniae.Previous history of otitis media was a risk factor we found for nasal carriage of penicillin non-susceptible S.pneumoniae.Conclusions Continued surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of S.pneumoniae is necessary.A larger scale investigation is needed to identify if the 7 or 9-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine is appropriate for Chinese children.%目的了解北京地区儿童鼻部携带的肺炎链球菌对抗生素的敏感性以及血清型分布,分析鼻部携带青霉素非敏感肺炎链球菌的危险因素.方法用纸片扩散法检测肺炎链球菌对红霉素,复方新诺明,氯霉素和四环素的敏感性;E-试验确定青霉素,头孢呋新,头孢噻肟,安灭菌和亚胺培南的最小抑菌浓度;Quellung反应确定肺炎链球菌的血清型.结果未发现对青霉素和头

  6. 淋菌对β-内酰胺类抗菌药物的药敏试验结果回顾性分析%Drug susceptibility tests of neisseria gonorrhoeae to β-lactams antibiotics:a retrospective analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明章; 沈翠芬; 吴原; 张晓祥; 王翔

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解淋菌对β-内酰胺类抗菌药物的敏感性,为淋病的防治提供科学依据.方法 回顾性分析纸片扩散法检测86株淋菌对6种β-内酞胺类抗菌药物的药敏试验结果,产色头孢硝噻吩法检测β-内酰胺酶.结果 质粒介导的产青霉素酶淋菌阳性菌株30株,占34.88%;淋菌对青霉素、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、头孢他啶、头孢曲松、头孢吡肟的敏感率分别为8.14%,75.58%,90.70%,93.02%,86.05%,94.19%;青霉素的药物敏感性显著低于头孢呋辛,差异有统计学意义(X2=80.36,P<0.01);头孢呋辛的药物敏感性比头孢曲松的药物敏感性低,差异无统计学意义,但是头孢呋辛有5株耐药菌株;头孢噻肟、头孢他啶、头孢曲松、头孢吡肟的敏感率,差异无统计学意义.结论 第三、四代头孢菌素可作为治疗淋菌感染的一线药物.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the β-lactams susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and provide scientific basis for the treatment and prevention of gonorrhea. METHODS A retrospective survey was conducted. β-lactams susceptibility tests were tested by Disk diffusion, and βlactamase was determined by nitrocefin. RESULTS Plasmid mediated penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae(PPNG) were 30 straines(34. 88 %). Susceptive rates of penicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cefepime were 8. 14%, 75. 58%, 90.70%, 93. 02%, 86. 05% and 94. 19%, respectively. The sensitivity of penicillin was lower than that of cefuroxime with significant difference(x2 =80.36, P<0. 001). The sensitivity of cefuroxime was lower than that of ceftriaxone without significant difference (x2 =3.04, P = 0. 08), while there were 5 resistant strains for cefuroxine. There was no significant difference (x2=4.08,P= 2. 53) among the sensitivities of cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cefepime. CONCLUSION The third generation of cephalosporins such as cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and the

  7. Follow-up after infants younger than 2 months of age with urinary tract infection in Southern Israel: epidemiologic, microbiologic and disease recurrence characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Gurevich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timing of most recurrences after neonatal urinary tract infection is during the first year of life, with peak incidence 2–6 months after the initial infection. Information on the microbiologic characteristics of recurrent urinary tract infection episodes in relation to the microbiology of the initial episodes is limited. Objectives To analyze the epidemiologic/microbiological characteristics of 1st and recurrent urinary tract infection in infants <2 months of age. Methods A retrospective study including all infants <2 months of age with urinary tract infection admitted during 2005–2009 and followed till the age of 1 year. Results 151 neonates were enrolled (2.7% of all 5617 febrile infants <2 months of age admitted. The overall incidence of urinary tract infection occurring during the first 2 months of life was 151/73,480 (0.2% live births during 2005–2009 in southern Israel (2.1 cases/1000 live births. One pathogen was isolated in 133 (88.1%; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., Morganella morganii, Proteus spp., and Enterobacter spp. represented the most common pathogens (57.9%, 12.2%, 7.9%, 6.7%, 6.1%, and 5%, respectively. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, and cefuroxime-axetil were the most commonly recommended prophylactic antibiotics (45%, 13.2%, and 8%, respectively. Twenty-three recurrent urinary tract infection episodes were recorded in 20 (13.2% patients; 6/23 (26% were diagnosed within one month following 1st episode. E. coli was the most frequent recurrent urinary tract infection pathogen (12/23, 52.2%. No differences were recorded in E. coli distribution between first urinary tract infection vs. recurrent urinary tract infection. Seventeen (74% recurrent urinary tract infection episodes were caused by pathogens different (phenotypically from those isolated in 1st episode. Recurrent urinary tract infection occurred in 25.0%, 8.3%, and 0 patients recommended trimethoprim

  8. 上海地区119家医院2009-2011年头孢菌素类药利用分析%Analysis of the Utilization of Cephalosporin Antibacterial Drugs in 119 Hospitals from Shanghai Area during 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石卫峰; 归成; 李晓宇; 刘皋林

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utilization and tendency of cephalosporin antibacterial drugs in hospitals from Shanghai area. METHODS: The utilization of cephalosporins in 119 hospitals of Shanghai area during 2009 - 2011 was analyzed statistically in respect of main categories, consumption sum, DDDs and DDC, etc. RESULTS: The consumption sum of cephalosporins reached a peak in 2010 and decreased obviously in 2011. The consumption sum of oral cephalosporins showed a small increase and that of injections showed a downward trend. Over the 3 years, cefaclor, cefixime and cefdinir ranked the top 3 in the list of consumption sum; and cefuroxime axetil, cefaclor and cefixime ranked the top 3 in the list of DDDs; cefotiam, cefuroxime and cefoxi-tin occupied the top 3 in the list of consumption sum and DDDs of injections. CONCLUSIONS: The management of clinical application of cephalosporin antibacterial drugs should continue to be strengthened so as to ensure effective, safe and economical use of drugs in the clinic.%目的:评价上海地区医院头孢菌素类药的应用现状和趋势.方法:对2009-2011年上海地区119家医院头孢菌素类药的主要品种、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日均费用(DDC)等进行统计、分析.结果:该地区医院头孢菌素类药的销售金额在2010年达到高峰,2011年出现明显下降;口服剂的销售金额呈现小幅增长,注射剂的销售金额有下降趋势;3年来,头孢克洛、头孢克肟和头孢地尼的销售金额在口服剂中排名前3位,头孢呋辛酯、头孢克洛和头孢克肟的DDDs排名前3位,头孢替安、头孢呋辛和头孢西丁在注射剂中占销售金额和DDDs排名的前3位.结论:应继续加强头孢菌素类的临床应用管理,以确保临床用药的有效、安全和经济.

  9. Isolation, Identification and Drug Sensitivity of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae%肺炎支原体的分离鉴定与药敏性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘展; 袁春丽; 李青凤; 汪水城; 王本旭

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨肺炎支原体的临床分离株对临床常用药的敏感性.方法:将临床采集的咽试子标本经过选择性培养基筛选培养,同时进行聚合酶链反应(polymerase chain reaction,PCR)检测,确定分离到的支原体为肺炎支原体.将肺炎支原体与不同浓度的临床常用抗生素混合,观察液体培养基颜色的变化,判断肺炎支原体对药物的敏感性.结果:成功分离到1株肺炎支原体;阿奇霉素、红霉素和头孢呋辛钠浓度分别稀释至31μg/mL、125μg/mL、500μg/mL时,肺炎支原体抑制;而头孢曲松钠、美洛西林、氨苄青霉素等抗生素对支原体无抑制作用,培养基颜色均由红色变为橙黄色.结论:肺炎支原体临床分离株对阿奇霉素高度敏感,对红霉素和头孢呋辛钠中度敏感.%Objective:To investigate the drug sensitivity of mycoplasma pneumoniae isolated from patients. Methods:Samples of throat swab were cultivated in selective culture medium, and then they were detected by PCR. Mycoplasma pneumoniae were mixed with different quantity of antibiotics. If one drug could kill the microorganism, the color of the media would not change. Results: One clinical mycoplasma pneumoniae type was isolated successfully. When the concentration of azithromycin, erythro-mycin and cefuroxime sodium were diluted to 31 μg/mL, 125 μg/mL, 500 μg/mL, respectively, mycoplasma pneumoniae were supressed. Ceftriaxone sodium, mezlocillin and ampicillin had no effect on the growth of mycoplasma pneumoniae. Conclusions: The growth of mycoplasma pneumoniae isolated from throat swab samples is inhibited easily by azithromycin. Erythromycin and cefuroxime sodium also had inhibitory effect on mycoplasma pneumoniae.

  10. StabiIity Study of 10% Fructose Injection Mixed with 10 Kinds of Drugs%10%果糖注射液与10种药物配伍稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄攀豪; 赵翊畅; 裴奇; 刘世坤

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the compatibile stability of fructose injection mixed with 10 kinds of commonly used injectable drugs in clinical .METHODS Through numerous articles about fructose compatibility ex-periments and other drugs compatibility experiments ,a variety of physical and chemical properties:the appearance of the liquid in different times,pH,insoluble particles,UV absorption spectrum changes were observed ,to determine the stability of fructose injection mixed with 10 commonly used injectable drugs in clinical .RESULTS Vancomycin and levofloxacin when mixed with 10%fructose injection present significant change of the UV absorption curve ,content , and pH value compared to other drugs ,while the other 8 drugs as cefuroxime basically unchanged or did not change significantly after compatibility in stability .CONCLUSION Vancomycin,and levofloxacin are considered unfit to 10%fructose injection.The other 8 drugs as cefuroxime can mix with 10%fructose injection injections keep nice sta-bility.%目的:探究果糖注射液与10种抗菌药物配伍的稳定性。方法观察不同时刻的配伍液外观、pH、不溶性微粒、紫外吸收光谱变化,果糖含量变化来确定临床常用的一些注射液与果糖注射液配伍时的稳定性。结果万古霉素、左氧氟沙星与10%果糖配伍后紫外吸收曲线、含量、pH值较其他药物变化明显,头孢呋辛等8种药物与果糖注射液配伍后稳定性及含量基本不变或变化不明显。结论万古霉素、左氧氟沙星不适宜与10%果糖注射液配伍;头孢呋辛等8种药物在与10%果糖注射液配伍时,有良好的稳定性,适宜与10%果糖注射液配伍。

  11. Prevalence of β-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli from Retail Meat in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanlar Önen, Sevda; Aslantaş, Özkan; Şebnem Yılmaz, Ebru; Kürekci, Cemil

    2015-09-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) producing Escherichia coli have been shown to be present in humans and animals representing a significant problem worldwide. This study aimed to search the presence of ESBL and/or AmpC-producing E. coli in retail meats (chicken and beef) in Turkey. A total of 88 β-lactamase-producing E. coli were isolated from chicken (n = 81/100) and beef meat (n = 7/100) samples and their susceptibility to several antimicrobials were tested using disc diffusion method. E. coli isolates were further characterized for their phylogenetic groups. β-Lactamase encoding (blaTEM , blaSHV , blaOXA , blaCTX-M , and blaAmpC ) and quinolone resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA, and acc(6')-Ib-cr) were also secreened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, in regard to β-lactamase genes, 84 of 88 isolates were positive for blaCTX-M-1 (n = 39), blaCTX-M-3 (n = 5), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 4), blaTEM-1b (n = 2), blaSHV-12 (n = 1), blaCTX-M-1 /blaTEM-1b (n = 10), blaCTX-M-1 /blaTEM-1b /blaSHV-5 (n = 1), blaCTX-M-1 /blaCMY-2 (n = 1) and blaTEM-1b /blaCMY-2 (n = 6), blaCTX-M-15 /blaSHV-12 (n = 1), blaCTX-M-15 /blaTEM-1b (n = 1), blaTEM-1b /blaSHV-12 (n = 1), and blaCMY-2 (n = 12) genes. Resistance to cefuroxime (75.6% and 85.7%), nalidixic acid (89% and 85.7%), tetracycline (91.4% and 100%), streptomycin (40.2% and 100%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36.6% and 85.7%) was observed among strains isolated from chicken and beef, respectively. However, all isolates were found to be susceptible to amikacin, imipenem, and cefepime. Resistance to ampicillin and cefoxitin was significantly linked to blaCMY-2 gene, while there was a significant correlation between CTX-M type ESBL and antimicrobial resistance to cefuroxime and streptomycin (P < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that raw chicken retail meats are highly contaminated with ESBL-producing E. coli implementing a great risk to human health in

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Treatment of Pediatric Bronchial Pneumonia with Three Kinds of Cephalosporins%三种头孢类药物治疗小儿支气管肺炎的成本-效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦梦春

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cefuroxime sodium,ceftizoxime sodium and, ceftriaxone sodium in respect to the treatment of pediatric bronchial pneumonia,so as to provide optimal clin-ical treatment protocol.Methods:Collect 152 discharged patients with pediatric bronchial pneumonia in de-partment of pediatrics in some hospital ,divide them into group A,B and C,Treat them with cefuroxime sodi-um ,ceftizoxime sodium ceftriaxone sodium respectively,make retrospective evaluation and analysis on the three treatment methods based on CEA.Results:There was no obvious difference between the three treatment protocols (P >0.05),the overall effective rate of the three groups was 94.44%,93.48%,96.15%respectively and cost-effectiveness was 34.40,35.35,32.72 respectively.Conclusion:it is the optimal protocol to treat ped-iatric bronchial pneumonia with ,ceftriaxone sodium.%目的::评价头孢呋辛钠、头孢唑肟钠、头孢曲松钠治疗小儿支气管肺炎的成本-效果,为临床提供最佳治疗方案。方法:收集某院儿科支气管肺炎患儿出院病历152份,分为 A、B、C3组,分别给予头孢呋辛钠(A)、头孢唑肟钠(B)、头孢曲松钠(C)治疗,运用药物经济学成本-效果分析方法对3种治疗方案的成本-效果进行回顾性评价分析。结果:3种治疗方案无显著性差异(P >0.05),总有效率分别为94.44%、93.48%、96.15%,成本-效果比分别为34.40、35.35、32.72。结论:头孢曲松钠(C 组)为治疗小儿支气管肺炎的较佳方案。

  13. Inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by the compound Qingre granules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yi-yun; WANG Hong; ZHANG Shu-wen; WANG Bao-en

    2010-01-01

    Background The infection rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing yearly due to the overprescription of antibiotics. Traditional Chinese compound medicines are less inclined to induce bacterial resistance in the clinical setting because of their multi-acting mechanisms. However, most current research is limited to bacteriostasis in vitro using single extracts or formulations. Plasma pharmacology is an in vitro method, using what is called "medicine serum". The aim of this study was to investigate whether the medicine serum of compound Qingre granules (QRKL) alone or in combination with antibiotics may treat MRSA infection in the clinic.Methods An animal model of MRSA resistance was created by injecting rabbits with the standard strain of MRSA ATCC43300. Infected rabbits were treated with QRKL by intragastric administration. Sixty minutes after the last intragastric administration, serum was obtained from the rabbits by heart puncture to obtain what is termed "medicine serum". The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of QRKL, medicine serum alone, or serum combined with antibiotics was assessed by agar dilution. Results were compared with the growth of sixteen isolates of MRSA. Results The MIC of QRKL to the standard strain ATCC43300 was 10.00 mg/ml. The MIC_(90)of vancomycin was 1.00 ug/ml, which, when combined with QRKL, dropped to 0.50 μg/ml. The MIC_(90) of cefuroxime alone was 512.00 μg/ml- This level also decreased to 256.00 μ g/ml when combined with QRKL. The addition of QRKL thus significantly reduced the MIC of both cefuroxime and vancomycin compared with antibiotics alone (P <0.01). The MIC90 of vancomycin with medicine serum decreased to 0.50 μ g/ml, and the MIC of vancomycin with medicine serum also descended compared with using vancomycin alone (P<0.01).Conclusions The growth of MRSA can be inhibited by QRKL or medicine serum of QRKL in vitro. The addition of QRKL results in increased sensitivity of MRSA to

  14. Increasing antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections during 1998-2003 in Manisa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurutepe, Semra; Surucuoglu, Suheyla; Sezgin, Cenk; Gazi, Horu; Gulay, Mehmet; Ozbakkaloglu, Beril

    2005-06-01

    Urinary tract infections are among the most common infections with an increasing resistance to antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to determine the change in antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) for the years 1998 through 2003 and to suggest that the current empirical antibiotic therapy used for these patients is inappropriate. During the study period, 7,335 community urine samples of which 1,203 (16.4%) grew bacterial isolates were analyzed. Among the total of 1,203 isolates, 880 (73.2%) were E. coli. The range of resistance of E. coli to ampicillin was 47.8 to 64.6% and that to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 37.1 to 44.6% during the study period. The susceptibility pattern of E. coli to nitrofurantoin and cefuroxime did not vary significantly over the 6-year period. There was a significant increase in the susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin (11.3 - 26.7%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (18.4 - 29.2%) and gentamicin (7.0 - 25.6%) (P < 0.05). Empirical initial treatment with ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was thus inadequate in approximately half of UTI cases in our region. PMID:15973007

  15. Development and validation of a fast and uniform approach to quantify β-lactam antibiotics in human plasma by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Pieter; De Bock, Lies; T'jollyn, Huybrecht; Boussery, Koen; Van Bocxlaer, Jan

    2013-01-15

    Monitoring of plasma antibiotic concentrations is necessary for individualization of antimicrobial chemotherapy dosing in special patient populations. One of these special populations of interest are the post-bariatric surgery patients. Until today, little is known on the effect of this procedure on drug disposition and efficacy. Therefore, close monitoring of antimicrobial plasma concentrations in these patients is warranted. A fast and uniform ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (MS/MS) has been developed and qualified for the simultaneous quantification of β-lactam antibiotics in human plasma. Compounds included in this multi-component analysis are: amoxicillin, ampicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, piperacillin, cefuroxime, cefadroxil, flucloxacillin, meropenem, cefepime, ceftazidime, tazobactam, linezolid and cefazolin. After spiking of five different stable isotope labelled internal standards, plasma samples were prepared for UPLC-MS/MS analysis by mixed-mode solid phase extraction. The developed method was proven to be free of (relative) matrix effects and proved to be reliable for the quantification of 12 out of 13 β-lactam antibiotics. As a proof of concept the method has been applied to plasma samples obtained from a healthy volunteer treated with amoxicillin. The analytical method is suitable for use in a therapeutic drug monitoring setting, providing the clinician with reliable measurements on β-lactam antibiotic plasma concentrations in a timely manner.

  16. 常见养殖淡水鱼肠道细菌耐药性研究%Antibiotic resistance of the intestinal flora in the domestic species of cultured freshwater fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇宸; 崔泽林; 郭晓奎; 刘畅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the different antibiotic resistance of the intestinal flora in domestic species of freshwater fish. Methods The fecal specimens were collected from two species of freshwater fish,and were cultured on agar-plate containing 7 kinds of antibiotics ( penicilin G, cefuroxime sodium, gentamicin,ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin and SMZ) for the antibiotic susceptibility test. PCR was applied on the results to analyse the 16S rRNA gene sequences of resistant strains and identify their species. x2test was adopt in the comparison between the two fishes. Results 2956 drug-resistant isolates were screened from all of the samples. The rates of resistance to penicilin G, cefuroxime sodium, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin,tetracycline, erythromycin and SMZ were 8.89%, 1.57%, 0.08%, 0. 11%, 0. 28%, 0.07% and 0.06%,respectively. The results of identification showed that the main components of the 71 strains selected by simple random method were 31 strains of Aeromonas (43.66%), 8 strains of Acinetobacter (11.27%), 6 strains of Pseudomonas (8.45%) and 6 strains of Chryseobacterium (8.45%). There were statistically significant differences in the rates of resistance to penicilin G, cefuroxime sodium, SMZ, erythromycin and tetracycline between the two kinds of fish (x2 values were 129.06,212. 54,7. 76,8. 62 and 35.40, P<0. 05).Conclusions The rates of resistance to penicilin G, cefuroxime sodium, gentamicin, ciprofoxacin,tetracycline, erythromycin and SMZ of the intestinal flora in domestic species of freshwater fish we obtained can provide foundation for us to do some researches and pursue the changes of the antibiotic resistance rates of the intestinal flora in domestic species of freshwater fish in future.%目的 调查分析目前国内常见养殖淡水鱼类肠道菌群对不同抗生素的耐药性现状.方法 选取两种常见养殖淡水鱼类的粪便标本,分别在添加了7种抗生素[青霉素G、头孢呋辛钠、庆大霉素、环丙沙星、

  17. [Lyme disease--clinical manifestations and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is a systemic infectious disease that can present in a variety of clinical manifestations. The disease is caused by a group of spirochaetes--Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato or Lyme borrelia--that are transmitted to humans by the bite of Ixodes ticks. Lyme disease is the most common arthropode-borne infectious disease in many European countries including Germany. Early localized infection is typically manifested by an erythema migrans skin lesion, in rarer cases as a borrelial lymphocytoma. The most common early disseminated manifestation is (early) neuroborreliosis. In adults, neuroborreliosis appears typically as meningoradiculoneuritis. Neuroborreliosis in children, however, is typically manifested by meningitis. In addition, multiple erythema migrans lesions and Lyme carditis occur relatively frequently. The most common manifestation oflate Lyme disease is Lyme arthritis. Early manifestations (and usually also late manifestations) of Lyme disease can be treated successfully by application of suitable antibacterial agents. For the treatment of Lyme disease, doxycycline, certain penicillins such as amoxicillin and some cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime axetil) are recommended in current guidelines. A major challenge is the treatment of chronic, non-specific disorders, i. e., posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome and "chronic Lyme disease". Prevention of Lyme disease is mainly accomplished by protecting against tick bites. Prophylactic administration of doxycycline after tick bites is generally not recommended in Germany. There is no vaccine available for human beings.

  18. Imported anthropogenic bacteria may survive the Antarctic winter and introduce new genes into local bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brat Kristian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied dynamic changes in anthropogenic bacterial communities at a summer-operated Czech research base (the Mendel Research Station in the Antarctic during 2012 and 2013. We observed an increase in total numbers of detected bacteria between the beginning and the end of each stay in the Antarctic. In the first series of samples, bacteria of Bacillus sp. predominated. Surprisingly, high numbers of Gram-positive cocci and coliforms were found (including opportunistic human pathogens, although the conditions for bacterial life were unfavourable (Antarctic winter. In the second series of samples, coliforms and Gram-positive cocci predominated. Dangerous human pathogens were also detected. Yersinia enterocolitica was identified as serotype O:9. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed medium-to-high resistance rates to ampicillin, cefalotin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin-clavulanate and gentamicin in Enterobacteriaceae. 16S rRNA sequencing showed high rates of accordance between nucleotide sequences among the tested strains. Three conclusions were drawn: (1 Number of anthropogenic bacteria were able to survive the harsh conditions of the Antarctic winter (inside and outside the polar station. Under certain circumstances (e.g. impaired immunity, the surviving bacteria might pose a health risk to the participants of future expeditions or to other visitors to the base. (2 The bacteria released into the outer environment might have impacts on local ecosystems. (3 New characteristics (e.g. resistance to antibiotics may be introduced into local bacterial communities.

  19. PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE ASSESSMENT OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN MILK SAMPLES FROM SELECTED DAIRY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugaiyah Marimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and bacteriological assessment of subclinical mastitis and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates from dairy cows in different farms around Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 120 milk samples from 3 different farms were randomly collected and tested for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test (CMT, as well as for bacterial culture for isolation, identification and antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent bacteria was Staphylococcus sp. (55%, followed by Bacillus sp., (21% and Corynebacterium sp., (7%, Yersinia sp. and Neisseria sp. both showed 5% prevalence, other species with prevalence below 5% are Acinetobacter sp., Actinobacillus sp., Vibrio sp., Pseudomonas sp., E.coli, Klebsiella sp. and Chromobacter sp. Selected Staphylococcus sp. showed a mean antimicrobial resistance of 73.3% to Ampicillin, 26.7% to Penicillin, Methicillin and Compound Sulphonamide each, 20% to Oxacillin, Amoxycillin and Cefuroxime, 13.3% to Polymyxin B, Erythromycin, Ceftriaxone and Azithromycin and 6.7% to Streptomycin, Clindamycin, Lincomycin and Tetracycline each. This study indicates the need for urgent and effective control measures to tackle the increase in prevalence of subclinical mastitis and their antimicrobial resistance in the study area.

  20. The Escherichia coli phylogenetic group B2 with integrons prevails in childhood recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõljalg, Siiri; Truusalu, Kai; Stsepetova, Jelena; Pai, Kristiine; Vainumäe, Inga; Sepp, Epp; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our study was to characterize the phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli, antibiotic resistance, and containment of class 1 integrons in the first attack of pyelonephritis and in subsequent recurrences in young children. Altogether, 89 urine E. coli isolates from 41 children with urinary tract infection (UTI) were studied for prevalence and persistence of phylogenetic groups by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antibacterial resistance by minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and class 1 integrons by PCR. Phylogenetic group B2 was most common (57%), followed by D (20%), A (18%) and B1 (5%). Overall resistance to betalactams was 61%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 28%, and was not associated with phylogenetic groups. According to PFGE, the same clonal strain persisted in 77% of patients. The persistence was detected most often in phylogenetic group B2 (70%). Phylogenetic group B2 more often contained class 1 integrons than group A. Integron positive strains had higher MIC values of cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and gentamicin. In conclusion, phylogenetic group B2 was the most common cause of the first episode of pyelonephritis, as well as in case of the persistence of the same strain and contained frequently class 1 integrons in childhood recurrent UTI. An overall frequent betalactam resistance was equally distributed among phylogenetic groups. PMID:24033434

  1. In vitro susceptibility of community-acquired urinary tract pathogens to commonly used antimicrobial agents in Spain: a comparative multicenter study (2002-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Garcia, M I; Munoz Bellido, J L; Garcia Rodriguez, J A

    2007-06-01

    The susceptibility patterns of 2724 uropathogens isolated in 9 Spanish regions during 2002, and 3013 obtained in 2004 were determined. The antibiotics tested were fosfomycin trometamol, amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefixime, cefuroxime-axetil, pipemidic, ceprofloxacin, trimethoprim plus sulphamethoxazole and nitrofurantoin. Escherichia coli was the main pathogen in both studies (73% vs. 68.3%) followed by Proteus mirabilis 7.2% vs. 6.4%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.4% vs. 5.2%). Enteroccocus spp. (4.7% vs. 6.8%), Streptoccocus agalactiae (1.7% vs. 3.1%) and Staphyloccocus saprophyticus (0.7% vs. 1.3%)were the most frequent Gram-positive pathogens. 31.3% of E. coli in 2002 and 32% in 2004 were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Around 40% of E. coli were resistant to a single agent. 21.6-24.1% were resistant to two antibiotics. 35.4% of first period isolates, and 37.6% of second period ones were resistant to two or more classes of antibiotics. Fosfomycin (2.1- 2.8%) and nitrofurantoin (3.5-5.7%) had the lowest resistance rates for E. coli. Amoxicillin (58.2-58.7%), co-trimoxazole (30.8-33.8%) and ciprofloxacin (22.6-22.7%) showed the highest resistance rates, and their suitability as empiric treatments for UTI should probably be re-evaluated. PMID:17594920

  2. A Case of Giant Hepatic Hydatid Cyst Infected with Morganella morganii and the Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Necati Hakyemez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst disease is a common worldwide zoonosis. Most of the cysts are located in the liver. Abscess formation due to infection of the cyst is an important complication. M. morganii, a Gram-negative Bacillus, is a quite rare cause of liver abscess. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with complaints of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain located in the right-upper quadrant. Her history was positive for hepatic hydatid cyst disease ten years ago. Physical examination revealed a painful mass filling the right-upper quadrant and extending down to umbilicus. Indirect hemagglutinin test for hydatid cyst was positive at a titer of 1/320. Giant liver abscess due to infected hydatid cyst was found in computed tomography scan. Surgeons performed cystectomy and cholecystectomy. Cefazoline, cefuroxime, and metronidazole were administered empirically, but all the three agents were replaced with intravenous ceftriaxone after M. morganii was isolated from the cultures of the abscess material. Clinical signs of the patient resolved at the second week of treatment, and she was discharged.

  3. A Case of Giant Hepatic Hydatid Cyst Infected with Morganella morganii and the Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, Ismail Necati; Sit, Mustafa; Aktas, Gulali; Tas, Tekin; Mengeloglu, Fırat Zafer; Kucukbayrak, Abdulkadir

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid cyst disease is a common worldwide zoonosis. Most of the cysts are located in the liver. Abscess formation due to infection of the cyst is an important complication. M. morganii, a Gram-negative Bacillus, is a quite rare cause of liver abscess. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with complaints of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain located in the right-upper quadrant. Her history was positive for hepatic hydatid cyst disease ten years ago. Physical examination revealed a painful mass filling the right-upper quadrant and extending down to umbilicus. Indirect hemagglutinin test for hydatid cyst was positive at a titer of 1/320. Giant liver abscess due to infected hydatid cyst was found in computed tomography scan. Surgeons performed cystectomy and cholecystectomy. Cefazoline, cefuroxime, and metronidazole were administered empirically, but all the three agents were replaced with intravenous ceftriaxone after M. morganii was isolated from the cultures of the abscess material. Clinical signs of the patient resolved at the second week of treatment, and she was discharged.

  4. A Simple Assay to Screen Antimicrobial Compounds Potentiating the Activity of Current Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Junaid; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to pose a significant problem in the management of bacterial infections, despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Here, we suggest a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform assay to screen antimicrobial compounds from natural products or synthetic chemical libraries for their potential to work in tandem with the available antibiotics against multiple drug-resistant bacteria. The aqueous extract of Juglans regia tree bark was tested against representative multiple drug-resistant bacteria in the aforementioned assay to determine whether it potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics. The aqueous extract of J. regia bark was added to Mueller-Hinton agar, followed by a lawn of multiple drug-resistant bacteria, Salmonella typhi or enteropathogenic E. coli. Next, filter paper discs impregnated with different classes of antibiotics were placed on the agar surface. Bacteria incubated with extract or antibiotics alone were used as controls. The results showed a significant increase (>30%) in the zone of inhibition around the aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin discs compared with bacteria incubated with the antibiotics/extract alone. In conclusion, our assay is able to detect either synergistic or additive action of J. regia extract against multiple drug-resistant bacteria when tested with a range of antibiotics. PMID:23865073

  5. Prevalence and emerging resistance of Moraxella catarrhalis in lower respiratory tract infections in Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Moraxella catarrhalis in sputum cultures from patients with lower respiratory tract infection and their antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. Methods: The study comprised sputum specimens of 776 patients at various branches of Dr Essa's Diagnostic Lab, Karachi. The specimens were cultured on blood, chocolate, and eosin methylene blue agars between October 2010 and October 2011. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and anti-biograms were determined by the Kirby-Bauer Agar Disc Diffusion Method. Results: Moraxella catarrhalis was isolated from 39 (5.02%) sputa of which 18 (46.15%) belonged to males. The bimodal age prevalence was 238 (30.7%) in age group 20-29 years, and 180 (23.1%) in 70 years and above. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone were most effective (100%). Very high resistance was seen with amikacin (92.3%), cefixime (92.3%), fosfomycin (84.6%), cefuroxime (84.6%), erythromycin and amoxicillin (76.9%), cotrimoxazole (90%) and doxycycline (76.9%). Conclusions: The incidence of Moraxella catarrhalis in sputum encourages routine culture and sensitivity of sputa from patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infection, especially the elderly and immunocompromised, for tailored drug prescription. (author)

  6. Biocompatible cephalosporin-hydroxyapatite-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coatings fabricated by MAPLE technique for the prevention of bone implant associated infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Socol, Gabriel; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Rădulescu, Marius; Surdu, Adrian; Trusca, Roxana; Rădulescu, Radu; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Stan, Miruna S.; Constanda, Sabrina; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    In this study we aimed to obtain functionalized thin films based on hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HAp/PLGA) containing ceftriaxone/cefuroxime antibiotics (ATBs) deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The prepared thin films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and infra red (IR) analysis. HAp/PLGA/ATBs thin films sustained the growth of human osteoblasts, proving their good biocompatibility. The microscopic evaluation and the culture-based quantitative assay of the E. coli biofilm development showed that the thin films inhibited the initial step of microbial attachment as well as the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on the respective surfaces. This study demonstrates that MAPLE technique could represent an appealing technique for the fabrication of antibiotics-containing polymeric implant coatings. The bioevaluation results recommend this type of surfaces for the prevention of bone implant microbial contamination and for the enhanced stimulation of the implant osseointegration process.

  7. A Simple Assay to Screen Antimicrobial Compounds Potentiating the Activity of Current Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance continues to pose a significant problem in the management of bacterial infections, despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Here, we suggest a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform assay to screen antimicrobial compounds from natural products or synthetic chemical libraries for their potential to work in tandem with the available antibiotics against multiple drug-resistant bacteria. The aqueous extract of Juglans regia tree bark was tested against representative multiple drug-resistant bacteria in the aforementioned assay to determine whether it potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics. The aqueous extract of J. regia bark was added to Mueller-Hinton agar, followed by a lawn of multiple drug-resistant bacteria, Salmonella typhi or enteropathogenic E. coli. Next, filter paper discs impregnated with different classes of antibiotics were placed on the agar surface. Bacteria incubated with extract or antibiotics alone were used as controls. The results showed a significant increase (>30% in the zone of inhibition around the aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin discs compared with bacteria incubated with the antibiotics/extract alone. In conclusion, our assay is able to detect either synergistic or additive action of J. regia extract against multiple drug-resistant bacteria when tested with a range of antibiotics.

  8. Study of the Electrophoretic Behavior of Cephalosporins by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hancu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was the characterization of the electrophoretic behavior of cephalosporins from different generation having different structural characteristics in order to develop a rapid, simple and efficient capillary electrophoretic method for their identification and simultaneous separation from complex mixtures. Methods: Ten cephalosporin derivatives (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone were analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis using different background electrolyte solutions at different pH values. Electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes were calculated, the influence of the electrophoretic parameteres on the separation was established and the analytical conditions were optimized. Results: Taking into consideration their structural and chemical properties cephalosporins can be detected over a pH range between 6 and 10. The best results were obtained using a buffer solution containing 25 mM disodium hydrogenophosphate - 25 mM sodium dihydrogenophosphate, at a pH – 7.00, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 C, UV detection at 210 nm. Using the optimized analytical conditions we achieved the simultaneous baseline separation for seven cephalosporins in less then 10 minutes. Conclusion: Using the described optimized electrophoretic procedures, capillary electrophoresis can be used for the identification and determination of cephalosporins in formulated pharmaceutical products and for their separation from complex mixtures.

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis: different practice patterns within and outside the United States

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    Schwartz SG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stephen G Schwartz,1 Andrzej Grzybowski,2 Harry W Flynn Jr1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Poznan City Hospital, Poznan, Poland Abstract: Endophthalmitis remains a rare but important cause of visual loss. Prophylaxis strategies are important to reduce rates of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery, intravitreal injection, and other procedures. There is substantial variability between the US and the rest of the world. During cataract surgery, intracameral antibiotics are commonly used in many nations, especially in Europe, but are less commonly used in the US. A randomized clinical trial from the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons reported an approximately fivefold reduction in endophthalmitis rates associated with intracameral cefuroxime but these results are controversial. There are no randomized clinical trials regarding endophthalmitis associated with intravitreal injection. Topical antibiotics are commonly used in many nations, but are less commonly used in the US. At this time, there is no global consensus and it appears unlikely that additional major clinical trials will conclusively define the optimal endophthalmitis prophylaxis techniques. Keywords: cataract surgery, endophthalmitis, intracameral antibiotic, intravitreal injection, prophylaxis

  10. Surgical infections: a microbiological study

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    Santosh Saini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgical infections are mostly polymicrobial, involving both aerobes and anaerobes. One hundred seventeen cases comprised of abscesses (n=51, secondary peritonitis (n=25, necrotizing fascitis (n=22 and wounds with devitalized tissues (n=19 were studied. The number of microorganisms isolated per lesion was highest in secondary peritonitis (2.32. The aerobe/ anaerobe ratio was 0.81 in secondary peritonitis and 1.8 in necrotizing fascitis. Most secondary peritonitis (80%, necrotizing fascitis (75% and wounds with devitalized tissues (66.7% were polymicrobial. Common microorganisms isolated in our study were E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis and Peptostreptococcus spp. The most effective antibiotics for S. aureus were clindamycin (79.1% and cefuroxime (70.8%. For Gram-negatives (Klebsiella spp., E. coli and Proteus spp., the most effective antibiotics were cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was maximally sensitive to amikacin (35.2% and ciprofloxacin (35.2%. The greatest degree of multidrug resistance to all the drugs was found in P. aeruginosa (52.9%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (33.3%, Proteus spp. (33.3%, E. coli (22.2%, and S. aureus (12.5%. All the anaerobes that we isolated were 100% sensitive to metronidazole and chloramphenicol, followed by clindamycin (95% to 100%. Apart from antibiotic therapy, non-antimicrobial methods, such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy and debridement also play an important role in the treatment of surgical infections.

