WorldWideScience

Sample records for cefotaxime

  1. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefotaxime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory ... skin, blood, bone, joint, and urinary tract infections. Cefotaxime injection may also be used before surgery, and ...

  2. Cefotaxime and desacetyl cefotaxime in human bile

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Ten patients were injected with 2 g cefotaxime i. v. The antibacterial activity in the bile was measured by the agar diffusion test and the concentrations of cefotaxime and desacetyl cefotaxime were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The values found allow the use of cefotaxime in infectious biliary diseases.

  3. Cefotaxime stability during in vitro microbiological testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Marchbanks, C R; Yost, R L; White, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    Cefotaxime is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin which is metabolized or degraded to less active or inactive metabolites by serum esterases, elevated temperatures, or a pH outside of its stability range. Cefotaxime instability during in vitro microbiological susceptibility tests may lead to an underestimation of the antibacterial activity of the compound. Cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime solutions were studied under MIC and serum inhibitory titer testing conditions. Cefotaxime concentrations, a...

  4. [Reaction mechanism of cefotaxime with human serum albumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luo-sheng; Wang, Xing-po; Zhao, Quan-qin; Zhang, Yu-yi

    2006-06-01

    The reaction mechanism of cefotaxime with human serum albumin (HSA) and the affinity between cefotaxime and beta-lactamase were investigated by spectrometry and spectrofluorimetry. The interaction dissociation constants of human serum albumin and cefotaxime were determined from a double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot. The binding distance and transfer efficiency between cefotaxime and HSA were also obtained according to the theory of Förster non-radiation energy transfer. The result suggested that the main binding force between cefotaxime and HSA is electrostatic force interaction. The high beta-lactamase stability of cefotaxime may be correlative with its molecular structure. The antibiotic activity and valence are connected with transfer efficiency and dissociation constant. The effect of cefotaxime on the conformation of HSA was also analyzed using synchronous fluorescence spectrometry.

  5. Evaluation of cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime concentrations in cord blood after intrapartum prophylaxis with cefotaxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepercq, Jacques; Treluyer, Jean Marc; Auger, Christelle; Raymond, Josette; Rey, Elisabeth; Schmitz, Thomas; Jullien, Vincent

    2009-06-01

    Preterm premature rupture of the membranes is associated with a high risk of neonatal sepsis. An increase in the incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis due to ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli in premature infants has been observed in the past few years. Intrapartum prophylaxis with ampicillin has proven to be efficient for the prevention of early neonatal sepsis due to group B streptococci. To date, there is no strategy for the prevention of early neonatal sepsis due to ampicillin-resistant E. coli. Our aim was to investigate whether a standardized dosage regimen of intrapartum cefotaxime could provide concentrations in the cord blood greater than the cefotaxime MIC(90) for E. coli. Seven pregnant women hospitalized with preterm premature rupture of the membranes and colonized with ampicillin-resistant isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae were included. Cefotaxime was given intravenously during delivery, as follows: 2 g at the onset of labor and then 1 g every 4 h until delivery. Blood specimens were collected from the mother 30 min after the first injection and just before the second injection, and at birth, blood specimens were simultaneously collected from the mother and the umbilical cord. The concentrations of cefotaxime in the cord blood ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/liter. The MIC(90) of cefotaxime for E. coli strains (0.125 mg/liter) was achieved in all cases. This preliminary study supports the use of cefotaxime for intrapartum prophylaxis in women colonized with ampicillin-resistant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. The effectiveness of this regimen for the prevention of neonatal sepsis needs to be evaluated with a larger population.

  6. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) induced by cefotaxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Amel; Aouam, Karim; Gassab, Lies; Njim, Leila; Boughattas, Naceur A

    2010-08-01

    We report a case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) after cefotaxime use confirmed by a positive patch test. A 30-year-old woman received cefotaxime, fosfomycin and ciprofloxacin for sinusitis. Twelve days after drug initiation, she developed an extending pustular erythema associated with fever. Laboratory investigations showed marked leukocytosis. His blood chemistry was normal. The histological examination showed parakeratosis, spongiosis and nonfollicular intra-epidermal pustules consistent with AGEP. All medications were withdrawn. The symptoms resolved within 11 days after cefotaxime discontinuation. Patch tests were positive to cefotaxime after 48 h, while ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin yielded negative findings. Based on the Naranjo algorithm, it is probable that AGEP reaction was caused by cefotaxime. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of AGEP associated with positive cefotaxime patch testing.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on cefotaxime in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegota, H.; Koprowski, M.; Zegota, A. [Technical Univ., Lodz (Poland). Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry

    1995-02-01

    The effect of {gamma}-irradiation on cefotaxime, a member of the third generation of cephalosporins, has been investigated by using different spectroscopic, chromatographic and microbiological analytical methods. Cefotaxime sodium salt was irradiated in dry state in the range of sterilization doses from 5.85 to 46.8 kGy. According to the results obtained, the degree of cefotaxime alterations was lower than 1%, even for the higher radiation dose used. Trace amounts of antibiotic radiolysis products have been found by HPLC. The microbiological assay carried out using E. coli test strain reveal that the activity of irradiated cefotaxime did not decrease. (author).

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on cefotaxime in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żegota, Henryk; Koprowski, Marek; Zegota, Alicja

    1995-02-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation on cefotaxime, a member of the third generation of cephalosporins, has been investigated by using different spectroscopic, chromatographic and microbiological analytical methods. Cefotaxime sodium salt was irradiated in dry state in the range of sterilization doses from 5.85 to 46.8 kGy. According to the results obtained, the degree of cefotaxime alteration was lower than 1%, even for the higher radiation dose used. Trace amounts of antibiotic radiolysis products have been found by HPLC. The microbiological assay carried out using E. coli test strain reveal that the activity of irradiated cefotaxime did not decrease.

  9. Inhibitory effects of cefotaxime on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong-Hua; Zhuang, Jiang-Xing; Yu, Feng; Cui, Yi; Yu, Wen-Wen; Yan, Chong-Ling; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2016-04-01

    Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) catalyzes both the hydroxylation of tyrosine into o-diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols into o-quinones that form brown or black pigments. In the present paper, cefotaxime, a cephalosporin antibacterial drug, was tested as an inhibitor of tyrosinase. The results show that cefotaxime inhibits both the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of tyrosinase. For the monophenolase activity, cefotaxime increased the lag time and decreased the steady-state activity with an IC50 of 3.2 mM. For the diphenolase activity, the inhibition by cefotaxime is reversible and mix-I type with an IC50 of 0.14 mM. The inhibition constants (K(I) and K(IS)) were determined to be 0.14 and 0.36 mM, respectively. The molecular mechanism of inhibition of tyrosinase by cefotaxime was determined by fluorescence quenching and molecular docking. The results demonstrated that cefotaxime was a static quencher of tyrosinase and that cefotaxime could dock favorably in the active site of tyrosinase. This research may offer a lead for designing and synthesizing novel and effective tyrosinase inhibitors in the future.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Cefotaxime Resistant Bacteria in Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Raies A.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Johnson, Judith A.; Archer, Douglas; Morris, J. Glenn; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins are an important class of antibiotics that are widely used in treatment of serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. In this study, we report the isolation of bacteria resistant to the third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime from cattle with no previous cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was examined by a combination of culture based and molecular typing methods in beef cattle (n = 1341) from 8 herds located in North Central Florida. The overall prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was 15.8% (95% CI: 13.9, 17.8), varied between farms, and ranged from 5.2% to 100%. A subset of isolates (n = 23) was further characterized for the cefotaxime minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antibiotic susceptibility against 10 different antibiotics, sequencing of nine β- lactamase genes, and species identification by 16S rRNA sequencing. Most of the bacterial isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (concentrations, > 64 μg/mL) and showed high levels of multi-drug resistance. Full length 16S rRNA sequences (~1300 bp) revealed that most of the isolates were not primary human or animal pathogens; rather were more typical of commensal, soil, or other environmental origin. Six extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes identical to those in clinical human isolates were identified. Our study highlights the potential for carriage of cefotaxime resistance (including “human” ESBL genes) by the bacterial flora of food animals with no history of cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. A better understanding of the origin and transmission of resistance genes in these pre-harvest settings will be critical to development of strategies to prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms to hospitals and communities. PMID:27642751

  11. Identification and Characterization of Cefotaxime Resistant Bacteria in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Raies A; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Johnson, Judith A; Archer, Douglas; Morris, J Glenn; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins are an important class of antibiotics that are widely used in treatment of serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. In this study, we report the isolation of bacteria resistant to the third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime from cattle with no previous cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was examined by a combination of culture based and molecular typing methods in beef cattle (n = 1341) from 8 herds located in North Central Florida. The overall prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was 15.8% (95% CI: 13.9, 17.8), varied between farms, and ranged from 5.2% to 100%. A subset of isolates (n = 23) was further characterized for the cefotaxime minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antibiotic susceptibility against 10 different antibiotics, sequencing of nine β- lactamase genes, and species identification by 16S rRNA sequencing. Most of the bacterial isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (concentrations, > 64 μg/mL) and showed high levels of multi-drug resistance. Full length 16S rRNA sequences (~1300 bp) revealed that most of the isolates were not primary human or animal pathogens; rather were more typical of commensal, soil, or other environmental origin. Six extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes identical to those in clinical human isolates were identified. Our study highlights the potential for carriage of cefotaxime resistance (including "human" ESBL genes) by the bacterial flora of food animals with no history of cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. A better understanding of the origin and transmission of resistance genes in these pre-harvest settings will be critical to development of strategies to prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms to hospitals and communities.

  12. [Effectiveness of cefotaxime in pediatric infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, M; Tasaki, T; Kusunoki, Y; Yoshioka, H; Hiramoto, A; Sanae, N; Tsuchida, A; Maruyama, S; Mukai, N; Takahashi, Y

    1985-01-01

    Cefotaxime (CTX) was administered to 117 pediatric patients. Although 26 of these patients were excluded from the clinical evaluation of the study because other antimicrobial agents were given concomitantly with CTX or because no infectious diseases were proved, these cases were evaluated for adverse effects of the drug. The remaining 91 cases were evaluated for clinical effect; pneumonia in 56 cases, septicemia in 5, suspected septicemia in 5, meningitis (aseptic cases included) in 3, urinary tract infection in 5 and other diseases in 17. No pathogenic organisms were identified in any of the pneumonia cases, even either by bacterial culture or other laboratory test methods. Pathogens of septicemia were E. coli in 3 cases, K. pneumoniae in 1 and E. agglomerans in 1. Those of urinary tract infections were E. coli in 3 cases, a mixed infection of S. aureus and an unidentified species of Gram-negative rods in 1, and unknown in 1. Clinical effectiveness rates of CTX were 78.6% in pneumonia and 100% in septicemia, suspected septicemia and urinary tract infections. One patient with purulent meningitis caused by H. influenzae was also treated with CTX successfully. Adverse reactions and abnormal laboratory findings were observed in 12 cases (12/117 = 10.3%); rash in 2 cases, vomiting in 1, abdominal pain in 1, diarrhea in 5, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia in 1, eosinophilia in 3 and elevation of liver enzymes (GOT and LDH) in 1.

  13. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of gold nanoparticle conjugates with cefotaxime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titanova, Elena O.; Burygin, Gennady L.

    2016-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have attracted significant interest as a novel platform for various applications to nanobiotechnology and biomedicine. The conjugates of GNPs with antibiotics and antibodies were also used for selective photothermal killing of protozoa and bacteria. Also the conjugates of some antibiotics with GNPs decreased the number of bacterial growing cells. In this work was made the procedure optimization for conjugation of cefotaxime (a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic) with GNPs (15 nm) and we examined the antimicrobial properties of this conjugate to bacteria culture of E. coli K-12. Addition of cefotaxime solution to colloidal gold does not change their color and extinction spectrum. For physiologically active concentration of cefotaxime (3 μg/mL), it was shown that the optimum pH for the conjugation was more than 9.5. A partial aggregation of the GNPs in saline medium was observed at pH 6.5-7.5. The optimum concentration of K2CO3 for conjugation cefotaxime with GNPs-15 was 5 mM. The optimum concentration of cefotaxime was at 0.36 μg/mL. We found the inhibition of the growth of E. coli K12 upon application cefotaxime-GNP conjugates.

  14. Delivery of cefotaxime to the brain via intranasal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Prashanth; Hargett, Jamie K; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Repka, Michael A; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the plausibility of delivery of cefotaxime to the brain via intranasal administration. In vitro permeation studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cells, and the effect of different concentrations of chitosan (0.1% w/v and 0.25% w/v) on drug permeation across the bovine olfactory mucosa was determined. Samples were collected from the receiver compartment at different time points and analyzed using HPLC. The amount of cefotaxime that permeated across the olfactory mucosa when 0.25% w/v of chitosan was used as a permeation enhancer was ~1.5- and ~2-fold higher at the end of the first hour and second hour, respectively, over control (29.56 ± 6.18 µg/cm(2)). There was no significant enhancement in drug permeation when 0.1% w/v chitosan was used as the permeation enhancer. Pharmacokinetic studies were carried out using Sprague-Dawley rats. Cefotaxime solution with 0.25% w/v chitosan (40 mg/kg) was administered intravenously (i.v.) to rats in groups 1 and 3 and intranasally to those in group 2 and 4. The time course of drug in the brain was investigated by performing microdialysis in rats of groups 1 and 2. Blood samples were withdrawn from rats in groups 3 and 4, and cefotaxime in plasma was analyzed using HPLC after extraction with a hydrochloric acid-chloroform:1-pentanol (3:1) and phosphate buffer solvent system. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the trapezoidal rule. The results imply that the drug levels attained in the brain following i.v. and intranasal administrations were comparable. These results suggest that intranasal administration of cefotaxime could be a potential method of delivering antibacterial agents because of it being noninvasive and patient compliant.

  15. [Clinical results and pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, M; Oka, T; Yoshioka, H; Sanae, N; Maruyama, S

    1982-07-01

    One full-term newborn infant and 2 premature ones were treated with cefotaxime for the treatment of suspected sepsis and umbilical suppurative inflammation. Pathogenic organisms could not be identified in all cases. A good result was obtained with the case of suspected sepsis. But the other 2 cases were not evaluable because underlying diseases such as massive pulmonary atelectasis or respiratory distress syndrome masked the effects of this agent. Serum levels of cefotaxime in 3 of the 4 cases were determined with bioassay. Time courses of the serum levels in 2 of them resulted in peculiar biphasic disappearance curves. This fact implies the possibility that desacetylation of cefroxime proceeds also in newborns as in adults and that desacetyl metabolite accumulates in the body owing to the premature function of the neonatal kidney.

  16. Study of nonvolatile degradation compounds produced by radiosterilization of cefotaxime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, N.; Tilquin, B.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of radiosterilization on the purity profile of cefotaxime were evaluated by a liquid chromatography-diode array method. Numerous new radiolytic compounds were detected in very small amount. They were quantified and it appeared that none was present above the level of 0.1% of the main compound and the total amount was only of 0.72%. Despite the low quantities present, some radiolytic compounds had UV spectra which could justify the apparition of a yellow coloration detected after irradiation. Others had UV spectra similar to that of cefotaxime, suggesting similarity in the molecular structures. Finally, some mechanisms of formation were proposed for four radiolytic compounds which were identified by mass spectrometry in a former study.

  17. Study of nonvolatile degradation compounds produced by radiosterilization of cefotaxime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbarin, N.; Tilquin, B. E-mail: tilquin@cham.ucl.ac.be

    2001-07-01

    The effects of radiosterilization on the purity profile of cefotaxime were evaluated by a liquid chromatography-diode array method. Numerous new radiolytic compounds were detected in very small amount. They were quantified and it appeared that none was present above the level of 0.1% of the main compound and the total amount was only of 0.72%. Despite the low quantities present, some radiolytic compounds had UV spectra which could justify the apparition of a yellow coloration detected after irradiation. Others had UV spectra similar to that of cefotaxime, suggesting similarity in the molecular structures. Finally, some mechanisms of formation were proposed for four radiolytic compounds which were identified by mass spectrometry in a former study. (author)

  18. Synthesis and radiochemical stability of /sup 14/C-Cefotaxime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, M.D.; Hitzel, V.

    1984-01-01

    /sup 14/C-Cefotaxime (/sup 14/C-HR 756) has been synthesised with the radiolabel in the sidechain aminothiazole ring by a multistep sequence starting from /sup 14/C-thiourea. A high specific activity batch (10400 ..mu..Ci g/sup -1/), and a low specific activity batch (57.1 ..mu..Ci g/sup -1/) suitable for intravenous human use were prepared: Their purity, and solid-state and aqueous solution stability, are described.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Ceftriaxone Compared with Cefotaxime in the Presence of Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan K Nath

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of serum albumin on the antimicrobial activity of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and a 1:1 ratio of cefotaxime and its desacetyl metabolite against nonpseudomonal Gram-negative bacilli was determined. Antimicrobial activity of drugs was evaluated by measuring minimum inhibitory (mic and bactericidal (mbc concentrations in broth with and without human serum albumin. The analysis of logarithmically transformed mean mics and mbcs showed that there was a highly significant interaction between drug and serum albumin (P<0.0001. The inhibitory and bactericidal activities were greatest for cefotaxime followed by cefotaxime/desacetylcefotaxime and ceftriaxone (P<0.01. Time-kill kinetics demonstrated that ceftriaxone was less bactericidal than cefotaxime in broth with albumin. On the basis of these results it was concluded that the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ceftriaxone compared with that of cefotaxime was significantly diminished in the presence of serum albumin.

  20. Treatment of serious urological infections with cefotaxime compared to ampicillin plus netilmicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, D; Bremmelgaard, A; Rasmussen, F;

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-nine patients with severe urinary tract infections were treated with either cefotaxime or ampicillin plus netilmicin in a controlled, open randomised study of the clinical and bacteriological effects. The patients responded favourably in both groups. The minimum inhibitory concentrations...... of cefotaxime against the isolates from blood were low for all bacterial strains except one (Streptococcus faecalis). Time to normalisation of temperature was significantly shorter in the cefotaxime group. The results suggest that cefotaxime is an effective and well-tolerated agent in the treatment of serious...

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid bactericidal activity against cephalosporin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with meningitis treated with high-dosage cefotaxime.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    We determined cefotaxime and desacetyl-cefotaxime concentrations in children with bacterial meningitis receiving high-dose cefotaxime (300 mg/kg of body weight/day) and concomitant dexamethasone therapy. The median peak cerebrospinal fluid cefotaxime and desacetyl-cefotaxime concentrations were 4.7 and 8.1 microg/ml, respectively. In vitro bactericidal activity (>99.9% killing in 6 h) was found in 17 (94%), 13 (72%), and 8 (44%) of 18 cerebrospinal fluid specimens against cefotaxime-susceptib...

  2. In vitro interference of cefotaxime at subinhibitory concentrations on biofilm formation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sudarat Baothong; Sutthirat Sitthisak; Duangkamol Kunthalert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro interference of cefotaxime at subinhibitory con-centrations [sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC)] on biofilm formation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Methods: The interference of subinhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime on biofilm formation of the clinical strong-biofilm forming isolates of NTHi was evaluated by a microtiter plate biofilm formation assay. The effect of sub-MIC cefotaxime on bacterial cell-surface hydrophobicity was determined using a standard microbial adhesion to n-hexadecane test. Additionally, the effects on bacterial adherence to human fibronectin and expression of bacterial adhesins were also investigated. Results: Subinhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime, both at 0.1× and 0.5× MIC levels, efficiently reduced the NTHi biofilm formation, and this effect was independent of decreasing bacterial viability. Sub-MIC cefotaxime also decreased bacterial cell-surface hydrophobicity and reduced adherence to human fibronectin. Inhibition in the P2 and P6 gene expressions upon exposure to sub-MIC cefotaxime was also noted. Conclusions: Taken together, our results indicate that sub-MIC cefotaxime interferes with the formation of NTHi biofilm, and this effect is feasibly related to the interference with cell-surface hydrophobicity, fibronectin-binding activity as well as alteration of the P2 and P6 gene expression. The findings of the present study therefore provide a rationale for the use of subinhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime for treatment of NTHi-related diseases.

  3. Characteristics of Cefotaxime-Resistant Escherichia coli from Wild Birds in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, K.T.; Tulden, P.; Kant, A.; Testerink, J.J.; Mevius, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Cloacal swabs from carcasses of Dutch wild birds obtained in 2010 and 2011 were selectively cultured on media with cefotaxime to screen for the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli. Subsequently, all cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates were tested by

  4. Cefotaxime-resistant Salmonella enterica in travelers returning from Thailand to Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunell, Marianne; Aulu, Laura; Jalava, Jari; Lukinmaa-Åberg, Susanna; Osterblad, Monica; Ollgren, Jukka; Huovinen, Pentti; Siitonen, Anja; Hakanen, Antti J

    2014-07-01

    During 1993-2011, cefotaxime resistance among Salmonella enterica isolates from patients in Finland increased substantially. Most of these infections originated in Thailand; many were qnr positive and belonged to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica monophasic serovar 4,[5],12:i:-. Although cefotaxime-resistant salmonellae mainly originate in discrete geographic areas, they represent a global threat.

  5. Effect of moxifloxacin combined with cefotaxime compared to cefotaxime-gentamicin combination on prevention of white matter damage associated with Escherichia coli sepsis in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Saché, Nolwenn; Baud, Olivier; Pansiot, Julien; Pham, Hoa; Biran, Valérie; Brunel-Meunier, Nadège; Bidet, Philippe; Kitzis, Marie-Dominique; Gressens, Pierre; Bingen, Edouard; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2011-07-01

    Relative to the cefotaxime-gentamicin combination, the moxifloxacin-cefotaxime combination significantly reduced microglial activation and immature oligodendrocyte cell death and delayed myelination in the developing white matter of neonatal rats with experimental Escherichia coli sepsis. These neuroprotective effects were not due to differences in in vivo bactericidal activities or in the systemic inflammatory responses and could be related to the intrinsic immunomodulatory properties of moxifloxacin. Molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of moxifloxacin remain to be elucidated.

  6. Prospective randomized comparison of cefepime and cefotaxime for treatment of bacterial meningitis in infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Llorens, X; Castaño, E; García, R; Báez, C; Pérez, M; Tejeira, F; McCracken, G H

    1995-04-01

    Ninety infants and children were prospectively randomized to receive cefepime (n = 43) or cefotaxime (n = 47) for therapy of bacterial meningitis. The two treatment groups were comparable in terms of age, duration of illness before enrollment, history of seizures, clinical status on admission, and etiology. Six (7%) patients died--two treated with cefepime and four treated with cefotaxime. Clinical response, cerebrospinal fluid sterilization, development of complications, antibiotic toxicity, and hospital stay were similar for the two treatment regimens. Concentrations of cefepime in cerebrospinal fluid varied from 55 to 95 times greater than the maximal MIC required by the causative pathogens. Audiologic and/or neurologic sequelae were found in 16% of the cefepime-treated patients and 15% of the cefotaxime-treated patients examined 2 to 6 months after discharge. We conclude that cefepime is safe and therapeutically equivalent to cefotaxime for management of bacterial meningitis in infants and children.

  7. Study on the effects of cefotaxime on intracellular Ca2+ in human peripheral lymphocytes by fluoremetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Dan Wang; Hai Yan Wang; Ye Hong Zhou; Chun Gui Zhao; Chuan Dong; Shao Min Shuang

    2007-01-01

    Characteristic of Fura-2-Ca2+ interaction was studied based on the fluorescence technique. The apparent dissociation constants(Kd) of the Fura-2-Ca2+ complex were determined at different temperature. The effect of cefotaxime (CEFA) on intracellular Ca2+concentration ([Ca2+]i) was discussed by using a ratiometric fluorescence dye Fura-2 as a probe. The basal [Ca2+]i in resting human peripheral lymphocytes was 100 ± 7 nmol/L but after treatment with cefotaxime, the changes of [Ca2+]i were observed in different conditions. In the concentration range of 1-30 μmol/L of cefotaxime [Ca2+]i increased, as a result of releasing intracellular Ca2+ stores. Higher concentration of cefotaxime (50-500 μmol/L) stimulated to decrease of [Ca2+]i.

  8. Distant and new mutations in CTX-M-1 beta-lactamase affect cefotaxime hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Llarena, Francisco José; Kerff, Frédéric; Abián, Olga; Mallo, Susana; Fernández, María Carmen; Galleni, Moreno; Sancho, Javier; Bou, Germán

    2011-09-01

    The CTX-M β-lactamases are an increasingly prevalent group of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Point mutations in CTX-M β-lactamases are considered critical for enhanced hydrolysis of cefotaxime. In order to clarify the structural determinants of the activity against cefotaxime in CTX-M β-lactamases, screening for random mutations was carried out to search for decreased activity against cefotaxime, with the CTX-M-1 gene as a model. Thirteen single mutants with a considerable reduction in cefotaxime MICs were selected for biochemical and stability studies. The 13 mutated genes of the CTX-M-1 β-lactamase were expressed, and the proteins were purified for kinetic studies against cephalothin and cefotaxime (as the main antibiotics). Some of the positions, such as Val103Asp, Asn104Asp, Asn106Lys, and Pro107Ser, are located in the (103)VNYN(106) loop, which had been described as important in cefotaxime hydrolysis, although this has not been experimentally confirmed. There are four mutations located close to catalytic residues-Thr71Ile, Met135Ile, Arg164His, and Asn244Asp-that may affect the positioning of these residues. We show here that some distant mutations, such as Ala219Val, are critical for cefotaxime hydrolysis and highlight the role of this loop at the top of the active site. Other distant substitutions, such as Val80Ala, Arg191, Ala247Ser, and Val260Leu, are in hydrophobic cores and may affect the dynamics and flexibility of the enzyme. We describe here, in conclusion, new residues involved in cefotaxime hydrolysis in CTX-M β-lactamases, five of which are in positions distant from the catalytic center.

  9. Study on the compatibility of cefotaxime with tinidazole in glucose injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Li, Xiaohua; Wang, Jian; You, An

    2007-04-11

    An efficient HPLC method for the compatibility study of cefotaxime with tinidazole in glucose injection is described, which has been developed for the simultaneous determination of cefotaxime and tinidazole in glucose injection. The appearance and pH value of the mixed solution were investigated and the concentrations of cefotaxime and tinidazole were determined by RP-HPLC with an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C8 column, gradient elution and dual wavelength detection on diode-array-detector (DAD) at room temperature (20 degrees C) within 24 h. It was found that the resulting appearance and pH value of the mixed solution showed slight changes, on the other hand, the quantity of cefotaxime decreased significantly. The results show that the mixed solution of cefotaxime with tinidazole in glucose injection must be used within 8 h in clinical due to the possible degradation of cefotaxime in tinidazole glucose injection. This study provides a convenient method for rational use of compatible drugs in clinical practice.

  10. Separation and determination of cefotaxime enantiomers in injections by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Jia, Zheng-Ping; Fan, Jun-Jie; Ma, Jun; Hua, Xie; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Juan

    2009-03-01

    Cefotaxime enantiomers have specific effects on Gram-negative bacteria. For quality control of cefotaxime it was necessary to establish a method for enantioseparation by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using cyclodextrin (CD) as a chiral selector. The effects of various parameters on enantioseparation were studied. A fused silica capillary (40 cm effective length x 75 microm ID) was used. The cefotaxime enantiomers were separated on the baseline under conditions of 0.5 mmol/L CM-beta-CD, 75 mmol/L NaH2PO4 buffer at pH 7.0 using UV detection at 280 nm. Applied voltage and capillary temperature were 20 kV and 25 degrees C, respectively. Under these conditions for enantioseparation, linear calibration curves were obtained in the range 2 approximately 160 microg/mL. The limit of detection for both isomers was less than 0.5 microg/mL. The method was used for analysis of pharmaceutical preparations (dosage forms) of cefotaxime from various factories. A simple and specific CZE method was successfully demonstrated for the separation of cefotaxime enantiomers. The enantioseparation method should be established and this method should be used to control the quality of cefotaxime.

  11. Cefotaxime resistance and outcome of Klebsiella spp bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M; Marco, F; Soriano, A; Almela, M; Martínez, J A; López, J; Pitart, C; Mensa, J

    2011-12-01

    We attempt to describe the epidemiology and outcome associated with cefotaxime-resistant (CTX-R) Klebsiella spp bacteraemia. Klebsiella spp bloodstream infection episodes prospectively collected through a blood culture surveillance programme from January 1991 to December 2008 in a single institution were analysed. A total of 910 monomicrobial episodes of Klebsiella spp bacteraemia were identified during the study period. The most important sources were from urinary tract infection, unknown sources, billiary focus and catheter related infection. There were 112 (12%) CTX-R isolates. Out of 112 isolates, 98 were CTX-R by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase production. Shock on presentation and mortality were significantly more frequent in CTX-R than in CTX susceptible isolates. Inappropriate empirical therapy was received in 50 (45%) cases in the CTX-R Klebsiella spp group (13 cases of death, 26%). Predictive factors associated with CTX-R Klebsiella spp isolate were: previous β-lactam therapy (OR = 4.16), nosocomial acquired bacteraemia (OR = 1.93), solid organ trasplantation (OR = 2.09) and shock (OR = 1.90). Independent risk factors associated with mortality in Klebsiella spp bacteraemia were: age (OR = 1.03), liver cirrhosis (OR = 2.63), ultimately or rapidly fatal prognosis of underlying disease (OR = 2.44), shock (OR = 8.60), pneumonia (OR = 4.96) or intraabdominal (OR = 3.85) source of bacteraemia and CTX-R isolate (OR = 4.63). Klebsiella spp is an important cause of bloodstream infection. CTX-R isolates have been increasing since 2000. CTX-R is an independent factor associated with mortality in Klebsiella spp bacteraemia.

  12. Subcutaneous pharmacokinetics and dosage regimen of cefotaxime in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suresh Kumar; Srivastava, Anil Kumar

    2006-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics and dosage regimen of cefotaxime following its single subcutaneous administration (10 mg/kg) were investigated in buffalo calves. Plasma and urine samples were collected over 10 and 24 h post administration, respectively. Cefotaxime in plasma and urine was estimated by microbiological assay technique using E. coli as test organism. The pharmacokinetic profiles fitted one-compartment open model. The peak plasma levels of cefotaxime were 6.48 +/- 0.52 microgram/ml at 30 min and the drug was detected upto 10 h. The absorption half-life and elimination halflife were 0.173 +/- 0.033 h and 1.77 +/- 0.02 h, respectively. The apparent volume of distribution and total body clearance were 1.17 +/- 0.10 l/kg and 0.45 +/- 0.03 l/kg/h, respectively. The urinary excretion of cefotaxime in 24 h, was 5.36 +/- 1.19 percent of total administrated dose. A satisfactory subcutaneous dosage regimen for cefotaxime in buffalo calves would be 13 mg/kg repeated at 12 h intervals.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPLC METHOD FOR QUANTIFICATION OF CEFOTAXIME IN PLASMA OF PATANWADI SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprita Sinha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present research work was carried out to study the validation procedure of Cefotaxime using plasma of Patanwadi sheep. The samples were analyzed using RP- HPLC C18 column (250 X 4.6 mm with UV detection (254 nm. The method was developed for extraction of Cefotaxime from plasma of sheep using acetonitrile and was validated. The mobile phase was a mixture of 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer with pH 6 and acetonitrile (88: 12, v/v. The method was validated with respect to linearity, precision and accuracy. The intra day and inter day precision study of cefotaxime was carried out by estimating the corresponding responses 3 times on the same day and on 3 different days (1st, 2nd and 3rd for 6 different concentration of Cefotaxime (10, 5, 2.5, 0.625, 0.312 and 0.156 µg/ml and the results were reported in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD. At all concentration studied the C.V. (Coefficient of Variance was less than 7%. The recovery of Cefotaxime from plasma varied from 85-89%. The limit of detection (LOD was found to be 0.156 ppm. Calibration graphs showed a linear correlation (r > 0.998 over the concentration ranges of 1.56 – 200 µg mL-1 for plasma. The results obtained indicated good precision of assay. The developed method was found to be simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and reproducible and can be used for analytical studies of Cefotaxime.

  14. Evaluation of the toxic potential of cefotaxime in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahul; Jyoti, Smita; Naz, Falaq; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2015-05-25

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic potential of cefotaxime in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9). Cefotaxime at final concentration of 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml was mixed in the diet and the larvae were exposed to the selected doses for 6, 12, 24, 48 h. The hsp70 expression, trypan blue exclusion test, in situ histochemical β-galactosidase activity, lipid peroxidation, total protein content, glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, protein carbonyl content, caspase 3 and 9 activity, apoptotic index and comet assay were taken as parameters for the study. The larvae exposed to 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml for 12, 24 and 48 h showed a dose and duration dependent significant increase in the activity of β-galactosidase and lipid peroxidation but decrease in the total GSH content as compared to unexposed larvae. The decrease in protein content was observed in the larvae exposed to 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml of cefotaxime for 24 and 48 h. The larvae exposed to 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml of cefotaxime for 24 and 48 h showed a dose and duration dependent increase in the tissue damage, GST, caspase 3 and 9 activity, PC content, apoptosis and the DNA tail length (comet assay). The result suggests that the cefotaxime is toxic at 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml of doses for the third instar larvae of transgenic D. melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9). Cefotaxime at 10 and 20 μg/ml was not toxic for any duration of exposure.

  15. Rapid detection of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrer, A; Findeisen, P; Jäger, E; Ghebremedhin, B; Grundt, A; Ahmad-Nejad, P; Miethke, T; Neumaier, M

    2015-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an unsolved healthcare problem with increasing impact on patient management in the last years. In particular, multidrug resistance among Gram-negative bacterial strains has become the most pressing challenge. In order to deliver the most efficacious antimicrobial therapy with minimum delay, rapid diagnostic tests are required in order to detect multidrug resistant pathogens early during infection. In line with these efforts, we have developed a mass spectrometry-based assay for the rapid determination of ampicillin and cefotaxime resistance. The assay quantifies beta-lactamase activities towards ampicillin and cefotaxime within a turnaround time of 150 min, which is substantially faster than classical susceptibility testing.

  16. Effect of antibiotic cefotaxime and kanamycin on callus formation and plantlet regeneration from leaves and callus of mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugpheug, R.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to get rid of contamination from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the bacterium employed in gene transformation, various kinds and concentrations of antibiotics were added singly or in combinations. In this investigation, concentrations of cefotaxime and kanamycin were examined for callus formation and regenerability from leaves and callus. The results showed that cefotaxime at the concentration of up to 300 mg/l gave a non-significant difference in callus formation. In the case of direct shoot bud formation, concentration over 100 mg/l drastically reduced percentage of leaf-forming shoot buds. The calli which were cultured continuously in 300 mg/l cefotaxime-containing medium for 6 passages gave callus forming shoot buds of 35%. Higher concentration of cefotaxime drastically decreased bud formation. In the case of kanamycin, callus could be induced and maintained in the medium supplemented with a lower concentration than cefotaxime. However, the callus could not be maintained after 3 subculturings.

  17. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli forms filaments as an initial response to cefotaxime treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thea S. B.; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander; Olsen, John E.

    2015-01-01

    -producing E. coli to cefotaxime and to determine whether the response depended on the growth phase of the bacterium and the concentration of antibiotic. Results: Two antibiotic resistant strains carrying bla(CTX-M-1) on the chromosome and on an IncI1 plasmid and three sensitive strains were used...... in this study. The resistant strains displayed elongated cells when exposed to cefotaxime at sub-inhibitory as well as therapeutic concentrations (1 to 512 mg/L of cefotaxime) in both lag and early exponential phase, suggesting that the elongation was an initial response mechanism to the antibiotic. Normal...... sized cells were the dominant cell type in exponential and stationary growth phase. No elongated cells were seen in cultures without cefotaxime. In cultures with high concentrations of cefotaxime (128-512 mg/L), no growth other than initial filamentation was observed, but spheroplats appeared after 14...

  18. OPEN, RANDOMIZED COMPARISON OF PEFLOXACIN AND CEFOTAXIME IN THE TREATMENT OF COMPLICATED URINARY-TRACT INFECTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TIMMERMAN, C; HOEPELMAN, [No Value; DEHOND, J; SCHREINEMACHERS, L; MENSINK, H; VERHOEF, J

    1992-01-01

    In an open, randomized study, the effect of pefloxacin (400 mg b.i.d.) was compared with that of cefotaxime (1 g t.i.d.) in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections. In total 87 patients entered the study under the clinical diagnosis of complicated urinary tract infection, of whom 49 we

  19. Cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli in broiler farms-A cross-sectional investigation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Johanna; Frömke, Cornelia; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Hartmann, Maria; Schneider, Bettina; Friese, Anika; Rösler, Uwe; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Hille, Katja

    2016-03-01

    In this investigation the farm prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC) in German broiler farms was evaluated. In total, 59 flocks on 34 broiler farms were sampled in four agricultural regions of Germany. Per broiler flock, three faecal samples, a pair of boot swabs and one dust sample were taken and examined for the presence of CREC. After pre-enrichment of sample material in Luria-Bertani-broth, the broth was streaked onto MacConkey agar containing 1mg/l cefotaxime (CTX). CREC isolates were detected in at least one sample from each flock resulting in a farm prevalence of 100%. The proportion of positive samples was high in all three sample types. Of 177 collective faecal samples 81.9% were positive, of 59 boot swabs and 59 dust samples 79.7% and 62.7% were positive. In conclusion, the prevalence of broiler farms with cefotaxime-resistant E. coli in Germany is very high. We suggest that the analysis of collective faecal samples is sufficient to determine the CREC farm status. In addition to other studies our study supports the finding that cefotaxime resistance is a good proxy for the presence of ESBL- or plasmidic AmpC-beta-lactamases.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime in infants during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Ahsman (Maurice); E.D. Wildschut (Enno); D. Tibboel (Dick); R.A. Mathot (Ron)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExtracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used to temporarily sustain cardiac and respiratory function in critically ill infants but can cause pharmacokinetic changes necessitating dose modifications. Cefotaxime (CTX) is used to prevent and treat infections during ECMO, but the curre

  1. Microdialysis study of cefotaxime cerebral distribution in patients with acute brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire; Frasca, Denis; Grégoire, Nicolas; Adier, Christophe; Mimoz, Olivier; Debaene, Bertrand; Couet, William; Marchand, Sandrine

    2013-06-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) antibiotic distribution was described mainly from cerebrospinal fluid data, and only few data exist on brain extracellular fluid concentrations. The aim of this study was to describe brain distribution of cefotaxime (2 g/8 h) by microdialysis in patients with acute brain injury who were treated for a lung infection. Microdialysis probes were inserted into healthy brain tissue of five critical care patients. Plasma and unbound brain concentrations were determined at steady state by high-performance liquid chromatography. In vivo recoveries were determined individually using retrodialysis by drug. Noncompartmental and compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. Unbound cefotaxime brain concentrations were much lower than corresponding plasma concentrations, with a mean cefotaxime unbound brain-to-plasma area under the curve ratio equal to 26.1 ± 12.1%. This result was in accordance with the brain input-to-brain output clearances ratio (CL(in,brain)/CL(out,brain)). Unbound brain concentrations were then simulated at two dosing regimens (4 g every 6 h or 8 h), and the time over the MICs (T>MIC) was estimated for breakpoints of susceptible and resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. T>MIC was higher than 90% of the dosing interval for both dosing regimens for susceptible strains and only for 4 g every 6 h for resistant ones. In conclusion, brain distribution of cefotaxime was well described by microdialysis in patients and was limited.

  2. Characteristics of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli from wild birds in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Kees; van Tulden, Peter; Kant, Arie; Testerink, Joop; Mevius, Dik

    2013-12-01

    Cloacal swabs from carcasses of Dutch wild birds obtained in 2010 and 2011 were selectively cultured on media with cefotaxime to screen for the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli. Subsequently, all cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates were tested by broth microdilution and microarray. The presence of ESBL/AmpC and coexisting plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. To determine the size of plasmids and the location of ESBL and PMQR genes, S1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on transformants, followed by Southern blot hybridization. The study included 414 cloacal swabs originating from 55 different bird species. Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates were identified in 65 birds (15.7%) from 21 different species. In all, 65 cefotaxime-resistant E. coli ESBL/AmpC genes were detected, mainly comprising variants of blaCTX-M and blaCMY-2. Furthermore, PMQR genes [aac(6')-lb-cr, qnrB1, and qnrS1] coincided in seven cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates. Overall, replicon typing of the ESBL/AmpC-carrying plasmids demonstrated the predominant presence of IncI1 (n = 31) and variants of IncF (n = 18). Our results indicate a wide dissemination of ESBL and AmpC genes in wild birds from The Netherlands, especially among aquatic-associated species (waterfowl, gulls, and waders). The identified genes and plasmids reflect the genes found predominantly in livestock animals as well as in humans.

  3. Trace analysis of cefotaxime at carbon paste electrode modified with novel Schiff base Zn(II) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Preeti; Mohan, Swati; Kundu, Subir; Prakash, Rajiv

    2009-02-15

    Cefotaxime a third generation cephalosporin drug estimation in nanomolar concentration range is demonstrated for the first time in aqueous and human blood samples using novel Schiff base octahedral Zn(II) complex. The cefotaxime electrochemistry is studied over graphite paste and Zn(II) complex modified graphite paste capillary electrodes in H(2)SO(4) (pH 2.3) using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Cefotaxime enrichment is observed over Zn(II) complex modified graphite paste electrode probably due to interaction of functional groups of cefotaxime with Zn(II) complex. Possible interactions between metal complex and cefotaxime drug is examined by UV-vis and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) techniques and further supported by voltammetric analysis. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) with modified electrode is applied for the determination of cefotaxime in acidified aqueous and blood samples. Cefotaxime estimation is successfully demonstrated in the range of 1-500 nM for aqueous samples and 0.1-100 microM in human blood samples. Reproducibility, accuracy and repeatability of the method are checked by triplicate reading for large number of samples. The variation in the measurements is obtained less than 10% without any interference of electrolyte or blood constituents.

  4. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B meningitis relapse after five days of cefotaxime treatment: what went wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoix, Jean-Philippe; Lecerf, Celine; El Samad, Youssef; Rousseau, Florence; Tchaoussoff, Jean; Schmit, Jean-Luc

    2011-10-01

    The authors describe a case of relapse of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B meningitis in a 21-y-old male, 48 h after a 5-day treatment with cefotaxime 215 mg/kg per day. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) excluded the hypothesis of cerebral abscess or central venous septic thrombosis, and transthoracic echocardiography excluded bacterial endocarditis. Complement, properdin, and protein electrophoresis were normal. The plausible explanations for this relapse and the implications for other similar cases are discussed.

  5. Methodological agreement on the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against cefotaxime-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, David M; Warner, Marina; Mushtaq, Shazad

    2014-02-01

    Ceftaroline reportedly has lower minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) than established cephalosporins for Streptococcus pneumoniae. We further evaluated this activity using 155 pneumococci chosen by serotype and cefotaxime MIC. MICs were determined by agar dilution on Mueller-Hinton agar and Iso-Sensitest agar and by Etest. Inhibition zones were measured for 5 μg and 30 μg ceftaroline discs using both CLSI/EUCAST and BSAC methodology. Ceftaroline was more active than cefotaxime, with MICs 2-8-fold lower for isolates with cefotaxime MICs of ≤1 mg/L and mostly in the range 0.125-0.5 mg/L for those with cefotaxime MICs of 2 mg/L to ≥16 mg/L. Twelve isolates belonging to serotypes 14 (n=2), 19A (n=6) and 19F (n=4) were ceftaroline-resistant, with MICs of 0.5-1 mg/L. Essential agreement between MIC methods was excellent, with values on Iso-Sensitest agar and Mueller-Hinton agar identical ±1 doubling dilution in all cases, and with 154/155 values identical ±1 doubling dilution between agar dilution and Etest. Nevertheless, 5/11 isolates with agar dilution MICs of 0.5 mg/L (i.e. just resistant) 'had' MICs of 0.25 mg/L (just susceptible) by Etest. Inhibition zones also correlated with MICs, but discrimination around the breakpoint MICs was poor irrespective of method and disc type. In summary, the results confirm the good activity of ceftaroline against pneumococci, but susceptibility testing will present challenges in routine laboratories, with discs poorly discriminatory and with Etest prone to give susceptible results for isolates with MICs one doubling dilution above the breakpoint.

  6. In vitro interference of cefotaxime at subinhibitory concentrations on biofilm formation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarat Baothong

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Taken together, our results indicate that sub-MIC cefotaxime interferes with the formation of NTHi biofilm, and this effect is feasibly related to the interference with cell-surface hydrophobicity, fibronectin-binding activity as well as alteration of the P2 and P6 gene expression. The findings of the present study therefore provide a rationale for the use of subinhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime for treatment of NTHi-related diseases.

  7. Cefotaxime-heparin lock prophylaxis against hemodialysis catheter-related sepsis among Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anil K; Panhotra, Bodh R; Al-hafiz, Abdul Aziz; Sundaram, Dasappan S; Abu-Oyun, Bassam; Al Mulhim, Khalifa

    2012-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers undergoing hemodialysis (HD) through tunneled cuffed catheters (TCCs) form a high-risk group for the development of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and ensuing morbidity. The efficacy of antibiotic-locks on the outcomes of TCCs among S. aureus nasal carriers has not been studied earlier. Persistent nasal carriage was defined by two or more positive cultures for methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin-resistant (MRSA) S. aureus of five standardized nasal swabs taken from all the participants dialyzed at a large out-patient HD center affiliated to a tertiary care hospital. Of 218 participants, 82 S. aureus nasal carriers dialyzed through TCCs (n = 88) were identified through April 2005 to March 2006 and randomized to two groups. Group I comprised of 39 nasal carriers who had TCCs (n = 41) "locked" with cefotaxime/heparin while group II included 43 patients with TCCs (n = 47) filled with standard heparin. The CRBSI incidence and TCC survival at 365 days were statistically compared between the two groups. A significantly lower CRBSI incidence (1.47 vs. 3.44/1000 catheter-days, P cefotaxime group compared with the standard heparin group. However, no significant difference in MRSA-associated CRBSI incidence was observed between the two groups. Cefotaxime-heparin "locks" effectively reduced CRBSI-incidence associated with gram-positive cocci, including MSSA, among S. aureus nasal carriers. There remains a compelling requirement for antibiotic-locks effective against MRSA.

  8. The new method of the synthesis of cefotaxime acid%新方法合成头孢噻肟酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文滨; 胡亚星

    2012-01-01

    The new method of the synthesis of Cefotaxime Acid use new and old technology cross and com- bination optimization, New method extraction points in dissolved 7--ACA, removal of impurities, Then the MAEM ester under the catalysis of catalyst in the reaction of Cefotaxime Acid. Effective Cefotaxime Acid synthesis process improvement, Get Cefotaxime Acid single impurity 〈0.8%, total impurities 〈1. 4%. The Cefotaxime Sodium which made of low impurities Cefotaxime Acid has improved a lot in 430nm wavelength's absorbance.%新方法合成头孢噻肟酸采用新旧工艺交叉组合优化,新方法对溶解后的7-ACA进行萃取分相,去除其中的杂质,然后在与AE-活性酯在催化剂的催化下反应生成头孢噻肟酸。有效地将头孢噻肟酸合成工艺进行了改进,得到的头孢噻肟酸单杂〈0.8%,总杂〈1.4%。使用杂质低的头孢噻肟酸制成头孢噻肟钠成品的吸光度(430nm波长)有了很大的改善。

  9. Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) probably induced by cefotaxime: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouam, Karim; Chaabane, Amel; Toumi, Adnen; Ben Fredj, Nadia; Ben Romdhane, Foued; Boughattas, Naceur A; Chakroun, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    We report two cases, one of a 52-year-old man and one of a 32-year-old man, who were treated with cefotaxime. On day 23 and day 28 of the treatment, respectively, the patients manifested clinically with fever, pruriginous skin rash, and facial edema. Blood tests showed marked eosinophilia and atypical lymphocytosis for both patients, and hepatic cytolysis only in the second patient. Cefotaxime was discontinued in both patients; the clinico-biological picture improved gradually and completely disappeared approximately 4 weeks later. Six weeks after complete recovery, both patients underwent intradermal testing which was positive to cefotaxime (2 mg/ml) at the 48-hour reading and negative to benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, and cefazolin at the 20-minute and 48-hour readings. These clinical pictures suggest drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) induced by cefotaxime. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of cefotaxime-induced DRESS has been reported in the medical literature. Thus, we add two new cases of cefotaxime-induced DRESS and emphasize the usefulness and safety of intradermal testing in establishing the diagnosis.

  10. Chemiluminescence determination of cefotaxime sodium with flow-injection analysis of cerium (IV)-rhodamine 6G system and its application to the binding study of cefotaxime sodium to protein with on-line microdialysis sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dinglong; Wang, Huiying; Zhang, Zhujun; Ci, Lijie; Zhang, Xuehong

    2011-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) method has been developed for the determination of cefotaxime sodium based on the chemiluminescence reaction of cefotaxime sodium with ceric sulfate and rhodamine 6G in nitric acid solution. The concentration of cefotaxime sodium was proportional with the CL intensity in the range of 4 × 10 -8 - 8 × 10 -6 mol L -1. The detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) was 1 × 10 -8 mol L -1. Coupled to the technique of on-line microdialysis sampling, this method was successfully applied to study cefotaxime sodium-protein interaction. The drug and protein were mixed in different molar ratios in Ringer's solution, pH 7.4, and incubated at 37 °C in a water bath. The microdialysis probe was utilized to sample the mixed solution at a perfusion rate of 5 μL min -1 and the recovery of cefotaxime sodium under experimental condition was 16.2%. The data obtained by the present Microdialysis-Flow Injection Analysis-CL method was analyzed with the Scatchard analysis and Klotz plot. The estimated association constant ( K) and the number of the binding sites ( n) on one of BSA molecule were 5.94 × 10 4 M -1 and 1.29 (Klotz equation), respectively.

  11. Cefotaxime-heparin lock prophylaxis against hemodialysis catheter-related sepsis among Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers undergoing hemodialysis (HD through tunneled cuffed catheters (TCCs form a high-risk group for the development of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI and ensuing morbidity. The efficacy of antibiotic-locks on the outcomes of TCCs among S. aureus nasal carriers has not been studied earlier. Persistent nasal carriage was defined by two or more positive cultures for methicillin-susceptible (MSSA or methicillin-resistant (MRSA S. aureus of five standardized nasal swabs taken from all the participants dialyzed at a large out-patient HD center affiliated to a tertiary care hospital. Of 218 participants, 82 S. aureus nasal carriers dialyzed through TCCs (n = 88 were identified through April 2005 to March 2006 and randomized to two groups. Group I comprised of 39 nasal carriers who had TCCs (n = 41 "locked" with cefotaxime/heparin while group II included 43 patients with TCCs (n = 47 filled with standard heparin. The CRBSI incidence and TCC survival at 365 days were statistically compared between the two groups. A significantly lower CRBSI incidence (1.47 vs. 3.44/1000 catheter-days, P <0.001 and higher infection-free TCC survival rates at 365 days (80.5 vs. 40.4%, P <0.0001 were observed in the cefotaxime group compared with the stan-dard heparin group. However, no significant difference in MRSA-associated CRBSI incidence was observed between the two groups. Cefotaxime-heparin "locks" effectively reduced CRBSI-incidence associated with gram-positive cocci, including MSSA, among S. aureus nasal carriers. There remains a compelling requirement for antibiotic-locks effective against MRSA.

  12. Cidal activity of oral third-generation cephalosporins against Streptococcus pneumoniae in relation to cefotaxime intrinsic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafini, F; Aguilar, L; Alou, L; Giménez, M J; Sevillano, D; Torrico, M; González, N; Granizo, J J; Martín-Herrero, J E; Prieto, J

    2008-08-01

    This study explores the killing kinetics within 12 h of four oral third-generation cephalosporins against ten Streptococcus pneumoniae strains exhibiting cefotaxime minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from 0.03 to 2 microg/ml. Killing curves were performed with concentrations achievable in serum after standard doses (0.015-4 microg/ml). Reductions of 90% were achieved with all compounds at serum-achievable concentrations for strains exhibiting cefotaxime MIC cefotaxime MIC > or = 1 microg/ml, only cefditoren reached a 90% reduction with concentrations of 0.5-1 microg/ml doses. At 4 microg/ml, cefditoren and cefotaxime reached 99.9% reduction in seven of the ten strains studied. At serum-achievable concentrations, cefdinir and cefixime were not bactericidal against strains exhibiting cefotaxime MIC > or = 0.25 microg/ml and > or = 0.5 microg/ml, respectively. Cefditoren showed the best killing kinetic profiles and this observation may be important when choosing an oral third-generation cephalosporin as initial or sequential therapy.

  13. Clonally related Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with decreased susceptibility to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin cefotaxime in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymans, Raymond; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Golparian, Daniel; Unemo, Magnus; de Vries, Henry J C; van Dam, Alje P

    2012-03-01

    From 2006 to 2008, Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were identified with decreased susceptibility to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) cefotaxime among visitors of the Amsterdam sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic, the Netherlands. Spread, clonality, and characteristics of 202 isolates were examined using antibiograms, conventional penA mosaic gene PCR, and N. gonorrhoeae multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (NG-MLVA). A strictly defined subset was further characterized by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) and sequencing of ESC resistance determinants (penA, mtrR, and porB1b). Seventy-four N. gonorrhoeae isolates with a cefotaxime MIC of >0.125 μg/ml (group A), 54 with a cefotaxime MIC of 0.125 μg/ml (group B), and a control group of 74 with a cefotaxime MIC of cefotaxime susceptibility and ST1407 that was highly prevalent among visitors of the Amsterdam STI clinic. The rapid spread of this strain, which also has been identified in many other countries, might be facilitated by high-risk sexual behavior and should be monitored closely to identify potential treatment failure. Quality-assured surveillance of ESC susceptibility on the national and international levels and exploration of new drugs and/or strategies for treatment of gonorrhea are crucial.

  14. Single daily amikacin versus cefotaxime in the short-course treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai-An Chen; Gin-Ho Lo; Kwok-Hung Lai; Whey-Jen Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of single daily amikacin vs. cefotaxime in the 5-d treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP).METHODS: Thirty-seven cirrhotic patients with SBP,19 in group A and 18 in group B, were studied. Group A received 1 g of cefotaxime every 6 h, and group B received 500 mg of amikacin qd. Both antibiotics were administered up to 5 d and the responses were compared.RESULTS: Infection was cured in 15 of 19 patients (78.9%) treated with cefotaxime and in 11 of 18 (61.1%)treated with amikacin. Four patients of the Cefotaxime group (21.1%) and five patients of the Amikacin group (27.8%) died. Two in each group (10.5% vs 11.1%)had renal impairment during study period. One in each group (5.3% vs 5.6%) may be considered to suffer from nephrotoxicity due to increased urinary β2-microglobulin concentration.CONCLUSION: In this study, single daily doses of amikacin in the treatment of SBP in cirrhotics were not associated with an increased incidence of renal impairment or nephrotoxicity. However, a 5-d regimen of amikacin is less effective than a 5-d regimen of cefotaxime in the SBP treatment.

  15. Influence of subinhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime, imipenem and ciprofloxacin on adhesion of Escherichia coli strains to polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalas-Wiecek, Patrycja; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Piecyk, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the ability of sub MICs of cefotaxime, imipenem and ciprofloxacin to interfere with adhesion of E. coli strains to polystyrene (selected polymer used in studies on microorganisms' adhesion). It was observed that cefotaxime and imipenem at 1/2 and 1/4 MICs decreased the adherence of E. coli strains to polystyrene significantly. 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 MICs of ciprofloxacin generally decreased the adhesive properties of E. coli strains, but two E. coli strains showed a noticeable enhancement of adhesion after incubation at sub MICs of this antibiotic.

  16. Cefotaxime for the detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase or plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase and clinical characteristics of cefotaxime-non-susceptible Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Y; Yamamoto, M; Matsushima, A; Nagao, M; Ito, Y; Takakura, S; Ichiyama, S

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the performance of cefotaxime for the detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) and the clinical characteristics of cefotaxime-non-susceptible Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae (CTXNS-EK) bacteraemia. All of the consecutive bloodstream isolates between 2005 and 2010 in a Japanese university hospital were characterised using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Risk factors and outcomes of CTXNS-EK were analysed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. We identified 58 CTXNS-EK (15.6%) from 249 E. coli and 122 K. pneumoniae. Cefotaxime with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of >1 μg/mL had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 99.7% for the detection of ESBL or pAmpC. CTXNS-EK had increased from 4.5% in 2005 to 23% in 2009. Risk factors for CTXNS-EK were previous isolation of multidrug-resistant bacteria, use of oxyimino-cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones, and high Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Patients with CTXNS-EK bacteraemia less frequently received appropriate empirical therapy than patients with cefotaxime-susceptible EK bacteraemia (81% vs. 97%, pcefotaxime alone can identify ESBL or pAmpC producers. CTXNS-EK is an important and increasingly prevalent bacteraemia pathogen.

  17. Cefotaxime-induced Stevens and ndash;Johnson syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ravishankar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stevens and ndash;Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis are two forms of a life-threatening skin condition, in which cell death causes the epidermis to separate from the dermis. The syndrome is thought to be a hypersensitivity complex that affects the skin and the mucous membranes. The most well-known causes are certain medications, but it can also be due to infections, or more rarely, cancers. SJS usually begins with fever, sore throat, and fatigue, which is commonly misdiagnosed and therefore treated with antimicrobials. Ulcers and other lesions begin to appear in the mucous membranes, almost always in the mouth and lips, but also in the genital and anal regions. Conjunctivitis of the eyes occurs in about 30% of children who develop SJS. A rash of round lesions about an inch across arises on the face, trunk, arms and legs, and soles of the feet, but usually not the scalp. SJS is a medical emergency that usually requires hospitalization. Treatment focuses on eliminating the underlying cause, controlling symptoms and minimizing complications. Recovery after SJS can take weeks to months, depending on the severity of the condition. If it was caused by a medication, then the medication and others closely related to it has to be avoided permanently. An 18-month-old male child was admitted to a private health setup in Kolar with the complaints of peeling and discoloration of the skin, ulcerations in the oral cavity, eyelids, and genitalia. The parents gave the history of cefotaxime injection being administered to the child for treating typhoid 20 days back. Seven days after the administration of cefotaxime, the child had developed maculo-papular lesions all over the body. Later on there was peeling and discoloration of the skin. Itching was present. Ulcerations in the oral cavity, eyelids and genitalia were also noticed by the parents, who then brought the child to the health care center. According to the Naranjo's adverse drug

  18. A METHOD FOR OBTAINING AXENIC ALGAL CULTURES USING THE ANTIBIOTIC CEFOTAXIME WITH EMPHASIS ON CLADOPHOROPSIS-MEMBRANACEA (CHLOROPHYTA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOISTRA, WHCF; BOELEBOS, SA; STAM, WT

    1991-01-01

    Axenic cultures of the tropical green seaweed Cladophoropsis membranacea (C. Agardh) Boergesen were obtained by cutting 2-mm apical tips from fast-growing unialgal filaments and incubating them in 1/2PES containing 100-mu-g.mL-1 cefotaxime. After 1 week, apical tips were cut from the newly grown pla

  19. Pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijk, Joost B; Valk-Swinkels, Corinne G H; Rijpstra, Tom A; Touw, Daan J; Mulder, Paul G H; van der Voort, Peter H J; Van't Veer, Nils E; van der Meer, Nardo J M

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to describe the pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime (CTX) in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) when treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-center prospe

  20. Meningitis in a Canadian adult due to high level penicillin-resistant, cefotaxime-intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Cécile Tremblay; Anne-Marie Bourgault; Pierre St-Antoine

    1996-01-01

    Invasive penicillin-resistant pneumococcal (PRSP) infections are increasing worldwide. In Canada, the incidence of penicillin resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates is estimated at greater than 6%. In Quebec, only one case of PRSP meningitis has been reported and involved an infant. An adult patient is described who presented with meningitis caused by high level penicillin-resistant, cefotaxime-intermediate S pneumoniae.

  1. Reduced renal clearance of cefotaxime in asians with a low-frequency polymorphism of OAT3 (SLC22A8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Sook Wah; Nguyen, Anh Nguyet; Brown, Chaline; Savic, Radojka M; Zhang, Youcai; Castro, Richard A; Cropp, Cheryl D; Choi, Ji Ha; Singh, Diment; Tahara, Harunobu; Stocker, Sophie L; Huang, Yong; Brett, Claire M; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2013-09-01

    Organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3, SLC22A8), a transporter expressed on the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule, plays a critical role in the renal excretion of organic anions including many therapeutic drugs. The goal of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effects of the OAT3-Ile305Phe variant (rs11568482), present at 3.5% allele frequency in Asians, on drug disposition with a focus on cefotaxime, a cephalosporin antibiotic. In HEK293-Flp-In cells, the OAT3-Ile305Phe variant had a lower maximum cefotaxime transport activity, Vmax , [159 ± 3 nmol*(mg protein)(-1) /min (mean ± SD)] compared with the reference OAT3 [305 ± 28 nmol*(mg protein)(-1) /min, (mean ± SD), p cefotaxime renal clearance (CLR ; mean ± SD: 84.8 ± 32.1 mL/min, n = 5) compared with volunteers that were homozygous for the reference allele (158 ± 44.1 mL/min, n = 10; p = 0.006). Furthermore, the net secretory component of cefotaxime renal clearance (CLsec ) was reduced in volunteers heterozygous for the variant allele [33.3 ± 31.8 mL/min (mean ± SD)] compared with volunteers homozygous for the OAT3 reference allele [97.0 ± 42.2 mL/min (mean ± SD), p = 0.01]. In summary, our study suggests that a low-frequency reduced-function polymorphism of OAT3 associates with reduced cefotaxime CLR and CL(sec) .

  2. [Identification of resistance and susceptibility to cefotaxime in EHEC O121 strains isolated from an outbreak at two nurseries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Koji; Ueno, Hiroyuki; Tomari, Kentaro; Kobori, Sumie; Kaetsu, Akihiko; Miyazaki, Motonobu

    2014-07-01

    A Shiga toxin 2 producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O121: H19 was isolated from a 2-year-old child who attending a nursery. An EHEC O121 outbreak in two nurseries (A, B), involving a total of 17 infected persons including 12 children, was revealed through contact investigation. The symptoms of all infected persons were almost all mild, and no one developed the hemolytic uremic syndrome. The combination use of desoxycholate-hydrogen sulfide-lactose (DHL) and CHROMagar STEC as selective isolation media was employed for efficient fecal examination. Nursery A and nursery B were combined as one group after the outbreak in nursery A was confirmed. As a result, EHEC O121 infected persons were also detected in children from nursery B. The 17 strains of EHEC O121 obtained from the total population showed almost the same pulsed-gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern, suggesting that these strains were very closely related. However, 13 of these 17 strains obtained from nursery A were susceptible to cefotaxime, whereas the remaining 4 strains obtained from nursery B showed cefotaxime resistance. A cefotaxime resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) O86 strain was isolated in the stool specimen from a child who had been infected with the cefotaxime resistant EHEC O121. Both the cefotaxime resistant EHEC O121 and E. coli O86 had the same drug resistant gene (bla(CTX-M-1) group). The child was the index case of these 4 later cases and had received no antibiotics therapy prior to the laboratory examination. These findings suggested the possibility that an EHEC O121 strain had acquired a drug resistant gene from E. coli O86 in the digestive tract of the child.

  3. In vitro synergism of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime against nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serotypes Paratyphi A and Paratyphi B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Ganesh Prasad; Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Bok Kwon

    2010-09-01

    Paratyphoid fever is considered an emerging systemic intracellular infection caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Paratyphi A, B, and C. We performed in vitro time-kill studies on three clinical isolates of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella serotype Paratyphi (NARSP) with different concentrations of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime to identify combinations of antibiotics with synergistic activity against paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, we identify the frequency of mutations to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and rifampin resistance and also sequenced the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes to identify the cause of resistance in NARSP. When the activity of ciprofloxacin at 0.75x MIC (0.012 to 0.38 microg/ml) with cefotaxime at the MIC (0.125 to 0.25 microg/ml) against all three NARSP isolates was investigated, synergy was observed at 24 h, and the bacterial counts were reduced by >3 log(10) CFU/ml. This synergy was elongated for up to 72 h in two out of three isolates. When ciprofloxacin at 0.75x MIC (0.012 to 0.38 microg/ml) was combined with cefotaxime at 2x MIC (0.25 to 0.50 microg/ml), synergy was prolonged for up to 72 h in all three isolates. Both Salmonella serotype Paratyphi A isolates carried single mutations in codon 83 of the gyrA gene and codon 84 of the parC gene that were responsible for their reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, while no mutations were found in the gyrB or parE gene. The ciprofloxacin-plus-cefotaxime regimen was very effective in reducing the bacterial counts at 24 h for all three isolates, and this combination therapy may be helpful in reducing the chance of the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants in patients with severe paratyphoid fever.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime in infants during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsman, Maurice J; Wildschut, Enno D; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A

    2010-05-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used to temporarily sustain cardiac and respiratory function in critically ill infants but can cause pharmacokinetic changes necessitating dose modifications. Cefotaxime (CTX) is used to prevent and treat infections during ECMO, but the current dose regimen is based on pharmacokinetic data obtained for non-ECMO patients. The objective of this study was to validate the standard dose regimen of 50 mg/kg of body weight twice a day (postnatal age [PNA], 4 weeks). We included 37 neonates on ECMO, with a median (range) PNA of 3.3 (0.67 to 199) days and a median (range) body weight of 3.5 (2.0 to 6.2) kg at the onset of ECMO. Median (range) ECMO duration was 108 (16 to 374) h. Plasma samples were taken during routine care, and pharmacokinetic analysis of CTX and its active metabolite, desacetylcefotaxime (DACT), was done using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM). A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model for CTX and DACT adequately described the data. During ECMO, CTX clearance (CL(CTX)) was 0.36 liter/h (range, 0.19 to 0.75 liter/h), the volume of distribution of CTX (V(CTX)) was 1.82 liters (0.73 to 3.02 liters), CL(DACT) was 1.46 liters/h (0.48 to 5.93 liters/h), and V(DACT) was 11.0 liters (2.32 to 28.0 liters). Elimination half-lives for CTX and DACT were 3.5 h (1.6 to 6.8 h) and 5.4 h (0.8 to 14 h). Peak CTX concentration was 98.0 mg/liter (33.2 to 286 mg/liter). DACT concentration varied between 0 and 38.2 mg/liter, with a median of 10 mg/liter in the first 12 h postdose. Overall, CTX concentrations were above the MIC of 8 mg/liter over the entire dose interval. Only 1 of the 37 patients had a sub-MIC concentration for over 50% of the dose interval. In conclusion, the standard cefotaxime dose regimen provides sufficiently long periods of supra-MIC concentrations to provide adequate treatment of infants on ECMO.