  11. [Activity of cefpodoxime and other oral beta-lactams against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae with different susceptibilities to penicillin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, A; Robledo, O; Lerma, M; Giménez, M J; Cebrián, L; Casal, J; Aguilar, L; Gómez-Lus, M L

    2006-03-01

    This study explores the influence on the intrinsic activity of different oral beta-lactams of beta-lactamase production in Haemophilus influenzae and penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three substudies were performed: a) a general susceptibility study, analyzing 550 strains received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout February and March 2005; b) a study on the influence of penicillin resistance on the activity of beta-lactams, analyzing 251 penicillin-susceptible strains (MICor=2 mg/l) randomly chosen among those received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout 2005; and c) an H. influenzae susceptibility study analyzing 150 strains received by Instituto Valenciano de Microbiologia throughout 2005. A total of 71% of S. pneumoniae strains were susceptible to penicillin, 21% exhibited intermediate resistance and 8% strains presented full resistance. H. influenzae beta-lactamase production rate was 18.6%. Of the non-beta-lactamase-producing strains, 3% were not susceptible to ampicillin. Cefpodoxime and cefixime exhibited the highest intrinsic activity against H. influenzae, while amoxicillin and cefpodoxime were the most active compounds against S. pneumoniae. All H. influenzae strains were susceptible to oral cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The increase in penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae influenced cefixime, cefaclor and cefuroxime to a higher degree than amoxicillin and cefpodoxime.

  12. Impact of cold atmospheric pressure argon plasma on antibiotic sensitivity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in vitro.

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    Lührmann, Anne; Matthes, Rutger; Kramer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Die antimikrobielle Wirksamkeit von kaltem Atmosphärendruckplasma (CAP), auch als gewebeverträgliches Plasma (TTP) bezeichnet, könnte eine aussichtsreiche Option zur Eradikation von Methicillin-empfindlichen ebenso wie von Methicillin-resistenten Staphylococcus aureus-Stämmen sein, die oft chronische Wunden kolonisieren. Bisher wurde der Einfluss von CAP auf die Antibiotikaempfindlichkeit von S. aureus kaum untersucht. Da eine Veränderung der Antibiotikaempfindlichkeit für die Wundbehandlung relevant sein könnte, sollte der Einfluss von CAP auf die Empfindlichkeit verschiedener S. aureus-Stämme gegen unterschiedliche Antibiotika untersucht werden.Methode: Im Agardiffusionstest wurden Antibiotikatestplättchen mit Cefuroxim, Gentamicin, Oxacillin, Vancomycin, Ciprofloxacin, Co-Trimoxazol, Clindamycin und Erythromycin eingesetzt. Die Teststämme wurden auf Agar ausplattiert und mit CAP exponiert, bevor die Testplättchen aufgelegt wurden. Nach 24 h Bebrütung wurden die Inhibitionszonen gemessen und statistisch auf Unterschiede geprüft.Ergebnisse: In den meisten Fällen war die Einfluss von CAP auf die Antibiotikaempfindlichkeit zu vernachlässigen. Für zwei Stämme wurde die Empfindlichkeit gegenüber β-Lactam-Antibiotika signifikant herabgesetzt. Schlussfolgerung: Da CAP die Antibiotikaempfindlichkeit beeinflussen kann, sollten vor beabsichtigter kombinierter lokaler CAP-Behandlung und gleichzeitiger systemischer Antibiotikagabe Interaktionen in vitro untersucht werden, um unerwünschte Kombinationseffekte auszuschließen.

  13. Diagnosis and management of acute otitis media in the urgent care setting.

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    McCracken, George H

    2002-04-01

    The prevalence of otitis media is increasing, which affects health care resource utilization across all segments, including the urgent care setting. One of the greatest challenges in the management of acute otitis media (AOM) is the effective treatment of cases caused by pathogens that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Whereas the production of beta-lactamases among strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis is an important consideration for antimicrobial therapy, the high prevalence of resistance to penicillin and other classes of antibiotics among strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae represents a greater clinical concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently convened the Drug Resistant S. pneumoniae Therapeutic Working Group to develop evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of AOM in an era of prevalent resistance. The recommendations from this group included amoxicillin as the preferred first-line drug because of the demonstrated activity against penicillin-intermediate and -resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, using higher dosages of up to 90 mg/kg per day in certain settings. For patients in whom initial treatment is unsuccessful after 3 days, the recommended agents included high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanate (for activity against beta-lactamase-producing pathogens), clindamycin, cefuroxime axetil, or 1 to 3 doses of intramuscular ceftriaxone. The principles set forth in these guidelines can assist the therapeutic decisionmaking process for practitioners in the urgent care setting.

  14. Antibiotic Therapy in Pyogenic Meningitis in Paediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To isolate and identify the causative pathogen, antibiotic sensitivity testing and success rate of empirical antibiotic therapy in pyogenic meningitis. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, Pakistan, from March to July 2012. Methodology: The study was performed on 72 culture positive meningitis cases in children less than 15 years of age. This therapy was evaluated by monitoring the patient's clinical picture for 14 - 21 days. The collected data was analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Seventeen different bacteria were isolated. The most commonly occurring bacteria were coagulase negative Staphylococci (25%), E. coli (12.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.3%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (8.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.3%). All the bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin (96.7%), meropenem (76.7%), amikacin (75%), ciprofloxacin (65.3%), chloramphenicol (46.5%), ceftazidime (44.2%), cefepime (41.9%), co-amoxiclav (38.0%), oxacillin (34.8%), cefotaxime (21.4%), penicillin (20.7%), ceftriaxone (18.6%), cefuroxime (14%) and ampicillin (6.9%). The combination of sulbactam and cefoperazone showed antimicrobial sensitivity of 81.4%. The success rate of empirical antibiotic therapy was 91.7%. Conclusion: It was found that Gram negative bacteria were the major cause of pyogenic meningitis. Mostly there were resistant strains against all commonly used antibiotics except vancomycin. All empirical antibiotic therapies were found to be most successful. (author)

  15. Spectrum and Sensitivity of Bacterial Keratitis Isolates in Auckland

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    S. Marasini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The bacteria isolated from severe cases of keratitis and their antibiotic sensitivity are recognised to vary geographically and over time. Objectives. To identify the most commonly isolated bacteria in keratitis cases admitted over a 24-month period to a public hospital in Auckland, New Zealand, and to investigate in vitro sensitivity to antibiotics. Methods. Hospital admissions for culture-proven bacterial keratitis between January 2013 and December 2014 were identified. Laboratory records of 89 culture positive cases were retrospectively reviewed and antibiotic sensitivity patterns compared with previous studies from other NZ centres. Results. From 126 positive cultures, 35 species were identified. Staphylococcus was identified to be the most common isolate (38.2%, followed by Pseudomonas (21.3%. Over the last decade, infection due to Pseudomonas species, in the same setting, has increased (p≤0.05. Aminoglycosides, cefazolin, ceftazidime, erythromycin, tetracycline, and doxycycline were 100% effective against tested isolates in vitro. Amoxicillin (41.6%, cefuroxime (33.3%, and chloramphenicol (94.7% showed reduced efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria, whereas penicillin (51% and ciprofloxacin (98.8% showed reduced efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions. Despite a shift in the spectrum of bacterial keratitis isolates, antibiotic sensitivity patterns have generally remained stable and show comparability to results within the last decade from NZ centres.

  16. Cefditoren: Comparative efficacy with other antimicrobials and risk factors for resistance in clinical isolates causing UTIs in outpatients

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    Hatzaki Despina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate a possible role of Cefditoren, a recently marketed in Greece third-generation oral cephalosporin in urinary infections of outpatients. Methods During a multicenter survey of Enterobacteriaceae causing UTIs in outpatients during 2005–2007, Cefditoren MICs were determined by agar dilution method in a randomly selected sample of uropathogens. Susceptibility against 18 other oral/parenteral antimicrobials was determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. Results A total of 563 isolates (330 Escherichia coli, 142 Proteus mirabilis and 91 Klebsiella spp was studied; MIC50/MIC90 of Cefditoren was 0.25/0.5 mg/L respectively, with 97.1% of the isolates being inhibited at 1 mg/L. All 12 strains producing ESBLs or AmpC enzymes were resistant to cefditoren. Susceptibility rates (% for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime axetil, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fosfomycin were 93.1- 94.1- 96.8-93.1-71.9 and 92.8% respectively. Cefditoren MIC was significantly higher in nalidixic/ciprofloxacin non-susceptible strains; resistance to cefditoren was not associated with resistance to mecillinam, fosfomycin nitrofurantoin and aminoglycosides. Multivariate analysis demonstrated history of urinary infection in the last two weeks or three months as risk factors for cefditoren resistance. Conclusions Cefditoren exhibited enhanced in vitro activity against the most common uropathogens in the outpatient setting, representing an alternative oral treatment option in patients with risk factors for resistance to first-line antibiotics.

  17. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Certain Cephalosporins in Pharmaceutical Formulations

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    Mahmoud A. Omar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of absorbance at 610 nm. The initial rate and fixed time (at 3 minutes methods are utilized for construction of calibration graphs to determine the concentration of the studied drugs. The calibration graphs are linear in the concentration ranges 5–15 g mL−1 and 5–25 g mL−1 using the initial rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The results are validated statistically and checked through recovery studies. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of the studied cephalosporins in commercial dosage forms. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference methods show the excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  18. Profiling of β-lactam selectivity for penicillin-binding proteins in Escherichia coli strain DC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Ozden; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-05-01

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are integral players in bacterial cell division, and their catalytic activities can be monitored with β-lactam-containing chemical probes. Compounds that target a single PBP could provide important information about the specific role(s) of each enzyme, making identification of such molecules important. We evaluated 22 commercially available β-lactams for inhibition of the PBPs in live Escherichia coli strain DC2. Whole cells were titrated with β-lactam antibiotics and subsequently incubated with a fluorescent penicillin derivative, Bocillin-FL (Boc-FL), to label uninhibited PBPs. Protein visualization was accomplished by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) separation and fluorescent scanning. The examined β-lactams exhibited diverse PBP selectivities, with amdinocillin (mecillinam) showing selectivity for PBP2, aztreonam, piperacillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone for PBP3, and amoxicillin and cephalexin for PBP4. The remaining β-lactams did not block any PBPs in the DC2 strain of E. coli or inhibited more than one PBP at all examined concentrations in this Gram-negative organism. PMID:25733506

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of antibacterials on human bronchial epithelial cells

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    Hatz Rudolf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Bronchial epithelial cells (hu-BEC have been claimed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory airway diseases like COPD. In this context IL-8 and GM-CSF have been shown to be key cytokines. Some antibiotics which are routinely used to treat lower respiratory tract infections have been shown to exert additional immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated whether these effects can also be detected in hu-BEC. Methods Hu-BEC obtained from patients undergoing lung resections were transferred to air-liquid-interface (ALI culture. These cultures were incubated with cefuroxime (CXM, 10-62.5 mg/l, azithromycin (AZM, 0.1-1.5 mg/l, levofloxacin (LVX, 1-8 mg/l and moxifloxacin (MXF, 1-16 mg/l. The spontaneous and TNF-α (10 ng/ml induced expression and release of IL-8 and GM-CSF were measured using PCR and ELISA in the absence or presence of these antibiotics. Results The spontaneous IL-8 and GM-CSF release was significantly reduced with MXF (8 mg/l by 37 ± 20% and 45 ± 31%, respectively (both p Conclusion Using ALI cultures of hu-BEC we observed differential effects of antibiotics on spontaneous and TNF-α induced cytokine release. Our data suggest that MXF and AZM, beyond bactericidal effects, may attenuate the inflammatory process mediated by hu-BEC.

  20. [Lyme disease--clinical manifestations and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is a systemic infectious disease that can present in a variety of clinical manifestations. The disease is caused by a group of spirochaetes--Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato or Lyme borrelia--that are transmitted to humans by the bite of Ixodes ticks. Lyme disease is the most common arthropode-borne infectious disease in many European countries including Germany. Early localized infection is typically manifested by an erythema migrans skin lesion, in rarer cases as a borrelial lymphocytoma. The most common early disseminated manifestation is (early) neuroborreliosis. In adults, neuroborreliosis appears typically as meningoradiculoneuritis. Neuroborreliosis in children, however, is typically manifested by meningitis. In addition, multiple erythema migrans lesions and Lyme carditis occur relatively frequently. The most common manifestation oflate Lyme disease is Lyme arthritis. Early manifestations (and usually also late manifestations) of Lyme disease can be treated successfully by application of suitable antibacterial agents. For the treatment of Lyme disease, doxycycline, certain penicillins such as amoxicillin and some cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime axetil) are recommended in current guidelines. A major challenge is the treatment of chronic, non-specific disorders, i. e., posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome and "chronic Lyme disease". Prevention of Lyme disease is mainly accomplished by protecting against tick bites. Prophylactic administration of doxycycline after tick bites is generally not recommended in Germany. There is no vaccine available for human beings. PMID:27348896

  1. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: occurrence, risk factors for fecal carriage and strain traits in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years sampled at abattoir level.

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    Martin Reist

    Full Text Available During the past decade extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae have become a matter of great concern in human and veterinary medicine. In this cross-sectional study fecal swabs of a geographically representative number of Swiss cattle at slaughterhouse level were sampled i to determine the occurrence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years, and ii to assess risk factors for shedding ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae. In total, 48 (8.4%; 95% C.I. 6.3-11.1% independent ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were detected among the 571 tested animals. Species identification revealed 46 E. coli strains, one Enterobacter cloacae and one Citrobacter youngae. In view of beta-lactam antibiotics, all 48 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin and cefpodoxime. Forty-five (93.8% isolates were resistant cefuroxime; one (2.1% isolate to cefoxitin, 28 (58.3% isolates to cefotaxime, 2 (4.2% isolates to ceftazidime, and 2 (4.2% isolates to cefepime. Risk factors for shedding ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were (i age (OR 0.19 and 0.12 in age category 181 d to 1 y and 1 y to 2 y compared to ≤180 d, (ii primary production type, meaning dairy compared to beef on farm of origin (OR 5.95, and (iii more than 1 compared to less than 1 animal movement per d per 100 animals on farm of origin (OR 2.37.

  2. Novel Genes Related to Ceftriaxone Resistance Found among Ceftriaxone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains Selected In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zijian; Lai, Wei; Liu, Min; Hua, Zhengshuang; Sun, Yayin; Xu, Qingfang; Xia, Yue; Zhao, Yue; Xie, Xiaoyuan

    2016-04-01

    The emergence of ceftriaxone-resistantNeisseria gonorrhoeaeis currently a global public health concern. However, the mechanism of ceftriaxone resistance is not yet fully understood. To investigate the potential genes related to ceftriaxone resistance inNeisseria gonorrhoeae, we subcultured six gonococcal strains with increasing concentrations of ceftriaxone and isolated the strains that became resistant. After analyzing several frequently reported genes involved in ceftriaxone resistance, we found only a single mutation inpenA(A501V). However, differential analysis of the genomes and transcriptomes between pre- and postselection strains revealed many other mutated genes as well as up- and downregulated genes. Transformation of the mutatedpenAgene into nonresistant strains increased the MIC between 2.0- and 5.3-fold, and transformation of mutatedftsXincreased the MIC between 3.3- and 13.3-fold. Genes encoding the ABC transporters FarB, Tfq, Hfq, and ExbB were overexpressed, whilepilM,pilN, andpilQwere downregulated. Furthermore, the resistant strain developed cross-resistance to penicillin and cefuroxime, had an increased biochemical metabolic rate, and presented fitness defects such as prolonged growth time and downregulated PilMNQ. In conclusion, antimicrobial pressure could result in the emergence of ceftriaxone resistance, and the evolution of resistance ofNeisseria gonorrhoeaeto ceftriaxone is a complicated process at both the pretranscriptional and posttranscriptional levels, involving several resistance mechanisms of increased efflux and decreased entry. PMID:26787702

  3. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons among commensal Escherichia coli isolates from infants and elderly persons

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    Kõljalg Siiri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to compare the presence of the intI1 gene and its associations with the antibiotic resistance of commensal Escherichia coli strains in children with/without previous antibiotic treatments and elderly hospitalized/healthy individuals. Methods One-hundred-and-fifteen intestinal E. coli strains were analyzed: 30 strains from 10 antibiotic-naive infants; 27 from 9 antibiotic-treated outpatient infants; 30 from 9 healthy elderly volunteers; and 28 from 9 hospitalized elderly patients. The MIC values of ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole were measured by E-test and IntI1 was detected by PCR. Results Out of the 115 strains, 56 (49% carried class 1 integron genes. Comparing persons without medical interventions, we found in antibiotic-naive children a significantly higher frequency of integron-bearing strains and MIC values than in healthy elderly persons (53% versus 17%; p Conclusion The prevalence of integrons in commensal E. coli strains in persons without previous medical intervention depended on age. The resistance of integron-carrying and non-carrying strains is more dependent on influencing factors (hospitalization and antibiotic administration in particular groups than merely the presence or absence of integrons.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersive extraction for the simultaneous analysis of β-lactams (four penicillins and eight cephalosporins) in milk by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgou, Eftichia G; Samanidou, Victoria F; Papadoyannis, Ioannis N

    2012-10-01

    The application of ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersive extraction for the confirmatory analysis of 12 β-lactam antibiotics in milk by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection has been proposed herein. Four penicillins (cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, and amoxicillin) and eight cephalosporins (cefaclor, cefadroxil, ceftiofur, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefazolin, cephalexin, and cefotaxime) are effectively extracted using a mixed sorbent of Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe technique and OASIS HLB providing a matrix free from any endogenous interference. Examined analytes were well resolved on an Inertsil ODS-3 analytical column with a mobile phase of CH(3)COONH(4) (0.05 M) and acetonitrile delivered under a gradient program. 1,7-Dimethyl-xanthine was used as internal standard. The method was validated meeting the European Legislation determining linearity, selectivity, stability, decision limit, detection capability, accuracy, precision, and ruggedness according to the Youden approach. Recoveries of all antibiotics rated from 85.0 to 115.7%, while RSD values were <12.7%. Finally, the method was successfully applied to milk samples purchased from local market. PMID:22941669

  5. Antibiotic sensitivity of Enterobacteriaceae at a tertiary care center in India

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    Summaiya Mulla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: It has been observed that various microorganisms are acquiring resistance to most of the available potent antibiotics; hence, there is a need for every hospital to follow the use of antibiotics according to antibiotic sensitivity pattern in that particular hospital or geographical area. It has been reported that Enterobacteriaceae group of microorganisms are increasingly acquiring resistance to many antibiotics and this resistance varies geographically. As there is a short of recent data with respect to Indian hospital, this particular study was designed with the aim of establishing sensitivity pattern of Enterobacteriaceae group of microorganisms to various antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Data of antibiotic sensitivity from December 2010 to April 2011 of different Enterobacteriaceae was taken from the Department of Microbiology, Govt. Medical College, Surat. Sensitivity of different Enterobacteriaceae was shown as using descriptive statistics. Results: E. coli (55.6% and Klebsiella (31.2% were the most frequent bacteria isolated. Enterobacteriaceae were very less sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (13.7%, chloramphenicol (7.6%, cefoperazone (14.4%, cefixime (15.7%, and cefuroxime (17.6. Sensitivity to aztreonam was 32.7%. Sensitivity to carbapenem group of drugs included in this study, i.e., meropenem was 69.8%. Highest sensitivity was shown for ceftazidime (74.1%. E. coli is more sensitive to meropenem as compared with Klebsiella. Conclusion: Sensitivity of Enterobacteriaceae group of microorganisms to known antibiotics is decreasing. Decreased sensitivity to carbapenem group of antibiotics is a matter of concern.

  6. Vaginal foreign body mimicking cervical cancer in postmenopausal woman – case study

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    Michał Ciebiera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case report of a 73-year-old, postmenopausal woman with detailed history of breast cancer and oncology treatment including tamoxifen therapy. She presented at the clinic of gynecology and obstetrics with recurrent inflammation of the urinary and genital tract and suspicion of a cervical mass. She also presented occasional abdominal complaints and malodorous vaginal discharge. These symptoms were observed in the patient for several years. Before hospitalization she received many kinds of empirical, antimicrobial treatment such as chlorquinaldol, metronidazole, nifuratel, and nystatin. She did not receive further guidance from doctors about the causes of ailments and further diagnostic and treatment capabilities. In our clinic a detailed diagnostic process including ultrasound transvaginal examination and a minisurgical procedure revealed the presence of a vaginal foreign body (which turned out to be a plastic, shampoo bottle cap surrounded by a mass of inflamed tissue mimicking a cervical tumor. All symptoms and complaints subsided after surgical removal of the foreign body and antibacterial therapy with metronidazole and cefuroxime. Our study draws attention to the need of thorough gynecological care including prophylaxis, especially in the case of complaints of an intimate nature. Even trivial, frequently occurring disorders can be dangerous and require proper and responsible doctor’s supervision and management through the healing process.

  7. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of certain cephalosporins in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mahmoud A; Abdelmageed, Osama H; Attia, Tamer Z

    2009-01-01

    A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of absorbance at 610 nm. The initial rate and fixed time (at 3 minutes) methods are utilized for construction of calibration graphs to determine the concentration of the studied drugs. The calibration graphs are linear in the concentration ranges 5-15 mug mL(-1) and 5-25 mug mL(-1) using the initial rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The results are validated statistically and checked through recovery studies. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of the studied cephalosporins in commercial dosage forms. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference methods show the excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in accuracy and precision. PMID:20140078

  8. Clinical implications of antibiotic resistance for management of acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J O

    1998-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance to available antimicrobial agents has been constant since the introduction of the sulfonamides in the 1930s. Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae are a concern now because of the importance of these pathogens in infections of the respiratory tract in infants and children. Amoxicillin remains the drug of choice for initial episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) although increase of the dosage schedule to 80 mg/kg/day has been recommended by some investigators. There are 15 additional antimicrobial agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the indication of AOM. All approved drugs are clinically effective but some have been suggested to have priority for patients who fail amoxicillin: amoxicillin-clavulanate; an oral cephalosporin such as cefuroxime axetil; and intramuscular ceftriaxone. Management of the child with severe and recurrent disease should include antibiotic prophylaxis but the increased incidence of resistance requires selective use. Prevention of infection may be achieved by innovative techniques for interference with attachment of bacteria to the nasal mucosa such as administration of oligosaccharides in a nasal spray. The currently available polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines have limited immunogenicity in infants, but the vaccine is useful in children 2 years of age and older who still have recurrent AOM. Children with frequent AOM during the prior respiratory season are candidates also for influenza virus vaccine. If medical management fails to prevent new episodes of AOM in children with severe and recurrent disease, placement of tympanostomy tubes and possible adenoidectomy should be considered.

  9. Antibiotic resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae isolated from respiratory tract specimens

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    Hikmet Eda Aliskan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are two of the major pathogens in respiratory infections, treatment is usually started empirically. The aim of this study was to detect in vitro resistance rates of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae strains isolated from different lower respiratory clinical samples to the antibotics which are used for therapy of infections due to these pathogens. Material and Methods: Seventy seven S.pneumoniae and 117 H.influenzae strains, isolated from patients were included in the study. S.pneumoniae isolates which gave an inhibition zone diameter of >20 mm for oxacillin were considered susceptible for penicilin. For the isolates which had an oxacillin zone diameter of 2 mg/l and 31.1 % were intermediately resistant to parenteral penicillin. Resistance rates to antibiotics were as follows: erythromycin 40 %, trimethoprim/sulphametoxazole (TMP/SMX 54.5 % and ofloxacin 6.4%. beta-lactamases were detected in 15.6% of the H.influenzae isolates by nitrocefin positivity. Conclusion: H.influenzae strains (8.6% were identified as beta-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR strains. Resistance rates for other antibiotics were as follows: ampicillin 28.6%, cefaclor 36.5% , cefuroxime 30.1%, clarithromycin 9.6%, cloramphenicol 7% and TMP-SMX 43.9%. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 201-207

  10. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gardea, Ma Carmen E; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Eroza-de la Vega, Gilberto; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Pérez-Recoder, María Concepción; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, María Del Carmen; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB) phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates), Escherichia coli (2/7), and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3). In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks. PMID:27322297

  11. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Bacterial Isolates from Urine Specimen of Patients with Complaints of Urinary Tract Infections in Awka, Nigeria

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    Perpetua A. Ekwealor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs account for one of the major reasons for most hospital visits and the determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens will help to guide physicians on the best choice of antibiotics to recommend to affected patients. This study is designed to isolate, characterize, and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the pathogens associated with UTI in Anambra State Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Anambra State, Nigeria. Clean catch urine samples of inpatient and outpatient cases of UTI were collected and bacteriologically analyzed using standard microbiological procedures. Antibiogram was done by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The most prevalent isolates were S. aureus (28%, E. coli (24.6%, and S. saprophyticus (20%. The antibacterial activities of the tested agents were in the order of Augmentin < Ceftazidime < Cefuroxime < Cefixime < Gentamicin < Ofloxacin < Ciprofloxacin < Nitrofurantoin. It was found that all the organisms were susceptible in varying degrees to Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin. It was also observed that all the bacterial species except Streptococcus spp. have a Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI greater than 0.2. For empiric treatment of UTIs in Awka locality, Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin are the first line of choice.

  12. Characteristics of gonococci isolated from men with urethritis in Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hattawi, K; Ison, C A

    1996-02-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae were collected from men attending out-patient clinics in Dubai. The susceptibility to a range of therapeutic antibiotics and their auxotype and serotype was determined. The plasmid content of all penicillinase-producing strains was also analysed. Thirty-six strains of N. gonorrhoeae were isolated from specimens collected from 79 patients over a 24-day period. Of the 36 isolates, 9(25%) were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and 15 (42%) were chromosomally resistant N. gonorrhoeae (CMRNG). CMRNG exhibited higher levels of resistance to cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and erythromycin than PPNG. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and spectinomycin. Three (8%) isolates showed reduced susceptibility (MIC, > or = 0.25 mg/l) to ciprofloxacin. Six isolates of PPNG carried the 4.4 MD and three the 3.2 MD penicillinase encoding plasmid. The total gonococcal population was phenotypically diverse, with 12 serovars, 6 auxotypes and 21 A/S classes. Gonorrhoea was found to be a major cause of urethritis in Dubai and the strains exhibited high levels of resistance to penicillin.

  13. Novel Genes Related to Ceftriaxone Resistance Found among Ceftriaxone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains Selected In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zijian; Lai, Wei; Liu, Min; Hua, Zhengshuang; Sun, Yayin; Xu, Qingfang; Xia, Yue; Zhao, Yue; Xie, Xiaoyuan

    2016-04-01

    The emergence of ceftriaxone-resistantNeisseria gonorrhoeaeis currently a global public health concern. However, the mechanism of ceftriaxone resistance is not yet fully understood. To investigate the potential genes related to ceftriaxone resistance inNeisseria gonorrhoeae, we subcultured six gonococcal strains with increasing concentrations of ceftriaxone and isolated the strains that became resistant. After analyzing several frequently reported genes involved in ceftriaxone resistance, we found only a single mutation inpenA(A501V). However, differential analysis of the genomes and transcriptomes between pre- and postselection strains revealed many other mutated genes as well as up- and downregulated genes. Transformation of the mutatedpenAgene into nonresistant strains increased the MIC between 2.0- and 5.3-fold, and transformation of mutatedftsXincreased the MIC between 3.3- and 13.3-fold. Genes encoding the ABC transporters FarB, Tfq, Hfq, and ExbB were overexpressed, whilepilM,pilN, andpilQwere downregulated. Furthermore, the resistant strain developed cross-resistance to penicillin and cefuroxime, had an increased biochemical metabolic rate, and presented fitness defects such as prolonged growth time and downregulated PilMNQ. In conclusion, antimicrobial pressure could result in the emergence of ceftriaxone resistance, and the evolution of resistance ofNeisseria gonorrhoeaeto ceftriaxone is a complicated process at both the pretranscriptional and posttranscriptional levels, involving several resistance mechanisms of increased efflux and decreased entry.

  14. Increasing Trend of Resistance to Penicillin, Tetracycline, and Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Pakistan (1992–2009

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    Kauser Jabeen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergence and spread of drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is global concern. We evaluated trends of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae over years 1992–2009 in Pakistan. Resistance rates were compared between years (2007–2009 and (1992–2006. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI criteria using the disk diffusion methodology against penicillin, ceftriaxone, tetracycline and ofloxacin. Additional antibiotics tested in 100 strains isolated during 2007–2009, included cefotaxime, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefipime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cefixime, cefpodoxime, spectinomycin and azithromycin. Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 was used as control. Chi-square for trend analysis was conducted to assess resistance trend over the study period. During study period significant increase in combined resistance to penicillin, tetracycline and ofloxacin was observed (P value <0.01. Resistance rates during the two study period also increased significantly (P value <0.01. Ceftriaxone resistance was not observed. None of the isolates were found to be resistant or with intermediate sensitivity to additional antibiotics. Our findings suggest that penicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline should not be used in the empirical treatment of gonorrhea in Pakistan. Ceftriaxone and cefixime should be the first line therapy; however periodic MICs should be determined to identify emergence of strains with reduced susceptibility.

  15. Distribution and persistence of cephalosporins in cephalosporin producing wastewater using SPE and UPLC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Tang, Xinyao; Zuo, Jiane; Zhang, Mengyu; Chen, Lei; Li, Zaixing

    2016-11-01

    An investigation to study the distribution and persistence of cephalosporins in the cephalosporin producing wastewater was carried out in this paper. The target cephalosporins included ceftriaxone (CRO), cefalexin (CEF), cefotaxime (CTX), cefazolin (CZO), cefuroxime (CXM), cefoxitin (CFX) and cefradine (CF). A rapid and reliable detection method for cephalosporins was established based on solid phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. In the cephalosporin producing wastewater effluent (CPWWeff), the limit of quantification for the targets ranged from 27.5ng/L to 131.8ng/L, and the recoveries for all of the analytes ranged from 73% to 102%. The mean concentrations of the seven cephalosporins were 12.85-141.55μg/L and 0.05-24.38μg/L in cephalosporin producing wastewater influent and effluent, respectively. Although high removal efficiencies were achieved for the cephalosporins (78.8-99.7%), up to 1.9kg of cephalosporins was discharged per day from the investigated C-WWTP. The degradation processes of CRO, CEF, CZO and CXM followed first-order kinetics in CPWWeff under all of the testing conditions. The degradation rates of tested cephalosporins were accelerated by high temperature and light. Persistence of CXM was the highest among the four tested cephalosporins in CPWWeff. PMID:27328396

  16. 上海崇明地区3家二级综合医院2011-2013年抗菌药物类国家基本药物使用情况分析%Utilization Analysis of National Essential Medicines in Antibiotics in 3 Second-level General Hospitals from Chongming Area of Shanghai from 2011 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳德永; 姜云达; 杨忠英

    2015-01-01

    目的:为促进抗菌药物类国家基本药物的合理使用提供参考。方法:对上海崇明地区3家二级综合医院2011-2013年抗菌药物类国家基本药物的使用情况进行统计、分析。结果:抗菌药物类国家基本药物销售金额呈增长趋势,年平均增长率为28.16%;而其销售金额占药品销售总金额比例仍较低,平均为2.16%。2011-2013年排序列前3位的3类抗菌药物销售金额之和分别占抗菌药物类国家基本药物销售总金额的87.92%、93.60%、95.54%,呈上升趋势;而抗菌药物类国家基本药物DDDs 2012、2013年较2011年有所下降。DDDs排序列前2位的是头孢呋辛酯片、阿莫西林胶囊,销售金额居首位的是注射用头孢呋辛钠;金额/DDDs排序比接近1的品种较少,说明用药金额与用药人次同步性较差。结论:抗菌药物类国家基本药物应用仍存在一些问题,在以后的相关工作中需持续改进,进一步提高用药合理性和经济性,逐步实现抗菌药物临床应用管理的制度化、常态化。%OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for promoting the rational use of national essential medicines in antibiotics. METHODS:The use of national essential drugs in antibiotics in 3 second-level general hospitals from Chongming area of Shanghai from 2011 to 2013 were statistically analyzed. RESULTS:The sales amount of antibiotics was in an increasing trend,with an aver-age growth rate of 28.16%;while the proportion of sales amount accounted for the total sales amount of drugs were still relatively low,with an average growth rate of 2.16%. The proportion of total sales amount of top 3 antibiotics from 2011 to 2013 accounted for the total sales amount of drugs were respectively 87.92%,93.60% and 95.54%,with an increasing trend;while compared with 2011,the DDDs of national essential medicines in antibiotics was decreased a little during 2012-2013;the top 2 DDDs were Cefuroxime axetil

  17. In vitro activity of Yinhua Miyan Ling%银花泌炎灵体外抗菌作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耘; 吕媛; 刘健; 薛峰; 杨维维; 张佳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluation in vitro activity and synergy of Yin-hua Miyan Ling against main clinical isolated strains.Methods All of 285 stains from 18 tertiary hospitals in recent three years were studied. Minimal inhibition concentrations ( MIC ) were tested by Agar dilution method and combination effects were measured by Checkerboard method. Results Yinhua Miyan Ling showed more in vitro activity against Sta-phylococcus and Proteus mirabilis, MIC values from 3.13~6.25 mg・ mL-1 . On the other hand, Yinhua Miyan Ling showed the same antibiotic activi-ty against extended-spectrumβlactamases ( ESBLs) positive and nega-tive strains or methecillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus.Syner-gy was detected with Yinhua Miyan Ling in combination with amoxillin/clavulanate, cefuroxime and levofloxacin against gram-positive strains, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA).Against E.faecalis, synergy was observed in Yinhua Miyan Ling and cefuroxime. Additive effect was found between Yinhua Miyan Ling and amoxillin/clavulanate against 100%E.coli.Conclusion Synergy was found with Yinhua Miyan Ling in combination withβlactams and quinolones against gram -positive strains and additive effect was found against gram-negative bacilli.%目的:评价银花泌炎灵体外抗菌活性及与临床常用抗菌药物的体外联合作用。方法对来自全国18家医院近3年临床分离的285株菌进行了最低抑菌浓度( MIC)测定, MIC测定用琼脂二倍稀释法,联合药敏测定采用棋盘法。结果银花泌炎灵对葡萄球菌和奇异变形杆菌具有较好的抗菌活性,MIC值在3.13~6.25 mg・ mL-1。不论细菌是否产超广谱β内酰胺酶( ESBLs)或是否为甲氧西林耐药株或是否为环丙沙星耐药株,银花泌炎灵均表现出同样的抗菌作用。联合药敏结果显示,银花泌炎灵与阿莫西林/克拉维酸、头孢呋辛以及左氧氟沙星联合对革兰阳性菌,特别是

  18. In vitro antibacterial activity of fosfomycin combined with nine antimicrobial agents against acinetobacter%磷霉素与9种抗菌药物分别联用对不动杆菌的体外抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莹莹; 王镇山; 薛欣; 聂大平; 李玉中

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To study the antibacterial activity of fosfomycin combined with other 9 antimicrobial agents against 47 strains of Acinetobacter in vitro, in order to provide laboratory data for clinical combination application. [ Methods] The 47 strains of acinetobacter isolated from sputum samples were treated by 10 antimicrobial agents alone and by fosfomycin combined with other 9 antimicrobial agents. Through the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index, using a two -fold agar dilution method, we could evaluate the antibacterial activity of fosfomycin combined with other 9 antimicrobial agents in vitro. [ Results] All the 47 strains of acinetobacter were resistant to fosfomycin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefoperazone/sulbactam, amikacin, and were intermedium to meropenem and imipenem/cilastatin. The ratio of antimicrobial agents was 1: 1. The MICs of fosfomycin combined with other 9 antimicrobial agents were lower than those of 10 antimicrobial agents alone and FIC index≤2. The primary action was synergistic/additional effect. There was no antagonistic effect observed. [ Conclusion] Synergistic/additional effect was observed in fosfomycin combined with levofloxacin, ciprofioxacin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefoperazone/sulbactam, amikacin, meropenem and imipenem/cilastatin against acinetobacter in vitro. The antimicrobial activities of combination were increased.%[目的]研究磷霉素与其它9种临床常用抗菌药物分别联合应用对47株不动杆菌的体外抗菌活性.[方法]收集痰标本中分离出的不动杆菌47株,将磷霉素与其它9种抗菌药物在体外单独以及联合应用,采用琼脂二倍稀释法,测定最低抑菌浓度(MIC)、计算部分抑菌浓度(FIC)指数,评价磷霉素与其它9种抗菌药物分别联合应用的体外抗菌活性.[结果]磷霉素、左氧氟沙星、环丙沙星、头孢呋辛、头孢他啶、头孢

  19. 制药废水中头孢类抗生素残留检测方法及环境风险评估%Residue analysis method and environmental risk assessment of cephalosporin antibiotics in pharmaceutical wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤薪瑶; 左剑恶; 余忻; 杨波; 王凯军

    2014-01-01

    Based on solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), a testing method for 9 cephalosporin antibiotics, i.e., cefaclor, ceftriaxone, cephalexin, cefotaxime, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefalotin and cefradine, in pharmaceutical wastewater was established. The limit of quantitation was from 27.5 to 131.8ng/L, and the recovery efficiencies for different analytes ranged from 72.8% to 102.2%. With this method, cephalosporin antibiotics in the effluent of each processing unit of a pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant (P-WWTP), which adopted two-stage biological oxidation processes, were tested. Ceftriaxone, cefazolin, cefotaxime and cefuroxime were found in the pharmaceutical wastewater. Their average concentrations in influents were 7.6, 12.9, 5.6 and 91.6µg/L, in effluents of first-stage oxidation unit were 4.2, 5.2, 2.2 and 37.4µg/L, and in effluents of second-stage oxidation unit were 2.0, 2.7, 0.6 and 24.4µg/L, respectively. Risk quotient method was utilized to evaluate the environmental risks of these four antibiotics in the effluents, and all the results were high risk levels.%基于固相萃取-超高效液相色谱-两级串联质谱(SPE-UPLC/MS/MS)技术,建立了制药废水中头孢克洛、头孢曲松、头孢氨苄、头孢噻肟、头孢唑啉、头孢呋辛、头孢西丁、头孢噻吩和头孢拉定共9种头孢类抗生素的测试方法,定量限为27.5~131.8ng/L,目标物回收率为72.8%~102.2%;利用该技术,检测某采用两级生物氧化工艺的制药废水处理厂各级单元出水,共检测出头孢曲松、头孢唑啉、头孢噻肟和头孢呋辛4种头孢类抗生素,其在进水中平均浓度分别为7.6,12.9,5.6,91.6µg/L,在一级氧化出水中平均浓度分别为4.2,5.2,2.2,37.4µg/L,在二级氧化出水中平均浓度分别为2.0,2.7,0.6,24.4µg/L;风险商值法评估制药废水出水中残留的头孢曲松、头孢唑啉、头孢噻肟

  20. In vitro activity of cefazolin pentahydrate%五水头孢唑啉体外抗菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耘; 吕媛; 刘健; 薛峰; 李曼宁

    2009-01-01

    , cefazolin pentahydrate also showed antibacterial activity. MIC values was ≤ 8 mg · L-1 for non- ESBLs Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. Time- kill curves test results indicated that cefazolin pentahydrate typically is of time dependent profile against staph-ylococci, but for E. coli, the bactericidal activity slight increased with drug concentration increased. Conclution Compared with contrast drugs, the activities of cefazolin pentahydrate against G+ bacteria were better than cephalexin, clindamycin, clarithromycin, and silght better than cefotiam, and similar with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime and levofloxacin. For non - ESBLs Enterobacteriaceae, the activies of cefazolin pentahydrate were better than cephalexin, and similar with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefuroxime.