  5. Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced cefotaxime susceptibility is increasingly common in men who have sex with men, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.J.C.; van der Helm, J.J.; Schim van der Loeff, M.F.; van Dam, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) treatment. Presently, third-generation parenteral cephalosporins, like ceftriaxone and cefotaxime, are the first option. Resistance to oral, but not to parenteral, third-generation cephalosporins has been reported previo

  6. Synthesis, Spectroscopic, and Magnetic Studies of Mono- and Polynuclear Schiff Base Metal Complexes Containing Salicylidene-Cefotaxime Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Anacona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal complexes of a Schiff base ligand derived from cefotaxime and salicylaldehyde were prepared. The salicilydene-cefotaxime ligand (H2L and mononuclear [M(L] (M(II = Co, Ni and Cu, dinuclear [Ag2(L(OAc2], and tetranuclear metal complexes [M4(L(OH6] (M(II = Ni, Cu were characterized on the basis of analytical, thermal, magnetic, and spectral studies (IR, UV-visible, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and EPR. The electronic spectra of the complexes and their magnetic moments suggesttetrahedral geometry for the isolated complexes. The complexes are nonelectrolytes and insoluble in water and common organic solvents but soluble in DMSO.

  7. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli forms filaments as an initial response to cefotaxime treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thea S. B.; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander; Olsen, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: beta-lactams target the peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall and most beta-lactam antibiotics cause filamentation in susceptible Gram-negative bacteria at low concentrations. The objective was to determine the initial morphological response of cephalosporin resistant CTX-M-1......-17 hours in cultures of the resistant strains. Filaments were also observed in sensitive control strains with sub-inhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime. Conclusions: We showed that E. coli resistant to beta-lactams by an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, bla(CTX-M-1), produced filaments when exposed...... to cefotaxime. The filament formation was restricted to early growth phases and the time the cells grew as filaments was antibiotic concentration dependent. This indicates that antibiotic resistant E. coli undergo the same morphological changes as sensitive bacteria in the presence of beta-lactam antibiotic...

  8. 头孢噻肟酸的THF合成工艺探索%The THF Synthesis Process of Cefotaxime Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆宏龙; 覃艺群

    2012-01-01

    Cefotaxime acid was an importantion of mid - drug. The experimental process on synthesis of cefotaxime acid was studied by using 7 - ACA am inoeephalo sporanic acid (7 - ACA) and MEAM as raw material under the catalytic act ion of DMA. At present, it really used CH2CL2 as chief liquid intermediary, and the technology was very mature, however, because using liquid intermediary was too much, the percent of output was lower and the application was restricted to some extend. THF and water were used as liquid to the synthesis of cefotaxime acid. The effects of the amount of catalyst, the ratio of the reactants, the choice of the solvent and the pH of crystalization were investigated. The yield of cefotaxime acid was over 165% under the optimum conditions.%头孢噻肟酸是一种重要的药物中间体,主要是以AE-活性酯(苯并噻唑活性酯MEAM)和7-ACA(7-氨基头孢烷酸)为原料合成头孢噻肟酸。目前主要是以二氯甲烷为主要溶媒,该工艺非常成熟,但所用溶媒太多,产品含量不高,使得应用受到一定限制。本工艺使用四氢呋喃(THF)和水为主要溶媒,从降低成本及改善晶形的角度,探索不同溶媒比例对合成产率及晶型的影响.在最佳溶媒比例下,重量收率可达165%以上。

  9. Comparison of continuous infusion with intermittent bolus administration of cefotaxime on blood and cavity fluid drug concentrations in neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, J; Johnson, R; Arroyo, L G; Diaz-Mendez, A; Ruiz-López, J A; Gu, Y; del Castillo, J R E

    2013-02-01

    Healthy neonatal foals were treated with cefotaxime by bolus (40 mg/kg i.v. q6h for 12 doses; n=10) or by infusion (loading dose of 40 mg/kg i.v. followed by continuous infusion of a total daily dose of 160 mg/kg per 24 h for 3 days; n=5). Population pharmacokinetics was determined, and concentrations in cavity fluids were measured at steady state (72 h). Highest measured serum drug concentration in the bolus group was 88.09 μg/mL and minimum drug concentration (C(min)) was 0.78 μg/mL at 6-h postadministration (immediately before each next dose), whereas infusion resulted in a steady-state concentration of 16.10 μg/mL in the infusion group. Mean cefotaxime concentration in joint fluid at 72 h was higher (P=0.051) in the infusion group (5.02 μg/mL) compared to the bolus group (0.78 μg/mL). Drug concentration in CSF at 72 h was not different between groups (P=0.243) and was substantially lower than serum concentrations in either group. Insufficient data on pulmonary epithelial lining fluid were available to compare the methods of administration for cefotaxime in this cavity fluid. Results support continuous drug infusion over bolus dosing in the treatment for neonatal foal septicemia to optimize time that cefotaxime concentration exceeds the minimum inhibitory concentration of common equine pathogens.

  10. Genetic organization of plasmid-mediated Qnr determinants in cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacter cloacae isolates in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Eun Sil; Jeong, Jin-Yong

    2010-11-01

    Because of the strong association between qnr genes and plasmids carrying β-lactamase genes, we screened 176 clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae with cefotaxime MICs of ≥16 μg/mL for qnr genes. The qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes were detected in 18 (10.2%), 11 (6.2%), and 1 (0.56%) of the isolates, respectively. The genetic environments of the plasmids encoding these qnr genes were analyzed.

  11. Meningitis in a Canadian Adult due to High Level Penicillin-Resistant, Cefotaxime-Intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Tremblay

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive penicillin-resistant pneumococcal (PRSP infections are increasing worldwide. In Canada, the incidence of penicillin resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates is estimated at greater than 6%. In Quebec, only one case of PRSP meningitis has been reported and involved an infant. An adult patient is described who presented with meningitis caused by high level penicillin-resistant, cefotaxime-intermediate S pneumoniae.

  12. Enhancing the antibiotic antibacterial effect by sub lethal tellurite concentrations: tellurite and cefotaxime act synergistically in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Quiroz, Roberto C; Muñoz-Villagrán, Claudia M; de la Torre, Erick; Tantaleán, Juan C; Vásquez, Claudio C; Pérez-Donoso, José M

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria during the last decades has become a public health concern worldwide. Aiming to explore new alternatives to treat antibiotic-resistant bacteria and given that the tellurium oxyanion tellurite is highly toxic for most microorganisms, we evaluated the ability of sub lethal tellurite concentrations to strengthen the effect of several antibiotics. Tellurite, at nM or µM concentrations, increased importantly the toxicity of defined antibacterials. This was observed with both gram negative and gram positive bacteria, irrespective of the antibiotic or tellurite tolerance of the particular microorganism. The tellurite-mediated antibiotic-potentiating effect occurs in laboratory and clinical, uropathogenic Escherichia coli, especially with antibiotics disturbing the cell wall (ampicillin, cefotaxime) or protein synthesis (tetracycline, chloramphenicol, gentamicin). In particular, the effect of tellurite on the activity of the clinically-relevant, third-generation cephalosporin (cefotaxime), was evaluated. Cell viability assays showed that tellurite and cefotaxime act synergistically against E. coli. In conclusion, using tellurite like an adjuvant could be of great help to cope with several multi-resistant pathogens.

  13. In vitro efficacy of the combination of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime against nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Min; Neupane, Ganesh Prasad; Jang, Sook Jin; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Bok Kwon

    2010-08-01

    Typhoid fever is a systemic intracellular infection caused by Salmonellaenterica serotype Typhi. The emergence and spread of nalidixic acid-resistant S. Typhi (NARST) is challenging for clinicians in many countries owing to the lack of suitable treatment options. The aim of this study was to identify in vitro synergistic combinations of antibiotics against S. Typhi. In vitro time-kill studies were performed on three clinical NARST isolates and one type strain of nalidixic acid-susceptible S. Typhi (NASST) ATCC 9992 with ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime and azithromycin in various combinations. The combination of ciprofloxacin (0.012-0.375 microg/mL) and cefotaxime (0.063-0.125 microg/mL) against all three NARST strains and the NASST strain was significantly more effective in vitro in reducing bacterial counts by >or=3log(10) colony-forming units at 24h and showed synergistic effects. Combination therapy with ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime might be the treatment of choice for patients with typhoid fever. The combination of a fluoroquinolone and a beta-lactam, which are directed against different targets, may improve efficacy compared with a fluoroquinolone alone and may reduce the chance of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants emerging in patients with severe typhoid fever.

  14. Riboflavin-sensitized photooxidation of Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime. Kinetic study and effect on Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, Eugenia; Spesia, Mariana B; García, Norman A; Biasutti, María A; Criado, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Trace amounts of the widely used β-lactam antibiotics (Atbs) in waste water may cause adverse effects on the ecosystems and contribute to the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. On these grounds, kinetic and mechanistic aspects of photosensitized degradation of Ceftriaxone (Cft) and Cefotaxime (Ctx), have been studied in pure water by stationary and time-resolved techniques. Additionally, possible implications of these photoprocesses on the antimicrobial activity of the Atbs have also been investigated. Photoirradiation of aqueous solutions of Cft and Ctx produces the degradation of both Atbs in the presence of Riboflavin (vitamin B2), a well known pigment dissolved in natural aquatic systems. The process occurs through Type I and Type II mechanisms, with effective prevalence of the former. The participation of O2(-), OH and O2((1)Δg) is supported by experiments of oxygen consumption carried out in the presence of specific scavengers for such reactive oxygen species. Microbiological assays exhibit a parallelism between the rate of Cft and Ctx photodegradation and the loss of their bactericidal capacity on Staphylococcus aureus strains. Results contribute to both understanding kinetic and mechanism aspects of the degradation and predicting on natural decay of Atbs waste water-contaminants.

  15. Newly Developed Topical Cefotaxime Sodium Hydrogels: Antibacterial Activity and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza S. Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to reach better treatment of skin infections, gel formulations containing Cefotaxime (CTX were prepared. The gel was formulated using Carbopol 934 (C934, Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose 4000 (HPMC 4000, Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (Na CMC, Pectin (PEC, Xanthan Gum (XG, or Guar Gum (GG. Thirteen different formulas were prepared and characterized physically in terms of color, syneresis, spreadability, pH, drug content, and rheological properties. Drug-excipients compatibility studies were confirmed by FTIR and then in vitro drug release study was conducted. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CTX were studied against wound pathogens such as, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa, using either pure drug or Fucidin® cream as control. F13 provides better spreadability compared to F1 (XG or F11 (HPMC. Moreover, the release of the drug from hydrogel F13 containing C934 was slower and sustained for 8 h. Stability study revealed that, upon storage, there were no significant changes in pH, drug content, and viscosity of the gels. Also, F13 showed the larger inhibition zone and highest antibacterial activity among other formulations. Histological analysis demonstrated that after single treatment with F13 gel formulation, a noticeable reduction in microbial bioburden occurred in case of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates.

  16. Newly Developed Topical Cefotaxime Sodium Hydrogels: Antibacterial Activity and In Vivo Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Azza S.; Afifi, Samar A.; Elkhodairy, Kadria A.

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to reach better treatment of skin infections, gel formulations containing Cefotaxime (CTX) were prepared. The gel was formulated using Carbopol 934 (C934), Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose 4000 (HPMC 4000), Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (Na CMC), Pectin (PEC), Xanthan Gum (XG), or Guar Gum (GG). Thirteen different formulas were prepared and characterized physically in terms of color, syneresis, spreadability, pH, drug content, and rheological properties. Drug-excipients compatibility studies were confirmed by FTIR and then in vitro drug release study was conducted. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CTX were studied against wound pathogens such as, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), using either pure drug or Fucidin® cream as control. F13 provides better spreadability compared to F1 (XG) or F11 (HPMC). Moreover, the release of the drug from hydrogel F13 containing C934 was slower and sustained for 8 h. Stability study revealed that, upon storage, there were no significant changes in pH, drug content, and viscosity of the gels. Also, F13 showed the larger inhibition zone and highest antibacterial activity among other formulations. Histological analysis demonstrated that after single treatment with F13 gel formulation, a noticeable reduction in microbial bioburden occurred in case of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates. PMID:27314033

  17. Proteomic response of β-lactamases-producing Enterobacter cloacae complex strain to cefotaxime-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravić, Ana; Cvjetan, Svjetlana; Konta, Marina; Ladouce, Romain; Martín, Fernando A

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria of the Enterobacter cloacae complex are among the ten most common pathogens causing nosocomial infections in the USA. Consequently, increased resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, particularly expanded-spectrum cephalosporins like cefotaxime (CTX), poses a serious threat. Differential In-Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE), followed by LC-MS/MS analysis and bioinformatics tools, was employed to investigate the survival mechanisms of a multidrug-resistant E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii 51 carrying several β-lactamase-encoding genes, including the 'pandemic' blaCTX-M-15 After exposing the strain with sub-minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CTX, a total of 1072 spots from the whole-cell proteome were detected, out of which 35 were differentially expressed (P ≤ 0.05, fold change ≥1.5). Almost 50% of these proteins were involved in cell metabolism and energy production, and then cell wall organization/virulence, stress response and transport. This is the first study investigating the whole-cell proteomic response related to the survival of β-lactamases-producing strain, belonging to the E. cloacae complex when exposed to β-lactam antibiotic. Our data support the theory of a multifactorial synergistic effect of diverse proteomic changes occurring in bacterial cells during antibiotic exposure, depicting the complexity of β-lactam resistance and giving us an insight in the key pathways mediating the antibiotic resistance in this emerging opportunistic pathogen.

  18. Transition Metal(II Complexes with Cefotaxime-Derived Schiff Base: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Reiss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New [ML2(H2O2] complexes, where M = Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, and Zn(II while L corresponds to the Schiff base ligand, were synthesized by condensation of cefotaxime with salicylaldehyde in situ in the presence of divalent metal salts in ethanolic medium. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductance, and magnetic measurements, as well as by IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The low values of the molar conductance indicate nonelectrolyte type of complexes. Based on spectral data and magnetic moments, an octahedral geometry may be proposed for Co(II, Ni(II, and Zn(II complexes while a tetragonal geometry for Cu(II complex. Molecular structure of the Schiff base ligand and its complexes were studied using programs dedicated to chemical modeling and quantomolecular calculation of chemical properties. All the synthesized complexes were tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacterial strains, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC values shown by the complexes against these bacterial strains revealed that the metal complexes possess superior antibacterial activity than the Schiff base.

  19. Newly Developed Topical Cefotaxime Sodium Hydrogels: Antibacterial Activity and In Vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Azza S; Afifi, Samar A; Elkhodairy, Kadria A

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to reach better treatment of skin infections, gel formulations containing Cefotaxime (CTX) were prepared. The gel was formulated using Carbopol 934 (C934), Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose 4000 (HPMC 4000), Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (Na CMC), Pectin (PEC), Xanthan Gum (XG), or Guar Gum (GG). Thirteen different formulas were prepared and characterized physically in terms of color, syneresis, spreadability, pH, drug content, and rheological properties. Drug-excipients compatibility studies were confirmed by FTIR and then in vitro drug release study was conducted. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CTX were studied against wound pathogens such as, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), using either pure drug or Fucidin® cream as control. F13 provides better spreadability compared to F1 (XG) or F11 (HPMC). Moreover, the release of the drug from hydrogel F13 containing C934 was slower and sustained for 8 h. Stability study revealed that, upon storage, there were no significant changes in pH, drug content, and viscosity of the gels. Also, F13 showed the larger inhibition zone and highest antibacterial activity among other formulations. Histological analysis demonstrated that after single treatment with F13 gel formulation, a noticeable reduction in microbial bioburden occurred in case of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates.

  20. Electrochemical determination of cefotaxime based on a three-dimensional molecularly imprinted film sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangming; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2014-03-15

    A novel electrochemical sensor is presented for the determination of cefotaxime (CEF), which is constructed by molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), gold networks@IL (IL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [BMIM][BF4]) (GNWs@IL), porous platinum nanoparticles (PPNPs) and carboxyl graphene (COOH-r-GO). The GNWs@IL is prepared by directly reducing HAuCl4 with sodium citrate in [BMIM][BF4] aqueous solution. The PPNPs are well embedded in GNWs@IL due to the adhesion of IL to form GNWs@IL-PPNPs suspension, which is coated on a COOH-r-GO modified glassy carbon electrode to construct a porous three-dimensional networks modified electrode. Then, MIP is prepared by cyclic voltammetry at the modified electrode, using CEF as template and o-phenylenediamine as monomer. The factors concerning this assay strategy are carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the electrochemical sensor offers an excellent response for CEF, the linear response range is 3.9 × 10(-9) ~ 8.9 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) and the detection limit is 1.0 × 10(-10) mol L(-1). The electrochemical sensor has been applied to the determination of CEF in real samples with satisfactory results.

  1. An RP-HPLC-UV method with SPE for cefotaxime in all-in-one total parenteral nutritional admixtures: application to stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Shahid; Bahari, Mohd Baidi; Darwis, Yusrida; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahid; Hayat, Amer; Venkatesh, Gantala

    2013-01-01

    A simple and selective RP-HPLC-UV method with SPE was developed and validated for the quantification of cefotaxime in all-in-one total parenteral nutrition (AIO-TPN) admixtures. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a 5 pm particle size C18 DB column (250 x 4.6 mm id) using the mobile phase ammonium acetate (25 mM, pH 4.0)-50% acetonitrile in methanol (80 + 20, v/v). The flow rate was 0.9 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 254 nm. The analyte was extracted from AIO-TPN admixtures by means of an SPE method. The cefotaxime calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 100-1400 microg/mL with a correlation coefficient of > or = 0.9994. The intraday accuracy and precision for cefotaxime were cefotaxime in the presence of micronutrients together with low and high concentrations of macronutrients in AIO-TPN admixtures. Cefotaxime was degraded by 13.00 and 26.05% at room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) after 72 h in low and high macronutrient concentration formulations of AIO-TPN admixtures, respectively. The values of cefotaxime degradation rates for low and high macronutrient concentration formulations of AIO-TPN admixtures were -0.164 and -0.353, respectively. These results indicated that there was a higher rate of degradation in the AIO-TPN admixture formulations containing high concentrations of macronutrients.

  2. The influence of sulbactam on the in vitro activity of mezlocillin, piperacillin and cefotaxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernfeind, A; Grimm, H; Klietmann, W; Opferkuch, W; Werner, H

    1996-04-01

    In a multicentre study, the in-vitro activity of mezlocillin (MEZ, Chemical Abstract Service [CAS] 51481-65-3), piperacillin (PIP, CAS 61477-96-1) and cefotaxime (CTX, CAS 63527-52-6) against mezlocillin-resistant organisms was determined alone and in combination with the beta-lactamase inhibitor sulbactam (SBT, CAS 68373-14-8). A total of 870 strains were investigated (481 Enterobacteriaceae, 57 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 41 Acinetobacter spp., 194 Bacteroides fragilis and 97 Staphylococcus spp.). MIC values were determined using the agar dilution test (aerobic organisms) or the microbroth dilution test (Bacteroides spp.) in accordance with Deutsche Industrie für Normung 58 940. SBT was added in fixed concentrations of 5 mg/l and 10 mg/l. For all combinations with SBT investigated, the geometric mean of the MIC and the MIC(50) and MIC(90) values were reduced as compared with the antibiotic alone (without SBT). Consequently, the proportion of sensitive strains was appreciably increased, for example in the Enterobacteriaceae: MEZ 1%, MEZ + 10 mg/l SBT 53%; PIP 4%, PIP + 10 mg/l SBT 54%; CTX 52%, CTX + 10 mg/l SBT 68%. The effect of SBT was especially pronounced on Bacteroides spp. For this organism, the proportion of sensitive strain rose from 2% to 97% (MEZ), 6% to 95% (PIP) and from 7% to 98% (CTX). The results show that adding SBT appreciably enhances the activity of MEZ, PIP and CTX against resistant strains of microorganism, and extends the activity spectrum to include anaerobic organisms. Thus the availability of SBT as a single-agent preparation for use in combination with various beta-lacta antibiotics represents a worthwhile enlargement of the therapeutic armamentarium for treating bacterial infections.

  3. Carriage and fecal counts of cefotaxime M-producing Escherichia coli in pigs: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Katrine Hartung; Damborg, Peter; Andreasen, Margit; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Guardabassi, Luca

    2013-02-01

    Current knowledge on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in animals is based largely on cross-sectional studies and qualitative data. The aim of this longitudinal study was to elucidate carriage proportions and fecal counts of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in pigs during the production cycle. At each of three ESBL-positive single-sited farrow-to-finisher pig farms (farms A, B, and C) included in the study, individual fecal samples were taken from 17 to 20 sows 1 week before farrowing and from 2 piglets of each sow's litter four times from birth to slaughter (as piglets, weaners, and finishers). Cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant coliforms in feces were counted on MacConkey agar containing 2 μg/ml CTX and characterized for the presence of ESBL-encoding genes by PCR and sequencing. CTX-M-positive pigs were detected in all age groups at farms A (bla(CTX-M-9) group, compatible with bla(CTX-M-14/17)) and B (bla(CTX-M-1) group, compatible with bla(CTX-M-1/61)), whereas only three weaners were positive at farm C (bla(CTX-M-1) group, compatible with bla(CTX-M-1/61)). A significant decrease in carriage was detected during the production cycle, with on average 50% carriage immediately after birth, 58% just before weaning, 29% during weaning, and 12% during finishing. The observed reduction in numbers of CTX-M-positive pigs was accompanied by a significant reduction in mean fecal counts of CTX-resistant coliforms from ~10(7) CFU/g in piglets to ~10(3) CFU/g in finishers (P < 0.001). These findings provide novel information about the epidemiology of ESBLs at the farm level and have important implications for assessments of risks of meat contamination during slaughter.

  4. Effects of Chai-Qin-Cheng-Qi Decoction on cefotaxime in rats with acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hui Deng; Da-Kai Xiang; Ping Xue; Hai-Yan Zhang; Lei Huang; Qing Xia

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Chai-Qin-Cheng-Qi Decoction (CQCQD) on cefotaxime (CTX) concentration in pancreas of rats with acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP).METHODS: Sixty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into an ANP group (ANP model + CTX, n = 20), treatment group (ANP model + CTX + CQCQD, n = 20) and control group (normal rats + CTX, n = 20). ANP models were induced by retrograde intraductal injection of 3.5% sodium taurocholate (1 mL/kg), and the control group was injected intraductally with normal saline. All rats were injected introperitoneally with 0.42 g/kg CTX (at 12-h intervals for a continuous 72 h) at 6 h after intraductal injection. Meanwhile, the treatment group received CQCQD (20 mL/kg) intragastrically at 8-h intervals, and the ANP and control group were treated intragastrically with normal saline. At 15 min after the last CTX injection, blood and pancreas samples were collected for the determination of CTX concentration using validated high-performance liquid chromatography. Pathological changes and wet-to-dry-weight (W/D) ratio of pancreatic tissue were examined.RESULTS: Serum CTX concentrations in three groups were not significantly different. Pancreatic CTXconcentration and penetration ratio were lower in ANP group vs control group (4.4 ±0.6 mg/mL vs 18.6±1.7 mg/mL, P = 0.000; 5% vs 19%, P = 0.000), but significantly higher in treatment group vs ANP group (6.4 ±1.7 mg/mL vs 4.4 ±0.6 mg/mL, P = 0.020; 7% vs 5%, P = 0.048). The histological scores and W/D ratio were significantly decreased in treatment group vs ANP and control group.CONCLUSION: CQCQD might have a promotive effect on CTX concentration in pancreatic tissues of rats with ANP.

  5. Computational study on hydrolysis of cefotaxime in gas phase and in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliá, Conchín; Ferrer, Silvia; Moliner, Vicent; Tuñón, Iñaki; Bertrán, Juan

    2012-09-15

    We are presenting a theoretical study of the hydrolysis of a β-lactam antibiotic in gas phase and in aqueous solution by means of hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics potentials. After exploring the potential energy surfaces at semiempirical and density functional theory (DFT) level, potentials of mean force have been computed for the reaction in solution with hybrid PM3/TIP3P calculations and corrections with the B3LYP and M06-2X functionals. Inclusion of the full molecule of the antibiotic, Cefotaxime, in the gas phase molecular model has been demonstrated to be crucial since its carboxylate group can activate a nucleophilic water molecule. Moreover, the flexibility of the substrate implies the existence of a huge number of possible conformers, some of them implying formation of intramolecular hydrogen bond interaction that can determine the energetics of the conformers defining the different states along the reaction profile. The results show PM3 provides results that are in qualitative agreement with DFT calculations. The free energy profiles show a step-wise mechanism that is kinetically determined by the nucleophilic attack of a water molecule activated by the proton transfer to the carboxylate group of the substrate (the first step). However, since the main role of the β-lactamase would be reducing the free energy barrier of the first step, and keeping in mind the barrier obtained from second intermediate to products, population of this second intermediate could be significant and consequently experimentally detected in β-lactamases, as shown in the literature.

  6. Cefotaxime and Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Synergism against Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in a Murine Model of Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, B; Soubirou, J F; Chau, F; Massias, L; Dion, S; Lepeule, R; Fantin, B; Lefort, A

    2015-11-02

    We investigated the efficacies of cefotaxime (CTX) and amoxicillin (AMX)-clavulanate (CLA) (AMC) against extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in vitro and in a murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI). MICs, the checkerboard dilution method, and time-kill curves were used to explore the in vitro synergism between cefotaxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate against two isogenic E. coli strains-CFT073-RR and its transconjugant, CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15)-harboring a bla(CTX-M-15) plasmid and a bla(OXA-1) plasmid. For in vivo experiments, mice were separately infected with each strain and treated with cefotaxime, amoxicillin, and clavulanate, alone or in combination, or imipenem, using therapeutic regimens reproducing time of free-drug concentrations above the MIC (fT≥MIC) values close to that obtained in humans. MICs of amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and imipenem were 4/>1,024, 0.125/1,024, and 0.5/0.5 mg/liter, for CFT073-RR and CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15), respectively. The addition of 2 mg/liter of clavulanate (CLA) restored the susceptibility of CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15) to CTX (MICs of the CTX-CLA combination, 0.125 mg/liter). The checkerboard dilution method and time-kill curves confirmed an in vitro synergy between amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime against CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15). In vivo, this antibiotic combination was similarly active against both strains and as effective as imipenem. In conclusion, the cefotaxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate combination appear to be an effective, easy, and already available alternative to carbapenems for the treatment of UTI due to CTX-M-producing E. coli strains.

  7. Whole body autoradiographic and quantitative tissue distribution studies with /sup 14/C-cefotaxime in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, L.A.; Ings, R.M.J.; Fromson, J.M.; Coombes, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption, distribution and elimination of radioactivity following intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration of /sup 14/C-cefotaxime (/sup 14/C-HR 756) to the rat has been examined by qualitative and quantitative techniques. After i.v. and i.m. doses to male albino animals radioactivity was extensively distributed throughout the body and rapidly eliminated with a predominant half-life of approximately 30 to 40 min. Maximum plasma levels for the i.m. dose were reached within 20 min and approximately 85% of the dose was recovered from the urine (74%) and faeces (11%) within 8 h after dosing. In all quantitative studies 100+-5% of the dose was recovered within 24 h. Whole body autoradiography studies showed good distribution of radioactivity from the blood into the tissues including lung, liver, kidney, heart, bone marrow and the gastrointestinal tract. Lowest levels were seen in the eye and brain. There was limited placental transfer of radioactivity in 14-days pregnant animals although by day 18 of the gestation period radioactivity was detected in the foetus but distribution into individual organs and tissues could not be seen. There was no evidence to show that retention of radioactivity in pigmented tissues had occurred nor was there any suggestion of accumulation of radioactivity in any organ or tissues as a consequence of multiple dosing /sup 14/C-cefotaxime.

  8. Stability of ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, netilmicin and amikacin in an L-amino acid solution prepared for total parenteral nutrition of newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, K; Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1988-01-01

    The stability of ampicillin, piperacillin and cefotaxime, alone or in combination with either netilmicin or amikacin, was tested by microbiological methods at 29 degrees C (ampicillin, also at 22 degrees C) in an L-amino acid solution specially prepared for newborn infants. In the case of ampicil...

  9. CTX-M-1 β-lactamase expression in Escherichia coli is dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thea S. B.; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S.;

    2015-01-01

    blaCTX-M-1 mRNA expression and CTX-M-1 protein levels were dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location. These results provide insight into the expression of cephalosporin resistance in CTX-M-1-producing E. coli, improving our understanding of the relationship between ant...... antimicrobial therapy and the expression of resistance mechanisms....

  10. Adaptive responses to cefotaxime treatment in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and the possible use of significantly regulated pathways as novel secondary targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea S. B.; Rau, Martin Holm; Bonde, Charlotte S;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine how ESBL-producing Escherichia coli change the expression of metabolic and biosynthesis genes when adapting to inhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime. Secondly, it was investigated whether significantly regulated pathways constitute putative secondary target...

  11. Pilot Study of the Pharmacokinetics of Cefotaxime in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Treated with Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijk, Joost B.; Valk-Swinkels, Corinne G. H.; Rijpstra, Tom A.; Touw, Daan J.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Van Der Voort, Peter H. J.; Van 't Veer, Nils E.; Van Der Meer, Nardo J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime (CTX) in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) when treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in the intensive care unit (ICU). This single-center prospective observational pilot study was

  12. A Mechanism of Synergistic Effect of Streptomycin and Cefotaxime on CTX-M-15 Type β-lactamase Producing Strain of E. cloacae: A First Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam, Lubna; Khan, Asad U.

    2016-01-01

    A blaCTX-M-15 gene is one of the most prevalent resistant marker found in member of enterobacteriaceae. It encodes cefotaxime hydrolysing β-lactamase-15 (CTX-M-15) causing resistance against beta lactam antibiotics. Since single antibiotic therapy fails to control infection caused by multidrug resistance strain, therefore combination therapy was came into practice as an effective treatment. We have first time explained the mechanism where two antibiotics of different classes work against resistant strains. Binding parameters obtained by spectroscopic approach showed significant interaction and complex formation between drugs and CTX-M-15 enzyme with decreased ksv and kq values. CD analysis showed altered conformation and significant changes in alpha helical content of CTX-M-15 enzyme on interaction with streptomycin in combination with cephalosporin. Steady state kinetics revealed decrease in hydrolytic efficiency of enzyme to about 27% by cooperative binding behavior upon sequential treatment of enzyme with streptomycin and cefotaxime. Therefore, the study concludes that combination therapy against CTX-M-15 producing strain with Cefotaxime/Streptomycin in 1:10 molar ratio, decreases CTX-M-15 efficiency significantly because of the fact that streptomycin induced structural changes in CTX-M-15 hence cefotaxime was not properly bound on its active site for hydrolysis rather available for the target to inhibit bacterial cells. PMID:28018328

  13. Effects of ampicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime on the release of Shiga toxins from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated during a diarrhea episode in Faisalabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Mashkoor; Haque, Abdul; Ali, Aamir; Sarwar, Yasra; Bashir, Saira; Tariq, Ayesha; Afzal, Amna; Iftikhar, Tayyaba; Saeed, Muhammad Azeem

    2010-01-01

    The Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an emerging foodborne pathogen. The proportion of cases attributed to STEC in an episode of diarrhea in the Faisalabad region of Pakistan was investigated. In addition, as increase in Shiga toxin (Stx) release after exposure to various antimicrobial agents is widely reported, we also elucidated the in vitro effects of three commonly used antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime) on Stx release. Isolation and detection of STEC was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction, followed by phenotypic characterization. In vitro Stx release from isolated STEC was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Stx-induced verocytotoxicity was quantified using cytotoxicity detection assay. STEC was detected in 5 (21.7%) of 23 patients. Exposure to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ampicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime resulted in a considerable decrease in toxin release and level of cytotoxicity in most of the STEC isolates when compared with control (without antibiotic exposure). Exposure to sub-MIC of ampicillin resulted in a relative increase in Stx release and cytotoxicity (p cefotaxime. Sub-MIC of gentamicin resulted in largest decrease in Stx release and a similar trend was observed with cefotaxime to a lesser extent. In conclusion, these in vitro observations suggested that sub-MIC of ampicillin may stimulate Stx release and level of cytotoxicity and therefore should be avoided. Gentamicin did not show such effects and therefore may be considered for STEC antimicrobial therapy.

  14. Carriage and fecal counts of cefotaxime M-producing Escherichia coli in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Katrine Hartung; Damborg, Peter Panduro; Andreasen, Margit;

    2013-01-01

    , and finishers). Cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant coliforms in feces were counted on MacConkey agar containing 2 µg/ml CTX and characterized for the presence of ESBL-encoding genes by PCR and sequencing. CTX-M-positive pigs were detected in all age groups at farms A (bla(CTX-M-9) group, compatible with bla(CTX-M-14....../17)) and B (bla(CTX-M-1) group, compatible with bla(CTX-M-1/61)), whereas only three weaners were positive at farm C (bla(CTX-M-1) group, compatible with bla(CTX-M-1/61)). A significant decrease in carriage was detected during the production cycle, with on average 50% carriage immediately after birth, 58...

  15. Verified clinical failure with cefotaxime 1g for treatment of gonorrhoea in the Netherlands: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Alje P; van Ogtrop, Marc L; Golparian, Daniel; Mehrtens, Jan; de Vries, Henry J C; Unemo, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    We describe the first case of treatment failure of gonorrhoea with a third generation cephalosporin, cefotaxime 1g intramuscularly, in the Netherlands. The case was from a high-frequency transmitting population (men having sex with men) and was caused by the internationally spreading multidrug-resistant gonococcal NG-MAST ST1407 clone. The patient was clinically cured after treatment with ceftriaxone 500 mg intramuscularly and this is the only third generation cephalosporin that should be used for first-line empiric treatment of gonorrhoea. Increased awareness of failures with third generation cephalosporins, enhanced monitoring and appropriate verification of treatment failures including more frequent test-of-cures, and strict adherence to regularly updated treatment guidelines are essential globally.

  16. Variability in plasma concentration of cefotaxime in critically ill patients in an Intensive Care Unit of India and its pharmacodynamic outcome: A nonrandomized, prospective, open-label, analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Abhilash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cefotaxime is a widely utilized cephalosporin in most intensive care units of India. However, no data are available about its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic variability in critically ill patients of the Indian population. Aim: To investigate the variability in the plasma concentration and pharmacodynamic profile of intermittent dosing of cefotaxime in critically ill patients, according to their locus of infection and causative organism. Materials and Methods: Cefotaxime levels were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography by grouping patients according to their locus of infection as hepatobiliary, renal, pulmonary, and others. Patients with cefotaxime concentration below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and 5 times below the MIC for the isolated organism were determined. Results: The difference in the plasma cefotaxime concentration between the hepatobiliary and the nonhepatobiliary groups was significant at 1 h (P = 0.02 following drug dosing, while the difference was significant between the renal and nonrenal group at 1 h (P = 0.001, 4 h (P = 0.009, and 8 h (P = 0.02 after drug dosing. The pulmonary group showed significantly (P < 0.05 lower plasma cefotaxime levels than the nonpulmonary group at all-time points. The cefotaxime levels were below the MIC and below 5 times the MIC for the isolated organism in 16.67% and 43.33% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion: The concentration of cefotaxime differs according to the locus of an infection in critically ill patients. Use of another class of antibiotic or shifting to continuous dosing of cefotaxime, for organisms having MIC values above 1 mg/L, is advisable due to the fear of resistance.

  17. Prevalence of Salmonella Isolates from Chicken and Pig Slaughterhouses and Emergence of Ciprofloxacin and Cefotaxime Co-Resistant S. enterica Serovar Indiana in Henan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bai

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Salmonella from chicken and pig slaughterhouses in Henan, China and antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates to antibiotics was determined. From 283 chicken samples and 240 pig samples collected, 128 and 70 Salmonella isolates were recovered with an isolation rate of 45.2 and 29.2% respectively. The predominant serovars in chicken samples were S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, S. enterica serovar Hadar and S. enterica serovar Indiana, while those in pig samples were S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Derby and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was 8.6 and 10.0% for isolates from chickens and pigs respectively, whereas resistance to cefotaxime was 5.5 and 8.6%, respectively. Multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agent was markedly higher in pig isolates (57.1% than in chicken isolates (39.8%. Of particular concern was the detection of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant S. enterica serovar Indiana isolates, which pose risk to public health. All 16 S. enterica serovar Indiana isolates detected were resistant to ciprofloxacin, among which 11 were co-resistant to cefotaxime. The S. enterica serovar Indiana isolates accumulated point mutations in quinolone resistance determination regions of gyrA (S83F/D87G or S83F/D87N and parC (T57S/S80R. Two plasmid mediated quinolone resistant determinants were found with aac (6'-Ib-cr and oqxAB in 16 and 12 S. enterica serovar Indiana isolates respectively. Cefotaxime-resistance of S. enterica serovar Indiana was associated with the acquisition of a blaCTX-M-65 gene. The potential risk of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant S. enterica serovar Indiana infection is a significant concern due to limited alternative treatment options. Reduction of Salmonella in chicken and pig slaughterhouses, in particular, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant S. enterica serovar Indiana will be an important

  18. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cefotaxime Sodium with Potassium Ferricyanide%用铁氰化钾分光光度法测定头孢噻肟钠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 张美芸; 李全民

    2011-01-01

    建立了以铁氰化钾测定头孢噻肟钠的分光光度法.在 0.20 mol/L NaOH 溶液中,头孢噻肟钠(CTX)于 100℃水浴中降解生成的巯基化合物能将 Fe(Ⅲ)(pH=3.0)还原为Fe(Ⅱ),根据Fe(Ⅱ)与K3[Fe(CN)6]反应生成可溶性普鲁士蓝(KFeⅢ[FeⅡ(CN)6])的吸光度,可以间接测定头孢噻肟钠的含量.头孢噻肟钠在0.040~24 mg/L 范围内与吸光度(A)呈线性关系,线性回归方程:A=0.05088+0.2166ρ(mg/L),相关系数R=0.9986,检出限为0.01 mg/L,相对标准偏差(RSD)为1.36%(n=11),表观摩尔吸光系数ε=2.3 ×105 L/(mol·cm).此方法可用于药物及血清中头孢噻肟钠含量的测定.%A spectrophotometric method has been set up to determine cefotaxime sodium using potassium ferricyanide as the spectroscopic probe reagent. With the presence of potassium ferricyanide, the degradation product of cefotaxime sodium can reduce Fe3+ to Fe2 + at pH 3.0, which facilitate the formation of soluble Prussian Blue ( KFeⅢ [ Fe Ⅱ( CN ) 6 ] ). The absorbance of soluble Prussian Blue is measured at its absorption maximum of 730 nm and the amount of cefotaxime sodium can be indirectly calculated. Under optimized conditions, a good linear relationship is obtained in the range of 0. 040 ~ 24 mg/L of cefotaxime sodium. The linear regression equation is A =0. 05088 +0. 2166ρ( mg/L) with linear correlation coefficient of 0. 9986. The detection limit and relative standard deviation are 0.01 mg/L and 1.36% , respectively. Tthe apparent molar absorption coefficient of indirect determination of cefotaxime sodium is 2. 3 x 105 L/(mol·cm). This method has been successfully applied to the determination of cefotaxime sodium in pharmaceutical and serum samples.

  19. Prevalence and potential risk factors for the occurrence of cefotaxime resistant Escherichia coli in German fattening pig farms--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Johanna; Hille, Katja; Frömke, Cornelia; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Hartmann, Maria; Schneider, Bettina; Friese, Anika; Roesler, Uwe; Merle, Roswitha; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2014-09-01

    A cross-sectional study concerning farm prevalence and risk factors for the count of cefotaxime resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) (CREC) positive samples per sampling group on German fattening pig farms was performed in 2011 and 2012. Altogether 48 farms in four agricultural regions in the whole of Germany were investigated. Faecal samples, boot swabs and dust samples from two sampling groups per farm were taken and supplemental data were collected using a questionnaire. On 85% of the farms, at least one sample contained cefotaxime resistant E. coli colonies. Positive samples were more frequent in faeces (61%) and boot swabs (54%) than in dust samples (11%). Relevant variables from the questionnaire were analysed in a univariable mixed effect Poisson regression model. Variables that were related to the number (risk) of positive samples per sampling group with a p-value German fattening pig farms. In addition the explorative approach of the present study suggests an influence of management strategies on the occurrence of cefotaxime resistant E. coli.

  20. Correlation Between ISAba1 Upstream ampC Gene and Resistance to Cefotaxime in Acinetobacter baumannii: A Serious Threat to Nosocomial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infections due to Acinetobacter baumannii have become a significant challenge in modern healthcare systems. The global upsurge of multidrug resistance in A. baumannii has created widespread problems in the treatment of patients. Objectives We examined the prevalence ISAmpC and its correlation with cefotaxime resistance. Materials and Methods Standard biochemical tests were used to identify isolates. Genomic species of the genus Acinetobacter were confirmed by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA. The susceptibility of 50 A. baumannii isolates to a variety of antimicrobial agents was determined using the disk diffusion method and E-test strips. PCR was used to investigate the connection of insertion sequences and the ampC gene. Clonal relatedness was determined by Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic PCR. Results ISAba1 located upstream of blaampC was found in 24 (48% of the A. baumannii isolates. In all of the studied isolates that had ISAmpC, the MIC for cefotaxime was 64 - 256 μg/mL. Based on the REP-PCR patterns among the resistant isolates, the highest number of ISAmpC positive isolates belonged to type B (n = 19 and type C (n = 12. Conclusions ISAba1 has become an important factor in A. baumannii’s resistance to cefotaxime.

  1. DNA, cell wall and general oxidative damage underlie the tellurite/cefotaxime synergistic effect in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto C Molina-Quiroz

    Full Text Available The constant emergence of antibiotic multi-resistant pathogens is a concern worldwide. An alternative for bacterial treatment using nM concentrations of tellurite was recently proposed to boost antibiotic-toxicity and a synergistic effect of tellurite/cefotaxime (CTX was described. In this work, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is proposed. Global changes of the transcriptional profile of Escherichia coli exposed to tellurite/CTX were determined by DNA microarrays. Induction of a number of stress regulators (as SoxS, genes related to oxidative damage and membrane transporters was observed. Accordingly, increased tellurite adsorption/uptake and oxidative injuries to proteins and DNA were determined in cells exposed to the mixture of toxicants, suggesting that the tellurite-mediated CTX-potentiating effect is dependent, at least in part, on oxidative stress. Thus, the synergistic tellurite-mediated CTX-potentiating effect depends on increased tellurite uptake/adsorption which results in damage to proteins, DNA and probably other macromolecules. Our findings represent a contribution to the current knowledge of bacterial physiology under antibiotic stress and can be of great interest in the development of new antibiotic-potentiating strategies.

  2. Exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime enhances the systemic colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium in BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Quiroz, Roberto C.; Silva, Cecilia A.; Molina, Cristian F.; Leiva, Lorenzo E.; Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastián; Contreras, Inés; Santiviago, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics play a role in virulence modulation. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (hereafter S. Typhimurium) to colonize systemically BALB/c mice after exposure to a sub-inhibitory concentration of cefotaxime (CTX). In vivo competition assays showed a fivefold increase in systemic colonization of CTX-exposed bacteria when compared to untreated bacteria. To identify the molecular mechanisms involved in this phenomenon, we carried out a high-throughput genetic screen. A transposon library of S. Typhimurium mutants was subjected to negative selection in the presence of a sub-inhibitory concentration of CTX and genes related to anaerobic metabolism, biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines, amino acids and other metabolites were identified as needed to survive in this condition. In addition, an impaired ability for oxygen consumption was observed when bacteria were cultured in the presence of a sub-inhibitory concentration of CTX. Altogether, our data indicate that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of CTX increases the systemic colonization of S. Typhimurium in BALB/c mice in part by the establishment of a fitness alteration conducive to anaerobic metabolism. PMID:26468132

  3. DNA, cell wall and general oxidative damage underlie the tellurite/cefotaxime synergistic effect in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Quiroz, Roberto C; Loyola, David E; Muñoz-Villagrán, Claudia M; Quatrini, Raquel; Vásquez, Claudio C; Pérez-Donoso, José M

    2013-01-01

    The constant emergence of antibiotic multi-resistant pathogens is a concern worldwide. An alternative for bacterial treatment using nM concentrations of tellurite was recently proposed to boost antibiotic-toxicity and a synergistic effect of tellurite/cefotaxime (CTX) was described. In this work, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is proposed. Global changes of the transcriptional profile of Escherichia coli exposed to tellurite/CTX were determined by DNA microarrays. Induction of a number of stress regulators (as SoxS), genes related to oxidative damage and membrane transporters was observed. Accordingly, increased tellurite adsorption/uptake and oxidative injuries to proteins and DNA were determined in cells exposed to the mixture of toxicants, suggesting that the tellurite-mediated CTX-potentiating effect is dependent, at least in part, on oxidative stress. Thus, the synergistic tellurite-mediated CTX-potentiating effect depends on increased tellurite uptake/adsorption which results in damage to proteins, DNA and probably other macromolecules. Our findings represent a contribution to the current knowledge of bacterial physiology under antibiotic stress and can be of great interest in the development of new antibiotic-potentiating strategies.

  4. Gamma scintigraphy and biodistribution of (99m)Tc-cefotaxime sodium in preclinical models of bacterial infection and sterile inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilem-Ozdemir, Derya; Asikoglu, Makbule; Ozkilic, Hayal; Yilmaz, Ferda; Hosgor-Limoncu, Mine; Ayhan, Semin

    2016-03-01

    (99m)Tc-cefotaxime sodium ((99m)Tc-CEF) was developed and standardized under varying conditions of reducing and antioxidant agent concentration, pH, radioactivity dose, and reducing agent type. Labeling studies were performed by changing the selected parameters one by one, and optimum labeling conditions were determined. After observing the conditions for maximum labeling efficiency and stability, lyophilized freeze dry kits were prepared accordingly. Simple method for radiolabeling of CEF with (99m)Tc has been developed and standardized. Labeling efficiency of (99m)Tc-CEF was assessed by both radio thin-layer chromatography and radio high-performance liquid chromatography and found higher than 90%. The labeled compound was found to be stable in saline and human serum up to 24 h. Two different freeze dry kits were developed and evaluated. Based on the data obtained from this study, both products were stable for 6 months with high labeling efficiency. The prepared cold kit was found sterile and pyrogen free. The bacterial infection and sterile inflammation imaging capacity of (99m)Tc-CEF was evaluated. Based on the in vivo studies, (99m)Tc-CEF has higher uptake in infected and inflamed thigh muscle than healthy thigh muscle.

  5. Simultaneous determination of cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime in real urine sample using voltammetric and high-performance liquid chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, Mara M; Kapetanović, Vera; Atanacković, Jasmina; Jocić, Biljana; Zecević, Mira

    2008-10-19

    Two rapid, accurate and sensitive methods are developed and validated for the quantitative simultaneous determination of cefotaxime (CFX) and its active metabolite desacetylcefotaxime (DCFX) in urine. Based on the previous results which showed the four electron reduction of CFX at approximately -0.5 V, and the new findings that DCFX reduction occurred at more positive potential (-0.23 V), the new adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetric (AdSDPV) method was developed for determination of CFX in the presence of DCFX. Linear responses were observed over a wide concentration range (0.07-0.52 microg/ml for CFX and 0.22-1.3 microg/ml for DCFX) in urine. The second assay involves subsequent separation on a reversed-phase HPLC column, with ultraviolet detection at 262 nm. Retention times were 4.057 and 1.960 min for CFX and DCFX, respectively. Linear responses were observed over a wide range, 0.55-6.60 microg/ml for CFX and 1.10-11.00 microg/ml for DCFX, in urine. The statistical evaluation for both methods was examined by means of within-day repeatability (n=5) and day-to-day precision (n=3) and was found to be satisfactory with high accuracy and precision.

  6. Exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime enhances the systemic colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Quiroz, Roberto C; Silva, Cecilia A; Molina, Cristian F; Leiva, Lorenzo E; Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastián; Contreras, Inés; Santiviago, Carlos A

    2015-10-01

    It has been proposed that sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics play a role in virulence modulation. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (hereafter S. Typhimurium) to colonize systemically BALB/c mice after exposure to a sub-inhibitory concentration of cefotaxime (CTX). In vivo competition assays showed a fivefold increase in systemic colonization of CTX-exposed bacteria when compared to untreated bacteria. To identify the molecular mechanisms involved in this phenomenon, we carried out a high-throughput genetic screen. A transposon library of S. Typhimurium mutants was subjected to negative selection in the presence of a sub-inhibitory concentration of CTX and genes related to anaerobic metabolism, biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines, amino acids and other metabolites were identified as needed to survive in this condition. In addition, an impaired ability for oxygen consumption was observed when bacteria were cultured in the presence of a sub-inhibitory concentration of CTX. Altogether, our data indicate that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of CTX increases the systemic colonization of S. Typhimurium in BALB/c mice in part by the establishment of a fitness alteration conducive to anaerobic metabolism.

  7. Insights into the binding of the drugs diclofenac sodium and cefotaxime sodium to serum albumin: calorimetry and spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ruchika; Choudhary, Sinjan; Kishore, Nand

    2012-08-15

    Understanding physical chemistry underlying drug-protein interactions is essential to devise guidelines for the synthesis of target oriented drugs. Binding of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac sodium (DCF) and an antibiotic drug, cefotaxime sodium (CFT) belonging to the family of cephalosporins with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been examined using a combination of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), steady state and time resolved fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies. Binding affinity of both DCF and CFT with BSA is observed to be of the order of 10(4)M(-1), with the binding profiles fitting well to the single set of binding site model. The disagreement between calorimetric and van't Hoff enthalpies indicates non-adherence to a two-state binding process which could be attributed to changes in the conformation of the protein upon ligand binding as well as with increase in the temperature. Circular dichroism and the fluorescence results, however, do not show any major conformational changes upon binding of these drugs to BSA, and hence the discrepancy could be due to temperature induced conformational changes in the protein. The results of ionic strength dependence and binding in the presence of anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants indicate, involvement of more that a single type of interaction in the binding process. The ITC results for the binding of these drugs to BSA in presence of each other indicate that the binding sites for the two drugs are different, and therefore binding of one is not influenced by the other. The DSC results provide quantitative information on the effect of these drugs on the stability of serum albumin. The combined calorimetric and spectroscopic approach has provided a detailed analysis including thermodynamics of the binding of DCF and CFT with BSA qualitatively and quantitatively.

  8. Pasteurized whole milk confers reduced susceptibilities to the antimicrobial agents trimethoprim, gatifloxacin, cefotaxime and tetracycline via the marRAB locus in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yang; Hernandez, Ricardo L; Crow, Robert R; Jones, Suzanna E; Mathews, Sara A; Arnold, Ayanna M; Castillo, Eliseo F; Moseley, Jennifer M; Varela, Manuel F

    2008-11-01

    We inoculated pasteurized whole milk with Escherichia coli strains GC4468 (intact marRAB locus), JHC1096 (Delta marRAB), or AG112 (Delta marR), and incubated each overnight at 37 degrees C. All strains were then recovered from the milk cultures, and susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents were determined by the E-test strip method (CLSI). Cells of strain GC4468, prior to culturing in milk, were susceptible to trimethoprim, gatifloxacin, cefotaxime and tetracycline. After culturing GC4468 in pasteurized milk, however, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) increased 1.4-fold for trimethoprim (P0.05), 1.5-fold for gatifloxacin (P0.05), 2.0-fold for cefotaxime (P=0.008), and 1.4-fold for tetracycline (P0.05). After culturing GC4468 on milk count agar the MICs were enhanced 3.4-fold for trimethoprim (P0.05), 10-fold for gatifloxacin (P=0.001), 7.1-fold for cefotaxime (P=0.011), and 40.5-fold for tetracycline (P=0.074), but exhibiting tetracycline resistance with a mean MIC of 74.7+/-18.47 microg/ml (CLSI). The MICs of the antimicrobial agents for JHC1096 cells after culturing in pasteurized whole milk were indistinguishable (P0.05) from baseline MICs measured before culturing in the same type of milk. Thus, Esch. coli cells harbouring the marRAB locus exhibit reduced susceptibilities to multiple antimicrobial agents after culturing in pasteurized whole milk.

  9. Prevalence and characterization of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in retail chicken carcasses and Ground Pork, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Cui, Shenghui; Zhang, Fenglan; Luo, Yanping; Gu, Yihai; Yang, Baowei; Li, Fengqin; Chen, Qian; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Yeru; Pang, Lu; Lin, Lan

    2014-02-01

    Retail meat products could serve as an important medium for the transfer of multidrug resistant isolates from food-producing animals to the community. In this study, the prevalence and characteristics of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant Escherichia coli isolates were investigated in retail chicken and ground pork samples from four provinces of China. The isolates were subjected to phylogenetic group typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine the genetic relatedness. These isolates were also screened for beta-lactamase genes, quinolone resistance determinants by PCR, and followed by DNA sequence analysis. Cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant E. coli isolates with diverse genetic origins were recovered in 31.9% (106/332) of retail meat samples. E. coli isolates of phylogenetic group A were dominant (59.4%, 63/106), and all isolates showed multidrug resistant profiles. The dominant resistant profiles were AMP-CAZ-CTX-CIP-CHL-GEN-SXT-TET (n=43) and AMP-CAZ-CTX-CIP-CHL-SXT-TET (n=43). Point mutations in quinolone resistance determination regions of topoisomerases were identified in all the isolates, and most of the isolates accumulated three (n=78) or four (n=21) point mutations. Plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistant determinants were identified in 68 isolates, including oqxAB (n=66), qnrS1 (n=7), qnrS2 (n=4), and aac(6')-Ib-cr (n=9). Eight subtypes of bla(CTX-M) were identified in 103 E. coli isolates, and blaCTX-M-55 (n=90) was dominant. This study highlights that retail meat could serve as an important reservoir of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant E. coli isolates. It is necessary to evaluate their contribution in the community and hospital infections.

  10. An insight into the biophysical characterization of different states of cefotaxime hydrolyzing β-lactamase 15 (CTX-M-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Md Tabish; Faheem, Mohd; Khan, Asad U

    2015-01-01

    Cefotaxime hydrolyzing β-lactamase-15 (CTX-M-15) is encoded by blaCTX-M-15 gene present on plasmid of various Gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli, E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae, etc. The widespread dissemination of CTX-M-15 harboring bacteria in hospital as well as community settings is a universal threat as they are resistant to various clinically significant antibiotics. In order to gain an insight into the folding mechanism of CTX-M-15, we carried out pH-induced denaturation study by monitoring Trp fluorescence, far-UV circular dichroism (CD), and ANS fluorescence. We found that the pH-induced denaturation of CTX-M-15 was a three-step process with the accumulation of two stable folding intermediates (XI at pH 2.5 and XII at pH 1.5) in the folding pathway. The intermediates were further characterized by far-UV and near-UV CD analysis, Trp fluorescence, ANS fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, acrylamide quenching, dynamic light scattering, and thermal denaturation studies. We found that XI state lacked tertiary structure but retained most of the secondary structure, its Trp residues were partially exposed to the solvent and its hydrophobic patches were highly accessible to ANS. On the other hand, a complete disruption of tertiary structure along with more than 50% loss in secondary structure was observed in XII state. We conclude that the XI state of CTX-M-15 at pH 2.5 had all the characteristics of a molten globule (MG) state, while its XII state at pH 1.5 was more similar to pre-molten globule (PMG) state. ANS fluorescence also showed that the binding of ANS in XII state was lower than that in the XI state. We propose that the accumulation of MG- and PMG-states was due to separation (at pH 2.5) and then unfolding (at pH 1.5) of the αβα-fold of CTX-M-15, respectively.

  11. Propensity-matched analysis to compare the therapeutic efficacies of cefuroxime versus cefotaxime as initial antimicrobial therapy for community-onset complicated nonobstructive acute pyelonephritis due to Enterobacteriaceae infection in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, U-Im; Kim, Hyung Wook; Wie, Seong-Heon

    2015-05-01

    This study was performed to compare the therapeutic efficacy of cefuroxime with that of cefotaxime as initial antimicrobial therapies in women with complicated nonobstructive acute pyelonephritis (APN) caused by Enterobacteriaceae infections. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of a cefuroxime-treated group (n = 156) were compared with those of a cefotaxime-treated group (n = 166). Of these 322 women, 90 from each group were matched by propensity scores. The defervescence rates were not significantly different in the cefuroxime and cefotaxime groups at 72 h after the start of antimicrobial therapy (81.1% versus 78.9%, P = 0.709). The clinical and microbiological cure rates during the follow-up visits that were 4 to 14 days after the end of the antimicrobial therapies were not significantly different in the cefuroxime versus cefotaxime groups, which were 97.8% (87/89) versus 97.8% (87/89) (P > 0.999) and 89.5% (68/76) versus 90.7% (68/75) (P = 0.807), respectively. The median hospital stay duration and the median times to defervescence in the cefuroxime versus cefotaxime groups were 8 days (interquartile range [IQR], 7 to 10 days) versus 9 days (IQR, 7 to 11 days), respectively, and 55 h (IQR, 37 to 70 h) versus 55 h (IQR, 35 to 69 h), respectively. Bacteremia, extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, C-reactive protein levels of ≥ 15 mg/dl, and white blood cell counts of ≥ 15,000/mm(3) of blood had independent effects on the rates of early clinical failure. Our data suggest that the effects of cefuroxime are not different from those of cefotaxime when they are used as an initial antimicrobial treatments for community-onset complicated nonobstructive APN in women.

  12. First report of a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase KOXY-2 producing Klebsiella oxytoca that hydrolyses cefotaxime and ceftazidime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, A; Hamouda, A; Amyes, S G B

    2011-06-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca strains MU946294N and MB193997E were isolated from patients in Scotland. Strain MU946294N was resistant to pencillins, monbactams and cephalosporins. Isolate MB193997E displayed a β-lactam resistance phenotype consistent with chromosomal β-lactamase overproduction. No bla(TEM), bla(SHV) or bla(CTX-M) genes could be amplified in either strain; however, amplification by PCR was found with primers for the bla(OXY-2) gene. This β-lactamase gene in MU946294N differed by one mutation from the all other bla(OXY) genes previously reported, with an amino acid substitution Alanine237 Threonine enhancing the binding of cefotaxime. Strain MB193997E showed mutations at positions 255 and 283, neither of which affect function. Based on rpoB and gyrA characterization, both strains were assigned to the KoII phylogenic group but they were completely dissimilar from each other by PFGE. This study is the first to report the substitution of Alanine to Threonine at position 237 in a OXY- 2 β-lactamase and this enhances resistance to cefotaxime.

  13. Human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1): in vitro inhibition effects of moxifloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkeş, Cüneyt; Söyüt, Hakan; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of antibacterial drugs (moxifloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium) on human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1) enzyme activity from human serum in vitro conditions. For this purpose, hPON1 enzyme was purified from human serum using simple chromatographic methods. The antibacterial drugs exhibited inhibitory effects on hPON1 at low concentrations. Ki constants were calculated to be 2.641 ± 0.040 mM, 5.525 ± 0.817 mM, 35.092 ± 1.093 mM, 252.762 ± 5.749 mM and 499.244 ± 10.149 mM, respectively. The inhibition mechanism of moxifloxacin hydrochloride was competitive, whereas levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium were noncompetitive inhibitors.

  14. Microbial interaction between a CTXM-15 -producing Escherichia coli and a susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage: influence of cefotaxime in the dual-species biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Lucinda J; Mendes, Ângelo; Gomes, Rita; Curvelo, Sara; Cravo, Sara; Sousa, Emília; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Martins da Costa, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    Two isolates, Escherichia coli ella00 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ella01, obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage, were found to be closely associated in clusters in agar medium. Escherichia coli ella00 was multidrug resistant and CTXM-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase producer, while P. aeruginosa ella01 was susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. These observations impelled for further studies aimed to understand their microbial interaction. The P. aeruginosa ella01 biofilm-forming capacity was reduced and not affected when it was co-cultured with E. coli ella00 and E. coli ATCC 25922 respectively. Interestingly, the co-culture of ella isolates in the presence of high concentrations, such as 160 μg ml(-1) , of cefotaxime allowed the formation of more biofilm than in the absence of the antibiotic. As revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, in co-culture, P. aeruginosa ella01 survived and subsequently flourished when exposed to this third-generation cephalosporin at a concentration 10 × higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and this was mostly due to β-lactamases production by E. coli ella00. In fact, it was demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography that cefotaxime was absent for the culture medium 4 h after application. In conclusion, we demonstrate that bacterial species can interact differently depending on the surrounding conditions (favourable or stressing), and that those interactions can switch from unprofitable to beneficial.

  15. Antimicrobial interactions (synergy) of teicoplanin with two broad-spectrum drugs (cefotaxime, ofloxacin) tested against gram-positive isolates from Germany and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R N; Marshall, S A; Grimm, H

    1997-10-01

    Teicoplanin, a glycopeptide, has been widely used in some nations alone and in empiric therapy combinations to address infections caused by Gram-positive cocci. However, glycopeptide resistance and the increasing incidence of oxacillin-resistant staphylococci have compromised contemporary chemotherapy. In this study, teicoplanin was tested in combinations with ampicillin, cefotaxime with and without desacetylcefotaxime, and ofloxacin against 151 Gram-positive cocci to assess the potential for enhanced action. The strains included recent isolates from the United States and Germany having well-characterized resistance mechanisms (oxacillin-resistant staphylococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci), each tested by NCCLS methods, checkerboard synergy tests, and kill-curves. Teicoplanin alone was active (MIC90s, 0.25-2 micrograms/mL) against all species except vanA enterococci. Drug interactions of teicoplanin with beta-lactams revealed synergy and partial synergy versus oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. (67-100%) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (70-100%), many at clinically achievable drug concentrations. However, confirming kill-curve experiments showed static action and no significant bactericidal effect. Combinations of ofloxacin with teicoplanin or cefotaxime plus desacetylcefotaxime showed a dominant additive and indifferent interaction. Teicoplanin continues to be a viable alternative to vancomycin, especially in combination therapy with selected broad-spectrum cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones. Many emerging pathogens that test resistant to individual drugs appear to be inhibited by tested combinations, extending their potential clinical utility.