  1. 249株流感嗜血杆菌的分离与耐药性分析%Analysis on Isolation and Antibiotic Resistance of 249 Strains of Haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹敏晖; 曹友德; 李浩; 蔡瑞云

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解流感嗜血杆菌(Hi)的检出状况与耐药情况,指导临床合理用药.方法 统计分析2007-2010年我院Hi的分离与耐药情况.结果 在1052份痰及咽拭子标本中分离出Hi 210株,在242份胆汁标本中分离出Hi 16株,在203份胸腹水标本中分离出Hi 12株,在163份眼、耳拭子标本中分离出Hi 11株.体外药敏结果显示Hi对复方磺胺甲恶哇耐药性最高为63.5%,氨苄西林次之为46.2%,而对阿莫西林/棒酸、利福平、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、亚氨培南敏感,耐药率≤2.0%.结论 Hi在呼吸道标本中的检出率最高,眼、耳拭子标本中次之,在胆汁、胸腹水中亦有检出.建议眼、耳拭子及胆汁、胸腹水标本作细菌培养时也应同时接种哥伦比亚血平板(COS)、淋球菌选择性平板(VCA)及嗜血杆菌选择性平板(HAE),Hi感染的治疗应首选复方阿莫西林、头孢二代或三代类抗生素.%Objective To investigate the isolation rate and antibiotic resistance rate of Haemophilus influenzae, and to guide the rational use of antibiotic therapy in clinical practice. Methods The data about the isolation rate and antibiotic resistance rate of Haemophilus influenzae from 2007 to 2010 were analyzed with SPSS11.0 statistical software. Results Totally 210 strains of Haemophilus influenzae were isolated from 1,052 specimens of sputum and pharyngeal secretion, 16 strains isolated from 242 bile specimens, 12 strains isolated from 203 hydrothoraxs specimens, and 11 strains isolated from 163 specimens of eye or ear secretion. In vitro drug- sensitivity test showed that the resistance rate of Haemophilus influenzae to trimethoprime sulfanomicles was the highest (63.5%), followed by ampicillin (46.2%). But the resistance rates to amoxicillin/clavalanic acid, rifampicine, cefuroxime, cefotaxime and imipenem were very low (≤2.0%). Conclusions Heamophilus influenzae could be isolated from the secretions of respiratory track, eye, ear, bile

  2. Prevalence of Device-associated Nosocomial Infections Caused By Gram-negative Bacteria in a Trauma Intensive Care Unit in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Zorgani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Device-associated nosocomial infections (DANIs have a major impact on patient morbidity and mortality. Our study aimed to determine the distribution rate of DANIs and causative agents and patterns of antibiotic resistance in the trauma-surgical intensive care unit (ICU. Methods: Our study was conducted at Abusalim Trauma Hospital in Tripoli, Libya. All devices associated with nosocomial infections, including central venous catheters (CVC, endotracheal tubes (ETT, Foley’s urinary catheters, chest tubes, nasogastric tubes (NGT, and tracheostomy tubes, were removed aseptically and examined for Gram-negative bacteria (GNB. Results: During a one-year study period, 363 patients were hospitalized; the overall mortality rate was 29%. A total of 79 DANIs were identified, the most common site of infection was ETT (39.2%, followed by urinary catheters (19%, NGTs (18%, tracheostomy tubes (11%, CVCs (10%, and chest tubes (3%. The most frequently isolated organisms were Klebsiella pneumonia, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30%, 20%, and 14%, respectively. Extremely high resistance rates were observed among GNB to ampicillin (99%, cefuroxime (95%, amoxicillin-clavulante (92%, and nitrofurantoin (91%. Lower levels of resistance were exhibited to amikacin (38%, imipenem (38%, and colistin (29%. About 39% of the isolates were defined as multi-drug resistant (MDR. Overall, extended spectrum β-lactmase producers were expressed in 39% of isolates mainly among K. pneumonia (88%. A. baumannii isolates exhibited extremely high levels of resistance to all antibiotics except colistin (100% sensitive. In addition, 56.3% of A. baumannii isolates were found to be MDR. P. aeruginosa isolates showed 46%–55% effectiveness to anti-pseudomonas antibiotics. Conclusion: High rates of DANI’s and the emergence of MDR organisms poses a serious threat to patients. There is a need to strengthen infection control within the ICU environment

  3. Presence Of Multi Drug Resistant Coliform Bacteria Isolated From Biofilm Of Sachet And Borehole Waters Sold In Abakaliki Metropolis Ebonyi State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Collins Onyebuchi Okeke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the presence of multi drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis in Ebonyi State Nigeria. Five hundred 500 samples of water comprising 250 each from selected brand of sachet water retailers and borehole water dispensers from seven locations were sampled for the detection of coliform bacteria from biofilm and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility using commercially prepared antibiotic discs. Results revealed a high faecal contamination level in sachet waters as Gospel 36 72 Aqua Rapha 30 60 and Bejoy 18 36 were the highest among the sachet water brands examined with Nene and Rock Tama sachet water brands having the lowest contamination level of 612 and 1326 respectively. Borehole samples results revealed that Aboffia had 27 76.93 samples contaminated with faecal bacteria while Azugwu 11 28.5 Azuiyiokwu 18 50 Azuiyiudene 2980 Kpirikpiri 24 66.63 PrescoNtezi 1646.15 and Udensi 22 61.54. Escherichia coli Enterobacter spp and Klebsiella spp were the major contaminants of both sachet and borehole water samples. The bacteria isolates from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters were susceptible to only three of the antibiotics used namely nitrofurantoin amoxycilin and ampicillin. The bacteria were completely resistant to ciprofloxacin tetracycline norbactinnorfloxacin ofloxacin cefuroxime and gentamicin. This showed that they exhibit multi-drug resistance pattern which is a common feature of medically important biofilm bacteria. We therefore report the presence of multi-drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis Ebonyi State Nigeria.

  4. Microbial colonization of biopolymeric thin films containing natural compounds and antibiotics fabricated by MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, PO Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Surdu, A.V.; Grumezescu, A.M.; Oprea, A.E.; Trusca, R.; Vasile, O. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Polizu Street No. 1–7, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Dorcioman, G.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, PO Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihaiescu, D. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Organic Chemistry, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Enculescu, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chifiriuc, M.C. [Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest—ICUB, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Boehm, R.D.; Narayan, R.J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chrisey, D.B. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • We deposited thin composite quercetin/polyvinylpyrrolidone/antibiotic films with close resemblance to the starting/drop-cast composition by MAPLE. • Quercetin flavonoid shows an anti-biofilm activity comparable to that of the tested large-spectrum antibiotics (norfloxacin or cefuroxime), especially in case of 72 h biofilms. • These results could account for the possible use of quercetin as an alternative to antibiotics to combat the mature biofilms developed on different substrates. • MAPLE may be used to produce implantable medical devices that provide a relatively long term in vitro stability and resistance to the growth of microorganisms. - Abstract: Although a great number of antibiotics are currently available, they are often rendered ineffective by the ability of microbial strains to develop genetic resistance and to grow in biofilms. Since many antimicrobial agents poorly penetrate biofilms, biofilm-associated infections often require high concentrations of antimicrobial agents for effective treatment. Among the various strategies that may be used to inhibit microbial biofilms, one strategy that has generated significant interest involves the use of bioactive surfaces that are resistant to microbial colonization. In this respect, we used matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) involving a pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) to obtain thin composite biopolymeric films containing natural (flavonoid) or synthetic (antibiotic) compounds as bioactive substances. Chemical composition and film structures were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Films morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antimicrobial assay of the microbial biofilms formed on these films was assessed by the viable cell counts method. The flavonoid-containing thin films showed increased resistance to microbial colonization

  5. Treatment of 48 cases with pediatric acute suppurative tonsillitis by XianFang Huoming Decoction%仙方活命饮加减治疗小儿急性化脓性扁桃体炎48例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波; 和杏花

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine on pediatric acute suppurative tonsillitis. Methods: 96 cases of acute suppurative tonsillitis patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group, 48 cases in each group. Patients in the control group were given cefuroxime 100 mg/kg qd ivgtt, while patients in the treatment group were given herbal treatment. Results:The efficacy of the treatment group was better than that of the control group with less side effects than the control group. Conclusion: Chinese prescription XianFang Huoming Decoction has good effect on pediatric acute suppurative tonsillitis which is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的:观察中医从风热痰瘀虚治疗小儿急性化脓性扁桃体炎疗效。方法:选取96例急性儿化脓性扁桃体炎患者,随机分成对照组和治疗组,各48例。对照组给予头孢呋辛100mg/kg,qd,ivgtt,治疗组给予中药治疗。结果:治疗组优于对照组,药物副作用更小于对照组。结论:中医药仙方活命饮加减治疗小儿急性化脓性扁桃体炎取得很好的疗效,值得临床推广。

  6. Steven’s Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Children

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    Hakan Turan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to consider clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment alternatives, complications and responsible agents of Steven’s Johnson Syndrome (SJS and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN in childhood. Materials and Method: The patients who were diagnosed with Steven’s Johnson syndrome (SJS or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN and followed by Department of Dermatology, Division of Pediatric Neurology and Division of Pediatric Allergy of Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, between 2000-2008 were evaluated retrospectively.Results: Records of 14 patients (7 females/ 7 males were examined. Nine of the patients had SJS, 2 had SJS-TEN overlap syndrome and the rest 3 had TEN. Nine patients had history of using drugs for epilepsy and the others for anxiety, tooth abscess, cryptic tonsillitis, otitis media and bronchiolitis. Eleven of the patients (78.5% had multiple drug intake. In 7 patients (50% Lamotrigine (4 of 7 patients was also taken Valproic acid and in other patients oxcarbamazepine, azytromicine, phenytoin, imipramine, cefuroxime axetil, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone were responsible for SJS and TEN. Twelve patients were treated with systemic corticosteroids and 2 with intravenous immunoglobulin. All of the patients were cured.Conclusion: Although drug reactions were seen less frequently in children compared to adults, it must be taken into consideration that there is the risk of developing severe drug reactions like SJS and TEN in children who have been using such drugs for a long time or using multipl drugs for extended periods. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 104-10

  7. Antibiotic selection of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 in a mouse intestinal colonization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetius Hertz, Frederik; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2014-10-01

    The ability of different antibiotics to select for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli remains a topic of discussion. In a mouse intestinal colonization model, we evaluated the selective abilities of nine common antimicrobials (cefotaxime, cefuroxime, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and amdinocillin) against a CTX-M-15-producing E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) isolate with a fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype. Mice (8 per group) were orogastrically administered 0.25 ml saline with 10(8) CFU/ml E. coli ST131. On that same day, antibiotic treatment was initiated and given subcutaneously once a day for three consecutive days. CFU of E. coli ST131, Bacteroides, and Gram-positive aerobic bacteria in fecal samples were studied, with intervals, until day 8. Bacteroides was used as an indicator organism for impact on the Gram-negative anaerobic population. For three antibiotics, prolonged colonization was investigated with additional fecal CFU counts determined on days 10 and 14 (cefotaxime, dicloxacillin, and clindamycin). Three antibiotics (cefotaxime, dicloxacillin, and clindamycin) promoted overgrowth of E. coli ST131 (P organisms. Only clindamycin treatment resulted in prolonged colonization. The remaining six antibiotics, including ciprofloxacin, did not promote overgrowth of E. coli ST131 (P > 0.95), nor did they suppress Bacteroides or Gram-positive organisms. The results showed that antimicrobials both with and without an impact on Gram-negative anaerobes can select for ESBL-producing E. coli, indicating that not only Gram-negative anaerobes have a role in upholding colonization resistance. Other, so-far-unknown bacterial populations must be of importance for preventing colonization by incoming E. coli.

  8. The Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella typhi among Patients Attending a Military Hospital in Minna, Nigeria

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    N. U. Adabara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat to human health posed by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is of growing concern to medical practice. This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Salmonella typhi isolated from blood specimen. One hundred blood samples were collected from suspected typhoid fever patients in 31 Artillery Brigade Medical Centre, Minna, and were analyzed for S. typhi while antibiotic sensitivity testing was done Kirby-Bauer method. Sixty (60.0% samples out of the total 100 were positive for bacterial growth. The organisms isolated 2 include Salmonella typhi; 45 (75.0%, Shigella; 6 (10.0%, E. coli; 3 (5.0%, Klebsiella; 3 (5.0%, Enterobacter; 2 (3.3%, and Citrobacter; 1 (1.7%. Result of the sensitivity test showed that the isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics; ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, amoxicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and augmentin, which are the drug of choice routinely used in the study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. They were however sensitive to chloramphenicol and ofloxacin, which, unfortunately, are not used in this study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. There appear to be multiple drug resistant (MDR strain of S. typhi in the study area. These may be as a result of overdependence or uncontrolled use of the few available antibiotics and/or inaccurate or inconclusive diagnosis resulting in the development and spread of resistant strains of S. typhi. The study, therefore, highlights the need for a strong collaboration between the physicians and the laboratory in the choice of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases in order to discourage the development of resistant strain of bacterial pathogen.

  9. Acinetobacter baumannii Infection in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

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    AMK AL Jarousha

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To perform a prospective case control study of blood stream infection to determine the infection rate of Acine­tobac­ter baumannii and the risk factors associated with mortality."nMethods:   From February 2004 to January 2005, 579 consecutive episodes of blood stream infection were obtained at two neo­na­tal intensive care units Al Nasser and Al Shifa hospitals in Gaza City. Forty (6.9% isolates of A. baumannii were ob­tained from the neonates under 28 d. Most of the isolates (92% were from hospitalized patients in the intensive care units."nResults: Community acquired infection was 8%.  Sixty three percent of the patients were males. The isolates of A. bauman­nii were resistant to commonly used antibiotics while being sensitive to meropenem (92.5%, imipenem (90%, chloram­pheni­col (80%, ciprofloxacin (75%, gentamicin (57.5%, ceftriaxone (50%, amikacin (37.5%, cefuroxime and ce­fo­taxime (35%. Over all crude mortality rate was 20% with much higher crude mortality among patients with noso­co­mial infec­tion.  Based on logistic regression, the following factors were statistically significant: weight < 1500g, age < 7 d, mean of hospitalization equal 20 days, antibiotic use, and mechanical ventilation, when compared to the control group (P< 0.05."nConclusion:  Infection rate of nosocomial blood stream infection was considerable and alarming in neonatal intensive care unit infants and associated with a significant excess length of NICU stay and a significant economic burden.  

  10. A surveillance study of antimicrobial resistance of gram-negative bacteria isolated from intensive care units in eight hospitals in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günseren, F; Mamikoğlu, L; Oztürk, S; Yücesoy, M; Biberoğlu, K; Yuluğ, N; Doğanay, M; Sümerkan, B; Kocagöz, S; Unal, S; Cetin, S; Calangu, S; Köksal, I; Leblebicioğlu, H; Günaydin, M

    1999-03-01

    This study was carried out with the participation of eight hospitals in Turkey to determine the frequency of gram-negative bacteria isolated in intensive care units (ICU) and to compare their resistance rates to selected antibiotics. Aerobic gram-negative bacteria isolated from ICUs during 1996 were studied. Antibiotic susceptibilities to imipenem, ceftazidime, ceftazidime-clavulanate, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefepime, cefodizime, cefuroxime, piperacillin/tazobactam, amoxycillin-clavulanate, gentamicin, amikacin and ciprofloxacin were determined by Etest. A total of 748 isolates were obtained from 547 patients. The majority of organisms were isolated from the respiratory (38.8%) and urinary tracts (30.9%). Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequently isolated gram-negative species (26.8%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (26.2%). Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Enterobacter spp. were the other commonly isolated organisms. High resistance rates were observed for all antibiotics studied. Imipenem appeared to be the most active agent against the majority of isolates. Although resistance rates exceeded 50%, ciprofloxacin, cefepime and amikacin were found to be relatively effective. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production appeared to be a major mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. In contrast to ceftazidime-clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam showed poor activity against organisms thought to produce ESBL, suggesting the presence of an enzyme resistant to tazobactam action. This study has yielded high rates of resistance in aerobic gram-negative isolates from ICUs in Turkey. High resistance rates to all the other antibacterials studied leave imipenem as the only reliable agent for the empirical treatment of ICU infections in Turkey.

  11. Solid-phase extraction in combination with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis: the ultra-trace determination of 10 antibiotics in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ning; Huang, Peiting; Hou, Xiaohong; Li, Zhen; Tao, Lei; Zhao, Longshan

    2016-02-01

    A novel method, solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SPE-DLLME), was developed for ultra-preconcentration of 10 antibiotics in different environmental water samples prior to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection. The optimized results were obtained as follows: after being adjusted to pH 4.0, the water sample was firstly passed through PEP-2 column at 10 mL min(-1), and then methanol was used to elute the target analytes for the following steps. Dichloromethane was selected as extraction solvent, and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) as dispersive solvent. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1) (sulfamethoxazole, cefuroxime axetil), 5-1000 ng mL(-1) (tinidazole), 10-1000 ng mL(-1) (chloramphenicol), 2-1000 ng mL(-1) (levofloxacin oxytetracycline, doxycycline, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin) and 1-400 ng mL(-1) (sulfadiazine) with a good precision. The LOD and LOQ of the method were at very low levels, below 1.67 and 5.57 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative recoveries of the target analytes were in the range from 64.16% to 99.80% with relative standard deviations between 0.7 and 8.4%. The matrix effect of this method showed a great decrease compared with solid-phase extraction and a significant value of enrichment factor (EF) compared with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and analysis of antibiotics in different water samples with satisfactory results. PMID:26780712

  12. Combination of essential oils and antibiotics reduce antibiotic resistance in plasmid-conferred multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Lim, Swee Hua Erin; Hu, Cai Ping; Yiap, Beow Chin

    2013-06-15

    In this study we investigated the relationship between several selected commercially available essential oils and beta-lactam antibiotics on their antibacterial effect against multidrug resistant bacteria. The antibacterial activity of essential oils and antibiotics was assessed using broth microdilution. The combined effects between essential oils of cinnamon bark, lavender, marjoram, tea tree, peppermint and ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, carbenicillin, ceftazidime, meropenem, were evaluated by means of the checkerboard method against beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. In the latter assays, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values were calculated to characterize interaction between the combinations. Substantial susceptibility of the bacteria toward natural antibiotics and a considerable reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were noted in some paired combinations of antibiotics and essential oils. Out of 35 antibiotic-essential oil pairs tested, four of them showed synergistic effect (FIC≤0.5) and 31 pairs showed no interaction (FIC>0.5-4.0). The preliminary results obtained highlighted the occurrence of a pronounced synergistic relationship between piperacillin/cinnamon bark oil, piperacillin/lavender oil, piperacillin/peppermint oil as well as meropenem/peppermint oil against two of the three bacteria under study with a FIC index in the range 0.26-0.5. The finding highlighted the potential of peppermint, cinnamon bark and lavender essential oils being as antibiotic resistance modifying agent. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to decrease the adverse effects and possibly to reverse the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. PMID:23537749

  13. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Isolated from Bovine Fresh Milk (POLA SENSITIVITAS ANTIBIOTIK TERHADAP STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS DAN ESCHERICHIA COLI YANG DIISOLASI DARI SUSU SAPI SEGAR

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    Lucia Ratna Winata Muslimin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the sensitivity of S.aureus and E. coli isolated fromfresh milk against against several antibiotics and to determine the safety of the milk for humancomsumsion. Milk was collected from milking diary cow and was used for the bacterial isolation. E.coli were were identified using Total Plate Count (TPC, Gram staining, their growth on Endo Agarand Eosin MethyleneBlue Agar, Biochemical analysis including glucose, lactose, sucrose,maltose, andsorbitol would be followed by Sorbitol Mac Conkey Agar Test for the identification of E.coliO157:H7.The isolation and identification of S.aureus were performed using Gram stain, TPC, growth on BairdParker Agar and Mannitol Salt Agar. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were differentiated by coagulaseand catalase tests. The antibiotic sensitivity tests for both S. aureus and E.coli were carried out usingthe following antibiotics: ampicillin, bacitracin, vancomycin, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, cefotamine,cefuroxime, cefepime, cefazoline, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, doxycycline, amikacin,kanamycin, neomycin, ertapenem, meropenem, imipenem, erythromycin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid,ciprofloxacin, levofloxacine, norfloxacine, ofloxacin, and novobiocin. Fresh milk obtained from thefarm was positive for S.aureus and E.coli and resistant to most antibiotics tested. The best antibioticsfor S. aureus were imipenem (54.1 mm, ampicillin (42.3 mm, cefazolin (41.6 mm, doxycycline (41.15mm, and for E.coli were Imipenem (30.1 mm, ertapenem (29.5 mm, and meropenem (25.35 mm. Thebovine fresh milk examined was contaminated by S.aureus and E.coli and to some extent, were alsoresistant to most antibiotics tested.

  14. [Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Kolczyńska, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal flora can be a reservoir of bacteria caused acute otitis media in children. The aim of the study was to identify microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities of pathogens from the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with acute otitis media. The study comprised 128 children ages 1 year to 14 years with diagnosed of acute otitis media with purulent discharge. The nasopharyngeal and middle ear samples were collected at the same time. Agar, chocolate, blood and Chapman plates were inoculated for isolation of bacteria. The plates were incubated at 37 degrees C and examined at 24 hours. The susceptibility of bacteria was determined by disk diffusion technique containing concentration gradients for following antibiotics: penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, erythromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. 196 organisms from nasopharynx and 325 organisms from middle ear were isolated. Most frequent cultured bacteria were: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis--75.6% in nasopharynx and 77.8% in middle ear. We observed statistically significant (p bacteria from nasopharynx and 81.8% of bacteria from middle ear. Most organisms were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole--60.7% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 62.6% of bacteria from middle ear. Penicillin resistance was observed in 25.0% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 25.6% of bacteria from middle ear. The correlation in resistance of bacteria between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin (r = 0.4886) and between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and penicillin (r = 0.5027) was observed. Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media is similar. In that case susceptibility of bacteria from the nasopharynx can be useful for empirical treatment of acute otitis media in children.

  15. [Bacterial flora in children with recurrent acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Kolczyńska, Magdalena

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the study was to identify microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities of pathogens from middle ear in children with recurrent acute otitis media and acute otitis media. The study comprised 83 children--42 with recurrent acute otitis media and 41 with acute otitis emdia classified for paracentesis. Agar, chocolate, blood and Chapman plates were inoculated for isolation of bacteria. The plates were incubated at 37 degrees C and examined at 24 hours. The susceptibility of bacteria was determined by disk diffusion technique containing concentration gradients for following antibiotics: penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, erythromycin, azithromycin, clinadamycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. 217 organisms from middle ear in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 131 organisms from middle ear in children with acute otitis media were isolated. Most frequent cultured bacteria were: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis--71.4% in recurrent acute otitis media and 47.3% in acute otitis media. We observed statistically significant (p acute otitis media older than 2 years. The best susceptibility was observed to amoxicillin/clavulanate (79.7% of bacteria in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 83.2% of bacteria in children with acute otitis media). The most of organisms presented resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole--65.9% of bacteria in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 62.6% of bacteria in children with acute otitis media. Our investigation showed that resistance to bacteria increase in children with recurrent acute otitis media, most frequent appear in children older than 2 years and depend on number of episodes of acute otitis media and day care.

  16. Diurnal variations in the occurrence and the fate of hormones and antibiotics in activated sludge wastewater treatment in Oslo, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an assessment of the dynamics in the influent concentration of hormones (estrone, estriol) and antibiotics (trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin) in the liquid phase including the efficiency of biological municipal wastewater treatment. The concentration of estradiol, 17-α-ethinylestradiol, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, chlortetracycline, cefuroxime, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide were below the limit of detection in all of the sewage samples collected within this study. Two different types of diurnal variation pattern were identified in the influent mass loads of selected antibiotics and hormones that effectively correlate with daily drug administration patterns and with the expected maximum human hormone release, respectively. The occurrence of natural hormones and antimicrobials, administered every 12 hours, shows a daily trend of decreasing contaminant mass load, having the maximum values in the morning hours. The occurrence of antibiotics, typically administered every 8 hours, indicates a daily peak value in samples collected under the highest hydraulic loading. The efficiency of biological removal of both hormones and antibiotics is shown to be limited. Compared to the values obtained in the influent samples, increased concentrations are observed in the biologically treated effluent for trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin, mainly as a result of deconjugation processes. Ciprofloxacin is shown as the predominant antimicrobial compound in the effluent, and it is present at quantities approximately 10 fold greater than the total mass of the other of the compounds due to poor removal efficiency and alternating solid-liquid partitioning behaviour. Our results suggest that, to increase the micro-pollutant removal and the chemical dosing efficiency in enhanced tertiary treatment, significant benefits can be derived from the optimisation of reactor design and the development of control schemes that

  17. Diurnal variations in the occurrence and the fate of hormones and antibiotics in activated sludge wastewater treatment in Oslo, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plosz, Benedek Gy., E-mail: benedek.plosz@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349, Oslo (Norway); Leknes, Henriette [Norwegian Institute for Air Research NILU, 2027 Kjeller (Norway); Liltved, Helge; Thomas, Kevin V. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    We present an assessment of the dynamics in the influent concentration of hormones (estrone, estriol) and antibiotics (trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin) in the liquid phase including the efficiency of biological municipal wastewater treatment. The concentration of estradiol, 17-{alpha}-ethinylestradiol, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, chlortetracycline, cefuroxime, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide were below the limit of detection in all of the sewage samples collected within this study. Two different types of diurnal variation pattern were identified in the influent mass loads of selected antibiotics and hormones that effectively correlate with daily drug administration patterns and with the expected maximum human hormone release, respectively. The occurrence of natural hormones and antimicrobials, administered every 12 hours, shows a daily trend of decreasing contaminant mass load, having the maximum values in the morning hours. The occurrence of antibiotics, typically administered every 8 hours, indicates a daily peak value in samples collected under the highest hydraulic loading. The efficiency of biological removal of both hormones and antibiotics is shown to be limited. Compared to the values obtained in the influent samples, increased concentrations are observed in the biologically treated effluent for trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin, mainly as a result of deconjugation processes. Ciprofloxacin is shown as the predominant antimicrobial compound in the effluent, and it is present at quantities approximately 10 fold greater than the total mass of the other of the compounds due to poor removal efficiency and alternating solid-liquid partitioning behaviour. Our results suggest that, to increase the micro-pollutant removal and the chemical dosing efficiency in enhanced tertiary treatment, significant benefits can be derived from the optimisation of reactor design and the development of control schemes that

  18. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY PROFILE OF CHILDREN BIRTH TO 12 YEARS PRESENTING WITH FIRST URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yengkhom Rameshwor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common infection in infants and children. The clinical manifestations of UTI are varied and the etiology of UTI and the antibiotic resistance of uropathogens have been changing over the past years, both in community and nosocomial infections. However, there are not much information on etiology and resistance pattern of community acquired UTIs in India. This study was designed and conducted in the department of Pediatrics, BVDU Medical college hospital, Pune during the per iod from July 2009 to August 2011 to study children from birth to 12 years of age presenting with their first UTI with respect to their age and sex distributions, clinical manifestations, laboratory parameters, uropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns of 52 patients who attended our tertiary care centre. This study showed highest incidence of first UTI among infants with male preponderance among 5WBCs/mm 3 . E. coli was the commonest organism found in urine culture in all the age groups followed by CONS, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Maximum Sensitivity of E. coli was to Imipenem, Meropenem, Amikacin, Gatifloxacin and Nitrofurantoin. E. coli was found resistant to commonly used oral antibiotics like cotrimoxazole, ampicil lin, cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefixime, cepodoxim. Most isolates of Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Proteus were highly sensitive to Piperacillin - Tazobactum, Imipenem, Aminoglycosides, Fluroquinolones and Nitrofurantoin. Also, Klebsiella isolates were found se nsitive to third generation cephalosporins but Pseudomonas and Proteus isolates were resistant to it. CONS and Enterococci were highly sensitive to Co - amoxyclav, Ampicillin - sulbactum, Piperacillin - tazobactum, Imipenem, Amikacin and Gatifloxacin.

  19. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gardea, Ma. Carmen E.; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Eroza-de la Vega, Gilberto; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Pérez-Recoder, María Concepción; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, María del Carmen; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p < 0.05) and fecal (p < 0.001) coliform counts, whereas the lowest total coliform counts were recorded in spring. Significant differences between sampling sites were observed, where samples from sites 6, 8, and 11 had the highest total coliform counts (p < 0.009), whereas samples from site 9 exhibited the lowest one. From the microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB) phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates), Escherichia coli (2/7), and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3). In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks. PMID:27322297

  20. Antibiotic resistance and molecular typing among cockle (Anadara granosa) strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahilah, A M; Laila, R A S; Sallehuddin, H Mohd; Osman, H; Aminah, A; Ahmad Azuhairi, A

    2014-02-01

    Genomic DNA of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were characterized by antibiotic resistance, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. These isolates originated from 3 distantly locations of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka (East coastal areas), Malaysia. A total of 44 (n = 44) of tentatively V. parahaemolyticus were also examined for the presence of toxR, tdh and trh gene. Of 44 isolates, 37 were positive towards toxR gene; while, none were positive to tdh and trh gene. Antibiotic resistance analysis showed the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were highly resistant to bacitracin (92%, 34/37) and penicillin (89%, 33/37) followed by resistance towards ampicillin (68%, 25/37), cefuroxime (38%, 14/37), amikacin (6%, 2/37) and ceftazidime (14%, 5/37). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were resistant towards chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, streptomycin and vancomycin. Antibiogram patterns exhibited, 9 patterns and phenotypically less heterogenous when compared to PCR-based techniques using ERIC- and RAPD-PCR. The results of the ERIC- and RAPD-PCR were analyzed using GelCompare software. ERIC-PCR with primers ERIC1R and ERIC2 discriminated the V. parahaemolyticus isolates into 6 clusters and 21 single isolates at a similarity level of 80%. While, RAPD-PCR with primer Gen8 discriminated the V. parahaemolyticus isolates into 11 clusters and 10 single isolates and Gen9 into 8 clusters and 16 single isolates at the same similarity level examined. Results in the presence study demonstrated combination of phenotypically and genotypically methods show a wide heterogeneity among cockle isolates of V. parahaemolyticus.

  1. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gardea, Ma. Carmen E.; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Eroza-de la Vega, Gilberto; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Pérez-Recoder, María Concepción; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, María del Carmen; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p fecal (p coliform counts, whereas the lowest total coliform counts were recorded in spring. Significant differences between sampling sites were observed, where samples from sites 6, 8, and 11 had the highest total coliform counts (p < 0.009), whereas samples from site 9 exhibited the lowest one. From the microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB) phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates), Escherichia coli (2/7), and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3). In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks. PMID:27322297

  2. Multicentre survey of the comparative in-vitro activity of piperacillin/tazobactam against bacteria from hospitalized patients in the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Y; Bonfiglio, G; Allen, M; Piper, D; Edwardson, T; McVey, D; Livermore, D M

    1993-08-01

    Twenty-nine British and Irish hospitals each collected up to 300 bacterial isolates from in-patients. The organisms were identified by an appropriate API system or, for staphylococci, by their Gram and coagulase reactions. Disc susceptibility tests were performed. Isolates that gave zones spp. streptococci, pneumococci and Enterococcus faecalis were susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam (defined as giving a zone > or = 22 mm to a 75 micrograms + 10 micrograms disc), as were 86% of Acinetobacter spp. and 82% of the Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Morganella and Serratia group. Tazobactam particularly extended the activity of piperacillin against E. coli isolates (96% susceptible cf. 61% to piperacillin alone) klebsiellae (95% cf. 70%), P. mirabilis (99% cf. 86%), and Acinetobacter spp. (86% cf. 53%). Occasional (18%) resistance in Enterobacter, Serratia and Citrobacger spp. was probably caused by stable depression of Class I beta-lactamases, which are inhibited poorly by tazobactam. High resistance frequencies (> 25%) were found for Enterococcus faecium and Xanthomonas maltophilia. Tazobactam potentiated piperacillin against beta-lactamase-producing methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, but the mode inhibition zone of piperacillin/tazobactam discs was only 26 mm, compared to 38 mm for beta-lactamase-negative isolates. Nevertheless, fewer than 5% of the enzyme producers appeared resistant to 8 + 4 mg/L piperacillin/tazobactam in MIC tests. Similar behaviour was noted for coagulase-negative staphylococci. Amongst the eleven comparator drugs, ceftazidime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were as active as piperacillin/tazobactam against most enterobacteria. However, Acinetobacter and Bacteroides spp. and enterococci were resistant to ceftazidime, and Bacteroides spp., enterococci, pneumococci and other streptococci were inherently resistant to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Cefuroxime, ampicillin and co-amoxiclav had narrower spectra. Only imipenem showed a

  3. The incidence of deep brain stimulator hardware infection: the effect of change in antibiotic prophylaxis regimen and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Robin; Dalton, Arthur; Richards, Mike; Hopkins, Chris; Aziz, Tipu; Nandi, Dipankar

    2011-10-01

    The complication of hardware infection related to deep brain stimulator implantation (or revision) varies between 0 and 15.2% in the literature. However, no national guidelines exist at present to define an average or acceptable rate of infection associated with, nor the preferred antibiotic prophylaxis required for, this procedure. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of changing the antibiotic prophylaxis regimen used in a single neurosurgical centre on the incidence and outcome of hardware infection. A prospective cohort of 38 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation or internal pulse generator (IPG) replacement and receiving perioperative vancomycin (including intravenous gentamicin on induction) and pouch-installed gentamicin, was compared to a historical cohort of 35 patients receiving perioperative cefuroxime in the same unit. The infection rate over 2 years in the prospective group for DBS surgery was 0 compared to 1 (5.6%) in the historical cohort (p = 0.11, χ(2)); the infection rate for IPG replacements was 1(3.6%) in the prospective cohort, versus 3 (17.6%) in the historical (p = 0.44, χ(2)). In this article, we have also systematically reviewed the literature to date and derived an average infection rate of 4.7% (PI 0.9-22%, Random Effects Meta-analysis, Stata) for 35 studies comprising 3550 patients. There is no significant difference in infection rates between DBS procedures that are primarily internalised (n = 9) compared to those in which there is a period of electrode externalisation (n = 23) (p = 0.9, Meta-regression analysis, Stata). PMID:21501065

  4. Purification and biochemical characterization of the VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, N; Caravelli, B; Docquier, J D; Galleni, M; Frère, J M; Amicosante, G; Rossolini, G M

    2000-11-01

    VIM-1 is a new group 3 metallo-beta-lactamase recently detected in carbapenem-resistant nosocomial isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the Mediterranean area. In this work, VIM-1 was purified from an Escherichia coli strain carrying the cloned bla(VIM-1) gene by means of an anion-exchange chromatography step followed by a gel permeation chromatography step. The purified enzyme exhibited a molecular mass of 26 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and an acidic pI of 5.1 in analytical isoelectric focusing. Amino-terminal sequencing showed that mature VIM-1 results from the removal of a 26-amino-acid signal peptide from the precursor. VIM-1 hydrolyzes a broad array of beta-lactam compounds, including penicillins, narrow- to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, and mechanism-based serine-beta-lactamase inactivators. Only monobactams escape hydrolysis. The highest catalytic constant/K(m) ratios (>10(6) M(-1). s(-1)) were observed with carbenicillin, azlocillin, some cephalosporins (cephaloridine, cephalothin, cefuroxime, cefepime, and cefpirome), imipenem, and biapenem. Kinetic parameters showed remarkable variability with different beta-lactams and also within the various penam, cephem, and carbapenem compounds, resulting in no clear preference of the enzyme for any of these beta-lactam subfamilies. Significant differences were observed with some substrates between the kinetic parameters of VIM-1 and those of other metallo-beta-lactamases. Inactivation assays carried out with various chelating agents (EDTA, 1,10-o-phenanthroline, and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) indicated that formation of a ternary enzyme-metal-chelator complex precedes metal removal from the zinc center of the protein and revealed notable differences in the inactivation parameters of VIM-1 with different agents. PMID:11036013

  5. Poliartritis y tenosinovitis grave por Streptococcus agalactiae en un paciente con hipoesplenia funcional Severe polyarthritis and tenosynovitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a patient with functional hyposplenia

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    Domingo C. Balderramo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La artritis por Streptococcus agalactiae es infrecuente. No conocemos publicaciones de casos sobre la afección tendinosa por este microorganismo. Se presenta una mujer de 46 años que consultó por fiebre, poliartralgias, mialgias, diarrea y vómitos. Como antecedentes presentaba carcinoma papilar de tiroides e hipoesplenia funcional. Al examen se encontraba hemodinámicamente inestable, febril, con artritis de mano izquierda, muñecas, codos, hombro derecho y tobillo izquierdo. Presentaba tenosinovitis en ambos pies y en la mano izquierda. Los hemocultivos y el cultivo de la bursa olecraniana derecha fueron positivos para S. agalactiae. La ecografía mostró signos de tenosinovitis del tibial anterior izquierdo. Completó 20 días de tratamiento endovenoso con cefazolina y 12 días de cefuroxima oral. El cuadro articular revirtió completamente en 60 días. El Streptococcus agalactiae puede causar, en forma infrecuente, un síndrome de poliartritis, tenosinovitis y fiebre similar al producido por la infección gonocócica.Cases of arthritis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae are infrequent and in our knowledge there are no case reports of tenosynovitis caused by S. agalactiae. A 46-year-old woman presented with fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia, diarrhea and vomiting. She had a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma and functional hyposplenia. She was febrile, with arthritis in hands, wrists, elbows, right shoulder and left ankle joints, and presented tenosynovitis in both feet and left hand. Blood and right olecranon bursa sample cultures were positive for S. agalactiae. An ultrasound scan made at the musculus tibialis anterior of left foot revealed signs of tenosynovitis. She was treated with intravenous cefazolin for 20 days and oral cefuroxime for 12 days. The joint involvement completely subsided in 60 days. Streptococcus agalactiae can cause, infrequently, a polyarthritis and tenosynovitis syndrome similar to disseminated gonococcal

  6. Incidence of antibiotics resistance among uropathogens in Omani children presenting with a single episode of urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharef, Sharef W; El-Naggari, Mohamed; Al-Nabhani, Dana; Al Sawai, Ali; Al Muharrmi, Zakaria; Elnour, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common community-acquired infections. Different organisms can be the cause of UTI in children, with resistance to antibiotics becoming a significant problem in the choice of treatment. Worldwide studies have documented the prevalence of uropathogens in different countries. However, there is no previous study documenting the incidence of different uropathogens in Oman. We aim to report the most common uropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns in children presenting with documented, single episode UTI at a tertiary hospital in Oman. A retrospective analysis of all Omani children below 14 years who presented with a case of first documented UTI to SQUH between September 2008 and August 2012 was conducted. Data were obtained from the patients' electronic records in the hospital information system. Data were then analyzed using SSPS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences program, Version 20, IBM, Chicago, IL, USA). In the retrospective review of all urine cultures, 438 positive urine cultures were identified. Out of those, 208 (47.5%) belonged to children with their first episode of UTI. Thirty-three patients were excluded and 75 patients were included in the final analysis. Escherichia coli was the most frequently encountered uropathogen in our cohort (69%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae infection (17%). Nearly half (46.6%) of these two common organism were resistant to Cotrimoxazole, while 31% of them were resistant to Augmentin. Twenty-four percent of the E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains were resistant to Cefuroxime, and only 10% were resistant to nitrofurantoin. Both Augmentin and Cotrimoxazole should not be the first line antibiotics to treat UTI.