  16. A randomised comparison of meropenem with cefotaxime or ceftriaxone for the treatment of bacterial meningitis in adults. Meropenem Meningitis Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E; Williams, K J; Vukmirovits, G; Chmelik, V; Pfausler, B; Featherstone, A

    1995-07-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins are presently the agents of choice for the empirical antimicrobial therapy of bacterial meningitis. However, a number of factors associated with these agents, namely the development of resistance by pneumococci, limited activity against some Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., and the possible adverse effects of their bacteriolytic mode of action, indicate that newer classes of antimicrobial agents be evaluated for the treatment of bacterial meningitis. Meropenem is a carbapenem antibiotic which is highly active against the major bacterial pathogens causing meningitis, and penetrates well into the cerebrospinal fluid. Two prospective randomised studies in 56 adult bacterial meningitis patients have compared meropenem 40 mg/kg 8-hourly, up to a maximum of 6 g/day (n = 28) with cephalosporin treatment, i.e. cefotaxime (n = 17) or ceftriaxone (n = 11). Patients were assessed by neurological examination, Glasgow Coma Score and Herson-Todd score. Clinical cure was observed in all 23 evaluable patients treated with meropenem (100%) and with 17 of the 22 evaluable cephalosporin-treated patients (77%). All pre-treatment isolates were eradicated except one isolate of Staphylococcus aureus in a cefotaxime-treated patient. Neurological sequelae were noted in three meropenem and four cephalosporin-treated patients. No patients in either treatment group experienced seizures after the start of therapy. This was despite the fact that a patient in each group had experienced seizures before therapy, several had underlying CNS disorders, and that doses of 6 g/day of meropenem were given. Hearing impairment was recorded in 11 meropenem and nine cephalosporin treated patients. Three patients in the meropenem group and one in the cephalosporin group died during treatment for reasons unrelated to study therapy. Overall, the results of this study indicate that meropenem is an effective and well-tolerated antibiotic for the treatment of bacterial

  17. 头孢噻肟钠注射液与4种注射液配伍稳定性考察%Study on compatibility and stability of cefotaxime sodium mixed with 4 kinds of injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虎军

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨头孢噻肟钠注射液与4种常见注射液的配伍稳定性,以期为头孢噻肟钠注射液的临床合理利用提供一定的参考。方法建立了头孢噻肟钠高效液相含量测定方法,考察了其与氨茶碱注射液、维生素 B6注射液、地塞米松磷酸钠注射液和奥硝唑注射液配伍后含量、外观和溶液 pH 值的变化。结果头孢噻肟钠注射液与地塞米松磷酸钠注射液配伍4 h 内外观、pH 值和含量均无明显变化。头孢噻肟钠与氨茶碱注射液配伍后,1 h 时配伍溶液出现氨味,4 h 时氨味更浓,含量也发生明显变化。头孢噻肟钠与维生素 B6注射液配伍 pH 值虽无明显变化,但含量在2 h 内就明显降低。头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑注射液配伍后,2 h 溶液外观发生了变化,在4 h 时溶液变成了粉红色,含量明显降低。结论头孢噻肟钠可与地塞米松磷酸钠注射配伍使用,与维生素 B6注射液和氨茶碱注射液不宜配伍使用,若必须与奥硝唑配合,宜在配伍后1 h 内滴注完毕。%Objective To study the compatibility of cefotaxime sodium mixed in 4 kinds of injection,in order to provide a reference for the clinical rational use of the cefotaxime sodium.Methods The method for cefotaxime sodium HPLC determination was established. The content changes,appearance and pH value of cefotaxime sodium mixed with aminophylline injection,vitamin B6 injection,dexam-ethasone sodium phosphate injection and ornidazole injection was observed.Results There was no significant change in appearance, pH and content of cefotaxime sodium mixed with vitamin B6 and dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 4 hours.The content had signifi-cant change in 4 hours of cefotaxime sodium mixed with aminophylline injection,and 1hour smelled ammonia odor,4 hours become more and more concentrated.The pH value has no significant change,but the content were significantly reduced in 2 hours of Cefotaxime so

  18. Determination of cefotaxime sodium and tazobactam sodium in injection%注射用头孢噻肟钠他唑巴坦钠(6∶1)含量测定方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱萍; 朱雪萍; 戴云志

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To establish a new method for quantitative determination of cefotaxime and and tazobactam simultaneously in the injection preparation with cefotaxime sodium and tazobactam sodium at a ratio of 6 to 1.Methods: An RP-HPLC method was adopted.The analysis was performed on Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (4.6 mm ×250 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (6.7 g potassium dihydrogen phosphate dissolved in water with 3ml of phosphoric acid and 2ml of butyl ammonium hydroxide and diluted to 1 000 ml) (27∶73) .The flow rate of of the mobil phase was 1.0 ml/min.The detection wavelength was set at 220nm;and column temperature was 30℃;Injection volume was 20ul.Re-sults:Cefotaxime and tazobactam were well-separated with resolution of 7.89.Cefotaxime and tazobactam was also separated from other impurities.The linear range of cefotaxime and tazobactam were 0.516~4.124μg and 0.083~0.663μg(r=1) respectively with RSD less than 1.04%;LOQs were 0.11 ng and 0.23 ng, respectively;The average recoveries of cefotaxime and tazobactam were 100.6%(RSD was 0.79%,n=9) and 100.4%( RSD was 0.94%, n=9),respectively.Conclusions: This method was proved to be simple, specific, accurate, and can be used to simultaneous determination of cefotaxime and tazobactam in cefotaxime sodium and tazobactam sodium (6∶1) for injection.%目的:建立同时测定注射用头孢噻肟钠他唑巴坦钠(6∶1)中头孢噻肟和他唑巴坦含量的方法。方法:采用反相高效液相色谱法。色谱柱为Agilent Eclipse Plus C18柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-磷酸二氢钾溶液(6.7 g磷酸二氢钾,3 ml磷酸,2 ml四丁基氢氧化铵,用水溶解并稀释至1000 ml)(27∶73),流速为1.0 ml/min,检测波长为220 nm,柱温为30℃,进样量为20μl。结果:头孢噻肟和他唑巴坦的进样量分别在0.516~4.124μg和0.083~0.663μg范围内和各自峰面

  19. Discoloration of Compatibility between Cefotaxime Sodium and Ornidazole Sodium Chloride Injection%头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍变色的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣; 任美萍; 曾敬怀; 张润; 蒋英蓝

    2013-01-01

    目的 考察注射用头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍后的稳定性.方法 测定两药配伍后的pH值,溶液颜色变化,采用紫外分光光度计测定吸收曲线变化及含量变化.结果 头孢噻肟钠在236nm,奥硝唑在319nm处有最大吸收;混合液在40min时,由微淡黄色澄清液变为淡粉红色;在4h内,混合液的外观、pH值、峰形、含量均无明显变化.结论 头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍后可能会变色,临床应避免配伍.%Objective To investigate the compatible stability of cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole chloride sodium injection. Methods The contents and absorption curves of cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole sodium chloride injection after mix were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The appearance of the solution was observed and pH value was determined. Results The absorption peaks of cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole sodium chloride injection were at 236 nm and 319 nm, respectively. The mixture changed from light yellow clear liquid to pale pink at 40min.There were no evident changes in appearance, pH, content and absorption curves during 4 hours. Conclusion The solution might change in color after cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole sodium chloride injection were mixed. Such compatibility should be avoided in the clinic.

  20. Oral DAV131, a Charcoal-Based Adsorbent, Inhibits Intestinal Colonization by β-Lactam-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Cefotaxime-Treated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massias, Laurent; Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Sayah-Jeanne, Sakina; Ducrot, Nicolas; Chachaty, Elisabeth; de Gunzburg, Jean; Andremont, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics excreted into the intestinal tract, such as broad-spectrum cephalosporins, disrupt the indigenous microflora, affect colonization resistance (CR), and promote intestinal colonization by resistant bacteria. We tested whether oral DAV131, a charcoal-based adsorbent, would prevent colonization by a cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (PUG-2) in CTX-treated mice. Mice received CTX, saline, CTX and DAV131, or saline and DAV131 for 3 days before oral challenge with 106 CFU of PUG-2. The fecal CTX concentrations and counts of PUG-2 were assayed. Fecal CTX disappeared when DAV131 was given concomitantly with CTX (P < 0.05), and the area under the curve of PUG-2 fecal density was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In conclusion, reducing intestinal antibiotic exposure with DAV131 may reduce colonization by resistant strains during treatment compared to treatment with CTX only. This might open new possibilities for decreasing the impact of antibiotics on the intestinal microbiota during treatments. PMID:23959311

  1. Hypersensitivity of Arabidopsis TAXIMIN1 overexpression lines to light stress is correlated with decreased sinapoyl malate abundance and countered by the antibiotic cefotaxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, Janine; Pollier, Jacob; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Makunga, Nokwanda Pearl; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Peptide signaling in plants is involved in regulating development, (1,2) ensuring cross pollination through initiation of self-incompatibility (4) and assisting with recognition of beneficial (nitrogen fixing bacteria (5)) or unfavorable organisms (pathogens (6) or herbivores (7)). Peptides function to help plants to respond to a changing environment and improve their chances of survival. Constitutive expression of the gene encoding a novel cysteine rich peptide TAXIMIN1 (TAX1) resulted in fusion of lateral organs and in abnormal fruit morphology. TAX1 signaling functions independently from transcription factors known to play a role in this process such as LATERAL ORGAN FUSION1 (LOF1). Here, we report that the TAX1 promoter is not induced by the LOF1 transcription factor and that the TAX1 peptide neither interferes with transcriptional activation by LOF1.1 or transcriptional repression by LOF1.2. Furthermore, we found that TAX1 overexpressing lines were hypersensitive to continuous light, which may be reflected by a decreased accumulation of the UV-B protecting compound sinapoyl-malate. Finally, adding the antibiotic cefotaxime to the medium surprisingly countered the light hypersensitivity phenotype of TAX1 overexpressing seedlings.

  2. Crystal structures of penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the apo and cefotaxime-bound forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hisashi; Kawai, Fumihiro; Obayashi, Eiji; Akashi, Satoko; Roper, David I; Tame, Jeremy R H; Park, Sam-Yong

    2012-10-26

    Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen, and a methicillin-resistant form (MRSA) is particularly difficult to treat clinically. We have solved two crystal structures of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 3 (PBP3) from MRSA, the apo form and a complex with the β-lactam antibiotic cefotaxime, and used electrospray mass spectrometry to measure its sensitivity to a variety of penicillin derivatives. PBP3 is a class B PBP, possessing an N-terminal non-penicillin-binding domain, sometimes called a dimerization domain, and a C-terminal transpeptidase domain. The model shows a different orientation of its two domains compared to earlier models of other class B PBPs and a novel, larger N-domain. Consistent with the nomenclature of "dimerization domain", the N-terminal region forms an apparently tight interaction with a neighboring molecule related by a 2-fold symmetry axis in the crystal structure. This dimer form is predicted to be highly stable in solution by the PISA server, but mass spectrometry and analytical ultracentrifugation provide unequivocal evidence that the protein is a monomer in solution.

  3. Oral DAV131, a charcoal-based adsorbent, inhibits intestinal colonization by β-lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in cefotaxime-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, Nathalie; Massias, Laurent; Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Sayah-Jeanne, Sakina; Ducrot, Nicolas; Chachaty, Elisabeth; de Gunzburg, Jean; Andremont, Antoine

    2013-11-01

    Antibiotics excreted into the intestinal tract, such as broad-spectrum cephalosporins, disrupt the indigenous microflora, affect colonization resistance (CR), and promote intestinal colonization by resistant bacteria. We tested whether oral DAV131, a charcoal-based adsorbent, would prevent colonization by a cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (PUG-2) in CTX-treated mice. Mice received CTX, saline, CTX and DAV131, or saline and DAV131 for 3 days before oral challenge with 10(6) CFU of PUG-2. The fecal CTX concentrations and counts of PUG-2 were assayed. Fecal CTX disappeared when DAV131 was given concomitantly with CTX (P < 0.05), and the area under the curve of PUG-2 fecal density was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In conclusion, reducing intestinal antibiotic exposure with DAV131 may reduce colonization by resistant strains during treatment compared to treatment with CTX only. This might open new possibilities for decreasing the impact of antibiotics on the intestinal microbiota during treatments.

  4. 替硝唑葡萄糖注射液与注射用头孢噻肟钠的配伍稳定性%The Stability of Tinidazole and Cefotaxime Sodium Mixed in Infusion Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐春丽; 潘秀芳; 郑志昌; 王培民; 张敏

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the stability of tinidazole and cefotaxime sodium mixed in infusion fluid at 4℃,25℃ and 37℃ for 24 hours.METHODS:Tinidazole and cefotaxime sodium were determined by RP-HPLC method and the pH of solution was determined with a pH meter.RESULTS:There were no significant changes in pH of the solution at 4℃,25℃ and 37℃ for 24 hours; Along with the duration, there were significant changes in the appearance of solution and the concentrations of tinidazole and cefotaxime sodium.UV absorption curve of tinidazole and cefotaxime mixed solution revealed small changes at 4℃ for 6 hours, 25℃ for 2 hours and 37℃ for 1 hour, showing a new peak.CONCLUSION: Tinidazole and cefotaxime sodium mixed in infusion fluid were stable at 4℃ for 6 hours,25℃ for 2 hours and 37℃ for 1 hour.%目的:考察4℃、25℃、37℃下24h内替硝唑葡萄糖注射液与注射用头孢噻肟钠的配伍稳定性。方法:采用反相高效液相色谱法测定配伍后4℃、25℃、37℃下24h内不同时间替硝唑与头孢噻肟钠的含量,同时观察外观并测定pH值。结果:在3种温度下24h内,配伍液的pH值无明显变化;配伍液的外观、替硝唑和头孢噻肟钠的含量随时间有明显变化;在4℃6h时、25℃2h时、37℃1h时,配伍液的吸收曲线发生微小变化,产生了新的最大吸收峰位。结论:在4℃6h内、25℃2h内、37℃1h内,替硝唑葡萄糖注射液与注射用头孢噻肟钠的配伍液稳定。

  5. 巨桉无性系Eg5的卡那霉素和头孢霉素敏感性研究%Study on kanamycin and cefotaxime sensitivity of Eucalyptus grandis clone Eg5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭利军; 曾炳山; 刘英; 李湘阳; 裘珍飞

    2012-01-01

    By taking Eucalyptus grandis colne Eg5 leaves as explants, the effects of Kanamycin sulfate on the callus proliferation, bud differentiation and shoot rooting of leaf explains of Eucalyptus grandis clone Eg5 and the effect of Cefotaxime on explant's regeneration and the growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 were studied. The results showed that the concentration of kanamycin for restraining callus proliferation was 17.5 mg/L, that for fully suppressing bud differentiation was 60 mg/L and that for inhibiting shoots rooting was 400 mg/L. Cefotaxime at a dosage from 0 mg/L to 300 mg/L had minimal impact on the differentiation of leaf explants. With a soak of the explants in the solution of 500 mg/L Cefotaxime, the growth of agrobacterium can be fully inhibited at a Cefotaxime dosage of 100 mg/L in medium.%以巨桉无性系Eg5叶片为外植体材料,试验了硫酸卡那霉素(kanamycin sulfate,Km)对外植体愈伤组织诱导增殖、芽分化、芽生根的影响,并且试验了头孢霉素(Cefotaxime,Cef对外植体再生的影响及其对根癌农杆菌GV3101的抑制效果.结果表明:抑制愈伤组织增殖培养的卡那霉素浓度为17.5 mg/L,完全抑制芽分化的卡那霉素浓度为60 mg/L,完全抑制生根的卡那霉素浓度为400 mg/L; Cef在0~500mg/L范围内,0~300mg/L Cef对外植体的生长分化影响最小;共培养结束后的外植体经过500mgL的Cef处理后,共培养基中添加100 mg/L的Cef便可以完全抑制农杆菌GV3101的生长.

  6. 阿奇霉素与头孢噻肟对大肠杆菌的联合药敏研究%Study on the antibacterial activity of azithromycin combined with cefotaxime against E. Coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚彩萍; 承晓京; 张克良; 叶波; 章小燕

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究阿奇霉素与头孢噻肟对30株临床分离大肠杆菌的联合抗菌效应.方法:采用棋盘法设计,微量肉汤稀释法测定.测定不同浓度组合的2种抗菌药物对30株大肠杆菌的最低抑菌浓度,并计算FIC指数,以及观察两药不同加药顺序对效应的影响.结果:阿奇霉素与头孢噻肟联合应用后对大肠杆菌的浓度累积抑菌百分率曲线均比单独应用明显左移.FIC指数结果表明:阿奇霉素与头孢噻肟联合应用后对大肠杆菌17%为协同作用,60%相加作用,10%无关作用,13%拮抗作用;且拮抗作用均表现为于阿奇霉素或头孢噻肟的低于MIC的个别较低浓度处发生,而其他浓度处则仍表现为协同或相加作用.先后联用与同时应用抗菌效应差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论:一般情况下,对临床分离大肠杆菌,阿奇霉素与头孢噻肟联合应用是合理的.%OBJECTIVE To evaluate the antibacterial effect of azithromycin combined with cefotaxime against 30 strains of E. eoli from clinical specimens. METHODS The protocol was designed by checkerboard method and the MICe of azithromycin combined with eefotaxime or alone respectively against 30 strains of E. eoli were determined by broth dilution method, the FIC indexes were calculated according to MIC results. The antibiotic effects of the two drugs used at different time were observed. RESULTS The accumulative curve that of azithromycin combined with cefotaxime against E. colt moved to left more signifi-cantly than that of azithromyein or cefotaxime alone against E. coli. From the FIC indexes, the percentage of the synergistic ac-tion, additive effect, irrelevant action and antagonistic action of azithromycin combined with cefotaxime against E. coli was 17%, 60%, 10%, 13% respectively; and antagonistic action occurred in a few lower s of below MIC of azithromycin or cefo-taxime only. There was no marked difference in antibacterial effect difference between the two

  7. Influences of Cefotaxime and Carbenicillin on Shoot Regeneration from Soybean Cotyledonary-node%头孢青霉素和羧苄青霉素对大豆子叶节茎再生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    可庆波; 王丽艳; 王艳; 张春涛; 殷奎德

    2011-01-01

    试验通过向茎诱导培养基和茎伸长培养基中添加不同浓度的头孢青霉素(Cef)和羧苄青霉素(Cb)来研究二者对大豆子叶节茎再生潜在的影响。一定浓度的Cef或Cb对大豆子叶节部位茎的再生有促进或抑制作用。不同基因型大豆的最适Cef或Cb添加浓度不同。培养基中添加100 mg.L-1 Cef或120 mg.L-1 Cb能显著提高垦农18号(K18)子叶节部位丛生芽的诱导及可伸长茎的生成和伸长;150 mg.L-1 Cef对垦农4号(K4)子叶节部位茎的再生有显著的促进作用1,20 mg.L-1 Cb和200 mg.L-1 Cb分别显著提高K4丛生芽的再生和随后可伸长茎的生成及伸长。经121℃高压灭菌处理的Cef和Cb对大豆子叶节部位丛生芽的诱导和可伸长茎的生成及伸长有显著的抑制作用。%The influences of cefotaxime and carbenicillin on shoot regeneration potential of soybean cotyledonary-node were investigated by supplying with various concentrations of cefotaxime and carbenicillin to shoot induction medium and shoot elongation medium.The capability of shoot regeneration from soybean cotyledonary-node could be promoted or suppressed by supplying with some certain concentration of cefotaxime and carbenicillin.However,the most appropriate treatment is genotype-dependent.The buds regeneration,shoot multiplication and elongation of cotyledonary-node of K18 can be enhanced significantly by supplying with 100 mg·L-1 cefotaxime or 120 mg·L-1 carbenicillin in culture medium;the capability of shoot regeneration of K4 could be promoted with 150 mg·L-1 cefotaxime or 120 mg·L-1 carbenicillin on buds regeneration and 200 mg·L-1 on shoot multiplication and elongation.Autoclaved cefotaxime and carbenicillin showed detrimental effects on buds regeneration and shoot multiplication and elongation respectively.

  8. 用正交法考察头孢噻肟钠在输液中的稳定性%Study on Stability Testing of Cefotaxime Sodium in Infusion by Orthogonal Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 梁健健

    2001-01-01

    @@ 头孢噻肟钠(Cefotaxime sodium,CTX)是一种对肠杆菌科细菌、流感杆菌、淋球菌有强大活性,对多种β-内酰胺酶稳定的第三代头孢菌素.为了安全、合理、有效地使用CTX,我们用正交法从浓度、温度、时间、输液种类等不同因素对CTX的稳定性进行了考察.

  9. 头孢噻肟钠在不同注射液中的稳定性及抗菌活性研究%Study on the Stability of Cefotaxime Sodium in Different Injection and Its Antibacterial Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晔; 徐峰; 吴玮峰

    2014-01-01

    To Study stability and antibacterial activity of cefotaxime sodium for injection under conditions of constant temperature (35°C).Methods:Studing the percentage content of drugs in 0.9%sodium chloride,5%,10%glucose injection at each time point under experimental temperature (35°C),and time t plot ed lgC,and calculate the degradation rate K and T0.9.and configure different injection dilutions of the cefotaxime sodium simultaneously to study the antibacterial activity.Results:In the three injections, 0.9%sodium chloride injection could make cefotaxime sodium more stable,degradation rate K is smal er,and have bet er antibacterial activity in 5%dextrose injection.Conclusion:Stability and antibacterial activity of cefotaxime sodium have relation to injection type,and we should pay at ention to in the day-to-day use.%目的:研究在一定温度条件下(35℃),头孢噻肟钠在不同注射液中的稳定性及抗菌活性。方法:采用在实验温度(35℃)下,药物在0.9%氯化钠、5%、10%葡萄糖注射液中各时间点的百分含量(C%),并且以lgC对时间t作图,并计算其降解速率常数K以及T0.9。同时配置不同注射液的头孢噻肟钠稀释液,进行抗菌活性研究。结果:在三种注射液中,0.9%氯化钠注射液能够使头孢噻肟钠更稳定存在,降解速率常数K较小。5%葡萄糖注射液中头孢噻肟钠的抗菌活性更好。结论:头孢噻肟钠的稳定性及抗菌活性与注射液种类有关,在日常使用时要注意。

  10. The Curative Effect Observation and Research of Cefotaxime for Senile Pneumonia%头孢噻肟用于老年肺炎的疗效观察及研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗剑锋

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究头孢噻肟对老年肺炎患者治疗效果。方法:选取于笔者所在医院治疗的老年肺炎患者98例,随机分为观察组、对照组,分别采取头孢噻肟静脉滴注以及青霉素静脉滴注两种不同方法治疗,比较疗效。结果:治疗后采用头孢噻肟治疗的观察组患者疗效较好,总有效率为91.84%;采用青霉素治疗的对照组患者总有效率为71.43%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组均无严重不良反应。结论:对于老年肺炎患者而言,头孢噻肟疗效更好,且相对安全,没有严重副作用,值得推广使用。%Objective:To study the effect of Cefotaxime in the treatment elderly patients with pneumonia.Method:98 cases of elderly patients with pneumonia in our hospital were selected,they were randomly divided into observation group and control group,the observation group was treated with adopt Cefotaxime intravenous drip,the control group was treated with Penicillin intravenous drip,the curative effect was compared in two groups.Result:After treatment the observation group patients using Cefotaxime treatment curative effect was better,the total effective rate was 91.84%.Control group of patients treated with Penicillin the total effective rate was 71.43%,there was statistically significant(P<0.05).There was no serious adverse reaction in two groups.Conclusion:For patients with senile pneumonia,Cefotaxime curative effect is better,and the relative safety,no serious side effects,worthy of promotion of use.

  11. Synthesis and Identification of Cefotaxime Immunogen%头孢噻肟钠人工抗原的合成与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守海; 王晓洁; 鞠丽萍; 栾静; 王磊; 阮新; 刘晓晨; 史倩

    2012-01-01

    Cefotaxime Sodium (CTX) was linked to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin ( OVA), and was used to synthesize complete antigen CTX-BSA, CTX-OVA by carbodiimide method respectively. Using ul- traviolet absorption spectrum and gel electrophoresis to identify complete antigen and test coupling ratio. The results showed that the displacement of characteristic absorption peak shifted obviou:sly, compared CTX-BSA (213.0 nm,275.5 nm ),CTX-OVA(223.5 nm,274.5 nm) with CTX(235.0 nm),BSA(278 nm),OVA (232.0 nm,278.0 nm) according to ultraviolet absorption spectrum. The coupling ra|Jo of CTX-BSA was 5.8 : 1. The atlas of gel electrophoresis displayed that CTX-BSA moved slowly than BSA did, so did CTX-OVA. The serum valence immunized by CTX-BSA can reach to 1:100000 by using indirect ELISA detection. The indirect competitive ELISA serum inhibition test illustrated that the serum characterized with the antigen-specific anti- body response to CTX can clearly inhibit the serum titer.%采用碳化二亚胺法将头孢噻肟钠(CTX)与牛血清白蛋白(BSA)以及卵清白蛋白(OVA)分别进行偶联,合成完全抗原(CTX—BSA,CTX—OVA),紫外吸收光谱(uV)和凝胶电泳(SDS.PAGE)进行鉴定并测定CTX—BSA的偶联比,结果显示:与CTX(235.0nm)、BSA(278nm)、OVA(232.0,278.0nm)相比,CTX-BSA(213.0,275.5nm),CTX—OVA(223.5,274.5nm)特征吸收峰位移明显,CTX—BSA的偶联比为5.8:1.CTX—BSA与BSA以及CTX—OVA与OVA的SDS—PEG图谱相比,完全抗原泳动速度滞后.以CTX—BSA免疫动物并用间接酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)测定抗血清效价,血清效价≥1:100000.以CTX对免疫血清进行间接竞争ELISA测定,CTX可有效抑制免疫血清效价.

  12. 奥硝唑注射液接瓶头孢噻肟钠注射液的稳定性研究%Stability of compatibility of ornidazole injection instilled after cefotaxime sodium for injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王穗琼; 肖大立; 赖月云

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate stability of compatibility of ornidazole injection instilled after cefotaxime sodium for injection.Methods Cefotaxime sodium for injection mixed ornidazole injection with different quality proportion.The appearance of mixtures were observed at 25℃ for 4h.Drugs mixed drugs,and control articles mixed control articles.Cefotaxime sodium for injection mix ornidazole injection with the quoity proportion of 1 to 2.The appearance and pH value of mixtures were observed at 25℃ for 75min.Results The mixtures with cefotaxime sodium for injection and ornidazole injection with the quality pro-portion of 2 to 1-1 to 100 were change from light yellow clear liquid to light pink clear liquid at 25℃for 4h.The mixtures of drugs with the quality proportion of 1 to 2 changed from light yellow clear liquid to light pink clear liquid at 25℃ in 40min,but the colour of the control articles were same in 75min.There were no significiant changes in pH value.Conclusion Avoid ornidazole injection instilled after cefotaxime sodium for injection.Instill 0.9%sodium chloride for injection 20ml before ornidazole injection.%目的 考察奥硝唑注射液接瓶头孢噻肟钠注射液的稳定性.方法 采用头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑按照不同质量比配伍,观察配伍液在25℃ 4 h内外观的变化.药品与药品、对照品与对照品以1:2质量比配伍,观察配伍液在25℃75 min内外观的变化,并每15 min测量配伍液的pH值.结果 头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑以2:1-1:100质量比配伍,在25℃4 h内配伍液颜色由微淡黄色澄清液变成淡粉色澄清液;以1:2~1:10质量比配伍在25℃ 1 h内颜色由微淡黄色澄清液变成淡粉色澄清液;以1:2质量比配伍,药品的配伍液在40 min由微淡黄色澄清液变成淡粉色澄清液,对照品的配伍液在75 min内无改变,二者pH值变化不明显.结论 奥硝唑氯化钠注射液接瓶头孢噻肟钠注射液发生的变色反应由辅料产生.临床使用时应

  13. 头孢噻肟钠-舒巴坦钠使用量与鲍曼不动杆菌耐药的相关性%Consumption of cefotaxime sodium-sulbactam sodium and resistance rates of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹何慧; 吴常达; 周琴

    2013-01-01

      目的:评估不同使用量的头孢噻肟钠-舒巴坦钠复合制剂与鲍曼不动杆菌耐药的相关性。方法:将经生化分析和药敏鉴定的114株痰培养鲍曼不动杆菌随机分为实验组和对照组。实验组(57株)采用头孢噻肟钠-舒巴坦钠复合制剂抑菌,对照组(57株)采用头孢噻肟钠单方制剂抑菌,依据不同抗菌药平均每天每100床患者用药的频率和同期对鲍曼不动杆菌的耐药率变化,对两组抗菌药物使用量与耐药率进行相关性统计分析。结果:实验组对鲍曼不动杆菌的平均耐药率为42.4%,对照组的耐药率为63.5%。头孢噻肟钠-舒巴坦钠复方制剂与鲍曼不动杆菌对该药耐药率正相关(P=0.0288);头孢噻肟钠单方制剂与鲍曼不动杆菌耐药率也正相关(P=0.0093)。相对于单方制剂用药,复方用药可有效改善耐药菌对抗菌药的敏感性。结论:头孢噻肟钠-舒巴坦钠抗菌药物使用量与鲍曼不动杆菌耐药性存在相关性,且随着抗菌药使用量的增加,细菌的耐药性越大。%Objective: To assess the correlation between consumption of cefotaxime sodium-sulbactam sodium and resistance rates of Acinetobacter baumannii. Methods: 114 strains of Acinetobacter baumanni , confirmed by biochemical analysis and drug susceptibility test, were randomly assigned to experiment group(n=57, cefotaxime sodium-sulbactam sodium were administered ) or control group(n=57, cefotaxime sodium only was administered ). According to antibacterial consumption which defined as daily doses per 100 bed-days and the resistance rate of Acinetobacter baumanni , the correlation was statistically analyzed between the two groups. Results: The average resistance rate against acinetobacter baumanni in the experimental group was 42.4%, the control group was 63.5%.The resistance to consumption of cefotaxime sodium-sulbactam sodium was significantly correlated with resistance to

  14. Efficacy Comparison of Cefotaxime Sodium and Conventional Medicine in General Surgery Diseases%头孢噻肟钠和常规药物在普外科疾病中的疗效对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皇甫行勋

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨头孢噻肟钠和常规药物在普外科疾病中的临床疗效.方法 对我院收治的80例普外科疾病资料进行综合性回顾性分析,根据不同药物治疗方案将患者分为两组,对照组采用常规药物治疗,实验组实施头孢噻肟钠治疗,比较两组疗效.结果 实验组95%对头孢噻肟钠方案疗效显著,优于对照组(疗效有效率为85%)(P<0.05);实验组95%对头孢噻肟钠疗效满意,高于对照组(满意率达到65%)(P<0.05);实验组ADL评分为(16.2±3.7)分,躯体功能评分为(59.6±7.5)分,心理功能评分为(65.8±9.2)分,社会功能评分为(57.2±6.5)分,均高于对照组(P<0.05);实验组不良反应率为7.5%,低于对照组(不良反应率为17.5%)(χ2=4.98,P<0.05).结论普外科疾病类型较多,患者临床治疗过程中采用头孢噻肟钠治疗疗效确诊.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of cefotaxime sodium and conventional medicine in general surgery diseases. Methods 80 patients in our hospital general surgery comprehensive disease data were retrospectively analyzed, depending on the drug regimen patients were divided into two groups, the control group with conventional therapy, the experimental group to implement cefotaxime sodium treatment, comparing two group efifcacy. Results The experimental group, 95 percent plan to cefotaxime sodium significant effect, significantly better than thecontrol group (efficacy rate was 85%) (P < 0.05); 95% satisfied with the experimental group of cefotaxime sodium effect, significantly higher than the control group (satisfaction rate of 65%) (P < 0.05), ADL scores for the experimental group (16.2±3.7) points, physical function score was (59.6±7.5) points, psychological function score was (65.8±9.2) points, social function score was (57.2±6.5) points, were higher (P < 0.05), adverse reaction rate was 7.5% in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group (adverse reactions was 17.5%) (χ2= 4.98,P

  15. Biological transport of cefotaxime sodium by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts%人牙周膜成纤维细胞对头孢噻肟钠的跨膜转运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 刘洪臣; 吴霞; 鄂玲玲; 冷斌

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究人牙周膜成纤维细胞(human periodontal ligament fibroblasts, HPDLF)对头孢噻肟钠的跨膜转运,为根管牙周局部及全身给药假说提供实验依据.方法:头孢噻肟钠溶液孵育HPDLF和MC3T3-E1细胞,超声破碎细胞后,HPLC测定不同时间点的胞内药物含量,考马斯亮蓝法测定细胞蛋白总量.结果:100 μg/ml的头孢噻肟钠孵育1、5、10 min时HPDLF胞内含量分别是(0.104±0.030) ng/μg、(0.151±0.007) ng/μg、(0.161±0.046) ng/μg;孵育5 min时, MC3T3-E1胞内含量(0.096±0.027) ng/μg.结论:HPLC可用于细胞内头孢噻肟钠的测定.头孢噻肟钠在HPDLF内存在跨膜转运,这种转运存在着细胞差异.%Objective: To investigate biological transport of cefotaxime sodium by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLF) to verify the hypothesis of delivering medicine to periodontium and the whole body through the root canal. Methods; HPDLF and MC3T3-El cells were incubated in cefotaxime sodium solutions. The intracellular antibiotics contents were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the total proteins were measured by Bradford protein assay. Results: The HPDLF intracellular contents were (0.104 ±0.030) ng/μg, (0. 151 ±0.007) ng/μg, (0. 161 ±0.046) ng/μg at 1, 5, 10 min respectively, when incubated in 100 μg/ml antibiotics solution. The MC3T3-E1 intracellular content was (0.096 ±0.027) ng/μg at 5 min, when incubated in 100 H#/ml antibiotics solution. Conclusion; HPLC is an accurate, sensitive method for measurement of the intracellular antibiotics. Cefotaxime sodium can be transported by HPDLF. The transport is time-dependent and cell specific.

  16. Effect of Infant with Infection Treated with Cefotaxime Sodium and SuI-bactam Sodium%头孢噻肟钠舒巴坦钠对小婴儿感染的治疗效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国华; 李秀琼; 罗敏; 叶妙珍; 邵秀敏; 陈琼; 梁道喜; 陈敬国

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨头孢噻肟钠舒巴坦钠对小婴儿感染的疗效。方法将140例小婴儿感染患儿随机分成两组,治疗组72例,应用头孢噻肟钠舒巴坦钠治疗,对照组68例,应用青霉素钠治疗,将两组资料进行统计学分析比较。结果①:治疗组有效率90.2%,细菌清除率91.4%,与对照组有效率64.3%,细菌清除率65.1%相比有显著区别(P<0.05)。②:治疗组对表葡菌,G -杆菌清除率分别为80.7%,86.7%,与对照组相比有显著差异( P<0.05)。③:治疗组对金葡菌的清除率为50%,对照组为40%,两组差异无显著性( P>0.05)。结论头孢噻肟钠舒巴坦钠在小婴儿感染的疗效明显优于青霉素钠,且在小婴儿的用药十分安全。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the effection of infant with infection that treated with Cefotaxime Sodium andSulbactamSodium.METHODS 140infantwithinfectionweredividedrandomlyintotwogroups:thetreated group with Cefotaxime Sodium and Sulbactam Sodium therapy(n=72),the control group with penicillin-G therapy(n=68),andthenanalyzedthedatumofthetwogroups.RESULTS ①Theeffectiveratewas90.2%,baceria-clean-ing rate was 91.4%,it′s more effective than control patient′s.②A statistical comparison between two groups was sig-nificant with regard to the rates of cleaning staphylococcus epidermidis,gram-negative bacilli,The bacteria-cleaning rates were respectively 80.7%,86.7%(P<0.05).③The effective rate was similar between the Cefotaxime Sodium and Sulbactam Sodium and Penicillin-G to the infection by staphylococcus aureus.CONCLUSION The effection of yonger infat patients with infection that treated with Cefotaxime Sodium and Sulbactam Sodium was better than that treated by Penicillin-G.

  17. 头孢噻肟钠治疗儿童细菌性脑膜炎的124例临床分析%Cefotaxime sodium for the treatment of bacterial meningitis in children 124 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙丽华; 梁勇; 冉龙国; 杨爱梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the clinical efficacy for the treatment of bacterialmeningitis in children and research cefotaxime sodium (claforan). Method :Admitted to our hospital in recent years clinical data of 124 cases of bacterial meningitis in children as research subjects, divided into observation group and the control group, 62 cases in each in accordance with the principle of randomization observation group actively conventional treatment cefotaxime sodium for treatment, control group actively conventional treatment using ceftriaxone treatment, statistics and compare the treatment outcomes of patients after treatment. Results:Of the treatment of the two groups of children with total efficiency were 100%, but the effective rate is 93.55% of the observation group (58/62), the remarkable efficiency of the control group compared with 70.97% (44/62), the observation group was significantly better than control group, the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05). Conclusion :Cefotaxime sodium in the treatment of bacterial meningitis in children a significant effect, and security is high, it is worth to be promoted and applied in the clinical.%目的探讨和研究头孢噻肟钠(凯福隆)治疗儿童细菌性脑膜炎的临床疗效.方法摘取我院近年来收治的124例细菌性脑膜炎患儿作为研究对象,按照随机分组的原则将之分为观察组和对照组各62例,其中观察组在积极常规治疗基础上用头孢噻肟钠进行治疗,对照组则在积极常规治疗基础上采用头孢曲松进行治疗,治疗结束后统计并对比两组患者的治疗结果.结果两组患儿的治疗总有效率均为100%,但观察组的显效率为93.55%(58/62),对照组的显效率则为70.97%(44/62),观察组明显优于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05).结论头孢噻肟钠治疗儿童细菌性脑膜炎的疗效显著,且安全性较高,值得在临床上加以推广和应用.

  18. Efficacy Observation of Cefotaxime/Sulbactam in Treatment of Severe Respiratory Infection%头孢噻肟钠/舒巴坦钠治疗重症呼吸系统感染的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨采用头孢噻肟钠/舒巴坦钠治疗重症呼吸系统感染患者的临床疗效.方法:选取2014年1月—2015年3月于太平镇神岗卫生院就诊治疗的98例重症呼吸系统感染患者作为研究对象,按随机数字表法将患者分为观察组和对照组各49例.对照组患者应用常规方法进行治疗,观察组患者应用头孢噻肟钠/舒巴坦钠实施治疗,对比分析2组患者的临床疗效.结果:对照组患者的总有效率为77.55%(38/49),观察组为91.84%(45/49),2组的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);对照组患者的致病菌清除率为90.41%(66/73),观察组为95.89%(70/73),2组的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:应用头孢噻肟钠/舒巴坦钠治疗重症呼吸系统感染临床疗效显著,病菌清除率高,值得临床推广.%OBJECTIVE:To probe into the clinical efficacy of cefotaxime/sulbactam in treatment of patients with severe respiratory infection.METHODS: 98 patients with severe respiratory infection admitted into Taiping Town Shengang Health Center from Jan.2014 to Mar.2015 were selected to be divided into observation group and control group via the random number table,with 49 cases in each group.The control group received conventional therapy,while the observation group were treated with cefotaxime/sulbactam,the clinical efficacy of two groups were compared.RESULTS:The total effective rate of control group was 77.55%(38/49),and of observation group was 91.84%(45/49),with statistically significant difference ( P<0.05 ).The pathogenic bacteria clearance of of control group was 90.41%(66/73),and as for observation group,it was 95.89%(70/73),the difference was significant (P<0.05).CONCLUSIONS:The efficacy of cefotaxime/sulbactam in treatment of patients with severe respiratory infection is significant,with a high pathogenic bacteria clearance,which is worthy of being widely applied in clinic.

  19. [Trend of detection of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli and clinical features of bloodstream infection due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumoto, Norihito; Nobe, Masako; Uchida, Masatsugu; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Tanaka, Masahiko

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the community pandemic infections of cefotaxime (CTX)-M type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria, which is mostly resistant to CTX, has been well-known as major problems. When the ESBL-confirmation test cannot be done, CTX-resistant Escherichia coli might be used as the alternation method of infectious control. We investigated tendency of third-generation cephalosporin resistant E. coli and the clinical features of bloodstream infections (BSI) due to ESBL producing E. coli in our hospital, which has no department of microbial examination. We examined the trend of detection of CTX-resistant E. coli isolates from clinical samples from January 2009 to November 2013, and antimicrobial use density (AUD) of third-generation cephalosporins in the same period, and the clinical features of BSI of ESBL-producing E. coli. As a result, the percentages of CTX-resistant E. coli in all E. coli were 5.4% in inpatient and 3.9% in outpatient in 2009, but 32.8% and 17.8% in 2013, respectively. Additionally, AUD had increased from 20.6 in 2009 to 28.9 in 2013. In BSI due to E. coli, the clinical features which were male, bedridden patient and using urethral catheter, central venous catheter, chronic renal failure were significantly in the cases of ESBL-producing E. coli (n=8), compared to non-ESBL producing E. coli (n=32).

  20. The Role of Cefotaxime Sodium on Clinical Pediatric Purulent Meningitis%头孢噻肟钠治疗小儿化脓性脑膜炎作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊艳; 谢基华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the role of Cefotaxime Sodium on pediatric purulent meningitis. Methods:From 2009 March to 2011 September in our hospital with admissions of children with bacterial and purulent meningitis in 79 cases, which is through the clinical presentation, examination of cerebrospinal fluid, brain CT and blood routine examination and other methods confirmed. According to the random number table:79 patients were randomly divided into two groups, namely of Ceftizoxime in the treatment group,Cefotaxime Sodium group, in addition the other children of the same age in 30 cases of healthy as a healthy control group. Through ELISA, fluorescence quantitative PCR assay and Western blot (Westerblot )method, before and after medication take a few therapy on inflammatory cytokine production in tumor necrosis factorα(TNF-α),interleukin 6 (IL-6),interleukin 1β( IL-1β) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9).Protein content and mRNA content determination. Analysis of related drugs to specific treatment mechanism. Results:The ELISA method results show compared to Ceftizoxime group, Cefotaxime Sodium group after treatment on inflammatory cytokine protein content decreased significantly (P<0.01),at the same time by fluorescence quantitative PCR assay results are consistent, with significant statistical difference (P<0.01).Through protein immunoblot assay for detection of MMP-9 protein content discovery, Ceftizoxime group after treatment did not significantly decreased, and Cefotaxime Sodium group after treatment, the MMP-9 protein content was lower, with significant statistical difference (P<0.01). Conclusion:According to the role of MMP-9 in the blood brain barrier, Kefalo drugs with MMP-9 level significantly reduced so as to improve the patients symptoms of meningitis, this thesis of the paper on pediatric bacterial and purulent meningitis pathogenesis can be as the theoretical basis and experimental base.%目的:探讨头孢噻肟钠(凯福隆)治疗小儿化脓性

  1. Clinical observation and experience of cefotaxime sodium in treating community acquired pneumonia%头孢噻肟钠治疗社区获得性肺炎的观察及体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乐山

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨头孢噻肟钠(cefotaxime sodium)治疗社区获得性肺炎(community acquired pneumonia,CAP)的临床疗效及安全性.方法90例社区获得性肺炎病人,随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组45例.治疗组:静脉注射头孢噻肟钠,每次1.0~2.0g,每8 h静注1次,疗程7~14d;对照组:静脉滴注青霉素G(benzylpenicillin),每次240~480wu,每6h静注1次,疗程7~14d.结果头孢噻肟钠和青霉素G的临床有效率分别为93.3%和66.7%,细菌清除率为95.6%和71.1%,两组差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗期间两组均未出现明显不良反应.结论头孢噻肟钠疗效肯定,安全性好,可作为治疗社区获得性肺炎的首选药.

  2. 头孢噻肟与亚胺培南西司他丁钠治疗新生儿败血症的效果比较研究%Comparative Research on Effect of Cefotaxime and Imipenem and Cilastatin Sodium in Treatment of Neonatal Septicemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋春芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of cefotaxime and imipenem and cilastatin sodium in treatment of neonatal sep-ticemia and provide reference for the clinical treatment. Methods 120 cases of children with septicemia diagnosed and treated in our hospital from February 2011 to February 2015 were analyzed, and the treatment effects of cefotaxime and imipenem and cilastatin sodium were compared. Results There was no statistical difference in the type of pathogen isolated from blood between the cefotaxime treatment group and the imipenem and cilastatin sodium group, P>0.05, the effective rate of cefotaxime was obviously lower than that of imipenem and cilastatin sodium, (86.7%vs 96.7%), P0.05. Conclusion Cefotaxime and imipenem and cilastatin sodium in treatment of neonatal septicemia has a certain curative effect, but the effect of the latter is better.%目的:对头孢噻肟与亚胺培南西司他丁钠治疗新生儿败血症的效果进行分析,为临床治疗提供参考。方法方便选取该院2011年2月—2015年2月期间诊治的120例新生儿败血症患儿进行分析,比较头孢噻肟与亚胺培南西司他丁钠的治疗效果。结果头孢噻肟治疗组和亚胺培南西司他丁钠治疗组患者血培养病原菌的种类无统计学差异性(P>0.05);头孢噻肟的有效率(86.7%)明显低于亚胺培南西司他丁钠的有效率(96.7%)(P0.05)。结论头孢噻肟与亚胺培南西司他丁钠均对新生儿败血症有一定疗效,但后者效果更佳。

  3. Antibacterial Activities of Cefotaxime/sulbactam with Various Proportions against 180 Clinical Isolates in vitro%不同配比头孢噻肟/舒巴坦对180株临床分离菌的体外抗菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭晖; 罗文涛; 马满玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro antibacterial activities of cefotaxime and cefotaxime/sulbactam ( CTX/SBT ) with different proportions. Method: The minimal inhibitory concentrations ( MIC ) and the minimal bactericidal concentrations ( MBC ) were measured in 180 clinical isolates. Result: CTX/SBT with proportion of 1: 1 and 2'- 1 both displayed potent and broad - spectrum antibacterial activities against 180 clinical isolates in vitro, which were better than CTX and CTX/SBT with proportion of 4:1 and 8:1. MIC90 of CTX/SBT (1:1 and 2:1 ) against gram-negative bacteria was 0. 25-1 32 ing ·L-1 ,which was 1/4 ~ 1/8 of that of cefotaxime. Conclusion: CTX/SBT with proportion of 1: 1 and 2: 1 shows promising antibacterial activities against the major clinical isolates with better effect when compared with cefotaxime and cefotaxime/sulbactam with the other proportions.%目的:研究不同配比的头孢噻肟/舒巴坦及头孢噻肟单剂对临床分离菌体外抗菌作用.方法:采用平皿二倍稀释法测定头孢噻肟/舒巴坦对180株临床分离菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)、最低杀菌浓度(MBC).结果:头孢噻肟/舒巴坦(1:1,2:1)对180株临床分离菌具有广谱抗菌作用,对革兰阴性杆菌MIC90为0.25~32 mg·L-1,是头孢噻肟单剂的1/4~1/8,明显强于头孢噻肟单方使用效果,同时也强于头孢噻肟/舒巴坦(4:1,8:1).结论:1:1及2:1配比的头孢噻肟/舒巴坦对绝大多数临床感染细菌有很强的抗菌活性,明显优于头孢噻肟单剂和头孢噻肟/舒巴坦其他配比.

  4. Observation on the Effect of Cefotaxime with Different Doses in Periopration Period on the Prevention of Postoperative Infection of Lung Cancer Resection%肺癌根治术围术期使用不同剂量头孢噻肟预防术后感染的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓龙; 周晓芳; 王增; 王健超

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察肺癌根治术围术期使用不同剂量头孢噻肟预防术后感染的疗效和安全性.方法:回顾性分析61例接受肺癌根治术治疗的非小细胞肺癌患者资料,按用药剂量的不同分为头孢噻肟2 g组(26例)和头孢噻肟4 g组(35例).头孢噻肟2 g组患者于术前30 min给予注射用头孢噻肟钠2 g,加入0.9%氯化钠注射液100 ml中静脉滴注,如手术时间超过3 h ,术中静脉滴注头孢噻肟2g,术后再次静脉滴注头孢噻肟2g,术前后用药时间需间隔12h,用药总时间不超过48h.头孢噻肟4g组患者给予注射用头孢噻肟钠4g(用法同头孢噻肟2g组).观察两组患者感染率,术前后白细胞、血红蛋白、白蛋白水平及不良反应发生情况.结果:两组患者感染率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组患者术后白细胞、血红蛋白、白蛋白水平均显著低于同组治疗前,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05).两组患者用药期间均未见明显不良反应发生.结论:非小细胞肺癌患者在肺癌根治术围术期给予小剂量头孢噻肟可达到较好的预防术后感染的效果,安全性较好,符合抗菌药物合理应用的原则.%OBJECTIVE:To observe the effecacy and safety of using cefotaxime using different doses in perioprative period on the prevention of postoperative infection of lung cancer resection. METHODS:61 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who re-ceived lung cancer resection were retrospectively analyzed divided into cefotaxime 2 g group(26 cases) and cefotaxime 4 g group (35 cases)according to dosage. Cefotaxime 2 g group was treated with Cefotaxime for injetion 2 g 30 min before operation,add-ing into 0.9% sodium chloride injection 100 ml,by intravenous infusion,if the operation time was more than 3 h,cefotaxime 2 g was intravenously infused during operation and cefotaxime 2 g was intravenously infused after operation,interval of 12 h was re-quired for preoperative and postoperative medication time

  5. 分子印迹固相萃取/毛细管电泳法检测牛奶中头孢噻肟残留%Determination of Cefotaxime Residue in Milk by Molecular Imprinted Solid Phase Extraction/Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玎玎; 何东旭; 祁克宗; 陆翠珍

    2012-01-01

    采用分子印迹技术,以头孢噻肟(CTX)为模板分子,α-甲基丙烯酸(MAA)为功能单体,乙二醇二甲基丙烯酸酯(EGDMA)为交联剂合成了头孢噻肟分子印迹聚合物(CTX-MIP).以该分子印迹聚合物为固相萃取柱填料,毛细管电泳进行检测,建立了分子印迹固相萃取/毛细管电泳检测牛奶中头孢噻肟残留的方法.结果表明,CTX-MIP对CTX具有较高的选择性,萃取效果良好.该方法在CTX为5~ 100 mg/L范围内呈良好线性,相关系数(r2)为0.999 4;3种不同加标水平(10、50、100 mg/L)的回收率分别为78%、84%、86%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为3.5%~4.5%,检出限(LOD,S/N≥3)为98.52 μg/L,定量下限(LOQ,S/N≥10)为329.0 μg/L,符合兽药残留分析的要求.%A molecularly imprinted polymer for cefotaxime ( CTX - MIP) was synthesized by the molecular imprinting technique using cefotaxime ( CTX) as template molecule, ot-methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate ( EGDMA) as cross linking agent. By using the cefotaxime molecularly imprinted polymer as sorbent in solid-phase extraction column, a molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction - capillary electrophoresis (MISPE - HPCE) method was developed for the determination of cefotaxime residue in milk. The results showed that cefotaxime imprinted polymer exhibited a higher selectivity to cefotaxime compared with that of the non-imprinted polymer. The linear range of cefotaxime was in the range of 0. 5 - 100 mg/L, and the correlation coefficient was 0. 999 4. The recoveries at three spiked concentration levels of 10, 50, 100 mg/L were 78% , 84% and 86% , respectively, with RSDs of 3.5% -4.5% . The limit of detection(LOD, S/N≥3) and the limit of quantitation(LOQ, S/N≥10) were 98.52 μg/L and 329.0 μg/L, respectively. The method could meet the requirements for veterinary drug residue analysis.

  6. K-ratio method:an efficient way for determining the contents of cefotaxime sodium and sulbactam sodium for injection%系数倍率法同时测定注射用头孢噻肟钠-舒巴坦钠的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文天; 邢旺兴; 金乐红; 唐婷

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立系数倍率法测定注射用头孢噻肟钠舒巴坦钠的含量。方法头孢噻肟和舒巴坦标准溶液在200~400 nm紫外区进行波长扫描,确定头孢噻肟和舒巴坦的最大吸收波长235 nm和258 nm为测定波长,并选择适当的测定波长对和确定K值。以0.1 mol/L NaOH为空白溶剂,利用系数倍率法测定头孢噻肟钠和舒巴坦钠的含量。结果头孢噻肟在4~16μg/mL范围内线性关系良好,回归方程为ΔA=0.01956C+0.00461(r=0.9998),精密度试验RSD=0.52%,平均回收率为101.5%,RSD=1.4%;舒巴坦在2~8μg/mL范围内线性关系良好,回归方程为ΔA=0.06566C+0.00425(r=0.9998),精密度试验RSD=0.33%,平均回收率为103.0%,RSD=1.4%;稳定性试验显示结果在2.5小时内稳定。结论系数倍率法简便、准确、重复性好,可用于注射用头孢噻肟钠舒巴坦钠含量的快速测定。%Objective To formulate a method for determining the contents Cefotaxime Sodium and Sulbactam Sodium for injection using K-ratio Method.Method Use ultraviolet wavelength to scan the standard solution of cefotaxime and sulbactam to get the scanning spectrum .Then determined the maximum absorption wavelength of cefotaxime and sulbactam as measuring wavelength which were 235 nm and 258 nm, and determined the wavelength pair and K , then established a standard curve to determine the content of cefotaxime sodium and sulbactam sodium using K -ratio method .Findings The experimental process was steady in 2.5 hours.The linear range of cefotaxime was 4 ~16μg/mL, ΔA=0.01956C+0. 00461(r=0.9998.The precision of cefotaxime was good (RSD=0.52%,n=6); The average recovery was 101.5% (RSD =1.4%,n =9) .The linear range of sulbactam was 2 ~8μg/mL, ΔA =0.06566C +0.00425(r =0.9998.Theprecision of sulbactam was good (RSD =0.33%,n =6); The average recovery was 103.0% (RSD =1.4%,n =9). Conclusion K-ratio Method

  7. 注射用头孢噻肟钠与注射用氯诺昔康的配伍稳定性研究%Stability and compatibility of cefotaxime sodium and lornoxicam in 0.9 % sodium chloride injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱军; 陈富超; 方宝霞; 李鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the stability and compatibility of cefotaxime sodium injection with lornoxicam in 0.9% sodium chloride injection(NS)at room temperature.Methods At(25 ± 1)℃,the contents changes of cefotaxime sodium and lornoxicam in NS were determined simultaneously by gradient-elution high performance liquid chromatography at several time points after mixing within 6 hours.The appearance of mixing solution was observed and the pH value was determined. Results The relative percentage of cefotaxime and lornoxicam decreased for the mixed solution within 6 hours. The pH value decreased and the colour gradually deepened gradually.Conclusion The mixture of cefotaxime sodium injection with lornoxicam in NS at ambient temperature is unstable,accordingly clinical application should not be compatible.%目的 考察室温下注射用头孢噻肟钠与注射用氯诺昔康在0.9%氯化钠注射液中的配伍稳定性.方法 在(25±1)℃下,采用高效液相色谱梯度洗脱法同时测定头孢噻肟钠与氯诺昔康在0.9%氯化钠注射液中配伍后6h内各时间点的含量变化,并观察和检测配伍液的外观及pH变化.结果 配伍液6h内头孢噻肟钠与氯诺昔康的含量逐渐下降,pH随时间变化亦逐渐降低,溶液颜色随时间变化逐渐加深.结论 室温条件下,注射用头孢噻肟钠与注射用氯诺昔康在0.9%氯化钠注射液中不稳定,临床应用应单独给药.

  8. 头孢噻肟污染条件下土壤呼吸、部分酶活性的短期响应及土壤细菌PCR-DGGE分析%Short-term response of soil microbial respiration, enzyme activities, bacteria population and PCR-DGGE profiles of bacterial communities to cefotaxime pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚振飞; 魏松林; 梅丽娟; 胡健

    2013-01-01

    采用常规土壤酶活力测定方法、平板菌落计数法以及PCR-DGGE技术,分析头孢噻肟污染对土壤呼吸作用、部分酶活性、细菌数量以及细菌多样性的短期影响.结果表明:①头孢噻肟明显刺激处理后1~14 d土壤呼吸强度,处理21d后刺激作用消失;头孢噻肟明显提高处理后1、18 d土壤脲酶活性,处理后3、7d抑制作用明显;不同浓度头孢噻肟处理初期,土壤过氧化氢酶活力均受到抑制,随着培养时间的延长抑制率下降,并且低、中浓度头孢噻肟处理分别在处理后3、7d开始表现出对过氧化氢酶一定程度的刺激作用.②培养1~3 d,各处理对土壤细菌数量具有一定的刺激作用,7d后中、高浓度处理对土壤细菌有一定抑制作用,而18 d后各浓度处理土壤细菌数量基本恢复到对照水平.③采用Quantity One 4.6(Bio-Rad)软件,对PCR-DGGE图谱中各处理1、18 d条带进行分析,发现头孢噻肟处理对样品可检测条带数没有影响,但对处理初期细菌优势种群丰度产生影响,此后逐渐恢复到对照水平.总之,头孢噻肟污染对供试土壤微生物活性、细菌数量以及优势种群的丰度具有不同程度的短期影响,但随着时间的延长,影响逐渐消失.%The short-term effect of cefotaxime at three dosage levels:low (LC,10 mg · kg-1),medium (MC,50 mg · kg-1) and high (HC,200 mg· kg-1) on the soil microbial respiration,enzyme activities,bacteria population and PCR-DGGE profiles of bacterial communities were studied by general measuring methods of soil respiraition and enzyme activity,plate culture count methods and PCR-DGGE techniques.Results showed that:① The soil microbial respiration was significantly stimulated by cefotaxime treated after 1 to 14 days but turned to the normal level 21 days after treatment.The soil urease activity was significantly stimulated by cefotaxine treated after 1 day and 18 days but significantly inhibited after 3 days and 7

  9. 抗纤维化治疗对大鼠支气管肺泡灌洗液中头孢噻肟浓度的影响%Effect of Anti-fibrosis treatment on the Concentration of Cefotaxim in Bronchioalveolar Lavage Fluid in Rats with Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of anti-fibrosis drug on the concentration of cefotaxim in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid.Methods 90 Wister male rats were randomly divided into five groups, including normal control( Group A) 、model( Group B) 、interferon-γ-troated( Group C) 、ambroxol-treated ( Group D) 、Dexamethason-treated( Group E) group.On experimengtal day( day 0), the rats in B,C,D and E were intratracheally instilled with bleomycin(5 mg/Kg body weght) or sterile saline, and then the rats in C, D and E were treated with the interferon-γ(30000 IU/per mouse), ambroxol(75 mg/per mouse), Dexamethason(0.1 mg/per mouse) or sterile saline intraperitoneally respectively.On day 7,14,28 after instillation, six rats form each group were then given a tail vein injection of cefotaxime (600 mg/kg) and bronchoalveolar lavage.The concentration of cefotaxim in the the bronchial alveolar fluids was assayed by liquid chromatography-massspectrometry method.Results On day 7 the concentration of cefotaxim in the the bronchial alveolar fluids of Group D,Group E was lower than Group B and those of Group C higher than group B.The difference between Group E and Group B was significant statistically(P =0.012.On day 14 the concentration of cefotaxim in the the bronchial alveolar fluids of Group D, Group E increased,while Group C decreased.The three groups were all higher than Group B.The diferonce between Group D and Group B was significant statistically( P = 0.000.On day 28 the concentration of cefotaxim in the the bronchial alveolar fluids of Group E increased continuously,which was significanfiy higher than other groups.Group C and Group D decreased continuously, and the concentration of cefotaxim of both groups was lower than Group B.Conclusion Dexamethason could increase the concentration of cefotaxim in the the bronchial alveolar fluids of the fibrosis stage.%目的 观察抗肺纤维化药物对支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中头孢噻肟浓度的影响.方法 将90只

  10. Epidemic condition and molecular subtyping of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant Salmonella Indiana isolated from retail chicken carcasses in six provinces, China%中国六省份零售整鸡中环丙沙星与头孢噻肟双耐药印第安纳沙门菌流行状况及分子分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡豫杰; 黄金林; 于红霞; 李凤琴; 赫英英; 王晔茹; 崔生辉; 陈秋霞; 刘桂华; 陈倩; 周刚; 杨保伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:对中国6个省份零售整鸡中对环丙沙星与头孢噻肟双耐药的沙门菌流行状况及分子分型进行研究。方法对我国6个省份市售整鸡样品中分离的2629株沙门菌进行耐药性实验,筛选出对环丙沙星和头孢噻肟双重耐药的菌株,进行血清分型、超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)表型确证和PFGE遗传特性研究。结果对环丙沙星与头孢噻肟双耐药的沙门菌共计227株(8.52%,227/2629),北京、吉林、广东、江苏、陕西、内蒙的检出率分别为11.67%(99/874)、8.20%(60/726)、1.39%(7/502)、15.61%(42/260)、8.56%(16/186)、0(0/81);224株为印第安纳沙门菌,其中213株(95.10%)为ESBLs阳性。所有双耐印第安纳沙门菌均耐5种以上的抗生素,17.86%的菌株(40/224)对除碳青霉烯类外的10种抗生素均耐药;50.89%的菌株(114/224)对9种抗生素耐药,25.45%的菌株(57/224)对8种抗生素耐药。224株双耐印第安纳沙门菌划分为32个基因簇和150种PFGE带型,双耐印第安纳沙门菌带型既具有地域差异,相同或不同的省份及采样时间均发现相同带型菌株。结论中国零售整鸡中环丙沙星与头孢噻肟双耐药沙门菌污染严重,是双耐药沙门菌的重要储存库,分子分型结果提示沙门菌存在交叉污染或共同污染来源。%Objective To elucidate the epidemic condition and molecular subtyping of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant Salmonella Indiana(S. Indiana)isolated from retail chicken carcasses in six provinces of China. Methods A total of 2 647 Salmonella strains isolated from retail chicken carcasses collected from six provinces of China were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All Salmonella isolates co-resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime were further characterized by serotyping, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains screening and pulsed field

  11. Observation Curative Effect of Redu'ning Combine With Cefotaxime in Treatment of Children With Bronchial Pneumonia%热毒宁结合头孢噻啶治疗小儿支气管肺炎的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志侠

    2015-01-01

    Objective Toinvestigate the clinical efficacy of redu'ning combine with cefotaxime in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia.Methods Selected 98 cases from June 2012 to June 2014 admitted in our hospital in children with bronchial pneumonia, were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group, the control group in the conventional treatment based uplink cefotaxime treatment, the observation group basis on the control group added the redu'ning injection to treatment, observed the total efficiency and adverse reactions of two group after treatment.Results The levels of ET, Ang II and ug/L in the observation group were lower than the control group,P<0.05, was difference had statitstically significance, and the total effective rate of the observation group was higher than the control group, P<0.05, was difference had statitstically significance.Conclusion Combined with redu'ning cefotaxime is effective and safe in treatment of children with bronchial pneumonia, worthy of clinical attention and application.%目的 探讨热毒宁结合头孢噻啶治疗小儿支气管肺炎的临床疗效.方法 选取2012年6月~2014年6月我院收治的支气管肺炎患儿98例,数字表法随机分为对照组与观察组,对照组在常规治疗基础上行头孢噻啶治疗,观察组在对照组的基础上行热毒宁治疗,观察两组治疗后的总有效率与不良反应情况.结果 观察组的ET、AngⅡ以及NO水平分别为(0.35±0.10)mg/L、(146.3±28.6)ug/L以及(37.8±8.7) umol/L,均低于对照组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义,观察组的总有效率81.63%,高于对照组40.82%,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义.结论 热毒宁结合头孢噻啶治疗小儿支气管肺炎安全有效.

  12. Content Determination of the Polymer in Cefotaxime Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium(6:1)for Injection by HPSEC%HPSEC法测定注射用头孢噻肟钠他唑巴坦钠(6∶1)中高分子聚合物的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董静; 李三红; 王永庆; 戴云志

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立测定注射用头孢噻肟钠他唑巴坦钠(6∶1)中高分子聚合物含量的方法。方法:采用高效分子排阻色谱法。色谱柱为TSK-GEL G2000SWXL凝胶色谱柱,流动相为0.01 mol/L磷酸盐缓冲液(pH 7.0),流速为1.0 ml/min,检测波长为254 nm,进样量为10μl,柱温为25℃。结果:聚合物峰与主峰的分离度良好;头孢噻肟进样量在2.3~226.4 ng范围内与其峰面积呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9999);精密度、重复性试验的RSD≤0.79%;耐用性试验结果表明,柱温、流速、波长、pH、流动相盐浓度等因素在一定范围内变化对高分子聚合物峰之间以及高分子聚合物峰与主峰之间的分离度影响不大。结论:该方法操作简单、专属性强、灵敏度高,可用于注射用头孢噻肟钠他唑巴坦钠(6∶1)中高分子聚合物的含量测定。%OBJECTIVE:To establish a method for the content determination of polymer in Cefotaxime sodium and tazobactam sodium(6∶1)for injection. METHODS:High performance size exclusion chromatography(HPSEC)was performed on the column of TSK-GEL G2000SWXL with mobile phase of 0.01 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min,detection wavelength was 254 nm,injection volume was 10 μl and the column temperature was 25 ℃. RESULTS:Cefotaxime and the poly-mers were well-separated;the linear range of cefotaxime was 2.3-226.4 ng(r=0.999 9);RSDs of precision and reproducibility tests were no more than 0.79%;results of durability test showed the changes of column temperature,flow rate,wavelength,pH and mobile phase salt concentration had little effects on the separation among different polymer peaks and between polymer peaks and main peaks. CONCLUSIONS:The method is simple,specific and sensitive,and can be used for the content determination of poly-mer in Cefotaxime sodium and tazobactam sodium(6∶1)for injuction.