  7. Empiric antibiotic therapy in acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections and fluoroquinolone resistance: a prospective observational study

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    Düzgün Nurşen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary isolates from community acquired acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTI and to evaluate which antibiotics were empirically prescribed in the outpatient management of uUTI. Methods Among the patients which were admitted to outpatient clinics of Ankara University Medical Faculty, Ibni-Sina Hospital during 2005-2006, a total of 429 women between the age of 18 and 65 years old who were clinically diagnosed with uUTI and to whom prescribed empirical antibiotics were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Patients' demographical data, urine culture results, resistance rates to antimicrobial agents and prescribed empiric antimicrobial therapy were analyzed. Results Totally 390 (90.9% patients among all study population were requested for urine culture by their physicians. 150 (38.5% of these urine cultures were positive. The most common isolated uropathogen was Escherichia coli (E. coli (71.3%. The variations of uropathogens according to age and menopause status were not significantly different. The resistance rates of E. coli isolates for ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin-clavulonate, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, fluoroquinolones (FQ, co-trimoxazole (TMP-SMX and gentamicin were 55.1%, 32.7%, 32.7%, 23.4%, 15.9%, 25.2%, 41.1%, 6.1% respectively. FQ were the most common prescribed antibiotics (77.9% (P P Conclusion Empirical use of FQ in uUTI should be discouraged because of increased antimicrobial resistance rates.

  8. Our experience on developing urinary tract infections after transrectal prostate biopsy

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    Gülay Dede

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prostate cancer is a common disease in men proportionally with age. For the diagnosis of prostate cancer, prostate biopsy be performed routinely in all centers so it has become today. Complications after prostate biopsy is a surgical procedure can be seen. The most important complications are urinary tract infection and sepsis. The use of prophylactic antibiotics before the procedure reduces the risk of infectious complications. In this study, infectious complications after transrectal prostate needle biopsy were evaluated for risk reduction practices are discussed. Methods: We evaluated infective complications after transrectal prostate needle biopsy in 276 patients admitted to our hospital in October 2009- October 2011 with high level of prostate-specific antigen, abnormal signs in transrectal ultrasound, abnormal digital rectal examination due to done transrectal prostate needle biopsy. Results: Transrectal prostate needle biopsy was performed to 276 cases and 59 (21% cases with hematuria, 21 (7% cases with hematospermia, 23 (8% cases with rectal bleeding, 6 (2.1% cases with asymptomatic bacteriuria, 12 (5.3% cases with in complicated urinary tract infection was detected. Three patients (1% had sepsis. 21 (7.3% patients had positive urine culture. Of them there were 20 positive cultures of E. coli and one Klebsiella spp. respectively. All of the bacteria cultured in twenty-one patients resistant to ciprofloxacin, while 90% to amikacin, 10% to amoxicillin-clavulanate, 35% to cefuroxime sodium and 40% were susceptible to ceftriaxone. Conclusion: Transrectal prostate needle biopsies of 276 patients, 21 (7.3% patients had positive urine culture. The most frequent complication was hematuria. The most serious complication of sepsis detected in three (1% patients.

  9. Encouraging good antimicrobial prescribing practice: A review of antibiotic prescribing policies used in the South East Region of England

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    Mayon White Richard T

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good prescribing practice has an important part to play in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Whilst it was perceived that most hospitals and Health Authorities possessed an antibiotic policy, a review of antibiotic policies was conducted to gain an understanding of the extent, quality and usefulness of these policies. Methods Letters were sent to pharmacists in hospitals and health authorities in across the South East region of the National Health Service Executive (NHSE requesting antibiotic policies. data were extracted from the policies to assess four areas; antibiotic specific, condition specific, patient specific issues and underpinning evidence. Results Of a possible 41 hospital trusts and 14 health authorities, 33 trusts and 9 health authorities (HAs provided policies. Both trust and HA policies had a median publication date of 1998 (trust range 1993-99, HA 1994-99. Eleven policies were undated. The majority of policies had no supporting references for the statements made. All policies provided some details on specific antibiotics. Gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were the preferred aminoglycoside and quinolone respectively with cephalosporins being represented by cefuroxime or cefotaxime in trusts and cephradine or cephalexin in HAs. 26 trusts provided advice on surgical prophylaxis, 17 had meningococcal prophylaxis policies and 11 covered methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. There was little information for certain groups such as neonates or children, the pregnant or the elderly. Conclusion There was considerable variation in content and quality across policies, a clear lack of an evidence base and a need to revise policies in line with current recommendations.

  10. Antibiotic selection of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 in a mouse intestinal colonization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetius Hertz, Frederik; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2014-10-01

    The ability of different antibiotics to select for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli remains a topic of discussion. In a mouse intestinal colonization model, we evaluated the selective abilities of nine common antimicrobials (cefotaxime, cefuroxime, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and amdinocillin) against a CTX-M-15-producing E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) isolate with a fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype. Mice (8 per group) were orogastrically administered 0.25 ml saline with 10(8) CFU/ml E. coli ST131. On that same day, antibiotic treatment was initiated and given subcutaneously once a day for three consecutive days. CFU of E. coli ST131, Bacteroides, and Gram-positive aerobic bacteria in fecal samples were studied, with intervals, until day 8. Bacteroides was used as an indicator organism for impact on the Gram-negative anaerobic population. For three antibiotics, prolonged colonization was investigated with additional fecal CFU counts determined on days 10 and 14 (cefotaxime, dicloxacillin, and clindamycin). Three antibiotics (cefotaxime, dicloxacillin, and clindamycin) promoted overgrowth of E. coli ST131 (P 0.95), nor did they suppress Bacteroides or Gram-positive organisms. The results showed that antimicrobials both with and without an impact on Gram-negative anaerobes can select for ESBL-producing E. coli, indicating that not only Gram-negative anaerobes have a role in upholding colonization resistance. Other, so-far-unknown bacterial populations must be of importance for preventing colonization by incoming E. coli. PMID:25092712

  11. Serotypes and patterns of antibiotic resistance in strains causing invasive pneumococcal disease in children less than 5 years of age.

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    Chunfeng Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The serotypes and patterns of antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae strains that cause invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in infants were analyzed to provide guidance for clinical disease prevention and treatment. METHODS: The clinical features of confirmed IPD were evaluated in 61 patients, less than 5 years of age, who were admitted to our hospital between January 2009 and December 2011. The serotypes and antibiotic resistance of strains of S.pneumoniae were determined using the capsular swelling method and the E-test. RESULTS: A total of 61 invasive strains were isolated. The serotype distribution of those isolates were 19A (41.0%, 14 (19.7%, 19F (11.5%, 23F (9.8%, 8 (4.9%, 9V (4.9%, 1 (3.3%, and 4, 6B, and 20 (each 1.6%. The percentage of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, and cotrimoxazole were 100%, 86.9%, and 100%, respectively. The percentage of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefepime, and meropenem were 42.6%, 18.0%, 82.0%, 18.0%, 13.1%, 13.1%, and 36.1%, respectively. The percentage of multidrug-resistant strains was 95.6%. Strains of all serotypes isolated in this study were highly resistant to erythromycin, cotrimoxazole, and clindamycin. Strains with serotype 19A had the highest rates of resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Serotype 19A strains were most frequently isolated from children with IPD treated in our hospital. The strains causing IPD are highly resistant to antibiotics.

  12. The status of drug resistance and ampC gene expression in Enterobacter cloacae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志慧; 李兰娟; 俞云松; 马亦林

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of the drug resistance and the ampC gene expression of Enterobacter cloacae. Methods Disk diffusion tests were made for detecting the susceptibility of antimicrobial agents against Enterobacter cloacae. AmpC gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and verified by DNA sequencing. AmpC gene expression was analyzed according to antimicrobial agent sensitive phenotype.Results The sensitivity rates of 144 strains to imipenam, cefepime and cefoperazone/sulbactam were 98.61%, 65.97% and 63.89%, respectively. The sensitivity rates of 144 strains to other antimicrobial agents were lower. Among the 144 strains 120 were found to be positive by PCR for ampC. The PCR product showed high homology to the GenBank ampC sequence. Stably derepressed strains, hyperinducible strains and unexpressing or lower level expressing strains accounted for 30.0% (36/120), 37.5% (45/120), and 32.5% (39/120), respectively. Fifty-six out of 120 strains (46.67%) also produced extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). The hyperinducible strains were highly sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents except amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefuroxime, while the stably derepressed strains were only sensitive to imipenam and cefepime. However, sensitivity to cefepime decreased if the strains also produced ESBLs. Conclusions The durg resistant status of Enterobacter cloacae is severe. Clearing out the expressive status of ampC gene will be helpful in selection of antimicrobial agents in the treatment of clinical infection.

  13. Diversity of uropathogens and their resistogram in diabetic and non-diabetic patients in sub Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India: A case control study

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    Rajat Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both symptomatic and asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs are thought to occur more frequently in diabetic patients. Local data about the antimicrobial resistance of Uropathogens should be available for proper therapeutic interventions of UTI. Objective: To evaluate the spectrum of the Uropathogens and their profiles of antimicrobial resistance on a series of diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A Case-Control study with 100 participants was conducted targeting the Diabetic and Non-diabetic population, symptomatic or asymptomatic for UTI. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done on each of the isolates and the results of the antibiogram were compared with that of control group (nondiabetic group. The statistical analysis was done by Chi-Square Test, Fisher exact test using statistical product and service solutions formerly known as Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0 Version. Results: Most common isolate responsible for UTI was Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Citrobacter, Acinetobacter and Candida. 93.3% and 86.6% of the isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid respectively for Non Diabetics. Whereas isolates from diabetic group were 77.7 and 50% sensitive to Amikacin and Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid respectively. Highest resistance was seen for Cefuroxime for the isolates from both diabetic and non-diabetic group with 53.3 and 72.2% respectively. Significant difference in resistance pattern was observed in Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, piperacillin- tazobactam and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid. Conclusion: Culture of urine and susceptibility testing of isolated organisms is strongly advocated in the clinical management of impending complication in diabetic individuals.

  14. Actinobaculum shaalii: a new uropathogen?

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    Valentina Felice

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Actinobaculum schaalii is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive rod-shaped species phylogenetically related to Actinomyces. A. schaalii is an emerging pathogen causing urinary tract infections (UTI in both children and adults; although, as part of the human genitourinary tract flora, it is frequently overlooked or considered as a contaminant. While the phenotypic identification of A. schaalii is difficult, the recent Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-Of-Flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF technology could represent a promising tool for its identification. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective study including all known cases (n=7 of A. schaalii infections occurred (between July 2013 and November 2013 at the Microbiology Laboratory of the A. Cardarelli Hospital, in Campobasso (Italy. Results. All the 7 A. schaalii collected strains, resulted in vitro susceptible to most of the drugs commonly used for urinary tract infections, but resistant to ciprofloxacin, a first-line antibiotic in the treatment of prostatitis. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefuroxime, gentamicin, piperacillin-tazobactam, vancomicin, tetracycline (no EUCAST breakpoints. All except two isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime; 3/7 and 5/7 strains were clindamicin and levofloxacin resistant, respectively. Conclusions. As most antibiotics empirically prescribed for UTI (mainly fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole are not effective against A. schaalii, the appropriate onset of treatment was delayed by an average of 2.8 days. The implementation of the newer MALDI TOF technology in routine diagnostic procedures may allow a more reliable and rapid identification of A. schaalii in future.

  15. Risk factors for acute endophthalmitis following cataract surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    He Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute endophthalmitis is one of the most serious complications of cataract surgery and often results in severe visual impairment. Several risk factors for acute postoperative endophthalmitis (POE following cataract surgery have been reported but the level of evidence and strength of association is varied. The purpose of this study was to critically appraise published reports on and to summarize clinical risk factors associated with acute POE which could be easily assessed by ophthalmologists for the introduction and implementation of preventive measure. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was performed. Six databases were searched with no limits on the year or language of publication. Study-specific odds ratios (Ors or relative risk (RR of each risk factor were pooled using a random effect model. RESULTS: A total of 6 686 169 participants with 8 963 endophthalmitis in 42 studies were analyzed. Of the nine risk factors identified in our systematic review and meta-analysis, extra- or intracapsular cataract extraction, a clear corneal incision, without intracameral cefazolin (1 mg in 0.1 ml solution, without intracameral cefuroxime (1 mg in 0.1 ml solution, post capsular rupture, silicone intraocular lenses and intraoperative complications were found strongly associated with acute endophthalmitis. Other significant factors with a lower strength of association (risk estimates generally 1.5 or less were male gender and old age (85 years and older. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides summary data on the risk factors for acute POE. Identifying patients at high risk of this sight-threatening eye disease is important from both the public health and clinical perspectives as this would facilitate detection of disease before the onset of irreversible visual loss enabling earlier intervention.

  16. [The diagnosis and therapy of first community acquired urinary tract infection in children].

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    Miron, Dan; Grossman, Zachi

    2009-11-01

    A first urinary tract infection (UTI) in childhood is more prevalent in females Circumcision generally protects males from UTI, however, during the month following the procedure, the prevalence of infection increases up to 12 times in circumcised boys when compared with those not circumcised. Almost all the infections are caused by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria of which E. coli are responsible for 70-90% of the cases. Signs and symptoms of UTI vary in different age groups. Factors associated with the likelihood of UTI are: non-circumcised male, fever > 40 degrees C, and a fever > 39 degrees C for more than 48 hours with no other focus of infection on physical examination. Urinalysis and urine microscopy are screening tests for UTI. In children with clinical symptoms and signs suggesting UTI, the results of these tests have a positive predictive value (if both are positive), or negative predictive value (if both are negative) approximating 100%. The definitive diagnosis of UTI is based on the urine culture. Bag urine culture is associated with a very high rate of contamination. Therefore, in non-toilet trained children, urine culture should be obtained directly from the urinary bladder either by supra pubic aspiration or in and out transurethral catheterization. Mid stream clean voided urine specimens obtained from circumcised males in the first months of life are also acceptable. Depending on the clinical presentation, oral therapy can begin from as early as two months of age, and the recommended empiric drugs for first febrile UTI are cefuroxime axetil, or amoxicillin clavulanate. Cephlexin is recommended for cystitis.

  17. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M enzymes carried by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

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    Jun CHENG; Ying YE; Ying-ying WANG; Hui LI; Xu LI; Jia-bin LI

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M-β-lactamases carried by 5 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and 3 Escherichia coli isolates collected from 4 hospitals in Hefei, China. Methods: The purified PCR products were ligated with pGEM-Teasy vectors, expressed, and sequenced. The complete genes of the CTX-M-β-lactamases were ligated with the pHSG398 vector to express prokaryotic recombi-nant proteins. Plasmids were extracted by rapid alkaline lysis protocol, and the PCR method was performed to determine whether the prokaryotic expression was successful or not. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested and the phenotypes of transformants were determined according to criteria recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The kinetic parameters of enzymes were confirmed. The isoelectric points (pI) were determined by isoelectric focusing assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and plasmid profiling were performed. Results: The PCR products had 1101 nucleotides and were determined as CTX-M-46, CTX-M-47, CTX-M-48, CTX-M-49, and CTX-M-50. All strains were resistant to cefotaxime, but most of them were susceptible or intermediate to ceftazidime. The phenotypes of novel enzymes were determined as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Penicillin G, cephalothin, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime were determined to good substrates, whereas ceftazidime hydrolysis was not detected. The pI of the 5 novel CTX-M-βlactamases were 8.0. CTX-M-derivatives could be the multiplex genesis in our area. Conclusion: This is the first report of these 5 novel plasmid-mediated CTX-M ESBL produced from China in the world. Mo-lecular typing reveals notably different origin in genes encoding different CTX-M variants of 8 strains.

  18. Beta- lactam antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in non-typeable haemophilus influenzae by up-regulating carbohydrate metabolism.

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    Siva Wu

    Full Text Available Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended.

  19. Physician behaviour for antimicrobial prescribing for paediatric upper respiratory tract infections: a survey in general practice in Trinidad, West Indies

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    Ramdhanie Joseph

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are among the most frequent reasons for physician office visits in paediatrics. Despite their predominant viral aetiology, URTIs continue to be treated with antimicrobials. We explored general practitioners' (GPs prescribing behaviour for antimicrobials in children (≤ 16 years with URTIs in Trinidad, using the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as a reference. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 92 consenting GPs from the 109 contacted in Central and East Trinidad, between January to June 2003. Using a pilot-tested questionnaire, GPs identified the 5 most frequent URTIs they see in office and reported on their antimicrobial prescribing practices for these URTIs to trained research students. Results The 5 most frequent URTIs presenting in children in general practice, are the common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis and acute otitis media (AOM in rank order. GPs prescribe at least 25 different antibiotics for these URTIs with significant associations for amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefaclor, cefuroxime, erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin (p 30 years were more likely to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold (p = 0.014. Severity (95.7% and duration of illness (82.5% influenced doctors' prescribing and over prescribing in general practice was attributed to parent demands (75% and concern for secondary bacterial infections (70%. Physicians do not request laboratory investigations primarily because they are unnecessary (86% and the waiting time for results is too long (51%. Conclusions Antibiotics are over prescribed for paediatric URTIs in Trinidad and amoxicillin with co-amoxiclav were preferentially prescribed. Except for AOM, GPs' prescribing varied from the CDC guidelines for drug and duration. Physicians recognise antibiotics are overused and consider parents expecting antibiotics and a concern for secondary

  20. 207株肺炎克雷伯菌临床分布及耐药性分析%Clinical distribution and drug resistance analysis of 207 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙绍芬; 黎铁斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析临床分离肺炎克雷伯菌对抗菌药物的耐药性.方法 对临床分离肺炎克雷伯菌用纸片扩散法(K-B)或微量稀释法对16种抗菌药物进行药物敏感试验.结果 产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)肺炎克雷伯菌59株,对头孢曲松、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、头孢哌酮、头孢噻吩、复方新诺明、美洛西林有很高的耐药率,分别是91.53%、91.53%、100.00%、100.00%、93.22%、72.88%和91.53%,甚至出现多重耐药菌株.结论 产ESBLs肺炎克雷伯菌耐药情况非常严重,应加强医院感染监测和控制措施.%Objective To analyse the drug resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods the disk diffusion method (KB) or mi cro dilution method (MIC) was used to detect the resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates to 16 kinds of antibacte rial drugs. Results There were 59 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended spectrum |3 lactamase (ESBLs) ,and they had high resistance rates to ceftriaxone(91. 53%) ,cefuroxime(91. 53%) , cefotaxime(100. 00%) ,cefoperazone(100. 00%) ,cepha lothin(93. 22%) ,co trimoxazole(72. 88%) ,mezlocillin(91. 53%) respectively. There are even multi drug resistant strains were de tected. Conclusion The drug resistance of ESBLs producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is very serious. The hospital infection surveil lance and control measures should be strengthen.

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern and Their Beta-Lactamase Encoding Genes among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Cancer Patients

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    Mai M. Zafer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamases (MBL and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL in P. aeruginosa isolates collected from two different hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and phenotypic screening for ESBLs and MBLs were performed on 122 P. aeruginosa isolates collected in the period from January 2011 to March 2012. MICs were determined. ESBLs and MBLs genes were sought by PCR. The resistant rate to imipenem was 39.34%. The resistance rates for P. aeruginosa to cefuroxime, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, aztreonam, and piperacillin/tazobactam were 87.7%, 80.3%, 60.6%, 45.1%, and 25.4%, respectively. Out of 122 P. aeruginosa, 27% and 7.4% were MBL and ESBL, respectively. The prevalence of blaVIM-2, blaOXA-10-, blaVEB-1, blaNDM-, and blaIMP-1-like genes were found in 58.3%, 41.7%, 10.4%, 4.2%, and 2.1%, respectively. GIM-, SPM-, SIM-, and OXA-2-like genes were not detected in this study. OXA-10-like gene was concomitant with VIM-2 and/or VEB. Twelve isolates harbored both OXA-10 and VIM-2; two isolates carried both OXA-10 and VEB. Only one strain contained OXA-10, VIM-2, and VEB. In conclusion, blaVIM-2- and blaOXA-10-like genes were the most prevalent genes in P. aeruginosa in Egypt. To our knowledge, this is the first report of blaVIM-2, blaIMP-1, blaNDM, and blaOXA-10 in P. aeruginosa in Egypt.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China.

  3. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico

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    Ma. Carmen E. Delgado-Gardea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p < 0.05 and fecal (p < 0.001 coliform counts, whereas the lowest total coliform counts were recorded in spring. Significant differences between sampling sites were observed, where samples from sites 6, 8, and 11 had the highest total coliform counts (p < 0.009, whereas samples from site 9 exhibited the lowest one. From the microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates, Escherichia coli (2/7, and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3. In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks.

  4. Antibacterial agents and heavy metal resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from seawater, shrimp and sediment in Iskenderun Bay, Turkey

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    Matyar, Fatih [Cukurova University, Faculty of Education, Department of Science and Technology Education, 01330 Balcali, Adana (Turkey)], E-mail: fmatyar@cu.edu.tr; Kaya, Aysenur; Dincer, Sadik [Cukurova University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, 01330 Balcali, Adana (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance patterns and distribution of heavy metal resistance of bacterial isolates from seawater, sediment and shrimps, and to determine if there is a relationship between antibiotic and heavy metal resistance. We undertook studies in 2007 in the industrially polluted Iskenderun Bay, on the south coast of Turkey. The resistance of 236 Gram-negative bacterial isolates (49 from seawater, 90 from sediment and 97 from shrimp) to 16 different antibiotics, and to 5 heavy metals, was investigated by agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. A total of 31 species of bacteria were isolated: the most common strains isolated from all samples were Escherichia coli (11.4%), Aeromonas hydrophila (9.7%) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (9.3%). There was a high incidence of resistance to ampicillin (93.2%), streptomycin (90.2%) and cefazolin (81.3%), and a low incidence of resistance to imipenem (16.5%), meropenem (13.9%) and cefepime (8.0%). Some 56.8% of all bacteria isolated from seawater, sediment and shrimp were resistant to 7 or more antibiotics. Most isolates showed tolerance to different concentrations of heavy metals, and minimal inhibition concentrations ranged from 12.5 {mu}g/ml to > 3200 {mu}g/ml. The bacteria from seawater, sediment and shrimp showed high resistance to cadmium of 69.4%, 88.9%, and 81.1% respectively, and low resistance to manganese of 2%, 6.7% and 11.3% respectively. The seawater and sediment isolates which were metal resistant also showed a high resistance to three antibiotics: streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. In contrast, the shrimp isolates which were metal resistant were resistant to four antibiotics: cefazolin, nitrofurantoin, cefuroxime and ampicillin. Our results show that Iskenderun Bay has a significant proportion of antibiotic and heavy metal resistant Gram-negative bacteria, and these bacteria constitute a potential risk for

  5. Screening of pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

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    Alzahrani Alhusain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inroduction: Of the "top ten" sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are ranked second and fifth, respectively, worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the pregnant women for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and to detect antimicrobial resistance pattern of N. gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, hospital-based analysis of a random sample of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia. Endocervical and high vaginal swabs were collected both from pregnant women and female patients attending gynecology clinic with lower genital tract infection (control group. C. trachomatis antigen was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. N. gonorrhoeae was detected by culture and identification of isolates, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 13.0 and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: C. trachomatis antigen was detected in 10.5% (10/95 and 34.4% (35/102 of pregnant women and control group, respectively (P < 0.001. The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae among pregnant women was 0.0% compared to 7.8% (8/102 among the control group (P < 0.01. N. gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin (62.5%, tetracycline (50%, ampicillin (25%, amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (25% and ciprofloxacin (37.5%, while they were susceptible to cefepime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, spectinomycin, and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for C. trachomatis infection should be included in the antenatal care in this area. The detection rate of both organisms among the control group highlights the importance of preventive strategies. Certain antibiotics previously used in treating gonorrhea are no longer effective.

  6. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in minor and major surgery.

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    Bassetti, M; Righi, E; Astilean, A; Corcione, S; Petrolo, A; Farina, E C; De Rosa, F G

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a frequent cause of morbidity following surgical procedures. Gram-positive cocci, particularly staphylococci, cause many of these infections, although Gram-negative organisms are also frequently involved. The risk of developing a SSI is associated with a number of factors, including aspects of the operative procedure itself, such as wound classification, and patient-related variables, such as preexisting medical conditions. Antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) plays an important role in reducing SSIs, especially if patient-related risk factors for SSIs are present. The main components of antimicrobial prophylaxis are: timing, selection of drugs and patients, duration and costs. Compliance with these generally accepted preventive principles may lead to overall decreases in the incidence of these infections. Ideally the administration of the prophylactic agent should start within 30 minutes from the surgical incision. The duration of the AP should not exceed 24 hours for the majority of surgical procedures. The shortest effective period of prophylactic antimicrobial administration is not known and studies have demonstrated that post-surgical antibiotic administration is unnecessary. Furthermore, there were no proven benefits in multiple dose regimens when compared to single-dose regimens. The choice of an appropriate prophylactic antimicrobial agent should be based primarily on efficacy and safety. Broad spectrum antibiotics should be avoided due to the risk of promoting bacterial resistance. Cephalosporins are the most commonly used antibiotics in surgical prophylaxis; specifically, cefazolin or cefuroxime are mainly used in the prophylaxis regimens for cardio-thoracic surgery, vascular surgery, hip or knee arthroplasty surgery, neurosurgical procedures and gynecologic and obstetric procedures. A review of the prophylactic regimens regarding the main surgical procedures is presented. PMID:24561611

  7. 2004-2009年濮阳市儿童肺炎链球菌、流感嗜血杆菌耐药性调查%An investigation of antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Hemophilus influenzae isolated from children in Puyang between 2004 and 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜秉兴; 罗代平; 李建军; 孙迎军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the situation of resistance of S.pneumoniae,H.influenzae isolated from clinical samples of Department of pediatrics in recent six years in Puyang city and the prevalent biotype of H.influenzae in our region.Methods Identification of bacteria was conducted with API-NH strip and Vitek 2 compact.H.influenzae is classified into distinct biotypes on the basis of ornithine decarboxylase,urease,and indole activities of API-NH strip.The minimal inhibitory concentrations were measured by broth microdilution method.Results Penicillin-susceptible and non-penicillin-susceptible S.pneumoniae were 48.9% and 51.1%,respectively.The sensitive rates of S.pneumoniae to amoxicillin,amoxicillin/clavulanic acid,ceftriaxone,cefuroxime,levofloxacin,vancomycin,clindamycin,erythromycin were 75.0%,92.0%,93.6%,84.0%,100.0%,100.0%,34.1% and 8.5%,respectively.The rate of producing β-lactamases of H.influenzae was 40.5%.Biotype I,II and III were predominant(85.9%).The sensitive rates of H.influenzae to ampicillin,amoxicillin/clavulanic acid,ceftriaxone,cefuroxime,levofloxacin and azithromycin were 73.0%,100.0%,100.0%,96.3%,100.0% and 93.3%,respectively.Conclusions The resistant of S.pneumoniae isolated from children in the area had become a severe problem.Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid,ceftriaxone,cefuroxime were the most active antibacterials against S.pneumoniae and H.influenzae.H.influenzae was highly susceptible to the azithromycin.%目的 调查濮阳市近6年从儿科临床标本中分离的肺炎链球菌、流感嗜血杆菌的耐药性状况及本地流感嗜血杆菌流行的生物型.方法 用API-NH和Vitek 2 compact对菌株进行鉴定.依据API-NH条中的鸟氨酸脱羧酶、脲酶及吲哚试验将流感嗜血杆菌分为不同的生物型.用微量肉汤稀释法分别测定其最低抑菌浓度.结果 青霉素敏感肺炎链球菌(PSSP)与青霉素不敏感肺炎链球菌(PNSP) 分别占48.9%、51.1%.肺炎链球菌对阿莫西林、阿莫西林/克

  8. Infecção urinária na gravidez: análise dos métodos para diagnóstico e do tratamento Urinary infection in pregnancy: analysis of diagnostic methods and treatment

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    Geraldo Duarte

    2002-08-01

    aspects and the complications of symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI during pregnancy of patients who were hospitalized. Methods: a total of 136 pregnant women with a clinical diagnosis of pyelonephritis were studied. The studied parameters were: age and parity of patients, gestational age of diagnosis, epidemiologic aspects, laboratory evaluation for UTI, treatment and clinic evolution, prophylaxis and complications. Results: pyelonephritis was diagnosed at the same proportions at all gestational ages. The incidence of UTI was higher among primigravidae. Only 29.3% of the pregnant women had a previous history of UTI; 57.0% were anemic and 93.0% had altered urinalysis. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent uropathogen (75.8% of cases, with low percentages of sensitivity to ampicillin (60.6% and high percentages of sensitivity to cefuroxime (95,5%. The highest rate of clinical improvement was obtained for the pregnant women treated with cefuroxime (95.7%. Prophylaxis was needed in 11.0% of the patients. Preterm labor occurred in 33.3% of the pregnant women who delivered in our service and preterm delivery occurred in 18.9%. Conclusions: the present results support the need for an early diagnosis and effective treatment of UTI in pregnant women in order to prevent the frequent occurrence of perinatal complications such as premature labor and delivery. We emphasize the need of a periodical evaluation of the pattern of sensitivity of the etiologic agents to the antimicrobials allowed for use during pregnancy, with cefuroxime being adopted as the antibiotic of choice for the treatment of UTI during pregnancy.

  9. Phage type and sensitivity to antibiotics of Staphylococcus aureus film-forming strains isolated from airway mucosa

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    O. S. Voronkova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Today film-forming strains of bacteria play very important role in clinical pathology. Staphylococci are ones of most dangerous of them. This bacteria can determine different pathological processes, for example, complication of airway mucosa. The ability to form a biofilm is one of the main properties of nosocomial strains. These strains should be monitored and their carriers are to be properly treated. To determine the origin of staphylococci strains we used bacteriophages from the International kit. The aim of research was to determine the phage type of staphylococci film-forming strains, that were isolated from naso-pharingial mucosa. Phage typing has been carried out for 16 film-forming strains of S. aureus. To solve this problem, we used the International phage kit by Fisher’s method. As a result, sensitivity to phages from the International kit showed 53.8% of studied strains of S. aureus. 64.3% of sensitivity strains were lysed by one of the phage, 21.4% – were by two of the phages, 14.3% – by three of the phages. Isolates were sensitive to phages: 81 – 42.9%, 75 – 35.7%, 28.6% were sensitive to phages 47 and 53. All cases of detection of sensitivity to phage 47 coincided with the ability to form biofilm. Among non-film-forming strains there was no sensitive strains for this phage. Film-forming strains resist to erythromycin (62.5%, ciprofloxacin (43.8%, gentamicin (56.3%, tetracycline (87.5%, amoxicillin (93.8%, and cefuroxime (37.5%. All cases of sensitivity to phage 47 coincided with resistance to erythromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. For two of these strains, we also defined resistance to gentamicin and for one of them – to ciprofloxacin. Results of research allowed to relate the bacterial cultures for determining the type. This may have implications for studying of film-forming ability, because surface structures of bacterial cell take place in this process. Belonging of an isolate to specific phage type may

  10. 湖北省基层医疗卫生机构基本药物销售现状调查%Investigation of the Sales of Essential Medicines in Primary Health Care Institution, Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春艳; 向小曦; 张新平

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解湖北省基层医疗卫生机构基本药物销售现状,监测和评价基本药物制度实施效果.方法:湖北省83家基层卫生服务机构2011年1-7月基本药物的销售情况进行描述性分析.结果:基本药物销售金额比例为89.14%.头孢呋辛、头孢曲松钠、血塞通、葡萄糖注射液、氯化钠注射液、克林霉素、左氧氟沙星、血栓通等125种药品居销售前10位,抗生素和注射剂分别占前十位药品销售总额的53.17%和87.41%.结论:基层医疗机构可能存在抗生素和注射剂的过度使用,应切断医生收入与药品销售量之间的联系,减少供方诱导需求.应加强基层业务培训、用药知识宣传教育和用药监管,防止过度用药.%Objective: To understand the sales of essential medicines in primary health care institutions, and monitor and evaluate of the effect of essential medicine system. Methods: The sales of essential medicines of 83 primary health care institutions in Hubei Province were surveyed. Results: The Proportion of sales value of essential medicines was 89.14%. The top 10 sales value were 125 kinds of medicines, such as cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, Xuesaitong glucose injection, and so on. The sales value of antibiotics and injections were 53.17% and 87.41% of the 125 medicines. Conclusion: The overuse of antibiotics and injections may exist in the investigated primary health care institutions. The connection between physicians' incomes and drug sales should be cut off to decrease Supply -induced Demand. Training, propagandas, educations and regulations in drug use should be strengthened in primary health care institutions to prevent drug abuse.

  11. Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections – implementation of the recommendations of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO in nursing homes for the elderly in Frankfurt am Main, Germany

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    Heudorf, Ursel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections range among the most frequent infections not only in hospital patients but also in residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly. Urinary catheters are the greatest risk factor for urinary tract infections. In the guidance paper on the “prevention of infections in nursing homes” (2005 as well as in the updated recommendations for the “prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections” (2015, the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO has recommended adequate preventive measures. In 2015, the implementation of these KRINKO recommendations was investigated.Method: All of Frankfurt’s 40 nursing homes were evaluated using a checklist based on the KRINKO recommendations. The evaluation included assessing the availability of operating instructions, appropriate indications for the placement of catheters etc. Age, sex and duration of catheterization, as well as current and previous infections within the past 6 months were documented for every resident with a catheter.Results: In 35 (87.5% of the nursing homes, operating instructions for the handling of urinary tract catheters were available. The decision as to whether a catheter is indicated is made by physicians, while its placement is often delegated to the nursing service. Typically, silicon catheters are used. In three-quarters of the nursing homes, regular intervals of 4–6 weeks for changing catheters were reported. On the respective survey day, 7.3% of the residents were catheterized. On the survey day, 3.6% (4.2% and in the previous 6 months a total of 28% (28.9% of the residents had a urinary tract infection (prevalence of antibiotic therapy in parentheses. Ciprofloxacin was used most often followed by cefuroxime and cotrimoxazole.Discussion: In the current evaluation, fewer nursing home residents were catheterized than in previous years and the rate of urinary tract infections was low

  12. Isolation and identification of multidrug resistant Citrobacter freundii from diseased soft -shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis%一株多重耐药中华鳖源弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛烁君; 斯广杰; 任晓金; 石婷婷; 章烨; 王卓瑞; 章晓栋

    2015-01-01

    从患典型鳃腺炎病中华鳖(Pelodiscus sinensis)肝脏和腹水处进行细菌接种,分离获得一株细菌。综合菌落形态,16 S rRNA 序列进化分析和 API 细菌生化鉴定系统判定,所得菌株为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii)(SX43)。动物回归实验显示,分离株对小鼠的半数致死量(LD50)为106.5 CFU,显示该菌株具有较强的致病性,可从实验幼鳖体内再次分离到相同的病原菌。常用药物的抗菌敏感性测定显示,菌株 SX43对头孢哌酮、头孢曲松、头孢呋辛、复方新诺明、氯霉素高度敏感。%One bacteria was isolated from liver and ascites of diseased soft- shelled turtles( Pelodiscus sinensis) suffered with parotitis, on the colony morphology, Gram’s staining, API ID32E bacterial biochemical identification system and se-quence analysis of 16S rRNA gene, the isolate bacteria was identified as Citrobacter freundii, named SX43.Healthy soft -shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) were used for experimental infection with bacterial suspension, the same bacterium could be recovered.Isolate SX43 was demonstrated virulence potential in mouse models, with the median lethal dose (LD50 ) in mice at 10 6.5 CFU.The susceptibility test to antibiotics demonstrated that the bacterial strain SX43 was suscepti-ble to cefoperazone, rocephin, cefuroxim, co -trimoxazole, chloramphenicol.

  13. Infective myositis A one-case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daoyou Zhou; Jianwen Guo; Yan Huang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infective myositis is rare. The retrospective report of clinical data and symptoms from one patient with infective myositis will hopefully provide more information for clinicians in the diagnosis of this disease. METHODS: A male patient, 65 years old, was admitted with "fever and muscle pain since four days ago, accompanied by inertia of all limbs for one day", to the First Department of Neurology, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine on April 25th, 2005. Following admission, a history of diseases was record, and detailed physical and neurological examinations were performed. During the examination, symmetrical myasthenia appeared, tendon reflex disappeared, and creatine kinase levels were increased 500 times higher than normal. The patient was primarily diagnosed with hypokalemic periodic paralysis, myositis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and upper respiratory infection. Subsequently, the patient was treated with the following: cefuroxime for infection, potassium supplements, breviscapin for promoting blood circulation through the removal of stasis, and ATP/CO-A for myocardial nutrition. Antiviral drugs were not administered. However, laboratory samples were continuously monitored. Creatine kinase levels decreased to normal, and muscle pain was obviously relieved following antibiotics treatment. The results led to a final diagnosis of infective myositis.RESULTS: Four days after treatment (April 29th), muscular tenderness and throat congestion were obviously improved (+/-). The neurological examination showed the patient was conscious, cooperated with treatment, and had normal intellect. No abnormalities of the cranial nerve were observed upon examination. Proximal and distal muscle strength and muscular tensions of the four limbs were all normal. Reflexes of the right biceps brachii muscle and its tendon were decreased, and knee tendon and Achilles tendon reflex were not induced. A Babinski reflex was not detected. The neurological

  14. Genotypes and phenotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria

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    Olowe OA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe,1 Bukola W Aboderin,1,2 Olayinka O Idris,3 Victor O Mabayoje,4 Oluyinka O Opaleye,1 O Catherine Adekunle,1 Rita Ayanbolade Olowe,1 Paul Akinniyi Akinduti,5 Olusola Ojurongbe1 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Medical Microbiology Unit, Pathology Department, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria; 3Department of Microbiology, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria; 4Department of Haematology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 5Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria Purpose: To characterize the prevalence of hemolytic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC with a multidrug-resistant pattern in different age groups in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods: Nonrepetitive E. coli isolates were collected from 202 subjects with or without evidence of diarrhea. Each isolate was biochemically identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. A sorbitol fermentation test of all the E. coli isolates was done and the minimum inhibitory concentration of suspected STEC was measured by the standard broth microdilution method to determine antibiotic resistance. The genotypes of stx1, stx2, and hlyA were determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: The majority of subjects were aged ≥40 years (41.6% and were female (61.9%. Of the 202 subjects, 86.1% had STEC isolates (P<0.05. A high rate of STEC isolates resistant to amoxicillin (90.6%, cefotaxime (77.7%, and cefuroxime (75.7% was observed. Resistance to amoxicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime was demonstrated with a minimum inhibitory concentration >16 µg/mL in 13.9%, 11.4%, and 10.4% of the isolates, respectively. The prevalence of stx1, stx2, and hlyA was 13.9%, 6.9%, and 2.0%, respectively; 5.5% of

  15. Studio preliminare sul possibile utilizzo del sistema Uro-Quick per l’esecuzione rapida di antibiogrammi su ceppi provenienti da reparti di terapia intensiva

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    Elisabetta Pezzati

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available L’Uro-Quick, un sistema automatizzato ampiamente utilizzato per lo screening delle batteriurie sui campioni d’urina, è stato precedentemente impiegato per la valutazione della sensibilità agli antibiotici negli uropatogeni e per l’identificazione di resistenze ben caratterizzate veicolate da diverse specie batteriche. In questo studio sono stati esaminati utilizzando la metodica classica Kirby-Bauer per la determinazione dell’antibiotico sensibilità patogeni isolati durante il periodo settembre 2003 - marzo 2004 in reparti di terapia intensiva di un grande ospedale italiano e i risultati sono stati confrontati con quelli ottenuti con il nuovo sistema rapido Uro-Quick. L’antibiotico (in concentrazione appropriata è stato introdotto in una cuvetta Uro-Quick contenente 2 ml di Mueller-Hinton brodo, successivamente sono stati addizionati 0.5 ml di sospensione del ceppo da saggiare (5x105 CFU/ml. Una cuvetta priva di farmaco è stata utilizzata come controllo. Dopo 3 o 5 ore di incubazione (per i ceppi Gram-negativi o Gram-positivi rispettivamente i risultati sono stati interpretati nel seguente modo: l’assenza di sviluppo indicava sensibilità, mentre una curva di crescita analoga a quella del controllo rappresentava un ceppo resistente. I microrganismi Gram-negativi sono stati saggiati con ciprofloxacina (CIP, ampicillina (AM, piperacillina (PIP, aztreonam (ATM, amoxicillina-clavulanato (AMC, piperacillina/tazobactam (TZP, imipenem (IPM, ceftazidime (CAZ, cefotaxime (CTX, cefepime (CFP, cefuroxime (CXM, ceftriaxone (CRO, amikacina (AN, gentamicina (GM e trimethoprim-sulfametossazolo (SXT. I Gram-positivi, invece, sono stati saggiati con ciprofloxacina (CIP, clindamicina (CM, eritromicina (E, rifampicina (RA, ampicillina (AM, penicillina (P, oxacillina (OXA, imipenem (IPM, gentamicina (GM, streptomicina (S, tetraciclina (TE, trimethoprim – sulfametazolo (SXT, vancomicina (VA e linezolid (LZD. Sono stati esaminati 197 ceppi Gram

  16. Large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of renal calculi in a spina bifida patient: lessons we learn

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    Vaidyanathan S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Subramanian Vaidyanathan,1 Azi Samsudin,2 Gurpreet Singh,3 Peter L Hughes,4 Bakul M Soni,1 Fahed Selmi1 1Regional Spinal Injuries Center, Southport and Formby District General Hospital, Southport, UK; 2Department of Urology, Whiston Hospital, Prescot, UK; 3Department of Urology, 4Department of Radiology, Southport and Formby District General Hospital, Southport, UK Introduction: Paraplegic patients are at greater risk of developing complications following ureteroscopic lithotripsy because of urine infection associated with neuropathic bladder, difficulties in access due to altered anatomy of urinary bladder and urethra, spinal curvature, spasticity, and contractures. We report the occurrence of large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopy and discuss lessons we learn from this case.Case report: A 48-year-old male patient with spina bifida underwent ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy and ureteric stenting for left ureteric stone and staghorn calculus with hydronephrosis; laser lithotripsy was repeated after 3 months; both procedures were performed by a senior urologist and did not result in any complications. Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy was performed 5 months later by a urological trainee; it was difficult to negotiate the scope as vision became poor because of bleeding (as a result of the procedure. Postoperatively, hematuria persisted; temperature was 39°C. Cefuroxime was given intravenously followed by gentamicin for 5 days; hematuria subsided gradually; he was discharged home. Ten days later, this patient developed temperature, the urine culture grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ciprofloxacin was given orally. Computed tomography (CT of the urinary tract, performed 4 weeks after ureteroscopy, revealed a 9×7 cm subcapsular collection on the left kidney compressing underlying parenchyma. Percutaneous drainage was not feasible because of severe curvature of spine. Isotope renogram revealed deterioration in left renal function from 30

  17. Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections – implementation of the recommendations of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) in nursing homes for the elderly in Frankfurt am Main, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudorf, Ursel; Gasteyer, Stefanie; Müller, Maria; Samoiski, Yvonne; Serra, Nicole; Westphal, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infections range among the most frequent infections not only in hospital patients but also in residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly. Urinary catheters are the greatest risk factor for urinary tract infections. In the guidance paper on the “prevention of infections in nursing homes” (2005) as well as in the updated recommendations for the “prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections” (2015), the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) has recommended adequate preventive measures. In 2015, the implementation of these KRINKO recommendations was investigated. Method: All of Frankfurt’s 40 nursing homes were evaluated using a checklist based on the KRINKO recommendations. The evaluation included assessing the availability of operating instructions, appropriate indications for the placement of catheters etc. Age, sex and duration of catheterization, as well as current and previous infections within the past 6 months were documented for every resident with a catheter. Results: In 35 (87.5%) of the nursing homes, operating instructions for the handling of urinary tract catheters were available. The decision as to whether a catheter is indicated is made by physicians, while its placement is often delegated to the nursing service. Typically, silicon catheters are used. In three-quarters of the nursing homes, regular intervals of 4–6 weeks for changing catheters were reported. On the respective survey day, 7.3% of the residents were catheterized. On the survey day, 3.6% (4.2%) and in the previous 6 months a total of 28% (28.9%) of the residents had a urinary tract infection (prevalence of antibiotic therapy in parentheses). Ciprofloxacin was used most often followed by cefuroxime and cotrimoxazole. Discussion: In the current evaluation, fewer nursing home residents were catheterized than in previous years and the rate of urinary tract infections was low. This

  18. 1例挤压综合征术后感染患者的药学监护%Pharmaceutical care on one patient with postoperative infection after crush syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史文慧; 郭蓉; 罗朝利

    2011-01-01

    One 26-year-old male patient with crush injuries to both lower extremities after being involved in carbon monoxide poisoning was admitted to hospital. After the operation for treatment of crush syndrome, he developed postoperative infection,sustained muscle necrosis and fascial infections. The patient used some antimicrobial agents, while the efficacy of infection control was poor, and Shigella was found from secretions. After consultation with clinical pharmacists, the individualized dosing regimen was made. In the first treatment course (10 days), imipenem-cilastatin and clindamycin were combined. During the second course(14 days ), clindamycin and piperacillin-tazobactam were given in combination. In the third course, cefuroxime was given for 5 days.Three days later, the body temperature was normal, the number of white blood cells and granulocytes decreased, 21 days later no continuing muscle necrosis occurred, 23 days later the body temperature and blood routine were normal, infection was controlled.%1例26岁男性患者,因一氧化碳中毒后导致双下肢挤压伤入院.入院后行挤压综合征减张术后发生感染,肌肉持续坏死、筋膜感染,曾使用多种抗菌药物,感染控制不佳,多次分泌物培养为志贺氏菌属.临床药师会诊后,制订了个体化给药方案,第一疗程10 d:亚胺培南西司他丁联合克林霉素;第二疗程14 d:克林霉素联合哌拉西林他唑巴坦;第三疗程5 d:头孢呋辛.3 d后,体温正常,白细胞和粒细胞降低,21 d后无肌肉持续坏死现象,23 d后,体温、血常规均正常,感染得到控制.

  19. Trends in antibacterial resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in the USA: update from PROTEKT US Years 1–4

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    Brown Steven D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of resistance to established antibiotics among key bacterial respiratory tract pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a major healthcare problem in the USA. The PROTEKT US study is a longitudinal surveillance study designed to monitor the susceptibility of key respiratory tract pathogens in the USA to a range of commonly used antimicrobials. Here, we assess the geographic and temporal trends in antibacterial resistance of S. pneumoniae isolates from patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections collected between Year 1 (2000–2001 and Year 4 (2003–2004 of PROTEKT US. Methods Antibacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined centrally using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI broth microdilution method; susceptibility was defined according to CLSI interpretive criteria. Macrolide resistance genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results A total of 39,495 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected during 2000–2004. The percentage of isolates resistant to erythromycin, penicillin, levofloxacin, and telithromycin were 29.3%, 21.2%, 0.9%, and 0.02%, respectively, over the 4 years, with marked regional variability. The proportion of isolates exhibiting multidrug resistance (includes isolates known as penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and isolates resistant to ≥ 2 of the following antibiotics: penicillin; second-generation cephalosporins, e.g. cefuroxime; macrolides; tetracyclines; and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole remained stable at ~30% over the study period. Overall mef(A was the most common macrolide resistance mechanism. The proportion of mef(A isolates decreased from 68.8% to 62.3% between Year 1 and Year 4, while the percentage of isolates carrying both erm(B and mef(A increased from 9.7% to 18.4%. Over 99% of the erm(B+mef(A-positive isolates collected over Years 1–4 exhibited multidrug resistance. Higher than previously

  20. Detection and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains among rural chickens in the arid region of north-eastern Nigeria

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    Yaqub A Geidam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the prevalence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC strains among adult apparently healthy rural chickens slaughtered in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Cloacal swabs were examined by Gram staining, biochemical tests such as indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer and citrate (IMVC tests and serotype by standard slide agglutination test with antisera against somatic antigen using six monospecific “O” antisera to E. coli belonging to the avian pathogenic E. coli group namely O1, O2, O26, O78, O86 and O141. The sensitivity of the isolated APEC strains to 10 antibiotics of human and veterinary use was also determined. Results: Out of a total of 510 samples examined, 356 (69.8% were positive for E. coli. Of this number 20 (5.6% samples were positive for O1, 20 (5.6% for O2, 0 (0% for O26, 25 (7.0% for O78, 25 (7.0% for O86 and 24 (6.7% for O141 serotypes. The remaining 242 (68.0% E. coli isolates were non typable with the 6 sera of avian pathogenic E. coli strains used for the study. The sensitivity profile of the isolates showed complete resistance of all the isolates against ampicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid and cefuroxime, while on the other hand all the isolates showed very high susceptibility to oxofloxacin followed by ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. The result of this study suggests that multiple-antimicrobial-resistant APEC isolates are present in rural chickens in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria. In addition to animal health problems created by the resistant strains, there may also be potential danger posed to human health because these strains could easily infect humans through the food chain. Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that multiple-antimicrobial-resistant APEC isolates are present in rural chickens in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria. Consequently, introduction of surveillance programs to monitor antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria is strongly recommended in

  1. Etiology and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens responsible for community-acquired urinary tract infections in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniuk, E; Suchocka, U; Bosacka, K; Hryniewicz, W

    2016-08-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are some of the most common infections in both community and hospital settings infections. With their high rate of incidence, recurrence, complications, diverse etiologic agents, as well as growing antibiotic resistance, UTIs have proven to be a serious challenge for medical professionals. The aim of this study was to obtain data on the susceptibility patterns of pathogens responsible for UTIs in Poland to currently used antibiotics. A total of 396 bacterial isolates were collected between March and May 2013 from 41 centers in all regions of Poland. The majority of isolates were from adult patients (96.2 %); 144 (37.8 %) patients were diagnosed with uncomplicated UTI, while the remaining 237 (62.2 %) had a complicated infection. The most prevalent pathogen was Escherichia coli (71.4 %), followed by Klebsiella spp. (10.8 %) and the Proteae group (7.6 %). Escherichia coli was responsible for 80.6 % of cases of uncomplicated and 65.8 % of complicated infections. Only 65.8 % of E. coli isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (uncomplicated 75.9 %, complicated 58.3 %), 64.0 % to nitrofurantoin (67.2 %, 62.8 %), 65.1 % to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (68.1 %, 62.8 %), and 66.4 % to fosfomycin (77.6 %, 62.2 %). Among E. coli isolates from all UTIs, only 43.4 % were susceptible to ampicillin, with 47.4 % from uncomplicated compared with 40.4 % from complicated infections; 88.2 % to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (91.4 % vs. 85.9 % complicated); 90.1 % to cefuroxime (93.1 %, 87.8 %); and 94.1 % to cefotaxime (98.2 %, 91.0 %). Thirty-five strains (10.4 %) were capable of producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). This study demonstrates an increase in multidrug-resistant strains, especially among the leading pathogens associated with UTIs, including E. coli, Klebsiella spp., and Proteus spp. PMID:27189078

  2. Salvage procedures in lower-extremity trauma in a child with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I: a case report

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    Gothner Martin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fractures of the lower extremity are a common type of childhood injury and many can be treated without surgery. Dislocated and open fractures are an indication for fracture stabilization via either intramedullary nailing or, in the case of complicated fractures, external fixation. But if complications are likely because of diseases and disabilities (for example, a neuropathy that can complicate the post-operative procedure and rehabilitation, what options does one have? Case presentation We report a nine-year-old Caucasian girl who had hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I and who was admitted with a grade I open tibia fracture after a fall from a small height. Plain radiographs showed a dislocated tibia and fibula fracture. An open reduction with internal fixation with a compression plate osteosynthesis was performed, and soft tissue debridement combined with an external fixateur was undertaken. Three months later, she was re-admitted with localized swelling and signs of a local soft tissue infection in the middle of her tibia. Plain radiographs showed a non-union of the tibia fracture, and microbiological analysis confirmed a wound infection with cefuroxime-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Because of the non-union, the osteosynthesis was replaced with an Ilizarov external fixateur, and appropriate antibiotic therapy was initiated. Four months after the initial accident, the fracture was consolidated and we removed the external fixateur. Conclusions If there is a pre-existing neuropathy and if disease makes it difficult for a child to follow all post-operative instructions, salvage procedures should be kept in mind in case of complications. There are multiple therapeutic options, including osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing systems, cast therapy, or an external fixateur like the Ilizarov or Taylor spatial frame system. The initial use of an external fixateur such as an Ilizarov or Taylor spatial frame in

  3. No Outbreak of Vancomycin and Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococcal Pneumonia over a 10-Year Period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Yayan

    Full Text Available Staphylococci can cause wound infections and community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia, among a range of illnesses. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA have been rapidly increasing as a cause of infections worldwide in recent decades. Numerous reports indicate that S. aureus and MRSA are becoming resistant to many antibiotics, which makes them very dangerous. Therefore, this study retrospectively investigated the resistance to antimicrobial agents in all hospitalized patients suffering from community- or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia due to S. aureus and MRSA.Information from the study groups suffering from either community- or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by S. aureus or MRSA was gathered by searching records from 2004 to 2014 at the HELIOS Clinic Wuppertal, Witten/Herdecke University, Germany. The findings of antibiotic resistance were analyzed after the evaluation of susceptibility testing for S. aureus and MRSA.Total of 147 patients (63.9%, 95% CI 57.5%-69.8%, mean age 67.9 ± 18.5 years, with pneumonia triggered by S. aureus, and 83 patients (36.1%, 95% CI 30.2%-42.5%, mean age 72.3 ± 13.8 years, with pneumonia due to MRSA. S. aureus and MRSA developed no resistance to vancomycin (P = 0.019 vs. < 0.0001, respectively or linezolid (P = 0.342 vs. < 0.0001, respectively. MRSA (95.3% and S. aureus (56.3% showed a high resistance to penicillin. MRSA (87.7% was also found to have a high antibiotic resistance against ß-lactam antibiotics, compared to S. aureus (9.6%. Furthermore, MRSA compared to S. aureus, respectively, had increased antibiotic resistance to ciprofloxacin (90.1% vs. 17.0%, cefazolin (89.7% vs. 10.2%, cefuroxime (89.0% vs. 9.1%, levofloxacin (88.2% vs. 18.4%, clindamycin (78.0% vs. 14.7%, and erythromycin (76.5% vs. 20.8%.No development of resistance was found to vancomycin and linezolid in patients with pneumonia caused by S. aureus and MRSA.

  4. 金鱼嗜水气单胞菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验%Identification and Drug Sensitivity Test of Pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila from Goldfish Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周毅; 张培培; 徐晔; 曹洁; 孟学平; 段宏安

    2014-01-01

    自病死金鱼肝脏中分离到一株优势菌,对其进行感染试验、培养特性观察、生化特性鉴定及16S rRNA序列分析。试验结果表明,该分离菌株为嗜水气单胞菌,与已报道的嗜水气单胞菌的16S rRNA序列同源性>99.3%。用纸片扩散法进行药敏试验,试验结果显示,该分离株对四环素类、喹诺酮类、磺胺类、头孢呋新、头孢他啶、头孢吡肟等21种药物敏感,对青霉素G、氨苄西林、阿莫西林、头孢氨苄、林可霉素、麦迪霉素耐药。本次金鱼发病是由嗜水气单胞菌感染引起,可选用强力霉素、麦迪霉素、复方新诺明、磺胺甲基异恶唑、阿奇霉素、恩诺沙星、诺氟沙星等多种药物进行防治。%Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the main pathogen of freshwater fish bacterial septicemia .The bacterium was isolated and identified from dead gold fish and drug sensitive tests were performed in order to provide references for the bacterial disease prevention and control in ornamental fish .A dominant bacteria strain was isolated from hepatopancreas of dead Carassius auratus and identified by artificial infection experiment ,cultural characteristics ,physical and chemical characters ,and 16S rRNA sequence analysis .The results showed that the strain was A .hydrophila .Homology of 16S rRNA of the isolated strain and other several A .hydrophila was more than 99 .3% .Drug sensitive test revealed that the isolated strain was highly sensitive to 21 kinds of drugs , including tetracyclines ,quinolones , sulfonamides , cefuroxime ,ceftazidimeand cefepime ,and resistant to penicillin G ,ampicillin ,amoxicillin ,cefalexin , lincomycin and medemycin . Results in this study showed that many antibiotics (such as doxycycline , midecamycin ,co‐trimoxazole ,sulfamethoxazole ,azithromycin ,enrofloxacin ,and norfloxaci) can be used to control and prevent bacterial disease caused by A .hydrophila in gold fish .

  5. Synthetic amphibian peptides and short amino-acids derivatives against planktonic cells and mature biofilm of Providencia stuartii clinical strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowska, Kinga; Kamysz, Wojciech; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Różalski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the growing number of multidrug resistant strains limits the use of many of the currently available chemotherapeutic agents. Furthermore, bacterial biofilm, due to its complex structure, constitutes an effective barrier to conventional antibiotics. The in vitro activities of naturally occurring peptide (Citropin 1.1), chemically engineered analogue (Pexiganan), newly-designed, short amino-acid derivatives (Pal-KK-NH2, Pal-KKK-NH2, Pal-RRR-NH2) and six clinically used antimicrobial agents (Gatifloxacin, Ampicilin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Cefuroxime and Cefalexin) were investigated against planktonic cells and mature biofilm of multidrug-resistant Providencia stuartii strains, isolated from urological catheters. The MICs, MBCs values were determined by broth microdilution technique. Inhibition of biofilm formation by antimicrobial agents as well as biofilm susceptibility assay were tested using a surrogate model based on the Crystal Violet method. The antimicrobial activity of amino-acids derivatives and synthetic peptides was compared to that of clinically used antibiotics. For planktonic cells, MICs of peptides and antibiotics ranged between 1 and 256 μg/ml and 256 and ≥ 2048 μg/ml, respectively. The MBCs values of Pexiganan, Citropin 1.1 and amino-acids derivatives were between 16 and 256 μg/ml, 64 and 256 μg/ml and 16 and 512 μg/ml, respectively. For clinically used antibiotics the MBCs values were above 2048 μg/ml. All of the tested peptides and amino-acids derivatives, showed inhibitory activity against P. stuartii biofilm formation, in relation to their concentrations. Pexiganan and Citropin 1.1 in concentration range 32 and 256 μg/ml caused both strong and complete suppression of biofilm formation. None of the antibiotics caused complete inhibition of biofilm formation process. The biofilm susceptibility assay verified the extremely poor antibiofilm activity of conventional antibiotics compared to synthetic peptides. The

  6. BPI700-Fcγ1700 chimeric gene expression and its protective effect in a mice model of the lethal E. coli infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background Infections caused by gram-negative bacteria (GNB) often lead to high mortality in common clinical settings. The effect of traditional antibiotic therapy is hindered by drug-resistant bacteria and unneutralizable endotoxin. Few effective methods can protect high risk patients from bacterial infection. This study explored the protection of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2)-bacteriacidal permeability increasing protein 700 (BPI700) -fragment crystallizable gamma one 700 (Fcγ1700) chimeric gene transferred mice against the minimal lethal dose (MLD) of E.coli and application of gene therapy for bacterial infection.Methods After AAV2-BPI700-Fcγ1700 virus transfection,dot blotting and Western blotting were used to detect the target gene products in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells (CHO-K1cells). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical assay were carried out to show the target gene expression in mice. Modified BPI-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify the target gene products in murine serum. The protection of BPI700-Fcγ1700 gene transferred mice was examined by survival rate after MLD E. coli challenge. Colony forming unit (CFU) count, limulus amebocyte lysate kit and cytokine kit were used to quantify the bacteria, the level of endotoxin, and proinflammatory cytokine.Results BPI1-199-Fc(1 protein was identified in the CHO-K1 cell culture supernatant, injected muscles and serum of the gene transferred mice. After MLD E. coli challenge, the survival rate of AAV2-BPI700-Fc(1700 gene transferred mice (36.7%) was significantly higher than that of AAV2-enhanced green fluorescent protein (AAV2- EGFP) gene transferred mice (3.3%) and PBS control mice (5.6%). The survival rate of AAV2-BPI700-Fc(1700 gene transferred mice treated with cefuroxime sodium was 65.0%. The bacterium number in main viscera, the levels of endotoxin and proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrcsis factor-α and interleukin-1β) in serum of the AAV2-BPI

  7. Detection limits of four antimicrobial residue screening tests for beta-lactams in goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, D; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Luengo, C; Corrales, J C; Morales, C T; de la Fe, C; Guirao, I; Gonzalo, C

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the detection limits (DL) of several antibiotic residue screening tests with the maximum residue limits (MRL) authorized by the EU according to the guidance for the standardized evaluation of microbial inhibitor tests of the International Dairy Federation. Composite antibiotic-free milk samples from 30 primiparous Murciano-Granadina goats in good health condition were used to prepare test samples spiked with different concentrations of each antimicrobial. In total, 5,760 analytical determinations of 10 beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin-G, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin, cefadroxyl, cefalexin, cefoperazone, and cefuroxime) were performed using 4 antibiotic residue screening tests: the brilliant black reduction test BRT AiM (AiM-Analytik in Milch Produktions-und Vertriebs GmbH, München, Germany), Delvotest MCS (DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands), Eclipse 100 (ZEU-Inmunotec SL, Zaragoza, Spain), and the Copan Milk Test (CMT; Copan Italia SpA, Brescia, Italy). For each method, we estimated the detection limits of the antimicrobial agents using a logistic regression model. Using the CMT and Delvotest on samples spiked with the 8 antibiotics for which MRL were available, DL were at or below the MRL. The BRT test provided DL at or below the MRL for all of the agents except cefalexin, whereas the Eclipse 100 method failed to detect 4 antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, and cefoperazone) at MRL or below. Logistic regression-determined levels of agreement were highest for the CMT method (98.6 to 100%) and lowest for Eclipse 100 (66.3 to 100%). In general, agreement levels indicated good correlation between observed results and those predicted by logistic regression. The lowest b values (closely related to test sensitivity) were recorded for the cephalosporins (0.074 to 0.430) and highest for penicillin G, ampicillin, and amoxicillin (11.270 to 11.504). Delvotest and CMT best

  8. 武汉地区儿童流感嗜血菌耐药性的分析%Antibiotic resistance of haemophilus influenzae isolated from children in Wuhan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 虞涛; 鲍连生; 余星

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the antibiotic resistance of Heamophilus influenzae isolated from children in Wuhan area. METHODS A total of 2212 strains of H. influenzae isolated from hospitalized children were collected between Jan 2009 and Jun 2010, bacterial susceptibility testing was carried out by using Kirby-Bauer and E-test method. The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2008. The variance of antibiotics resistance was analyzed by Chi-squared methods. RESULTS The antibiotics resistance rates of 2212 strains of H. influenzae to azithromycin, ampicillin/sulbactam, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, meropenem, cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone were 1. 45%, 3. 89%, 35. 71%, 75. 50%, 0. 36%, 0. 59%, 2. 53% and 2. 26%, respectively.CONCLUSION The resistant rates of H. influenzae isolated from the children in Wuhan area to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole are high, and the drug resistance situation is grim, the monitoring of the drug sensitivity and the rational use of antibiotics should be strengthened in clinics.%目的 了解武汉地区儿童呼吸道感染流感嗜血菌(HIN)的耐药情况. 方法 收集医院2009年1月-2010年6月住院患儿分离的流感嗜血菌2212株,采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)进行抗菌药敏试验,对其进行β-内酰胺酶测定,按CLSI 2008年版判断结果 ,使用χ2检验分析耐药性的变化.结果 2212株流感嗜血菌对阿奇霉素、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、氨苄西林、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶、美罗培南、头孢呋辛、头孢克洛、头孢曲松的耐药率分别为:1.45%、3.89%、35.71%、75.50%、0.36%、0.59%、2.53%、2.26%. 结论 武汉地区儿童分离流感嗜血菌对氨苄西林及磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶的耐药率高,耐药形势严峻,临床应加强对其的药敏监测并合理使用抗菌药物.

  9. 呼吸道嗜血杆菌属的生物学分型及耐药性分析%Biological typing and drug resistance analysis of Haemophilus strains from respiratory tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江秀爱; 赵自云; 姜蓓; 乔显森

    2015-01-01

    strains of Haemophilus influenzae(1.6%)were isolated,10(10.4%)strains of Haemophilus influenzae were identified as type Ⅰ,31(32.3%)as type Ⅱ,40(41.7%)as typeⅢand 1 5(1 5.6%)as other types.A total of 125 strains Hae-mophitus parl influenzae(2.1%)were isolated,1 5 (12.0%)strains of Haemophilus parl influenzae were identified as type Ⅰ,23 (18.4%)as typeⅡ,69(55.2%)as type Ⅲ and 18(14.4%)as type Ⅳ,other types were not identified.The highest infected rate was in winter.Resistance rate of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophitus parl influenzae to ampicillin were 40.6% and 44.8%,to tri-methoprim-sulfamethoxazole were 5 1.0% and 66.4%.The prevalence ofβ-lactamase of all strains were 40.6%and 44.8%.But sus-ceptible rates of Haemophilus to cefotaxime,cefuroxime,meropenem,chloramphenicol were over 90.0%.Conclusion The respira-tory tract infections to Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophitus parl influenzae is more frequently found in winter.Type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ are the most prevalent types.The resistance rates of Haemophilus to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are in-creasing,should not be used as empirical treatment of Haemophilus infection.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime,cefuroxime,meropen-em could be chosen for the treatment of respiratory tract infection caused by Haemophilus.

  10. 呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌的生物学分型与耐药基因的相关性研究%The correlation study between biological typing and drug resistance gene of respiratory haemophilus influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江秀爱; 王荣; 张秀云; 乔显森

    2015-01-01

    (PCR).Results:Seven biotypes (Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ、Ⅵ、Ⅶ) were detected among 110 cases of clinical isolated haemophilus,The main types were type Ⅱ (38strains,34.5%)and type Ⅲ (46 strains, 41.8%),and typeⅧwas not detected.a total of 45 strains of TEM gene and ROB gene were detected, 93.3%as TEM gene, 6.7%as ROB gene. winter infection rate was the highest.Drug resistance of the strains agains ampicillin was 40.9%, The prevalence of beta lactamase of all strains was 40.9%. The drug resistance rate to cefotaxime,cefuroxime and chloramphenicol was over 90%.,the resistant strain was not detected to meropenem. Conclusions:The respiratory tract infections of Haemophilus influenzae were more prevalent in winter and TrpyⅡand typeⅢwere the most prevalent types.The drug resistance of Haemophilus influenzae to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is increasing ,should not be used as an empirical treatment of Haemophilus infection. suggesting that the cefotaxime , cefuroxime and meropenem could serve as an ideal option for the treatment.

  11. 院内获得性肺炎老年患者产超广谱β-内酰胺酶病原菌的分布及耐药性分析%Distribution and antibiotic resistance analysis of extended spectrum β-lactamases in older patients with hospital-acquired pulmonary infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 庄伟荣; 金小玲; 周瑛; 秦兴国; 李惠萍

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and antibiotic resistance of the extended spectrum lactamases (ESBLs) in older patients with hospital-acquired pulmonary infection. Methods A total of 978 patients who were treated in Yangpu Geriatric Hospital and Shidong Hospital during Oct. 2006 to Oct. 2007 were studied, and 78 patients meeting the hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) criterion were retrospectively analyzed. Results The incidence of HAP was 7.98% (78/978). The qualified sputum specimen bacterial positive rate was 61.9% (164/265). There were 39 strains of ESBLs bacteria, accounting for 31.7% (39/123)of the gram-negative bacteria. ESBLs-producing strains were positive in 51.5% (17/33) of Escherichia coli, 45.2% (14/31) of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 17.6% (3/17) of Proteus mirabilis isolates. ESBLs-producing Escherichia coil strains had a >90% resistant rates to Ampicillin Sodium, Piperacillin Ciprofloxacin, Cefuroxime, Cefotaxime, and Cefazolin, and had a resistance rate of 54.7% to Aztreonam, but had a lower resistance rate to Cefoxitin, Cefoperazone/Sulbactam, Piperacillin Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium, Cefoxitine, and Ceftazidime. ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae had a >90% resistance rate to Ampicillin Sodium, Cefuroxime, and Cefazolin, a>80% resistance rate to Cefotaxine and Piperacillin, a resistance rate of 71.7% to Aztreonam, and lower resistance rates to Piperacillin/Tazobactam and Cefoxitin. Conclusions The ESBLs producing stains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are high in our cohort, and most of them are multiple drugs resistant. ESBLs-producing strains should be suspected when the isolated Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonioe are resistant to third generation cephalosporin, such as Cefotaxime and Ceftriaxone. ESBLs-producing strains should also be suspected when Gram negative strains are sensitive to third generation cephalosporin, but failure in treatment occurs.%目的 探讨院内获得性肺炎老年患者产超广谱

  12. 支气管肺泡灌洗液细菌培养及药敏试验在儿童难治性肺炎诊治中的价值%Value of bacteria culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in diagnosis and treatment of refractory pneumonia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任立歆; 郭伟; 董汉权; 付卓; 宁静; 夏宇靖; 万莉雅

    2013-01-01

    hundred and ninety-five stains of bacteria were identified from BALF of 181 cases.There were 10 (5.1%) gram-positive stains (7 Streptococcus pneumonia and 3 Staphylococcus aureus),48 stains (24.6%) were gram-negative bacterial,and the predominant were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23 stains,11.8 %),followed by Serratia marcescens and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (6 stains respectively,3.1%).There were 1 Staphylococcus aureus with positive beta-lactamases and 1 Pseudomonas fluorescens with positive AmpC enzyme.There were 1 fungi (0.5%)and 136 parasitic bacteria stains(69.7%).Gram-positive stains were universally resistant to Erythromycin,Penicillin,Cefuroxime,and susceptible to Chloramphenicol,Levofloxacin,Vancomycin.Gram-negative stains were universally resistant to Ampicillin,Cefazolin,Cefuroxime,Cefotaxime,and susceptible to Amikacin,Cefepime,Cefoperazone sulbactam,Meropenem,Imipenem,Levofloxacin,Ceftazidime,Piperacillin.There were mixed infection in most children and the predominant pathogen was Mycoplasma pneumoniae.Conclusions Bacteria culture of BALF is relatively reliable and instructively recommended for the treatment of refractory pneumonia in children,meanwhile,it can help choose the antibiotics reasonably.