  13. Analysis of the correlation between 3 kinds of antibiotic resistance of gram-positive cocci and the DDDs of erythromycin,cefotaxime%3种革兰阳性球菌耐药性与红霉素、头孢噻肟用药频度的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛威

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation between the drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus,Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium and the DDDs of erythromycin,cefotaxime.Methods:We retrospective analyzed the 3 gram positive coccus drug sensitivity test datas and the usage of antibiotics from January 2008 to January 2013.We calculated the drug resistance rate and the frequency of drug use.We analyzed the correlation between the resistant rate and the DDDs of 2 kinds of antibiotics. Results:The erythromycin DDDs continued to decline,and the cefotaxime DDDs continued to rise.3 kinds of gram positive cocci resistant rate of 2 kinds of antibiotics were increasing.3 gram positive cocci of erythromycin DDDs was not statistically significant, and the correlation between the resistance rate and DDDs of cefotaxime was positively.Conclusion:Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae,Enterococcus faecium to cefotaxime resistance rates were 16.9% ,8.8% ,10.3% respectively. Erythromycin in the treatment of bacterial infections has no clinical significance.%目的:探讨金黄色葡萄球菌、肺炎双球菌、屎肠球菌耐药性与红霉素、头孢噻肟用药频度的相关性。方法:回顾性分析2008年1月-2013年1月3种革兰阳性球菌药敏性试验资料及抗生素使用量,计算耐药率和用药频度,对耐药率与2种抗生素用药频度进行相关性分析。结果:红霉素的用药频度持续下降,头孢噻肟的用药频度持续上升。3种革兰阳性球菌对2种抗生素的耐药率均呈持续增长趋势。3种革兰阳性球菌对红霉素的用药频度(DDDs)相关性无统计学意义,对头孢噻肟耐药率与DDDs呈显著正相关。结论:金黄色葡萄球菌、肺炎双球菌、屎肠球菌对头孢噻肟耐药率分别为16.9%、8.8%、10.3%。红霉素治疗该类细菌引起的感染已经不具有临床意义。

  14. The clinical observation of montmorillonite powder and cefotaxime sodi-um in treatment of 106 cases children with bacterial diarrhea%蒙脱石散联合头孢噻肟钠治疗小儿细菌性腹泻106例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical application value of montmorillonite powder and cefotaxime sodium in the treatment of children with bacterial diarrhea, which made guidance for clinical treatment. Methods A total of 186 cases patients admitted to our hospital from February 2011 to February 2013 were divided into control group (treated with montmorillonite powder based on general symptomatic and supportive treatment) and observation group (treated with ce-fotaxime sodium based on control group), the clinical effects and adverse reactions of two groups were compared after treatment. Results The excellent and good rate of observation group (99.06%) was higher than that of control group (86.25%), the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05);The indicators of observation group were better than that of control group,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05);Both of two groups had no serious adverse reactions. Conclusion Montmorillonite powder and cefotaxime sodium has significant effects on treating bacterial diarrhea in chil-dren, it is worthy of clinical widespread use.%目的:探讨蒙脱石散联合头孢噻肟钠治疗小儿细菌性腹泻的临床应用价值,为临床推广作出指导。方法选择我院2011年2月~2013年2月收治的186例细菌性腹泻患儿为研究对象,将其随机分为两组。对照组患儿在常规对症支持治疗基础上给予口服蒙脱石散治疗,观察组患儿则在对照组的基础上再给予头孢噻肟钠静脉滴注治疗,观察两组患者治疗后的临床治疗效果以及不良反应情况。结果观察组患儿治疗后的优良率为99.06%,明显高于对照组86.25%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组患儿治疗后各项指标均明显优于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患儿治疗后均未出现明显严重不良反应。结论蒙脱石散联合头孢噻肟钠治疗小儿细菌性腹泻效果显著,且安全可靠,值得在临床上广泛推广。

  15. Clinical studies of cefotaxime sodium in combination with levofloxacin intraperitoneal perfusion in the treatment of cirrhosis ascites complicated with bacterial peritonitis%头孢噻肟钠联合左氧氟沙星腹腔灌注治疗肝硬化腹水并发细菌性腹膜炎的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究头孢噻肟钠联合左氧氟沙星腹腔灌注治疗肝硬化腹水并发细菌性腹膜炎的治疗效果。方法将82例肝硬化腹水并发细菌性腹膜炎的患者随机分为对照组与治疗组,对照组患者给予常规的内科治疗,治疗组患者在一定的常规治疗基础上还进行腹腔灌注头孢噻肟钠(凯福隆,华北制药河北华民药业有限责任公司)和左氧氟沙星。观察两组患者接受治疗后的疗效并进行比较分析。结果对照组的总有效率为73.1%,而治疗组的总有效率为90.2%,治疗组的治疗效果明显高于对照组,两组的比较差异具有统计学意义, P<0.05。结论头孢噻肟钠联合左氧氟沙星腹腔灌注治疗肝硬化腹水并发细菌性腹膜炎的治疗效果显著,可以作为临床上治疗肝硬化腹水并发细菌性腹膜炎的治疗参考。%Objective To learn the therapeutic effect of cefotaxime sodium in combination with levofloxacin intraperitoneal perfusion in the treatment of cirrhosis ascites complicated with bacterial peritonitis. Methods 82 cases of liver cirrhosis ascites complicated with bacterial peritonitis patients were randomly divided into control group and treatment group. The control group got the conventional medical treatment. The treatment group patients got the certain routine therapy and abdominal cavity perfusion of cefotaxime sodium and levofloxacin. Observe the curative effect of two groups’patients after treatment and analysis them. Results The total effective rate of control group was 73.1% , and the total effective rate of treatment group was 90.2%. The therapeutic effect of treatment group was obviously higher than that of control group and comparison of the two groups statistically significant difference, P<0.05. Conclusion The treatment effect of cefotaxime sodium in combination with levofloxacin intraperitoneal perfusion in the treatment of cirrhosis ascites complicated with bacterial

  16. Cost-minimization Analysis of Cefotaxime Sodium vs.Ciprofloxacin for Preventing Infection in Perioperative Period in the Department of Reproductive Endocrinology%头孢噻肟钠与环丙沙星预防生殖内分泌科围手术期感染的最小成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭远超; 徐克惠; 张伶俐

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价头孢噻肟钠与环丙沙星预防生殖内分泌科围手术期感染的经济学效果.[方法]:将2009年7月-2010年1月我院生殖内分泌科符合病例选择标准的患者240例,按随机数字表随机均分为试验组与对照组,按照《抗菌药物临床应用指导原则》规定给药,试验组应用头孢噻肟钠,对照组应用环丙沙星治疗.治疗后观察2组有效性和不良反应,并进行最小成本分析.[结果]:试验组泌尿道感染1例、呼吸道感染1例、不明原因感染1例,对照组泌尿道感染2例,2组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).完成治疗分析(PP分析),对照组药物成本、非药物成本、间接成本、总成本分别为(837.75±259.18)、(6 145.00±1 068.20)、(215.50±60.66)、(7 183.10±1 182.80)元:试验组分别为(845.97±182.41)、(6 183.40±1 026.70)、(204.19±56.65)、(7 233.60±1 108.30)元,2组比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).[结论]:头孢噻肟钠与环丙沙星在预防生殖内分泌科围手术期感染的药物经济学方面无显著性差异,但氟喹诺酮类药物耐药率较高,在临床选择使用时需根据实际情况选择合适的抗菌药物.%OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pharmacoeconomic effectiveness of cefotaxime sodium vs. ciprofloxacin for preventing infection in perioperative period in the department of reproductive endocrinology. METHODS: 240 cases of patient from July 2009 to January 2010 who met the selection criterias were selected in the department of reproductive endocrinology in our hospital. They were randomly divided into the treatment group (cefotaxime sodium) and the control group (ciprofloxacin) as 1:1. Patients were administed as Clinical guidelines for antibiotics. The curative effects and adverse events were monitored and the cost-minimization analysis was conducted. RESULTS: In control group, 2 cases of urinary tract infection. In the treatment group, 1 cases of urinary tract infection, 1 case of respiratory tract

  17. Unique variations of pbp2x sequences in clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and penicillin and cefotaxime resistance%肺炎链球菌青霉素结合蛋白基因pbp2x新的变异与青霉素及头孢噻肟耐药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田素飞; 禇云卓; 陈佰义

    2008-01-01

    目的 调查研究肺炎链球菌临床分离株的pbp2x基因和氨基酸序列的变异特点,探讨本地区的肺炎链球菌对青霉素及头孢噻肟的耐药机制.方法 2006年1月-2007年2月收集肺炎链球菌临床分离株34株,进行青霉素及头孢噻肟药敏试验,对青霉素不敏感的肺炎链球菌(PNSP)的青霉素结合蛋白pbp2x基因进行PCR扩增和测序,并进行BLAST分析.结果 有12株PNSP(青霉素及头孢噻肟MIC≥0.5 mg/L)发生了2个重要位点的氨基酸的替换:第一个保守基序STMK内Thr338→Ala及第三个保守基序KSG之前的Leu546→Val氨基酸替换.另外,菌株15发生了第二个保守基序SSN之前的His394→Leu氨基酸替换,而且本研究首次发现了紧邻第一个保守基序STMK后,Met342→Ile位点的氨基酸替换.有17个菌株的pbp2x基因的核苷酸及氨基酸序列出现了新的变异,已向GenBank提交,获得序列号:EU044831、EU089706-EU089709、EU106881-EU106884、EU124672.结论 本地区大多数PNSP的pbp2x核苷酸及氨基酸变异序列高度相似,提示肺炎链球菌对青霉素及头孢噻肟的耐药与pbp2x基因变异相关.%Objective To investigate the alternations in gene/amino acid sequence of penicillin-binding protein (PBP)2x from clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and to find the reasons for the rapid surge of penicillin and cefotaxime nonsusceptibility among pneumococcal isolates from Shenyang. Methods Thirty-four strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were collected from January 2006 to February 2007. The antibiotics susceptibility of these strains was detected. PCR amplification and direct sequencing of pbp2x genes were performed. The sequence variations of PBP genes of the penicillin nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae(PNSP) in this region were studied by BLAST analysis. Results Two prominent substitutions were common to 12 PNSP isolates for which the MIC of penicillin resistance and cefotaxime were at least 0.5 mg/L, which

  18. CLSI三代头孢菌素新旧折点对判定肺炎克雷伯菌药物敏感性及产ESBLs菌株分布的影响%Antimicrobial susceptibility interpretation and distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamases producers in Klebsiella pneumonia isolates according to CLSI 2009 and 2010 breakpoints of cefotaxime and cefiazidime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许伟伟; 江洋; 熊自忠; 沈继录

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of CLSI 2009 (S19) and 2010 (S20) breakpoints of cefotaxime (CTX) and cefiazidime (CAZ) on the antimicrobial susceptibility interpretation and distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producers in Klebsiella pneumonia isolates. Method Fifty K. Pneumonia isolates were collected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University in 2008. Antimicrobial susceptibility of those isolates were tested by disk diffusion method, and ESBLs producers were confirmed by the CLSI phenotypic confirmatory test. Susceptibility of K. Pneumonia to CTX and CAZ as well as the distribution of ESBLs producers were analyzed according to the breakpoints of the S19 and S20, respectively. The modified three-dimensional extract test was used to detect the ESBLs-negative isolates with resistance to CTX and/or CAZ. Result According to the S19, the resistance rate to CTX and CAZ was 54.0% and 30.0% , respectively, while to the S20, the resistance rate was 68% and 42% , respectively. ESBLs producers were detected in 64.0% (32/50) of K. Pneumonia. According to S19/S20 breakpoints, the distribution of ESBLs producers in CTX or CAZ resistant isolates was 81.3%/100.0% and 43. 8%/62. 5% , respectively. In ESBLs-negative producers, two were resistant to CTX and/or CAZ. One produced AmpC enzyme and ESBLs, the other only produced AmpC enzyme. Conclusion The resistance rate of CTX and CAZ increases according to new breakpoints (S20), and the consistency of the drug resistance and ESBLs phenotype is improved. Detection rate of ESBLs producers is influenced by AmpC-producing capability of those isolates.%目的 了解CLSI 2010(S20)及2009 (S19)头孢他啶(CAZ)、头孢噻肟(CTX)新旧折点变化对本地区肺炎克雷伯菌药物敏感性及产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)菌株分布的影响.方法 收集安徽医科大学第一附属医院临床分离的50株肺炎克雷伯菌;纸片扩散法测定菌株对CTX及CAZ的敏感性,CLSI

  19. 部份降解的头孢噻肟酸转钠结晶工艺%Recovering Cefotaxime Sodium From Partial Degradation Cefotaxime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹青; 万平; 田美如

    2001-01-01

    目的:从部份降解的头孢噻肟酸回收头孢噻肟钠;方法:部份降解的头孢噻肟酸与醋酸钠反应后,加入吸附剂吸附降解杂质,再将反应液加入有机溶剂析出头孢噻肟钠;结果:得到合格的头孢噻肟钠.

  20. Cefotaxime resistant Escherichia coli collected from a healthy volunteer; characterisation and the effect of plasmid loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Kirchner

    Full Text Available In this study 6 CTX-M positive E. coli isolates collected during a clinical study examining the effect of antibiotic use in a human trial were analysed. The aim of the study was to analyse these isolates and assess the effect of full or partial loss of plasmid genes on bacterial fitness and pathogenicity. A DNA array was utilised to assess resistance and virulence gene carriage. Plasmids were characterised by PCR-based replicon typing and addiction system multiplex PCR. A phenotypic array and insect virulence model were utilised to assess the effect of plasmid-loss in E. coli of a large multi-resistance plasmid. All six E. coli carrying bla CTX-M-14 were detected from a single participant and were identical by pulse field gel electrophoresis and MLST. Plasmid profiling and arrays indicated absence of a large multi-drug resistance (MDR F-replicon plasmid carrying blaTEM, aadA4, strA, strB, dfrA17/19, sul1, and tetB from one isolate. Although this isolate partially retained the plasmid it showed altered fitness characteristics e.g. inability to respire in presence of antiseptics, similar to a plasmid-cured strain. However, unlike the plasmid-cured or plasmid harbouring strains, the survival rate for Galleria mellonella infected by the former strain was approximately 5-times lower, indicating other possible changes accompanying partial plasmid loss. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that an apparently healthy individual can harbour bla CTX-M-14 E. coli strains. In one such strain, isolated from the same individual, partial absence of a large MDR plasmid resulted in altered fitness and virulence characteristics, which may have implications in the ability of this strain to infect and any subsequent treatment.

  1. Cefotaxime resistant Escherichia coli collected from a healthy volunteer; characterisation and the effect of plasmid loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Miranda; Abuoun, Manal; Mafura, Muriel; Bagnall, Mary; Hunt, Theresa; Thomas, Christopher; Weile, Jan; Anjum, Muna F

    2013-01-01

    In this study 6 CTX-M positive E. coli isolates collected during a clinical study examining the effect of antibiotic use in a human trial were analysed. The aim of the study was to analyse these isolates and assess the effect of full or partial loss of plasmid genes on bacterial fitness and pathogenicity. A DNA array was utilised to assess resistance and virulence gene carriage. Plasmids were characterised by PCR-based replicon typing and addiction system multiplex PCR. A phenotypic array and insect virulence model were utilised to assess the effect of plasmid-loss in E. coli of a large multi-resistance plasmid. All six E. coli carrying bla CTX-M-14 were detected from a single participant and were identical by pulse field gel electrophoresis and MLST. Plasmid profiling and arrays indicated absence of a large multi-drug resistance (MDR) F-replicon plasmid carrying blaTEM, aadA4, strA, strB, dfrA17/19, sul1, and tetB from one isolate. Although this isolate partially retained the plasmid it showed altered fitness characteristics e.g. inability to respire in presence of antiseptics, similar to a plasmid-cured strain. However, unlike the plasmid-cured or plasmid harbouring strains, the survival rate for Galleria mellonella infected by the former strain was approximately 5-times lower, indicating other possible changes accompanying partial plasmid loss. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that an apparently healthy individual can harbour bla CTX-M-14 E. coli strains. In one such strain, isolated from the same individual, partial absence of a large MDR plasmid resulted in altered fitness and virulence characteristics, which may have implications in the ability of this strain to infect and any subsequent treatment.

  2. Separation of the Mixed Solvent Including Methanol,Acetone and Ethyl acetate in Cefotaxime sodium Production%头孢噻肟钠生产中甲醇、丙酮与乙酸乙酯混合溶媒的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚其; 李科

    2012-01-01

    通过萃取精馏、精馏对甲醇、丙酮与乙酸乙酯的混合溶媒加以分离,通过对生产数据的调整,确定了萃取精馏过程中混合溶媒与萃取水加入比例为1∶1,此条件下,萃取效果最好。萃取塔顶可以得到丙酮与乙酸乙酯和水的共沸物,塔底可以得到纯度为99.5%的甲醇。%To separate the mixture solvent including methanol,acetone and ethyl acetate by extractive distillation and distillation.Through adjusting production data,to determine the ratio of the mixture solvent to water was 1∶1 in the the extractive distillation process,and under the conditions,the extraction results were the best.To obtain the azeotrope including acetone ethyl acetate and water in the top of the tower,99.5% methanol in the bottom.

  3. Drug: D07647 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 655 D07647.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin Same as: C06885 ATC code: J01DD01 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: broad spectrum cephalosporin...TAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD01 Cefotaxime D07647 Cefotaxime (INN) USP drug

  4. Effects of antibiotics on plantlet regeneration via organogenesis in Populus euphratica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Xia; Chen Xiao-yang; Li Wei; Du Zhi-yan

    2006-01-01

    Four antibiotics, kanamycin, geneticin, carbenicillin and cefotaxime, were evaluated for their effect on the regeneration of adventitious buds, shoot differentiation, rooting from regenerated shoots of Populus euphratica as well as on their control of Agrobacterium-mediated transformations. Results showed that the optimum concentration ranges of kanamycin and geneticin were 15-20 and 10-15 mg·L-1 at the stage of transgenic plantlet selection. The inhibitory effects of cefotaxime and carbenicillin varied among different genotypes of Agrobacterium. The inhibition of cefotaxime on Agrobacterium C58 was stronger than that of carbenicillin.LBA4404 and their optimum concentrations were both 150 mg·L-1.

  5. Prophylactic antibiotics in transurethral prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Christiansen, H.M.; Ehlers, D

    1984-01-01

    . They were all fully sensitive to cefotaxime except one, who was infected with enterococci. There was no growth of bacteria from either venous blood or bladder irrigating fluid taken during the operations. Nor were any serious complications observed in any of the patients. In view of the relatively low risk...... than 10(5) colonies per ml urine); 6 patients (13.3%) in the cefotaxime group had postoperative infections during hospital stay as compared to 8 patients (18.6%) in the control group (0.5 greater than p greater than 0.3). Those in the cefotaxime group who had infections were tested for resistance...

  6. [Effectiveness of comprehensive therapy of broncho-obstructive syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, V I; Zavolovskaia, L I; Bormotova, M S

    1994-05-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive diseases of the lungs and bronchial asthma were treated with terbutaline sulfate in combination with cefotaxime. The results of the treatment were found to be favourable.

  7. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Caused by Listeria monocytogenes Associated with Ascitic Fluid Lymphocytosis: A Case Report and Review of Current Empiric Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Yecies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP is a potentially deadly complication of ascites. We describe a case of SBP caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis. This was associated with the unusual finding of ascitic fluid lymphocytosis, which previously had only been associated with tuberculoid or malignant ascites. Given increasing rates of cefotaxime-resistant SBP alongside the possibility of Listeriosis, the use of cefotaxime as first-line therapy in SBP should be reevaluated.

  8. Early onset Morganella morganii sepsis in a newborn infant with emergence of cephalosporin resistance caused by depression of AMPC beta-lactamase production..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ajay K; Kempley, Stephen T; Price, Elizabeth; Sharma, Bal K; Livermore, David M

    2006-04-01

    A preterm infant with early onset Morganella morganii sepsis was treated with cefotaxime and gentamicin after confirmation of antimicrobial susceptibility. The infant developed persistent ventriculitis caused by the emergence of a cefotaxime-resistant Morganella variant with derepression of its AmpC beta-lactamase. When choosing antibiotic therapy, the risk of development of resistance to cephalosporins should be considered in infections caused by M. morganii and other Gram-negative organisms with inducible AmpC beta-lactamases.

  9. AQU-1, a chromosomal class C β-lactamase, among clinical Aeromonas dhakensis isolates: distribution and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Jung; Wang, Hsuan-Chen; Chen, Po-Lin; Chang, Ming-Chung; Sunny Sun, H; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2013-11-01

    Aeromonas dhakensis, a recently described Aeromonas sp. formerly called Aeromonas aquariorum, is associated with human infections. In this study, a chromosomal gene, blaAQU-1, was identified in A. dhakensis AAK1 that constitutes a 1143-bp open reading frame and is 87% identical to the gene encoding CepH in Aeromonas hydrophila. An Escherichia coli TOP10 cell transformant harbouring blaAQU-1 was resistant to cefotaxime but not to cefepime. mRNA expression of blaAQU-1 in the cefotaxime-resistant mutant strain AAK1m was 70-fold higher than in the wild strain AAK1. In all 16 A. dhakensis isolates (the major species of 51 consecutive Aeromonas blood isolates collected from June 1999 to June 2001) as well as in A. aquariorum MDC47(T) and A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis LMG 19562(T), but not in the reference strains or clinical isolates of other A. hydrophila subspecies, Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas veronii or Aeromonas enteropelogenes, blaAQU-1-related genes were detected by PCR. Overall, 13 (81%) of the 16 A. dhakensis blood isolates exhibited either cefotaxime resistance or the in vitro emergence of derepressed cefotaxime-resistant mutants. In vivo selection of an A. dhakensis resistant mutant was noted in a burn patient undergoing cefotaxime monotherapy. These observations suggest that AQU-1 is a chromosomal cephalosporinase in A. dhakensis. Cefotaxime monotherapy for severe A. dhakensis infections should be used cautiously.

  10. Mode of action of the dual-action cephalosporin Ro 23-9424.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopapadakou, N H; Bertasso, A; Chan, K K; Chapman, J S; Cleeland, R; Cummings, L M; Dix, B A; Keith, D D

    1989-07-01

    Ro 23-9424 is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent composed of a cephalosporin and a quinolone moiety. Its biological properties were compared with those of its two components and structurally related cephalosporins and quinolones. Like ceftriaxone and cefotaxime but unlike its decomposition product, desacetyl cefotaxime, Ro 23-9424 bound at less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml to the essential penicillin-binding proteins 1b and 3 of Escherichia coli and 1, 2, and 3 of Staphylococcus aureus. In E. coli, Ro 23-9424 produced filaments exclusively and decreased cell growth; cefotaxime produced both filaments and lysis. Like its decomposition product fleroxacin but unlike quinolone esters, Ro 23-9424 also inhibited replicative DNA biosynthesis in E. coli. In an E. coli strain lacking OmpF, growth continued after addition of Ro 23-9424, decreased after addition of cefotaxime, and stopped immediately after addition of fleroxacin. The results, together with the chemical stability of Ro 23-9424 (half-life, approximately 3 h at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C), suggest that in E. coli the compound acts initially as a cephalosporin with intrinsic activity comparable to that of cefotaxime but with poorer penetration. Subsequent to the decomposition of Ro 23-9424 to fleroxacin and desacetyl cefotaxime, quinolone activity appears. The in vitro antibacterial activity reflects both mechanisms of action.

  11. 头孢噻肟钠成盐方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彪

    2012-01-01

    目的:对比四种成盐剂对头孢噻肟钠成品质量的影响。方法:通过头孢噻肟酸与成盐剂反应制得头孢噻肟钠溶液,再滴加丙酮析出头孢噻肟钠固体。结果:由碳酸氢钠制得的头孢噻肟钠质量优于其他方法。结论:使用碳酸氢钠作成盐剂,滴加丙酮结晶,简化了工艺路线,并能有效地降低生产成本,减少环境污染,适合工业化生产。%Objective: To compare four kinds of salifying reagent's effect on quality of Cefotaxime Sodium product. Methods: Make solution of Cefotaxime Sodium by salifying reaction of Cefotaxime acid, and then dropping acetone to make Cefotaxime Sodium precipi- tated. Results: The quality of Cefotaxime Sodium obtained from the sodium bicarbonate is better than other methods. Conclusion: The use of sodium bicarbonate and dropping acetone to crystallize simplifies the process. This method can effectively reduce production costs, reduce environmental pollution, and it's more suitable for industrial production than others.

  12. Synergistic phage-antibiotic combinations for the control of Escherichia coli biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Elizabeth M; Alkawareek, Mahmoud Y; Donnelly, Ryan F; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2012-07-01

    The potential application of phage therapy for the control of bacterial biofilms has received increasing attention as resistance to conventional antibiotic agents continues to increase. The present study identifies antimicrobial synergy between bacteriophage T4 and a conventional antibiotic, cefotaxime, via standard plaque assay and, importantly, in the in vitro eradication of biofilms of the T4 host strain Escherichia coli 11303. Phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS) is defined as the phenomenon whereby sub-lethal concentrations of certain antibiotics can substantially stimulate the host bacteria's production of virulent phage. Increasing sub-lethal concentrations of cefotaxime resulted in an observed increase in T4 plaque size and T4 concentration. The application of PAS to the T4 one-step growth curve also resulted in an increased burst size and reduced latent period. Combinations of T4 bacteriophage and cefotaxime significantly enhanced the eradication of bacterial biofilms when compared to treatment with cefotaxime alone. The addition of medium (10(4) PFU mL(-1)) and high (10(7) PFU mL(-1)) phage titres reduced the minimum biofilm eradication concentration value of cefotaxime against E. coli ATCC 11303 biofilms from 256 to 128 and 32 μg mL(-1), respectively. Although further investigation is needed to confirm PAS, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that synergy between bacteriophage and conventional antibiotics can significantly improve biofilm control in vitro.

  13. An evaluation of the bacteriolytic and biochemical properties of ceftiolene (42980RP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, R; Gutmann, L; Kitzis, M D; Acar, J F

    1984-12-01

    Ceftiolene (42980RP) is a new cephalosporin with a broad antibacterial spectrum similar to cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. The characteristics of ceftiolene have been tested in a variety of assays involving various biochemical aspects of the mode of action of beta-lactam antibiotics. The affinities of ceftiolene for penicillin-binding proteins were very comparable with those of ceftriaxone and cefotaxime for Escherichia coli, and generally greater than those of latamoxef (moxalactam) for the higher molecular weight PBPs of E. coli. Enterobacter cloacae. Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The affinity of ceftiolene for PBP1 of Staphylococcus aureus was greater than those of cefotaxime or latamoxef, but comparable with these antibiotics for PBP3. The bacteriolytic activity of ceftiolene at defined concentrations against Gram-negative organisms was similar to that of ceftriaxone, and significantly better than that of the other third-generation cephalosporins tested. Introduction of plasmid-encoded beta-lactamases into E. coli reduced the wide variation in bacteriolytic effect of the different cephalosporins, and a significant inoculum effect was observed for the bacteriolysis. Chloramphenicol was less antagonistic against ceftiolene- or ceftriaxone-induced lysis than was observed for cefotaxime or latamoxef. Growth of Staph. aureus at low concentrations of ceftiolene caused the bacteria to become more sensitive to lysis by lysostaphin than organisms grown with cefotaxime or latamoxef under the same conditions. These observations confirm the necessity to use techniques other than routine MIC determinations to distinguish between antibiotics which would otherwise appear very similar.

  14. Modelling proteins' hidden conformations to predict antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kathryn M.; Ho, Chris M. W.; Dutta, Supratik; Gross, Michael L.; Bowman, Gregory R.

    2016-10-01

    TEM β-lactamase confers bacteria with resistance to many antibiotics and rapidly evolves activity against new drugs. However, functional changes are not easily explained by differences in crystal structures. We employ Markov state models to identify hidden conformations and explore their role in determining TEM's specificity. We integrate these models with existing drug-design tools to create a new technique, called Boltzmann docking, which better predicts TEM specificity by accounting for conformational heterogeneity. Using our MSMs, we identify hidden states whose populations correlate with activity against cefotaxime. To experimentally detect our predicted hidden states, we use rapid mass spectrometric footprinting and confirm our models' prediction that increased cefotaxime activity correlates with reduced Ω-loop flexibility. Finally, we design novel variants to stabilize the hidden cefotaximase states, and find their populations predict activity against cefotaxime in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we expect this framework to have numerous applications in drug and protein design.

  15. Cost of Illness and Cost Containment Analysis Using Empirical Antibiotic Therapy in Sepsis Patients in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rano K. Sinuraya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze cost of illness (COI and cost containment analysis using empirical antibiotic therapy in sepsis patients with respiratory infection in a hospital in Bandung. A cross sectional method was conducted retrospectively. Data were collected from medical record of inpatients sepsis patients with respiratory infections with empirical antibiotic therapy ceftazidime-levofloxacin or cefotaxime-erythromycin. Direct and indirect cost were calculated and analyzed in this study. The result showed that the average COI for patients with combination ceftazidime-levofloxaxin was 13,369,055 IDR whereas combination of cefotaxime-erythromycin was 22,250,495 IDR. In summary, the COI empirical antibiotic therapy ceftazidime-levofloxacin was lower than cefotaxime-erythromycin. Cost containment using empirical antibiotic therapy ceftazidime-levofloxacin which without reducing the service quality was 8,881,440 IDR.

  16. Influence of human urine to antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli producing β-lactamase of different types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ž. Žagar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of human urine on the antibiotic susceptibilities of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains producing different types of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL. The study was performed on 26 ESBL negative strains of K. pneumoniae, 80 K. pneumoniae strains producing SHV-ESBLs (52-SHV-5, 31- SHV-2 and 7- SHV-12, 94 E. coli strains harbouring TEM- ESBLs and 14 E. coli strains possessing CTX-M group 1 β-lactamases. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxycillin alone and combined with clavulanate (co-amoxilcav, cephalexin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were performed in parallel in Mueller-Hinton broth and urine by broth microdilution method. With ESBL negative strains, urine increased MIC90 of amoxycillin alone and combined with clavulanate, cephalexin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Against SHV-5 producers, an increase in MIC90 was observed with cefotaxime, cefepime and ciprofloxacin when the test was performed in urine. SHV-2 producers showed elevated MIC90 of ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and cefepime in the presence of urine, in contrast to SHV-12 producers which displayed elevated MIC90 only for cefotaxime. Urine increased MIC90 of amoxycillin/clavulanate, ceftazidime and cefepime against CTX-M producers, and of amoxycillin/clavulanate, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime and ciprofloxacin for TEM producers. According to our results the activity of antibiotics used for the treatment of urinary tract infection could be overestimated by a standard in vitro testing. However, most of antibiotics used for the treatment of urinary tract infection achieve very high concentration in urine and that could abrogate the reduction of antimicrobial activity by biological fluid.

  17. Mutational Events in Cefotaximase Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases of the CTX-M-1 Cluster Involved in Ceftazidime Resistance ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Ângela; Cantón, Rafael; Coque, Teresa M.; Moya, Andrés; Baquero, Fernando; Galán, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    CTX-M β-lactamases, which show a high cefotaxime hydrolytic activity, constitute the most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) type found among clinical isolates. The recent explosive diversification of CTX-M enzymes seems to have taken place due to the appearance of more efficient enzymes which are capable of hydrolyzing both cefotaxime and ceftazidime, especially among the CTX-M-1 cluster. A combined strategy of in vitro stepwise evolution experiments using blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-3, and blaCTX-M-10 genes and site-directed mutagenesis has been used to evaluate the role of ceftazidime and other β-lactam antibiotics in triggering the diversity found among enzymes belonging to this cluster. Two types of mutants, P167S and D240G, displaying high ceftazidime MICs but reduced resistance to cefotaxime and/or cefepime, respectively, were identified. Such an antagonistic pleiotropic effect was particularly evident with P167S/T mutations. The incompatibility between P167S and D240G changes was demonstrated, since double mutants reduced susceptibility to both ceftazidime and cefotaxime-cefepime; this may explain the absence of strains containing both mutations in the clinical environment. The role of A77V and N106S mutations, which are frequently associated with P167S/T and/or D240G, respectively, in natural strains, was investigated. The presence of A77V and N106S contributes to restore a high-level cefotaxime resistance phenotype, but only when associated with mutations P167S and D240G, respectively. However, A77V mutation increases resistance to both cefotaxime and ceftazidime when associated with CTX-M-10. This suggests that in this context this mutation might be considered a primary site involved in resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. PMID:18443114

  18. Bacteremia and candidemia in hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, B; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Hovgaard, D;

    1988-01-01

    of coagulase-negative staphylococci was higher in the latter period while that of Staphylococcus aureus was lower. Of 67 strains of Enterobacteriaceae tested for an aminoglycoside, 6% were found to be resistant, whereas 8% of 48 Enterobacteriaceae strains were found to be cefotaxime resistant. Methicillin...

  19. Raoultella planticola bacteraemia secondary to gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta-Fernandez, S; Miralles-Linares, F; Sanchez-Simonet, M V; Bernal-Lopez, M R; Gomez-Huelgas, R

    2013-05-01

    We present the first case of Raoultella planticola bacteria in human infections with a direct relationship between fish intake and enteric infection. The patient was treated with antibiotherapy (cefotaxime). It is important to consider this organism in the differential diagnosis of enteric fever and even more with previous ingestion of fish.

  20. Faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among humans in Java, Indonesia, in 2001-2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severin, J.A.; Lestari, E.S.; Kloezen, W.; Lemmens-den Toom, N.; Mertaniasih, N.M.; Kuntaman, K.; Purwanta, M.; Duerink, D.O.; Hadi, U.; Belkum, A. van; Verbrugh, H.A.; Goessens, W.H.F.; Gardjito, W.; Kolopaking, E.P.; Wirjoatmodjo, K.; Roeshadi, D.; Suwandojo, E.; Rahardjo, E.; Tahalele, P.; Parathon, H.; Zairina, N.; Qibtiyah, M.; Isbandiati, E.; Deborah, K.; Alimsardjono, L.; Lusida, M.I.; Soejoenoes, A.; Riyanto, B.; Wahjono, H.; Adhisaputro, M.; Isbandrio, B.; Triwara, B.; Syoeib, J.; Wibowo, B.; Sofro, M.A.; Farida, H.; Hapsari, M.M.; Nugraha, T.L.; Broek, P van den; Gyssens, I.C.J.; Keuter, M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise commensal Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime that were collected in a large survey carried out among 3995 patients and healthy persons in two urban regions on Java, Indonesia, in 2001-2002. METHODS: The putative extended

  1. Antibiotikavalg ved purulent meningitis uden bakteriologisk diagnose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, H B

    1989-01-01

    A case of meningitis in a 16 month old boy caused by Hemophilus influenzae resistant to ampicillin is presented. The question is raised whether a third generation cephalosporin such as cefotaxime should be the drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial meningitis with unknown etiology...

  2. Shoot organogenesis in leaf explants of Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Hyd1’ and assessing genetic stability of regenerants using ISSR markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Huang, L.L.; Reinhoud, P.; Jongsma, M.A.; Wang, C.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, an in vitro regeneration protocol of Hydrangea macrophylla 'Hyd1' was developed. Effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on shoot regeneration were investigated jointly with selecting optimal basal media and cefotaxime concentrations. The highest frequency of shoot or

  3. Effect of ceftobiprole treatment on growth of and toxin production by Clostridium difficile in cecal contents of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerandzic, Michelle M; Donskey, Curtis J

    2011-05-01

    Ceftobiprole and ceftobiprole medocaril did not promote growth of or toxin production by Clostridium difficile in mouse cecal contents, whereas ceftazidime, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and ertapenem did. The relatively low propensity of ceftobiprole to promote C. difficile was attributable to inhibitory activity against C. difficile and sparing of anaerobic microflora.

  4. Effect of Ceftobiprole Treatment on Growth of and Toxin Production by Clostridium difficile in Cecal Contents of Mice▿

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Ceftobiprole and ceftobiprole medocaril did not promote growth of or toxin production by Clostridium difficile in mouse cecal contents, whereas ceftazidime, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and ertapenem did. The relatively low propensity of ceftobiprole to promote C. difficile was attributable to inhibitory activity against C. difficile and sparing of anaerobic microflora.

  5. Increased detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli isolates from poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Veldman, K.T.; Smith, H.E.; Mevius, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    To gain more information on the genetic basis of the rapid increase in the number of isolates exhibiting non-wild type Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for cefotaxime observed since 2003, beta-lactamase genes of 22 Salmonella enterica and 22 Escherichia coli isolates from broilers in 2006 sh

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Escherichia coli and salmonella isolated from diarrheic calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, A.R.M.I.H.; Rahman, M.M.; Islam, Md Zohorul;

    2014-01-01

    sensitivity was found towards Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacillin, Azithromycin and Cefotaxime. Serotyping was done by using specific antisera to identify variants of the somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens. Cultural and biochemical features also reveal the presence of pathogens in the diarrheic calves....

  7. Pharmacokinetics of cefetaxime in ICU-patients treated with continuous renal replacement : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk-Swinkels, C.G.H.; Rijpstra, T.A.; Van Der Meer, B.J.M.; Touw, D.J.; van't Veer, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Data on the optimal dosage of cefotaxime (CTX) in patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is sparse and equivocal [1]. We conducted a trial investigating the concentrations of CTX in general ICU and post-cardiac surgery ICU patients who were treated with CRRT bec

  8. Prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)-producing Escherichia coli in Danish slaughter pigs and retail meat identified by selective enrichment and association with cephalosporin usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Pedersen, Karl;

    2012-01-01

    with ceftriaxone (1 mg/L). ESC genotypes were detected using PCR, microtube array and sequencing. The MIC of cefotaxime was determined for 150 E. coli from the pigs and 606 E. coli from meat isolated without selective enrichment. RESULTS: Eleven percent (86/786) of slaughter pigs contained ESC E. coli...

  9. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from a Pork Processing Plant and Its Respective Meat Markets in Southern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Ye, Lei;

    2016-01-01

    ) being predominant (42.3%, 33/78). Antimicrobial resistance was most frequently observed for tetracycline (20.5%, 16/78), streptomycin (9.0%, 7/78), cefotaxime (7.7%, 6/78), and gentamicin (6.4%, 5/78). Multiple resistances occurred among 10.2% (8/78) isolates. All strains were sensitive to ampicillin...

  10. Identification of a group of Haemophilus influenzae penicillin-binding proteins that may have complementary physiological roles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malouin, F.; Parr, T.R. Jr.; Bryan, L.E. (Eli Lilly Company, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1990-02-01

    (35S)penicillin bound to different Haemophilus influenzae proteins in assays performed at 20, 37, or 42{degrees}C. Penicillin-binding proteins 3a, 3b, 4, and 4' formed a group characterized by their affinity for moxalactam, cefotaxime, and piperacillin. Penicillin-binding protein 4' showed specific properties that may reflect its complementary role in septation.

  11. Influence of penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility on the activity of third-generation cephalosporins against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, A; Giménez, M J; Robledo, O; Aguilar, L; Tarragó, D; Granizo, J J; Martín-Herrero, J E

    2008-01-01

    To study the influence of penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility on the activity of third-generation cephalosporins, 430 consecutive penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae 2007 isolates received in the Spanish Reference Pneumococcal Laboratory were tested. For comparative purposes, 625 penicillin-susceptible 2007 isolates were also tested. Susceptibility was determined by agar dilution using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood. Penicillin-susceptible strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, 99.8% to cefpodoxime and 99.5% to cefdinir, and were inhibited by 0.12 microg/ml of cefditoren and 4 microg/ml of cefixime. Penicillin-intermediate strains were susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, with Penicillin-resistant strains were resistant to cefdinir and cefpodoxime, with 74.8% and 94.1% susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, respectively. Cefditoren MIC(50)/MIC(90) (0.5/1 microg/ml) were lower than cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. Among amoxicillin non-susceptible strains, susceptibility to cefdinir and cefpodoxime was penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility, while parenteral third-generation cephalosporins exhibited higher intrinsic activity (MIC(90)=1 microg/ml for penicillin-resistant and 2 microg/ml for amoxicillin-resistant strains). Cefditoren exhibited one-dilution lower MIC(90) values for these strains, even against those of the most troublesome serotypes.

  12. Concentration-dependency of beta-lactam-induced filament formation in Gram-negative bacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, J.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Mouton, J.W.; Wagenvoort, J.H.T.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    Ceftazidime and cefotaxime are beta-lactam antibiotics with dose-related affinities for penicillin-binding protein (PBP)-3 and PBP-1. At low concentrations, these antibiotics inhibit PBP-3, leading to filament formation. Filaments are long strands of non-dividing bacteria that contain enhanced quant

  13. Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. lwoffi.

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberger, I. (Ingeburg); Davidson, E.; Rotenberg, Z; Fuchs, J; Agmon, J

    1987-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are uncommon etiologic agents of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Two patients with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. lwoffi prosthetic valve endocarditis are described. The patients were successfully treated with antibiotics (cefotaxime sodium and gentamicin sulfate); thus, we suggest medical treatment rather than early valve replacement in this particular type of infection.

  14. Influence of antibiotics on indirect organogenesis of Teak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Vagner Tambarussi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium is the largest method employed to transform woody plants. The bacterium is required to introduce the transgene into the plant nuclear genome. After transferring T-DNA to the plant cell, the bacteria affect plant growth negatively and have to be eliminated from plant tissue culture medium through the use of antibiotics. The effect of different antibiotics (timentin, cefotaxime and carbenicillin on in vitro shoot regeneration of teak (Tectona grandis L. f. was compared in hypocotyl, mature cotyledon and cotyledonary segments explants. Timentin and cefotaxime (100-300 mg l-1 did not affect shoot regeneration and the number of shoots per explant. Moreover, at these concentrations, the two antibiotics seem to stimulate shoot regeneration. Carbenicillin at a dosage of 300 mg l-1 as well as cefotaxime and timentin at a dosage of 500 mg l-1 induced abundant calli formation and inhibited regeneration. Our data show that cefotaxime and timentin (300 mg l-1 can be harmless to teak regeneration and can be used as bactericide agents during Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Tectona grandis. Furthermore, we discuss the effect of antibiotic degradation on plant morphogenesis and its effect on regeneration from different explants.

  15. Efficacy of amoxycillin-clavulanate in an experimental model of murine pneumonia caused by AmpC-non-hyperproducing clinical isolates of Escherichia coli resistant to cefoxitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docobo-Pérez, F; Fernández-Cuenca, F; Pachón-Ibáñez, M E; Pascual, A; Pichardo, C; Martínez-Martínez, L; Pachón, J

    2008-06-01

    The algorithms included in most automated systems used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (e.g., Vitek 2) consider that Escherichia coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin are AmpC-hyperproducers and, consequently, resistant also to amoxycillin-clavulanate. However, a recent study revealed that 30% of E. coli clinical isolates resistant to cefoxitin remained susceptible in vitro to amoxycillin-clavulanate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in-vivo efficacy of amoxycillin-clavulanate in the treatment of an experimental model of pneumonia, using two clonally related isolates (with identical repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence (REP)-PCR patterns) of AmpC-non-hyperproducing and OmpF-lacking E. coli (Ec985 and Ec571) that were resistant to cefoxitin and susceptible to cefotaxime and amoxycillin-clavulanate. MICs were determined using a microdilution technique, and in-vitro bactericidal activity was tested using time-kill assays. The in-vivo efficacy of amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime against both isolates was tested in a murine pneumonia model using immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. Ec571 (a TEM-1/2 producer) was resistant to amoxycillin, whereas Ec985 (a TEM-1/2 non-producer) was susceptible. Amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime were bactericidal for Ec985, and amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime were bactericidal for Ec571 at different concentrations and time-points, as determined using time-kill assays. Treatment with amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime reduced the bacterial lung concentration of Ec985 compared with non-treated controls (p AmpC-non-hyperproducing strains of E. coli resistant to cefoxitin.

  16. A two-component signal-transducing system is involved in competence and penicillin susceptibility in laboratory mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzi, E; Gasc, A M; Sicard, M A; Hakenbeck, R

    1994-05-01

    Penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has been attributed so far to the production of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) variants with decreased affinities for beta-lactam antibiotics. Cefotaxime-resistant laboratory mutants, selected after several steps on increasing concentrations of this beta-lactam, become deficient in transformation as well. A DNA fragment conferring both cefotaxime resistance and transformation deficiency was isolated and cloned from the mutant C306. The cefotaxime resistance associated with this resistance determinant was not accompanied with apparent changes in PBP properties, and it mapped on the chromosome distinct from the known resistance determinants, genes encoding PBP2x, PBP1a or PBP2b. Determination of a 2265 bp DNA sequence of the resistance determinant revealed two open reading frames, ciaR and ciaH, whose deduced amino acid sequence identified the corresponding proteins as the response regulator and histidine kinase receptor, respectively (members of the two families of bacterial signal-transducing proteins). Two hydrophobic peptide regions divided the histidine kinase CiaH into two putative domains: an N-terminal extracellular sensor part, and an intracellular C-terminal domain with the conserved His-226 residue, the presumed phosphorylation site. The single point mutations responsible for cefotaxime-resistance and transformation deficiency of C306 and of another two independently isolated cefotaxime-resistant mutants were each located in the C-terminal half of CiaH. A small extracellular protein, the competence factor, is required for induction of competence. Neither C306 nor the transformants obtained with the mutated ciaH gene produced competence factor, and exogenous competence factor could not complement the transformation deficiency, indicating that the signal-transducing system cia is involved in early steps of competence regulation.

  17. Efficacy of current guidelines for the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in the clinical practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefania Angeloni; Cinzia Leboffe; Antonella Parente; Mario Venditti; Alessandra Giordano; Manuela Merli; Oliviero Riggio

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To verify the validity of the International Ascites Club guidelines for treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in clinical practice.METHODS:All SBP episodes occurring in a group of consecutive cirrhotics were managed accordingly and included in the study.SBP was diagnosed when the ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count was>250 cells/mm3,and empirically treated with cefotaxime.RESULTS:Thirty-eight SBP episodes occurred in 32 cirrhotics (22 men/10 women;mean age:58.6±11.2 years).Prevalence of SBP,in our population,was 17%.Ascitic fluid culture was positive in nine (24%)cases only.Eleven episodes were nosocomial and 71%community-acquired.Treatment with cefotaxime was successful in 59% of cases,while 41% of episodes required a modification of the initial antibiotic therapy because of a less-than 25% decrease in ascitic PMN count at 48 h.Change of antibiotic therapy led to the resolution of infection in 87% of episodes.Among the cases with positive culture,the initial antibiotic therapy with cefotaxime failed at a percentage (44%) similar to that of the whole series.In these cases,the isolated organisms were either resistant or with an inherent insufficient susceptibility to cefotaxime.CONCLUSIOM:In clinical practice,ascitic PMN count is a valid tool for starting a prompt antibiotic treatment and evaluating its efficacy.The initial treatment with cefotaxime failed more frequently than expected.An increase in healthcare-related infections with antibiotic-resistant pathogens may explain this finding.A different first-line antibiotic treatment should be investigated.

  18. Effects of Antibiotics on Callus Growth and Shoot Regeneration of Sisal%抗生素对剑麻愈伤组织生长和植株再生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕梅; 李俊峰; 周文钊; 林映雪

    2013-01-01

    The dose response assay was performed to insight into the effects of kanamycin, hygromycin, cefotaxime, and carbenicillin on the callus growth, adventitious buds regeneration and root induction of sisal. The optimum concentrations of cefotaxime and carbenicillin inhibiting Agrobacterium was determined. The results showed that the callus growth and adventitious buds regeneration were greatly inhibited by hygromycin, followed by kanamycin, cefotaxime and carbenicillin. Root induction was inhibited by each of the four antibiotics, with the order of cefotaxime > kanamycin > carbenicillin > hygromycin. The growth of Agrobacterium was completely inhibited by 200 mg/L cefotaxime or carbenicillin. In conclusion, 100 mg/L kanamycin, 50 mg/L hygromycin, 200 mg/L cefotaxime or carbenicillin was recommended to screen transformed tissue in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sisal.%研究卡那霉素、潮霉素、头孢霉素和羧苄青霉素对剑麻愈伤组织生长、不定芽分化及生根的影响,并确定抑制农杆菌生长的头孢霉素、羧苄青霉素的质量浓度.结果表明:潮霉素明显抑制剑麻愈伤组织生长和不定芽分化,卡那霉素次之,头孢霉素和羧苄青霉素相对较小;4种抗生素均能抑制剑麻生根,其抑制效果依次为头孢霉素>卡那霉素>羧苄青霉素>潮霉素.头孢霉素和羧苄青霉素的浓度大于200 mg/L时,农杆菌生长完全被抑制.在筛选剑麻转化体时,卡那霉素和潮霉素的使用浓度分别以100、50 mg/L为宜,羧苄青霉素和头孢霉素的使用浓度均为200 mg/L.

  19. Cefodizime (HR 221) potentiation of human neutrophil oxygen-independent bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labro, M T; Amit, N; Babin-Chevaye, C; Hakim, J

    1987-03-01

    The enhanced bactericidal activity of human neutrophils induced by cefotaxime and cefodizime, two methoxy-imino-amino- 2-thiazolyl cephalosporins, is linked to the cell stimulation of oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent killing systems, respectively. Cefotaxime enhances both the killing and the oxidative response of neutrophils to opsonized particulate stimuli (bacteria for both activities and opsonized zymosan for the oxidative burst). These effects were not observed with non-opsonized particles (bacteria or zymosan) or soluble stimuli. On the contrary, cefodizime enhances killing of opsonized and non-opsonized bacteria by neutrophils regardless of treatment with phenylbutazone which blocks neutrophil oxidative metabolism. Cefodizime does not universally alter the oxidative burst induced by various stimuli, but has been shown to enhance the bactericidal activity of crude extracts of neutrophil granules. The data suggest that cefodizime and non O2-dependent killing systems of neutrophils cooperate in killing bacteria.

  20. Chromosome-Encoded Extended-Spectrum Class A β-Lactamase MIN-1 from Minibacterium massiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Bercot, Béatrice; Nordmann, Patrice; Drancourt, Michel; Poirel , Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Minibacterium massiliensis strain CIP107820 is a recently discovered waterborne Gram-negative rod isolated from hospital water samples. It harbors a chromosomally located gene encoding an Ambler class A extended-spectrum β-lactamase termed MIN-1, sharing 56%, 54%, and 51% amino acid identities with β-lactamases LUT-1, KPC-2, and CTX-M-2, respectively. β-Lactamase MIN-1 hydrolyzes penicillins, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, cefotaxime, and, less efficiently, cefepime, while ceftazidime and ca...

  1. Structural studies of the mechanism for biosensing antibiotics in a fluorescein-labeled β-lactamase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Kwok-Yin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-lactamase conjugated with environment-sensitive fluorescein molecule to residue 166 on the Ω-loop near its catalytic site is a highly effective biosensor for β-lactam antibiotics. Yet the molecular mechanism of such fluorescence-based biosensing is not well understood. Results Here we report the crystal structure of a Class A β-lactamase PenP from Bacillus licheniformis 749/C with fluorescein conjugated at residue 166 after E166C mutation, both in apo form (PenP-E166Cf and in covalent complex form with cefotaxime (PenP-E166Cf-cefotaxime, to illustrate its biosensing mechanism. In the apo structure the fluorescein molecule partially occupies the antibiotic binding site and is highly dynamic. In the PenP-E166Cf-cefatoxime complex structure the binding and subsequent acylation of cefotaxime to PenP displaces fluorescein from its original location to avoid steric clash. Such displacement causes the well-folded Ω-loop to become fully flexible and the conjugated fluorescein molecule to relocate to a more solvent exposed environment, hence enhancing its fluorescence emission. Furthermore, the fully flexible Ω-loop enables the narrow-spectrum PenP enzyme to bind cefotaxime in a mode that resembles the extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Conclusions Our structural studies indicate the biosensing mechanism of a fluorescein-labelled β-lactamase. Such findings confirm our previous proposal based on molecular modelling and provide useful information for the rational design of β-lactamase-based biosensor to detect the wide spectrum of β-lactam antibiotics. The observation of increased Ω-loop flexibility upon conjugation of fluorophore may have the potential to serve as a screening tool for novel β-lactamase inhibitors that target the Ω-loop and not the active site.

  2. Simultaneous determination of 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Sheng Wu; Jin Lan Zhang; Yan Ling Qiao; Yi Lin Wang; Zhi Rong Chen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was established and validated to determine the 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products, including 1 (ceftazidime), 2 (cefaclor), 3 (cefdinir), 4 (ampicillin), 5 (cefalexin), 6 (ceftezole), 7 (cefotaxim), 8 (cefradine), 9 (cefuroxime), 10 (cephazoline), 11 (cefathiamidine), 12 (cefoperazone), 13 (cafalotin), 14 (piperacillin).

  3. Etiologies of septic shock in a pediatric emergency department population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Nakia N; Patel, Binita; Williams, Eric A; Cruz, Andrea T

    2012-11-01

    Knowledge of pediatric sepsis etiologies is needed to optimize empiric therapy. A retrospective cross-sectional review of 428 children with clinically diagnosed sepsis found that 13% had lobar pneumonia, 12% bacteremia and 10% viral infections. No etiologies were found in 76%. Empiric antibiotic coverage of vancomycin/piperacillin-tazobactam/gentamicin for immunocompromised children and vancomycin/nafcillin/cefotaxime for previously healthy children would have covered all bacteremic children.

  4. Detection of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL E.coli) from chicken meat in Niigata Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are the enzymes which degrade oxyimino-cephalosporins such as cefotaxime and ceftazidime, and make the antibiotics ineffective. In the past decade, drug resistance derived from Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL E. coli) has been increasing dramatically worldwide. The ESBLs genes are located on plasmids that can be easily transferred between and within bacterial species. It is indicated the linkage of ESBL E. coli from the...

  5. In Vitro Activity of Telithromycin against Spanish Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates with Characterized Macrolide Resistance Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Morosini, María-Isabel; Cantón, Rafael; Loza, Elena; Negri, María-Cristina; Galán, Juan-Carlos; Almaraz, Felisa; Baquero, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    The susceptibilities to telithromycin of 203 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates prospectively collected during 1999 and 2000 from 14 different geographical areas in Spain were tested and compared with those to erythromycin A, clindamycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, penicillin G, cefotaxime, and levofloxacin. Telithromycin was active against 98.9% of isolates (MICs, ≤0.5 μg/ml), with MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited being 0.06 μg/ml, irrespective of the resistance genotype. The corre...

  6. Abundance and phenotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in faeces from healthy food animals after slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Miguel A; Teshager, Tirushet; Porrero, M A Concepción; García, María; Escudero, Esther; Torres, Carmen; Domínguez, Lucas

    2007-03-10

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is an increasing phenomenon but its quantitative estimation remains controversial. The classical resistance percentage approach is not well suited to detect either emergence or low levels resistance. One option is to shift the focus from strains to hosts. This approach is applied to test for phenotypic diversity associated with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (DSESC) in faecal Escherichia coli from healthy food animals in Spain. We performed E. coli enumeration in faecal samples of broilers (82 pooled samples) and pigs (80 pooled samples) at the slaughterhouse level, using Coli-ID plates alone and supplemented with cefotaxime at two levels (1 and 8 microg/ml). Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested by the agar diffusion method. Clustering was carried out using these numerical values and Ward and UPGMA methods. When using plates supplemented with 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime for DSESC E. coli detection, 93% (76/82) of broiler pooled samples and 36% (29/80) pig pooled samples tested positive. When using 8 microg/ml of cefotaxime, 67% (55/82) of broilers and 13% (10/80) of pigs were positive. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of this phenotype was low in both animal species (range 0-4.3%). Irrespective of the clustering method (Ward or UPGMA), a noticeable phenotypic diversity was detected, especially from the plates containing 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime. We concluded that: (a) E. coli with phenotype DSESC are common in broilers and pigs but are less frequent in pigs, and (b) the host approach is the most appropriate method for antimicrobial resistance assessment when null or very low levels of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are expected.

  7. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhoof, R.; Gordts, B; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1980-01-01

    The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents were tested with the Dynatech MIC 2000 system against 86 strains of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from human sources. The penicillins (penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin) had poor activity. Ampicillin and amoxycillin were equally active. Cefotaxime revealed a rather good activity. Erythromycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and furazolidone were the most active compounds. Two strains (2.3%) wer...

  8. Effect of clavulanic acid on the activities of ten beta-lactam agents against members of the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, F; Auger, F; Lacroix, J M

    1984-01-01

    Clavulanic acid reduced the MICs of amoxicillin, carbencillin , cefamandole, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cephalothin, and penicillin G, but not of cefoxitin or moxalactam, against 77 isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group, all rapidly beta-lactamase positive by the nitrocefin slide test. It had no effect on the susceptibilities of eight Bacteroides distasonis strains that were slowly beta-lactamase positive (18 h of incubation). PMID:6732233

  9. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility. PMID:3619428

  10. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility.

  11. High prevalence of fecal carriage of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in cats and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost eHordijk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy companion animals is limited. This pilot study describes the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC encoding genes in healthy cats and dogs, and cats and dogs with diarrhea. Twenty fecal samples of each group were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and in LB-enrichment broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime, which was subsequently inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. ESBL/AmpC genes were identified using the Check-Points CT103 micro array kit and subsequently by sequencing analysis. Chromosomal ampC promoter mutations were detected by PCR and sequencing analysis. From the healthy and diarrheic dogs, respectively 45% and 55% were positive for E. coli with reduced susceptibility for cefotaxime. From the healthy and diarrheic cats, the estimated prevalence was respectively 0% and 25%. One diarrheic cat was positive for both reduced susceptible E. coli and P. mirabilis. The ESBL/AmpC genes found in this study were mainly blaCTX-M-1, but also blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-52-StPaul, blaSHV-12 and blaCMY-2 were detected. This pilot study showed that the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy and diarrheic dogs, and diarrheic cats was relatively high. Furthermore the genes found were similar to those found in isolates of both human and food producing animal origin. However, since the size of this study was relatively small, extrapolation of the data to the general population of cats and dogs should be done with great care.

  12. 头孢噻肟钠致过敏反应的观察与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳华; 丁桂荣; 吴玺

    2001-01-01

    @@ 头孢噻肟钠致过敏反应临床并不多见,近5年来,我们遇到6例静脉应用头孢噻肟钠(Cefotaxime Sodium)发生过敏性反应的患者,均被及时发现,通过积极治疗和护理,全部治愈.

  13. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: Few additional points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj Jain

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a treatable complication of decompensated cirrhosis. Coagulopathy with evidence of hyperfibrinolysis or clinically evident disseminated intravascular coagulation precludes paracentesis. Alcoholic hepatitis with fever, leucocytosis and abdominal pain should be evaluated for SBP. Oral ofloxacin is as effective as parenteral cefotaxime in treatment of SBP except for inpatients with vomiting,encephalopathy, or renal failure. Albumin is superior to hydroxyethyl starch in treatment of SBP.

  14. Haemophilus parainfluenzae bacteremia associated with a pacemaker wire localized by gallium scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, G.S.; Calubiran, O.; Cunha, B.A. (Winthrop-Univ. Hospital, Mineola, NY (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A young woman with a history of sick sinus syndrome and placement of a permanent pacemaker 6 months before admission had fever and Haemophilus parainfluenzae bacteremia. A gallium scan localized the infection to the site of the pacemaker wire. Echocardiograms were negative for any vegetations. The patient responded to cefotaxime and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy. We believe that this is the first case of H. parainfluenzae bacteremia associated with a pacemaker wire and localized by gallium scan.

  15. Morganella morganii pericarditis 3 years after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for mantle cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Tao; Lecuit, Marc; Suarez, Felipe; Carbonnelle, Etienne; Viard, Jean-Paul; Dupont, Bertrand; Buzyn, Agnès; Lortholary, Olivier

    2006-11-01

    We report herein a case of Morganella morganii-associated acute purulent pericarditis that developed 3 years after allogenic bone marrow transplantation. The patient was successfully treated with surgical drainage and cefotaxime for 6 weeks. Splenectomy and immunosuppression for chronic GVH-D are likely to have favored the development of this rare infectious complication after BMT. M. morganii should be added to the list of bacteria causing purulent pericarditis, especially in immunocompromised hosts.

  16. An Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Strawberry cv. Camarosa by a Dual Plasmid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haddadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was applied to introduce the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in the pGreen0049 binary vector into strawberry cv. Camarosa. The in vitro regeneration system of strawberry leaves to be used in the transformation was optimized using different TDZ concentrations in MS medium. TDZ at 16 µM showed the highest percentage (100% of shoot formation and the highest mean number of shoots (24 produced per explant. Studies on the effects of different antibiotics, namely timentin, cefotaxime, carbenicillin and ampicillin, on shoot regeneration of strawberry leaf explants showed the best shoot regeneration in the presence of 300 mg/L timentin and 150 mg/L cefotaxime. Assessment of the different factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated-transformation of strawberry with the luciferase gene showed the highest efficiency of putative transformant production (86% in the treatment with no preculture, bacterial OD600 of 0.6 and the addition of 150 mg/L cefotaxime in the pre-selection and selection media. The presence of the luciferase gene in the plant genome was verified by the luciferase reporter gene assay, nested PCR amplification and dot blot of genomic DNA isolated from the young leaves of each putatively transformed plantlet.

  17. Potentialization of β-lactams with colistin: in case of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from children with urinary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Atya, Ahmed K; Drider-Hadiouche, Karima; Vachee, Anne; Drider, Djamel

    2016-04-01

    Five strains producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) bacteria, identified as Escherichia coli, were isolated from children with urinary infections hospitalized at Roubaix hospital in the north of France. The DNA genotypes of these non-nosocomial isolates were determined by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Further, their DNA plasmids content revealed the presence of two distinct plasmids for S1, S2, S3 and one plasmid for S4 and S5. The antibacterial susceptibility of these ESBL bacteria was tested mainly against antibiotics of β-lactams family. The ESBL producing bacteria were resistant to ticarcillin and cefotaxime but the combination of these antibiotics with colistin has dropped the MIC of ticarcillin below its breakpoint (isolates S2, S3 and S4), and has almost reached the breakpoint for cefotaxime (isolate S2). Thus, kill curves analyses carried out with only isolates S1 and S2, strengthened the bactericidal activity of the combinations of colistin-ticarcillin and colistin-cefotaxime against ESBL E. coli. Indeed, reduction of 3 log10 colony count were observed after 24 h of incubation.

  18. Cross-sectional study on prevalence and molecular characteristics of plasmid mediated ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli isolated from veal calves at slaughter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Hordijk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in cattle has been reported previously, however information on veal calves is limited. This study describes the prevalence and molecular characteristics of E. coli with non-wild type susceptibility to cefotaxime in veal calves at slaughter. METHODS: Faecal samples from 100 herds, 10 individual animals per herd, were screened for E. coli with non-wild type susceptibility for cefotaxime. Molecular characterization of ESBL/AmpC genes and plasmids was performed on one isolate per herd by microarray, PCR and sequence analysis. RESULTS: 66% of the herds were positive for E. coli with non-wild type susceptibility for cefotaxime. Within-herd prevalence varied from zero to 90%. 83% of E. coli producing ESBL/AmpC carried bla(CTX-M genes, of which bla(CTX-M-1, bla(CTX-M-14 and bla(CTX-M-15 were most prevalent. The dominant plasmids were IncI1 and IncF-type plasmids. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high prevalence of various bla(CTX-M producing E. coli was found in veal calves at slaughter. The genes were mainly located on IncI1 and IncF plasmids.

  19. In vitro activity of ceftobiprole and seven other antimicrobial agents against invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos Dueñas, E; Rodríguez-Avial, I; Picazo, J J

    2011-12-01

    The in vitro activity of ceftobiprole was compared with that of seven antimicrobial agents against invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from adult patients (>15 years old). Characterization of erythromycin-resistant strains and serotype distribution of all pneumococci were also evaluated. Seventy invasive S. pneumoniae strains were isolated from December 2007 to January 2009. Serotyping was carried out by Quellung reaction. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by broth microdilution (CLSI guidelines). The comparator agents were penicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin, clindamycin, telithromycin, tetracycline and moxifloxacin. Phenotypic characterization of macrolide resistance was performed by the double disk method. Macrolide resistance genes [erm(B) and mef(A/E)] and the promoter of erm(B) were detected by PCR. Twenty-five different serotypes were detected of which 87% were non-PCV7 types. The percentages of resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were 20%, 8.6% and 16%, respectively. A penicillin MIC ≥0.12 mg/L was observed in 14 of the 70 invasive pneumococci strains. The cefotaxime and ceftobiprole MIC(50)/MIC(90) of these 14 strains were 1/4 and 0.03/1 mg/L, respectively. Ceftobiprole showed higher in vitro activity than penicillin and cefotaxime with all isolates being inhibited by ≤1 mg/L. Its high in vitro activity should make ceftobiprole a very promising drug for the treatment of pneumococcal infections.

  20. Influences of antibiotics on plantlet regeneration via organogenesis in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wei; Latoya Harris; Ronald J. Newton

    2003-01-01

    Three antibiotics ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cefotaxime were evaluated for their effects on induction, growth, and differentiation of organogenic calli, as well as rooting of regenerated shoots of three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes. Of the antibiotics administered, cefotaxime maximally increased the frequency of callus formation and growth rate of organogenic calli, carbenicillin maximally increased the frequency of shoot regeneration and the average number of adventitious shoots per piece of organogenic callus, ampicillin maximally decreased the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots and mean number of roots per regenerated shoot, in comparison with antibiotic-free media. Compared with the control, ampicillin minimally increased the frequency of callus formation, cefotaxime minimally increased the frequency of shoot regeneration, and carbenicillin minimally decreased the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots in three loblolly pine genotypes tested. All three antibiotics increased the frequencies of callus formation and shoot regeneration, and reduced the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots suggested that the establishment of an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into loblolly pine need to select a suitable antibiotic. This investigation could be useful for optimizing genetic transformation of conifers.