  13. Study of common cephalosporin antibiotics on the antibacterial activity in vitro%常见头孢类抗生素的体外抑菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李麒; 邓成华; 袁伟芳; 薛萍芳; 张涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:对常见头孢类抗生素进行体外抑菌活性研究。方法:利用头孢氨苄、头孢唑啉、头孢呋辛、头孢替安、头孢他啶、头孢哌酮6种常见头孢类抗生素对我院临床分离的562株菌(革兰氏阳性菌206株,革兰氏阴性菌356株)进行体外活性检测。结果:头孢氨苄、头孢唑啉(1代)对革兰氏阳性菌的敏感率为93.2%、96.1%,对革兰氏阴性菌的敏感率为52.3%、55.1%;头孢呋辛、头孢替安(2代)对革兰氏阳性菌的敏感率为95.6%、97.1%,对革兰氏阴性菌的敏感率为75.3%、76.4%;头孢他啶、头孢哌酮(3代)对革兰氏阳性菌的敏感率为85.4%、87.4%,对革兰氏阴性菌的敏感率为90.2%、92.1%。1代、2代头孢类抗生素对革兰氏阳性菌的抑菌活性高于3代,而3代头孢类抗生素对革兰氏阴性菌的抑菌活性高于1代、2代,且差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05);1代和2代对革兰氏阳性菌的抑菌活性差异无统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:1代、2代头孢类抗生素体外抑制革兰氏阳性菌效果好于3代头孢,3代头孢体外抑制革兰氏阴性菌效果好于1代、2代。%Objective To study the antibacterial activity in vitro of common cephalosporin antibiotics.Methods 562 strains of clinical isolates,206 strains of gram positive bacteria and 356 strains of gram negative bacteria were selected in our hospital and the a-bove bacterial strains were used to detect and compare the antibacterial activity in vitro of the common cephalosporin antibiotics (cepha-losporin,ampicillin,cefazolin,cefuroxime,cefotiam,ceftazidime,cefoperazone).Results The sensitive rates of cefalexin and cefazo-lin (1 st generation)against gram positive bacteria were 93.2% and 96.1 ,The sensitivity rates of those medicines against gram nega-tive bacteria were 52.3% and 55.1%.The sensitive rates of cefuroxime and cefotiam (2 rd generation)the gram positive

  14. The role of antibiotic prophylaxis in mesh repair of inguinal hernias: A randomized, double- blind,placebo- controlled study%腹股沟无张力疝修补术前一次性使用抗生素的随机、双盲、空白对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小军; 王小强; 龙延滨; 段降龙; 张瑞鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for tension-free repair of inguinal hernia. Methods A randomized, prospective double-blind control trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for tension-free mesh repair in 180 cases of inguinal hernia from March 2007 to March 2008. Intravenous cefuroxime ( 1.5 g ) was given immediately before the surgery in two groups followed by postoperative administration of cefuroxime 1.5 g twice a day for 3 days in test group compared with NS infusion in the control group. Postoperatively 16 patients (8. 89 per cent) could not be contacted at any point, giving a response rate of91. 11%. The total number of subjects for per- protocol (PP) analysis was 180, 84 cases in test group and 80 cases in control group. Results Complete data were available for 164 patients, 3 ( 1.83 per cent) developed surgical site infection (SSI) including 2 cases of surgical site infection in test group and 1 case of superficial incision surgical site infection in control group. The differences were not statistically significant. The time to follow up was 12 -29 months, the mean follow up time in test group was (15.6 ±2.2) months and (18 ±3)months in control group respectively. 93.33% patients in test group were followed up and 88. 89% patients in control group. There were not hernia recurrence and side effect of antibiotics reported in the two groups.Conclusions To prevent SSI, it is necessary to use preoperative antibiotics prophylaxis just one time for inguinal hernia repair.%目的 探讨腹股沟无张力疝手术后是否需要使用抗生素.方法 按照随机双盲法,前瞻性的研究分析2007年3月至2008年3月陕西省人民医院普通外科收治的180例腹股沟疝无张力疝修补手术后患者.两组术前30 min均给予二代头孢菌素1.5 g,术后试验组连用3 d,而对照组仅给予生理盐水输注.术后16例患者无法联系随访,入组率为91

  15. 2010-2012年流感嗜血杆菌耐药性监测%2010-2012 surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙姗姗; 喻华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of haemophilus influenzae ,and to pro-vide reference for reasonable use of antibiotics .Methods Clinical isolates from patients in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2012 were identified by VITEK2-compact automatic identification system , bacterial susceptibility tests were per-formed on strains by ATB system , the results were determined according to the guidelines of CLSI in 2012,and β-lactamase was detected by nitrocefin disk diffusion method .WHONET5.6 software was applied for data analysis .Results A total of 201 strains of haemophilus influenzae were obtained from our hospital in recent three years .Among them,193 strains were from sputum specimen (96.0%),6 from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen (2.9%),2 from blood specimen (1.1%).As for the distribution of haemophilus influenzae in clinical departments ,the top three were respiratory department (104 strains, 51. 7%),surgical department (31 strains,15.4%) and ICU (27 strains,13.4%).The results of bacterial susceptibility tests showed that haemophilus influenzae was sensitive to rifampicin , ampicillin,chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole with a rate of 45.5%,73.4%,87.5%and 87.1%respectively,and that the sensitive rate of haemophilus influenzae to amoxicillin /clavu-lanic acid,cefotaxime,cefaclor,tetracycline, cefuroxime and ofloxacin was higher than 90%.Isolates from adults were more sensitive to ampicillin and rifampicin than those from children ,but for tetracycline , isolates from children were more sensitive than those from adults .52 strains were positive to β-lactamase with a rate of 25.9%, and the rate of β-lactamase positive strains from children was significantly higher than that from adults .Conclusion Haemophilus influenzae has a higher resistant rate to rifampicin.Amoxicillin /clavulanate,cefotaxime,cefaclor,cefuroxime and ofloxacin are still the effective antibiotics for the control of haemophilus influenzae

  16. Antibiotic prophylaxis compliance for clean-contaminated wounds in a district hospital in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syachroni Syachroni

    2016-01-01

    hospital in Jakarta during periodof January 1 to December 31, 2013. The data came from medical records of adult subjects who underwentsurgery with criteria clean-contaminated wound except caesareans. The standard for antibiotic based onIndonesian Ministry of Health Decree No. 2406/2011 for national antibiotics guidelines and internationalstandard guidelines for surgical prophylaxis.Results: A total of 626 subjects were included in the study. Gynecological (49.5% and genitourinary surgery(32.6% were the most frequent of surgeries performed. More than 80% of the surgery were elective. Mostcommonly administered antibiotic preoperatively as well as postoperatively was ceftriaxone (49.8%,ampicillin/sulbactam (11.7% and cefuroxime (8.3%. Overall antibiotics prophylaxis appropriatenessshowed 96.8% in surgery procedures, 21.5% in choice of antibiotic and only 2.3% in time administrationthat given 60 min before first skin incision.Conclusions: The compliance of antibiotics prophylactic for clean-contaminated wounds in a districthospital Jakarta has not been in conformity with the national guideline and international standards. (HealthScience Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:57-62Keywords: antibiotic, clean-contaminated, compliance, prophylaxis, surgery.

  17. 孝感地区儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌感染流行病学特点及耐药性分析%Study on epidemiological features and drug-resistance of respiratory infection of Haemophilus influenzae in children in Xiaogan region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东华; 李从荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study epidemiological features and drug -resistance of respiratory infection of Haemophilus influenzae (HI) in children in Xiaogan region. Methods Bacterial culture, isolation identification and drug sensitive test were performed in samples from respiratory tract secretions of 3 328 children with respiratory infections in local region from 2009-201L Epidemiological data were analyzed. Results A total of 433 strains of HI were isolated. Infection rate in group of 2-3 year-old was significantly higher than those of other age groups (P < 0,05). Type 5 HI was the most common biological form (39.7%), Most of the strains could be serotyped, of which type A was most common. Resistance rates of HI to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and chloramphenicol were 21.4%-44,8%, 31.6%-59,3% and 10.2% -24.7%, Resistance rates to levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime and ampicillin/shubatan were all below 10%. Positive rate of β-lactamase was 24.0%. Conclusion Haemophilus influenzae is one of the most common causes of respiratory infections in children in the region, with higher in winter, common in 2 -3 year-old age. Positive rate of β-lactamase increases year by year. Cephalosporin and azithromycin are sensitive drugs suitable for children.%目的 探讨孝感地区儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌感染流行病学特点及耐药性分析.方法 总结本地区2009-2011年3328例呼吸道感染患儿的流行病学资料,对其呼吸道分泌物标本进行细菌培养、分离、鉴定、药敏试验.结果 共分离出流感嗜血杆菌433株,2~3岁组感染率明显高于其他年龄组(P<0.05).流感嗜血杆菌的生物学分型以5型最多(39.7%);血清学分型以可分型株为主(67.2%),其中a型最多.流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西林、磺胺甲(恶)唑、氯霉素的耐药率分别为21.4%~44.8%、31.6%~59.3%、10.2%~24.7%,对左氧氟沙星、环丙沙星、阿奇霉素、头孢噻肟、头孢呋辛、

  18. 96株儿童肺炎链球菌耐药情况分析%Resistance of 96 strains of streptococcus pneumoniae in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊有; 姜静; 蒋德升; 尚宁; 施毅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate antibiotic resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae to children in Nanjing.Methods Totally 96 strains of streptococcus pneumoniae were collected to test the MICs of various antibiotics by agar dilution method according to the approved standard of CLIS.Results Among 96 strains of streptococcus pneumoniae ,63 (65.6%) strains were resistant to penicillin ( MIC≥2 mg/L).87.5% ,29.2%,8.3% and 4.2% of streptococcus pneumoniae were resistant against the cefuroxime,cefotaxim,amoxicillin ,and ceftriaxone ,retrospectively.The resistance rates to other antibiotic agents, such as erythromycin, azithromycin,tetracycline,and Chloram-phenicol were 96.9% ,95.8% ,95.8% ,94.8%, respectively.All 96 strains of streptococcus pneumoniae were sensitive to vancomycin, tigocycline and linezolid.Conclusion The antibiotic resistance to streptococcus pneumoniae is serious in Nanjing.Most of them are multi-resistant strains.Except for vancomycin,tigecycline,linezolid, and ceftriaxone, most antibiotic agents have lost the reactivities against streptococcus pneumoniae.%目的 了解南京地区儿童感染肺炎链球菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药性.方法 琼脂稀释法测定96株肺炎链球菌对14种抗菌药物最低抑菌浓度.结果 96株肺炎链球菌中,耐青霉素肺炎链球菌(penicillin resist streptococcus pneumoniae,PRSP)最小抑菌浓度(minimal inhibitory concentration,MIC)≥2mg/L的检出率为65.6%;头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、阿莫西林、头孢曲松的耐药率依次为87.5%、29.2%、8.3%和4.2%;红霉素、四环素、阿奇霉素和克林霉素耐药率分别为96.9%、95.8%、95.8%、94.8%;万古霉素、替加环素、利奈唑胺均敏感.结论 南京地区儿童肺炎链球菌对青霉素、红霉素、阿奇霉素、克林霉素和四环素、头孢呋辛等抗生素耐药性高,应注意合理选择用药.

  19. Microbiological Study On Respiratory Tract Infections In Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *A. H. Eldeeb and **E.M. Khashan

    2006-09-01

    .48%, amoxycillin-clavulanic (62.34%, cefuroxime (62.09%, lincomycin (61.83%, vancomycin (61.07%, chloramphenicol (57%, cephalexin (48.35%, cephapirin (45.29%, erythromycin (44.78%, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (43%. Amoxycillin and tetracycline were the least active ((36.64% and 32.06% respectively. Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to amoxycillin were tested for B-lactamase production. Out of the tested strains, 62.5% were B- lactamase producers and it may be responsible for the resistance to amoxycillin. In conclusion, the study revealed that evaluation of respiratory tract infections and antimicrobial susceptibility is still in need for more studies. This is due to the continuous development of newly resistant strains and the relatively little number of isolates in some species. Moreover, the differences in the previous antimicrobial treatment, the history of subclinical infections and the immune status of patients involved in each study have increased the difficulty in evaluation.

  20. 48株流感嗜血杆菌耐药性分析及β-内酰胺酶基因检测%Analysis on antimicrobial resistance and beta-lactamases gene detection of 48 haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂和翠; 王中新; 沈继录

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解本地区流感嗜血杆菌的分布及耐药性,为指导临床合理用药提供依据.方法 k-B法进行药敏试验,玻片法测定β-内酰胺酶.PCR扩增TEM及ROB型β-内酰胺酶基因.结果 48株流感嗜血杆菌主要分布于呼吸内科和门诊.对复方新诺明、四环素和氨苄西林耐药率分别为62.50%、35.42% 和22 92%;阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾、氨曲南耐药率为12.50%;氨苄西林/舒巴坦、头孢噻肟、头孢拉定、头孢曲松、阿奇霉素、氯霉素耐药率为8.33%;头孢吡肟、头孢呋辛、环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星耐药率为6.25%.哌拉西林/三唑巴坦、亚胺培南敏感率高为100%.10株氨苄西林耐药菌株均产β-内酰胺酶,产酶率为20.83%,且均检测到TEM基因.结论 复方新诺明和四环素已不再适于临床治疗流感嗜血杆菌引起的感染.氨苄西林仍可作为临床经验用药.哌拉西林/三唑巴坦和亚胺培南抗菌活性高,可望作为治疗耐氨苄西林流感嗜血杆菌感染的理想用药.喹诺酮类药物耐药率高,应引起重视.流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西林耐药的主要机制为产TEM型β-内酰胺酶.%To investigate antimicrobial resistance and genotypes of β-lactamase of in this erea , and guide clinical rational drug use effectively. Methods Kirby-Bauer method was applied for the drug susceptibility test and nitrocefin slide test was used to detect β-lactamase. The genotypes of β-lactamase were detected by PCR. Results A total of 48 strains of haemophilus influenzae were mainly distributed in department of respiratory and outpatient service. The resistant straint to compound sulf-amethoxazole, ampicillin and tetrocycline were 62. 50% , 35. 42% ,22. 92% respectively, the resistant rate to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftriaxome, aztreonam, ciprofloxa-cin and levofloxacin was 12.50% ,the resistant rate to ampicillin-sulbactam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, azithromycin, chlorampheniol was 8. 33% ;the

  1. Determination of cefoperazone and sulbactam by LC-MS/MS in plasma and ultrafiltrate of patients undergone continuous renal replacement therapy%液相色谱-串联质谱法测定连续肾脏替代治疗患者血浆及超滤液中头孢哌酮与舒巴坦浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王睿华; 程龙妹; 曲恒燕; 郝光涛; 刘泽源; 夏鹄

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a sensitiv e and specific LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of cefoperazone and sulbactam in plasma and ultrafiltrate of patients undergone continuous renal replacement therapy(CRRT). Methods Cefuroxime axetil was used as the internal standard,the plasma samples were separated on an WatersAtlantis dC18 column (150 mm× 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm). A tandem mass spectrometer equipped with ESI was used as the detector and operated in the mode of multiple reaction monitoring.Quantitive analysis of[M-H]-ions were m/z 644.1→528.1(cefoperazone), m/z 231.8→188.0(sulbactam) and m/z 509.3→206.9(the internal standard, IS), respectively. Results The linear range of cefoperazone and sulbactam in human plasma and ultrafiltrate were(10-500) and(6-300)μg/ml, respectively. Extraction recoveries were more than 90.0%, and intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation was less than 15%. The matrix effect of plasma and ultrafiltrate showed that the matrix effect of the two media had little influence on the measurement of cefoperazone, sulbactam and IS. Conclusion The method is simple, fast, and highly sensitive. The two drugs can be detected simultaneously in the same sample. It is appropriate to monitor drug concentration in plasma and ultrafiltrate of the patients undergone CRRT. Sieving coefficient could be calculated and provide an accurate basis for dose adjustment.%目的:建立液相色谱-串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS)测定连续肾脏替代治疗(continuous renal replacement therapy, CRRT)患者血浆及超滤液中头孢哌酮与舒巴坦浓度。方法以头孢呋辛酯为内标,采用WatersAtlantis dC18色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5.0μm)进行分离,通过串联质谱仪,以多反应监测方式进行测定。用于定量分析的离子对分别是m/z 644.1→528.1(头孢哌酮)、m/z 231.8→188.0(舒巴坦)和m/z 509.3→206.9〔头孢呋辛酯,内标(IS)〕。结果头孢哌酮在10~500

  2. 132株奇异变形杆菌的临床分布及药敏分析%Clinical distribution and drug sensitivity analysis of 132 strains of Proteus mirabilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马巧红; 陈群英; 何娟妃

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical distribution and drug resistance of Proteus mirabilis isolated in Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital, and provide guidance for clinical medication. Method The authors collected 132 strains of Proteus mirabilis isolated from their hospital during June 1, 2009 to May 31 , 2011. The clinical isolates were identified by VITEK-60 of Bio-Merieux oi France. Antibiotic susceptivity test was done by Kirby-Bauer method. And quality control was done with reference strains. Result Most of the clinical specimens came from urine (51.50% ) , followed by wound secretion (21.21% ) , vaginal discharge ( 19. 70% ) , and others (7.59% ). Proteus mirabilis was more sentive to the following antibiotics; Amikacin, Aztreonam, Meropenem, Imipenem, Cefazolin, Cefuroxime axetil, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, Cefotaxime, Maxipime, Cefoxitin, Roxithromycin, Ampicillin/sulbactam, Piperacillin/tazobactam, and Cefoperazone/sulbactam, respectively. Conclusion It is important to strengthen the separation, identification and resistance test of Proteus mirabilis to guide clinical selection of antihioties.%目的 了解宁波市妇女儿童医院奇异变形杆菌的临床分布和耐药情况,为临床合理用约提供依据.方法 对该院2009年6月1日至2011年5月31日期间分离的132株奇异变形杆菌进行分析,菌株鉴定采用法国生物梅里埃公司的VITEK 60分析仪,药敏试验采用K-B法,用参考菌株作质量控制.结果 该院分离的奇异变形杆菌主要来自尿液(51.50%),其次是创口分泌物(21.21%),再次是阴道分泌物(19.70%),其他(7.59%).对奇异变形杆菌敏感率较高的抗生素是:丁胺卡那霉素、氨曲南、美罗培南、亚胺培南、头孢唑林、头孢呋辛酯、头孢曲松、头孢他啶、头孢噻肟、马斯平、头孢西丁、罗红霉素、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦和头孢哌酮/舒巴坦.结论 加强奇异变形杆菌的分离鉴定及耐药性的测定,

  3. ICU患者感染病原菌分布与耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of pathogens in ICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 徐恩洁; 季萍; 于湘友

    2015-01-01

    pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis was 48 .9% ,36 .0% and 9 .1% among gram‐negative bacteria .Enterobacteriaceae had resistance >50 .0% to cefazo‐lin ,cefuroxime ,ceftriaxone ,and cefotaxime .CONCLUSION The problem of multidrug resistance in ICU is still serious .Actively early screening and obtaining the local bacterial epidemiology helps to guide clinical prevention and treatment .

  4. Antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Guizhou Province%贵州省幽门螺杆菌临床菌株的抗生素耐药现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苓; 胡林; 刘娅琳; 周力; 车筑萍; 谭庆华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the Helicobaeter pylori ( H. pylori) resistance to multiple antibiotics and the clinical features of antibiotic-resistance patients. Methods 30 H. pylori strains were successfully isolated. Resistance to different antibiotics, including clarithromycin (CLA), amoxieillin (AMO) and metronidazole (MTZ) were determined by Kirby-Bauer and E-test methods. Information of clinical features was gathered. Results Kirby-Bauer results showed 20.00% , 3.33% , 13.33% , 30.00% , 6.67% , 0, 0 of the strains were resistant to AMO, levofloxcin, gentamicin, CLA, tetracycline, cefuroxime or SMZ-TMP respectively. E-test results manifested that 63. 33% , 26.67% , 33.33% of the strains were resistant to MTZ, AMO or CLA respectively. The resistance rate of H. pylori to MTZ in male patients (77. 78% ) was higher than that in female patients (41. 67% ) ( P 0. 05 ). There was no significant difference in CLA and AMO resistance rate among sex ages or disease. Conclusion Resistance of H. pylori to antibodies should be pay more concern in Guizhou province. Resistant rate of H. pylori to MTZ is the highest compared with other antibodies, especially in male patients with peptic ulcer around 30 ~ 60 ages.%目的 检测贵州省幽门螺杆菌( Helicobacter pylori,H.pylori)临床菌株对多种抗生素的耐药率,并分析甲硝唑(MTZ)、克拉霉素(CLA)、阿莫西林(AMO)耐药菌株的临床特征.方法 以贵州地区30株培养成功的H.pylori临床菌株为研究对象,采用Kirby-Bauer及E-test法测定菌株对MTZ、CLA、AMO等多种抗生素的耐药性.分析MTZ、CLA、AMO耐药菌株与敏感菌株患者性别、年龄及疾病种类的差异.结果 Kirby-Bauer法显示H.pylori临床菌株对AMO、左氧氟沙星、庆大霉素、CLA、四环素、头孢呋肟、复方新诺明的耐药率分别为20.00%、3.33%、13.33%、30.00%、6.67%、0、0;E-test法显示H.pylori临床菌株对MTZ、AMO、CLA耐药率分别为63.33%、26.67% 、33.33

  5. 支气管扩张症急性发作感染病原菌及其耐药性特征分析%Infectious pathogens distribution and drug resistance analysis for patients with bronchiectasis at acute epi-sodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈效库

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨支气管扩张症急性发作患者的感染病原菌分布及其耐药性情况。方法对本院收治的133例支气管扩张症感染加重期患者的痰培养、病原菌及药敏进行记录并分析。结果133例患者中痰培养样品出现阳性有62例,阳性率为46.6%,并从中分离得到82株菌株,且革兰阴性菌占85.4%(70/82),革兰阳性菌占11.0%(9/82),真菌占3.7%(3/82)。所有病原菌种主要以铜绿假单胞菌为主,占36.6%(30/82)。其次是肺炎克雷伯菌,占15.9%(13/82),流感嗜血菌占12.2%(10/82)。药敏实验结果表明分离所得的多种革兰阴性菌均具有多重耐药性,尤其是肺炎克雷伯菌和大肠埃希菌,对环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星、氨苄西林、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟的耐药率均>50%,显示较强的耐药能力。结论支气管扩张症急性发作患者感染的病原菌绝大多数为革兰阴性菌,且普遍耐药性较强。%Objective To explore the infectious pathogens distribution and drug resistance of patients with bronchiectasis at acute episodes. Methods The sputum of 133 patients with acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis was collected and cultured to analyze the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Results 46 cases of sputum culture were positive, accounting for 46. 6%. There were 82 stains isolated from those patients, which in-cluded 85. 4% of gram-negative bacteria (70/82), 36. 6% of gram-positive bacteria (9/82) and 3. 7% of fungi. The main pathogens was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (85. 4%), followed by klebsiella pneumoniae (15. 9%) and He-mophilus influenzae (12. 2%). Gram-negative bacterium showed multiple drug resistance, which especially Klebsiel-la pneumoniae and E. Coli showed a stronger drug-resistance to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ampicillin, cefuroxime and cefotaxime. Conclusion The main infectious pathogens of patients with acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis are gram

  6. Etiología y sensibilidad bacteriana en infección urinaria en niños. Hospital Infantil Club Noel y Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2007-06-01

    gentamicina. Mostraron sensibilidad intermedia entre 61% y 70%: amoxacilina-clavulanato, cefaclor, ciprofloxacina, nitrofurantoína y baja sensibilidad (<60%: amoxacilina, ampicilina, cefadroxilo, cefalexina, cefradina, trimetoprim-sulfa, ampicilina-sulbactan, cefalotina, cefazolina.Conclusiones: Escherichia coli fue la bacteria que más produjo infección urinaria en la población estudiada. Para el manejo ambulatorio se recomiendan como medicamentos empíricos de primera línea los antibióticos orales que mostraron mayor sensibilidad como cefuroxime, cefproxil, cefixime y ácido nalidíxico, mientras se procesa el urocultivo. A pesar de la buena sensibilidad que mostró la norfloxacina, se debe reservar su uso sólo en casos especiales donde haya resistencia a los antibióticos mencionados antes. Debe evitarse en primera instancia el uso de medicamentos como cefalexina, trimetoprim, ampicilina y amoxacilina. Si el estado clínico del paciente amerita hospitalización, los medicamentos parenterales recomendados serían: ceftriazone o amikacina.

  7. 随州地区阴道加德纳菌生物型分布及药敏结果分析%Biotype distribution and drug sensitivity of gardnerella vaginalis in suizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明水; 刘杨; 李玲

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the current situation of infection and biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis in suizhou area. METHODS Gardnerella vaginalis strains were isolated and cultured from vaginal secretions of Obstetrics and gynecology patients, either inpatients or outpatients. The isolated strains were typed by Piot. Susceptibility test was performed by K-B method. RESULTS The overall detection rate of GV in 326 patients suffered vaginopathy was 35.9%, all types were detected with the exception of 7 types. The sensitivity of ciprofloxacin, gentamycin,ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime, azithromycin, arilin, SMZ-TMP, tazocin, and sulperazonewere49.6%, 21.4%, 35.0%, 56.4%, 66.7%, 59.0%, 87.2%, 54.7%, 46.2%,84.6%, 96.6%and 86.3% respectively. CONCLUSION The majority of types of GV isolated from BV suffers in the suizhou area are type 1,5,6 which are comparatively susceptive to cefepime, SMZ-TMP, tazocin, and sulperazone while are more resistant to ampicillin, arilin and aminoglycosides antibacterials.%目的 了解随州地区阴道加德纳菌(GV)的感染情况及生物型分布情况,分析药敏结果 为临床提供有价值的参考依据. 方法 对妇产科门诊和住院患者的宫颈或阴道分泌物进行分离培养,对分离的菌株进行鉴定并采用Piot分型法分型,再采用K-B法检测抗菌药物敏感性. 结果 326例细菌性阴道病(BV)患者GV的总检出率为35.9%,除7型外其余各型均检测到;GV对环丙沙星、庆大霉素、氨苄西林、头孢唑林、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、头孢吡肟、阿奇霉素、甲硝唑、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、头孢哌酮/舒巴坦的敏感率分别为49.6%、21.4%、35.0%、56.4%、66.7%、59.0%、87.2%、54.7%、46.2%、84.6%、96.6%、86.3%. 结论 随州地区BV患者分离出的GV主要为1、5、6型,对头孢吡肟、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶以及哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、头孢哌酮/舒巴坦有

  8. 疏风解毒胶囊治疗急性化脓性扁桃体炎57例%Shufeng Detoxification Capsules for Treating Acute Suppurative Tonsillitis in 57 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东彤

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of Shufeng Detoxification Capsules in treating acute suppurative tonsillitis. Methods Totally 110 patients with acute suppurative tonsillitis were randomized into the treatment group( n=57)and the control group( n=53) according to the sequence of seeing doctor. The control group received cefuroxime and other conventional treatment,while on this basis the treatment group was added with Shufeng Detoxification Capsules. According to the clinical situation,the fever patients was given the defervesce treatment. The sore throat disappearance time,defervesce time and clinical effect after 5 d were observed and compared between the two groups. The throat condition was followed up. Results The sore throat disappearance time and defervesce time in the treatment group were significantly shorter than those in the control group( P < 0. 05);the effective rate in the observation group was 98. 25%,which is significantly higher than 86. 79% in the control group with( P < 0. 05);the follow up after 1 month showed that 4 cases of pharyngeal discomfort in the treatment group had the history of chronic tonsillitis,while in 11 cases of pharyngeal discomfort in the control group,9 cases had the history of chronic tonsillitis,the difference was statistically significant( P < 0. 05). Conclusion Shufeng Detoxification Capsules combined with the anti-infective therapy can accelerate the recovery in the patients with acute suppu-rative tonsillitis,especially can block the chronic process of acute attack of chronic tonsillitis and reach the long term efficacy.%目的:观察疏风解毒胶囊治疗急性化脓性扁桃体炎的临床疗效。方法将110例患者按就诊顺序随机分为治疗组57例和对照组53例。对照组患者给予头孢呋辛等常规治疗,治疗组患者在对照组基础上加用疏风解毒胶囊治疗;发热患者根据临床情况给予退热治疗。观察两组患者咽痛消失时间、退热时间,5d后

  9. Comparison of improving newborn oral medication compliance%提高新生儿口服给药依从性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何苑谷; 黄芳泳; 甘翠莲; 江文

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To improve newborn oral medication compliance for maximum effect and reduce adverse reaction.Methods:100 newborns with needing oral cefuroxime axetil tablets were randomly divided into two groups.The observation group and the control group were given early contact and sucking in 30 minutes after birth.After the doctors maked out doctor's advice,the observation group were given medical health education for puerpera and oral medication when sucking 5 minutes.The control group administrated a drug at conventional unified time.The neonatal reflex of two group was compared,and the differences of no sucking,blow bubbles,nausea and vomiting, spill medicine and other resisting action impacted on the next time sucking.Results:Neonatal mouth blowing bubbles,neonatal nausea and vomiting and spill medicine were significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The newborn medication compliance of using the temperature 37 ℃ 12.5%~15% glucose water in meal feeding has good effect.Neonatal mouth blowing bubbles,neonatal nausea and vomiting and spill medicine occur less, and the newborn is quiet sleep.There is no significant difference between distance time needed for active suck next time.%目的:提高新生儿口服给药依从性,发挥最大的疗效、减少不良反应。方法:将100例需要口服头孢呋辛酯片的新生儿随机分成两组,观察组和对照组均出生30 min内行早接触早吸吮,观察组医师开出医嘱后对产妇进行用药健康教育和吸吮5 min时口服给药,对照组常规统一时间给药。比较两组新生儿反应:不吸吮、口吹泡泡,恶心、呕吐、溢药等抗拒动作,对下次吸吮的影响等方面的差异。结果:观察组新生儿口吹泡泡、新生儿恶心呕吐、溢药等发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:采用温度37℃12.5%~15%葡萄糖水在餐时喂药新生儿服药依从性效果好,新生儿口吹泡泡、恶心、呕吐

  10. 2006-2011年浙江省杭州市萧山区流感嗜血杆菌耐药性监测%Surveillance of drug resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in Hangzhou.Zhejiang, 2006 -2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭远瑜; 吴伟志; 沈丽芳; 董华丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查了解流感嗜血杆菌的临床分布及耐药情况,为临床用药提供依据.方法 对2006年1月至2011年12月浙江萧山医院临床分离的流感嗜血杆菌,用ATB嗜血杆菌药敏板条测定抗菌药物的敏感性,用头孢硝噻吩纸片法测定β-内酰胺酶,所有数据用WHONET 5.6软件进行回顾性分析.结果 共检出流感嗜血杆菌375株,对复方新诺明、氨苄西林耐药分别为248株(66.1%)和127株(33.8%),对氯霉素、头孢克洛和四环素耐药分别为38株(10.2%)、52株(13.8%)和55株(14.7%);其他几种常用药物阿莫西林/克拉维酸、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、利福平和氧氟沙星对流感嗜血杆菌保持较好的抗菌活性(耐药率≤5.0%);β-内酰胺酶阳性菌株对多种药物的耐药率显著高于阴性菌株(P<0.01).结论 复方新诺明耐药率高而不宜用于流感嗜血杆菌感染的治疗,氨苄西林应慎重用于经验治疗;流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西林耐药率呈下降趋势,对二代头孢菌素耐药率呈上升趋势,临床应根据药敏结果合理使用抗菌药物.%Objective To understand the clinical distribution and drug resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in Xiaoshan district in Hangzhou and provide evidence for clinical antibiotic use. Methods The drug susceptibility of H. influenzae strains isolated in Zhejiang Xisoahn hospital from January 2006 to December 2011 was tested by using ATB HAEMO strip, β-lactamases was detected with Nitrocefin discs test, and the results were analyzed retrospectively by using WHONTET 5. 6 software. Results A total of 375 H. influenzae isolates were tested, the resistance rate was 66.1% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ), 33.8% to ampicillin, 10.2% to chloramphenicol, 13.8% to cefaclor and 14.7% to tetracycline. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, rifampicin and ofloxac in had good antibacterial activity on H. influenzae (the resistance rate ≤5.0% ). The

  11. Analysis of usage of antibacterial drugs of outpatient services in the first quarter of 2014 of Zhenyuan People's Hospital%镇沅县人民医院2014年第一季度门诊抗菌药物使用情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓柳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the usage of antibacterial drugs of outpatient services of our hospital to provide reference for clinical rational drug use. Methods 719 prescriptions of antibacterial drugs in outpatient services were ex-tracted from the system of our hospital from December 26,2013 to March 25,2014 applying prescription evaluation software,DDDs,rationality and economy of antibacterial drugs were evaluated through HIS system inquiring about the proportion of antimicrobial prescription,the total usage and consumption amount of antibacterial drugs at the same peri-od. Results Antimicrobial prescription accounted for 19.13%of the common prescription in outpatient services,the dis-ease mainly in the respiratory system,digestive system,genitourinary system infection;administration (80.53%) was main-ly intravenous injection;only 52 prescriptions (7.23%) was unreasonable use,among them the unqualified selection of drugs accounted for the highest (73.08%);the former 3 types of antibacterial drugs use of higher frequency was cephalosporins , macrolides , Beta lactamase inhibitory type , cefuroxime sodium for injection in ordering of DDDs and consumption amount were listed in first. Conclusion When antimicrobial drugs were used,the patient’s condition,the characteristics of pathogenic micro-organisms,the antibacterial spectrum,indicatio and adverse reaction of drug,price of drug and other factors should be considered fully to further improve the level of rational use of antibacterial drugs to make patient’s medication achieve real safety,effectiveness,economy.%目的:了解本院门诊抗菌药物的使用情况,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法应用处方点评软件从本院系统中抽取2013年12月26日~2014年3月25日门诊抗菌药物处方719张,并通过HIS系统查询同时期门诊抗菌药物处方比例、门诊抗菌药物总使用量及消耗金额,评估抗菌药物使用频度(DDDs)、合理性及经济性。结果门诊抗菌

  12. 淋巴瘤化疗患者医院感染病原菌分析及护理对策%Pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in lymphoma patients undergoing chemotherapy and nursing countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小艳

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the distribution of the pathogens causing nosocomial infections in lymphoma patients undergoing chemotherapy so as to guide the clinical nursing. METHODS A total of 120 patients with nosocomial infections were chosen as the study objects during the chemotherapy of lymphoma, The oral cavity, sputum, urine,and blood were sampled for the bacterial cultured and drug susceptibility testing. RESULTS The nosocomial infections frequently occurred in 7 to 14 days after the chemotherapy. Of all the patients investigated, there were 89(74. 17%) patients with pulmonary infections, 19 (15. 83%) patients with urinary tract infections, and 12 (10. 00%) patients with other infections. A total of 196 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated,among which Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli were the predominant species and were highly sensitive to imipenem, the drug resistance rates were 0 and 1. 39%, respectively, while the two species were not sensitive to amikacin, gentamicin, ampicillin, piperacillin, cefuroxime, axtreonam, ciprofloxacin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, cefepime and meropenem. Totally 34 patients were tested with the fungal infections, and Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus, and Mucoraceae were the most prevalent pathogens. CONCLUSION It is necessary to strengthen the nursing interventions in the patients undergoing lymphoma chemotherapy so as to prevent the nosocomial infections. It is of great significance in guiding the clinical treatment to perform the bacterial culture and drug susceptibility testing.%目的 观察淋巴瘤化疗患者医院感染病原菌的分布特点,为临床护理工作提供指导.方法 选取120例淋巴瘤化疗期间并发医院感染的患者,留取口腔、痰、尿、血液等进行细菌培养及药敏试验.结果 医院感染多发生于化疗的7~14 d;本组患者肺部感染89例,占74.17%,泌尿系感染19例,占15.83%,其他感染12例,占10.00%;培养共检出病原菌196

  13. 根据我院第三季度致病菌流行情况及耐药性分析促进医院合理用药%According to my Courtyard third quarter of Pathogens of epidemic Situation and Analysis of resistance to Promote Rational drug use in hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡耀中

    2014-01-01

    Objective Through comparative analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in our hospital,and provide the basis for clinical rational use of antimicrobial drugs standard. Methods The epidemiology and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in microbial experimental data reports in our hospital from 2013 July to September were col ected from underlying infection rate statistics, analysis.Results The third quarter of 2013 specimens in 3 180 cases, bacterial culture and drug sensitive test training+were detected in 18 species of bacteria,a total of 277 cases,accounting for 8.7%,including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiel a pneumoniae, Bauman Acinetobacter ranked in the top 6 position;antibacterial drugs in the hospital the amount of sales of the top 10 were Cefoperazone/sulbactam sodium, Alosi Lin,etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection,meropenem and ornidazole injection and clindamycin, cefuroxime sodium,ceftriaxone sodium,cefazolin and amoxicil in/clavulanate potassium.Conclusion The antimicrob ial drug use process exists unreasonable, should further strengthen the supervision of the antibacterial drugs, improve the level of clinical rational use of drugs.%目的:通过对比致病菌对我院抗菌药物敏感性及耐药性的分析,为规范临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法对我院2013年7月至9月感染患者送检标本的微生物实验数据报告的致病菌流行情况及耐药率进行统计并分析。结果2013年第三季度送检标本3180例,细菌培养及培养+药敏检测共检测出细菌18种,共计277例,占8.7%,其中大肠埃希菌、表皮葡萄球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、铜绿假单胞菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、鲍曼不动杆菌排在前6位;本院销售金额排名前10位的抗菌药物分别为头孢哌酮/舒巴坦钠、阿洛西林、依替米星氯化钠注射液、美罗培南、奥硝

  14. Study on Acinetobacter baumannii plasmid with 3 types of beta-lactamase genes in a burn ward%关于携带3种β内酰胺酶基因的鲍氏不动杆菌质粒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 李文林; 石小玉; 曾元临; 徐小文; 赵林

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the transferrable character of Aciuetobacter baumanni i(AB)plasraids with 3 types of beta-lactamase gene. Methods The plasmid of multi-drug resistant AB(donor)isolated from burn wound were transferred to E.coil ATCC25922 (receptor) through conjugation,and drug sensitivity was also observed.Drug-resistant gene and Stability of filial generation and zygote were analyzed by PCR. Results The dug-resistance of donor plasmids to Sulfamethoxazole, Ampicillin, Cefalotin, Cetpodoxime,Cefuroxime,Imipenem/Cilastatin and Ampicillin/SuIbactam,and three types of beta-lactamase gene were transferred to the receptor,and were also stably transmitted for passages. The minimum inhibitor concentration ot receptor to Sulfamethoxazole was>2 mg/L after conjugation with donor,and inhibitory character could be transferred to next generation. Conclusion blaTEM-1,blaPER-1 and blaOXA-23 genes carried in the ptasmid of AB can be transferred through conjugation and stably transmitted for passages,and it is one of the molecular mechanisms for AB with multi-drug resistance after burn infections.%目的 了解携带3种β内酰胺酶基因的鲍氏不动杆菌质粒的町传递性.方法 选取从烧伤创面分离出的多重耐药鲍氏不动杆菌(供体菌),将之与大肠埃希菌ATCC 25922(受体菌)进行耐药质粒接合、药物敏感试验,并采用PCR分析接合子及其子代的耐药基因型、传代稳定性. 结果鲍氏不动杆菌通过接合将其携带对磺胺甲恶唑、氨苄西林、头孢噻吩、头孢博肟、头孢呋辛、亚胺培南/两司他丁和氨苄西林/舒巴坦的耐药性质粒及3种耐药基因传递给受体菌(例如经接合,使受体菌对磺胺甲恶唑的最低抑菌浓度>2 mg/L),且可稳定传代. 结论鲍氏不动杆菌质粒上携带可接合传递并稳定传代的β内酰胺酶基冈(blaTEM-1、blaPER-1、blaOXAS-23),是烧伤感染后其具有多重耐药性的分子生物学机制之一.

  15. 小儿下呼吸道感染肺炎链球菌耐药性分析%Drug resistance analysis on streptococcus pneumoniae from lower respiratory tract infection in children patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄诚花; 李林祖; 莫伟雄; 吕波; 何俊君; 黄天然

    2013-01-01

    Objective To learn about the drug resistance condition of streptococcus pneumoniae in children patients in our hospital.Methods We analyzed the drug resistance status of streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in children' s sputum for 3 consecutive times from Jan 2010 to Jan 2012.The disc diffusion method (K-B method) was used,the results of susceptibility testing was according to NCCL200 version control quality control standard of judgment,judging intermediary,resistance and sensitive.Statistical analysis used SPSS 13.0 statistical software,data of each group was compared with Chi-squared methods.Results All strains were sensitive to vancomycin,followed by levofloxacin (drug resistance rate 3.3%),strains of erythromycin resistance rates was the highest (90.2%),followed by clindamycin (89.3%).Cotrimoxazole,penicillin (82.7%) sensitive rates were on a downward treud.And drug resistance rates of amoxicillin potassium clavulanate,mezlocillin sulbactam,cefuroxime and cefotaxime were 13.1%,16.4%,18.9% and 19.7% respectively.Conclusion For pediatric winter respiratory infections,streptococcus was very common especially in infants and young children,early drug use was ineffective and prone to complications,concurrent empyema,lung abscess,pneumonia,myocarditis,and even septic shock,it is necessary to carry out dynamic monitoring in drug resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae to guide clinical selection of antibiotics,to improve the cure rate and reduce complications.%目的 了解我院住院患儿感染肺炎链球菌的耐药性状况.方法 收集儿科2010年1月至2012年1月患儿连续3次痰培养肺炎链球菌进行耐药分析.采用纸片扩散法(K-B法),药敏试验结果按NCCL200版判断标准,对照质控菌株判断敏感、中介、耐药.结果 所有菌株对万古霉素敏感,耐药率为0,左氧氟沙星敏感率率较高,耐药率为3.3%,菌株对红霉素的耐药率最高,其次为克林霉素.红霉素、克林霉素耐药率为90

  16. Actual State of Haemophilus Influenza in Children with Respiratory Tract Infection in Xiaogan%孝感地区儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌感染现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳华; 刘东华; 鲁艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infections state and antibiotic resistance of Haemophilus influenza in children with respiratory tract infection in Xiaogan,so as to provide basis for medical treatment and to guide the reasonable use Haemophilus influenza in clinic. Methods The specimens of clinical sputum and swabes samples from children outpatient and be hospitalized with respiratory tract infection were collected,incubated and identified from January 2008 to January 2010 in Xiaogan. Drug susceptibility test was conducted by kirby-bauer method. Nitrocefin slip test was applied to detect β-lactamase. Results Totally 92 Haemophilus influenza strains were isolated during 2008 -2010. The resistance rate to ampicillin.smz + tmp, chloramphenicol, levofloxacin,ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, ampicillin/sulbactam were 43. 5% , 57. 6% , 3. 3% , 26% , 4.3% ,2.2% ,4.3% ,8.7% , and 8. 7% respectively. The prevalence of p-lactamase was 32.6%. Conclusion The high drug antibiotic resistance and β-lactamase positive rate of Haemophilus influenza isolated from respiratory tract infection of children by multi-resistance in Xiaogan were serious. It must be paid highly attention by clinicians. The use of the second,third generation of cephalosporin and β-lactamase was the first choice of treatment.%目的 研究孝感地区儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌感染现状及耐药性,为临床抗感染治疗提供依据,以便有效指导临床合理用药.方法 对孝感市中心医院2008年1月-2010年1月儿科门诊及住院患儿呼吸道感染患儿的鼻咽分泌物及深部吸痰,进行细菌培养,菌种鉴定,并用K-B法进行药敏试验,头孢硝噻酚试验检测β-内酰胺酶.结果2年间共分离出Hi 92株,对氨苄西林、复方新诺明、氯霉素的耐药率较高,分别为43.5%、57.6%、26%,对左氧氟沙星、环丙沙星、阿奇霉素、头孢噻肟、头孢呋辛、氨苄西林/舒巴坦的敏感性均较高,耐药率分别为3

  17. Distribution and drug resistance analysis of Streptococcus pneumonia and Haemophilus influenzae%肺炎链球菌和流感嗜血杆菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静; 韦桂雪

    2013-01-01

    . The resistance rates of Haemophilus influenzae to ampicillin、cotrimoxazole and cefuroxime were high, and 64.17%Haemophilus influenzae producedβ-lactamase. The resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to erythromycin、chloramphenicol、tetracycline、clindamycin were serious, and there were 47 (56.63%) isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were penicillin non-susceptible (PNSP). Conclusions:The resistance of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were serious. Monitoring the resistance of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae will help to reduce the generation of resistant strains.

  18. 128株流感嗜血菌对抗菌药物耐药性分析%Drug resistance of 128 strains of haemophilus influenzae to antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有忠; 都青; 李娜

    2011-01-01

    目的 对襄樊市中医院2008-2009年临床微生物室分离出的流感嗜血菌耐药性及耐药趋势进行回顾性分析,为指导临床合理用药提供科学依据;同时优化检测方法,提高检出率.方法 对128株流感嗜血菌进行β-内酰胺酶测定,采用K-B法进行体外药敏试验.结果 128例流感嗜血菌中,产β-内酰胺酶率为28.69%,对氨苄西林、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、头孢噻肟、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶、头孢呋辛、环丙沙星、阿奇霉素、左氧氟沙星、氯霉素、亚胺培南的耐药率分别为47.66%、15.63%、28.91%、56.25%、27.34%、19.53%、19.53%、29.69%、46.09%、0.结论 流感嗜血菌对亚胺培南、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、环丙沙星、阿奇霉素的敏感性较高,临床医师可选择这些药物进行治疗.%OBJECTIVE To retrospectively analyze the drug resistance trend and drug resistance of Haemophiius influenzae isolated from clinical microorganism room in the Xiangfan Traditional Chinese Medicine H ospital in the whole year of 2009, to provide scientific data for the clinical on rational drug use and optimize the detection method and improve the detection rate. METHODS The determination of β-lactamase was performed on 128 strains of HI and drug sensitivity was tested in vitro by using the method of Kirty-Bauer. RESULTS In 128 strains of H. influenzae, the β-lactamase producing rate was 28.69%, the drug resistant rates to ampicillin, ampicillin sulbactam,cefotaxime, cotrimoxazole, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, levofloxacin, chloramphenicol and imipenem were 47. 66%, 15. 63%, 28. 91%, 56. 25%, 27. 34%, 19. 53%, 19. 53%, 29.69%, 46. 09% and 0,respectively. CONCLUSION H. influenzae is sensitive to imipenem, ampicillin/sulbactam, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin, the clinicians can choose these drugs for the treatment.

  19. Distribution and Antibiotic Resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Hospital of 2010%肺炎克雷伯菌医院感染现状及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯涛; 何士彦; 安翠萍; 霍卫池; 任晓华; 丁秋蕾; 杨慧芳; 彭雯

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution and situation of antibiotic resistance of klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from our hospital in 2010, so as to provide reference for antimicrobial treatment. Methods:A total of 448 strains of klebsiella pneumoniae were retrospectively analyzed according to the source of specimens, infections in different departments and drug-resistance. Results: More than 96. 0% klebsiella pneumoniae were found to be sensitive to the carbopenems (ie. imipenem and meropenem) as well as those compound preparations (ie. cefoperazone/sulbactsm and piperacillin/tazobactam). However, to other kinds of antibiotic drugs, the drug resistance of klebsiella pneumoniae was serious. In the investigation, the highest resistance rate of klebsiella pneumoniae was present in the penicillins as ampicillin and the cephalosporins as cefazolin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime, all of them showed a critical drug resistance (more than 50. 0%). Simultaneously, to amikacin, isepamicin and levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, which respectively belonging to aminoglycosides and quinolones, a lower resistance rate of klebsiella pneumoniae varied from 20. 0% to 30.0% was confirmed. Conclusion:Klebsiella pneumoniae, isolated from the patients, has shown a high rate of resistance to routine antimicrobial agents, and even has presented multiple antibacterial resistance. So we must keep an eye on the nosocomial infection and rationally use the antimicrobial agents in order to decrease or delay the production of multi-drug resistant atrains.%目的:了解我院2010年肺炎克雷伯菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药现状及标本分布,为临床治疗提供依据.方法:采用回顾性方法纯计分析448株肺炎克雷伯菌的标本来源、忘染科室分布及耐药情况.结果:临床标本中肺炎克雷伯茼除对碳青霉烯类亚胺培南、美洛培南以及含有β-内酰胺酶抑制剂的复方制剂头孢哌酮/舒巴坦、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦

  20. Study on use density of antibiotics and variation of bacterial resistance rate in orthopedics department%骨科抗菌药物使用强度与细菌耐药率的变化趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴滨; 房德敏; 王捷; 吕鹏; 周淼; 乔红; 王学民

    2012-01-01

    /sulbactam were decreased. The drug resistant variation of E. coli, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa to ceftazidime and levofloxacin were consistent to their AUD; cefuroxime and ceftriaxone as the major prophylactic antibiotics, the variation of their AUD were not consistent with the variation of the drug resistance rates of the main pathogens. CONCLUSION The AUD of some antibacterial agents has somewhat correlation with the development of antibiotic resistance.

  1. 头孢唑肟与其他5种抗生素体外抗菌活性比较%In vitro antibacterial activity of ceftizoxime in comparison with five other agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永红; 刘健; 钟巍; 郝风兰; 杨维维

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the in vitro antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of ceftizoxime and other 5 antibiotics. Method NCCLS agar dilution method was used for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations. Results Five hundred seventy bacterial strains including 367 Gram-negative and 203 Gram-positive isolates were examined. Ceftizoxime was a potent antibiotic against Enterobacteriacaea and Streptococcus, no resistant strain was found in E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, Sh. sonnei,Sh. flexneri, P. mirabilis, M. morganii, H. influenza, S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae and M. catarralis. The MICs of ceftizoxime against major Enterobacteriacaea were comparable to those of ceftriaxone, and superior to those of ceftazidime and cefuroxime. S. marcescens was most susceptible to ceftizoxime in the agents tested with MIC50 and MIC90 of 0. 5mg/L. Conclusion Ceftizoxime still kept highly antibacterial activity after 15 years clinical application in China, it can be used as empiric therapeutic agent in the treatment of moderate and severe bacterial infections.%目的比较头孢唑肟与其他5种抗生素对临床分离菌的体外抗菌活性.方法用NCCLS2002年发布的琼脂平板法测定抗生素的最低抑菌浓度.结果本研究共测定细菌570株,其中革兰氏阴性菌367株,革兰氏阳性菌203株.头孢唑肟对肠杆菌科细菌与链球菌具有强大抗菌活性,大肠埃希氏菌、肺炎克雷伯氏菌、产气肠杆菌、志贺氏菌、奇异变形菌、摩根摩氏菌、流感噬血杆菌、肺炎链球菌、化脓链球菌、无乳链球菌、粘膜炎莫拉氏菌对头孢唑肟100%敏感.头孢唑肟对大多数肠杆菌科细菌MIC值与头孢曲松相近,远低于头孢他啶和头孢呋辛.头孢唑肟对液化沙雷氏的菌抗菌活性为所有检测药物中最强的一个,MIC50与MIC90均为0.5mg/L.结论头孢唑肟应用于临床15年后仍保持强大抗菌活性,本品可用于中重度细菌感染的经验性治疗.

  2. 产超广谱β-内酰胺酶细菌的检测及耐药性分析%Examination and Resistance Analysis of Producing Extended-spectrum β-lactamase Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈幼华; 陶健萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the resistance of ESBL strains of our hospital in recent three years and then guide the rational use of antibacterial drugs clinically. Method: Adopted the method of prospective monitoring to study 1120 strains of escherichia coli of producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase clinically separated from 2008 to 2011 in our hospital, and analyzed results of drug sensitivity. Result; The detection rate of escherichia coli of producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase in recent years was 51.1% , 52.1% and 55.6% respectively. According to the drug sensitivity test, there were high resistance of ESBLs to the 3rd generation of cephalosporins of cefuroxime and ceftriaxone and monocyclic β-lactams, as well as amin-oglycosides, flouroquinolones and sulfonamides, while sensitive to imipenem - cilastatin ( namely Taineng, because the single usage of imipenem is instable). Conclusion; Results indicate that the detection rate of escherichia coli of producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase increases year by year and there are multi-drug resistance. Clinicians should pay a high attention to it and guide the clinical rational usage of antibacterial drugs and thus control the further transmission and prevalence of ESBL strains.%目的:了解本院近三年产ESBLs大肠埃希菌的耐药性,指导临床合理使用抗菌药物.方法:采取前瞻性监测的方法对我院2008年至2011年临床分离出的1120株产ESBLs的大肠埃希菌进行监测,对药敏结果进行分析.结果:发现近三年来产ESBLs的大肠埃希菌的检出率分别是51.7%、52.7%和55.6%;药敏试验发现,ESBLs对头孢呋辛、头孢曲松等第3代头孢菌素及单环3-酰胺类抗菌药物有较高的耐药性,而对氨基糖苷类、氟喹诺酮类、磺胺类抗菌药物也有较高耐药性,但是对亚胺培南+西司他丁(也就是泰能,因为亚胺培南单用是不稳定的,临床一般不单独用)敏感.结论:研究发现,近年来产

  3. [Tonsillitis and sore throat in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, K

    2014-03-01

    fungi belong to the healthy flora and do no harm. Ten percent of the healthy children bear even streptococcus pyogenes all the time in the tonsils with no clinical signs. In these children decolonization is not necessary. Therefore, microbiological screening tests in children without symptoms are senseless and do not justify an antibiotic treatment (which is sometimes postulated by the kindergartens). The acute tonsillitis should be treated with steroids (e.g. dexamethasone), NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofene) and betalactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin or cefuroxime). With respect to the symptom reduction and primary healing the short-term late-generation antibiotic therapy (azithromycin, clarithromycin or cephalosporine for 3 to 5 days) is comparable to the long-term penicilline therapy. There is no difference in the course of healing, recurrence or microbiological resistance between the short-term penicilline therapy to the standard 10 days therapy, as well. On the other hand, only the 10 days antibiotic therapy has prooven to be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritic diseases. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease is currently 0.5 per 100.000 children in school age. The main morbidity after tonsillectomy is pain and the late hemorrhage. Posttonsillectomy bleeding can occur till the whole wound is completely healed, which is normally after 3 weeks. Life-threatening hemorrhages occur often after smaller bleedings, which can spontaneously cease. That is why every hemorrhage, even the smallest, has to be treated properly and in ward. Patients and parents have to be informed about the correct behavior in case of hemorrhage with a written consent before the surgery. The handout should contain important adresses, phone numbers and contact persons. Almost all cases of fatal outcome after tonsillectomy were due to false management of hemorrhage. Especially in small children hemorrhage can be life-threatening because of the lower blood volume and the

  4. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    fungi belong to the healthy flora and do no harm. Ten percent of healthy children even bear strepptococcus pyogenes all the time in the tonsils with no clinical signs. In these children decolonization is not necessary. Therefore, microbiological screening tests in children without symptoms are senseless and do not justify an antibiotic treatment (which is sometimes postulated by the kindergartens). The acute tonsillitis should be treated with steroids (e.g. dexamethasone), NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofene) and betalactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin or cefuroxime). With respect to the symptom reduction and primary healing the short-term late-generation antibiotic therapy (azithromycin, clarithromycin or cephalosporine for three to five days) is comparable to the long-term penicilline therapy. There is no difference in the course of healing, recurrence or microbiological resistance between the short-term penicilline therapy and the standard ten days therapy. On the other hand, only the ten days antibiotic therapy has proven to be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritic diseases. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease is currently 0.5 per 100,000 children of school age. The main morbidity after tonsillectomy is pain and the late haemorrhage. Posttonsillectomy bleeding can occur till the whole wound is completely healed, which is normally after three weeks. Life-threatening haemorrhages occur often after smaller bleedings, which can spontaneously cease. That is why every haemorrhage, even the smallest, has to be treated properly and in ward. Patients and parents have to be informed about the correct behaviour in case of haemorrhage with a written consent before the surgery. The handout should contain important addresses, phone numbers and contact persons. Almost all cases of fatal outcome after tonsillectomy were due to false management of haemorrhage. Haemorrhage in small children can be especially life-threatening because of the lower blood volume

  5. 2012-2014年海军总医院分离自无菌体液细菌的分布及耐药性分析%Analysis of bacteria distribution and drug resistance separated from sterile bodyfluid in Navy General Hospital from 2012 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁毅伟; 郝秀红; 李艳君; 钱扬会; 赵强元

    2015-01-01

    /sulbactam, Cefotetan, Ceftriaxone, Cefazolin, Cefuroxime sodium, SMZ-TMP, Nitrofurantoin and Cefuroxime Axetil, with the average drug resistance rate of more than 90%.Conclusion The resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria in sterile bodyfluids show a rising trend. Klebsiella pneumoniae is found to be resistant to carbon penicillium enzyme. It is important for clinicians to monitor the changes of pathogenic bacterialflora and their drug resistance tendency promptly, so as to decrease the production of drug-resistant strains.

  6. Changes of drug-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in pediatric intensive care unit%儿科重症监护病房铜绿假单胞菌耐药性变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽杰; 孙莹; 宋文良; 张智洁; 刘春峰

    2012-01-01

    ,we analvzed the susceptibility patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Method The age distribution,outcome of patients,sources of strains and susceptibility patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in PICU from Jan 1,2007 to Dec 31,2011 were analyzed.Susceptibility to amikacin,piperacillin/tazobactam,aztreonam, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, cefepime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime,ceftriaxone,ceftazidime,cefoperazone/sulbactam,cephazolin,cefuroxime,and polymyxin were determined by the disk-diffusion technique (K-B test method) and broth microdilution.P.aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was used as reference strain.Result Seventy-five patients were Pseudomonas aeruginosa positive.26(34.7% ) were < 6 m,49 ( 65.4% ) were < 2 y.The percentages of cases who were Pseudomonas aerugiosa positive in different age groups in the same time was basically similar; 18 (24.0%) cases died. Pseudomonas aeruginosa accounted for 10.9% of G- germs s,6.5% of all pathogens in 2010-2011.Of the 126 strains,83(65.9%) were from sputum sample,31 (24.6% ) were from catheter sample of tracheal eannula, 10 (7.9%) were from blood sample and 2( 1.6% )were from secretion sample.The sensitivity to antibiotics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in pediatric common treatments was 72.4% to cefoperazone/sulbaetam,71.5% to meropenem,48.4% to imipenem,66.7% to ceftazidime,49.2% to piperacillin/tazobactam1. Absolute resistance to ampicillin,cephazolin,cefuroxime and cefotaxime. Multiple-drug resistance was still severe,but a decreasing tendency was observed,90.5% in 2007,81.3% in 2008,51.1% in 2009,53.8% in2010,33.3% in 2011.Pan-drug resistance in different years was similar,12.5% in 2008,2.2% in 2009,7.7% in 2010,6.7% in 2011. Conclusion The condition of drug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was still rigorous, we should conduct surveillance and prevent abusing antibiotics in order to avoid exacerbating drug resistance. We should improve

  7. Discólisis percutánea con ozono: nuestra experiencia Percutaneous ozone discolysis: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castro

    2009-10-01

    (85,4%, regular para 4 (9,8%, y solamente 2 (4,9% la calificaron de mala. Conclusiones: La discólisis percutánea con ozono se muestra como una técnica eficaz y segura en el tratamiento del dolor lumbar irradiado secundario a hernia de disco lumbar.Objective: To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous discolysis using ozone in the treatment of symptomatic lumbar hernia. Material and methods: We performed a prospective observational study in 41 patients diagnosed with symptomatic lumbar hernia, in whom we performed 49 percutaneous discolysis procedures introducing ozone in the lumbar region between February 2004 and February 2009. All the procedures were performed in the operating room under radiological guidance, with aseptic conditions, local anaesthesia and sedation. The ozone was introduced into the lumbar disc (5 to 7 ml, in the epidural (5 to 7 ml and periradicular spaces (5 to 7 ml at a concentration of 27 Ìg. In all patients, 1500 mg of cefuroxime was administrated intravenously as a prophylactic measure. The effectiveness of the treatment was based on pain control according to the visual analogue scale before the procedure (VAS 0, at 30 days (VAS 1, at 90 days (VAS 3 and at 6 months (VAS 6, and by means of Lattinen's test before treatment and at the end of the study. All the patients were asked about the possible adverse effects of the treatment and a survey was carried out on patient satisfaction with the technique. Results: We performed 49 percutaneous ozone discolysis procedures in 41 patients. The initial mean VAS was 7.37 ± 0.96 and subsequent values were 2.41 ± 2.17 at 1 month, 1.80 ± 2.31 at 3 months and 2.05 ± 2.45 at 6 months, with statically significant differences in the three measurements. The initial mean Lattingen index was 12.68 ± 2.32 and was 6.07 ± 2.91 at 6 months, representing a statically significant reduction. Adverse effects occurred in only five patients (12.2%: four mild transient headaches and one symptomatic

  8. 2010~2013年重庆医科大学附属永川医院抗菌药物调查分析%Analysis the use of antibiotic in the Yongchuan hospital Chongqing Medical University during 2010-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中良; 金梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the status quo and tendency of the utilization of antibiotics in our hospital in order to provide ref-erence for clinical rational drug use .Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the consumption sum ,DDDs and defined daily cost(DDC) of antibiotics ,which taken from HIS system in drug storehouse from 2010 to 2013 .Results 2010~2013 ,the anti-microbial drug sales in proportion to the amount of drug sales were 35 .99% ,26 .47% ,14 .69% and 14 .52% respectively .Cephalo-sporins andβ-lactamase inhibitor have been in the forefront of the antimicrobial agents in the sales amount .The sales amount of Ce-foxitin sodium and Piperacillin/tazobactam has rapid grow th ,for three consecutive years of antimicrobial agents in the sales amount ordering frist and second .2010~2013 ,Cephalosporins and Macrolides antibiotics has been in the forefront on the sorting of DDDs . The DDDs of antifungal drugs increased year by year ,quinolones and nitroimidazoles was declining .The DDDs of Clarithromycin tablets ,Azithromycin enteric-coated capsules and Roxithromycin Capsules in the front row .2011-2013 ,the DDC of Cefuroxime in-creased the larger from 15 .37 to 68 .06 .Conclusion The antibacterial drug sales amount of drug sales amount is reduced year by year from 2010 to 2013 ,and the application of antimicrobial agents is given priority to Cephalosporins ,Antifungal drug sustained growth ,Macrolides antibiotics and Penicillins keep at a high level .%目的:评价抗菌药物应用现状和趋势,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法提取2010~2013年本院医院信息系统(HIS)的出库数据,对抗菌药物的销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)和限定日费用(DDC)进行回顾性分析。结果2010~2013年抗菌药物销售金额占药品销售金额的比例分别为35.99%、26.47%、14.69%和14.52%,各类抗菌药物销售金额中头孢菌素类和β-内酰胺酶抑制药一直居前列,头孢西丁钠

  9. Investigation of the pathogenic bacteria infection and drug resistance in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013 and analysis of the prevention and nursing control measures%2013年新生儿重症监护病房病原菌感染情况及耐药性调查与护理防控措施分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓玲; 李晖; 钟巧; 林春燕; 刘珺

    2014-01-01

    negative bateria were checked out which accounted for 5.66% and 4 cases of positive bateria were checked out which accounted for 4.30%.The detectable rate was 1.37%(7/510). The contrast difference was obvious(χ2=45.045, P<0.05) compared with that 11.08%(139/1254) in group B.②The drug resistance of Escherichia coli, which had the highest detection rate of pathogenic bacteria, against tetracycline, ampicillin and other common antibiotics was stronger and it was more sensitive to meropenem, chloramphenicol and other drugs. The sensitivity of streptococcus agalactiae, whose detection rate was the second, to chlorine lincomycin, erythromycin and other drugs was lower and was almost no resistance to ampicillin, Cefuroxime sodium and other drugs. The resistance of Staphylococcus aurous and Klebsiella pneumonia against ampicillin was stronger. Such drugs as clinical medicine should be avoided to enhance the curative effect. Conclusion Escherichia coli, no Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aurous are highest NICU detection rate of three kinds of pathogenic bacteria in our hospital in 2013. To effectively re-duce the neonatal cross infection risks, the hospital should further implement the NICU management measures, strengthen disinfection and isolation, monitoring, routine work and so on, strictly follow the principle of aseptic opera-tion, control of the amount of antibiotic drug and create conditions for their newborn resistance and immunity enhance-ment.

  10. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from the children in Shanghai%儿童肺炎链球菌血清型分布及其对抗菌药物的耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泓; 李万华; 孔菁; 王春; 陆敏; 陆权

    2011-01-01

    typing was performed by Quellung reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by E-test method. Results The common serotypes of these S. pneumoniae strains were 19F (138, 41. 0 %), 19A (67, 19. 8%), 14 (30, 8.9 %), 23F (14, 4. 1%), 6B (13, 3.8%), 6A (12, 3.6%) and 15B (10, 3.0%). PCV7 vaccine was expected to cover 41.9% (26/62) of the penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSP) and 59. 6% (198/332) of macrolide resistant S. pneumoniae (ERSP) strains. PCV13 vaccine could cover 72. 6% (45/62) of PNSP and 84. 9% (282/332) of ERSP strains. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that 81.7% (267/338) of these S. pneumoniae strains were susceptible to penicillin (PSSP), 10.9% (37/338) intermediate (PISP), and only 7.9% (25/338) resistant (PRSP). As for 19F and 19A groups, PNSP strains were more resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and eeftriaxone than PSSP strains (P<0. 01). In the nontypable group, PNSP strains were more resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftfiaxone and cefuroxime sodium than PSSP strains (P<0. 01). Conclusions Serotypes 19F, 19A, 14, 23F, 6B and 6A were the common types of S. pneumoniae strains in Shanghai. PCV13 could cover most of the PNSP and ERSP strains, suggesting its preventive effect on pneumococcal infection and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  11. Freqüência e percentual de suscetibilidade de bactérias isoladas em pacientes atendidos na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza Frequency and susceptibility percentile of bacteria isolated in patients assisted in the intensive care unit of the General Hospital of Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2007-06-01

    suscetibilidade para ciprofloxacina. Os S. aureus e SCN foram isolados principalmente do cateter, sendo suscetíveis à vancomicina (100%. CONCLUSÃO: Os patógenos que mais causaram infecções na UTI do HGF foram Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, S aureus e SCN.INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial infections are prominent problem in hospital environment, mainly in intensive care units (ICU, where innumerous factors favoring the development of these infections are found. Objectives: To determine the frequency and the antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria isolated from ICU patients in the General Hospital of Fortaleza (HGF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bacteria were isolated in culture medium and the identification and test of susceptibility to antimicrobials was performed using MicroScan WalkWay automation device. RESULTS: From January to December of 2002, 34% of specimens from tracheal secretion; 10% from catheter cultures; 26% from urine and 30% from the blood yielded isolates. Specimens more frequent in tracheal secretion were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16% e Klebsiella pneumoniae (15%. In catheter cultures, we found high prevalence of Staphylococcus negative coagulase (SNC (25% and Staphylococcus aureus (25%; in urine, Klebsiella pneumoniae (16% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14% were the most prevalent. From blood, we isolated mostly SNC (41% and Staphylococcus aureus (17%. About antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from tracheal secretion, we found a high sensitivity to piperacilin and high resistance to ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated fom tracheal secretion showed high sensibility to imipenem, but no resistance to other antimicrobials althogeter. Susceptibility to ceftazidime was 54%. Isolates from catheters showed broad resistance pattern (ampicillin/sulbactam, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, gentamicin, piperacillin/tazobactam, piperacillin, ticarcillin

  12. Tratamiento de la neumonía del adulto adquirida en la comunidad TREATMENT OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA IN ADULTS

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    Alejandro Díaz F.

    2005-04-01

    so antibiotic treatment is empirically prescribed. In Chile, one third of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain isolates has diminished susceptibility to penicillin; in-vitro erythromycin resistance is about 10-15% and cefotaxime resistance 2-10%. It is recommended to classify patients with community acquired pneumonia in four risk categories: Group 1: patients under 65 years without co-morbidities, in ambulatory attendance. Treatment: oral amoxicillin 1 g TID, 7 days. Group 2: patients over 65 years and / or co-morbidities, in ambulatory attendance. Treatment: oral amoxicillin/clavulanate 500/125 mg TID or 875/125 mg BID, or cefuroxime 500 mg BID, 7 days. Group 3: patients admitted to general wards with criteria of moderate severity. Treatment: ceftriaxone 1-2 g once a day or cefotaxime 1 g TID, IV, 7-10 days. Group 4: patients with severe CAP that must be interned into ICU. Treatment: ceftriaxone 2 g once a day or cefotaxime 1 g TID, IV, associated to erythromycin 500 QID, levofloxacin 500-1.000 mg once a day, or moxifloxacin 400 mg/once a day, IV, 10-14 days. In the presence of allergy to or treatment failure with betalactam drugs and/or positive serology for Mycoplasma, Chlamydia or Legionella sp it is recommended to add: erythromycin 500 mg QID, IV or oral, oral clarithromycin 500 mg BID, or oral azythromycin 500 mg once a day

  13. 120株临床分离鲍曼不动杆菌感染的分布和耐药性分析%ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTION AND DRUG RESISTANCE OF 120 STRAINS OF ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII ISOLATED IN OUR HOSPITAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁星; 沈继录; 徐元宏

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumanii strains isolated in our hospital from 2007 to 2009 , and to provide evidence for the clinical therapy of infections. [Methods ] Microorganisms were identified by VITEK System and K-B disk diffusion method was used for the antibioUcs susceptibility test. Reaults were analyzed based on WHONET 5.3 software. A Lotal of 120 clinical isolates were analyzed retrospectively. [ Results] A rotal of 120 strains of Acinetobacter baumanii species were collected trom October 2007 to October 2009. The strains of multi-drug resistance (MDR) Acinetobacter baumanii accouted for 80.0% (96/120) of total, The percentage of isolated bacteria in intensive care unit, respiratory departmnent and emergency center was 28.3%, 24.2% and 12.5%, respectively. The resistance rate of Acinetobacter baumanii isolates to Trimethoprim- Sulfamethoxazole, Cefazolin, Cefuroxime and Gentamicin were 100.0%、 100.0 %、100.0% and 76.7%. respectively. The resistance rate of Acinetobacter baumanii isolateds to Meropenem. Imipenem, Cefoperazone-Sulbactam and Cefepime were 13.3%、 30.0%, 30.8% and 34.2% respectively.Multi-drug resistance (MDR) Acinetobacter baumanii have a higher resistance rate than others. [Conclusion] The rate of the drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumanii and MDR-ABA was high Mempenem, Imipenem, Cefoperazone and Sulbactam have good antibacterial activity against Acinetobacter baumanii species. Meropenem or Imipenem was most effective. Suneillance of bacterial resistance was of great important to rational selection of antibiotics and preventing the abuse of antibiotics and the emergence of new drug-resistant strains.%[目的] 调查2007~2009年医院临床分离的鲍曼不动杆菌的分布和耐药性,为临床抗感染治疗提供依据.[方法] 采用VITEK系统鉴定细菌,Kirby-Bauer纸片扩散法进行药物敏感试验,应用WHONET 5.3软件分析临床标本所

  14. The Application of Physical Skin antibacterial Membrane Technology in Gynecology Obstetrics Department%物理皮肤抗菌膜技术在妇产科的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹琴春

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the application of physical skin antibacterial membrane technology in Gynecology Obstetrics Department.Method: 200 female vulvovaginal candidiasis patients and 100 obstetric operation cases were selected as the research objects in our hospital from 2014 October to 2015 September during obstetrics and gynecology, all were randomly divided into two groups (each group contained 150 cases, 100 cases with vulvovaginal candidiasis, 50 cases with obstetric operation). The control group, 100 cases with VVC were given clotrimazole suppositories vaginal suppository + mupirocin ointment + biphenyl triazole bian ointment treatment, and 50 postpartum patients were given cefuroxime axetil tablets combined conventional nursing for operation incision, treatment group was given clotrimazole suppositories vaginal suppository combined antibacterial physical skin (JUC long-acting antibacterial) treating VVC, and JUC long-acting antibacterial preventing operation incision infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis clinical curative effect and maternal operation incision infection prevention effect were compared between the two groups.Result: The cure rate and total efficiency rate of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group with significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05). The operation incision infection rate of the treatment group was 2%, which was significantly lower than 18% of the control group, it had significant differences between the two groups (P<0.01). The well stage wound heating rate of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group, with significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05). 1, 3, 5 d postpartum operation incision pain score of treatment group was significantly lower than that of the control group, with significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion:Skin physical antimicrobial film technology has important application value in the Department of

  15. 危重症患者尿路感染大肠埃希菌的耐药性分析%Drug resistance of Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections in critically ill patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛素平; 陈炜; 赵磊; 王锁柱; 甄洁

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the characteristics of critically ill patients with urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli in general ICU and observe the drug resistance so as to provide evidence for clinical empirical med‐ication .METHODS From Jan 2007 to Aug 2012 ,the bacterial identification was performed for the E .coli strains cultured positive from the submitted urine specimens obtained from the general ICU by using Walkaway‐40 auto‐matic bacterial identification system of the United States and VETIK automatic bacterial identification system ,the drug susceptibility testing for cefoperazone‐sulbactam was conducted by means of K‐B disk diffusion method ,and the MIC method was employed for the rest of antibiotics ;the constituent ratios of the extended‐spectrum β‐lacta‐mases (ESBLs)‐producing E .coli and non‐ESBLs‐producing E .coli and the drug resistance rates were observed . RESULTS A total of 303 strains of E .coli have been cultured from the urine specimens ,including 107 (35 .31% ) strains of ESBLs‐producing E .coli and 196 (64 .69% ) strains of non‐ESBLs‐producing E .coli .The drug resistance rates of the E .coli to ampicillin ,cefuroxime ,piperacillin ,levofloxacin ,sulfamethoxazole‐trimethoprim ,cefo‐taxime ,ciprofloxacin ,gentamicin ,and cefazolin were more than 70 .0% ;the drug resistance rates to amikacin , piperacillin‐tazobactam ,cefotetan ,and imipenem were less than 30 .0% ;the ESBLs‐producing and non‐ESBLs‐producing strains varied significantly in the drug resistance to some of the antibiotics .CONCLUSION The drug re‐sistance of the E .coli causing urinary tract infections in the critically ill patients is serious ,however ,amikacin ,ce‐fotetan ,piperacillin‐tazobactam ,and imipenem remain the sensitive antibiotics ,which can be used for empirical medication .%目的:分析综合IC U危重症患者大肠埃希菌致尿路感染菌群特点及耐药性,为临床经验

  16. Analysis on Application of Antimicrobial Drugs and Bacterial Resistance in Orthopedics Department of A TCM Hospital in 2013%2013年某中医院骨科病区抗菌药物使用与细菌耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙毅东; 张美容; 张劲新; 叶凌云; 林爱华