  1. Association of Pattern of Bacteria Sensitivity During the Empirical Antibiotics Use to the Achievement of Clinical Outcome in Pediatric Patients with Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesara A. Gatera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is one of infectious diseases that require a comprehensive and effective effort in its treatment, including in the use of empirical antibiotics. The use of empirical antibiotics should be based on patterns of sensitivity toward bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of antibiotics based on the sensitivity patterns by clinical outcomes as the goal of treatment. This study was conducted in Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung in October–December 2013 using a retrospective cross-sectional study design. Secondary data were obtained from medical records during January 2011–December 2012. This study consisted of 24 patients with positive culture test and received antibiotic prescription. The results showed the percentage of the use of cefotaxime-ampicillin (37.5%, cefotaxime (33.3%, ceftriaxone (20.8%, and Ampicillin (8.4%. The most influential antibiotics for achieving clinical outcome using 95% confidence level is combination of cefotaxime-ampiciline (P=0.044 with 77.7% sensitivity level. This study suggested that the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity affected the clinical outcomes of pediatric patients with pneumonia.

  2. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of strawberry cv. Camarosa by a dual plasmid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Fatemeh; Aziz, Maheran Abd; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Tan, Soon Guan; Kamaladini, Hossein

    2015-02-23

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was applied to introduce the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in the pGreen0049 binary vector into strawberry cv. Camarosa. The in vitro regeneration system of strawberry leaves to be used in the transformation was optimized using different TDZ concentrations in MS medium. TDZ at 16 µM showed the highest percentage (100%) of shoot formation and the highest mean number of shoots (24) produced per explant. Studies on the effects of different antibiotics, namely timentin, cefotaxime, carbenicillin and ampicillin, on shoot regeneration of strawberry leaf explants showed the best shoot regeneration in the presence of 300 mg/L timentin and 150 mg/L cefotaxime. Assessment of the different factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated-transformation of strawberry with the luciferase gene showed the highest efficiency of putative transformant production (86%) in the treatment with no preculture, bacterial OD600 of 0.6 and the addition of 150 mg/L cefotaxime in the pre-selection and selection media. The presence of the luciferase gene in the plant genome was verified by the luciferase reporter gene assay, nested PCR amplification and dot blot of genomic DNA isolated from the young leaves of each putatively transformed plantlet.

  3. Clinical efficacy of meropenem in treatment of severe bacterial infections in premature infants%美罗培南临床治疗早产儿重症细菌感染的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾海红; 黄烈平; 王吉

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical efficacy of meropenem in treatment of the premature infants with se-vere bacterial infections so as to provide feasible drug therapy program for the treatment of the premature infants with severe bacterial infections.METHODS A total of 124 premature infants with severe bacterial infections,who were treated in the neonatal departments of Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Zhoushan from Jan 2011 to Dec 2013,were recruited as the study objects and divided into the meropenem group and the cefotaxime group accord-ing to the order of admission to the hospital,with 62 cases in each;the meropenem group was treated with mero-penem,and the cefotaxime group was given cefotaxime;the therapeutic effect and the bacterial clearance rate were observed and compared between the two groups,and the statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS13.0 software.RESULTS The cure rate was 67.74% in the meropenem group,45.16% in the cefotaxime group;the to-tal effective rate was 96.77% in the meropenem group,87.10% in the cefotaxime group;the total effective rate of bacterial clearance was 84.38% in the meropenem group,67.86% in the cefotaxime group,there were significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05);there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse re-actions between the two groups.CONCLUSION For the clinical treatment of the premature infants with severe bac-terial infections,meropenem can effectively eradicate pathogens,improve the clinical symptoms,and raise the therapeutic effect,it is worthy to be promoted in the hospital.%目的:探讨美罗培南治疗早产儿重症细菌感染的临床疗效,为治疗早产儿重症细菌感染提供可行性药物治疗方案。方法选取舟山市妇幼保健院新生儿科2011年1月-2013年12月124例早产重症细菌感染患儿为研究对象,按照患儿入院先后顺序分为美罗培南组和头孢噻肟组,各62例,头孢噻肟组患儿给予头孢噻肟

  4. Study on Screening the Concentration of Antibiotics of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Mediated Transformation in Populus%杨树农杆菌介导遗传转化中抗生素浓度的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯连荣; 张兴芬; 尹杰; 宋立志; 赵继梅; 彭儒胜; 矫丽曼; 张妍

    2014-01-01

    研究头孢噻肟钠、头孢曲松钠、头孢拉啶、头孢他啶4种头孢类抗生素对根癌农杆菌LBA4404和EHA105的抑制作用;以欧美杨111和盖杨组培苗为材料,研究卡那霉素(Km)对2种杨树叶片分化及茎段生根的影响,并分析头孢噻肟钠对欧美杨111叶片分化及茎段生根的影响。结果表明,头孢噻肟钠、头孢曲松钠和头孢他啶对LBA4404具有良好的抑菌效果,使用浓度为50 mg/L,其中头孢噻肟钠对农杆菌EHA105的抑菌效果最好,头孢拉啶抑菌效果较差。不同杨树品种对卡那霉素的耐受性差异不大,欧美杨111在叶片转化筛选培养时,使用浓度为10 mg/L,抗性芽生根阶段为20 mg/L;盖杨在叶片转化筛选培养时,卡那霉素使用浓度为20 mg/L,抗性芽生根阶段为25 mg/L,头孢噻肟钠对欧美杨111叶片分化和茎段生根影响不大。%The inhibitory effects of four antibiotics (Cefotaxime Sodium,Ceftriaxone Sodium,Cefradine, Ceftazidime)on Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 and EHA105 were analyzed.The tissue culture plantlets of P.×euramericana and P.×gaixianensis were chosen as the materials to study the effects of kanamycin on leaf dif-ferentiation and stem rhizogenesis of P.×euramericana and P.×gaixianensis.Besides,the effects of Cefotaxime Sodium on leaf differentiation and stem rhizogenesis of P.×euramericana also was analyzed.The result showed that Cefotaxime Sodium, Ceftriaxone Sodium, Ceftazidime had antibacterial effect on Agrobacterium tumefactions LBA4404,and the working concentration was 50 mg/L.Among them,the antibacterial effect of Cefotaxime Sodium was the best for Agrobacterium tumefactions EHA105,and the effect of Cefotaxime Sodium was the worse.The tol-erance of different Populus on kanamycin was similar.For P.×euramericana,the 10 mg/L concentration of kana-mycin was ideal to screen leaf differentiation culture,while the concentration was 20 mg/L in rooting

  5. TLA-1: a new plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J; Aguilar, C; Ayala, G; Estrada, M A; Garza-Ramos, U; Lara-Lemus, R; Ledezma, L

    2000-04-01

    Escherichia coli R170, isolated from the urine of an infected patient, was resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin but was susceptible to amikacin, cefotetan, and imipenem. This particular strain contained three different plasmids that encoded two beta-lactamases with pIs of 7.0 and 9.0. Resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole was transferred by conjugation from E. coli R170 to E. coli J53-2. The transferred plasmid, RZA92, which encoded a single beta-lactamase, was 150 kb in length. The cefotaxime resistance gene that encodes the TLA-1 beta-lactamase (pI 9.0) was cloned from the transconjugant by transformation to E. coli DH5alpha. Sequencing of the bla(TLA-1) gene revealed an open reading frame of 906 bp, which corresponded to 301 amino acid residues, including motifs common to class A beta-lactamases: (70)SXXK, (130)SDN, and (234)KTG. The amino acid sequence of TLA-1 shared 50% identity with the CME-1 chromosomal class A beta-lactamase from Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum; 48.8% identity with the VEB-1 class A beta-lactamase from E. coli; 40 to 42% identity with CblA of Bacteroides uniformis, PER-1 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and PER-2 of Salmonella typhimurium; and 39% identity with CepA of Bacteroides fragilis. The partially purified TLA-1 beta-lactamase had a molecular mass of 31.4 kDa and a pI of 9.0 and preferentially hydrolyzed cephaloridine, cefotaxime, cephalothin, benzylpenicillin, and ceftazidime. The enzyme was markedly inhibited by sulbactam, tazobactam, and clavulanic acid. TLA-1 is a new extended-spectrum beta-lactamase of Ambler class A.

  6. TLA-1: a New Plasmid-Mediated Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase from Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J.; Aguilar, C.; Ayala, G.; Estrada, M. A.; Garza-Ramos, U.; Lara-Lemus, R.; Ledezma, L.

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli R170, isolated from the urine of an infected patient, was resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin but was susceptible to amikacin, cefotetan, and imipenem. This particular strain contained three different plasmids that encoded two β-lactamases with pIs of 7.0 and 9.0. Resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole was transferred by conjugation from E. coli R170 to E. coli J53-2. The transferred plasmid, RZA92, which encoded a single β-lactamase, was 150 kb in length. The cefotaxime resistance gene that encodes the TLA-1 β-lactamase (pI 9.0) was cloned from the transconjugant by transformation to E. coli DH5α. Sequencing of the blaTLA-1 gene revealed an open reading frame of 906 bp, which corresponded to 301 amino acid residues, including motifs common to class A β-lactamases: 70SXXK, 130SDN, and 234KTG. The amino acid sequence of TLA-1 shared 50% identity with the CME-1 chromosomal class A β-lactamase from Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum; 48.8% identity with the VEB-1 class A β-lactamase from E. coli; 40 to 42% identity with CblA of Bacteroides uniformis, PER-1 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and PER-2 of Salmonella typhimurium; and 39% identity with CepA of Bacteroides fragilis. The partially purified TLA-1 β-lactamase had a molecular mass of 31.4 kDa and a pI of 9.0 and preferentially hydrolyzed cephaloridine, cefotaxime, cephalothin, benzylpenicillin, and ceftazidime. The enzyme was markedly inhibited by sulbactam, tazobactam, and clavulanic acid. TLA-1 is a new extended-spectrum β-lactamase of Ambler class A. PMID:10722503

  7. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric rods and pseudomonads isolated from the dental prostheses biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanrrangers Sales Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aspiration of oral bacteria leads to cardiac and respiratory infectious diseases and dentures can act as a reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms. Objective: To determine the occurrence and the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric rods and pseudomonads from the denture biofilm of 52 subjects at the Center for Dental Specialties of Sobral/ Ceara, Brazil. Material and Methods: Denture biofilm was collected and samples plated on MacConkey agar. The isolated bacterial colonies were identified using the BBL Crystal enteric/non-fermenter system. Antibiotic bacterial susceptibility was assessed by the disc diffusion method of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, doxycycline, tetracycline, tobramycin, imipenem, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of cefotaxime, tobramycin, doxycycline, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin was determined for 40 species by E-test. Results: 34 subjects (65.4% harbored enteric rods in their prostheses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (26.5%, Escherichia coli (23.5%, and Enterobacter aerogenes (23.5% were the most prevalent species. All organisms were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and most species were resistant to amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, demonstrating variable sensitivity patterns to other antimicrobials. However, the MIC showed the emergence of strains with reduced sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (MIC90≥3 μg/ mL and cefotaxime (MIC90≥2 μg/mL. Conclusion: The findings show high prevalence of nosocomial diseases-related bacterial species and low susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, these results imply caution against the indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics in dental practice.

  8. Regional outbreak of CTX-M-2 β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Abe, Michiko; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Okamoto, Ryoichi

    2012-12-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection. Wild-type P. mirabilis strains are usually susceptible to penicillins and cephalosporins, but occurrences of P. mirabilis producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been recently reported. Here, we surveyed the prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis strains at seven different hospitals in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and investigated their molecular epidemiology to explain the mechanism of their spread. The prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis increased annually, from 10.1 % in 1998 to 23.1 % in 2003, and increased drastically in 2004, exceeding 40 %. We collected 105 consecutive and non-duplicate cefotaxime-resistant P. mirabilis isolates (MIC 16 to >256 µg ml(-1)) from these hospitals from June 2004 to May 2005 and characterized their profile. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that all resistant strains produced exclusively CTX-M-2 β-lactamase. PFGE analysis identified 47 banding patterns with 83 % or greater similarity. These results indicated that a regional outbreak of P. mirabilis producing CTX-M-2 β-lactamase has occurred in Japan and suggest that the epidemic spread occurred within and across hospitals and communities by extended clonal strains. Plasmid analysis revealed that 44.8 % of plasmids harboured by bla(CTX-M-2) isolates had common profiles, encoding ISEcp1, IS26 and Int1, and belonged to incompatibility group T. Spread of the resistant isolates in Japan resulted from dissemination of narrow-host-range plasmids of the IncT group encoding bla(CTX-M-2). These findings indicate the rapidly developing problem of treating the species to prevent dissemination of ESBL producers.

  9. Antibiotic selection of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 in a mouse intestinal colonization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetius Hertz, Frederik; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2014-10-01

    The ability of different antibiotics to select for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli remains a topic of discussion. In a mouse intestinal colonization model, we evaluated the selective abilities of nine common antimicrobials (cefotaxime, cefuroxime, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and amdinocillin) against a CTX-M-15-producing E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) isolate with a fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype. Mice (8 per group) were orogastrically administered 0.25 ml saline with 10(8) CFU/ml E. coli ST131. On that same day, antibiotic treatment was initiated and given subcutaneously once a day for three consecutive days. CFU of E. coli ST131, Bacteroides, and Gram-positive aerobic bacteria in fecal samples were studied, with intervals, until day 8. Bacteroides was used as an indicator organism for impact on the Gram-negative anaerobic population. For three antibiotics, prolonged colonization was investigated with additional fecal CFU counts determined on days 10 and 14 (cefotaxime, dicloxacillin, and clindamycin). Three antibiotics (cefotaxime, dicloxacillin, and clindamycin) promoted overgrowth of E. coli ST131 (P organisms. Only clindamycin treatment resulted in prolonged colonization. The remaining six antibiotics, including ciprofloxacin, did not promote overgrowth of E. coli ST131 (P > 0.95), nor did they suppress Bacteroides or Gram-positive organisms. The results showed that antimicrobials both with and without an impact on Gram-negative anaerobes can select for ESBL-producing E. coli, indicating that not only Gram-negative anaerobes have a role in upholding colonization resistance. Other, so-far-unknown bacterial populations must be of importance for preventing colonization by incoming E. coli.

  10. Bacterial isolates and drug susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Sabrina J; Aboud, Said; Kasubi, Mabula; Maselle, Samuel Y

    2010-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy may cause complications such as pyelonephritis, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, anaemia, chronic renal failure, premature delivery and foetal mortality. This study aimed to identify the etiologic agents of UTI and to determine the patterns of antimicrobial drug susceptibility among pregnant women at Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Retrospective analysis of 200 mid-stream urine specimens processed for culture and antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing between January 2007 and December 2009 was carried out. Significant bacteriuria (> 105 colony forming units/mL of urine) was found in 42/200 (21%) specimens. Of the 42 isolates, the most commonly isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli 14 (33.3%), Klebsiella spp 9 (21.4%) coagulase negative Staphylococcus 7 (16.7%), Staphylococcus aureus 6 (14.3%), Proteus species 3 (7.1%) and Enterococcus species 3 (7.1%). Low rate to moderately high rate of antimicrobial drug resistance was observed against first line drugs namely, nitrofurantoin 18.7 % (n=16), co-trimoxazole 38.5 % (n=13) and ampicillin 57.7% (n=26). Relatively low rate of resistance was seen against second line drugs: ciprofloxacin 13.6 % (n=22) and amikacin 5 % (n=20). High rate of resistance was observed in third generation cephalosporin cefotaxime 31.2 % (n=16). Of the Gram-positive organisms tested against vancomicin and methicilin, resistance was found in 25 % (n=13) and 25 % (n=4), respectively. In conclusion, E coli was found to be the common cause of UTI among the pregnant women. Low to moderately high level of resistance was found in first line drugs while high level of resistance was found in third generation cephalosporin. It is recommended to monitor the levels of resistance for nitrofurantoin, fluoroquinolone and cefotaxime and to screen for Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase production among cefotaxime resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp.

  11. Synthesis, spectral, computational and thermal analysis studies of metallocefotaxime antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Mamdouh S; Ali, Alaa E; Elasala, Gehan S

    2015-01-01

    Cefotaxime metal complexes of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and two mixed metals complexes of (Fe,Cu) and (Fe,Ni) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectra, magnetic susceptibility and ESR spectra. The studies proved that cefotaxime may act as mono, bi, tri and tetra-dentate ligand through oxygen atoms of lactam carbonyl, carboxylic or amide carbonyl groups and nitrogen atom of thiazole ring. From the magnetic measurements and electronic spectral data, octahedral structures were proposed for all complexes. Quantum chemical methods have been performed for cefotaxime to calculate charges, bond lengths, bond angles, dihedral angles, electronegativity (χ), chemical potential (μ), global hardness (η), softness (σ) and the electrophilicity index (ω). The thermal decomposition of the prepared metals complexes was studied by TGA, DTA and DSC techniques. Thermogravimetric studies revealed the presence of lattice or coordinated water molecules in all the prepared complexes. The decomposition mechanisms were suggested. The thermal decomposition of the complexes ended with the formation of metal oxides and carbon residue as a final product except in case of Hg complex, sublimation occur at the temperature range 376.5-575.0 °C so, only carbon residue was produced during thermal decomposition. The orders of chemical reactions (n) were calculated via the peak symmetry method and the activation parameters were computed from the thermal decomposition data. The geometries of complexes may be converted from Oh to Td during the thermal decomposition steps.

  12. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric rods and pseudomonads isolated from the dental prostheses biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sanrrangers Sales; Ribeiro, Maximilo de Oliveira; Gomes, Francisco Isaac Fernandes; Chaves, Hellíada Vasconcelos; Silva, Antonio Alfredo Rodrigues e; Zanin, Iriana Carla Junqueira; Barbosa, Francisco Cesar Barroso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspiration of oral bacteria leads to cardiac and respiratory infectious diseases and dentures can act as a reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms. Objective: To determine the occurrence and the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric rods and pseudomonads from the denture biofilm of 52 subjects at the Center for Dental Specialties of Sobral/ Ceara, Brazil. Material and Methods: Denture biofilm was collected and samples plated on MacConkey agar. The isolated bacterial colonies were identified using the BBL Crystal enteric/non-fermenter system. Antibiotic bacterial susceptibility was assessed by the disc diffusion method of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, doxycycline, tetracycline, tobramycin, imipenem, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of cefotaxime, tobramycin, doxycycline, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin was determined for 40 species by E-test. Results: 34 subjects (65.4%) harbored enteric rods in their prostheses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (26.5%), Escherichia coli (23.5%), and Enterobacter aerogenes (23.5%) were the most prevalent species. All organisms were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and most species were resistant to amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, demonstrating variable sensitivity patterns to other antimicrobials. However, the MIC showed the emergence of strains with reduced sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (MIC90≥3 μg/ mL) and cefotaxime (MIC90≥2 μg/mL). Conclusion: The findings show high prevalence of nosocomial diseases-related bacterial species and low susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, these results imply caution against the indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics in dental practice. PMID:27812616

  13. Prevalence of Extended –Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella Pneumonia Isolates from Clinical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizade, H. (MSc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Klebsiella pneumonia (K.pneumonia is one of the common causes of nosocomial infections. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of beta-lactamase genes and phenotypic confirmation of extended–spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL producing K.pneumonia isolates from clinical samples. Material and Methods: In this study, 122 K.pneumonia were isolated from clinical specimens of Khoramabad city and were confirmed by standard bacteriological tests. The presence of ESBL enzymes was detected by combined disk diffusion method. PCR assay with specific primers was used to determine blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-15 and blaCTX-M genes in the confirmed isolates. Results: of 122 K.pneumonia isolates, 78 (64.18% were positive for ESBL, using disk diffusion method. According to antibiogram results, 10.65% of isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, 3.27% to ceftazidime and 68.03% to both antibiotics. Ninety isolates (64.18% considered as ESBLs isolates, at the same time, with being resistant to cefotaxime and ceftazidime were also sensitive to cefotaxime-clavulanic acid and ceftazidime-clavulanic acid. In PCR assays, blaCTX-15, blaSHV, blaCTX-M and blaTEM genes were detected in 78.68%, 40.16%, 26.22% and 22.13% of isolates, respectively. Ten resistant patterns of genes were detected. Conclusion: The significance percentage of antibiotic resistant genes of K.pneumonia isolates from clinical samples in Khoramabad city had ESBLs genes; CTX-M category was the most prevalent encoding genes of these enzymes. Keywords: Klebsiella Pneumonia, Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase, Antibiotic Resistance

  14. Case Fatality among Patients Hospitalized for Community-acquired Pneumonia according to Initial Antibiotic Treatment. A Comparison of Two Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Corona Martínez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: community-acquired pneumonia is one of the major health problems worldwide and in the hospital of Cienfuegos.Objective: to determine the changes in the relationship between the type of antimicrobial agent used empirically at admission and case fatality for community-acquired pneumonia in two case series designed at different times.Methods: an observational, descriptive study was conducted to compare two case series of patients hospitalized due to the condition under study. The relationship between the antimicrobial agents selected (amoxicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime and case fatality was analyzed taking into account potentially confounding variables. In the statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions, and Fisher's exact test was applied, with a 95% confidence level (p <.05. Results: in the two case series, the same pattern was observed in terms of the antimicrobial agents associated with the lowest and highest case fatality: cefuroxime and cefotaxime, respectively. In contrast to the A series, the B series showed a more uniform behavior of case fatality with the use of the antimicrobials selected, which meant a considerable reduction in case fatality among patients treated initially with third-generation cephalosporins in the B series. In this sense, the most significant impact on case fatality was observed in patients receiving ceftriaxone.Conclusions: cefuroxime remains the initial empirical antimicrobial agent associated with the lowest case fatality among patients with community-acquired pneumonia. In the second case series, a clear reduction in case fatality was found in patients treated with ceftriaxone and cefotaxime.

  15. [Sensitivity of Kingella kingae to antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prère, M F; Seguy, M; Vezard, Y; Lareng, M B

    1986-06-01

    Kingella kingae is a small Gram negative rod of the Neisseriaceae family, formerly called Moraxella kingae. This microorganism is found occasionally in the oral cavity and is capable of causing infections. We report three cases of septic arthritis in children due to K. kingae. In vitro susceptibility of the recovered strains was tested using determination of MICs in agar. The strains were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and pefloxacin, less susceptible to erythromycin and resistant to lincomycin (MIC 32 mg/l).

  16. [Bilateral peripheral facial paralysis secondary to Lyme disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapater Latorre, E; Castillo Ruiz, A; Alba García, J R; Armengot Carceller, M; Sancho Rieger, J; Basterra Alegría, J

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral facial paralisis (SBFP) occurs in 0.3-2% of all facial paralisis. We report a case of SBFP in association with Lyme disease. A review of literature about SBFP is made, studing specially the one caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. We present a diagnostic guideline of SBFP. Suspect diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on clinical and epidemiological criteria. Culture isolation of this bacteria is difficult, therefore serologic testing is required. Neuroborreliosis treatment is intravenous Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime. Oral Doxycycline is useful in the treatment of neuritis without central nervous system involvement.

  17. A comparative study of capillary zone electrophoresis and pH-potentiometry for determination of dissociation constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasi, Melinda; Buglyo, Peter; Zekany, Laszlo; Gaspar, Attila

    2007-09-03

    Acidity constants of six cephalosporin antibiotics, cefalexin, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefotaxim, cefoperazon and cefoxitin are determined using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and pH-potentiometric titrations. Since CZE is a separation method, it is not necessary for the samples to be of high purity and known concentration because only mobilities are measured. The effect on determination of dissociation constants of different matrices (serum, 0.9% NaCl, fermentation matrix) was examined. The advantages of CZE can be utilized in those fields where potentiometry has limitations (sample quantity, solubility, purity, simultaneous determinations), although pK(a) values that are close to each other can be determined by potentiometry with more accuracy.

  18. Facile eco-friendly synthesis of novel chromeno[4,3-b]pyridine-2,5-diones and evaluation of their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satyanarayana Reddy Jaggavarapu; Anand Solomon Kamalakaran; Ventkata Prasad Jalli; Sravan Kumar Gangisetty; Munusswamy Ramanujam Ganesh; Gopikrishna Gaddamanugu

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and facileaccess to novel chromeno[4,3-b]pyridine-2,5-dione derivatives was achieved by a mild base catalysed reaction of 4-chloro-3-formylcoumarin and acetoacetamides in PEG-300 as recyclable solvent. The compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against 3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia) with Cefotaxime control. They were further subjected to antioxidant studies using DPPH test with ascorbic acid control. While compounds 5d and 5k showed promising broad spectrum antibacterial properties against all the evaluated bacteria, compound 5g exhibited good antioxidant properties.

  19. 3 Certain Shell Hospital Inpatient Antibiotic Uses are Analysed%某三甲医院住院病人抗生素利用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟卿

    2002-01-01

    Objective We appraise the application condition of 3 certain shell hospital antibiotics. Methods According to medicine, we use research method. As the 280 certain courtyard regular inpatients of May 2001 use the condition of antibiotic,investigate. With the survey that DDD studies as medicine use, we worth. Is judgement doctor with DUI reasonable use the standard of medicine? Results 185 examples are used antibiotic, take 66.07%. With penicillins, Quinolones and Aminoglycosides use count frequently highest. Before locating in, 5 antibiotics are in proper order. Penicillin G, Clindamycin,Amikacin, Sodium Cefotaxime, and Ciprofloxacin. Conclusions The most antibiotic DUI ≤ 1, whole, the application ofantibiotic is reasonable.

  20. In-vitro activity of 21 antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Brussels.

    OpenAIRE

    Gordts, B; Vanhoof, R; Hubrechts, J M; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1982-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 21 antimicrobial agents was measured for 80 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Brussels in 1978. Bimodal distributions were found for penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin, and cephalexin. Of the strains, 17.5% were relatively resistant to penicillin G (MIC greater than 0.08 microgram/ml) 27.5% to ampicillin (MIC greater than 0.16 microgram/ml), 23.8% to amoxycillin, and 43.3% to carbenicillin. Cefotaxime was the most act...

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis strains from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga Mária; Makrai, László; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Fodor, László; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-06-01

    The susceptibility of 29 Bacillus anthracis strains, collected in Hungary between 1933 and 2014, was tested to 10 antibiotics with commercially available minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test strips. All strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, penicillin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. Intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin and cefotaxime was detected in 17.2% (5/29) and 58.6% (17/29) of the strains, respectively. Correlations were not observed between the isolation date, location, host species, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility profile of strains.

  2. Effect of apple cider vinegar on the healing of experimentally–induced wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Standard wounds were made in the backs of 18 rabbits. The rabbits were then divided into 6 equal groups. Rabbits of group (1), constituted a control group and their wounds were treated with physiological saline solution. In group (2), the wounds were treated with Cefotaxime at a concentration of 500 mg. Wounds of the third, fourth, and fifth groups were treated with 5%, 3.75%, and 2.5% apple cider vinegar respectively. Wounds of the sixth groups of rabbits were treated with a combination of e...

  3. Evaluation of Methods for AmpC Beta-Lactamase in Gram Negative Clinical Isolates from Tertiary Care Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal S; Mathur T; Khan S; Upadhyay D; Chugh S; Gaind R; Rattan A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to simultaneously screen for Extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBL) and AmpC b-lactamases in gram negative clinical isolates from four tertiary care hospitals and further to compare two detection methods three-dimensional extraction method and AmpC disk test for AmpC b-lactamases. A total of 272 isolates were screened for ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase by modified double disk approximation method (MDDM). Synergy observed between disks of ceftazidime/cefotaxime a...

  4. 头孢噻肟钠与常用注射液配伍的稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭才宏

    2004-01-01

    头孢噻肟钠(Cefotaxime sodium,CTX)为第三代半合成头孢菌素类抗生素,具有广谱、高效、耐酶等特点。随着临床上应用头孢噻肟钠注射液越来越广泛,其与其他注射液配伍变化亦逐步引起人们重视,就CTX与常用注射液配伍稳定性问题做一简述,为临床合理用药提供参考。

  5. Study of volatile compounds from the radiosterilization of solid cephalosporins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbarin, N.; Crucq, A.S.; Tilquin, B. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    The use of {gamma}-rays is a promising method to sterilize thermosensitive drugs. Although radiosterilization does not modify drugs activity, this mode of sterilization produces new radiolytic products. This study is devoted to the analysis of volatile compounds which may induce a modification of odour. The volatile compounds produced by radiolysis of cefotaxime, cefuroxime and ceftazidime, three cephalosporins, were analyzed by gas chromatography with a headspace sampling. They were detected and identified by mass and infrared spectrometry. An explanation of their origin is proposed. (Author).

  6. A STUDY OF LABORATORY PROFILE OF NEONATAL SEPSIS AT NICU (SNCU, WARANGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Of the 130 million babies born worldwide each year, 26 million are born in India alone. Four million babies die with in first 30 days of birth and another four million are stillborn. Newborn mortality represents 40% of all deaths of children less than five years of age. Of the four million deaths each year, nearly 98% occur in developing countries. Globally major causes of neonatal deaths are due to preterm births (28%, sepsis or pneumonia (26% and birth asphyxia (23%. Neonatal sepsis is one of the commonest causes of neonatal deaths in the developing world accounting to 30-50% of all neonatal deaths per year. The present study is intended to help the practising paediatrician to accurately diagnose the sepsis early using the specific laboratory tests and avert the progression of the disease. METHODS It is an observational cross-sectional study in NICU, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital. The study was conducted in the period November 2013 to October 2014. After admission, detailed history and thorough clinical examination was done. Required data was entered in a pre-set proforma and statistical analysis was done. Blood culture was sent. Bacterial culture and sensitivity was checked. RESULTS In proven sepsis, 50.25% were Gram-positive, 43.65% were Gram-negative and 6.09% were fungal sepsis Candida. Klebsiella (32.48% was the most common organism followed by Coagulase positive Staphylococcus (25.38% and CONS (20.81%. In this study, Gram-negative sepsis was more common in preterm and Gram-positive sepsis was more common in term neonates. Early onset sepsis was the common presentation of proven sepsis, Klebsiella was common organism causing EOS. Whereas CONS was commonest causing late onset sepsis. Among Gram-negative organisms, 58.1% and 27.9% were resistant to cefotaxime and ampicillin+sulbactam respectively. Among Gram-positive isolates, 35% and 22% were resistant to cefotaxime and ampicillin+sulbactam respectively. Klebsiella, most

  7. 头孢噻肟钠与鱼腥草、鱼金注射液配伍的稳定性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海兰; 郑光浩; 孙良鹏

    2007-01-01

    头孢噻肟钠(cefotaxime sodium,CTX)是一种对β-内酰胺酶稳定的第三代杀菌型头孢菌素,临床常与不同药物配伍后静脉给药。模拟临床用药条件考察头孢噻肟钠与鱼腥草、鱼金注射液配伍在输液中的稳定性。现报道如下。

  8. [Fatal neonatal sepsis caused by vertical transmission of Morganella morganii. Report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, Alfredo; Martínez, M Angélica; Kakarieka, Elena; García, Mirna; Salinas, Abril

    2009-09-01

    We report a term neonate who developed early-onset sepsis due to Morganella morganii. The child was vaginally delivered after a short labor, and presented signs of perinatal asphyxia. Blood cultures taken soon after birth and from mother's lochia were positive for this microorganism. The infection was unresponsive to treatment with cefotaxime, to which the microorganism was susceptible, and the infant died at 17 days of age. M morganii is an opportunistic and uncommon pathogen, causing disease mainly in patients with underlying illness or after surgery. It is a rare perinatal pathogen, causing severe disease in premature infants, in association with maternal chorioamnionitis and premature rupture of the membranes.

  9. ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius

    antibiotics can select for the ESBL-producing E.coli, even anti-Grampositive antibiotics as dicloxacillin and clindamycin showed selective abilities. While dicloxacillin has no effect on anaerobic Gram-negatives, this is the case for clindamycin. The selective abilities of other beta-lactam antibiotics varied......, with selection identified by cefotaxime, cefuroxime and penicillin. The triple-case control study showed that exposure to antibiotics is not a good predictor for risk of UTI with ESBL-producing E.coli. There were few differences between the case groups when compared to the uninfected group. However, when case...

  10. Preincubation of pneumococci with beta-lactams alone or combined with levofloxacin prevents quinolone-induced resistance without increasing intracellular levels of levofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottagnoud, Philippe; Johnson, Maggie; Cottagnoud, Marianne; Piddock, Laura

    2005-08-01

    Preincubation of pneumococci with sub-MIC concentrations of ceftriaxone (1/16x MIC), cefotaxime (1/8x MIC), and meropenem (1/4x MIC) alone or combined with levofloxacin (1/8x MIC) over 6 h prevents the emergence of levofloxacin-resistant mutants after 96 h of incubation but does not affect the intracellular accumulation of levofloxacin in two penicillin-resistant pneumococcal strains, suggesting a link between the mechanism of action of beta-lactams and the emergence of quinolone-induced resistance in pneumococci.

  11. Multiresistant bacterial infections in liver cirrhosis: Clinical impact and new empirical antibiotic treatment policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, important changes have been reported regarding the epidemiology of bacterial infections in liver cirrhosis. There is an emergence of multiresistant bacteria in many European countries and also worldwide, including the United States and South Korea. The classic empirical antibiotic treatment (third-generation cephalosporins, e.g., ceftriaxone, cefotaxime or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid) is still effective in infections acquired in the community, but its failure rate in hospital acquired infections and in some health-care associated infections is high enough to ban its use in these settings. The current editorial focuses on the different epidemiology of bacterial infections in cirrhosis across countries and on its therapeutic implications. PMID:25954474

  12. Meningitis Due to Ampicillin-and Chloramphenicol-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae Type B in Canada. Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kabani

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The first report of a case of ampicillin- and chloramphenicol-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b invasive infection in Canada is described in a four-month-old male with meningitis. He was treated with cefotaxime 200 mg/kg/day divided every 6 h and dexamethasone 0.6 mg/kg/day divided every 6 h, eventually recovering after a complicated course. Follow-up at 21 months showed mild to moderate global developmental delay. While chloramphenicol resistance is rare in North America, a case of meningitis initially unresponsive to ampicillin and chloramphenicol must be considered suspect for resistance. Third generation cephalosporins should be used for resistant cases.

  13. Brodie's abscess of medial distal femoral condyle after a thorn prick: rare clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Hira-L; Kancherla, Ramprasad; Malpura, Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Thorn prick injuries are generally conceded frivolous and rarely demand medical attention. Howbeit deep seated injuries are well described in the literature. We presented a case of thorn prick injury to the knee that manifested as Brodie's abscess of the medial distal femoral condyle and synovitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography could only construe the affliction but not spot the thorn. Arthrotomy was undertaken for exploration and debridement. Empirical therapy with initial systemic Cefotaxime and subsequent Ofloxacin worked well after the surgery. Deep seated injuries by a thorn prick may take a protracted and torpid course. Thorough curettage of the bony lesion and debridement are vital for proper manage- ment.

  14. Effect of apple cider vinegar on the healing of experimentally–induced wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Alawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard wounds were made in the backs of 18 rabbits. The rabbits were then divided into 6 equal groups. Rabbits of group (1, constituted a control group and their wounds were treated with physiological saline solution. In group (2, the wounds were treated with Cefotaxime at a concentration of 500 mg. Wounds of the third, fourth, and fifth groups were treated with 5%, 3.75%, and 2.5% apple cider vinegar respectively. Wounds of the sixth groups of rabbits were treated with a combination of equal amounts of Cefotaxime and apple cider vinegar 3.75%. All of the wounds were infected with various isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the time of infected. Wound treatment was done each 48 hours until complete healing. Results of this study indicated that using apple cider vinegar 3.75% gave results similar to those obtained by using the antibiotic (same rates of bacterial reduction. However, using a combination of equal amounts of apple cider vinegar and the antibiotic lead to more rapid and more better healing than using each one of them alone.

  15. Antibiotics Profile of Klebsiella pneumonia, Araad Hospital.Tehran.2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Molaabaszadeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background and objective: Today, the resistance to antibiotics among of pathogen bacteria is one of the main concerns of doctors all around the world, with consideration to different reports about Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria’s sensitivity, this study was done to examine the pattern of sensitivity and antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains collected from clinical samples of patients hospitalized in Tehran’s Araad hospital. Materials and methods: In this descriptive examination, after extracting Klebsiella pneumoniae derivations from clinical samples (urine, catheter, phlegm, blood, wound and bronchial, their sensitivity was measured using standard Kirby-Bauer test, in contract with following antibiotics Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Imipenem, Sulfametoxazole Trimetoprime, Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime. Results: Most of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated were from urine samples every three years and the lowest of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from bronchial samples. The most amount of sensibility to Cefotaxime, Imipenem and Amikacin and the most amount of resistant were seen to Gentamicin, Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: The results of this study are indicating that Klebsiella pneumoniae strains resistance has increased against Gentamicin, Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin; presumably it is due to excessive consumption of these antibiotics. It is obvious that, with regard to increasing consumption of antibiotics, and consequently, augmentation of antibacterial resistance, control of this resistance factor is necessary and inevitable, so it is recommended to avoid unnecessary usage of antibiotics.

  16. Protective effects of cisternal irrigation on leptomeningeal and cortical structures in meningitis: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Meningitis, termed as foreign material collection in the subarachnoid space, leads to various meningeal, cerebral and spinal cord pathologies. Meningitis still remains a problematic disease with severe complications in spite of advanced medical technology. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of cisternal irrigation in the prevention of meningitis complications. SETTING AND STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study was done in the Social Security Hospital of Erzurum. Histopathological specimens were evaluated in the Pathology Department in the Ataturk University Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on twelve lambs. Experimental meningitis was achieved with streptococcus pneumonia. Two animals were not treated. Ten animals were given CefotaximeR (4x1 g/day for 20 days, and additionally half of these animals underwent cisternal irrigation. Then, all animals were sacrificed and brains were observed histopathologically. RESULTS: Massive purulent CSF formation, hemorrhagic cortical lesions, vascular congestion, leptomeningeal and cortical adhesions and brain edema were observed in the non-irrigated group, but these findings were observed slightly or absent in the irrigated group. CONCLUSION: Meningitis can affect all central neural tissues, consequently serious central nervous system lesions may develop. The irrigation procedure may decrease the percentage and severity of meningitis complications by way of the excretion of inflammed purulent collection from the subarachnoid spaces.

  17. Structural insight into mode of binding of Meropenem to CTX-M-15 type β-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam, Lubna; Khan, Asad U

    2017-03-01

    Among Enterobacteriaceae, CTX-M type extended spectrum beta lactamase confers potent hydrolytic activity against cephalosporin group of antibiotics. Strains producing CTX-M type beta lactamase enzymes, show high level of resistance against cefotaxime. Therefore carbapenem antibiotics are used against beta lactamase producing strains. Hence, this study was designed to understand an insight of molecular basis of CTX-M-15 interaction with meropenem, and its effect on CTX-M-15 efficiency. Clinical strain of Enterobacter cloacae (EC-15) was used to clone blaCTX-M-15 gene in E.coli BL21cells. The protein was then expressed and purified. Results showed that CTX-M-15 producing strains are susceptible to meropenem. It quenches the fluorescence of CTX-M-15 spontaneously with binding constant of the order of 10(3)M(-1). Meropenem binds on the active site of CTX-M-15, hydrogen bonded with four common amino acid residues of cefotaxime binding site, as revealed by molecular docking studies. Conformational change in the structure of CTX-M-15 was observed upon meropenem binding by CD spectroscopy. The catalytic efficiency of CTX-M-15 was decreased up to 4 times upon meropenem binding. Docking study shows that few amino acids of active site of enzyme are also involved in meropenem binding, hence substrate is difficult to bind on active site properly and does not get hydrolysed. Moreover, meropenem binding induces structural changes in CTX-M-15, making the enzyme less efficient.

  18. Bacteriological study of pyoderma with special reference to antibiotic susceptibility to newer antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadage D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred and forty-two cases of pyoderma were investigated to study bacterial aetiology and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Of these 65.87% cases were of primary pyoderma and the rest were of secondary pyoderma. Maximum cases were of impetigo (38.78% followed by folliculitis (12.92%, furunculosis (2.95%, ecthyma (3.5%, carbuncle (1.5% and sycosis barbae (0.4%. Secondary pyoderma constituted infected trophic ulcer (18.82%, infected pemphigus (7.2%, infected contact dermatitis (6.27%, and infected scabies (1.8%. Single organism was isolated from 46.9% cases and more than one type of organisms in 65.46% of cases. No organism was isolated in 5% of cases. Staphylococcus (67.34% was the predominant species isolated followed by beta-haemolytic streptococcus (21.77%. Maximum strains of Staph. aureus were susceptible to amikacin (75%, co-trimoxazole (72%, cefotaxime (65%, chloramphenicol (62%, ciprofloxacin (61% and clindamycin (61%. There was low susceptibility to cephaloridin (11%, gentamicin (12% and penicillin (21%. Streptococcus betahaemolyticus was highly sensitive to most of the antibiotics and less sensitive to cefotaxime (7%, co-trimoxazole (11% and penicillin (27%. Most of the strains were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics.

  19. Filter paper inhibits in vitro protocorm-like body formation in hybrid Cymbidium and reduces synseed germination, but buffers the negative impact of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIXEIRA DA SILVA JAIME A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies in the plant tissue culture literature have examined the impact of filter paper on in vitro plant organogenesis. In this study, using a model plant, hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’, the impact of a single or double layer of Advantec #2 or Whatman #1 filter paper on new protocorm-like body (neo-PLB formation on Teixeira Cymbidium (TC medium was examined for half-PLBs (transgenic and non-transgenic, PLB-derived transverse thin cell layers (tTCLs, and PLB synseeds. In addition, the response of half-PLBs or tTCLs to two antibiotics (kanamycin and cefotaxime, commonly used in plant genetic transformation studies was investigated either directly on gelled medium or on filter paper-overlaid medium. Filter paper negatively affected most growth and developmental parameters of all the explants tested, both transgenic and non-transgenic. A double sheet of filter paper had a significantly (P ≤ 0.05 more negative impact than a single sheet, relative to the control values (i.e., no filter paper. Kanamycin inhibited neo-PLB formation on TC medium, the negative impact being greater on a single layer than on a double layer of filter paper, i.e., filter paper buffered the growth-inhibiting characteristics of kanamycin. Up to 100 mg/l, cefotaxime showed no apparent negative effects on neo-PLBs formation and growth, although hyperhydricity was observed when filter paper was not used.

  20. A Galleria mellonella infection model reveals double and triple antibiotic combination therapies with enhanced efficacy versus a multidrug-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezdorn, Jessica; Adams, Sophie; Coote, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the inhibitory effect of antibiotic combinations in vitro with efficacy in Galleria mellonella larvae in vivo to identify efficacious combinations that target Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa NCTC 13437, a multidrug-resistant strain resistant to β-lactams and aminoglycosides, was used. Susceptibility to cefotaxime, piperacillin, meropenem, amikacin, levofloxacin and colistin alone, or in dual or triple combinations, was measured in vitro via a 24 h time-kill assay. In vitro results were then compared with the efficacy of the same dual or triple antibiotic combinations versus G. mellonella larvae infected with P. aeruginosa. G. mellonella haemolymph burden of P. aeruginosa was determined over 96 h post-infection and treatment with the most potent combination therapies. Many dual and triple combinations of antibiotics displayed synergistic inhibition of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa in vitro. There was little correlation between combinations that were synergistic in vitro and those that showed enhanced efficacy in vivo versus infected G. mellonella larvae. The most potent dual and triple combinations in vivo were cefotaxime plus piperacillin, and meropenem plus piperacillin and amikacin, respectively. Fewer combinations were found to offer enhanced therapeutic benefit in vivo compared with in vitro. The therapeutic benefit arising from treatment with antibiotic combinations in vivo correlated with reduced larval burden of P. aeruginosa. This study has identified antibiotic combinations that merit further investigation for their clinical potential and has demonstrated the utility of using G. mellonella to screen for novel antibiotic treatments that demonstrate efficacy in vivo.

  1. In-vitro activity of 21 antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Brussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordts, B; Vanhoof, R; Hubrechts, J M; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1982-02-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 21 antimicrobial agents was measured for 80 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Brussels in 1978. Bimodal distributions were found for penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin, and cephalexin. Of the strains, 17.5% were relatively resistant to penicillin G (MIC greater than 0.08 microgram/ml) 27.5% to ampicillin (MIC greater than 0.16 microgram/ml), 23.8% to amoxycillin, and 43.3% to carbenicillin. Cefotaxime was the most active antibiotic, with MICs in the nanogram range; 3.8% and 5% of the strains were relatively resistant to cephaloridine and cephalexin respectively, but no strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefuroxime, or cefotaxime. Resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, erythromycin, and spiramycin (MIC greater than 1 microgram/ml) was found in 6.3%, 2.5%, 5%, and 51.3% of the strains respectively. A very good correlation was present between chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol, with 16.3% and 10% of relatively resistant strains respectively. Only two isolates showed an MIC greater than 1.25 microgram/ml for rifampicin, and 10% of the strains needed greater than or equal to 12 microgram/ml of spectinomycin for complete inhibition of growth. A very high energy was found for the 20 : 1 combination of sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim, with only one isolate resistant to this combination. None of the strains tested produced beta-lactamase.

  2. Antibiotic resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamases in isolated bacteria from seawater of Algiers beaches (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouache, Souhila; Kada, Mohamed; Messai, Yamina; Estepa, Vanesa; Torres, Carmen; Bakour, Rabah

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate bacterial antibiotic resistance in seawater from four beaches in Algiers. The most significant resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin and ticarcillin, whereas they were relatively low for ceftazidime, cefotaxime and imipenem. According to sampling sites, the highest resistance rates were recorded for 2 sites subjected to chemical and microbiological inputs (amoxicillin, 43% and 52%; ticarcillin, 19.6% and 47.7%), and for 2 sites relatively preserved from anthropogenic influence, resistance rates were lowest (amoxicillin, 1.5% and 16%; ticarcillin, 0.8% and 2.6%). Thirty-four bacteria resistant to imipenem (n=14) or cefotaxime (n=20) were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=15), Pseudomonas fluorescens (7), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (4), Burkholderia cepacia (2), Bordetella sp. (1), Pantoea sp. (1), Acinetobacter baumannii (1), Chryseomonas luteola (1), Ochrobactrum anthropi (1) and Escherichia coli (1). Screening for extended spectrum β-lactamase showed the presence of CTX-M-15 β-lactamase in the E. coli isolate, and the encoding gene was transferable in association with the IncI1 plasmid of about 50 kbp. Insertion sequence ISEcp1B was located upstream of the CTX-M-15 gene. This work showed a significant level of resistance to antibiotics, mainly among environmental saprophytic bacteria. Transmissible CTX-M-15 was detected in E. coli; this may mean that contamination of the environment by resistant bacteria may cause the spread of resistance genes.

  3. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed.

  4. Prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. from wild and domestic green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, W R B; Amadi, V; Pinckney, R; Macpherson, C N L; McKibben, J S; Bruhl-Day, R; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2014-09-01

    Cloacal swabs from 62 green iguanas (Iguana iguana), including 47 wild and 15 domestic ones from five parishes of Grenada, were sampled during a 4-month period of January to April 2013 and examined by enrichment and selective culture for the presence of Salmonella spp. Fifty-five per cent of the animals were positive, and eight serovars of Salmonella were isolated. The most common serovar was Rubislaw (58.8%), a serovar found recently in many cane toads in Grenada, followed by Oranienburg (14.7%), a serovar that has been causing serious human disease outbreaks in Japan. Serovar IV:48:g,z51 :- (formerly, S. Marina) highly invasive and known for serious infections in children in the United States, constituted 11.8% of the isolates, all of them being from domestic green iguanas. Salmonella Newport, a serovar recently found in a blue land crab in Grenada, comprised 11.8% of the isolates from the green iguanas. The remaining four less frequent serovars included S. Javiana and S. Glostrup. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests conducted by a disc diffusion method against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal, with intermediate susceptibility, mainly to streptomycin, tetracycline and cefotaxime. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars from wild and domestic green iguanas in Grenada, West Indies.

  5. Comparison of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in Shigella between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, B; Zhou, M; Ke, X; Pan, S; Cao, Y; Huang, Y; Zhuang, L; Liu, G; Tong, M

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to compare resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs) in Shigella strains between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2012 based on a literature search of computerized databases. In Asia-Africa, the prevalence of resistance of total and different subtypes to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ceftazidime increased markedly, with a total prevalence of resistance up to 14·2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3·9-29·4], 22·6% (95% CI 4·8-48·6) and 6·2% (95% CI 3·8-9·1) during 2010-2012, respectively. By contrast, resistance rates to these TGCs in Europe-America remained relatively low--less than 1·0% during the 15 years. A noticeable finding was that certain countries both in Europe-America and Asia-Africa, had a rapid rising trend in the prevalence of resistance of S. sonnei, which even outnumbered S. flexneri in some periods. Moreover, comparison between countries showed that currently the most serious problem concerning resistance to these TGCs appeared in Vietnam, especially for ceftriaxone, China, especially for cefotaxime and Iran, especially for ceftazidime. These data suggest that monitoring of the drug resistance of Shigella strains should be strengthened and that rational use of antibiotics is required.

  6. Escherichia coli Meningitis after Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in an Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermezoglu, Oznur; Ocal Topcu, Didem; Karbuz, Adem; Hacihamdioglu, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Although rotavirus gastroenteritis is quite common in the pediatric population, secondary bacterial sepsis following rotavirus infection is a rare clinical entity. Gram-negative bacilli are the fifth most common cause of meningitis in infants but this infection rarely occurs after gastroenteritis. Here, we report a 2.5-month-old infant who developed Escherichia coli (E. coli) meningitis after acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. The 2.5-month-old male infant with fever, vomiting, and watery diarrhea that started 1 day earlier was admitted to the hospital. Rotavirus antigen in stool sample was positive. He was hospitalized, and fever was measured at 39.5°C on the second day. Lumbar puncture was done for suspicion of meningitis, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings suggested meningitis. Intravenous vancomycin and cefotaxime were started empirically. Since E. coli reproduction was seen in blood culture and CSF culture, treatment was continued with cefotaxime. The patient was discharged with minimal midlevel hydrocephalus findings in cranial ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging following 21 days of antibiotics treatment. Septicemia development following rotavirus gastroenteritis is an extremely rare clinical condition. It is vital to start prompt antibiotic treatment as soon as the diagnosis of secondary bacterial infection is made because of high mortality and morbidity rates.

  7. PME-1, an extended-spectrum β-lactamase identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Bao; Adams-Haduch, Jennifer M; Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Wang, Hong-Ning; Doi, Yohei

    2011-06-01

    A novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) was identified in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate obtained from a patient admitted to a hospital in Pennsylvania in 2008. The patient had a prolonged hospitalization in a hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, before being transferred to the United States. The novel ESBL, designated PME-1 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ESBL 1), is a molecular class A, Bush-Jacoby-Medeiros group 2be enzyme and shared 50, 43, and 41% amino acid identity with the L2 β-lactamase of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, CTX-M-9, and KPC-2, respectively. PME-1 conferred clinically relevant resistance to ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime, and aztreonam in P. aeruginosa PAO1 but not to carbapenems. Purified PME-1 showed good hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and aztreonam, while activity against carbapenems and cefepime could not be measured. PME-1 was inhibited well by β-lactamase inhibitors, including clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam. The bla(PME-1) gene was carried by an approximately 9-kb plasmid and flanked by tandem ISCR24 elements.

  8. Evaluation of a Semiquantitative Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method for Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jette S; Hamacher, Christina; Gross, Birgit; Sparbier, Katrin; Lange, Christoph; Kostrzewa, Markus; Schubert, Sören

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, rapid identification of the pathogen and its individual antibiotic resistance is crucial to ensure adequate antiinfective treatment at the earliest time point. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for the identification of bacteria directly from the blood culture bottle has been widely established; however, there is still an urgent need for new methods that permit rapid resistance testing. Recently, a semiquantitative MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based method for the prediction of antibiotic resistance was described. We evaluated this method for detecting nonsusceptibility against two β-lactam and two non-β-lactam antibiotics. A collection of 30 spiked blood cultures was tested for nonsusceptibility against gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, 99 patient-derived blood cultures were tested for nonsusceptibility against cefotaxime, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin in parallel with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification from the blood culture fluid. The assay correctly classified all isolates tested for nonsusceptibility against gentamicin and cefotaxime. One misclassification for ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility and five misclassifications for piperacillin-tazobactam nonsusceptibility occurred. Identification of the bacterium and prediction of nonsusceptibility was possible within approximately 4 h.

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of pineapple (Ananas comosus L., Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Minal

    2013-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus L., Merr.) is a commercially important crop, grown in the tropical and subtropical regions. However, the crop is faced with postharvest damage and poor varietal and nutritional improvement. Being a vegetatively propagated crop, conventional breeding programs take longer time for genetic improvement, which may not necessarily successfully develop an improved cultivar. Hence, the genetic modification of pineapple is an alternative handy approach to improve pineapple. We have established an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system using leaf bases from in vitro-grown pineapple plants. Being a monocot, acetosyringone is added to the culture medium for overnight growth of Agrobacterium and transformation to transfer a gene of interest MSI99 soybean ferritin. Leaf bases isolated from in vitro shoot cultures are treated with Agrobacterium suspension at two dilutions, 10× and 20×, for 30 min. Explants are subsequently blot dried and cultured on gelrite solidified hormone-free Pin1 medium for 2 days (cocultivation). Periodic transfer is first done to the regeneration medium (Pin1) containing cefotaxime for the suppression of Agrobacterium growth. The transformants are selected by culturing on Pin1 medium containing cefotaxime and kanamycin. Multiple shoots, regenerated in leaf bases, are further multiplied and individually rooted in the liquid RM medium amended with antibiotics to recover plants. Putative transformants are analyzed for transgene integration and expression using standard molecular biological methods of PCR, RT-PCR, and genomic Southern.

  10. Kounis syndrome secondary to intravenous cephalosporin administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunkavalli Venkateswararao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kounis syndrome is a clinical condition due to hypersensitivity that culminates into acute coronary syndrome (ACS which can be fatal. A 36-year-old male with no conventional coronary risk factors presented elsewhere with a history of fever for 4 days, cough with expectoration, diarrhea and was treated with cephalosporin (Inj. Cefotaxime as an infusion along with analgesics. He experienced generalized itching 5 minutes after cefotaxime infusion followed by sweating, headache, chest pain with facial and periorbital swelling for which he was rushed to our hospital. On examination he was afebrile with a low blood pressure. Electrocardiogram taken at an outside hospital revealed incomplete right bundle branch block and ST depression V3–V5. Investigations showed increase in troponin T. He was managed with anti-histamines and standard protocol for treatment of ACS. Coronary angiogram revealed normal coronaries. The patient improved symptomatically with treatment and was discharged on an anti-platelet, nitrate and a statin.

  11. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of ESKAPE pathogens from urinary tract infections in a referral laboratory, Northeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salehi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of ESKAPE pathogens from Neyshabur, Iran during 2013–2015. Methods: A total of 345 isolates including 62 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, 38 Enterobacter spp. (including 14 Enterobacter agglomerans, 6 Enterobacter aerogenes and other 18 Enterobacter spp., 123 Enterococcus faecium, 78 Klebsiella pneumonia, 10 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 34 Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates was conducted with Kirby Bauer method. Data were analyzed with SPSS 20.0 software using F- and t-tests. Results: Among S. aureus isolates, the highest resistance was observed against nalidixic acid (81.35% and cefixime (74.50%. Thirty-three (53.22% S. aureus isolates were cefoxitin resistant (methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The majority of Enterobacter species was resistant to amikacin (100.00% and cephalotin (66.60%. Most Enterococcus faecium isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (89.43% and amikacin (83.33%, but vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolates were not detected. Moreover, among Klebsiella pneumonia, the highest resistance was observed to nalidixic acid (20.98% and cotrimoxazole (28.39%. Furthermore, all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (100.00% and majority to nitroforantoin (88.80%. Acinetobacter baumannii isolates showed the highest and the lowest resistance to cefotaxime (100.00% and cefixime (88.71%, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of ESKAPE pathogens from northeast region was low, but majority of them exhibited high rate of antibiotic resistance to common used antimicrobial agents.

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of herbicide resistance in creeping bentgrass and colonial bentgrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴明良; 汪炳良; KIMJae-yeoul; LEEJong-min; KIMDoo-hwan

    2003-01-01

    Embryogenic calli were induced from the seeds of creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis palustris Huds. ) cv. Regent and colonial bentgrass ( Agrostis Tenuis Sibth. F1. Oxen. ) cv. Tiger. The embryogenic calli were precultured on fresh medium for 4-7 days and then co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, LBA4404,which contains plasmid vector-pSBGM harboring bar coding region, synthetic green fluorescent protein (sGFP) coding region and matrix attachment region (MAR) . After 3 days of co-cultivation, the calli were washed thoroughly and transferred to MS medium containing 2 mg/L of 2, 4-D, 12-15 mg/L phosphinothricin (PPT) and 250 mg/L of cefotaxime. After 2-3 months of selection, the actively growing calli of ‘Regent' and ‘Ti-ger' were transferred to MS medium with 12-15 mg/L PPT and 250 mg/L cefotaxime for regeneration. The putative transformants were maintained on MS medium with 3 mg/L PPT for long period but control died within 1 month. After establishing in greenhouse, the transformants also showed strong resistance to 0.4 % of herbi-cide Basta but control plants died within 2 weeks. Under confocal microscope, both young leaves and roots showed significant GFP expression. PCR analysis revealed the presence of a DNA fragment of GFP gene at the expected size (380 bp) in the transformants and its absence in a randomly selected control plant.

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of herbicide resistance in creeping bentgrass and colonial bentgrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Embryogenic calli were induced from the seeds of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) cv. Regent and colonial bentgrass (Agrostis Tenuis Sibth. Fl. Oxen.) cv. Tiger. The embryogenic calli were precultured on fresh medium for 4-7 days and then co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, LBA4404, which contains plasmid vector-pSBGM harboring bar coding region, synthetic green fluorescent protein (sGFP) coding region and matrix attachment region (MAR). After 3 days of co-cultivation, the calli were washed thoroughly and transferred to MS medium containing 2 mg/L of 2, 4-D, 12-15 mg/L phosphinothricin (PPT) and 250 mg/L of cefotaxime. After 2-3 months of selection, the actively growing calli of 'Regent' and 'Tiger' were transferred to MS medium with 12-15 mg/L PPT and 250 mg/L cefotaxime for regeneration. The putative transformants were maintained on MS medium with 3 mg/L PPT for long period but control died within 1 month. After establishing in greenhouse, the transformants also showed strong resistance to 0.4% of herbicide Basta but control plants died within 2 weeks. Under confocal microscope, both young leaves and roots showed significant GFP expression. PCR analysis revealed the presence of a DNA fragment of GFP gene at the expected size (380 bp) in the transformants and its absence in a randomly selected control plant.

  14. Cephalosporin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with special reference to the proposed trapping of antibiotics by beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, D M; Williams, J D; Davy, K W

    1985-02-01

    Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to newer cephalosporins is often associated with stable derepression of synthesis of the chromosomal beta-lactamase. Similar resistance is developed by enzyme inducible (i.e. normal) strains in response to beta-lactamase inducers. By comparing the responses of otherwise isogenic P. aeruginosa beta-lactamase inducibility mutants to antipseudomonal cephalosporins alone or in combination with potent beta-lactamase inducers we confirmed that resistance to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, and ceftazidime and latamoxef was caused by beta-lactamase action. The low-level resistance to carbenicillin and cefsulodin which was exhibited by some fully beta-lactamase derepressed strains was not confirmed to be beta-lactamase determined and may have reflected concurrent target or permeability changes. The mechanism whereby the enzyme protected the cell against cefotaxime and ceftriaxone was also investigated. These agents are reportedly stable to the enzyme and some workers have suggested that resistance entails their being trapped rather than hydrolysed. However, the use of a novel model of cellular beta-lactamase function indicated that a hydrolytic resistance mechanism remained likely.

  15. Simultaneous determination of β-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitors in bovine milk by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nasi; Feng, Feng; Yang, Bingcheng; Jiang, Pingping; Chu, Xiaogang

    2014-01-15

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of four β-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, and cefoperazone) and two β-lactamase inhibitors (tazobactam, sulbactam) in bovine milk. The analytes were extracted with water from bovine milk and purified with Oasis HLB solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The analytes were determined in less than 3min by UPLC-MS/MS in positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) modes, separately. The method was linear over the range of 1-100μg/L for tazobactam, sulbactam, ampicillin, and cefoperazone, and 2-100μg/L for amoxicillin and cefotaxime. The recoveries for all six analytes in bovine milk ranged from 82.5 to 98.3%. The limits of detection and the limits of quantitation were 0.1-0.2μg/L and 0.3-0.5μg/L, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 6% for each compound.

  16. The relationship between antimicrobial consumption and the rates of resistance of Klebsiela pneumoniae in respiratory unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xin-yun; ZHUO Chao; XIAO Xiang-lin; YUAN Jin-Ping; YANG Ling

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the consumption of antibacterial agents and resistance rate of Klebsiela pneumoniae(KP)in the hospital respiratory unit for 3 consecutive years in 2005-2007. Methods The total antibacterial consumption expressed as defined DDDs/100BD, as well as resistance rate of total KP and producing ESBLs KP were collected, and their correlation was analyzed. Results The rate of resistance of KP to cefoperazone/sulbactam, Cefepime, Imipenem, Moxifloxacin was significantly positively associated with the consumption of Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Moxifloxacin, Amikacin respectively;A significant positive association was observed between the rate of resistance of KP to Piperacillin/Tazobactam, Ceftriaxone and the consumption of Imipenem; The rate of resistance of KP to Piperacillin, Cefotaxime, Ciprofloxacin was significantly positively associated with the consumption of Levofloxacin. ESBLs producing bacilli of KP were detected in 44 of 75 isolates (58.7%), The rate of resistance of producing ES-BLs KP to Piperacillin/Tazobactarn, Ceftriaxone was significantly positively associated with the consumption of Imipenem, Ceftazidime; A significant positive association was observed between the rate of resistance of producing ESBLs KP to Piperacillin, Imipenem and the consumption of Moxifloxacin. There was no significant correlation in other drugs. Conclusions A relationship existed between antimicrobial consumption and rates of resistance of KP in the hospital respiratory unit. We must use antibiotics carefully and with reason to control and lessen the drug resistance of bacterial.

  17. Meningitis por Kluyvera sp. en una paciente con una derivación lumbo-peritoneal: reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Paredes-Rodríguez

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Describimos el caso de una paciente portadora de una derivación lumbo- peritoneal, que desarrolló una meningitis bacteriana en la cual Kluyvera sp. se aisló del líquido cefalorraquídeo. En nuestro conocimiento este es el primer caso reportado de infección del SNC por este microorganismo. Esta bacteria era sensible a cefalosporinas de tercera generación y se logró la resolución con Cefotaxime. El Género Kluyvera comprende tres especies infrecuentemente aisladas de muestras clínicas. Se puede asociar a infecciones desde leves a severas y posiblemente se favorece en un huésped inmunocomprometido.We describe the case of a female patient with a previous lumboperitoneal shunt, who developed bacterial meningitis Kluyvera sp. was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. To our knowledge this is the first case of CNS infection by this microorganism. This pathogen was very sensitive to third generation cephalosporins; and was treated succesfully with cefotaxime. The Kluyver genus comprises three species who are uncommonly isolated from clinical samples. It can be associated with mild to severe infections and is more common in inmunosuppressed hosts.

  18. Fecal Carriage of ESbL types TEM, SHV, CTX Producing Genera Proteus, Morganella, Providencia in Patients of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Akhi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Diseases like urinary tract infection, wound infections, bacteremia and other infections are mainly caused by the members of the genus Proteus, Morganella and Providencia which are mainly either found freely in the environment or in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. We studied Fecal carriage of ESbL producing species in carrier patients.Stool samples obtained from outpatients and inpatients not suffering from diarrhea and were cultured in CTX-MC-Conkey agar. Lactose negative and cefotaxime resistant bacteria were identified by biochemical tests and ESbL-producing isolates were detected using Combined Test. TEM, SHV and CTX genes were investigated by PCR.Total 15 (7.35% isolates of 204 stool samples were identified as ESBL producing Proteus spp. (n=4, 1.96%, Morganella spp. (n=5, 2.45% and Providencia spp. (n=6, 2.94%. Further, amongst or of the 15 ESbL producing strains, blaTEM was the commonest genotype (86.66%, followed by blaSHV (26.66% and blaCTX-M (20%. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin, and cefotaxime whereas all Providencia and Morganella spp. were found to resist ceftazidime. Although the number of ESbL-producing Proteus, Morganella and Providencia isolates from fecal carriers were low, but still, they can be considered as a reservoir of TEM, SHV and CTX genes and capable to transfer these resistant bacteria to hospitals.

  19. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit of Fatmawati Hospital, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maksum Radji; Siti Fauziah; Nurgani Aribinuko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study of bacterial pathogen was carried out on a total of 722 patients that were admitted to the ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia during January 2009 to March 2010. All bacteria were identified by standard microbiologic methods, and their antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method. Results: Specimens were collected from 385 patients who were given antimicrobial treatment, of which 249 (64.68%) were cultured positive and 136 (35.32%) were negative. The most predominant isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (26.5%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (15.3%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.9%). P. aeruginosa isolates showed high rate of resistance to cephalexin (95.3%), cefotaxime (64.1%), and ceftriaxone (60.9%). Amikacin was the most effective (84.4%) antibiotic against P. aeruginosa followed by imipenem (81.2%), and meropenem (75.0%). K. pneumoniae showed resistance to cephalexin (86.5%), ceftriaxone (75.7%), ceftazidime (73.0%), cefpirome (73.0%) and cefotaxime (67.9%), respectively. Conclusions: Most bacteria isolated from ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia were resistant to the third generation of cephalosporins, and quinolone antibiotics. Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility patterns is very important for setting orders to guide the clinician in choosing empirical or directed therapy of infected patients.

  20. Analysis of efficacy and adverse reactions of two kinds of antibiotics in the treatment of neonatal pneumonia%两种抗生素治疗新生儿肺炎的疗效及不良反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李魁众; 张雷; 冯战超

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察对比青霉素 G 与头孢噻肟钠两种抗生素治疗新生儿肺炎的疗效及不良反应。方法选取我院70例新生儿肺炎患者为研究对象,随机均分为两组,一组采用青霉素 G 治疗,另一组接受头孢噻肟钠治疗,比较两组的治疗效果,分析其对肠道菌群微生态的影响,并观察记录不良反应发生情况。结果青霉素 G 组与头孢噻肟钠组的治疗效果无显著性差异;两组抗生素的治疗均影响了肠道菌群平衡,其中青霉素 G 对乳酸杆菌无显著性影响,头孢噻肟钠对肠杆菌的抗菌活性较高;青霉素 G 主要引发皮疹,头孢噻肟钠主要不良反应为消化道症状,总不良反应无显著性差异(P>0.05)。结论使用头孢菌素抗生素治疗新生儿肺炎的疗效与应用青霉素类抗生素的疗效差异无统计学意义,虽然头孢噻肟钠对肠杆菌作用强,但二者总不良反应发生率无显著性区别,根据抗生素使用原则及考虑经济原因,青霉素仍值得推广应用。%objective to observe and compare the therapeutic effect and adverse reaction of cefotaxime sodium penicillin G and two kinds of antibiotics in the treatment of neonatal pneumonia. Methods in our hospital 70 cases of neonatal pneumonia as the research object, randomly divided into two groups, one group treated with penicillin G, another group received cefotaximesodium in the treatment, the efficacy was compared between two groups, analyzes its influence on the gut microflora, and observe the occurrence of adverse reactions. Results there were no significant differences of penicillin G group and cefotaxime sodium group treatment; treatment group two antibiotics affect the balance of intestinal flora, including penicillin G had no significant effect on lactobacillus, higher antibacterial activity of cefotaxime sodium for enterobacteriaceae; penicillin G rashes, majoradverse reactions of cefotaxime sodium for

  1. Influence of antibiotics on embryogenic tissue and Agrobacterium tumefaciens suppression in soybean genetic transformation Influência de antibióticos sobre o tecido embriogênico e a supressão de Agrobacterium tumefaciens na transformação genética de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Wiebke

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different antibiotic treatments in soybean genetic transformation was evaluated. First, an assay was performed to verify how different antibiotic treatments affect soybean embryogenic tissues. The effect of carbenicillin at 500 mg L-1 was genotype-dependent. This antibiotic did not affect embryo survival of cv. IAS5, but a three-fold increase of embryo proliferation was observed for cv. Bragg, when compared to the control. On the other hand, cefotaxime at 350 and 500 mg L-1 caused death of embryogenic tissues of both cultivars. Finally, the association of cefotaxime (250 mg L-1 + vancomycin (250 mg L-1 did not affect negatively the somatic embryos of tested cultivars until 63 days of treatment. Thereafter, a second experiment was carried out to determine the efficacy of different antibiotic treatments in suppressing LBA4404 Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain in genetic transformation. On tissue culture conditions, carbenicillin at 500 and 1000 mg L-1 was not active against Agrobacterium. On the other hand, treatments with cefotaxime at 350 and 500 mg L-1, and cefotaxime + vancomycin efficiently suppressed Agrobacterium during 49 days. Data of both experiments suggested cefotaxime + vancomycin for 49-63 days as the most appropriate treatment. This is the first work reporting the effect of antibiotics on soybean tissues. By identifying an antibiotic combination that suppressed A. tumefaciens with minimal phytotoxic effects, we are able to recommend it for improvement of soybean Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure.Foi avaliada a influência de diferentes tratamentos com antibióticos durante a transformação genética de soja. Inicialmente, desenvolveu-se um estudo para identificar como diferentes tratamentos com antibióticos afetam o tecido embriogênico da soja. O efeito da carbenicilina a 500 mg L-1 foi genótipo-dependente. Esse antibiótico não afetou a sobrevivência dos embriões da cv. IAS5, enquanto a

  2. Resistance to Third-Generation Cephalosporins and Other Antibiotics by Enterobacteriaceae in Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Okesola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The emergence and spread of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins are threatening to create species resistant to all currently available agents. The most common cause of bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is the production of beta-lactamases and many of the 2nd and 3rd-generation penicillins and cephalosporins were specifically designed to resist the hydrolytic action of major ß-lactamases. However new ß-lactamases emerged against each of the new classes of ß-lactams that were introduced and caused resistance. This study was designed to determine the rate of resistance to 3rd-generation cephalosporins and other classes of antibiotics by the Enterobacteriaceae in this environment. Approach: One hundred bacteria isolates belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae identified from different clinical specimens between October and December 2007 using standard bacteriological methods. These were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing to third-generation cephalosporins and other classes of antibiotics which included quinolones and an aminoglycoside using the Kirby-Bauer method of disc diffusion test. Results: Out of the total number of Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the study period, only 54.8% of the klebsiella species isolated were sensitive to ceftazidime, 48.4% to ceftriaxone and 30.7% to cefotaxime. With Escherichia coli however, the susceptibility pattern to the 3rd-generation cephalosporins was better (65.6% were sensitive to ceftazidime, 62.5% to ceftriaxone and 71.9% to cefotaxime. In proteus species, the susceptibility pattern was generally poor to the three classes of antibiotics(50% were sensitive to ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, 0% to cefotaxime, 33.3% to ciprofloxacin, 50% to gentamycin and 0% to amoxycillin/clavulanate. Conclusion/Recommendations: The poor susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanate demonstrated by all the isolates in this

  3. Pharmacokinetics of continuous-infusion meropenem for the treatment of Serratia marcescens ventriculitis in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cies, Jeffrey J; Moore, Wayne S; Calaman, Sharon; Brown, Melandee; Narayan, Prithvi; Parker, Jason; Chopra, Arun

    2015-04-01

    Neither guidelines nor best practices for the treatment of external ventricular drain (EVD) and ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections exist. An antimicrobial regimen with a broad spectrum of activity and adequate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration is vital in the management of both EVD and ventriculoperitoneal infections. In this case report, we describe the pharmacokinetics of continuous-infusion meropenem for a 2-year-old girl with Serratia marcescens ventriculitis. A right frontal EVD was placed for the management of a posterior fossa mass with hydrocephalus and intraventricular hemorrhage. On hospital day 6, CSF specimens were cultured, which identified a pan-sensitive Serratia marcescens with an initial cefotaxime minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 μg/ml or less. The patient was treated with cefotaxime monotherapy from hospital days 6 to 17, during which her CSF cultures and Gram's stain remained positive. On hospital day 26, Serratia marcescens was noted to be resistant to cefotaxime (minimum inhibitory concentration > 16 μg/ml), and the antimicrobial regimen was ultimately changed to meropenem and amikacin. Meropenem was dosed at 40 mg/kg/dose intravenously every 6 hours, infused over 30 minutes, during which, simultaneous serum and CSF meropenem levels were measured. Meropenem serum and CSF levels were measured at 2 and 4 hours from the end of the infusion with the intent to perform a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis. The resulting serum meropenem levels were 12 μg/ml at 2 hours and "undetectable" at 4 hours, with CSF levels of 1 and 0.5 μg/ml at 2 and 4 hours, respectively. On hospital day 27, the meropenem regimen was changed to a continuous infusion of 200 mg/kg/day, with repeat serum and CSF meropenem levels measured on hospital day 33. The serum and CSF levels were noted to be 13 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. The serum level of 13 μg/ml corresponds to an estimated meropenem clearance from the serum of 10.2 ml/kg/minute. Repeat

  4. STUDY OF ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST OF MODERN GENERATION OF DRUGS AGAINST UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Singh et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasal infection or sinusitis is an inflammation of nasal passages caused by both viral and bacteriological pathogens. Antimicrobial resistance has universally recognized as growing problem concern about suitable therapy for nasal infection. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility against nasal infecting microorganisms. 50 clinical samples were taken from OPD of GMC Hospital, Bhopal (MP, India. Of the samples analyzed, 47 bacterial strains were isolated out of which 29 strains were of Gram positive bacteria (8 strains were of Staphylococcus aureus, 6 of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 7 of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 8 of Corynebacterium diptheriae and 18 strains were of Gram negative bacteria (8 of Escherichia coli, 6 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 4 of Neisseria meningitidis. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed by disc diffusion method according to the reference criteria of clinical and laboratory standard institute guidelines. In the present study antibiotic susceptibility pattern results showed maximum level of resistance in gram positive strains S. aureus 8 (100%, S. epidermidis 6 (100% and C. diptheriae (8 (100% against penicillin, S. aureus 8 (100%, S. epidermidis 6 (100% and S. pneumoniae 7 (100% were resistant to Cefuroxime, S. aureus 7 (87.5%, S. epidermidis 6 (100%, S. pneumoniae 7 (100% and C. diptheriae (8 (100% were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin whereas, rest of gram positive strains showed satisfactory antibiotic susceptibility against chloramphenical, cefazolin, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and tetracyclin. Similarly for gram negative strains multi-drug resistance was observed in 8 (100% isolates of E. coli against aztreonam, cefdinir, cefixime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin, P. aeruginosa 6 (100% were resistant to aztreonam, cefdinir, cefixime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime

  5. Biodegradation of anthracene by a novel actinomycete, Microbacterium sp. isolated from tropical hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Lateef B; Obayori, Oluwafemi S; Olatoye, Nojeem O

    2014-01-01

    A novel anthracene-degrading Gram-positive actinomycete, Microbacterium sp. strain SL10 was isolated from a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at a mechanical engineering workshop in Lagos, Nigeria. The polluted soil had an unusually high total hydrocarbon content of 157 g/kg and presence of various heavy metals. The isolate tolerated salt concentration of more than 4%. It resisted cefotaxime, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin, but susceptible to meropenem, linezolid and vancomycin. The isolate exhibited growth rate and doubling time of 0.82 days(-1) and 0.84 days, respectively on anthracene. It degraded 57.5 and 90.12% of anthracene within 12 and 21 days, respectively while the rate of anthracene utilization by the isolate was 4.79 mg l(-1) d(-1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and characterization of anthracene-degrading Microbacterium sp.

  6. [Kingella kingae pediatric septic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, María Alejandra; Palacián, María Pilar; Cruz Villuendas, María; Marne, Carmen; Paz Ruiz-Echarri, María; Revillo, María José

    2012-12-01

    Kingella kingae is a bacterium that colonizes the upper respiratory tract. Despite its low pathogenicity in this location, previous respiratory pathological processes may favor its systemic spread causing bone and joint infections, mainly in children under five years. It can be considered an emerging pathogen in osteoarticular infection in pediatric patients. We report the case of a two-year-old girl with hips pain and limitation of both abduction and extension, and fever. Radiography and ultrasonography were compatible with transitory synovitis; showed scintigraphy inflammatory pathology of the right hip. Articular puncture was performed. The material showed altered biochemical parameters. Microbiological culture yielded isolation of a strain of K. kingae susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics, azithromycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Blood cultures were negative. The patient was treated empirically with cloxacillin and cefotaxime iv. and continued with amoxicillin-clavulanate orally with osteoarticular improvement.

  7. Enumeration and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in effluent from municipal, hospital, and secondary treatment facility sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Sandra; Boyle, Fiona; Hickey, Paul; Vellinga, Akke; Morris, Dearbháile; Cormican, Martin

    2010-07-01

    We describe a modification of the most probable number (MPN) method for rapid enumeration of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in aqueous environmental samples. E. coli (total and antimicrobial-resistant) bacteria were enumerated in effluent samples from a hospital (n = 17) and municipal sewers upstream (n = 5) and downstream (n = 5) from the hospital, effluent samples from throughout the treatment process (n = 4), and treated effluent samples (n = 13). Effluent downstream from the hospital contained a higher proportion of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli than that upstream from the hospital. Wastewater treatment reduced the numbers of E. coli bacteria (total and antimicrobial resistant); however, antimicrobial-resistant E. coli was not eliminated, and E. coli resistant to cefotaxime (including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL] producers), ciprofloxacin, and cefoxitin was present in treated effluent samples.

  8. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of N- Pyrazolyl Derivatives and Pyrazolopyrimidine Bearing a Biologically Active Sulfonamide Moiety as Potential Antimicrobial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hend N. Hafez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel pyrazole-5-carboxylate containing N-triazole derivatives 3,4; different heterocyclic amines 7a–b and 10a–b; pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine containing sulfa drugs 14a,b; and oxypyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives 17, 19, 21 has been synthesized. The structure of the newly synthesized compounds was elucidated on the basis of analytical and spectral analyses. All compounds have been screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against three gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as three fungi. The results revealed that compounds 14b and 17 had more potent antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains than reference drug Cefotaxime. Moreover compounds 4, 7b, and 12b showed excellent antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans in low inhibitory concentrations but slightly less than the reference drug miconazole against Aspergillus flavus.

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF A NEW WATER DISPERSIBLE MAGNETIC NANOBIOCOMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to fabricate a novel water dispersible nanobiocomposite useful for the improvement of classical antimicrobial therapies. Water-soluble magnetite nanoparticles were protected by chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol to increase system’s bioaccommodation. The presence of magnetite was confirmed by XRD. SEM results also indicate that the fabricated nanobiocomposite is composed of nanosized magnetite particles. FT-IR spectrum of the nanobiocomposite, revealed the presence of adsorption peaks specific for PVA, CS and Fe3O4. Our results demonstrate that the nanobiocomposite has the ability to modify and improve antimicrobial activity of gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime against S.aureus and P.aeruginosa. Fabricated nanobiocomposite exhibited a low cytotoxic effect on eukaryotic cells being thus a good candidate for developing new antimicrobial strategies aiming to potentate the antimicrobial effect of drugs and controlling their delivery.

  10. Controlling resistant bacteria with a novel class of β-lactamase inhibitor peptides: from rational design to in vivo analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Santi M.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Silva, Osmar N.; Fensterseifer, Isabel C. M.; Faria-Junior, Celio; Dias, Simoni C.; Basak, Amit; Hazra, Tapas K.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2014-01-01

    Peptide rational design was used here to guide the creation of two novel short β-lactamase inhibitors, here named dBLIP-1 and -2, with length of five amino acid residues. Molecular modeling associated with peptide synthesis improved bactericidal efficacy in addition to amoxicillin, ampicillin and cefotaxime. Docked structures were consistent with calorimetric analyses against bacterial β-lactamases. These two compounds were further tested in mice. Whereas commercial antibiotics alone failed to cure mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli expressing β-lactamases, infection was cleared when treated with antibiotics in combination with dBLIPs, clearly suggesting that peptides were able to neutralize bacterial resistance. Moreover, immunological assays were also performed showing that dBLIPs were unable to modify mammalian immune response in both models, reducing the risks of collateral effects. In summary, the unusual peptides here described provide leads to overcome β-lactamase-based resistance, a remarkable clinical challenge. PMID:25109311

  11. Isolation of multiple drug-resistant enteric bacteria from feces of wild Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbehang Nguema, Pierre Philippe; Okubo, Torahiko; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Fujita, Shiho; Yamagiwa, Juichi; Tamura, Yutaka; Ushida, Kazunari

    2015-05-01

    Prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria in wildlife can reveal the actual level of anthropological burden on the wildlife. In this study, we isolated two multiple drug-resistant strains, GG6-2 and GG6-1-1, from 27 fresh feces of wild western lowland gorillas in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. Isolates were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Providencia sp., respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the following 12 drugs-ampicillin (ABPC), cefazolin (CEZ), cefotaxime (CTX), streptomycin (SM), gentamicin (GM), kanamycin (KM), tetracycline (TC), nalidixic acid (NA), ciprofloxacin (CPFX), colistin (CL), chloramphenicol (CP) and trimethoprim (TMP)-were determined. Isolate GG6-2 was resistant to all antimicrobials tested and highly resistant to CTX, SM, TC, NA and TMP. Isolate GG6-1-1 was resistant to ABPC, CEZ, TC, CL, CP and TMP.

  12. Mastoiditis in an immunocompetent adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, Katharine C; Kendall, Mary S

    2005-05-01

    A 20-year-old white male presented to the family practice department with a 1-month history of right ear pain and loss of hearing. During the month, he had been seen in emergency rooms twice and also by his dentist. He had been treated with pain medications, tooth extraction, and finally, antibiotics. On presentation to the clinic, his right mastoid area showed erythema, tenderness, and swelling that displaced the pinna. He was immediately referred to the otolaryngology department. Imaging studies confirmed coalescent mastoiditis and subperiosteal abscess. He was taken to surgery, where he underwent cortical mastoidectomy and right pressure equalization tube placement. Intraoperative and postoperative intravenous cefotaxime was given. Recovery was complete and uneventful.

  13. CTX-M-190, a Novel β-Lactamase Resistant to Tazobactam and Sulbactam, Identified in an Escherichia coli Clinical Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhen; Ding, Baixing; Bi, Yingmin; Wu, Shi; Xu, Su; Xu, Xiaogang; Guo, Qinglan; Wang, Minggui

    2017-01-01

    A novel β-lactamase, CTX-M-190, derived from CTX-M-55 by a single substitution of Ser for Thr at position 133 (Ser133Thr), was identified in a natural Escherichia coli clinical isolate. CTX-M-190 exhibited potent hydrolytic activity against cefotaxime, with a kcat/Km ratio of 14.5 μM(-1) s(-1), and was highly resistant to inhibition by the β-lactamase inhibitors tazobactam and sulbactam, whose 50% inhibitory concentrations were 77- and 55-fold higher, respectively, for CTX-M-190 than for CTX-M-55. blaCTX-M-190 was located within the genetic platform ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-orf477, which was harbored by a 70-kb IncI1 plasmid.

  14. Meningitis por Kluyvera sp. en una paciente con una derivación lumbo-peritoneal: reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Paredes-Rodríguez

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Describimos el caso de una paciente portadora de una derivación lumbo- peritoneal, que desarrolló una meningitis bacteriana en la cual Kluyvera sp. se aisló del líquido cefalorraquídeo. En nuestro conocimiento este es el primer caso reportado de infección del SNC por este microorganismo. Esta bacteria era sensible a cefalosporinas de tercera generación y se logró la resolución con Cefotaxime. El Género Kluyvera comprende tres especies infrecuentemente aisladas de muestras clínicas. Se puede asociar a infecciones desde leves a severas y posiblemente se favorece en un huésped inmunocomprometido.

  15. Etiology of acute otitis media and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in Chilean children <5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblut, Andres; Napolitano, Carla; Pereira, Angelica; Moreno, Camilo; Kolhe, Devayani; Lepetic, Alejandro; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged Haemophilus influenzae (40.3% [56/139]) were predominant among the cultures that showed bacterial growth (85% [139/164]). All Streptococcus pneumoniae positive episodes were serotyped, 19F (21%) and 14 (17%) were the predominant serotypes; all Haemophilus influenzae strains were nontypeable. Streptococcus pneumoniae were resistant to penicillin (5%) and erythromycin (33%); Haemophilus influenzae were resistant to ampicillin (14%) and cefuroxime and cefotaxime (2% each).AOM in Chilean children is predominantly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Use of a broad spectrum vaccine against these pathogens might aid the reduction of AOM in Chile.

  16. Isolation of Salmonella enterica serotype Worthington from a splenic abscess in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadage D.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenic abscesses are caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus and bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. We report a case of splenic abscess caused by an unusual serotype of Salmonella. A 55 year old man was admitted with complaints of fever and abdominal pain. On the basis of clinical findings and laboratory reports, a diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia was made. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed a single large cystic lesion in the spleen. Percutaneous drainage of the abscess was carried out. Salmonella enterica serotype Worthington was isolated from a pus sample taken from the abscess. The isolate was resistant to ampicillin, gentamicin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol and tetracycline, and sensitive to amikacin and norfloxacin. Serotype Worthington is an emerging pathogen. This is the first report of isolation of this serotype from a splenic abscess. In seriously ill patients, such infections should be treated with a combination of antibiotics to circumvent problems with multidrug resistance.

  17. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates from Zahedan, Southeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Shahraki-Zahedani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Resistance to various classes of antibiotics is common among extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs-producing bacteria. Objectives To determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of ESBLs-producing K. pneumoniae clinical isolates from Zahedan. Methods In this sectional-descriptive study, susceptibility of 51 ESBLs-producing K. pneumoniae isolates to 18 antimicrobial agents was determined. Results All isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, cefpodoxime and amoxicillin as well as susceptible to colistin sulfate. Also, most isolates were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and aztreonam. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that the rate of resistance to beta-lactams, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones in ESBLs-producing K. pneumoniae isolates is high in Zahedan.

  18. KPC-PRODUCING Serratia marcescens IN A HOME-CARE PATIENT FROM RECIFE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARGATE, Emmily; MAGALHÃES, Vera; FEHLBERG, Lorena Cristina Corrêa; GALES, Ana Cristina; LOPES, Ana Catarina Souza

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this brief communication we describe the occurrence of a KPC-producing Serratia marcescensisolate in a home-care patient from Recife, Brazil. The bla KPC, bla SPM, bla IMP, bla VIM bla OXA, bla CTX-M, bla SHV, bla TEM and bla GES genes were investigated by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The isolate was positive for bla KPC-2 and bla TEM-1 and was resistant to aztreonam, cefepime, cefotaxime, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cefazidime, and susceptible only to amikacin, tigecycline and gatifloxacin. This is the first report in Brazil of KPC-producing S. marcescens clinical isolate outside of a hospital environment. Caregivers should be alert for the presence of this isolate in the community setting. PMID:26422164

  19. KPC-PRODUCING Serratia marcescens IN A HOME-CARE PATIENT FROM RECIFE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmily MARGATE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY In this brief communication we describe the occurrence of a KPC-producing Serratia marcescensisolate in a home-care patient from Recife, Brazil. The blaKPC, blaSPM, blaIMP, blaVIMblaOXA, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and blaGES genes were investigated by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and DNA sequencing. The isolate was positive for blaKPC-2 and blaTEM-1 and was resistant to aztreonam, cefepime, cefotaxime, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cefazidime, and susceptible only to amikacin, tigecycline and gatifloxacin. This is the first report in Brazil of KPC-producing S. marcescens clinical isolate outside of a hospital environment. Caregivers should be alert for the presence of this isolate in the community setting.

  20. Pharmacia and biological functionalities of nutrient broth dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes:A novel drug delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new drug delivery system was developed using the interaction of nutrient broth treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes(NBT-MWCNTs) and cefotaxime sodium(CTX) as a model.Investigated factors of the drug delivery system include dispersion effect,biocompatibility of NBT-MWCNTs,pharmacodynamic effect and delivery efficiency in vitro.It was found that MWCNTs can be well dispersed in the nutrient broth and stable at least for one week at 4 °C.The formed NBT-MWCNTs suspension scarcely exhibits toxicity to E.coli at concentrations lower than 10.24 μg/mL,but displays enhanced pharmacodynamic effect of CTX via its bridge effect and targeted transport.Compared with general acid treated MWCNTs(AT-MWCNTs),our present NBT-MWCNTs show good biocompatibility,enhanced pharmacodynamic effect,and high delivery efficiency.

  1. Multiple spleen and liver abscesses due to Yersinia enterocolitica septicemia in a child with congenital sideroblastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigull, Lorenz; Linderkamp, Christin; Sander, Annette; Schmid, Hansjoerg; Mutschler, Ulrich; Welte, Karl; Beilken, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    In patients with iron overload, opportunistic infections are an underestimated risk. Yersinia enterocolitica is a rare organism to be isolated in this setting. The authors report a case of disseminated Y. enterocolitica sepsis in a 5-year-old boy with sideroblastic anemia. Ultrasound examination revealed massive ascites, a pseudo-appendicitis, and hypoechogenic lesions corresponding to abscess formations in the liver and spleen. The initial antibiotic therapy consisted of cefotaxime, gentamicin, and metronidazole, but only treatment with ciprofloxacin and meropenem led to defervescence and clinical stabilization. The risk of developing uncommon infections in patients with iron overload should be acknowledged by all physicians, and the relevance of ultrasound examination is emphasized. In this case, only a detailed history revealed that several days before the onset of diarrhea, the child was feeding a deer; this is how infection was probably acquired.

  2. Clinical implications and treatment of multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, T M

    2006-05-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Prior to the 1970s this pathogen was uniformly susceptible to penicillin and most other antimicrobials. However, since the 1990s there has been a significant increase in drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP) due, in large part, to increased use of antimicrobials. The clinical significance of this resistance is not definitely established, but appears to be most relevant to specific MICs for specific antimicrobials. Certain beta-lactams (amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone), the respiratory fluoroquinolones, and telithromycin are among several agents that remain effective against DRSP. Continued surveillance studies, appropriate antimicrobial usage campaigns, stratification of patients based on known risk factors for resistance, and vaccination programmes are needed to appropriately manage DRSP and limit its spread.

  3. In vitro susceptibility of six fluoroquinolones against invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from 1996 to 2001 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Y; Fung, C P; Wang, C C; Chu, M L; Siu, L K

    2003-01-01

    A total of 331 invasive nonduplicated Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from three sampling periods during 1996 to 2001 were tested for susceptibility to recently developed fluoroquinolones. Five major serotypes, 23F, 6B, 14, 19F, and 3, were frequently encountered in this collection. Penicillin nonsusceptible isolates constituted 52.9% from 1996 to 1997, 61.6% from 1998 to 1999, and 60.0% from 2000 to 2001. Fifty-seven percent of the isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, 56.5% to ceftriaxone, 54.1% to cefepime, and 52.6% to cefuroxime. Macrolide-susceptible isolates constituted less than 14% of the total sample, and no vancomycin-resistant isolates were detected. For fluoroquinolones, MIC90 was lowest for gemifloxacin (MIC90 = fluoroquinolones are very effective against invasive S. pneumoniae isolates in Taiwan. Nevertheless, emerging fluoroquinolone resistance should be acknowledged and clinicians alerted. Surveillance should be carried out to monitor any changes in antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae.

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS AND COLLOIDAL SILVER BASED ON COMPLEX MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voitenko O. Yu.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of complex materials containing ultradispersed silver particles directly formed in the Candida albіcans, Escherichia сolі, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus cereus cell walls were investigated. Complex material based on pseudomonas was more active against gram-positive bacteria, the yeast like fungi based material was mainly active against colibacillus. After a cell-matrix treatment in a hypertonic solution or by acid hydrolysis, the antimicrobial properties of complex materials increased by 20—40%. In a liquid-phase medium, the complex materials with incorporated silver particles in composition with antibiotics strengthened anti-microbial properties of chloramphenicol, tetracycline and amoxiclav antibiotics with respect to E. faecalis, as well as penicillin antibiotics (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, amoxicillin, amoxiclav against E. coli. The obtained data can serve as a basis for development of the new antibacterial and fungicide cells based materials impregnated with ultradispersed substances.

  5. Quantitative assessment of faecal shedding of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative data on faecal shedding of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are crucial to assess the risk of transmission from dogs to other animals as well as humans. In this study we investigated prevalence and concentrations of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in the faeces...... of 108 dogs presenting at a veterinary hospital in Denmark. The dogs had not been treated with antimicrobials for 4 weeks prior to the study. Total E. coli and enterococci were quantified by counts on MacConkey and Slanetz-Bartley, respectively. Resistant E. coli and enterococci were counted on the same...... media containing relevant antibiotic concentrations, followed by species identification using MALDI-TOF. Ampicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were detected in 40% and 8% of the dogs, respectively, whereas approximately 15% carried ampicillin-resistant enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium...

  6. [Evaluation of an automated procedure determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabaut, A; Durosoir, J L; Meyran, M

    1982-06-01

    The ABAC system allows to distribute simultaneously and automatically a standardized inoculum into microtube-cuvettes containing in lyophilized broth medium twofold serial dilutions of the antibiotics. After an 18 hours incubation time, The system prints automatically the MIC. We have compared the MIC of beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefamandole, cefuroxime and cefotaxime) and 6 aminoglycoside (gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmycin, amikacin, kanamycin, lividomycin) obtained by the ABAC system and by the Agar dilution method for 302 gram negative bacilli. We also made a comparison of the MIC of 8 antibiotics (oxacillin, oleandomycin, spiramycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, doxycycline, vancomycin) obtained by the 2 methods for 117 Staphylococcus aureus strains. The evaluation shows that the reproducibility of the results obtained by the ABAC system is good. The statistical analysis shows that the correlation between the MIC obtained with the 2 methods is excellent and that there is no significant discrepancy.

  7. Screening of antibacterial activity of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. fruit and pomace extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velićanski Aleksandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of fruit and pomace extracts (concentration 50 mg/ml of two raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. cultivars (Meeker and Willamette was tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (reference and wild strains. Disc diffusion method with 15 μl of extracts and agar-well diffusion method with 50 and 100 μl were used. Antibiotic (cefotaxime/clavulanic acid was used as a control. Both raspberry fruit extracts showed the strongest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (wild strain and Bacillus cereus, where the largest clear zones (without growth appeared. Escherichia coli was the most resistant strain, with only zone of reduced growth. The highest antibacterial activity of pomace extracts was against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. There were no differences in the antibacterial activity between cultivars for both fruit and pomace extracts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. in small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven; Amadi, Victor; Stone, Diana; Johnson, Roger; Hariharan, Harry; Zieger, Ulrike

    2014-09-01

    Intestinal samples from 156 small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) collected island-wide in Grenada from April 2011 to March 2013 were examined for the presence of Salmonella enterica spp. Nineteen (12%) mongooses were culture-positive for S. enterica spp. of which five serotypes were identified. Salmonella javiana and S. Montevideo were the most commonly isolated serotypes. The other serotypes isolated were S. Rubislaw, S. Panama and S. Arechavaleta. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, imipenem and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. One isolate (S. Montevideo) showed resistance to tetracycline and intermediate resistance to streptomycin. The five isolated Salmonella serotypes are potential human pathogens suggesting that the mongoose may play a role in the epidemiology of human salmonellosis in Grenada.

  9. Detection of Salmonella enterica in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) of Chilean Patagonia: evidences of inter-species transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougnac, C; Pardo, C; Meza, K; Arredondo, C; Blank, O; Abalos, P; Vidal, R; Fernandez, A; Fredes, F; Retamal, P

    2015-04-01

    Patagonia in southern South America is among the few world regions where direct human impact is still limited but progressively increasing, mainly represented by tourism, farming, fishing and mining activities. The sanitary condition of Patagonian wildlife is unknown, in spite of being critical for the assessment of anthropogenic effects there. The aim of this study was the characterization of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from wild colonies of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) located in Magdalena Island and Otway Sound, in Chilean Patagonia. Eight isolates of Salmonella were found, belonging to Agona and Enteritidis serotypes, with an infection rate of 0·38%. Resistance to ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur and tetracycline antimicrobials were detected, and some of these strains showed genotypic similarity with Salmonella strains isolated from humans and gulls, suggesting inter-species transmission cycles and strengthening the role of penguins as sanitary sentinels in the Patagonian ecosystem.

  10. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs at Spanish slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshager, T; Herrero, I A; Porrero, M C; Garde, J; Moreno, M A; Domínguez, L

    2000-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance can make the efficient treatment of bacterial infections in humans and animals more difficult. Antimicrobial use in food animals may be one of the factors contributing to resistance. The Spanish surveillance network VAV has established a baseline of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains from healthy pigs. Minimum inhibitory concentration and patterns of resistance to antimicrobials used in animals and humans were determined for 205 faecal strains isolated in a sampling frame of four slaughterhouses in Spain from 220 pigs in 1998. Higher levels of resistance were seen against antimicrobial agents authorised for use in food animals especially tetracycline, sulphonamides, trimethoprim and amoxycillin. All isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials employed mainly in humans such as ceftazidime, cefotaxime, imipenem, aztreonam and amikacin.

  11. A rare agent of spondylodiscitis in adult patient: Salmonella enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Aygen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are a public health problem in Turkey,as all over the world. Salmonella spp. can causevery different infections such as gastroenteritis, typhoidparatyphoidfever, bacteremia, local metastatic infectionsand chronic carriage. Salmonella spondylodiscitis occursrarely in the adult population. In this case report, we havepresented a 66 years old female patient followed with thediagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and treated with prednisolone.The patient had a new diagnosis of Salmonellaenteritidis and we aimed to discuss similar cases by theculture of lumbar empyema culture ampiciline, cefotaxime,trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin was revealedthe presence of resistant S.enteritidis. The patienthas received ciprofloxacin 2x200 mg per day for 3 weeksas intravenous. And patient was discharged with advice ofusing ciprofloxacin as per oral long three months.

  12. Current trend of drug sensitivity in bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ranjan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 190 milk samples of bovine mastitis and 138 samples were confirmed positives for microorganisms. All the 138 samples were subjected to drug sensitivity test. The most effective antibiotic was enrofloxacin (91.67% followed by ciprofloxacin (90.15%, amikacin (87.12%, ceftriaxone (84.10%, chloramphenicol (80.31%, cefotaxime (79.55% and gentamicin (77.27%. Microorganisms were mostly resistant to drugs like streptomycin, penicillinG, ampicillin, cloxacillin, amoxycillin and neomycin in increasing order of resistance. Hence, it is suggested that the line of treatment should be based on antibiogram study of various isolates from bovine mastitis. Further, the selection of drugs after culture and sensitivity test should be based on their ability to cross blood tissue barrier or mammary parenchyma, lipophilicity and ability to work in alkaline pH. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 17-20

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and capsular types of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in children in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echániz-Aviles, G; Velázquez-Meza, M E; Carnalla-Barajas, M N; Soto-Noguerón, A; Solórzano-Santos, F; Pérez Miravete, A; Gatica-Marquina, R; di Fabio, J L

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Sistema Regional de Vacunas (SIREVA) initiative, we conducted a surveillance study to determine the relative prevalence of capsular types of Streptococcus pneumoniae and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive isolates in children less than 5 years old. We collected 220 isolates and found 33 of the 90 known types, with type 23F as the most common followed by types 6A+B, 14, 19F, and 19A. High penicillin resistance was found in 49 strains (22.2%), 31 belonging to type 23F. Twenty-nine (13.1%) were resistant to erythromycin, 95 (43.1%) were resistant to chloramphenicol, and 24 (10.9%) were resistant to cefotaxime. No strains were resistant to vancomycin.

  14. Voltammetric and theoretical studies of electrochemical behavior of cephalosporins at the mercury electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the adsorption and electroreduction behavior of cefpodoxime proxetil, cefotaxime, desacetylcefotaxime, cefetamet, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and cefuroxime axetile at the mercury electrode surface has been performed using Cyclic (CV, Differential Pulse (DPV, and Adsorptive Stripping Differential Pulse Voltammetry (AdSDPV. The Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR study of the seven cephalosporins adsorption at the mercury electrode has been based on the density functional theory DFT-B3LYP/6-31G (d,p calculations of molecular orbitals, partial charges and electron densities of analytes. The DFT-parameters and QSPR model explain well the process of adsorption of the examined cephalosporins. QSPR study defined that cefalosporins with lower charge of sulphur in the thiazine moiety, lower electron density on the nitrogen atom of the N-O bond, higher number of hydrogen bond accepting groups, and higher principal moment of inertia should express high adsorption on the mercury electrode. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172033

  15. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoof, R; Gordts, B; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1980-07-01

    The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents were tested with the Dynatech MIC 2000 system against 86 strains of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from human sources. The penicillins (penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin) had poor activity. Ampicillin and amoxycillin were equally active. Cefotaxime revealed a rather good activity. Erythromycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and furazolidone were the most active compounds. Two strains (2.3%) were resistant to erythromycin. One strain (1.2%) was completely resistant to tobramycin. The tetracyclines (tetracyline, doxycycline, minocycline) were generally effective, but 8% of the strains were totally resistant to them. Minocycline was the most active. Chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, and clindamycin had good activity. The bacteriostatic and bactericidal distributions for colistin, nalidixic acid, and metronidazole were broad.

  16. [Comparative susceptibility of Ochrobactrum anthropi, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosidans and Bordetella bronchiseptica against 35 antibiotics including 17 beta-lactams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, C; Bizet, J

    1995-04-01

    Ochrobactrum anthropi, formerly known as "Achromobacter sp." or CDC group Vd has been isolated from water, hospital environment (antiseptic solutions, dialysis fluids ... ). O. anthropi is a Gram negative, motile, strictly aerobic, oxydase positive and non-fermentative bacteria with a strong urease activity. The susceptibility of 13 strains of O. anthropi was determined by agar diffusion method and compared to those of type strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The MICs of 20 antimicrobial agents confirmed the distinct phenotype susceptibility of O. anthropi. All the strains of O. anthropi are sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin, nalidixic acid, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin, colistin, sulphonamides and rifampicin and resistant to ampicillin, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid, ticarcillin, mezlocillin, cefuroxime, cefamandol, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazon, ceftazidime, cefsulodin, aztreonam, streptomycin, kanamycin, pipemidic acid, chloramphenicol, erythromicin, pristinamycin, trimethoprim and fosfomycin. O. anthropi is implicated in nosocomial infections. O. anthropi was the species with the greatest resistance to beta-lactamins.

  17. Long-term dissemination of CTX-M-5-producing hypermutable Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium sequence type 328 strains in Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, Varvara K; Ilina, Elena N; Malakhova, Maja V; Carattoli, Alessandra; Azizov, Ilya S; Tapalski, Dmitry V; Kozlov, Roman S; Edelstein, Mikhail V

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present evidence of long-term circulation of cefotaxime-resistant clonally related Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains over a broad geographic area. The genetic relatedness of 88 isolates collected from multiple outbreaks and sporadic cases of nosocomial salmonellosis in various parts of Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan from 1996 to 2009 was established by multilocus tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates belong to sequence type 328 (ST328) and produce CTX-M-5 β-lactamase, whose gene is carried by highly related non-self-conjugative but mobilizable plasmids. Resistance to nalidixic acid and low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin is present in 37 (42%) of the isolates and in all cases is determined by various single point mutations in the gyrA gene quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR). Isolates of the described clonal group exhibit a hypermutable phenotype that probably facilitates independent acquisition of quinolone resistance mutations.

  18. KPC-PRODUCING Serratia marcescens IN A HOME-CARE PATIENT FROM RECIFE, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margate, Emmily; Magalhães, Vera; Fehlberg, Lorena Cristina Corrêa; Gales, Ana Cristina; Lopes, Ana Catarina Souza

    2015-01-01

    In this brief communication we describe the occurrence of a KPC-producing Serratia marcescens isolate in a home-care patient from Recife, Brazil. The blaKPC, blaSPM, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and blaGES genes were investigated by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The isolate was positive for blaKPC-2 and blaTEM-1 and was resistant to aztreonam, cefepime, cefotaxime, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cefazidime, and susceptible only to amikacin, tigecycline and gatifloxacin. This is the first report in Brazil of KPC-producing S. marcescens clinical isolate outside of a hospital environment. Caregivers should be alert for the presence of this isolate in the community setting.

  19. STUDY ON BA C TERIOLOGY OF TONSILLITIS IN A HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Tonsillitis affects all age group s e specially children. Our aim is to find out the main causative agents responsible for causing tonsillitis. METHODS: The study was performed on 152 patients who come with sore throat as chief complaint. Swabs were taken from surface of palatine tonsil and cultured. RESULTS: Isolates were identified and suscep tibility test were performed. Out of 152 cases , 58(38.15% showed growth. Among positive cultures 52 (89.65% were less than 12 years and 6 (10.34% were more the 12 years. Strains showed high sensitivity to cefotaxime. Staphylococcus aureus was the most c ommon isolate cultured in both age groups. CONCLUSION: Out results demonstrate that Staphylococcus aureus is a common isolate that causes tonsillitis is all age group. Frequency of pathogens decreased with age. Strains showed lowest sensitivity against pen icillin.

  20. Evaluation of Eight Different Cephalosporins for Detection of Cephalosporin Resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik; Veldman, K

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamases in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. A total of 138 E. coli and 86 Salmonella isolates with known beta......-resistant but cephalosporin-susceptible, 56 ESBL isolates and 19 isolates with plasmidic AmpC, as well as 10 ampC hyper-producing E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration distributions and zone inhibitions varied with the tested compound. Ampicillin-resistant isolates showed reduced susceptibility to the cephalosporins...... compared to ampicillin-susceptible isolates. Cefoperazone, cefquinome, and cefuroxime were not useful in detecting isolates with ESBL or plasmidic AmpC. The best substances for detection were cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, and ceftriaxone, whereas ceftazidime and ceftiofur were not as efficient. Ceftriaxone may...

  1. Shigella flexneri-induced vaginitis in a prepubertal children: description of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Restelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In prepuberal girls vulvo-vaginitis are caused by germs of intestinal origin,mycetes, Gardnerella vaginalis, protozoa. Shigella is an uncommon agent able to induce valvovaginitis in children. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with chronic vulvo-vaginitis caused by S. flexneri. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing revealed that S. flexnery was sensible to cefotaxime, amoxicillin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, but resistant to amikacin, cefazolin, gentamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. A treatment with ciprofloxacin brought to a rapid resolution of all symptoms. At the follows up at 3 and 6 months the patient did not report symptoms of infection or articular cartilage abnormality; microbiological evaluations were also negative. Even if it is a single case report and other clinical trial may be performed in order to validate this hypothesis,we speculate that in patient with vulvo-vaginal infection living in environment with low hygiene care, a carefully microbiological evaluation of uncommon agents may be performed.

  2. Antibacterial activity of Beta vulgaris L. pomace extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velićanski Aleksandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of Beta vulgaris L. (beetroot pomace extract (concentration 100 mg/ml was tested against five Gram positive and seven Gram negative bacterial strains (reference cultures and natural isolates. Disc diffusion method with 15 µl of extract and agar-well diffusion method with 50 and 100 µl were used. Antibiotic (cefotaxime/clavulanic acid was used as a control sample. The tested extract showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, where clear zones (without growth appeared. There was no any activity against other tested Gram-positive bacteria, except for Staphylococcus epidermidis, with a small zone of reduced growth. Growth of all tested Gram-negative bacteria was inhibited usually with 100 µl of extract. The most susceptible were Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella typhymurium. The tested antibiotic gave clear, usually large zones for all tested strains except for Staphylococcus cohni spp. cohni, where only a zone of reduced growth appeared.

  3. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelowo, Olawale O.; Fagade, Obasola E.; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance in 36 E. coli isolated from waste, litter, soil and water samples collected from poultry farms in Southwestern Nigeria. Methodology: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of the isolates were determined using...... the methods of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute and resistance genes detected by PCR. Results: A total of 30 isolates (94%) showed resistance to more than one antimicrobial. Percentage resistance was: tetracycline 81%, sulphamethoxazole 67%, streptomycin 56%, trimethoprim 47 %, ciprofloxacin 42......%, ampicillin 36%, spectinomycin 28%, nalidixic acid 25%, chloramphenicol 22%, neomycin 14%, gentamicin 8%, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, colistin, florfenicol and apramycin 0%. Resistance genes found among the isolates include bla-TEM (85%), sul2 (67%), sul3 (17%), aadA (65%), strA (70%), str...

  4. Polymeric adsorbents with peptide pendants as artificial receptors for β-Mactam antibiotics by mimicking the binding sites of β-lactamases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建标; 谢志东; 王永健; 王亦农; 范云鸽; 何炳林

    1997-01-01

    A scries of polymeric adsorbents with peptide pendants were designed as the artificial receptors of β-laetarn antibiotics by mimicking the structures of binding site in β-lactamases.Crosslinked poly(N,N-dimethyl acry-lamide) gel as a carrier was prepared by suspension copolyrnerization of N,N-dimethyl acrylamide and N,N-bisacryl-diaminoethane and then functionalized with ethylenediamine after partial hydrolysis.Using solid-phase peptide synthesis with symmetrical anhydride of protected amino acid step by step,various peptide pendants were respectively anchored onto the functionalized carrier.The adsorption properties of these peptide-containing adsorbents for β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin and cefotaxime were then studied.The results showed that only those adsorbents in which peptide chains contained more than one lysine residues could obviously adsorb both β-lactams and that static interaction as well as hydrogen bond played an important role during the adsorption

  5. 双波长紫外分光光度法测定头孢噻肟钠与维生素C配伍的稳定性实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨良; 刘永久

    2001-01-01

    @@本实验采用双波长紫外分光光度法考察了头孢噻肟钠(cefotaxime,sodium)和维生素C注射液在0.9%氯化钠注射液中配伍稳定性,现报告如下. 1 仪器与试剂   UV-240PC型紫外分光光度计(日本津岛)420A型,pH计(USA ORION).头孢噻肟钠(中外合资通化茂祥制药有限公司,批号20000801),维生素C(佳木斯医学院制药厂,批号20000504),0.9%氯化钠注射液(佳木斯第二人民医院制剂室,批号20000808).

  6. Effects of antibiotics on explant regeneration of Actinidia chinensis%抗生素对中华猕猴桃外植体再生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚霄丽; 谭彬; 李继东; 张建鹏; 冯建灿

    2012-01-01

    【目的】为确定中华猕猴桃遗传转化中适宜的抗生素种类和浓度,【方法】以中华猕猴桃‘伏牛95—2’叶片为外植体,研究了抗生素对外植体再生的影响。【结果】抗生素敏感性测定发现,当卡那霉素质量浓度为20mg·^(-1)时,愈伤组织及不定芽分化率均为0,因此,20mg·L^(-1)卡那霉素为适宜的筛选浓度;头孢霉素和羧苄青霉素对中华猕猴桃‘伏牛95—2’叶片分化均有抑制作用,但头孢霉素对叶片分化的抑制作用比羧苄青霉素小,结合抑菌试验,将浓度400mg.L^(-1)头孢霉素确定为适宜于中华猕猴桃‘伏牛95—2’叶片遗传转化的抑菌抗生素。I结论】卡那霉素20mg·L。和头孢霉素400mg·L^(-1)为中华猕猴桃‘伏牛95—2’遗传转化适宜的抗生素及质量浓度。%[Objective] The study is to screen the suitable type and concentration of antibiotics for the transformation of A ctinidia chine ns is. [ Method ] Effects of antibiotics on explant regeneration were studied using leaves of A ctinidia chinensis ‘Funiu 95-2' as explants. [Result] The results showed that differentiation rate of callus and adventitious shoots was zero when 20 rag. L^(-1) kanamycin was added into the medium, so the optimal kanamycin concentration for the selection of transformants was 20 mg·L-1 based on the antibiotic sensitivity measurement. Differentiation of adventitious shoots was inhibited by adding Cefotaxime and Carbenicillin into the medium, while inhibition effect of Carbenicillin was stronger than that of Cefotaxime. 400 rag. L^(-1) Cefotaxime was optimal for genetic transformation by Agrobacteriumin in Actinidia chinensis ‘Funiu 95-2' [Conclusion] The studies suggested that 20 mg.L^(-1) Kanamycin and 400 rag.L^(-1) Cefotaxime were suitable for the transformation of Actinidia chinensis ‘Funiu 95-2'.

  7. Imaging in plague. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.J.; Rodriguez, A.A.; Turnbull, G.L.; Reeves, T.A.

    1987-09-01

    An 8-year-old boy presented with elevated temperature, malaise, hepatosplenomegaly, mesenteric adenitis, and septic shock. Cultures of biopsied abdominal lymph nodes as well as the blood grew Yersinia pestes. The boy's condition improved after two weeks of chloramphenicol and cefotaxime (Claforan). Two days after stopping intravenous antibiotic therapy, the patient again became febrile and complained of abdominal pain. Abdominal imaging with /sup III/In labeled leukocytes did not show any abnormalities, however, /sup 67/Ge-citrate scintigraphy demonstrated an abnormal focus of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake within a confluence of necrosed lymph nodes with the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. In addition, abnormal /sup 67/Ga uptake was seen within the left hip region. Correlative imaging with computed tomography is also presented.

  8. 头孢噻肟钠致三种严重不良反应1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施庆庆; 李安华

    2005-01-01

    头孢噻肟钠(Cefotaxime Sodium)为第3代头孢菌素,以其抗菌谱广,活性强,耐酶,价格相对便宜的特点在临床上得到广泛应用。其不良反应一般认为较轻,发生率也较低。作者偶见1例静滴该药2d后即出现3种严重不良反应:血小板减少性紫癜,血清ALT异常升高,足趾静脉炎、呈干性坏疽样改变。报道如下。

  9. 阿昔洛韦与头孢噻肟钠配伍稳定性的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景庄; 丁玮; 地力拜尔·乌斯满江

    2002-01-01

    @@阿昔洛韦(acyclovir)为一临床常用抗病毒药,主用于治疗单纯疱疹病毒Ⅰ、Ⅱ型感染和带状疱疹病毒感染。头孢噻肟钠(cefotaxime sodium)是半合成的第三代头孢菌素,为临床抗感染治疗的常规药物。两药配伍用于病毒与细菌混合感染性疾病的治疗有临床意义,但尚未见有两药配伍稳定性的实验报告。为给临床合理用药提供参考,本文考察了两药的配伍稳定性,现报道如下。……

  10. Analysis of the bacteria distribution and drug resistance in patients with medistream urine%尿路感染者中段尿细菌分布及耐药情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾娟; 张春访; 张建林; 陈相

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the bacteria distribution and drug resistance in patients with medistream urine.Meth-ods 140 patients with medistream urine were identified and determined by Semi-automatic system and susceptibility analyzers. Results(1) Gram-negative bacteria occupied 58.6% in medistream urine. (2) The rate of drug resistance of Escherichia coli to penicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime and levofloxacin was higher, respectively. The rate of drug resistance of Klebsiella pneumo-niae to cefotaxime was higher. The rate of drug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cefuroxime, cefotaxime and cotrimoxa-zole was 100%. (3) The rate of drug resistance of Staphylococcus to penicilin, and cefotaxime was higher, respectively. The rate of drug resistance of Enterococcus to gentamicin, amikacin and erythromycin was 100%, respectively.Conclusion Pathogenic bacteria are always multidrug-resistant, it is necessary to focus on the etiology examination and the rational use of antibiotics so as to reduce the drug resistance rate.%目的:了解140例患者中段尿培养检出细菌的分布及耐药情况。方法:对患者中段尿液阳性标本,采用半自动细菌鉴定分析仪及药敏分析仪进行鉴定和药敏分析。结果:(1)中段尿培养检出病原菌以革兰氏阴性菌为主,占58.6%。(2)革兰氏阴性菌中,大肠埃希菌对青霉素、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟及左氧氟沙星的耐药率均较高;肺炎克雷伯菌对头孢噻肟的耐药率较高;铜绿假单胞菌对头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟和复方新诺明的耐药率均达到100.0%。(3)革兰氏阳性菌中,葡萄球菌属对青霉素和头孢噻肟的耐药率较高;肠球菌属对庆大霉素、阿米卡星和红霉素的耐药率均达到100.0%。结论:临床上应加强对中段尿检测,病原菌对抗菌药物存在多药耐药性,指导临床合理用药,降低耐药率。

  11. Study of Antimicrobial Resistance of Acinetobacter Strains Isolated From Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zandi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acinetobacter spp are associated with various nosocomial infections like as septicemia and are isolated form blood cultures in hospitalized patients. Methods: In this study, 45 Acinetobacter strains were isolated from blood samples in Yazd shahid sadoughi hospital from 21 March 2005 to 20 September 2006 and were identified by biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility of the strains was tested by standard disk diffusion method. Results: In this research, 45 isolates identified as Acinetobacter and of isolated strains, 88.8% of them found sensitive to imipenem and 80% to ciprofloxacin. Also 51.5% to nalidixic Acid 24.5% to trimethoprim/sulphametoxazole, 11.1% to ceftazidim and ceftriaxone, 8.8% to cefotaxime and cefexime and also 6.6% to ceftizoxime. Conclusion: Because of increasing of drug resistance in Acinetobacter spp. Isolated from blood samples, it is necessary to perform susceptibility testing, also imipenem and ciprofloxacin recommended for drug therapy.

  12. 塞必与头孢噻肟钠治疗下呼吸道感染的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁恒勇

    2004-01-01

    头孢噻肟钠(Cefotaxime Sodium for Injection )为第3代头孢菌素类,对于敏感菌所致的肺炎及其他下呼吸道感染有显著的疗效,又因为其抗菌谱广,不良反应小,在临床得到了广泛的应用。我院于2003年7月,2003年10月对塞必与头孢噻肟钠对治疗下呼吸道感染的疗效作了比较。

  13. Inhibition of Four Kinds of Antibiotics on Endopyhtic Bacteria in ‘Zoji’ Strawberry and Their Effects on the Growth of Its in Vitro Shoots%4种抗生素对草莓‘章姬’内生菌的抑制及对试管苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 汤浩茹; 刘淑芳; 刘祥林; 李靖

    2005-01-01

    4种常用抗生素对‘章姬'草莓内生菌的抑制结果表明,卡那霉素(Kanamycin)不仅对内生菌无抑制效果,还对试管苗的生长有毒害作用.头孢霉素(Cefotaxime)和羧苄青霉素(Carbenicillin)的抑菌效果不明显,但对试管苗生长有促进作用.青霉素G钠(Penicinllin G sodium)对内生菌抑制效果很好,尤其是当其浓度为400mg/L时抑菌率可达100%,同时还对植株的生长有明显促进作用.

  14. Klebsiella pneumoniae with multiple antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Mendes

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was isolated from the urine of a patient at one of the centers participating in the 2001 edition of the MYSTIC program in Brazil. The initial phenotypic findings of the isolated K. pneumoniae presented an unusual MIC of 8 mug/mL to meropenem, 2 mug/mL to imipenem, elevated MICs to broad spectrum cephalosporins (ceftazidime/cefotaxime/cefepime MIC > 256 mug/mL, aminoglycosides (gentamycin > 256 mug/mL and tobramycin = 48 mug/mL, piperacillin/tazobactam (MIC > 256 mug/mL and susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC = 0.25 mug/mL. The strain also tested positive for ESBL production with double-disk and E-test methodologies. More detailed investigation revealed that the strain produced a SHV-4 type enzyme and also lacked a 36 kDa outer membrane porin.

  15. In Vitro Antibacterial Effect of Effective Microorganisms( EM) on Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu; Zhixiu; He; Houjun; Zhang; Wenbo; Wu; Xiangdong; Wan; Gen; Deng; Shunzhou; Liu; Songlin

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand in vitro antibacterial effect of antibiotics and EM on Aeromonas hydrophila,14 isolates of A. hydrophila were isolated from diseased fish and aquaculture in the study. PCR amplification results of aerolysin gene( Aero gene) of isolates indicated that 7 out of 14 isolates were pathogenic A.hydrophila. In vitro antibacterial test indicated that 14 isolates were resistance to penicillin G,ampicillin,cephradine,cefazolin,tetracycline,terimethoprim,lincomycin and cephalexin,but showed high sensitivity to cefotaxime and furazolidone. In vitro antibacterial effect of EM on 14 isolates of A. hydrophila was positively correlated with concentration,and EM with the concentration greater than 60% had antibacterial effect on 14 isolates.

  16. Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to cephalosporins by radiometric and conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifets, L.B.; Iseman, M.D.; Cook, J.L.; Lindholm-Levy, P.J.; Drupa, I.

    1985-01-01

    Among eight cephalosporins and cephamycins tested in preliminary in vitro screening against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most promising for further study was found to be ceforanide, followed by ceftizoxime, cephapirin, and cefotaxime. Moxalactam, cefoxitin, cefamandole, and cephalothin were found to be not active enough against M. tuberculosis to be considered for further in vitro studies. The antibacterial activity of various ceforanide concentrations was investigated by three methods: (i) the dynamics of radiometric readings (growth index) in 7H12 broth; (ii) the number of CFU in the same medium; and (iii) the proportion method on 7H11 agar plates. There was a good correlation among the results obtained with these methods. The MIC for most strains ranged from 6.0 to 25.0 micrograms/ml. The BACTEC radiometric method is a reliable, rapid, and convenient method for preliminary screening and determination of the level of antibacterial activity of drugs not commonly used against M. tuberculosis.

  17. [Meningoencephalitis due to Morganella morganii: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, M; Sène, M S; Sow, A D; Seck, L B; Coulibaly, T; Diagne, N S; Touré, K; Diop, A G; Ndiaye, M M

    2010-10-01

    A central nervous system infection due to Morganella morganii is uncommon. We report a case diagnosed at the neurological department of Fann teaching hospital in Dakar, Senegal. A 12-year-old boy was hospitalized for acute meningoencephalitis. The CT scan was normal and the study of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed cytological and biochemical abnormalities and M. morganii. HIV and syphilitic serologies were negative and blood CD4 lymphocyte count showed 354 per mm(3). The treatment with cefotaxime associated with gentamicin for 6 weeks was successful. The outcome of infection depends on many factors such as the onset and quality of treatment, the virulence of the germ and the status of immune system.

  18. Etiology of acute otitis media and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in Chilean children <5 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblut, Andres; Napolitano, Carla; Pereira, Angelica; Moreno, Camilo; Kolhe, Devayani; Lepetic, Alejandro; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged Streptococcus pneumoniae (41.7% [58/139]) and Haemophilus influenzae (40.3% [56/139]) were predominant among the cultures that showed bacterial growth (85% [139/164]). All Streptococcus pneumoniae positive episodes were serotyped, 19F (21%) and 14 (17%) were the predominant serotypes; all Haemophilus influenzae strains were nontypeable. Streptococcus pneumoniae were resistant to penicillin (5%) and erythromycin (33%); Haemophilus influenzae were resistant to ampicillin (14%) and cefuroxime and cefotaxime (2% each). AOM in Chilean children is predominantly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Use of a broad spectrum vaccine against these pathogens might aid the reduction of AOM in Chile. PMID:28178138

  19. [Cefditoren pivoxil: A new oral cephalosporin for skin, soft tissue and respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martin, J; Romá, E; Salavert, M; Doménech, L; Poveda, J L

    2006-09-01

    Cefditoren pivoxil, a new-third generation cephalosporin antibiotic that has recently been granted approval in Spain, shows important activity over a large part of the pathogens causing skin, soft tissue and respiratory tract infections, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Cefditoren has also been shown to be stable against hydrolysis by many common beta-lactamases. Data from in vitro studies and clinical trials show this antibiotic as an oral formulation with an intrinsic activity against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae equivalent to that of other third-generation cephalosporins administered via parenteral, like cefotaxime or ceftriaxone, thereby placing its maximal benefits mainly in the treatment of ambulatory infections. This paper reviews the main characteristics of cefditoren pivoxil (spectrum of activity, chemical structure, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and clinical efficacy) and attempts to find its place in current antibiotic therapeutics.

  20. Third generation cephalosporins in the parenteral to oral switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, D

    1994-01-01

    In the present economic climate, it is increasingly necessary to ensure the cost-effectiveness of all aspects of healthcare. The expenditure on medications in a hospital is largely determined by the workload and throughput, but efforts to rationalise the use of medications will result in benefits both in patient care and overall costs. The purpose of this report is to discuss the advantages of switching from parenteral to oral cephalosporin therapy after the initial stage of infection treatment, the potential of presently available oral cephalosporins for use in a parenteral-to-oral switch regimen, and the outcome of a parenteral-to-oral switch programme, which used parenteral cefotaxime and oral cefixime, implemented at Hillingdon Hospital.

  1. Clostridium difficile bacteremia and meningitis as a complication of prolonged cephalosporin therapy in a case of staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhrajit Ganguly; Saibal Das; Jayanta Kumar Dey; Somnath Mondal

    2012-01-01

    With increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, several extra-intestinal manifestations of the organism have been unmasked which include-bacteremia, brain abscess, pericarditis etc. We report a rare and interesting case of C. difficile bacteremia and subsequent meningitis in a 10 year old child. The child was immune competent, which further raises the question about the virulent possibilities of the organism and its implications in the near future. The condition resulted from a prolonged treatment with intravenous (I.V.) cefotaxime for staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis. The child recovered from the septic arthritis but on the 7th day post-admission developed features of bacteremia. The child was later treated with intravenous metronidazole and vancomycin and he was discharged on the 21st day post-admission. No recurrence of symptoms was noted.

  2. Clostridium difficile bacteremia and meningitis as a complication of prolonged cephalosporin therapy in a case of staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhrajit Ganguly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, several extra-intestinal manifestations of the organism have been unmasked which include-bacteremia, brain abscess, pericarditis etc. We report a rare and interesting case of C. difficile bacteremia and subsequent meningitis in a 10 year old child. The child was immune competent, which further raises the question about the virulent possibilities of the organism and its implications in the near future. The condition resulted from a prolonged treatment with intravenous (I.V. cefotaxime for staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis. The child recovered from the septic arthritis but on the 7th day post-admission developed features of bacteremia. The child was later treated with intravenous metronidazole and vancomycin and he was discharged on the 21st day post-admission. No recurrence of symptoms was noted.

  3. Resistencia a penicilina y otros antimicrobianos en 103 aislamientos clínicos de Streptococcus pneumoniae (2000-2001 Resistance to penicillin and other antimicrobials in 103 clinical isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae (2000-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. García-Irure

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos. Conocer en nuestro hospital la sensibilidad a penicilina de aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, así como analizar la asociación de resistencia a penicilina y otros antimicrobianos y la actividad de cefotaxima y cefepima en cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistentes a penicilina. Métodos. Se determinó la sensibilidad de 103 aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, procedentes de muestras clínicas durante los años 2000-2001, a penicilina, eritromicina, cloramfenicol, tetraciclina, cotrimoxazol, cefotaxima, cefepima y levofloxacino. Resultados. El 68% de los aislamientos fueron sensibles a penicilina, mientras que un 32% de las cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae aisladas fueron resistentes a penicilina, presentando el 7,7% resistencia de alto grado a la misma. La resistencia a eritromicina, cloramfenicol, tetraciclina, cotrimoxazol y levofloxacino fue del 38,8; 9,7; 20,4; 25,2 y 2,9% respectivamente, incrementándose a valores del 66,6; 30,3; 48,5; 72,7 y 9,1% en las 33 cepas con resistencia a penicilina. La resistencia a cefotaxima y cefepima fue del 9,7 y 10,6% respectivamente. Conclusiones. Un alto porcentaje de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae presentaron algún grado de resistencia a penicilina, pero con cifras menores que las presentadas en otros estudios de ámbito nacional. Asimismo, se demostró que la resistencia a penicilina se asociaba significativamente (p Background. To determine in our hospital the sensitivity of isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin, as well as to analyse the association of resistance to penicillin and other antimicrobials and the activity of cefotaxime and cefepime in pencillin resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods. The sensitivity was determined on 103 isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae, from clinical samples from the years 2000-2001, to penicillin, eritromycine, cloramfenicol, tetracycline, cotrimoxazol, cefotaxime, cefepime and levofloxacine

  4. Brodie's abscess of medial distal femoral condyle after a thorn prick: rare clinical presentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hira L Nag; Ramprasad Kancherla; Aftab Malpura

    2012-01-01

    Thorn prick injuries are generally conceded frivolous and rarely demand medical attention.Howbeit deep seated injuries are well described in the literature.We presented a case of thorn prick injury to the knee that manifested as Brodie's abscess of the medial distal femoral condyle and synovitis.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)and ultrasonography could only construe the affliction but not spot the thorn.Arthrotomy was undertaken for exploration and debridement.Empirical therapy with initial systemic Cefotaxime and subsequent Ofloxacin worked well after the surgery.Deep seated injuries by a thorn prick may take a protracted and torpid course.Thorough curettage of the bony lesion and debridement are vital for proper management.