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective:To investigate the application of antimicrobial drugs and bacteriology in orthopedics de-partment of our hospital so as to provide a clinical reference for the rational use of antimicrobial agents.Methods:The application of antimicrobial drugs,the results of bacterial examination and bacterial resistance in orthopedics department of our hospital in 2013 were analyzed statistically by a retrospective investigation method.Results:The top three drug categories based on the DDDs sequence of the use of antibacterials were cephalosporins(9 536.4), penicillins(613.9)and quinolones(445.0),and the top three drugs were cefathiamidine(3 036.7),cefazolin (2 293.0)and cefuroxime(1 688.5). In l46 strains of detected bacteria,100 strains were Gram-negative bacteria (68.5%),includingEscherichiacoli,KlebsiellapneumoniaeandPseudomonasaeruginosa,31 strains were Gram-positive bacteria(21.2%)which was mainlyStaphylococcus,and 15 strains of fungi(10.3%),of which Candidaalbicanswas the main part. The drug sensitive rate of Gram-positive bacteria was higher,but Gram-nega-tive bacteria and fungi had a lower drug sensitivity rate of antimicrobial agents ranked at forefront of DDDs.Con-clusion:The application of antimicrobial drugs did not lead to an extensive bacterial resistance in orthopedics de-partment of our hospital in 2013. The strict grasp of drug use indications and reasonable administration of antimicro-bial drugs were critical points to obtain a low rate of bacterial resistance. Traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation was one of the possible reasons.%目的:调查我院骨科病区抗菌药物的应用及细菌学情况,为提高抗菌药物合理应用水平提供依据。方法:采用回顾性调查方法,对骨科病区2013年1-12月抗菌药物的使用情况、细菌学检查结果及其耐药性进行统计、分析。结果:各类抗菌药物使用按用药频度(DDDs)排序,前3位分别为头孢菌素类(9536.4

  17. 288例烧伤患者早期创面感染病原菌种类及主要致病菌耐药性分析%Analysis on the Bacterium Species and Drug Resistance of the Main Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from 288 Patients with Earlier Period Infected Burn Wound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董华丽; 张传领; 沈丽蒙; 郭远瑜; 张国祥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacteria species and drug resistance characteristics of the main pathogenic bacteria isolated from earlier period infected burn wound patients,and to provide evidence for reasonable clinical treatment with antibiotics.Methods We collected the earlier period infected secretion specimens and clinical and epidemiological data of the bum wound cases from January 2008 to December 2011.The pathogenic bacteria were isolated,cultured and identified,and the drug sensitivity test (DST) was conducted on the main species of the pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics by means of conventional methods.Results A total of 288 bacteria strains were isolated from 288 earlier period infected bum wound patients' secretion samples.There were more than 10 bacteria species identified from these strains,including Staphylococcus aureus (116/288,40.3 %),Staphylococcus epidermidis (36/288,12.5 %),Staphylococcus haemolyticus (27/288,9.4 %),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35/288,12.2%),Enterobacter cloacae (15/288,5.2%),Escherichia coli (9/288,3.1%),and the other bacteria strains (50/288,17.4%).The results of DST showed that S.aureus and S.epidermidis were highly resistant to penicillin (with the resistant rates of 93.1% and 100%,respectively),but highly sensitive to nitrofurantoin,linezolid,and rifampicin,and in which no vancomycin-resistant strains were found.The resistant rates of P.aeruginosa to ampicillin,cefozolin,cefuroxime and cefoxitin were all of 100 %,but to ceftazidime,cefepime,piperacillin/tazobactam,levofloxacin,gentamycin and kanamycin were all less than 10 %.Conclusions The results of this study show that bacteria species and their drug resistance in earlier period infected burn wound patients are multiple and complex.The main pathogenic bacteria are S.aureus,S.epidermidis,S.haemolyticus and P.aeruginosa.Clinicians should pay attention to the types of pathogenic bacteria which cause earlier period surface infections and the resistance to

  18. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    , viruses and fungi belong to the healthy flora and do no harm. Ten percent of healthy children even bear all the time in the tonsils with no clinical signs. In these children decolonization is not necessary. Therefore, microbiological screening tests in children without symptoms are senseless and do not justify an antibiotic treatment (which is sometimes postulated by the kindergartens. The acute tonsillitis should be treated with steroids (e.g. dexamethasone, NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofene and betalactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin or cefuroxime. With respect to the symptom reduction and primary healing the short-term late-generation antibiotic therapy (azithromycin, clarithromycin or cephalosporine for three to five days is comparable to the long-term penicilline therapy. There is no difference in the course of healing, recurrence or microbiological resistance between the short-term penicilline therapy and the standard ten days therapy. On the other hand, only the ten days antibiotic therapy has proven to be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritic diseases. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease is currently 0.5 per 100,000 children of school age. The main morbidity after tonsillectomy is pain and the late haemorrhage. Posttonsillectomy bleeding can occur till the whole wound is completely healed, which is normally after three weeks. Life-threatening haemorrhages occur often after smaller bleedings, which can spontaneously cease. That is why every haemorrhage, even the smallest, has to be treated properly and in ward. Patients and parents have to be informed about the correct behaviour in case of haemorrhage with a written consent before the surgery.The handout should contain important addresses, phone numbers and contact persons. Almost all cases of fatal outcome after tonsillectomy were due to false management of haemorrhage. Haemorrhage in small children can be especially life-threatening because of the lower blood volume and the danger of

  19. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    fungi belong to the healthy flora and do no harm. Ten percent of healthy children even bear strepptococcus pyogenes all the time in the tonsils with no clinical signs. In these children decolonization is not necessary. Therefore, microbiological screening tests in children without symptoms are senseless and do not justify an antibiotic treatment (which is sometimes postulated by the kindergartens). The acute tonsillitis should be treated with steroids (e.g. dexamethasone), NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofene) and betalactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin or cefuroxime). With respect to the symptom reduction and primary healing the short-term late-generation antibiotic therapy (azithromycin, clarithromycin or cephalosporine for three to five days) is comparable to the long-term penicilline therapy. There is no difference in the course of healing, recurrence or microbiological resistance between the short-term penicilline therapy and the standard ten days therapy. On the other hand, only the ten days antibiotic therapy has proven to be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritic diseases. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease is currently 0.5 per 100,000 children of school age. The main morbidity after tonsillectomy is pain and the late haemorrhage. Posttonsillectomy bleeding can occur till the whole wound is completely healed, which is normally after three weeks. Life-threatening haemorrhages occur often after smaller bleedings, which can spontaneously cease. That is why every haemorrhage, even the smallest, has to be treated properly and in ward. Patients and parents have to be informed about the correct behaviour in case of haemorrhage with a written consent before the surgery. The handout should contain important addresses, phone numbers and contact persons. Almost all cases of fatal outcome after tonsillectomy were due to false management of haemorrhage. Haemorrhage in small children can be especially life-threatening because of the lower blood volume

  20. Analysis of clinical distribution and drug-resistant trend of Escherichia coli from 2008 to 2012%2008-2012年大肠埃希菌临床分布及耐药趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠英; 栗志平; 李菊平; 杨妮娜; 赵芳

    2013-01-01

    ,accounting for 16.79% ; 132 strains from pus or secretion,accounting for 16.42% ; and 39 strains from blood,accounting for 4.85%.E.coli demonstrated much higher resistant rate to levofloxacin,cefazolin,cefuroxime,gentamicin,tobramycin(> 50%),the resistant rate to levofloxacin had rising trend year by year,and E.coli had much lower resistant rate to cefoperazone/sulbactam,piperacillin/tazobactam,amikacin,nitrofurantoin.No strains were found to be resistant to imipenem.Conclusions Escherichia coli detection rate and the multiple antibiotic resistant rate of E.coli is maintained at a high level,it should be based on susceptibility results,rational use of antimicrobial drugs to prevent the generation of resistant bacteria.

  1. 2012年北京市海淀医院肺炎克雷伯菌致血流感染14例患者的耐药分析%Analysis of drug resistance to Klebsiella pneumoniae in 14 cases of bloodstream infection in 2012 of Beijing Haidian Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建平; 田国保; 李明明; 李明慧; 张璐

    2014-01-01

    hospital (Haidian Section of Peking University Third Hospital) and provide a reference for the clinical treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods Clinical data and antibiotic resistance of the patients infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae of bloodstream from January to December in 2012 were collected, retrospectively. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 12.0. Results All the 14 clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection were widely distributed in various hospital departments. The infection were more common in the elderly, cancer, uremia, cerebrovascular diseases and other critical patients. All the 14 cases were secondary BSI and mostly secondary to pulmonary infection and hepatobiliary tract infection. The rate of bacterial resistance to ampicillin (85.7%), piperacillin (57.1%), cefazolin (42.9%), cephalexin and sulbactam (57.1%), cefuroxime (42.9%), gentamicin (42.9%) and cotrimoxazole (42.9%), were more than 40%; the rate to ceftriaxone (21.4%), ceftazidime (21.4%), piperacillin and tazobactam (28.6%), ciprofloxacin (28.6%) and aztreonam (21.4%) were 20%-30%;and the rate to cefepime (7.1%), cefotetan (7.1%), levolfoxacin (14.3%), amikacin (7.1%), tobramycin (15.6%) and nitrofurantoin (7.1%) were all less than 20%. No resistance to carbapenems and cefoperazone/sulbactam were found. Conclusions Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the common pathogens of secondary BSI. The different degree of drug resistance was found to some commonly used antibiotics based on clinical experience. Bacterial resistance monitoring should be strengthened in the region or hospital and could guide anti-infection treatment in clinical experience.

  2. 门诊处方抗菌药物使用情况调查分析%Analysis of Utilization of Antibacterials in the Outpatient of Our Hospital from 2008 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 李林; 王龙飞; 苏强

    2011-01-01

    , and otolaryngology were the top three ranked prescription. A joint utilization of antimicrobial increased by 68. 73% to 89. 77% and second joint utilization of antimicrobial from 30. 15% down to 10. 23% from 2008 to 2009. Outpatient antibiotic sales in top 3 was the cephalospo-rins. Macrolides and quinolones. Clarithromycin tablets, azithromycin capsules and levofloxacin capsules were the top three kinds of DDDs in 2008,and Cefixime capsule, cefuroxime axetil tablets and cephalexin tablets were the top three in 2009. Irrational use of antimicrobial drug prescription rates were 6. 41% and 4. 95%. Conclusion The utilization of antibacterials in the outpatient in our hospital was rational on the whole , but there were irrational prescriptions. The management on the rational use of antibacterials should be further strengthened in hospital to improve the rational level of drug use.

  3. 肿瘤医院粘质沙雷菌所致院内下呼吸道感染情况分析%Analysis of Serratia marcescens causing hospital-acquired lower respiratory tract infection in cancer hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王久惠; 叶波; 贾红; 李舸; 魏晋勇

    2011-01-01

    cancer (27%) or lung cancer(45% )who had accepted operation, chemoeherapy or radiotherapy. Serratia marcescens showed varies degree of drug-resistance to the antibiotics commonly used at present. It showed high rate of drug-resistance of over 50% to Amoxicilin, Ticarcilin, Cefoxitin and Cefuroxime. The sensitivity ratio to Imipenem, Piperacilin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefoperazone/sulbactam,cefepime, amikacin and Levofioxacin were all over 80%. But most of the drug-resistance ratio increased grandually. Conclusion For the tumor patients especially with easophagus cancer,lung cancer who had accepted operation or several courses of chmotherapy or radiotherapy in cancer hospital, the occurence of serratia marcescens causing hospital-acquired infection should be taken consideration. Timely microbiologicaltesting is necessary in order to select antibiotics according drug-sensitivityresults as early as possible. Serratia marcescens shows high drug-resistence to semisynthetic penicillin, second-generation cephalosporins,and different degree of drug-resistence to third-generation cephalosporins which should be paid more attention to by the clinical doctors.

  4. Analysis on ESBLs genotypes and drug resistance of hospital-acquired uropathogenic E .coli%医院获得性尿路感染大肠埃希菌ESBLs基因型与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐春进; 杨淑雅; 赵瑞珂; 余佳佳; 邱骏; 张险峰; 钱雪峰; 韩清珍; 徐杰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the characteristics of drug resistance and ESBLs genotypes of hospital-acquired uropathogenic E .coli(HA-UPEC) for guiding clinical antibacterial drug use of urinary tract infection and controlling hospital-acquired infections .Methods A total of 168 HA-UPEC strains isolated from the inpatients were collected .The PCR amplification was used to detect the main ESBLs genotypes and their resistance characteristics to common 16 kinds of antibiotics were analyzed .Results The resistance rates of 168 strains of HA-UPEC to com-pound sulfamethoxazole ,ampicillin ,cefazolin ,cefuroxime ,cefotaxime ,ceftriaxone ,and ciprofloxacin were up to more than 70% .Among 16 kinds of common antibacterial drugs ,cefoperazone/sulbactam ,piperacillin/tazobactam ,amikacin and imipenem had lower resistance rate .Compared with non-ESBLs producing E .coli ,ESBLs-producing E .coli showed higher resistance to penicillins ,cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones .According to the drug susceptibility spectrum ,168 strains of HA-UPEC were divided into five supergroups group A-E ,and ESBLs producing E .coli strains were mainly distributed in the group A ,B and C .CTX-M was main ESBL genotype(109 strains) ,followed by TEM (48 strains) .59 strains produced ≥ 2 kinds of ESBLs and ESBLs was not detected in 3 strains .The relation a-nalysis between drug resistance cluster grouping and ESBLs genotypes displayed that TEM had the highest distribu-tion rate in the group D(65 .2% ) ;SHV was not detected in the group C ,SHV had different distribution in the group A and B ;the CTX-M distribution difference among 4 groups had no statistical significance(P> 0 .05) ,OXA was not detected in the group B and differently distributed between A and B groups .Conclusion The drug resistance of ES-BLs-producing E .coli is serious .The different distribution of four ESBLs genotypes may be one of causes for UPES-BLs drug resistance difference ,and TEM genotype is more sensitive .The CTX-M and SHV

  5. Adverse reaction analysis of cephalosporin antibiotics%头孢菌素类抗生素的不良反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马星海

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析临床常用头孢菌素类抗生素的不良反应,为临床合理用药提供参考依据。方法收集本院2011年3月~2014年3月应用头孢菌素类抗生素药物出现不良反应的128例患者作为研究对象,分析头孢菌素类抗生素药物的应用情况和不良反应发生情况。结果<10岁的儿童(31.3%)和跃60岁的老人(37.5%)是头孢菌素类抗生素出现不良反应的易感人群;不良反应发生率最高的药物是头孢曲松钠,占21.9%,其次是头孢替安(14.1%)、头孢替唑钠(9.4%)、头孢硫脒(7.8%)、头孢呋辛钠(7.8%)、盐酸头孢吡肟(7.8%);静脉滴注给药途径的不良反应发生率最高,为53.9%,其次为口服(19.5%)、静脉推注(14.1%)、肌内注射(12.5%);主要累及的器官为皮肤(35.2%),其次是呼吸系统(20.3%)、循环系统(15.6%)、消化系统(14.1%)和神经系统(10.2%)。结论头孢菌素类抗生素的不良反应好发人群为儿童和老年人,静脉滴注给药途径的发生率最高,因此,临床用药时要充分考虑患者的体质和药物类型,降低不良反应发生率,提高临床合理用药。%Objective To analyze the adverse reactions of clinical commonly used cephalosporin antibiotics,to provide reference for clinical rational use of drugs. Methods 128 patients with adverse reactions caused by cephalosporin an-tibiotics in our hospital from March 2011 to March 2014 were selected as the study subjects.The usage of cephalosporin antibiotics and the occurrence of adverse reactions was analyzed. Results Children under 10 years old (31.3%) and old people over 60 years old (37.5%) was susceptible populations to the adverse reactions of cephalosporin antibiotics.The drug with the highest incidence of adverse reactions was ceftriaxone(21.9%),followed by cefotiam (14.1%),ceftezole sodi-um(9.4%),cefathiamidine(7.8%),cefuroxime sodium(7.8%) and cefepime dihydrochloride(7.8%).The incidence of adverse reactions was the

  6. 57株流感嗜血杆菌的耐药性分析及分布%Resistance analysis and distribution of haemophilus influenzae bacillus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕾

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解本院急性呼吸道感染患者临床分离出的流感嗜血杆菌的耐药性及菌株分布情况,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法采用法国梅里埃API NH鉴定条进行菌株鉴定,头孢硝噻吩检测菌株产β-内酰胺酶情况,纸片扩散法检测菌株的药敏情况。结果2012年4月至2012年7月本院临床分离的57株流感嗜血杆菌中有38株对氨苄西林耐药,耐药率66.7%;29株β-内酰胺酶阳性,占50.9﹪;对复方新诺明、头孢呋辛、四环素、阿莫西林/克拉维酸和氯霉素的耐药率依次为82.5%(47/57)、22.8%(13/57)、15.8%(9/57)、12.3%(7/57)和8.8%(5/57),对头孢噻肟、美罗培南、左氧氟沙星和阿奇霉素均敏感。57株流感嗜血杆菌中有12株(21.1%)来源10岁以下患儿,4株(7.0%)来源于30~40岁的患者,41株(71.9%)来源于50岁以上的患者。结论流感嗜血杆菌对临床常用抗菌药物的耐药率相差很大,本院引起的呼吸道感染多见于老年和儿童患者,临床上应根据本院的流行特点合理选用抗菌药物。%Objective To study the resistance and distribution of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from patients with acute respiratory infections in our hospital, and provide a basis for rational use of antimicrobial agents. Method French Merieux APINH identification strips were used for strain identiifcation;β-lactamase of strains were detected by cephalosporin nitroceifn;Antibiotic susceptibility of strains were tested through the disk diffusion assay. Results Total of 57 strains of Haemophilus inlfuenzae were isolated during April 2012 to July 2012. There were 38 strains were resistant to ampicillin, with the resistance rate was 66.7%; 29 strains produced β-lactamase, accounting for 50.9%. The resistance rates to cotrimoxazole, cefuroxime, tetracycline, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and chloramphenicol were 82.5%(47/57), 22.8%(13/57), 15.8%(9/57), 12

  7. 儿童中心静脉置管相关性血流感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析%Analysis of the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria of children′s PICC related bloodstream infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智英; 罗学群; 余慕雪

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in peripherally insert‐ed central catheter (PICC) related bloodstream infection on children ,and to provide the foundation for the clinical prevention and treatment .METHODS The clinical data of 72 children with PICC related bloodstream infection were chosen in our hospital from Jan .2009 to Jan .2014 ,the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacte‐ria were analyzed .SPSS13 .0 was adopted for a statistic analysis .RESULTS Totally 98 strains of pathogenic bacte‐ria were isolated and identified ,including 48 strains of gram‐positive bacteria (48 .98% ) ,37 strains of gram‐nega‐tive bacteria (37 .75% ) and 13 strains of fungi (13 .27% ) .The main gram‐positive bacteria were with high resist‐ance to penicillin ,erythromycin and ampicillin G ,and the resistance rate was 61 .11% ~100 .00% .The gram‐neg‐ative bacteria were with high resistance to ceftazidime ,cefepime ,cefuroxime and ampicillint ,and the resistance rate was 58 .30% ~88 .89% .Fungi were sensitive to itraconazole ,amphotericin B ,fluconazole and flucytosine , and the resistance rate was less than 20 .00% ;The children with the PICC indwelling time less than 7 days accaunted for 6 .9% ,while the children with the indwelling time more than 21days accounted for 50 .00% ;with the increase of the indwelling time ,the proportion of the chlidren with blooclstream infections was increased . CONCLUSION To strengthen the monitoring of pathogenic bacteria in PICC related bloodstream infections can help us better understand the dynamic changes of pathogenic bacteria in bloodstream infection .It′s benefit for guiding the clinical rational use of antimicrobial drugs and improving the clinical effect to master the drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria .%目的:分析儿童中心静脉置管(PICC )相关性血流感染的感染病原菌分布及其耐药性,为临床防治奠

  8. Distribution and evolvement of resistance profiles of the pathogens in children diagnosed with urinary tract infection in Children's Hospital of Fudan University in the recent 10 years%上海地区复旦大学附属儿科医院近10年儿童泌尿道感染病原菌分布及其耐药性变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷丽军; 王爱敏; 薛建昌; 宋建明; 何磊燕; 王传清

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and evolvement of resistance profiles of the pathogens isolated from children diagnosed with urinary tract infection (UTI).Methods The pediatric patients who were diagnosed with UTI in Children's Hospital of Fudan University from January 2001 to December 2010 were enrolled in this retrospective study.The clean catch midstream urine samples were collected and the pathogens were isolated by culture.Bacterial susceptibility test was performed by following a protocol of the standardized Kirby Bauer (KB) method.The enumeration data were analyzed by chi square test and the tendency of drug resistant rate was analyzed by curvilinear regression.Results A total of 10 686 pathogen strains were isolated during the past 10years.The major pathogen was Escherichia coli which counted for 38% -56% of the isolates.However,the proportion of Enterococcus faecalis (0 - 17%,F =34.075,P =0.000) and Enterococcus faecium (3 % - 15 %,F =7.139,P =0.028) increased rapidly.The resistant rates of Escherichia coli to cefazolin,cefuroxime sodium,cefotaxime and ceftazidime were 35.8%- 62.3%(F=215.735,P=0.000),33.1% -57.0%(F=70.674,P=0.000),19.0% -56.5%(F=52.355,P=0.000) and 2.1%-23.5%(F=16.807,P=0.003),respectively.The resistant rate of Escherichia coli to ciprofloxacin was 23.4% - 33.8 % (F=0.989,P=0.349),while the resistant rate of Escherichia coli to amikacin and cefoperozone/sulbactam were both less than 7%.There was no Escherichia coli isolate showing resistant to imipenem.The resistant rates of Enterococcus faecium to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin were higher than 60.0% and 50.0%,respectively,while the resistant rate of Enterococcus faecalis to these two antibiotics decreased from 40.0% to 9.6 % (F =17.497,P =0.009) and 60.0% to 21.6% (F=12.826,P=0.009),respectively.The resistant rate of Enterococcus faecium to nitrofurantoin decreased from 32 % (in the year of 2002) to 9.4% (in the year of 2010,F=34

  9. 婴幼儿呼吸道多重耐药菌87株分析%Analysis of 87 Strains of Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria from Respiratory Tract of Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建强; 王文建; 戴蔷蕾; 郑跃杰

    2014-01-01

    s Hospital between January 2014 and April 2014 were ret-rospectively analyzed.The distribution and drug sensitivity of 87 strains of multi-drug resistant bacteria(MDRB)isolated from 33 sputum samples (37 strains),48 throat swab samples (48 strains)and 2 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples(2 strains)were statistically analyzed.Results A total of 87 strains of MDRB were isolated from the 83 children,including 54 strains of Gram-positive bacteria(62.07%,24 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,14 strains of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and 16 strains of streptococcus pneumoniae),and 33 strains of Gram-negative bacteria(37.93%,11 strains of extended-spectrumβ-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli,8 strains of non-extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli,12 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 2 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa).The isolated Gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to vancomycin,linezolid,ofloxacin and other severe adverse re-action-causing drugs,but resistant to penicillin,erythromycin,ampicillin and other common drugs.The isolated Gram-negative bacteria were susceptible to ceftazidime,meropenem,imipenem and other valuable drugs,but resistant to ampicillin,cefuroxime,cefazolin and other common drugs.Sixty-nine strains(79.31%)of bacteria were isolated from 66 children who were cured af-ter treatment without antibiotics,and were considered as colonized strains.The other 18 strains (20.69%)of bacteria were isolated from 17 children who were cured after treatment with antibi-otics according to the drug sensitive test,and were considered as infectious strains.The incidence of infection was 20.48%.Conclusion Stains of Gram-positive MDRB are mainly found in respira-tory tract of infants,and most of them are colonized strains(only a small part of them are infec-tious strains).The abuse of antibiotics should be avoided when strains are considered colonized.

  10. Investigation and analysis of multiple drug-resistant bacteria infection status in hospital%医院多重耐药菌感染状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武; 林仕忠; 张儒文; 陈立坚

    2014-01-01

    制日趋严重的多重耐药菌感染。%Objective:To explore the conditions of multiple resistant bacteria, infecting and provide data for prevention and control measures of hospital infection management. Methods: Information of inpatients who were infected by 1340 strains of multiple drug-resistant bacteria which were separated during January 1,2012 to December 31,2013 were retrospectively analysed.Methods:Information of inpatients who were infected by 1340 strains of multiple drug-resistant bacteria which were separated during January 1,2012 to December 31,2013 were retrospectively analysed.Results:There were 9355 pathogenic bacteria from the inspected 15108 samples, among which multi-drug resistant bacteria were 1341, accounting for 14.33%. Among the latter, 60,18% were Gram staining negative bacilli,and 39.82% were Gram positive bacteria . Major strains are ESBL producing e. coli (386 strains), methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococcus (314 strains), ESBLs producing pneumonia klebsiella bacteria (223 strains), methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (219 strains), multiple drug resistant acinetobacter baumannii (137 strains), multiple/generic drug resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa (48 strains), other (14 strains). Detection rate of sputum specimens was on the top, that was 48.70% ; Followed by the middle part of urine specimens, the detection rate was 24.83%.Followed was wound secretion, detection rate is 13.42%. The time distribution of multi-resistant bacteria was 558 in 2012,and 783 in 2013.Nosocomial infection most frequently occurred in neurology surgery department,urology surgery department, respiratory medicine department and urology medicine department,among them,respiratory tract, urinary tract and wound infection is the most common kinds.More than 84% of multi-resistant gram-negative bacilli resist to eight kinds of most frequently used antimicrobial, which are amoxicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime sodium, ampicillin, cephalosporins he

  11. 2010-2011年中国肺炎链球菌耐药性和血清型研究%Antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from multicenters across China,2010-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启; 张菲菲; 赵春江; 陈宏斌; 王占伟; 郭宇; 李荷楠; 王辉

    2013-01-01

    susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents was determined by agar dilution method.Serotyping of S.pneumoniae was performed by using latex and quelling reaction.Vaccine coverage by 7-,10-,13-and 23-valent conjugate vaccines was estimated by calculating the percentage of isolates that belonged to the serotypes included in the vaccines.Results Among all strains tested,50.1% (236/471) was resistant to penicillin (Oral breakpoint,MIC ≥ 2 mg/L).Overall,27.4% (129/471),60.3% (284/471),58.8% (277/471) and 18.5% (87/471) of S.pneumoniae were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate,cefaclor,cefuroxime and ceftriaxone,respectively.1.5% (7/471) of all stains were resistant to levofloxacin and 0.6% (3/471) of all strains were resistant to moxifloxacin.The resistance rates to other antibiotic agents,such as erythromycin,clindamycin,tetracycline,trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole,and chloramphenicol,were 93.2% (439/471),88.7% (417/471),89.6% (422/471),62.8% (296/471) and 22.1% (104/471),respectively.The most prevalent serotype was 19F (112,23.8%),followed by 19A(63,13.4%),3(48,10.2%),14(43,9.1%),23F(29,6.2%),15(25,5.3%)and 6A (23,4.9%).The potential coverage by 7-and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines was 45.3% (213/471)and 76% (358/471),respectively.The potential coverage of PCV7 and PCV13 in children were 59.0% (72/122) and 86.9% (106/122),and the potential coverage of PCV7 and PCV13 in adult were 42.3% (94/222) and 73.4% (163/222).Conclusions The antibiotic resistance of S.pneumoniae was serious in China,especially to tetracycline,erythromycin and clindamycin.The majority of serotypes 19A and 19F was penicillin-resistant.The potential coverage of PCV7 and PCV13 in children was higher than those in adult.PCV13 could cover most of the isolates,especially for penicillin-resistant S.pneumoniae.

  12. Clinical Features and Treatment of Childhood Measles:A Retrospective Analysis%儿童麻疹临床特征及治疗的回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋桂华; 张岩; 李芹; 于素平; 管志伟; 吕伟刚; 白雪松; 马超

    2016-01-01

    Disease of the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of TCM and Zhoukou Central Hospital of Henan Province from January 2010 to December 2013.A retrospective analysis was made on age distribution, regional distribution, vaccination, the history of contact with measles patients, clinical manifestation, complications, treatment and relapse.The clinical characters and diagnosis of childhood measles were analyzed.Results In all 110 cases, 40 children ( 36.4%) had not been vaccinated definitely, there were 68 (61.8%) children had vaccination once, 2 (1.8%) children had vaccination twice.28 children were younger than 8 months among which 22 children′s mother had got vaccinated and never been infected.Main clinical manifestations were still fever, rash, photophobia, tears, rough oral mucosa and Koplik′s spots, and pertussis -like symptom occurred in 25 ( 22.7%) patients.Complications were mostly bronchopneumonia (45.5%, 50/110), cardiac damage (40.9%, 45/110) and bronchitis (30.0%, 33/110), and obliterative bronchiolitis occurred in 4 (3.6%) patients.There were 72 (65.5%) patients who had used antibiotics, and the three mostly used antibiotics were cefuroxime sodium for injection, ceftriaxone sodium for injection and cefoperazone and sulbactam sodium for injection; 34 ( 30.9%) patients had used ribavirin; 29 ( 26.4%) had used gamma globulin injection; 103 patients (93.6%) had used patent herbal medicine injection, and the three mostly used were Reduning injection, Andrographolide injection and Tanreqing injection.There were 85 (77.3%) patients who were cured and discharged from hospital, 23 (20.9%) patients who had improvement and discharged from hospital and 2 (1.8%) patients who died.The causes of death were measles complicated with severe pneumonia, respiratory failure and cardiac failure.Conclusion Infants younger than 8 months and children who get a single vaccination are newly found group that had high-risk for measles, and clinical manifestations are still

  13. 0~1岁儿童急性肺炎病原学研究及用药合理性分析%Etiological research and medication rationality analysis of acute pneumonia in 0~1 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓晖; 张楠; 黄芳

    2013-01-01

    -four infants hospitalized during Dec 2010 to Nov 2012 were selected.The throat swabs were sent to the Beijing Disease Prevention and Control Center for rapid nucleic acid test for influenza; the sputum was sent to the bacteriological laboratory of the hospital for the bacterial culture.Children drug utilization index (cDUI)was used to assess the rationality of the medication amount of antibiotic drugs.For defined daily dose statistic (DDDs),the larger the value of DDDs,the more frequent the clinical use of the drug.Results In the confirmed cases of acute pneumonia,21 cases were of viral infection,9cases were of bacterial infection and 4 cases were of mixed infection.The probability of bacterial pneumonia (4/9) was higher than that of viral pneumonia(5/21) in the case with underlying disease (P <0.001) ;the virus detection rate(12/21) of children with contact history with respiratory tract infection patients was higher than bacteria detection rate(4/9)(P =0.01).In case of no risk of cross infection,the infants were more susceptible to bacterial infection (P =0.006).The sputum culture of 25 cases of positive virus detection showed 13 cases of colonization of conditional pathogenic bacteria and 4 cases of pathogenic bacteria.The ratio of combination use of antibiotic drugs in case of bacterial infection (4/9) was higher than that in mixed infection (1/4) (P =0.001).The durations of the use of antibiotic drugs for every group showed no statistical difference (P =0.29).This research involved 7 antibiotic drugs.The medication frequencies and durations of ceftriaxone (DDDs =1813.45,total medication duration =187 days) and cefuroxirne (DDDs =1513.73,total medication duration =162 days) were higher than those of the other 5 antibiotic drugs.The cDUI of all drugs ≤ 1.0.The decreasing order of drugs by cDUI was amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium (cDUI =1.0),cefuroxime (cDUI=0.89),ceftriaxone (cDUI =0.87),azithromycin oral agent and cefepime (cDUI =0.80),midecamycin oral agent (c

  14. 小儿感染性心内膜炎治疗的现状%Current status of the management of pediatric infective endocarditis: a national survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小儿感染性心内膜炎研究协作组

    2009-01-01

    Objective During recent years several changes have occurred in the clinical characteristics of infective endocarditis (IE) which has made a new challenge in the management of this disease. This study aimed to understand current practice pattern in the management of pediatric IE in China. Methods This retrospective, multicenter study was conducted in 13 hospitals. Clinical data of 268 patients diagnosed as IE according to the new IE criteria (trial) between 2000 and 2006 were analysed, focusing particularly on management and outcome of patients. The mean age of patients was 8.94 years (18 d-18 years). Results Except for one patient who died after admission without treatment, 56 antimicrobial agents were used in the management of this disease in the 267 patients, including cephalosporin group (15), penicillin group (8), beta-lactamase inhibitor combination (8), aminoglycosides (4), glycopeptide agents (3) etc. The most commonly used antibiotics were as follows: penicillin G (125 cases/times), cefotaxime (113), vancomycin (78), ceftriaxone (73), ampicillin (66), cefuroxime (56), piracillin (48), amikacin (39) etc. For management of this disease, only one antibiotic agent was used in 33 (12.3%) patients, two antibiotic agents in 83 (31.1%) patients, 3 antibiotic agents in 44 (16.5 %) patients, 4 antibiotic agents in 57(21.3%) patients, 5 antibiotic agents in 25(9.4%) patients, 6 or more antibiotic agents in 25 (9.4%) patients. The most commonly used antibiotic agents in patients with streptococci detected in blood culture were penicillin G, cephalosporins, vancomycin, beta-lactamase inhibitor combination, and aminoglycoside, in patients with staphylococcus detected in blood culture were cephalosporins, oxicillin, vancomycin, aminoglycoside, and quinolones. Duration of antibiotic treatment was from 1 day to 98 days, less than 2 weeks in 19 (7%) patients, 2 weeks to less than 4 weeks in 74 (27.7%) patients, 4-6 weeks in 122 (45.7%) patients, more than 6 weeks in 52 (19

  15. Analysis of clinical distribution and drug resistance of bloodstream infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae%肺炎克雷伯菌血流感染的临床分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查翔远; 宋有良; 林建; 崔小玲; 潘晓龙; 倪世峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical distribution and antimicrobial resistance of bloodstream infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae .Methods Patients with bloodstream infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in Tongling People's Hospital in Anhui province from January 2008 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed.Results A total of 71 cases were found with bloodstream infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, the top three clinical distribution departments were infectious diseases department, ICU and oncology de-partment, and the top three complications were pulmonary infection, malignant tumor, biliary tract infection as well as diabetes mellitus. There were 24 strains of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, accounting for 33.8%among 71 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the blood samples, in which 18 (52.9%) strains of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae among 34 hospital acquired infection cases and 6 ( 1 6 .2%) strains of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae among 3 7 community acquired infection cases;the positive rate of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains among hospital acquired infection cases was significantly higher than that of community acquired in-fection cases(χ2 =10.680, P=0.05).Among 71 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, no imipenem or meropenem-resistant isolate was found, and the resistance rates to amikacin, levofloxacin, ciprofIoxacin, cefoxitin, cefepime, cefoperazone/sulbactam and piperacillin/tazobactam were low(<20%) .The resistance rates of stains isolated from hospital acquired infection cases to piperaeillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cef-operazone/sulbactam, ampicillin/sulbactam, ticareillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefazolin, cefoperazone, cefuroxime, ceftazi-dime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and aztreonam were significantly higher than those of stains isolated from community acquired infection cases. The resistance rates of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains to 20 antimicrobial

  16. 鲍曼不动杆菌生物膜形成能力与生物膜相关基因及耐药性之间的关系%Correlation between the biofilm-forming ability, biofilm-related genes and antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩欣欣; 李庆淑; 申丽婷; 胡丹; 曲彦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the biofilm-forming ability and the distribution of biofilm-related genes in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates as well as antimicrobial resistance,to analyze their relationships with the bacterial resistance phenotype.Methods A prospective study was conducted.Biofilm models of 70 strains Acinetobacter baumannii collected in Chengwu County People's Hospital from October 2012 to October 2013 were constructed using 96-well polystyrene plate.In order to analyze the biofilm-forming ability,a qualitative and quantitative analysis was conduct by crystal violet staining assay.And the antimicrobial resistance of different biofilm-forming ability strains was compared including imipenem,amikacin,meropenem,cefepime,sulbactam cefoperazone,trimethoprim,levofloxacin,gentamicin,ciprofloxacin,cefotaxime,ceftizoxime,aztreonam,piperacillin,ceftriaxone,cefuroxime.In addition,the expressions of biofilm-related gene Bap,bfs and intI1 were tested with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.Results Among 70 strains Acinetobacter baumannii,40 strains were multi-drug resistant (57.14%) and 6 strains were pan-drug resistant (8.57%); 68 strains had biofilm-forming ability (97.14%),14 of which were weakly positive,20 were positive and 34 were strongly positive.The antimicrobial resistant rate of Acinetobacter baumannii to imipenem,amikacin,meropenem and cefepime was decreased,it was 30.00%,32.86%,38.57% and 41.43%,respectively.However,the antimicrobial resistant rates to other commonly used antibiotics were all higher than 50%.The drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii to levofloxacin (85.71%,45.00%,38.24%,x2=9.225,P=0.010),cefepime (71.43%,45.00%,29.41%,x2=7.222,P=0.027),gentamicin (78.57%,55.00%,38.24%,x2 =6.601,P=0.037) was significantly decreased when biofilm-forming ability reinforced (weakly positive,positive,hadro-positive).Bap gene positive rate of weakly positive,positive and strong positive biofilm-forming strains