  5. Brodie's abscess of medial distal femoral condyle after a thorn prick: rare clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hira L Nag

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Thorn prick injuries are generally con-ceded frivolous and rarely demand medical attention. How-beit deep seated injuries are well described in the literature. We presented a case of thorn prick injury to the knee that manifested as Brodie's abscess of the medial distal femoral condyle and synovitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and ultrasonography could only construe the affliction but not spot the thorn. Arthrotomy was undertaken for explora-tion and debridement. Empirical therapy with initial systemic Cefotaxime and subsequent Ofloxacin worked well after the surgery. Deep seated injuries by a thorn prick may take a protracted and torpid course. Thorough curettage of the bony lesion and debridement are vital for proper manage-ment. Key words: Thorn; Wounds and injuries; Knee; Osteomyelitis; Synovitis

  6. The antibiotic susceptibility and extended spectrum β-lactamase genotype of clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae%肺炎克雷伯菌药敏分析及其超广谱β内酰胺酶基因分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨朵; 王占伟; 郭宇; 张正

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the antibiotic susceptibility, ESBL genotype of clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from People′s hospital and facilitate the control of resistance spread. Methods Identification and antibiotic susceptibility tests of 1 205 strains from 2001 to 2007 were done by VITEK-2 system.The antibiotic susceptibility results were analyzed by whonet5.3.The ESBL gene was detected by PCR and the Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.Results The rate of ESBL-producing strains in klebsiella pneumoniae has increased from 2001 to 2007[18.8% (40/213) in 2001, 20.9% (53/253) in 2002, 32.8% (42/128) in 2003, 33.6% (45/137) in 2004, 36.6% (60/164) in 2005, 45.3% (68/150) in 2006 and 45.6% (73/160) in 2007].The SHV gene was the most dominant in ESBL genotypes.There were 83.3% (50/60) ESBL strains in 2005 with SHV gene, 82.3%(56/68) in 2006 and 83.6%(61/73) in 2007.The rated of strains with CTX-M gene were increasing.There were 26.7%(16/60) ESBL strains with CTX-M gene in 2005, 36.7%(25/68) in 2006 and 54.8%(40/73) in 2007.The isolates with more than one type of ESBL gene were increasing.There were 45%(27/60) ESBL strains in 2005 with two types of ESBL gene, and no one had more than two types of ESBL gene in that year.There were 47.9%(35/73) ESBL strains in 2007 with two types of ESBL gene.In 2007 there were 9.6%(7/73) and 2.7%(2/73) ESBL strains with three types and four types of ESBL gene respectively.There was a statistical difference between the antibiotic resistance rates of cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime in SHV-gene-phore strains (χ2=13.22, P<0.01).The strains with SHV gene were more resistant to cefotaxime than ceftriaxone and ceftazidime.There also was a statistical difference of the antibiotic resistance rate of cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime between strains with TEM gene (χ2=9.91, P<0.01) and CTX-M gene (χ2=34.84, P<0.01) respectively.None of the strains with CTX-M gene was sensitive to cefotaxime, and

  7. Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile in cooked beef sold in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Kra Athanase; Dadie, Adjéhi Thomas; N'Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Dje, Koffi Marcellin; Loukou, Yao Guillaume

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in cooked beef sold in the streets in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 395 kidney and flesh samples of cooked beef were collected from vendors at Abidjan and subjected to C. difficile and C. perfringens isolation and identification by using biochemical tests, API 20A system and PCR detection. Subsequently, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for confirmed isolates. Our results showed the prevalence of 12.4% for C. difficile (11.04% in kidney and 13.45% in flesh) and 5.06% for C. perfringens (2.32% in kidney and 7.17% in flesh). Metronidazole and vancomycin remained the most potent antimicrobial agents against C. difficile while metronidazole and penicillin G were the most potent agents against C. perfringens. The resistance rates to tetracycline, doxycycline, chloramphenicol and erythromycin against C. difficile and C. perfringens isolates ranged from 2.05% to 8.16% and from 20% to 50%, respectively. Among all antimicrobial agents tested against C. difficile, percentages of resistance to quinolones ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid as well as to gentamicin and cefotaxime were the highest. Eight resistant phenotypes were defined for C. difficile isolates and eleven resistant phenotypes for C. perfringens isolates. Clindamycin/gentamicin/cefotaxime/ciprofloxacin/norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. difficile (55.10% of isolates) while norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. perfringens (20% of isolates).

  8. First detection of CTX-M-1, CMY-2, and QnrB19 resistance mechanisms in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy pets in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallem, Rym Ben; Gharsa, Haythem; Slama, Karim Ben; Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Estepa, Vanesa; Porres-Osante, Nerea; Jouini, Ahlem; Klibi, Naouel; Sáenz, Yolanda; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen

    2013-02-01

    Our objective was to analyze the carriage rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmidic AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC)-producing Escherichia coli isolates in fecal samples of healthy pets (dogs and cats) and to characterize the recovered isolates for the presence of other resistance genes and integrons. Eighty fecal samples of healthy pets were inoculated in MacConkey agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2 μg/mL) for cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) E. coli recovery. CTX(R) E. coli isolates were detected in 14 of the 80 fecal samples (17.5%) and the following β-lactamase genes (number of isolates) were detected: bla(CTX-M-1) (8), bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM-1b) (3)(,) bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM-1c) (1), bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM-135) (1), and bla(CMY-2)+bla(TEM-1b) (1). The 14 E. coli were distributed into the phylogroups B1 (6 isolates), A (5), and D (3). The qnrB19 gene was detected in one CTX-M-1-producing strain of phylogroup D. Five isolates contained class 1 integrons with the following arrangements: dfrA17-aadA5 (2 isolates), dfrA1-aadA1 (1), and dfrA17-aadA5/ dfrA1-aadA1 (2 isolates). The virulence genes fimA and/or aer were detected in all CTX(R) strains. In this study, the pet population harbored β-lactamase and quinolone resistance genes of special interest in human health that potentially could be transmitted to humans in close contact with them.

  9. QUINOLONE- AND ETA-LACTAM- RESISTANCE IN Escherichia coli FROM DANISH AND ITALIAN BROILER FLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trevisani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of quinolone- and -lactam-resistant E. coli was investigated among healthy broiler flocks in Denmark and Italy. In Denmark, sock samples were collected from 10 parent flocks and 10 offspring flocks, according to the procedure currently used for the surveillance of Salmonella in the EU. Samples were enriched in McConkey broth and streaked on McConkey agar plates added with nalidixic acid (32 g/ml, ciprofloxacin (2 g/ml, ampicillin (32 g/ml, cefotaxime (2 g/ml or ceftiofur (8 g/ml. The -glucuronidase test was performed for verification of presumptive E. coli. The same methods were used to analyse sock samples collected from 6 Italian broiler flocks. PCR with primers for the CTX-M-type extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs was performed on cephalosporin-resistant isolates. While resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid was widespread in both countries, resistance to ciprofloxacin and cephalosporins was more common among Italian flocks. In Denmark, ciprofloxacin resistance was only detected in 1 parent flock without any history of quinolone usage and none of the flocks was positive for cephalosporin-resistant E. coli. In Italy, resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected in all flocks and resistance to ceftiofur and cefotaxime were detected in 5 flocks. Primers specific for the CTX-M-type ESBLs generated PCR amplicons from isolates from 3 of these flocks. In industrialized countries, the poultry production system is highly standardized, and therefore comparable. However, the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials is particularly limited in Danish poultry production. Accordingly, the results of this study could reflect the different policies in antimicrobial usage between the two countries.

  10. In vitro susceptibility pattern of acinetobacter species to commonly used cephalosporins, quinolones, and aminoglycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth K

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Acinetobacter spp. is an emerging important nosocomial pathogen. Clinical isolates of this genus are often resistant to many antibiotics. The in vitro susceptibility of Acinetobacter isolates obtained from patients were tested for currently used antibiotics. In addition, the study aimed at biotyping of Acinetobacter baumannii. METHODS: A total of 66 isolates were phenotypically characterised through a large panel of 25 carbon assimilation tests and susceptibility through disc diffusion method with 10 antimicrobial agents were tested. MICs were determined only for second line broad-spectrum drugs such as cefotaxime, ceftazidime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin using NCCLS guidelines. RESULTS: Multiple drug resistance (MDR was only witnessed in A. baumannii and not in other Acinetobacter species. Aminoglycosides such as amikacin, netilmicin were most active against the MDR isolates tested (60% susceptibility. Ceftazidime was more active than cefotaxime. MDR A. baumannii strains were susceptible only to amikacin, netilmicin and ceftadizime. Ciprofloxacin had poor activity irrespective of isolates belonging to different DNA groups tested (58% resistance overall, 79% among A. baumannii. Strains of Biotypes 6 and 19 of A. baumannii showed broader resistance than those of biotype 10 and others. CONCLUSIONS: Strains of A. baumannii from patients in our hospital, were generally more resistant to quinolones, -lactam antibiotics, first and second generation cephalosporins and partially resistant to third generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides. The strains belonging to other DNA groups of Acinetobacter were comparatively less resistant than A.baumannii, except ciprofloxacin. This study suggests that, a combination therapy, using a third generation cephalosporin and amikacin, would be best choice for treating Acinetobacter infections.

  11. Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases and Antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae from Clinical and Drinking Water Sources from Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Bayeh; Kibret, Mulugeta; Mulu, Wondemagegn

    2016-01-01

    Background The spread of Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has become a serious global problem. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae vary based on differences in antibiotic use, nature of patients and hospital settings. This study was aimed at determining ESBL and antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical and drinking water sources in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Enterobacteriaceae species were isolated from clinical materials and tap water using standard culturing procedures from September 2013 to March 2015. ESBL-producing-Enterobacteriaceae were detected using double-disk method by E-test Cefotaxim/cefotaxim+ clavulanic acid and Ceftazidime/ceftazidime+ clavulanic acid (BioMerieux SA, France) on Mueller Hinton agar (Oxoid, UK). Results Overall, 274 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. Of these, 210 (44%) were from patients and 64 (17.1%) were from drinking water. The median age of the patients was 28 years. Urinary tract infection and blood stream infection accounted for 60% and 21.9% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from 9 (75%) of neonatal sepsis. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in clinical and drinking water samples were 57.6% and 9.4%, respectively. The predominant ESBL-producers were K. pneumoniae 34 (69.4%) and Escherichia coli 71 (58.2%). Statistically significant associations were noted between ESBL-producing and non- producing Enterobacteriaceae with regard to age of patients, infected body sites and patient settings (P = 0.001). ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae showed higher levels of resistance against chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole than non-ESBL producers (P = 0.001) Conclusions ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae coupled with high levels of other antimicrobials become a major concern for treatment of patients with invasive infections such as blood stream infections, neonatal sepsis and urinary

  12. Altered antibiotic transport in OmpC mutants isolated from a series of clinical strains of multi-drug resistant E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubing Lou

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly gram negative species, present significant health care challenges. The permeation of antibiotics through the outer membrane is largely effected by the porin superfamily, changes in which contribute to antibiotic resistance. A series of antibiotic resistant E. coli isolates were obtained from a patient during serial treatment with various antibiotics. The sequence of OmpC changed at three positions during treatment giving rise to a total of four OmpC variants (denoted OmpC20, OmpC26, OmpC28 and OmpC33, in which OmpC20 was derived from the first clinical isolate. We demonstrate that expression of the OmpC K12 porin in the clinical isolates lowers the MIC, consistent with modified porin function contributing to drug resistance. By a range of assays we have established that the three mutations that occur between OmpC20 and OmpC33 modify transport of both small molecules and antibiotics across the outer membrane. This results in the modulation of resistance to antibiotics, particularly cefotaxime. Small ion unitary conductance measurements of the isolated porins do not show significant differences between isolates. Thus, resistance does not appear to arise from major changes in pore size. Crystal structures of all four OmpC clinical mutants and molecular dynamics simulations also show that the pore size is essentially unchanged. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that perturbation of the transverse electrostatic field at the constriction zone reduces cefotaxime passage through the pore, consistent with laboratory and clinical data. This subtle modification of the transverse electric field is a very different source of resistance than occlusion of the pore or wholesale destruction of the transverse field and points to a new mechanism by which porins may modulate antibiotic passage through the outer membrane.

  13. Altered antibiotic transport in OmpC mutants isolated from a series of clinical strains of multi-drug resistant E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hubing; Chen, Min; Black, Susan S; Bushell, Simon R; Ceccarelli, Matteo; Mach, Tivadar; Beis, Konstantinos; Low, Alison S; Bamford, Victoria A; Booth, Ian R; Bayley, Hagan; Naismith, James H

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly gram negative species, present significant health care challenges. The permeation of antibiotics through the outer membrane is largely effected by the porin superfamily, changes in which contribute to antibiotic resistance. A series of antibiotic resistant E. coli isolates were obtained from a patient during serial treatment with various antibiotics. The sequence of OmpC changed at three positions during treatment giving rise to a total of four OmpC variants (denoted OmpC20, OmpC26, OmpC28 and OmpC33, in which OmpC20 was derived from the first clinical isolate). We demonstrate that expression of the OmpC K12 porin in the clinical isolates lowers the MIC, consistent with modified porin function contributing to drug resistance. By a range of assays we have established that the three mutations that occur between OmpC20 and OmpC33 modify transport of both small molecules and antibiotics across the outer membrane. This results in the modulation of resistance to antibiotics, particularly cefotaxime. Small ion unitary conductance measurements of the isolated porins do not show significant differences between isolates. Thus, resistance does not appear to arise from major changes in pore size. Crystal structures of all four OmpC clinical mutants and molecular dynamics simulations also show that the pore size is essentially unchanged. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that perturbation of the transverse electrostatic field at the constriction zone reduces cefotaxime passage through the pore, consistent with laboratory and clinical data. This subtle modification of the transverse electric field is a very different source of resistance than occlusion of the pore or wholesale destruction of the transverse field and points to a new mechanism by which porins may modulate antibiotic passage through the outer membrane.

  14. Altered Antibiotic Transport in OmpC Mutants Isolated from a Series of Clinical Strains of Multi-Drug Resistant E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Matteo; Mach, Tivadar; Beis, Konstantinos; Low, Alison S.; Bamford, Victoria A.; Booth, Ian R.; Bayley, Hagan; Naismith, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly Gram negative species, present significant health care challenges. The permeation of antibiotics through the outer membrane is largely effected by the porin superfamily, changes in which contribute to antibiotic resistance. A series of antibiotic resistant E. coli isolates were obtained from a patient during serial treatment with various antibiotics. The sequence of OmpC changed at three positions during treatment giving rise to a total of four OmpC variants (denoted OmpC20, OmpC26, OmpC28 and OmpC33, in which OmpC20 was derived from the first clinical isolate). We demonstrate that expression of the OmpC K12 porin in the clinical isolates lowers the MIC, consistent with modified porin function contributing to drug resistance. By a range of assays we have established that the three mutations that occur between OmpC20 and OmpC33 modify transport of both small molecules and antibiotics across the outer membrane. This results in the modulation of resistance to antibiotics, particularly cefotaxime. Small ion unitary conductance measurements of the isolated porins do not show significant differences between isolates. Thus, resistance does not appear to arise from major changes in pore size. Crystal structures of all four OmpC clinical mutants and molecular dynamics simulations also show that the pore size is essentially unchanged. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that perturbation of the transverse electrostatic field at the constriction zone reduces cefotaxime passage through the pore, consistent with laboratory and clinical data. This subtle modification of the transverse electric field is a very different source of resistance than occlusion of the pore or wholesale destruction of the transverse field and points to a new mechanism by which porins may modulate antibiotic passage through the outer membrane. PMID:22053181

  15. Beta-lactamase characterization in Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility or resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from sick animals in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Zarazaga, Myriam; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, Concepción; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    A total of 1439 Escherichia coli isolates from sick animals were received from the Spanish Network of Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (VAV) from 1997 to 2001. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed and diminished susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftazidime was identified in 2.5% and 2.8% of the isolates, respectively. Beta-lactamase characterization was carried out in the group of 20 E. coli isolates with both characteristics. The MIC ranges of different beta-lactams showed by these 20 isolates were as follows (in microg/ml): ampicillin (64-->256), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (4-64), ticarcillin (8-->128), cefazolin (32-->256), cefoxitin (4-->128), cefotaxime (1-64), ceftazidime (2-->64), ceftriaxone (0.5-64), imipenem (32). TEM, SHV, CMY, and FOX beta-lactamase genes were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. The beta-lactamase genes detected were the following ones (number of isolates): bla(TEM-1b) (3), bla(TEM-1a) (1), bla(TEM-30f) (2), bla(TEM-1b) + bla(CMY-2) (2), and bla(SHV-12) (1). Sequences of the promoter and/or attenuator region of the chromosomal ampC gene were studied in all the 20 isolates. Mutations at position -42 or -32 were detected in 16 isolates and these mutations were associated with the presence of a TEM type beta-lactamase in 6 isolates. Besides, a high variety of plasmidic beta-lactamases was detected including TEM-30 and CMY-2. To our knowledge, this is the first time that TEM-30 beta-lactamase has been detected in E. coli isolates of animal origin.

  16. Emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enteric bacteria in hospital wastewater and clinical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Meenu; Yaser, Nawar Hadi; Naz, Suraiya; Fatima, Mansha; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ciprofloxacin-resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enteric bacteria in hospital wastewater and clinical sources. Enteric bacteria, mainly Escherichia coli, were isolated from clinical sources (urinary tract and gastrointestinal tract infections; 80 isolates) and hospital wastewater (103 isolates). The antibiotic resistance profile and ESBL production of the isolates were investigated by disc diffusion assay and combined disc diffusion test, respectively. Plasmid profiling was performed by agarose gel electrophoresis, and elimination of resistance markers was performed by a plasmid curing experiment. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed a high incidence of β-lactam resistance, being highest to ampicillin (88.0%) followed by amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, cefpodoxime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, cefepime and ceftazidime. Among the non-β-lactam antibiotics, the highest resistance was recorded to nalidixic acid (85.7%). Moreover, 50.8% of enteric bacteria showed resistance to ciprofloxacin. Among 183 total enteric bacteria, 150 (82.0%) exhibited multidrug resistance. ESBL production was detected in 78 isolates (42.6%). A significantly higher incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance was observed among ESBL-producing enteric bacteria both in clinical (P=0.0015) and environmental isolates (P=0.012), clearly demonstrating a close association between ESBL production and ciprofloxacin resistance. Plasmid profiling of selected ESBL-positive strains indicated the presence of one or more plasmids of varying sizes. Plasmid curing resulted in loss of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime resistance markers simultaneously from selected ESBL-positive isolates, indicating the close relationship of these markers. This study revealed a common occurrence of ciprofloxacin-resistant ESBL-producing enteric bacteria both in hospital wastewater and clinical sources, indicating a potential public health threat.

  17. Emergence of a Clonal Lineage of Multidrug-Resistant ESBL-Producing Salmonella Infantis Transmitted from Broilers and Broiler Meat to Humans in Italy between 2011 and 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Franco

    Full Text Available We report the spread of a clone of multidrug-resistant (MDR, ESBL-producing (blaCTX-M-1 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis, in the Italian broiler chicken industry and along the food-chain. This was first detected in Italy in 2011 and led to human infection in Italy in 2013-2014.A set (n = 49 of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC-resistant (R isolates of S. Infantis (2011-2014 from humans, food-producing animals and meat thereof, were studied along with a selected set of earlier and more recent ESC-susceptible (ESC-S isolates (n = 42, 2001-2014. They were characterized by macrorestriction-PFGE analysis and genetic environment of ESC-resistance. Isolates representative of PFGE-patterns and origin were submitted to Whole Genome Sequencing. The emerging ESC-R clone, detected mainly from broiler chickens, broiler meat and humans, showed a minimum pattern of clinical resistance to cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim, beside ciprofloxacin microbiological resistance (MIC 0.25 mg/L. All isolates of this clone harbored a conjugative megaplasmid (~ 280-320 Kb, similar to that described in ESC-susceptible S. Infantis in Israel (pESI-like in 2014. This megaplasmid carried the ESBL gene blaCTX-M-1, and additional genes [tet(A, sul1, dfrA1 and dfrA14] mediating cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and trimethoprim resistance. It also contained genes conferring enhanced colonization capability, virulence (fimbriae, yersiniabactin, resistance and fitness (qacE1, mer in the intensive-farming environment. This emerging clone of S. Infantis has been causing infections in humans, most likely through the broiler industry. Since S. Infantis is among major serovars causing human infections in Europe and is an emerging non-typhoidal Salmonella globally, further spread of this lineage in primary productions deserves quick and thorough risk-management strategies.

  18. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.

  19. Prevalence and Antibiogram of Generic Extended-Spectrum β-Lactam-Resistant Enterobacteria in Healthy Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoma Chinyere UGWU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to isolate generic extended-spectrum β-lactam (ESBL-resistant enterobacteria from pigs reared in Enugu State Southeast, Nigeria and determine the antibacterial resistance profile of the isolates. Rectal swabs were collected from 190, randomly selected, apparently healthy pigs. Isolation of ESBL-resistant enterobacteria was done using Mac Conkey agar supplemented with 2 µg/ml of cefotaxime. Phenotypic characterization of the isolates to generic level was done following standard biochemical methods. Phenotypic resistance of the isolates to antibacterial agents was determined using the disc diffusion method. Out of 46 ESBL-resistant enterobacterial isolates, 4 (8.7% were Escherichia coli, 11 (23.9% were Salmonella species, while 31 (67.4% were Klebsiella species. Resistance of the Salmonella isolates was 45.5% to ciprofloxacin, 36.4% to ofloxacin and levofloxacin, 9.1% to norfloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin, 27.3% to streptomycin, 72.7% to chloramphenicol and 90.9% to tetracycline. Resistance of the Klebsiella isolates was 93.5% to ampicillin, 12.9% to ciprofloxacin, 19.4% to ofloxacin and levofloxacin, 9.7% to norfloxacin and streptomycin, 64.5% to chloramphenicol and 38.7% to tetracycline. Resistance of the E. coli isolates was 100% to gentamicin, 75% to ampicillin and streptomycin, 50% to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline, and 25% to ofloxacin, levofloxacin and amikacin. All the isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefpodoxime, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and aztreonam. Resistance of the isolates to more than 3 classes of antibacterial agents tested was 54.8% for Klebsiella, 90.9% for Salmonella and 100% for E. coli, respectively. This study has shown that pigs reared in Enugu State Southeast, Nigeria, are colonized by ESBL-resistant Enterobactericeae and are potential reservoirs and disseminators of these organisms.

  20. Detection and Drug Resistance Analysis of ESBLs and AmpC in Intestinal Bacteria%肠杆菌科细菌ESBLs和AmpC酶检测及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丹; 陆阳; 马良

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨肠杆菌科细菌ESBLs和AmpC酶检测及耐药性。方法选取300株肠杆菌,AmpC酶、ESBLs表型通过双纸片确诊试验、双纸片氯唑西林增效试验予以测定,观察300株菌种对10种抗菌药物的耐药性。结果300株肠杆菌中检测到ESBLs菌158株,AmpC酶菌130株;单产AmpC酶菌对头孢曲松、氨曲南、哌拉西林、头孢噻肟产生的耐药性明显低于非产酶菌,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 ESBLs和AmpC酶是造成肠杆菌细菌产生耐药的重要原因,可依照实际药敏结果采取合理治疗。%Objective To study the enterobacteriaceae bacteria ESBLs and AmpC enzyme detection and drug resistance.Methods Chose 300 strains of intestinal bacilli, AmpC enzyme, ESBLs phenotype by double disc conifrmatory test, observation of 300 strains bacteria resistance of 10 kinds of antimicrobial agents.Results 300 strains of intestinal bacilli detected in ESBLs 158 strains bacteria, AmpC enzyme 130 strains bacteria; The yield of AmpC enzyme bacteria resistance to ceftriaxone, aztreonam, cefotaxime and cefotaxime have signiifcantly lower than that of enzyme producing bacteria, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05).ConclusionESBLs and AmpC enzyme is the important cause of bacteria resistance, can be in accordance with the actual drug susceptibility results take reasonable treatment.

  1. [Pneumococcal meningitis in children under 15 years of age in Misiones (Argentina). Sixteen year's epidemiological surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenón, Sandra L; Salvi Grabulosa, Marcelo C; Regueira, Mabel M; Fossati, María S; von Specht, Martha H

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of pneumococcal meningitis surveillance conducted at the Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Posadas, Misiones (Argentina), before the conjugate vaccine was introduced into the national vaccination schedule. Between January 1994 and December 2009, 167 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis were diagnosed in children aged 1 month to 15 years. The attack rate/100,000 children ranged from 19.2 (1997) to 4.3 (2009), with a mean of 10.6 and a tendency to decrease (y=-0.689x+16.52). The number of cases per 100,000 children decreased from 146.6 to 34.8 and particularly involved the group of children aged 1 to 11 months (94/167, 56%). Thirty point seven percent (30.7%) (46/150) of the isolates were resistant to penicillin whereas 16.7% (25/150) were non-susceptible to cefotaxime. β-lactam resistance increased as from 1997 and began to decline in 2005. Nineteen serotypes were detected; type 14 was predominant and accounted for 32% (40/125). Eighty four point eight percent (84.8%) of the isolates were circumscribed to nine serotypes: 14, 5, 1, 7F, 18C, 6B, 9N, 9V and 4. Theoretical coverage for patients aged 2 years was 84.1% (74/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 10-valent vaccine and 89.8 % (79/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 13-valent vaccine respectively. Penicillin resistance was restricted to 8 serotypes (14, 6B, 6A, 9V, 4, 23B, 19A1) and nonsusceptibility to cefotaxime was circumscribed to 3 serotypes (14, 9V and 1). This study will allow to evaluate the impact of the implementation of conjugate vaccines on our area.

  2. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit of Fatmawati Hospital,Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maksum; Radji; Siti; Fauziah; Nurgani; Aribinuko

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit(ICU) of a tertiary care of Falmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia.Methods:A cross sectional retrospective study of bacterial pathogen was carried out on a total of 722 patients that were admitted to the ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia during January 2009 to March 2010. All bacteria were identified by standard microbiologic methods,and(heir antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method.Results:Specimens were collected from 385 patients who were given antimicrobial treatment,of which 249(64.68%) were cultured positive and 136(35.32%) were negative.The most predominant isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P.aeruginosa)(26.5%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae(K.pneumoniae)(15.3%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis(14.9%).P.aeruginosa isolates showed high rate of resistance to cephalexin(95.3%),cefotaxime(64.1%),and ceftriaxone(60.9%).Amikacin was the most effective(84.4%) antibiotic against P.aeruginosa followed by imipenem(81.2%),and meropenem(75.0%).K.pneumoniae showed resistance to cephalexin(86.5%),ceftriaxone(75.7%),ceftazidime(73.0%),cefpirome(73.0%) and cefotaxime(67.9%),respectively.Conclusions:Most bacteria isolated from ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia were resistant to the third generation of cephalosporins,and quinolone antibiotics.Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility pallerns is very important for setting orders to guide the clinician in choosing empirical or directed therapy of infected patients.

  3. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M enzymes carried by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun CHENG; Ying YE; Ying-ying WANG; Hui LI; Xu LI; Jia-bin LI

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M-β-lactamases carried by 5 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and 3 Escherichia coli isolates collected from 4 hospitals in Hefei, China. Methods: The purified PCR products were ligated with pGEM-Teasy vectors, expressed, and sequenced. The complete genes of the CTX-M-β-lactamases were ligated with the pHSG398 vector to express prokaryotic recombi-nant proteins. Plasmids were extracted by rapid alkaline lysis protocol, and the PCR method was performed to determine whether the prokaryotic expression was successful or not. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested and the phenotypes of transformants were determined according to criteria recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The kinetic parameters of enzymes were confirmed. The isoelectric points (pI) were determined by isoelectric focusing assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and plasmid profiling were performed. Results: The PCR products had 1101 nucleotides and were determined as CTX-M-46, CTX-M-47, CTX-M-48, CTX-M-49, and CTX-M-50. All strains were resistant to cefotaxime, but most of them were susceptible or intermediate to ceftazidime. The phenotypes of novel enzymes were determined as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Penicillin G, cephalothin, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime were determined to good substrates, whereas ceftazidime hydrolysis was not detected. The pI of the 5 novel CTX-M-βlactamases were 8.0. CTX-M-derivatives could be the multiplex genesis in our area. Conclusion: This is the first report of these 5 novel plasmid-mediated CTX-M ESBL produced from China in the world. Mo-lecular typing reveals notably different origin in genes encoding different CTX-M variants of 8 strains.

  4. Probing evolutionary repeatability: neutral and double changes and the predictability of evolutionary adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott William Roy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The question of how organisms adapt is among the most fundamental in evolutionary biology. Two recent studies investigated the evolution of Escherichia coli in response to challenge with the antibiotic cefotaxime. Studying five mutations in the beta-lactamase gene that together confer significant antibiotic resistance, the authors showed a complex fitness landscape that greatly constrained the identity and order of intermediates leading from the initial wildtype genotype to the final resistant genotype. Out of 18 billion possible orders of single mutations leading from non-resistant to fully-resistant form, they found that only 27 (1.5x10(-7% pathways were characterized by consistently increasing resistance, thus only a tiny fraction of possible paths are accessible by positive selection. I further explore these data in several ways. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Allowing neutral changes (those that do not affect resistance increases the number of accessible pathways considerably, from 27 to 629. Allowing multiple simultaneous mutations also greatly increases the number of accessible pathways. Allowing a single case of double mutation to occur along a pathway increases the number of pathways from 27 to 259, and allowing arbitrarily many pairs of simultaneous changes increases the number of possible pathways by more than 100 fold, to 4800. I introduce the metric 'repeatability,' the probability that two random trials will proceed via the exact same pathway. In general, I find that while the total number of accessible pathways is dramatically affected by allowing neutral or double mutations, the overall evolutionary repeatability is generally much less affected. CONCLUSIONS: These results probe the conceivable pathways available to evolution. Even when many of the assumptions of the analysis of Weinreich et al. (2006 are relaxed, I find that evolution to more highly cefotaxime resistant beta-lactamase proteins is still highly repeatable.

  5. Prevalence and Diversity of Salmonella Serotypes in Ecuadorian Broilers at Slaughter Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos, María; Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Bertrand, Sophie; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is frequently found in poultry and represent an important source for human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serotypes in broilers from Ecuador. Caeca content from 388 at random selected broiler batches were collected in 6 slaughterhouses during 1 year and analyzed by the ISO 6579/Amd1 protocol for the isolation for Salmonella. Isolates were serotyped and genotypic variation was acceded by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. MIC values for sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, tetracycline, streptomycin, trimethropim, chloramphenicol, colistin, florfenicol, kanamycin and nalidixic acid were obtained. Presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCMY; and mcr-1 plasmid genes was investigated in resistant strains to cefotaxime and colistin respectively. Prevalence at batch level was 16.0%. The most common serotype was S. Infantis (83.9%) followed by S. Enteritidis (14.5%) and S. Corvallis (1.6%). The pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that S. Corvallis, S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis isolates belonged to 1, 2 and 12 genotypes respectively. S. Infantis isolates showed high resistance rates to 12 antibiotics ranging from 57.7% (kanamycin) up to 98.1% (nalidixic acid and sulfamethoxazole). All S. Enteritidis isolates showed resistance to colistin. High multiresistant patterns were found for all the serotypes. The blaCTX-M gene was present in 33 S. Infantis isolates while mcr-1 was negative in 10 colistin resistant isolates. This study provides the first set of scientific data on prevalence and multidrug-resistant Salmonella coming from commercial poultry in Ecuador. PMID:27414038

  6. Study of a Natural Mutant SHV-Type β-Lactamase, SHV-104, from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed Ben Achour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae ML2011, a multiresistant isolate, was isolated from the Military Hospital of Tunis (Tunisia. The determination of the minimal inhibitory concentrations exhibited by K. pneumoniae ML2011 was performed by Etest. The crude extract of the isolates contains four different β-lactamases with pI 5.5, 7.3, 7.6, and 8.6. Only the β-lactamases with pI 7.3 and pI 8.6 were transferred by transformation and conjugation experiment. Molecular characterization of these genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. The chromosomal β-lactamases are TEM (pI 5.5 and SHV-1 (7.6. CTX-M-28 (pI 8.6 and the novel variant of SHV named SHV-104 (pI 7.3 were encoded by bla gene located on a 50 kb highly conjugative plasmid. The SHV-104 β-lactamase was produced in E. coli and purified. Its profile of activity was determined. Compared to SHV-1, SHV-104 contains one mutation, R202S. Their kinetic parameters were similar except for cefotaxime. The analysis of the predicted structure of SHV-104 indicated that the R202S mutation suppresses a salt bridge present in SHV-1. Therefore, the overall flexibility of the protein increased and might improve the hydrolysis of cefotaxime. We can conclude that the multiresistant phenotype of K. pneumoniae ML2011 strain is mainly linked to the production of CTX-M-28 since SHV-104 possesses a narrow spectrum of activity.

  7. The antimicrobial susceptibility proifle of ESKAPE pathogens from urinary tract infections in a referral laboratory, Northeast Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Salehi; Abdolmajid Ghasemian; Farshad Nojoomi; Mohammad Karim Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern ofESKAPE pathogens from Neyshabur, Iran during 2013–2015. Methods: A total of 345 isolates including 62Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus), 38 Enterobacterspp. (including 14Enterobacter agglomerans, 6Enterobacter aerogenes and other 18Enterobacterspp.), 123Enterococcus faecium, 78Klebsiella pneumonia, 10 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 34Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates was conducted with Kirby Bauer method. Data were analyzed withSPSS 20.0 software usingF- andt-tests. Results:AmongS. aureus isolates, the highest resistance was observed against nalidixic acid (81.35%) and cefixime (74.50%). Thirty-three (53.22%)S. aureus isolates were cefoxitin resistant (methicillin-resistantS. aureus). The majority ofEnterobacter species was resistant to amikacin (100.00%) and cephalotin (66.60%). MostEnterococcus faecium isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (89.43%) and amikacin (83.33%), but vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolates were not detected. Moreover, amongKlebsiella pneumonia, the highest resistance was observed to nalidixic acid (20.98%) and cotrimoxazole (28.39%). Furthermore, allPseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (100.00%) and majority to nitroforantoin (88.80%).Acinetobacter baumannii isolates showed the highest and the lowest resistance to cefotaxime (100.00%) and cefixime (88.71%), respectively. Conclusions:The prevalence ofESKAPE pathogens from northeast region was low, but majority of them exhibited high rate of antibiotic resistance to common used antimicrobial agents.

  8. Agrobacterium tumefaciens – Mediated transformation of Woodfordia fruticosa (L. Kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallesham Bulle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation has been optimized for Woodfordia fruticosa (L. Kurz. Precultured axenic leaf segments were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pCAMBIA1301 with β-glucuronidase (uidA containing intron as the reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt as a selectable marker gene. After 3 days of co-cultivation, leaf segments were cultured on MS medium containing Thidiazuron (TDZ 4.54 μM and Indole-3-acetic acid IAA (1.14 μM + 20 mg/l hygromycin + 200 mg/l cefotaxime (PTSM1 for 4 weeks (includes a single subculture onto the same medium at a 2 week interval. They were subsequently cultured for 3 weeks on MS medium containing Thidiazuron (TDZ 4.54 μM and Indole-3-acetic acid IAA (1.14 μM + 25 mg/l hygromycin + 100 mg/l cefotaxime (PTSM2 medium for further development and shoot elongation. The hygromycin resistant shoots were rooted on a rooting medium (PTRM containing half strength MS medium + 4.90 μM IBA + 25 mg/l hygromycin. A highest transformation efficiency of 44.5% with a mean number of 2.6 transgenic shoots per explant was achieved. Successful transformation was confirmed by the histochemical GUS activity of the regenerated shoots, PCR and RT-PCR analysis using respective primers. Southern blot analysis revealed that the hpt gene integrated into the genome of transgenic W. fruticosa. Establishment of genetic transformation protocol may facilitate the improvement of this medicinal plant in terms of enhancement of secondary metabolites.

  9. Biochemical and molecular characterization of three new variants of AmpC beta-lactamases from Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Pablo; Galleni, Moreno; Ayala, Juan A; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2006-03-01

    Morganella morganii produces an inducible, chromosomally encoded AmpC beta-lactamase. We describe in this study three new variants of AmpC within this species with apparent pIs of 6.6 (M19 from M. morganii strain PP19), 7.4 (M29 from M. morganii strain PP29), and 7.8 (M37 from M. morganii strain PP37). After gene sequencing, deduced amino acid sequences displayed one to six substitutions when compared to the available Morganella AmpC sequences. An AmpR-encoding gene was also found upstream of ampC, including the LysR regulators' helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain and the putative T-N11-A-protected region in the ampR-ampC intercistronic sequence. All three AmpC variants were purified from in vitro-generated derepressed mutants and showed overall similar kinetic parameters. None of the observed amino acid changes, occurring at the surface of the protein, appear to have a major influence in their catalytic properties. Morganella AmpCs exhibit the highest catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) on classical penicillins, cefoxitin, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, and cefotaxime. Cefotaxime was more effectively hydrolyzed than other oxyimino-cephalosporins, whereas cefepime was 3 log-fold less efficiently hydrolyzed than other cephalosporins such as cephalothin. Several differences with other AmpC beta-lactamases were found. Ampicillin was more efficiently hydrolyzed than benzylpenicillin. High k(cat)/K(m) values were observed for oxacillin and piperacillin, which are usually poor substrates for AmpC. A fairly efficient hydrolysis of imipenem was detected as well. Aztreonam, carbenicillin, and tazobactam were effective transient inactivators of these variants.

  10. Drug-resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates among Spanish middle aged and older adults with community-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raga-Luria Xavier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Updated data on drug-resistance from different populations may be important to recognize changes in disease patterns. This study assessed current levels of penicilin resistance among Streptococcus Pneumoniae causing pneumonia in Spanish middle age and older adults. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested for 104 consecutive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from patients 50 years or older with radiographically confirmed pneumonia in the region of Tarragona (Spain between 2002 and 2007. According to the minimum inhibitory concentration of tested antimicrobials (penicillin, erythromycin, cefotaxime and levofloxacin strains were classified as susceptible or resistant. Antimicrobial resistance was determined for early cases (2002–2004 and contemporary cases (2005–2007. Results Twenty-seven (25.9% were penicillin-resistant strains (19 strains with intermediate resistance and 8 strains with high resistance. Penicillin-resistance was higher in 2002–2004 than in 2005–2007 (39.5% vs 18.2%, p = 0.017. Of 27 penicillin-resistant strains, 10 (37% were resistant to erythromycin, 8 (29.6% to cefotaxime, 2 (7.4% to levofloxacin, and 4 (14.8% were identified as multidrug resistant. Case-fatality rate was higher among those patients who had an infection caused by any penicillin susceptible strain (16.9% than in those with infections due to penicillin-resistant strains. Conclusion Resistance to penicillin among Streptococcus pneumoniae remains high, but such resistance does not result in increased mortality in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in invasive and colonising Streptococcus pneumoniae in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was done to detect the antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae . One hundred twenty S. pneumoniae isolates from clinical specimens and 50 from nasopharyngeal sites were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC determination for penicillin and cefotaxime non-susceptible isolates. A total of 22 isolates (18.3% from clinical sites and eight (16% from nasopharyngeal sites showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin by oxacillin disk diffusion test. MICs of 26 of these resistant strains ranged from 0.12-1 µg/mL (intermediate resistance by broth dilution and E test. Only four isolates, two from sputum and two from nasopharyngeal swabs, showed MIC of 2 µg/mL (complete resistance. However, MIC of two cefotaxime resistant isolates (by disk diffusion was in the susceptible range (0.5 µg/mL. Highest antimicrobial resistance was seen to cotrimoxazole (55.2% and tetracycline (61.2%. Antimicrobial resistance to cotrimoxazole and tetracycline was much more in clinical isolates than colonizing isolates. Multi-drug resistant phenotype was detected in 76.9% (20 of 26 of isolates that were intermediately sensitive to penicillin and 50% (2 of 4 of penicillin resistant isolates (co-resistant to tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Routine screening for antibiotic susceptibility is recommended for clinical isolates of pneumococci. Strains with reduced susceptibility to penicillin should be subjected to MIC determination to detect relative resistance or true resistance as such strains are associated with increased virulence.The choice of antibiotics should be guided by the prevalence of local resistance patterns of pneumococci.

  12. An important site in PBP2x of penicillin-resistant clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: mutational analysis of Thr338.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerfass, Ilka; Hakenbeck, Regine; Denapaite, Dalia

    2009-03-01

    Penicillin-binding protein 2x (PBP2x) of Streptococcus pneumoniae represents a primary resistance determinant for beta-lactams, and low-affinity PBP2x variants can easily be selected with cefotaxime. Penicillin-resistant clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae frequently contain in their mosaic PBP2x the mutation T338A adjacent to the active site S337, and T338P as well as T338G substitutions are also known. Site-directed mutagenesis has now documented that a single point mutation at position T338 confers selectable levels of beta-lactam resistance preferentially to oxacillin. Despite the moderate impact on beta-lactam susceptibility, the function of the PBP2x mutants appears to be impaired, as can be documented in the absence of a functional CiaRH regulatory system, resulting in growth defects and morphological changes. The combination of low-affinity PBP2x and PBP1a encoded by mosaic genes is known to result in high cefotaxime resistance. In contrast, introduction of a mosaic pbp1a into the PBP2x(T338G) mutant did not lead to increased resistance. However, the mosaic PBP1a gene apparently complemented the PBP2x(T338G) defect, since Cia mutant derivatives grew normally. The data support the view that PBP2x and PBP1a interact with each other on some level and that alterations of both PBPs in resistant clinical isolates have evolved to ensure cooperation between both proteins.

  13. Susceptibility of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae According to the New CLSI Breakpoints ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Hu, Fupin; Xiong, Zizhong; Ye, Xinyu; Zhu, Demei; Wang, Yun F.; Wang, Minggui

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) lowered the susceptibility breakpoints of some cephalosporins and aztreonam for Enterobacteriaceae and eliminated the need to perform screening for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and confirmatory tests. The aim of this study was to determine how many ESBL-producing strains of three common species of Enterobacteriaceae test susceptible using the new breakpoints. As determined with the CLSI screening and confirmatory tests, 382 consecutive ESBL-producing strains were collected at Huashan Hospital between 2007 and 2008, including 158 strains of Escherichia coli, 164 of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 60 of Proteus mirabilis. Susceptibility was determined by the CLSI agar dilution method. CTX-M-, TEM-, and SHV-specific genes were determined by PCR amplification and sequencing. blaCTX-M genes alone or in combination with blaSHV were present in 92.7% (354/382) of these ESBL-producing strains. Forty-two (25.6%) strains of K. pneumoniae harbored SHV-type ESBLs alone or in combination. No TEM ESBLs were found. Utilizing the new breakpoints, all 382 strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone, while 85.0 to 96.7% of P. mirabilis strains tested susceptible to ceftazidime, cefepime, and aztreonam, 41.8 to 45.6% of E. coli strains appeared to be susceptible to ceftazidime and cefepime, and 20.1% of K. pneumoniae were susceptible to cefepime. In conclusion, all ESBL-producing strains of Enterobacteriaceae would be reported to be resistant to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone by using the new CLSI breakpoints, but a substantial number of ESBL-containing P. mirabilis and E. coli strains would be reported to be susceptible to ceftazidime, cefepime, and aztreonam, which is likely due to the high prevalence of CTX-M type ESBLs. PMID:21752977

  14. Application of Antibiotics Rotation to Control Bacterial Resistance in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit%轮换抗生素控制细菌耐药在新生儿重症监护病房中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏许; 张兰; 周伟; 杨勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of antibiotics rotation on reducing bacterial resistance in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods Five hundred and two neonates who were treated with antibiotics (ceftazime ,piperacillin/tazobactam or cefotaxime ) in the NICU of Dongguan Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital during Jan. 2007 to Jan. 2010 were recruited. The changes of bacterial resistance in 108 neonates infected by klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies during 5 study periods of rotation use of ceftazime and piperacillin/tazobactam were observed. The children were treated with eeftazime, piperacillin/tazobactam or cefotaxime casually in 12 - month's baseline period,and treated with ceftazime and piperacillin/tazobactam alternately in the following four 6 - month's periods. Results As the suspended use of ceftazime extended ,the rate of ceftazime - resistant klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies decreased from 59.3% in baseline period to 40.4% in period 3 ,and 45.9% in period 4, the rate of ceftazime - resistant klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies had significant difference among the 5 periods (x2 = 3. 992 ,P < 0.05 ). The piperacillin/tazobactam resistance decreased from 6.7% in baseline period to 2.6% in period 4,and 4. 5% in period 5 ,the rate of piperacillin/tazobactam - resistant klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies had significant difference among the 5 periods(x2 = 4. 683,P < 0.05 ). The rate of cefotaxime resistance decreased yearly, the cefotaxime resistance decreased from 59.8% in baseline period to 47.8% in period 2,45.4% in period 3,40. 4% in period 4 ,and 33.6% in period 5 ,the rate of cefotaxime - resistant klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies had significant difference among the 5 periods(x2 = 3. 896,P <0.05 ) ,but the rate of cefotaxime resistance was still high after 2 years suspended use, and could not be eliminated. Couclusions Antibiotic rotation in a relative closed environment can reduce bacterial resistance. It takes longer than 2

  15. 武汉、泉州两地肺炎克雷伯菌产β-内酰胺酶类型的比较研究%Study on classification and distribution of lactamase produced by Klebsiella pneumonia in Wuhan and Quanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明德松; 谢尊金; 朱焱; 吴一波

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To study the Classification and Distribution of the β-Lactamases Produced by Klebsiella pneumonia in Wuhan and Quanzhou.Methods:Objective:To detect the β-Lactamases produced by Klebsiella pneumonia in Wuhan and Quanzhou with a multi-disk synergy test.Results:20 of 70 strains produced the β-Lactamases in Wuhan,Objective:Total producing rate was 28.7%,each strains produced penicillinase or cephalosporinase,4 strains produced broad-spectrum β-Lactamase(BSBLs,5.7%); 14 strains produce extented-spectrum β-Lactamase(ESBLs,20.0%),the sensitivities of the ceftazidime,aztreonam and cefotaxime were different,cefotaxime was the highest.60 of 70 strains in Quanzhou produced the β-Lactamases,Objective:Total producing rate was 85.7%,4 strains produced penicillinase,3 strains produced cephalosporinase; 11 strains produced BSBLs(15.7%),42 strains produced ESBLs(60.00%),the sensitivities of the ceftazidime,aztreonam and cefotaxime were different,aztreonam was the highest.All did not produce carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-Lactamase(CHBLs).Conclusions: The types of β-Lactamase produced by Klebsiella pneumonia in Wuhan and Quanzhou are mainly BSBLS and ESBLS,the sensitivities of the ceftazidime,aztreonam and cefotaxime were different,in wuhan Cefotaxime was the highest,in Quanzhou aztreonam was the highest; all did not produce carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-Lactamases(CHBLs).The rate and types of β-Lactamases Produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in Wuhan and Quanzhou were different,the Objective:Total producing rate and thd producing rate of each rype of β-Lactamases producecd by Klebsiella isolates from Quanzhou were higher than that from Wuhan.%目的比较研究武汉、泉州两地肺炎克雷伯菌(Kpn)所产各种β-内酰胺酶(β-lase)分布情况.方法采用改良多底物相邻纸片协同法检测武汉、泉州各70株Kpn所产各种β-lase.结果武汉70株Kpn总β-lase检出率为28.7%,其中产青霉素酶、头孢菌素酶各1株(1.4%),产广谱酶4株(5.7%),

  16. In vitro establishment of Heliconia rauliniana (Heliconiaceae Estabelecimento In vitro de Heliconia rauliniana (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercilio Viegas Rodrigues

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The great interest for heliconias by the external market has placed this crop in a prominent position in the flower production chain. The small offer of healthy seedlings, however, the expansion of this activity. The presence of endophytic microorganisms such as Pseudomonas sp. represents an obstacle even for the evolution of heliconia tissue culture studies. Stem apices of Heliconia rauliniana were inoculated and analyzed in vitro to investigate the presence of endophytic microorganisms. An antibiotic analysis was also run for posterior microbiological control. The presence of Pseudomonas sp. and Klebsiella sp. in stem apices confirmed infection. Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and the association of both (chloramphenicol + cefotaxime at rates of 50, 150, 250 and 500 mg L-1, were applied to the MS medium and supplemented with 3.5 mg L-1of 6-BA. After a 50 day-period, 500 mg L-1 of cefotaxime was the most efficient form to control endophytic microorganisms in this species of heliconia. The chloramphenicol, although effective for endophytic microorganism control, was inadequate for in vitro growth due to its cytotoxicity to explants.A acentuada procura por helicônias, principalmente por parte do mercado externo tem colocado o cultivo desse gênero de plantas em posição de destaque, dentre as atividades desenvolvidas no ramo da floricultura. A pouca oferta de mudas e a inexistência de mudas sadias prejudicam consideravelmente a expansão dessa cultura. A presença de microrganismos endofíticos, como a Pseudomonas sp., representa um empecilho no desenvolvimento de trabalhos de cultura de tecidos em helicônias. Ápices caulinares de Heliconia rauliniana foram inoculados in vitro e avaliados quanto aos tipos de microrganismos endofíticos e análise de antibiograma para posterior controle microbiológico. A presença de Pseudomonas sp. e Klebsiella sp. nos ápices caulinares estudados, comprova a presença dos endofíticos. Os

  17. 淋菌对β-内酰胺类抗菌药物的药敏试验结果回顾性分析%Drug susceptibility tests of neisseria gonorrhoeae to β-lactams antibiotics:a retrospective analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明章; 沈翠芬; 吴原; 张晓祥; 王翔

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解淋菌对β-内酰胺类抗菌药物的敏感性,为淋病的防治提供科学依据.方法 回顾性分析纸片扩散法检测86株淋菌对6种β-内酞胺类抗菌药物的药敏试验结果,产色头孢硝噻吩法检测β-内酰胺酶.结果 质粒介导的产青霉素酶淋菌阳性菌株30株,占34.88%;淋菌对青霉素、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、头孢他啶、头孢曲松、头孢吡肟的敏感率分别为8.14%,75.58%,90.70%,93.02%,86.05%,94.19%;青霉素的药物敏感性显著低于头孢呋辛,差异有统计学意义(X2=80.36,P<0.01);头孢呋辛的药物敏感性比头孢曲松的药物敏感性低,差异无统计学意义,但是头孢呋辛有5株耐药菌株;头孢噻肟、头孢他啶、头孢曲松、头孢吡肟的敏感率,差异无统计学意义.结论 第三、四代头孢菌素可作为治疗淋菌感染的一线药物.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the β-lactams susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and provide scientific basis for the treatment and prevention of gonorrhea. METHODS A retrospective survey was conducted. β-lactams susceptibility tests were tested by Disk diffusion, and βlactamase was determined by nitrocefin. RESULTS Plasmid mediated penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae(PPNG) were 30 straines(34. 88 %). Susceptive rates of penicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cefepime were 8. 14%, 75. 58%, 90.70%, 93. 02%, 86. 05% and 94. 19%, respectively. The sensitivity of penicillin was lower than that of cefuroxime with significant difference(x2 =80.36, P<0. 001). The sensitivity of cefuroxime was lower than that of ceftriaxone without significant difference (x2 =3.04, P = 0. 08), while there were 5 resistant strains for cefuroxine. There was no significant difference (x2=4.08,P= 2. 53) among the sensitivities of cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cefepime. CONCLUSION The third generation of cephalosporins such as cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and the

  18. Perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em amostras de cocos Gram-positivos, catalase negativos, isoladas de mastite subclínica bubalina Profile of antimicrobial susceptibility in strains of Gram positive cocos, negative catalase, isolated from buffalo subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C.E. Vianni

    2003-06-01

    the State of Rio de Janeiro. The test used was diffusion of disks in agar Müller Hinton, according to recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards - NCCLS. There were tested disks with ampicillin (10mg, cefalotin (30mg, cefotaxime (30mg, cefoxitin (30mg, cloranfenicol (30mg, eritromycin (15mg, gentamycin (10mg, nitrofurantoin (300mg, norfloxacin (10mg, penicillin (10 IU, tetracyclin (30mg and vancomycin (30mg. The results showed that with Lactococcus garvieae, the most efficient antimicrobial was nitrofurantoin, revealing 85.71% sensibility, followed by cefotaxime (61.90%, vancomycin (52.38%, norfloxacin (47.62& and cefalotin (47.62%. The highest resistance was developed against penicillin and ampicillin, with 95.24% resistance for the two antimicrobials. The susceptibility profile developed by the strains of Enterococcus gallinarum showed low sensibility against the tested antimicrobials; the highest resistance observed was against eritromycin and gentamycin, with 33.34% sensibility for both. The antimicrobial evaluation showed 100% resistance against vancomycin and tetracyclin, followed by cloranfenicol, penicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxim, norfloxacin and nitrofurantoin; all of them showed a resistance of 83.33% with the samples tested.

  19. blaCTX-M-I group extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Salmonella typhi from hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi KO

    2015-05-01

    -transferred with cefotaxime and augmentin resistance to Escherichia coli j53-2 transconjugants.Conclusion: This study revealed the emergence of blaCTX-M-I S. typhi as an agent of persistent pyrexia with potential to spread to other Enterobacteriaceae in Lagos, Nigeria. Cautionary prescription and judicious use of third-generation cephalosporins, particularly cefotaxime, for the treatment of typhoid fever and routine screening for P. falciparum co-infection with ESBL-producing Salmonella in the laboratories during diagnosis of persistent pyrexia conditions in patients are recommended.Keywords: ESBL, emergence, plasmid, Salmonella, cephalosporin

  20. Transconjugation and genotyping of the plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei-feng; ZHOU Jun; QIN Jian-ping

    2009-01-01

    Backgroud AmpC β-lactamases and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are becoming predominant causes of resistance to third and forth-generation cephalosporins in Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. Pneumoniae). It is very difficult to treat infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant K. Pneumoniae. The purpose of the present study was to investigate transconjugation and characteristics of β-lactamase genes in K. Pneumoniae producing AmpC β-lactamases and ESBLs.Methods AmpC β-lactamases were detected by three-dimension test and ESBLs by disc confirmatory test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution. Transfer of resistance to EC600 (Rif') was attempted by conjugation in broth and screened on agar containing cefotaxime (2 μg/ml) plus rifampin (1024 μg/ml). The genes encoding AmpC or ESBLs and their transconjugants were detected by PCR and verified by DNA sequencing. Results The resistant rates to ampicillin and piperacillin were 100% in 18 isolates of K. Pneumoniae. However, imipenem was still of great bactericidal activity on K. Pneumoniae, and its MIC50 was 0.5 μg/mL. Eleven β-lactamase genes, including TEM-1, TEM-11, SHV-13, SHV-28, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-22, CTX-M-55, OXA-1, LEN, OKP-6 and DHA-1, were found from 18 isolates. And at least one β-lactamase gene occurred in each isolate. To our surprise, there were six β-lactamase genes in the CZ04 strain. Among 18 isolates of K. Pneumoniae, the partial resistant genes in 8 isolates were conjugated successfully, which had 100% homological sequence with donors by sequence analysis. Compared with donors, 8 transconjugants had attained resistance to most β-lactams, including ampicillin, piperacillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime and aztreonam, or even amikacin and gentamicin.Conclusions R plasmids can be easily transferred between the resistant and sensitive negative bacilli. It is very difficult to block and prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistance. So more attention should be paid

  1. RNA mutagenesis yields highly diverse mRNA libraries for in vitro protein evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobric Nada

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In protein drug development, in vitro molecular optimization or protein maturation can be used to modify protein properties. One basic approach to protein maturation is the introduction of random DNA mutations into the target gene sequence to produce a library of variants that can be screened for the preferred protein properties. Unfortunately, the capability of this approach has been restricted by deficiencies in the methods currently available for random DNA mutagenesis and library generation. Current DNA based methodologies generally suffer from nucleotide substitution bias that preferentially mutate particular base pairs or show significant bias with respect to transitions or transversions. In this report, we describe a novel RNA-based random mutagenesis strategy that utilizes Qβ replicase to manufacture complex mRNA libraries with a mutational spectrum that is close to the ideal. Results We show that Qβ replicase generates all possible base substitutions with an equivalent preference for mutating A/T or G/C bases and with no significant bias for transitions over transversions. To demonstrate the high diversity that can be sampled from a Qβ replicase-generated mRNA library, the approach was used to evolve the binding affinity of a single domain VNAR shark antibody fragment (12Y-2 against malarial apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 via ribosome display. The binding constant (KD of 12Y-2 was increased by 22-fold following two consecutive but discrete rounds of mutagenesis and selection. The mutagenesis method was also used to alter the substrate specificity of β-lactamase which does not significantly hydrolyse the antibiotic cefotaxime. Two cycles of RNA mutagenesis and selection on increasing concentrations of cefotaxime resulted in mutants with a minimum 10,000-fold increase in resistance, an outcome achieved faster and with fewer overall mutations than in comparable studies using other mutagenesis strategies

  2. Distribution of CTX-M group I and group III β-lactamases produced by Escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrar, Samyyia; Vajeeha, Ayesha; Ul-Ain, Noor; Riaz, Saba

    2017-02-01

    Extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M type is worrisome issue in many countries of the world from past decade. But little is known about CTX-M beta-lactamase producing bacteria in Pakistan. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the distribution of CTX-M beta-lactamase producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using phenotypic and molecular techniques. A total of 638 E. coli and 338 Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from patients attending two hospitals and one diagnostic Centre in Pakistan during 2013-2015. ESBL production was screened by double disc synergism, combination disc (cefotaxime and ceftazidime with clavulanic acid) and E-test. These strains were further characterized by PCR (CTX-M I, CTX-M III) and sequencing. After ribotyping of strains accession numbers were obtained. These isolates were highly resistant to cephalosporins, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, and cefuroxime but susceptible to carbapenems, sulfzone, amikacin and tazocin. Multiple antibiotic resistances index (MAR) revealed that 51% of E. coli strains fell in the range of 0.61-0.7 and 39% of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains fell in the range of 0.71-0.8. 64% Double disc synergism (DDS), 76.4% combination disc (CD), 74% E-test showed ESBL positivity in strains. In E. coli ESBL genes blaCTX-M-I and blaCTX-M-III were detected in 212 (72.1%) and 25 (8.5%) respectively. In Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL genes blaCTX-M-I and blaCTX-M-III were detected in 89 (82.4%) and 10 (9.2%). Combination of both genes blaCTX-M-I and blaCTX-M-III were found in 16 (5.4%) of E. coli strains and 5 (4.6%) of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Sequencing revealed that CTXM-15 was predominately present in the CTX-M-I group. The prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates was high and the majority of them positive for blaCTX-M-I as compared to blaCTX-M-III. These findings highlight the need to further investigate the epidemiology of other CTX-M beta

  3. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN OF CITROBACTER SPECIES WITH ESBL AND AMPC DETECTION AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, BANGALORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Genus Citrobacter is one of the aerobic Gram negative non-sporing bacilli, from the Enterobacteriaceae family. Citrobacter koseri and Citrobacter freundii are the commonest species implicated in infections. It is emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen. It is associated with high mortality and morbidity rate. They are often resistant to routinely used antibiotics. Emerging drug resistance is a therapeutic concern for clinicians worldwide, thus isolation and antibiotic sensitivity of Citrobacter is critically needed. OBJECTIVES Identification of Citrobacter species and antibiotic sensitivity pattern with AmpC and ESBL Detection. METHODS Prospective study was done from June 2014 to March 2015. The samples were collected from patients attending VIMS and RC. The samples were processed and identified by standard protocol. Citrobacter isolates were tested for antibiotic sensitivity by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as per clinical and standard institute guidelines. Detection of AmpC by Cephamycin Hodge test using Cefoxitin 30 μg with ATCC strains of Escherichia coli 25922 was done. ESBL detection was done by Ceftazidime (30 μg and Ceftazidime/clavulanic acid (30 μg/10 μg and Cefotaxime (30 ug Cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (30 ug/10 ug. RESULTS Out of 5695 Gram negative isolates identified, 690 were Citrobacter isolates. Citrobacter koseri 398 (62.5% and Citrobacter freundii 292 (37.5% were the commonest species isolated. The antibiogram as per CLSI Guidelines showed resistance to Fluoroquinolones, Cephalosporins and beta lactamase inhibitors. Carbapenems were found to be sensitive. The resistance to beta lactamase inhibitors increased with the presence of AmpC beta lactamase (76% and ESBL (50%. CONCLUSION Citrobacter species are emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen. Citrobacter koseri and Citrobacter freundii were the commonest species isolated. Antibiogram showing an increase in resistance among the beta lactamase

  4. Prevalence and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)- and CMY-2-producing Escherichia coli isolates from healthy food-producing animals in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sallem, Rym; Ben Slama, Karim; Sáenz, Yolanda; Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Estepa, Vanesa; Jouini, Ahlem; Gharsa, Haythem; Klibi, Naouel; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmidic AmpC-beta-lactamase (pAmpC-BL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates has been studied in food-producing animals at the farm level in Tunisia, and recovered isolates were characterized for the presence of other resistance genes and integrons. Eighty fecal samples of food-producing animals (23 sheep, 22 chickens, 22 cattle, six horses, five rabbits, and two dromedaries) were obtained from 35 different farms in Tunisia in 2011. Samples were inoculated onto MacConkey agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2 mg/L) for cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) E. coli recovery. CTX(R) E. coli isolates were detected in 11 out of 80 samples (13.8%), and one isolate per sample was further characterized (10 from chickens and one from a dromedary). The 11 CTX(R) isolates were distributed into phylogroups: B1 (five isolates), A (two isolates), D (three isolates), and B2 (one isolate). The following beta-lactamase genes were detected: bla(CTX-M-1) (seven isolates), bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM-135) (one isolate), bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM-1b) (one isolate), and bla(CMY-2) (two isolates). All ESBL- and pAmpC-BL-producing E. coli strains showed unrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Seven isolates contained class 1 integrons with four gene cassette arrangements: dfrA17-aadA5 (three isolates), dfrA1-aadA1 (two isolates), dfrA15-aadA1 (one isolate), and aadA1 (one isolate). All isolates showed tetracycline resistance and contained the tet(A) +/- tet(B) genes. Virulence genes detected were as follows (number of isolates in parentheses): fimA (10); aer (eight); papC (two); and papGIII, hly, cnf, and bfp (none). Chicken farms constitute a reservoir of ESBL- and pAmpC-BL-producing E. coli isolates of the CTX-M-1 and CMY-2 types that potentially could be transmitted to humans via the food chain or by direct contact.

  5. 大理地区志贺菌的血清型分布及耐药性分析%Study on Serotype Distribution and Drug Resistance of Shigellae in Dali

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国富; 薛士鹏; 白丽; 吴利先

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解大理地区志贺菌的血清型分布及对12种常用抗生素的耐药性。方法:通过分离培养和鉴定得到68株志贺菌,血清学鉴定其血清型,K-B法检测其对12种抗生素的敏感性。结果:血清学鉴定显示68株志贺菌中福氏志贺菌41株,宋内氏志贺菌25株,鲍氏志贺菌2株。志贺菌对萘啶酸耐药率最高,对复方磺胺甲噁唑和氨苄西林耐药率较高;对头孢曲松和头孢噻肟较敏感,对喹诺酮类显示出不同程度的耐药。结论:大理地区以福氏志贺菌感染为主。在志贺菌治疗中可首选头孢曲松和头孢噻肟。%Objective: To investigate the serotype distribution of Shigellae in Dali and evaluate the resistance of Shigellae to 12 common used drugs. Methods: Serotypes of 68 isolated and identified strains of Shigellae were measured. K-B test was applied to define the drug-resistance of Shigellae to 12 different drugs. Results: Among 68 strains examined, 41 were Shigella Flexner, 25 were Shigella sonnei and 2 were Shigella boydii identified by serotype. Shigellae showed the highest drug resistance to nalidixic acid, with followed sulfalene and nalidixic and varying extents of drug resistance to quinolones; Shigellae was sensitive to ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Conclusion: These results suggest that Shigella Flexner is the main infection strains in Dali and ceftriaxone and cefotaxime should be preferred in the treatment with Shigellae.

  6. Bactericidal activities of parenteral antibiotics and genotype of penicillin-binding protein in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from children's blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    A total of 16 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 18 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were obtained from the blood of children admitted to the pediatric wards of hospitals in Hokkaido Kamikawa subprefecture between January 2003 and December 2005. The ages of the patients with S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae infection ranged from 2 months to 9 years and from 1 month to 4 years, respectively. The diagnoses of S. pneumoniae infection were as follows: pneumonia in 8 patients, occult bacteremia in 5 patients, and meningitis in 3 patients. The diagnoses of H. influenzae were: meningitis in 6 patients, pneumonia in 4 patients, occult bacteremia in 4 patients, epiglotitis in 2 patients, and facial cellulitis in 2 patients. Out of 16 S. pneumoniae isolates, penicillin-resistant strains with a mutation of 3 genes were observed in 7 children, and penicillin intermediate-resistant strains with a mutation of 1 or 2 genes were observed in 8 children. Out of 18 H. influenzae isolates, the beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strain with a substitution of 2 points in the ftsI gene was revealed in 2 children, the beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strain with a substitution of 1 point in the ftsI gene was observed in 4 children, the beta-lactamase-positive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant strain with blaTEM-1 and ftsI with 2 substitutions in the ftsI gene was observed in 3 children, and the beta-lactamase-positive ampicillin-resistant strain with blaTEM-1was not observed. The MBC90s of ampicillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, meropenem, panipenem, and vancomycin against S. pneumoniae were 8 microg/ml, 1 microg/ml, 1 microg/ml 1 microg/ml, 0.25 microg/ml, and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively. Those of ampicillin, piperacillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, meropenem, and panipenem against H. influenzae were >128 microg/ml, >128 microg/ml, 0.25 microg/mL, 1 microg/ml, 0.12 microg/ml, and 0.5 g/ml, respectively. It is suggest that the minimum bactricidal concentration

  7. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOGRAM OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM BET A- LACTAMASE PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Beta lactams are the most extensively used group of antimicrobials, however growing resistance to these invaluable drugs mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL enzymes is a major co ncern. The frequency of ESBL producing strains among clinical isolates has been steadily i ncreasing over the past few years that has generated a major problem in clinical therapeutics. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine the prevalence of ESBL producing Escherichia coli, study their antibiogram and to evaluate the association between ESBL production and antibiotic r esistance in Escherichia coli. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim Un iversity, Aligarh. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test was used to analyze the data stati stically. Probability values less than 0.05 were considered significant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and eighty six consecutive, non-repeated isolates of Escherichia c oli obtained from pus, urine, blood, stool, throat swab, cervical swab, sputum, CSF and conjunct ival swab samples received in our bacteriology laboratory were analyzed in this study . These bacterial isolates were identified and tested for antibiotic sensitivity by standard micro biological procedures. Subsequently, they were screened and then phenotypically confirmed for E SBL production by phenotypic confirmatory disk diffusion test (PCDDT. RESULTS : Out of 286 isolates of Escherichia coli screened for ESBL production, 65.03% (n=186 were de tected to be positive using either ceftazidime or cefotaxime. In the screen positives, 91.94% (n=171 were phenotypically confirmed ESBL producers by PCDDT method. The overal l prevalence of ESBL producing Escherichia coli was 59.79% (n=171/286 with 87.72% obtained from in-patients and 12.28% from out-patients. Majority of ESBL producing Escheri chia coli were recovered from stool (73

  8. The distribution and the vicissitudes of antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospital from 2009 to 2012.%2009~2012医院内感染铜绿假单胞菌的临床分布及耐药性变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱义城; 卢玉贞; 汤凤珍; 欧阳英娥

    2012-01-01

      目的了解我院院内感染铜绿假单胞菌的临床分布和耐药情况,为临床预防和治疗铜绿假单胞菌院内感染提供依据.方法采用回顾性分析方法分析2009-2012年间院内住院患者分离铜绿假单胞菌病区分布、药敏结果、耐药性变化和耐药组合情况.结果4年间铜绿假单胞菌分离率较高的科室分别为神经外科、中心重症监护室和神经内科.痰标本检出铜绿假单胞菌最多,占74.4%.药敏结果显示哌拉西林,哌拉西林/他唑巴坦,庆大霉素,头孢吡肟(FEP)等20种抗菌药物耐药率呈下降的趋势.结论医院内获得铜绿假单胞菌感染以下呼吸道感染为主,且耐药性明显高于其他部位分离菌株.铜绿假单胞菌耐药机制复杂,临床应根据其分布特点和药敏结果合理用药.%  Objective To investigate antimicrobial resistance of clinical isolates of our hospital ,to offer information for preventing and curing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods the retrospective analytical method test was employed to study the antimicrobial resistance. Results the top three the division of isolating rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is neurosurgery,ICU and neurology department. The strains were separated from sputum accounted for 74.4% ,which is the most. There is an obvious descending tendency of antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for Amikacin, Aztreonam, Aztreonam, Piperacilin, Piperacilin/ Tazobactam, Gentamycin, Gentamycin/ Clavulanic Acid, Cefepime, Ceftazidime, Tobramycin, Imipenem, Levofloxacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone. Oppositey, there is not for Cefotaxime/ Clavulanic Acid, Ampicilin, Ampicilin/ Ampicilin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, Cefoxitin, Cephazolin. Conclusion the primary infection in Hospitals is lower respiratory tract infection, which is supper than other position infection. The antimicrobial resistance mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is multiplicity. So, we should take the rational

  9. 557株大肠埃希菌耐药性分析%Drug Resistance of 557 Strains of Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓云; 梁立全

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the drug resistance of Escherichia coli producing extended spectrum β-lactamases (ES-BLs) to commonly used antibiotics, and to provide reference for clinical anti-infective drug therapy. METHODS: Ceftazidime and ceftazidime plus clavulanic acid, cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid in the double disk confirmatory test were adopted to detect ESBLs, and K-B disk diffusion assay was used to determine antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli. RESULTS: The detection rates of E.coli ESBLs were 35.9%, 43.7% and 46.9% from 2007 to 2009. Antibiotic resistance rate of E.coli ESBLs to cefo-perazone/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, nitrofurantoin and amikacin was low, the rest of antibiotic resistance rate were more than 52%. CONCLUSIONS: Escherichia coli resistance in our hospital is severe. The key to increase the cure rate of bacterial infection, control hospital infection and reduce drug resistance of bacteria is to strengthen management of clinical use of antibiotics.%目的:了解大肠埃希菌产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)及对常用抗菌药物的耐药情况,为临床抗感染治疗提供用药依据.方法:采用头孢他啶与头孢他啶加克拉维酸、头孢噻肟与头孢噻肟加克拉维酸的双纸片确证试验检测ESBLs,采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)检测大肠埃希菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药性.结果:2007、2008、2009年产ESBLs大肠埃希菌的检出率分别为35.9%、43.7%、46.9%.大肠埃希菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药率以头孢哌酮/舒巴坦、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、呋喃妥因、阿米卡星较低,其余抗菌药物的耐药率在52%以上.结论:我院大肠埃希菌的耐药形势严峻.加强抗菌药物临床应用管理,是提高细菌感染治愈率和控制院内感染、降低细菌耐药性的重要手段.

  10. 宁夏地区奶牛隐性乳房炎主要病原菌分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation and Identiifcation of Subclinical Mastitis Pathogens and Drug Sensitivity Tests in Dairy Cows in Ningxia Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚文; 张学军; 王磊; 李志红; 杨佳冰; 张玉玲; 李莉娟; 安泓霏; 王玉梅; 王晓亮; 张和平

    2015-01-01

    [目的]了解宁夏地区奶牛隐性乳房炎主要病原菌流行情况及主要病原菌的耐药特征。[方法]采集宁夏地区5个规模化奶牛养殖场乳样共计461份,分离培养后,应用全自动细菌鉴定仪进行鉴定并选择主要致病菌进行药敏试验。[结果]隐性乳房炎阳性检出率平均为65.3%(301/461);分离到金黄色葡萄球菌22株、无乳链球菌5株、大肠杆菌10株。这些细菌对阿米卡星、头孢噻肟等药物敏感,对青霉素与环丙沙星耐药。[结论]宁夏地区奶牛隐性乳房炎的阳性率较高,主要病原菌对阿米卡星、头孢噻肟等药物敏感。%[Objective] To clarify the species and distribution of cow sub-mastitis pathogens in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and identify the antimicrobial resistance of the main pathogens. [Method] 461 milk samples were collected from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in five dairy farms for isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria. Identification and drug sensitivity tests of the prominent pathogens were conducted by means of automatic bacteria identification equipment. [Result] The results indicated that the positive rate in the sub-mastitis cows was 65.3%(301/461). Three pathogenic bacteria were isolated,including 22 Staphylococcus aureus strains,5 Streptococcus agalactiae strains and 10 Escherichia coli strains. These bacteria were resistant to penicillin and ciprofloxacin,but all showed susceptibility to cefotaxime and amikacin. [Conclusion] Pathogens isolated and identified in this experiment were susceptible to cefotaxime and amikacin.

  11. [Sepsis caused by Chryseobacterium indologenes in a patient with hydrocephalus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Abdullah; Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin; Akbayram, Sinan; Bektaş, Abdullah; Berktaş, Mustafa

    2011-10-01

    Chryseobacterium (formerly Flavobacterium) indologenes, is a non-fermentative gram-negative bacillus which is widely found in the nature, primarily soil and water. Since it can survive in chlorine-treated municipal water supplies, and can colonize the sink basins and tap waters of the hospitals, this bacterium may be a potential infectious agent. Contamination of the medical devices containing water (respirators, intubation tubes, humidifiers, incubators for newborns, etc.) in hospital settings may lead to serious infections especially in patients with predisposing diseases, newborns and immunocompromized patients. In this report, a case of fatal C.indologenes septicemia developed in a newborn with hydrocephalus has been presented. A two-months old male infant was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of failure to suck and lethargy for five days and head enlargement. He was diagnosed as meningitis based on the clinical and laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (protein: 572 mg/dl, glucose 9.5 mg/dl, chlorine: 111 mg/dl, and presence of abundant polymorphonuclear leukocytes), and empirical antibiotic treatment (ampicillin/sulbactam and cefotaxime) had been started. Since the computerized tomography of the brain pointed out hydrocephalus, an external shunt was placed for CSF drainage on the second day of hospitalization. A total of five CSF and two blood cultures collected during the hospitalization period were inoculated into pediatric aerobic CSF and blood culture bottles (BacT/ALERT, BioMerieux, France) and incubated for 24-48 hours. The isolated bacteria from all of the cultures were identified as C.indologenes by conventional methods and BD Phoenix (Becton Dickinson, USA) system. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed with microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. The isolate was found susceptible to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while it was resistant to amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin

  12. Características clínico-microbiológicas de la meningitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a la penicilina Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis resistant to penicillin clinical and microbiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demóstenes Gómez-Barreto

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae aislado del líquido cefalorraquídeo de niños con meningitis, así como describir y comparar las características clínicas y microbiológicas, el tratamiento y la evolución del padecimiento entre niños infectados con cepas sensibles y resistentes a la penicilina y la cefalosporina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Treinta y ocho niños con meningitis neumocócica fueron incluidos prospectivamente en el Programa Institucional de Vigilancia de las Infecciones Neumocócicas, durante el lapso 1994-1998. Los datos clínicos y de laboratorio se colectaron de cada expediente. RESULTADOS: Del total de niños, 63% era menor de dos años de edad, 28.9% mostró cepas insensibles a la penicilina, 18.4% tenía resistencia intermedia, y 10.5% tenía resistencia elevada. El 2.6% mostró también resistencia a la cefotaxima. La única característica (por la prueba exacta de Fisher asociada con la resistencia fue: enfermedad de base previa al proceso (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility to antibiotics of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis. To describe and compare the clinical and microbiological characteristics, treatment and outcome among children infected with strains either susceptible or resistant to penicillin and cephalosporin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 38 children with pneumococcal meningitis were prospectively enrolled in the Institutional Surveillance Program for Pneumococcal Infections during 1994-1998. Clinical and laboratory data were collected by chart review. RESULTS: Of the 38 children, 24 (63% were less than 2 years of age, 11 (28.9% had drug-resistant S. pneumoniae, 18.4% had intermediate resistance, 10.5% high level resistance and 2.6% also showed high level resistance to cefotaxime. The only associated factors (by Fisher’s exact test associated to resistance were: previous use of antibiotics (p=0

  13. Emerging resistant serotypes of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshafie S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sittana Elshafie,1,2 Saad J Taj-Aldeen2,3 1Qatar Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Aspetar, Doha, Qatar; 2Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, 3Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Microbiology Division, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of meningitis and sepsis. The aim of the study was to analyze the distribution, vaccine serotype coverage, and antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae serotypes isolated from patients with invasive diseases, after the introduction of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-7. Methods: A total of 134 isolates were collected from blood and cerebrospinal fluid specimens at Hamad Hospital during the period from 2005 to 2009. Isolate serotyping was done using the Quellung reaction. The prevaccination period was considered before 2005. Results: The most common serotypes for all age groups were 3 (12.70%, 14 (11.90%, 1 (11.90%, 19A (9.00%, 9V (5.20%, 23F (5.20%, and 19F (4.50%. Coverage rates for infant <2 years for PCV-7, the 10-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-10, and the 13-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-13 were 34.78%, 52.17%, and 78.26%, respectively. Coverage rates of these vaccines were 50%, 67.86%, and 75% for the 2–5 years age group; 27.12%, 40.68%, and 64.41% for the age group 6–64 years; and 25%, 33.33%, and 66.67% for the ≥65 years age group, respectively. The percentage of nonsusceptible isolates to penicillin, cefotaxime, and erythromycin were 43.86%, 16.66%, and 22.81%, respectively. Thirty-seven isolates (32.46% were multidrug resistant (MDR and belonged to serotypes 14, 19A, 19F, 23F, 1, 9V, 12F, 4, 6B, 3, and 15A. Compared to previous results before the introduction of PCV-7, there was a significant reduction in penicillin-nonsusceptable S. pneumoniae from 66.67% to 43.86%, and a slight insignificant reduction in erythromycin nonsusceptible strains from 27.60% to 22.8%, while there was a significant increase in

  14. Third-generation cephalosporins: a critical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriere, S L; Flaherty, J F

    1984-01-01

    Six third-generation cephalosporins--cefotaxime, moxalactam, cefoperazone, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, and cefmenoxime--are reviewed; covered are chemistry and structure-activity relationships, mechanism of action, spectra of activity, pharmacokinetics, clinical utility, adverse effects, and cost effectiveness. The third-generation cephalosporins have a similar mechanism of action to that of other beta-lactam antibiotics. None of the agents is particularly active against certain gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; the drugs are effective against gonococci, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Several common gram-negative pathogens are susceptible to the third-generation cephalosporins, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter diversus, Proteus, and Morganella. About 50% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates are susceptible. Only moxalactam has good activity against Bacteriodes fragilis. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the six agents reveal some important differences. The half-life of ceftriaxone allows once-daily dosing in many patients; the half-lives of ceftizoxime and cefoperazone permit dosing every 8-12 hours. Cefoperazone and ceftriaxone are highly protein bound, but the clinical relevance of this is unknown. Generally, the agents penetrate most body tissues and fluids well. Moxalactam and cefotaxime and possibly ceftriaxone effectively penetrate into the cerebrospinal fluid well. The third-generation cephalosporins have become the accepted drugs of choice for the treatment of adult gram-negative bacillary meningitis; as more experience is gained, they are likely to become the drugs of first choice for neonatal (with ampicillin) and childhood (except for moxalactam) meningitis. Serious infections of Enterobacteriaceae can be treated with these agents, thereby avoiding use of the aminoglycosides. Moxalactam is comparable with combination therapy in treating intra-abdominal infections. Adverse

  15. Genotypes and phenotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olowe OA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe,1 Bukola W Aboderin,1,2 Olayinka O Idris,3 Victor O Mabayoje,4 Oluyinka O Opaleye,1 O Catherine Adekunle,1 Rita Ayanbolade Olowe,1 Paul Akinniyi Akinduti,5 Olusola Ojurongbe1 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Medical Microbiology Unit, Pathology Department, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria; 3Department of Microbiology, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria; 4Department of Haematology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 5Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria Purpose: To characterize the prevalence of hemolytic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC with a multidrug-resistant pattern in different age groups in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods: Nonrepetitive E. coli isolates were collected from 202 subjects with or without evidence of diarrhea. Each isolate was biochemically identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. A sorbitol fermentation test of all the E. coli isolates was done and the minimum inhibitory concentration of suspected STEC was measured by the standard broth microdilution method to determine antibiotic resistance. The genotypes of stx1, stx2, and hlyA were determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: The majority of subjects were aged ≥40 years (41.6% and were female (61.9%. Of the 202 subjects, 86.1% had STEC isolates (P<0.05. A high rate of STEC isolates resistant to amoxicillin (90.6%, cefotaxime (77.7%, and cefuroxime (75.7% was observed. Resistance to amoxicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime was demonstrated with a minimum inhibitory concentration >16 µg/mL in 13.9%, 11.4%, and 10.4% of the isolates, respectively. The prevalence of stx1, stx2, and hlyA was 13.9%, 6.9%, and 2.0%, respectively; 5.5% of

  16. Expression of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) single-chain variable fragment (scFv) in Spirodela punctata plants transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Parthasarathy; Satheeshkumar, P K; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2016-05-01

    Therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) have been considered effective for some of the autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's diseases, and so on. But associated limitations of the current therapeutics in terms of cost, availability, and immunogenicity have necessitated the need for alternative candidates. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) can negate the limitations tagged with the anti-TNFα therapeutics to a greater extent. In the present study, Spirodela punctata plants were transformed with anti-TNFα through in planta transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, EHA105. Instead of cefotaxime, garlic extract (1 mg/mL) was used to remove the agrobacterial cells after cocultivation. To the best of our knowledge, this report shows for the first time the application of plant extracts in transgenic plant development. 95% of the plants survived screening under hygromycin. ScFv cDNA integration in the plant genomic DNA was confirmed at the molecular level by PCR. The transgenic protein expression was followed up to 10 months. Expression of scFv was confirmed by immunodot blot. Protein expression levels of up to 6.3% of total soluble protein were observed. β-Glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein expressions were also detected in the antibiotic resistant plants. The paper shows the generation of transgenic Spirodela punctuata plants through in planta transformation.

  17. Osteoarticular infections in Belgian children: a survey of clinical, biological, radiological and microbiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmont, Quentin; Yombi, Jean-Cyr; Van der Linden, Dimitri; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study is to report the pathogens which were found most frequently to be responsible for osteo-articular infections in infants and children in Belgium, and to propose an appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy applicable before identification of the responsible pathogen. Clinical presentation, imaging and blood biology are also reviewed and analysed. Fifty-six cases of osteo-articular infections (acute/subacute osteomyelitis, osteo-arthritis, septic arthritis, spondylodiscitis, sacro-iliitis) treated between 2001 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed, focusing on clinical, biological, microbiological and radiological data. Septic arthritis, acute osteomyelitis, septic osteoarthritis and sacro-iliitis often have a loud clinical (fever, pain, inflammatory signs) and biological presentation. Subacute osteomyelitis and spondylodiscitis are almost asymptomatic, but for functional impairment. The responsible pathogen was isolated in 38% of the cases. The most frequent pathogen was Staphylococcus Aureus, followed by Pneumococcus, Streptococcus A and B, Kingella Kingae, and Haemophilus. None of them were resistant to usual antibiotics. Functional impairment is the only constant symptom of osteo-articular infections. Other clinical and biological symptoms may be absent, making diagnosis often difficult. We recommend oxacillin (> 5 years) or a combination of oxacillin with cefotaxime (< 5 years) in the empirical treatment of osteo-articular infection, and a total of 4 weeks of treatment.

  18. Prevalence of Staphylococcus Aureus Colonizing the Health Care Personnel of a Hospital in the City of Cali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Catherine Arteaga Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objecitve: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in workers at a hospital in Cali. Materials and methods: A descriptive study was conducted with samples of nasal swabs, skin smears to 30 health care workers. Phenotypic characterization of isolates was based on susceptibility antibiogram testing and pcr amplification of the identified mecA and agr genes. The origin of isolates was established by analysis of agr gene, identifying the agr groups. Results: Eleven (26.7 % workers were colonized with S. aureus. The frequency of S. aureus was higher in health care personnel who were in the operating room (20 %; OR = 2.077; P> 0.05. Four antibiotypes were identified, this feature is compatible with community clones that have proven to be highly diverse with a large capacity to spread in the community. 36.4 % of the isolates were resistant to cefotaxime and/or oxacillin, suggestive mrsa phenotype in these isolated the mecA gene was identified. Agr i was found primarily among isolates metillicin-sensitive S. aureus (mssa, compatible with community origin, and mrsa isolates belong to agr ii, with hospital waste. Conclusion: The prevalence of S. aureus resistant to antibiotics that colonize health care personnel was demonstrated, mainly in those working in the operating room. Regu­lar monitoring of personnel should be regularly conducted to prevent the spread of pathogens.

  19. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamí García

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available When it is necessary to determine the susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm strains to antimicrobial drugs, it is important to consider that it should be analyzed in a double context. One of them related to the use of drugs in a specific medical treatment; and the other; to chemoprophylatic drugs, both with the same purpose: the accurate selection of the “in vivo” antimicrobial agent. This requires the study of the sensitivity and resistance of strains isolated in both carriers and patients. With the aim of further studying the behavior of the strains that currently circulate in Cuba, an antimicrobial drug susceptibility study was conducted in 90 strains isolated from carriers during the first half of 1998. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs to: penicillin, ampicillin, rifampin, sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime. The study of the three latter drugs was done for the first time in our country. The search for β- lactamase-producer strains was also performed. There was a predominance of penicillin sensitive strains (82,2% with an intermediate sensitivity to ampicillin (57,8%, while 70% of the strains were sensitive to sulfadiazine. Regarding the rest of the antimicrobial drugs, 100% of the strains were sensitive. The paper shows the MICs for each drug as well as the phenotypic characteristics of the strains with the penicillin and sulfadiazine sensitivity and resistance patterns. No β-lactamase-producer strains were found.

  20. Establishment of an Indirect Genetic Transformation Method for Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulbul AHMED

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, which is adopted as a model plant for genetic research. Agrobacterium tumifaciensmediated transformation method for A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh was established. Leaf discs of A. thaliana were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing chimeric nos. nptII. nos and intron-GUS genes. Following inoculation and co-cultivation, leaf discs were cultured on selection medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin + 50 mg/l cefotaxime + 1.5 mg/l NAA and kanamycin resistant shoots were induced from the leaf discs after two weeks. Shoot regeneration was achieved after transferring the tissues onto fresh medium of the same combination. Finally, the shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin. Incorporation and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis. Using this protocol, transgenic A. thaliana plants can be obtained and indicates that genomic transformation in higher plants is possible through insertion of desired gene. Although Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation is established for A. thaliana, this study was the conducted to transform A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh.

  1. [Emergence of beta-lactam-dependent Bacillus cereus associated with prolonged treatment with cefepime in a neutropenic patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sun-Young; Chung, Hee-Jung; Sung, Heong-Sup; Kim, Mi-Na

    2007-06-01

    Antibiotic dependence in clinical isolates has been reported, albeit rarely, such as vancomycin-dependent enterococcus and beta-lactam-dependent Staphylococcus saprophyticus. We report herein a clinical isolate of beta-lactam-dependent Bacillus cereus. A 16-yr-old female was admitted on 8 September 2005 with neutropenic fever during chemotherapy following surgical removal of peripheral neuroectodermal tumor. She had had an indwelling chemoport since August 2004 and experienced B. cereus bacteremia three times during the recent 3-month period prior to the admission; the bacteremias were treated with cefepime-based chemotherapy. On hospital days 1 and 3, B. cereus was isolated from blood drawn through the chemoport. The isolates were resistant to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin, and susceptible to vancomycin and ciprofloxacin. The isolate of hospital day 3 grew only nearby the beta-lactam disks including penicillin and ceftriaxone on disk diffusion testing. The beta-lactam-dependent isolate required a minimum of 0.064 microg/mL of penicillin or 0.023 microgram/mL of cefotaxime for growth, which was demonstrated by E test (AB Biodisk, Sweden). Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed a marked elongation of the dependent strain compared with the non-dependent strain. Prolonged therapy with beta-lactams in the patient with an indwelling intravenous catheter seemed to be a risk factor for the emergence of beta-lactam-dependence in B. cereus.

  2. Antibiogram Pattern of Acinetobacter Isolated from Clinical Samples at Tehran’s Araad Hospital (2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Eslami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Absrtact Background and objective: Acinetobacter is common in nosocomial pathogen and it is a health care associated opportunistic multidrug resistant pathogen. The purpose of this study is to determine the sensivity and resistance of Acinetobacter strains that was isolated from clinical samples of patients who was admitted to Arad hospital in Tehran. Materials and methods: In this descriptive examination, after extracting Acinetobacter derivations from clinical samples (Urine, sond fuli, sputum, wound, blood and bronchial, Their sensitivity was measured using standard Kirby-Bauer test, in contract with following antibiotics Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Imipenem, Ceftriaxone Sulfametoxazole Trimetoprime, Piperacilin and Cefotaxime and then the results analayzed. Results: In this study of 225 samples of Acinetobacter derivation isolated from clinical specimens, the most amount of sensivity was Piperacilin and Ciprofloxacin and the most amount of resistance was to Gentamicin and Amikacin. Conclusion: The results of this study are indicating that Acinetobacter strains resistance has increased against Gentamycin and Amikacin; presumably due to excessive consumption of these antibiotics. It is obvious that, with increasing consumption of antibiotics, and consequently, augmentation of antibacterial resistance, control of this resistance factor is necessary and inevitable, we recommended to avoid unnecessary usage of antibiotics.

  3. Sensitivity Trend of E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molaabaszadeh H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background and objective: The resistance to antibiotics among of pathogen bacteria is one of the main concerns of doctors all around the world, with consideration to different reports about E.coli bacteria’s sensitivity, this study was done to examine the pattern of sensitivity and antibiotic resistance of E.coli strains collected from clinical samples of patients hospitalized in Tehran’s Araad hospital. Materials and methods: In this descriptive examination, after extracting E.coli derivations from clinical samples (urine, catheter, phlegm, wound, abscess, vagina and blood, their sensitivity was measured using standard Kirby-Bauer test, in contract with following antibiotics Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Imipenem, Sulfametoxazole Trimetoprime, Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime. Results: Most of E. coli strains isolated were from urine samples every four years and the lowest of E. coli strains from vaginal samples. The most amount of sensibility to Imipenem and Amikacin and the most amount of resistant were seen to Sulfametoxazole-Trimetoprime and Ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: The results of this study are indicating that E.coli’s strains resistance has increased against Trimethoprim and Ciprofloxacin; presumably it is due to excessive consumption of these antibiotics. It is obvious that, with regard to increasing consumption of antibiotics, and consequently, augmentation of antibacterial resistance, control of this resistance factor is necessary and inevitable, so it is recommended to avoid unnecessary usage of antibiotics.

  4. Amino acid sequence requirements at residues 69 and 238 for the SME-1 beta-lactamase to confer resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majiduddin, Fahd K; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-03-01

    Carbapenem antibiotics have been used to counteract resistant strains of bacteria harboring beta-lactamases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Four enzymes from the class A group of beta-lactamases, NMC-A, IMI-1, SME-1, and KPC-1, efficiently hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. Sequence comparisons and structural information indicate that cysteines at amino acid residues 69 and 238, which are conserved in all four of these enzymes, form a disulfide bond that is unique to these beta-lactamases. To test whether this disulfide bond is required for catalytic activity, the codons for residues Cys69 and Cys238 were randomized individually and simultaneously by PCR-based mutagenesis to create random replacement libraries for these positions. Mutants that were able to confer resistance to ampicillin, imipenem, or cefotaxime were selected from these libraries. The results indicate that positions Cys69 and Cys238 are critical for hydrolysis of all of the antibiotics tested, suggesting that the disulfide bond is generally required for this enzyme to catalyze the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics.

  5. Amino acid residues that contribute to substrate specificity of class A beta-lactamase SME-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majiduddin, Fahd K; Palzkill, Timothy

    2005-08-01

    Carbapenem antibiotics are used as antibiotics of last resort because they possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and are not easily hydrolyzed by beta-lactamases. Recently, class A enzymes, such as the SME-1, NMC-A, and IMI-1 beta-lactamases, have been identified with the capacity to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. Traditional class A beta-lactamases, such as TEM-1 and SHV-1, are unable to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics and exhibit some differences in sequence from those that are able to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. The positions that differ may contribute to the unique substrate specificity of the class A carbapenemase SME-1. Codons in the SME-1 gene representing residues 104, 105, 132, 167, 237, and 241 were randomized by site-directed mutagenesis, and functional mutants were selected for the ability to hydrolyze imipenem, ampicillin, or cefotaxime. Although several positions are important for hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics, no single position was found to uniquely contribute to carbapenem hydrolysis. The results of this study support a model whereby the carbapenemase activity of SME-1 is due to a highly distributed set of interactions that subtly alter the structure of the active-site pocket.

  6. Salmonella Weltevreden food poisoning in a tea garden of Assam: An outbreak investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Saikia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden has been a rare cause of acute gastroenteritis occurring worldwide. Here, we report an outbreak of food poisoning in a tea garden. Objectives: To determine the aetiological agent and risk factors responsible for the outbreak and to take necessary steps for prevention of future outbreaks. Materials and Methods: Affected area was visited by a team of microbiologists for collecting stool samples/rectal swabs from affected patients. Samples were processed by culture followed by confirmation of the isolates biochemically, automated bacterial identification system, conventional serotyping and molecular typing. Water samples were also processed for detection of faecal contamination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion technique according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. Results: The isolates were confirmed as S. enterica subspecies enterica serovar Weltevreden. They were found sensitive to ampicillin, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole and doxycycline. Water samples showed high-level faecal contamination. Source of outbreak was found to be drinking water contaminated with dead livestock. House to house visit was made for early diagnosis and treatment of the cases, awareness campaigning and chlorination of drinking water. Conclusions: This report emphasises the geographical distribution of this organism in Assam. As S. Weltevreden is widely distributed in domestic animals, people should be made aware of immediate reporting of any unusual death among the livestock and their safe disposal which can significantly reduce the incidence of non-typhoidal salmonellosis in the country.

  7. ENTERIC FEVER IN BASTAR TRIBAL REGION-PREVALENCE AND SENSITIVITY PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chandra Yadav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Currently, antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations is one of the greatest challenges to the effective management of infectious diseases. The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of salmonella species and its sensitivity pattern in a tertiary care medical college hospital in Bastar, Chhattisgarh. MATERIAL AND METHODS From the clinical samples cultured from Jan 2010 to June 2014. 690 cases of enteric fever were isolated and investigations were carried out for antibiotic susceptibility pattern of S. typhi and S. Paratyphi Result: Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of S. typhi against various antibiotics tested were chloramphenicol 37%-52%, co-trimoxazole 22-33%, ampicillin 28-46%, ciprofloxacin 14-29%, ofloxacin 80-95%, amikacin 89%-97%, cefotaxime 56%-88%, ceftriaxone 69%-72%, ceftazidime 86-93%, and nalidixic 93-86%. Sensitivity pattern of S. Paratyphi showed 100% resistance to co-trimoxazole, 40% to ciprofloxacin while they were 100% sensitive to ofloxacin and amikacin. DISCUSSION Emergence of MDR Salmonella is the main problem of treating the patient as a consequence of extensive use of antibiotic. Resistance to antibiotic was found with increasing frequency in our study. Hence, there should be a national policy for antibiotic usage.

  8. Bacterial profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in catheter related nosocomial infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study was carried out over a period of 6 months in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital. The aim of the study was to determine the organisms causing catheter related nosocomial infections in the PICU and to study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Patients with endotracheal intubation, indwelling urinary catheters and central venous catheters (CVC/venous cutdown catheters were included in the study. Colonization of the endotracheal tube, urinary catheter related infections (UCRI and colonization of the CVC/venous cutdown catheters was studied. E. coli was the commonest organism colonizing the endotracheal tube tip with maximum susceptibility to cefotaxime and amikacin. E. coli was also was the commonest organism causing UCRI with maximum susceptibility to nitrofurantoin and amikacin. Acinetobacter was the commonest organism colonizing the CVC/venous cutdown catheters with maximum susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. All these sites of catheter related infections considered together, E. coli and Klebsiella were the commonest nosocomial organisms. Both had maximum susceptibility to amikacin. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was isolated only from one culture. All the organisms had a poor susceptibility to cefazolin and amoxycillin. A knowledge of the resident microbial flora and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern is necessary for formulating a rational antibiotic policy in an ICU.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposites for targeted antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, Olena; Lewandowski, Mikołaj; Peplińska, Barbara; Jarek, Marcin; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Wiesner, Maciej; Załęski, Karol; Babutina, Tetyana; Warowicka, Alicja; Jurga, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The article is devoted to preparation and characterization of magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposites for targeted antimicrobial therapy. Magnetite nanopowder was produced by thermochemical technique; silver was deposited on the magnetite nanoparticles in the form of silver clusters. Magnetite/silver nanocomposite was investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, XPS, EDX techniques. Adsorptivity of magnetite/silver nanocomposite towards seven antibiotics from five different groups was investigated. It was shown that rifampicin, doxycycline, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and doxycycline may be attached by physical adsorption to magnetite/silver nanocomposite. Electrostatic surfaces of antibiotics were modeled and possible mechanism of antibiotic attachment is considered in this article. Raman spectra of magnetite, magnetite/silver and magnetite/silver/antibiotic were collected. It was found that it is difficult to detect the bands related to antibiotics in the magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposite spectra due to their overlap by the broad carbon bands of magnetite nanopowder. Magnetic measurements revealed that magnetic saturation of the magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposites decreased on 6-19 % in comparison with initial magnetite nanopowder. Pilot study of antimicrobial properties of the magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposites were performed towards Bacillus pumilus.

  10. Epidemiology of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes disease in Germany during 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imöhl, Matthias; Reinert, Ralf René; Ocklenburg, Christina; van der Linden, Mark

    2010-04-01

    A nationwide laboratory-based surveillance study of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections was conducted in Germany. Invasive isolates (n=586) were obtained between 2003 and 2007. Most isolates were obtained from blood (53.9%) or skin lesions (17.6%). The most common emm types were emm 1 (30.5%), emm 28 (18.3%) and emm 3 (9.6%). Overall, speA was positive in 45.9%, speC in 44.7% and ssa in 14.8% of isolates. SpeA was common in emm type 1 (100%) and emm type 3 (96.4%), whereas speC was often observed in emm type 28 (93.5%). The most frequent clinical manifestations included sepsis (40.1%), necrotizing fasciitis (20.8%) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (16.6%). All isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, cefotaxime and levofloxacin. Tetracycline shows the highest rate of resistant or intermediate isolates with 11.6%, followed by clarithromycin (5.5%) and clindamycin (1.2%). The most prominent trend is the reduction of tetracycline-nonsusceptible isolates from 18.6% in 2003 to 8.9% in 2007.

  11. Moraxella catarrhalis as a respiratory pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Moraxella catarrhalis is gaining significance as a pathogen over few decades because of increased rate of isolation in respiratory specimens and due to emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Therefore, appropriate antimicrobial agents are required for eradication and prevention of spread of the organism. Material and Methods: -The study was conducted over 1-year period inpatients of lower respiratory tract infections (L.R.T.I. in P.G.I.M.S. Rohtak (Haryana . Assessment of clinical significance of M.catarrhalis was ascertained on the basis of preformed criteria. Results: A total of 63 clinically significant M. catarrhalis were isolated from a tertiary care hospital. The isolates showed maximum resistance to cotrimoxazole (82.5%, pencillin (77.7%, and ampicillin (71.4% while susceptibility was maximum to cefotaxime (87.3% followed by tetracycline (85.7% ciprofloxacin (84.1%, erythromycin (80.9% amikacin (79.3%, gentamycin (77.7%, and cefazolin (76.2%. Multidrug resistance to >3 antimicrobials was seen in 22 (34.9% of cases. Conclusions: Predominant or pure growth of M.catarrhalis in throat swabs from cases of L.R.T.I. should be reported and treated by microbiologist and clinician respectively. Antibiotic therapy should be decided based on sensitivity report for rapid respose and recovery of patients.

  12. Phototransformation of cephalosporin antibiotics in an aqueous environment results in higher toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Huan; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen

    2012-11-20

    Photodegradation may be the most important elimination process for cephalosporin antibiotics in surface water. Cefazolin (CFZ) and cephapirin (CFP) underwent mainly direct photolysis (t(1/2) = 0.7, 3.9 h), while cephalexin (CFX) and cephradine (CFD) were mainly transformed by indirect photolysis, which during the process a bicarbonate-enhanced nitrate system contributed most to the loss rate of CFX, CFD, and cefotaxime (CTX) (t(1/2) = 4.5, 5.3, and 1.3 h, respectively). Laboratory data suggested that bicarbonate enhanced the phototransformation of CFD and CFX in natural water environments. When used together, NO(3)(-), HCO(3)(-), and DOM closely simulated the photolysis behavior in the Jingmei River and were the strongest determinants in the fate of cephalosporins. TOC and byproducts were investigated and identified. Direct photolysis led to decarboxylation of CFD, CFX, and CFP. Transformation only (no mineralization) of all cephalosporins was observed through direct photolysis; byproducts were found to be even less photolabile and more toxic (via the Microtox test). CFZ exhibited the strongest acute toxicity after just a few hours, which may be largely attributed to its 5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol moiety. Many pharmaceuticals were previously known to undergo direct sunlight photolysis and transformation in surface waters; however, the synergistic increase in toxicity caused by this cocktail (via pharmaceutical photobyproducts) cannot be ignored and warrants future research attention.

  13. Insight into neonatal septicaemic Escherichia coli from India with respect to phylogroups, serotypes, virulence, extended-spectrum-β-lactamases and association of ST131 clonal group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S; Datta, S; DAS, P; Gaind, R; Pal, T; Tapader, R; Mukherjee, S; Basu, S

    2015-11-01

    The study characterizes a collection of 67 neonatal septicaemic Escherichia coli isolates on the basis of phylogroup, serotype, virulence, antibiotic resistance and also the association of CTX-M-producing E. coli and the ST131 clone in a developing country. Phylogroups B2 and D were predominant (33% and 19%, respectively). The most prevalent virulence factors (VFs) were traT (69%) and iucC (68%) and most VFs were concentrated in the B2 isolates. High levels of resistance (⩾70%) to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was recorded but meropenem remained the most active antimicrobial. Six (9%) of the study isolates belonged to the ST131 clone, five of which were from the same hospital, and were either indistinguishable or closely related by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Although the prevalence of CTX-M-15-producing isolates was high (81%), the ST131 clone was relatively infrequent (11%) in extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producers. The ST131 clone was characterized by the presence of bla CTX-M-15, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, IncF plasmids and virulence determinants such as iucC, papC, traT, usp, hlyA, iroN E.coli , cnf, and sat. We conclude that clonal spread of ST131 did not contribute directly to the high prevalence of CTX-M-15 in our settings.

  14. Changes in gram negative microorganisms’ resistance pattern during 4 years period in a referral teaching hospital; a surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili Hossein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Surveillance studies evaluating antimicrobial susceptibilities are of great value in preventing the spread of resistant pathogens by elucidating the trend of resistance in commonly used antibiotics and as a consequence providing information for prescribing the most appropriate agent. This study is a longitudinal antimicrobial resistance surveillance study designed to evaluate the trend in antimicrobial resistance to gram negative microorganisms from 2007 to 2010. Method During a four-year period (2007–2010 isolates derived from all patients admitted to infectious diseases ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital, the major referral center for infectious disease in Iran with the highest admission rates, were evaluated. Based on disk diffusion method and zone of inhibition size, the microorganism was regarded as to be sensitive, resistant or has intermediate susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents. Results The widest spread Gram-negative microorganism in all of isolates taken together in our study was E.coli (30% followed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in 28.6% and Enterobacter spp. in 11.9%, respectively. The susceptibility to amikacin, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and nitrofurantoin was equal or above 50% for all microorganisms over four years. However, the susceptibility to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxim, and ceftriaxone was less than 50% in derived isolates during the study period. Conclusion In conclusion, the finding of the present study revealed that resistance rate to common antimicrobial agents in Iran is growing and isolates were susceptible mostly to broad-spectrum antibiotics including imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam.

  15. Isolation and Identification Enterobacter asburiae from Consumed Powdered Infant Formula Milk (PIF) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardaneh, Jalal; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study.

  16. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jade, Mohamed Ramadan; Parcina, Marijo; Schmithausen, Ricarda Maria; Stein, Christoph; Meilaender, Alina; Hoerauf, Achim; Molitor, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R) and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen. PMID:27494134

  17. Transformation of the monocotyledonous Alstroemeria by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, M; Ishizaki, T; Sato, H

    2004-03-01

    An efficient procedure is described for the transformation of the monocotyledonous Alstroemeria by Agrobacterium tumefaciens via callus regeneration. Calli derived from ovules were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strains EHA101 and LBA4404, which harbored the binary vector plasmids pIG121Hm and pTOK233, respectively. These plasmids contain the beta-glucuronidase gene ( gusA) as a reporter gene and the hygromycin phosphotransferase and neomycin phosphotransferase II ( nptII) genes as selective markers. Inoculated calli were first plated for 4 weeks on medium containing cefotaxime to eliminate bacteria, following which time transformed cells were selected on medium that contained 20 mg/l hygromycin. A histochemical assay for GUS activity revealed that hygromycin-based selection was completed after 8 weeks. The integration of the T-DNA of pIG121Hm and pTOK233 into the genome of the cells was confirmed by PCR analysis. Efficient shoot regeneration from the transformed calli was observed on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid and 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine after about 5 months of culture. The presence of the gusA and nptII genes in the genomic DNA of regenerated plants was detected by means of PCR and PCR-Southern hybridization, and the expression of these transgenes was verified by reverse transcription-PCR.

  18. Agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C de Castillo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina, were determined by the agar dilution method (MIC. 3.5% of the isolates produced ²-lactamase. A total of 96.5% of ²-lactamase negative isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin (MIC < 2 µgml-1; 14.03% of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC < 2 µgml-1, and 98% of the tested isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin (MIC < 64 µgml-1. The MICs for 95% of the isolates, tested for other drugs were: < 2 µgml-1 for cefoxitin, < 0.06 µgml-1 for cefotaxime, < 0.25 µgml-1 for norfloxacin, < 10 µgml-1 for cephaloridine, < 10 µgml-1 for cephalexin, and < 50 µgml-1 for kanamycin. Antibiotic resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Tucumán, Argentina, appeared to be primarily limited to penicillin and tetracycline, which has been a general use against gonorrhoeae in Tucumán since 1960. Periodic monitoring of the underlying susceptibility profiles of the N. gonorrhoeae strains prevalent in areas of frequent transmission may provide clues regarding treatment options and emerging of drug resistance.

  19. Enterorhabdus caecimuris sp. nov., a member of the family Coriobacteriaceae isolated from a mouse model of spontaneous colitis, and emended description of the genus Enterorhabdus Clavel et al. 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Thomas; Duck, Wayne; Charrier, Cédric; Wenning, Mareike; Elson, Charles; Haller, Dirk

    2010-07-01

    The C3H/HeJBir mouse model of intestinal inflammation was used for isolation of a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (B7(T)) from caecal suspensions. On the basis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain B7(T) was a member of the class Actinobacteria, family Coriobacteriaceae, and was related closely to Enterorhabdus mucosicola Mt1B8(T) (97.6 %). The major fatty acid of strain B7(T) was C(16 : 0) (19.1 %) and the respiratory quinones were mono- and dimethylated. Cells were aerotolerant, but grew only under anoxic conditions. Strain B7(T) did not convert the isoflavone daidzein and was resistant to cefotaxime. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and additional physiological and biochemical tests allowed the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain B7(T) from the type strain of E. mucosicola. Therefore, strain B7(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Enterorhabdus caecimuris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B7(T) (=DSM 21839(T) =CCUG 56815(T)).

  20. Serologic evidence of human leptospirosis in and around Kolkata, India:A clinico-epidemiological study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manisha DebMandal; Shyamapada Mandal; Nishith Kumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prevalence of leptospirosis among patients from within and outside Kolkata, India, attending the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, for treatment during August 2002 to August2008.Methods: The leptospirosis cases were determined on the basis of clinical, epidemiological, and biochemical factors, and were tested for leptospiral antibodies using IgM ELISA. Serum samples with absorbance ratio ≥1.21were interpreted as reactive.Results: The commonest presentation involved fever, headache and jaundice. The male-female ratio was 61:46. A total of65(64.20%) cases had abnormal liver and renal functions respectively, and57.1% had both the abnormalities. The highest incidence(75, 35.04%) was recorded in September-October followed by July-August(53, 24.77%). The reactive cases had absorbance ratios between 1.21 and8.21, and53 showed equivocal result, while IgM non reactivity were seen in 90 patients (absorbance ratios 0.10-0.90). The patients responded to treatment with parenteral antibiotics, penicillin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime; follow up did not reveal case fatality.Conclusions:The cardinal signs of leptospirosis help in making clinical diagnosis, but in any hyper-endemic situation any patient reporting with acute fever and signs of pulmonary, hepatic or renal involvement should be suspected to have leptospirosis and investigated accordingly. Increased awareness, and early diagnosis and treatment, can reduce mortality due to leptospirosis.

  1. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Imported Fish and Correlations between Antibiotic Resistance and Enterotoxigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Salman, Alaa E Bani; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-11-01

    A total of 156 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from 330 imported fresh fish samples from three countries. Selective media were used for the isolation of S. aureus, and the isolates were confirmed by PCR. The isolates were tested for mecA gene, antibiotic resistance, and enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, and sei). Most isolates carried sea, seg, and sei genes, and seg-sei was the most frequent enterotoxin profile. About 88.5% of the S. aureus exhibited resistance to at least one antibiotic. High resistance to penicillin and ampicillin; low resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, rifampin, and clindamycin; and very low resistance to cefotaxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin were exhibited by S. aureus from the three countries. In addition, some antibiotic resistance exhibited a strong correlation (P ≤ 0.01) with enterotoxigenicity in S. aureus. The study concluded that the large amount of globally traded fish increases the possibility of intercontinental transmission of enterotoxigenic and multidrug-resistant S. aureus through fish and highlights the potential influence of local fish handling and processing on consumer health worldwide. The introduction of periodic training in food safety and hygiene is essential to increase fish handlers' awareness of good hygienic practices in handling fish. These findings also enrich the ongoing debate about the risk of methicillin- and multidrug-resistant S. aureus as a foodborne pathogen compared with drug-susceptible S. aureus.

  2. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Galván, Ma. Fabiola; Barboza-Corona, José E.; Lechuga-Arana, A. Arianna; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D.; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Martínez-Ortega, Erika A.; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY), lactation number (LN), herd size (HS), and number of days in milk (DM) were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH), LN, HS, and DM (P < 0.01), and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 (P < 0.01). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study. PMID:25815326

  3. Angina monocitica con sovrainfezione da Prevotella denticola: caso clinico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Allù

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocytic angina with superinfection of Prevotella denticola: clinical case Monocytic angina is a clinical sindrome caused by Epstein-Barr virus characterized by fever, pharyngitis, exudative tonsillitis, swollen lymphoglands, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly.The inflamed pharynx and necrotic tonsils of infectious mononucleosis are subject to bacterial superinfection initially or during the course of the illness; the reduced PO2 tension and low oxidation-reduction potential that prevail in a vascular and necrotic tissues favour the growth of anaerobes. In this article we reported the clinical case of a ten years old children, who presented fever and tonsillopharyngitis; he was treated with cefotaxime and piperacillin, he did not improve in health. He was admitted to hospital (Department of Otorhinolaryngology. The patient was treated with aminoglycoside (tobramycin, piperacillin and cortisone; the clinical situation deteriorated. Pus sample was collected from the tonsils and cultured. Isolated strain from culture anaerobic was identified biochemically (Rapid-ID32ANA.The microorganism isolated was: Prevotella denticola (oral anaerobic gram-negative rods; β-lactamase production was tested by using the chromogenic cephalosporin disk test.The susceptibility to antibiotics was performed according to NCCLS recommendations. Prevotella denticola (β-lactamase production was resistant to penicillin, cefoxitin, cefotetan, piperacillin, clindamycin and metronidazole it was susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ticarcillin-clavulanate, imipenem and chloramphenicol. Children was treated with piperacillin-tazobactam, with rapid symptomatic relief.

  4. Bacterial Contamination and Antibiotic Resistance of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated from Automated Teller Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshtaghi, H. (PhD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Automated Teller Machine (ATMs is likely to be contaminated with various microorganisms specially pathogen germs. This may be due to their exposure to dust and their vast dermal contact with multiple users. This study investigated the bacterial contamination on the keyboard of ATMs and drug resistance of the bacteria isolated from them. Material and Methods: the keyboards of 50 ATMs in Shahrekord city, Iran, were examined from October 2012 to February 2013. The sterile swab sticks moistened with Triptose soy broth were used for sampling. The bacteriological tests used were culture, biochemical test and agar disk diffusion method for antibiogram. Results: All the samples were found to be contaminated with Coagulase negative staphylococci (57.54%, Bacillus species (21.92%, Staphylococcus aureus (19.18% and coliform bacteria (1.36%. The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus was 92.8% to penicillin, 85.7% to amoxicilin، 71.4% to ampicillin, 57.1% to nytrofuran, 50% to tetracycline, 42.8% to erythromycin, 42.8% to gentamycin, 14.2 % to ciprofloxacin, 7.1% to trimethoprim and sulfamtuksazul. All species were susceptible to, ofloxacine, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, tobramycin, vancomycin and cefotaxime. Conclusion: given the presence of pathogens on ATMs and their role in transferring the contamination, we recommend considering personal hygiene and periodically disinfecting the keyboards to reduce contamination

  5. Retrospective health-care associated infection surveillance in oral and maxillofacial reconstructive microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyi, Márta; Sejben, István; Cserni, Gábor; Sántha, Beáta; Gaál, Zoltán; Pongrácz, Júlia; Oberna, Ferenc

    2014-12-01

    In polymorbid or anaemic patients who receive preoperative radiotherapy or undergo long duration surgery involving potentially infectious sites, perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) that is effective against normal oral bacterial flora is mandatory and plays an important role in preventing postoperative infection. In a four-year retrospective analysis, the incidence, outcome, and the efficacy of PAP were evaluated in patients treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Otorhinolaryngology at Kecskemét Hospital. The results were compared with data from the literature to determine if the use of PAP was adequate at the Department.During the study period (between 01/09/2007 and 31/01/2011) 108 patients were evaluated. The mean duration of prophylactic antibiotic treatment was 8.3 ± 5.2 days, with cefotaxime+metronidazole being the most commonly used combination. Surgical site infection occurred in 8 patients (7.5%) in the clean-contaminated category.Our results showed that the perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis administered at our Department was efficient and effective against the oral bacterial flora of patients. Its use is recommended in head and neck microsurgery. To avoid development of antibiotic resistance and to reduce costs, it seems that the duration of antibiotic regimen for primary surgery can be reduced from 8.3 ± 5.2 days to 3 days.

  6. Analysis of Haemophilus influenzae serotype f isolated from three Japanese children with invasive H. influenzae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tadashi; Hachisu, Yushi; Kikuchi, Takashi; Tokutake, Shoko; Okui, Hideyuki; Kutsuna, Satoru; Fukasawa, Chie; Murayama, Kei; Oohara, Asami; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Ito, Midori; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Ishiwada, Naruhiko

    2015-04-01

    In Japan, publicly subsidized Haemophilus influenzae serotype b vaccines became available in 2011; consequently, the incidence of invasive H. influenzae infection in paediatric patients of less than 5 years of age decreased dramatically. In 2013, the first case of H. influenzae serotype f (Hif) meningitis in a Japanese infant was reported, and another case of Hif meningitis in a Japanese infant was observed in 2013. We experienced a fatal paediatric case of Hif bacteraemia in 2004; therefore, we conducted an analysis of the three Hif strains isolated from these three Japanese children with invasive Hif infections. All three strains were β-lactamase-non-producing, ampicillin-sensitive strains, with MICs of 1 µg ml(-1) or less. However, one of the three strains showed slightly elevated MICs for ampicillin (1 µg ml(-1)), cefotaxime (0.25 µg ml(-1)) and meropenem (0.13 µg ml(-1)). A molecular analysis by multilocus sequence typing identified all three strains as sequence type (ST) 124, which is a predominant invasive Hif strain in many countries. SmaI-digested PFGE showed variable DNA fragmentation patterns among the strains, suggesting that some highly virulent strains have originated from a single ST124 clone and caused invasive Hif infections in Japan. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors that have led to the clonal expansion of virulent ST124 strains.

  7. Isolation and identification of antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from respiratory system infections in shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Reisi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Staphylococcus aureus is considered as one of pathogenic agents in humans, that engages different body parts including respiratory system and causes to spend lots of costs and extending patient’s treatment period. This study which is performed to separate and investigate the pattern of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from upper respiratory system infections in Shahrekord.   Materials and methods: This study was done by sectional-descriptive method On 200 suspicious persons to the upper respiratory system infections who were referred to the Imam Ali clinic in Shahrekord in 2012. After isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from cultured nose discharges, antibiotic resistance genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR by using defined primer pairs .   Results : Among 200 investigated samples in 60 cases (30% Staphylococcus aureus infection (by culturing and PCR method was determined. Isolates showed the lowest amount of antibiotic resistance to vancomycin (0.5% and the highest amount of resistance to the penicillin G and cefotaxime (100%. mecA gene (encoding methicillin resistance with frequency of 85.18% and aacA-D gene (encoding resistance to aminoglycosides with frequency of 28.33% showed the highest and lowest frequency of antibiotic resistance genes coding in Staphylococcus aureus isolates respectively .   Discussion and conclusion : Notable prevalence of resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in community acquired respiratory infections, recommend continuous control necessity to impede the spreading of these bacteria and their infections.  

  8. Evaluation of nisin-β-lactam antibiotics against clinical strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Praveen; Preet Singh, Aman; Garg, Neha; Rishi, Madhuri

    2014-12-01

    There is an imperative need to discover novel antimicrobials and anti-infective agents and build up innovative strategies to combat multidrug-resistant Salmonella. In this context, we had earlier confirmed that nisin has the potential to act in conjunction with β-lactams against murine salmonellosis using standard strain. However, evaluation of efficacy of these combinations against clinical isolates of Salmonella could be the next key step to confirm the value added potential of this peptide. The present study was therefore planned to validate the synergistic effects of nisin-β-lactams combinations against clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. MICs of the selected β-lactams, EDTA and nisin were determined by micro and macro broth dilution assays. In-vitro synergism between the agents was evaluated by fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index (checkerboard test) and time-kill assay. All the tested combinations showed synergy against the tested clinical strains except three, as evident by FIC index (checkerboard test) and time-kill assay. Especially, nisin-ceftriaxone and nisin-cefotaxime combinations demonstrated excellent synergistic activity. In view of the encouraging results obtained from the previous and present study, further studies need to be carried out using large number of strains from different regions to take into account the clinical variability of the strains. Though it is a simple study but highlights an important point about the possibility of using the said combination while making strategies to develop newer formulations.

  9. Antibiotic sensitivity of escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection referred to Kermanshah central laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Mohajeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Escherichia coli (Ecoli has been considered as the most common agent of urinary tract infection in all regions. Recently, increased drug resistance has been lead to some problems in treatment related diseases. So, evaluation of resistance patterns of bacteria in each region could be a valuable guide for empirical treatment.Methods: All referred urine sample to Kermanshah Central Laboratory during 1998 that was reported positive to Ecoli were assessed. Susceptibility pattern to 19 antimicrobial agents was evaluated using Kirby Bauer method according to CLSI standards.Results: A total of 834 Ecoli isolated from 19,208 positive urine cultures. 84% of subjects were females and 16% males. Sensitivity rate for nitrofurantoin (84%, ceftizoxime (72%, norfloxacin (70%, cefotaxime (69%, Amikacin (66%, ciprofloxacin (65%, ceftriaxone (64%, ceftazidim (55% was higher than 50%. Sensitivity to nalidixic acid, cefexime, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, ticarcillin, caphalexin, cephalotin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate and ampicillin were determined less than 50%.Conclusion: Nitrofurantoin and ceftizoxime are currently effective against Ecoli, although an indiscriminate use of antibiotics should be avoided because of drug resistance probable. It seems that ampicillin could be excluded from routine sensitivity testing.

  10. Epididymo-orchitis in an extremely preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Morris

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Epididymo-orchitis (EO is a rare condition in the neonatal period. An underlying uropathy is variably associated with EO in published cases and more frequently seen in older children. In this case report, a male baby born at 26 weeks gestation had confirmed congenital Escherichia coli septicemia. The E. coli was sensitive to gentamicin, and he was treated with 10 days of intravenous gentamicin and cefotaxime, with normalization of markers of infection. He did not have a urinary catheter at any stage. He developed recurrent E. coli septicemia 19 days after ceasing antibiotics, in association with a tender scrotal swelling. A urine culture could not be obtained prior to commencing intravenous antibiotics. Surgical exploration revealed a right pyocele and a viable right testis. He was treated with 2 weeks of intravenous piperacillin and tazobactam and a further 2 weeks of oral amoxycillin and clavulanic acid. Urological investigations were normal. No further episodes of EO occurred, and follow-up showed normal testicular growth. This case adds weight to existing literature which suggests hematogenous spread as the most frequent cause of neonatal EO, without urinary tract abnormality. EO as cause of recurrent sepsis in the neonate after apparently adequate treatment of antecedent blood born infection is highlighted. Surgical exploration confirmed diagnosis, and evacuation of the pyocele assisted resolution of systemic sepsis and decompressed the testis.

  11. Prevalence and resistance ofAcinetobacter baumannii isolated at Hyatabad Medical Complex, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Said Hassan; Farhad Ali; Ibrar Alam; Rahmat Gul

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the resistance against widely used antibiotics in case ofAcinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) infection. Methods:A total of 350 samples of pus, urine, swab and others from different patients were examined and the bacterial growth appeared in 50 samples. Each sample was inoculated on blood, MacConkey and cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates was determined using agar plate method/disk-diffusion method (modified-Kirby Baur disc diffusion method). Results: In current study, a large number of isolates ofA. baumannii obtained from different specimens were resistant to avelox (56%), followed by tygacil (46%), augmentin (46%), cefspan (38%), cefixime (24%) and ampicillin (20%). However, the antibiogram ofA. baumannii also showed that most of the isolates (88%) were highly sensitive to cefalexin. Second maximum sensitivity ofA. baumanniiwas seen to amikacin (84%). The sensitivity of isolates against amikacin was followed by ticarcillin (80%). Meronem was found highly active against the tested isolates (78%). Sensitivity was observed for tienem (76%), sulzone (72%) followed by azactam (68%), cefobid (66%) to cefotaxime (66%) and ciproxin (62%). Conclusions:Results elucidate thatA. baumannii is a severe problem as it has become a highly resistant species in hospitalized patients and resistantA. baumannii infection turned out to have increased all-cause mortality.

  12. Occurrence and characterisation of MRSA and extended-spectrum ß-lactamases producing Escherichia coli isolated from mastitic cows’ milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was the preliminary evaluation of the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and extended spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL - producing Escherichia coli in 650 milk and inflammatory secretions from cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis. One millilitre of the sample was added to Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with 6.5% NaCl, Tryptone Soya Broth with cefoxitin and aztreonam, and then to MRSA ID agar. Presumptive MRSA colonies were analysed for the presence of mecA gene. Parallel to MRSA identification, the samples were incubated in buffered peptone water, lauryl tryptose broth and McConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxim for ESBL-producing E. coli isolation. These bacteria were identified using API Rapid 32 E and the ability of ESBL production was initially established using disc test D68C and confirmed by MIC technique using Sensititre ESBL plates. The primers (blaCTX, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCMY-2-group for the detection of some of the genes encoding ESBL production were used. The 45 strains of S. aureus with mecA gene and 41 strains of E. coli with blaTEM gene were detected.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from egg layer flocks and egg shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Vivek V; Gole, Vaibhav C; McWhorter, Andrea R; Abraham, Sam; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2015-06-16

    This study was conducted to examine the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella spp. isolated from commercial caged layer flocks in New South Wales and South Australia. All Salmonella isolates (n=145) were subjected to phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of AMR and carriage of integrons. The majority of Salmonella isolates (91.72%) were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested in this study. Limited resistance was observed to amoxicillin and ampicillin (5.51%), tetracycline (4.13%), cephalothin (2.06%) and trimethoprim (0.68%). None of the isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, neomycin or streptomycin. A low frequency of Salmonella isolates (4.83%) harboured antimicrobial resistance genes and a class 1 integron. The most commonly detected AMR genes among the Salmonella isolates were blaTEM (2.07%), tet A (1.38%) and dhfrV (0.69%). Overall, Salmonella enterica isolates exhibited a low frequency of AMR and represent a minimal public health risk associated with the emergence of multidrug resistant Salmonella spp. from the Australian layer industry.

  14. [Subdural empyema secondary to sinusitis. A pediatric case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, A Herrero; García, I San Martín; Galarraga, L Moreno; Aguirre, M Herranz; Romero, J C García; Iturbe, E Bernaola

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of 9 year old male referred to the A and E service with right ocular proptosis and progressive migraine in the context of a sinusitis diagnosed two days earlier by compatible clinical and radiological tests, and receiving treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Physcial exploration revealed right ocular proptosis with a slight limitation for conjugate gaze. Facing the suspicion of a possible neurological complication of the sinusitis, cranial computer aided tomography (CAT) was carried out, with right frontal subdural empyema observed. He was admitted for intravenous antibiotic treatment with cefotaxime, vancomicin and metronidazole. He was evaluated by child Neurosurgery, Maxillofacial Surgery and Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) services; the decision was taken to only drain the primary focus, while an expectant neurosurgical attitude was maintained. The patient evolved favourably with a progressive disappearance of the symptoms. Periodical magnetic resonances were carried out, which showed a clear improvement up until the complete resolution of the empyema. Following four weeks of antibiotherapy iv., and after clinical and radiological normalization, the patient was discharged.

  15. Wound infections secondary to snakebite in central Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are very few microbiological data on wound infections following snakebites. The objective of this study was to investigate the treatment of secondary infection following snakebites in central Taiwan. Microbiological data and antibiotic sensitivity of wound cultures were retrospectively analyzed from December 2005 to October 2007 in a medical center in central Taiwan. A total of 121 snakebite patients participated in the study. Forty-nine (40.5% subjects were bitten by cobra (Naja atra; 34 of them had secondary infection, and 24 of them (70.6% needed surgical intervention. Cobra bites caused more severe bacterial infection than other snakebites. Morganella morganii was the most common pathogen, followed by Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterococcus. Gram-negative bacteria were susceptible to amikacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefotaxime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Enterococcus were susceptible to ampicillin, gentamicin, penicillin and vancomycin. It is reasonable to choose piperacillin/tazobactam, quinolone, second- or third-generation cephalosporin for empirical therapy following snakebite. Surgical intervention should be considered for invasive soft tissue infections.

  16. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  17. Determination of the prevalence of extended spectrumβ-lactamase in clinical samples collected from Dehradun City Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narayan Sharma; Ripan Mujumdar; Rajeev Kumar Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To detect extended spectrumβ-lactamase (ESBL) and determine its prevalence in various clinical samples collected from Dehradun City Hospital. Methods:The samples were first cultured in MacConkey’s agar plates by streak plate method, then identified by Gram staining and biochemical tests. The isolated bacterial strains were then tested for antibiotic susceptibility by Kirby-Bauer method. TheESBL detection is then carried out by double disc diffusion method. Results: Off the 56 samples cultured, 21 strains were identified which were sixEscherichia coli(E. coli), sixKlebsiella, fourProteus, fourPseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and only oneAcinetobacter. Eight out of 21 (38.1%) strains including three ofE. coli, three ofKlebsiella and two ofP. aeruginosa, were found to be resistance to all five antibiotics (piperacillin, amikacin, ampicillin, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin). Initial screening using four antibiotics (cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam and ceftriaxone) and the final confirmatory test using ceftazidime/clavulanic acid and ceftazidime alone showed that 19.05% of all strains isolated wereESBL producers. Individually, 16.67%E. coli, 16.67%Klebsiella pneumoniae, 25%P. aeruginosa and 100%Acinetobacter were found to beESBL producers. Conclusions:Antibiotic resistance byESBL has become a major risk factor worldwide, therefore routine checkup and accordingly prescription are suggested.

  18. First Report of Group CTX-M-9 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Isolates from Pediatric Patients in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merida-Vieyra, Jocelin; De Colsa, Agustin; Calderon Castañeda, Yair; Arzate Barbosa, Patricia; Aquino Andrade, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the presence of group CTX-M-9 extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from pediatric patients. A total of 404 non-repeated positive ESBL E. coli isolates were collected from documented clinical infections in pediatric patients over a 2-year period. The identification and susceptibility profiles were determined using an automated system. Isolates that suggested ESBL production based on their resistance profiles to third and fourth generation cephalosporin and monobactam were selected. ESBL production was phenotypically confirmed using a diffusion method with cefotaxime and ceftazidime discs alone and in combination with clavulanic acid. blaESBL gene identification was performed through PCR amplification and sequencing. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) were performed to establish the clonal relationships of the E. coli isolates. CTX-M-9-type ESBLs were detected in 2.5% of the isolates. The subtypes corresponded to blaCTX-M-14 (n = 4) and blaCTX-M-27 (n = 6). Additionally, coexistence with other beta-lactamases was observed. A clonal relationship was established in three isolates; the rest were classified as non-related. We found seven different sequence type (ST) in CTX-M-9- producing E. coli isolates. ST38 was the most frequent. This study is the first report in Mexico to document the presence of group CTX-M-9 ESBLs in E. coli isolates from pediatric patients. PMID:27992527

  19. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jade, Mohamed Ramadan; Parcina, Marijo; Schmithausen, Ricarda Maria; Stein, Christoph; Meilaender, Alina; Hoerauf, Achim; Molitor, Ernst; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R) and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen.

  20. Rapid detection of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae from urine samples by use of the ESBL NDP test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortet, Laurent; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2014-10-01

    From June to September 2012, 500 urine samples were recovered from patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) due to Gram-negative bacilli (≥ 10(4) leukocytes/ml and ≥ 10(5) Gram-negative isolates/ml) who visited the University hospital Bicêtre (France). They were challenged with extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) using the rapid diagnostic ESBL NDP test. Results of the ESBL NDP test were compared to the results of the double-disc susceptibility test (DDST) performed on solid-agar plates and molecular identification of the β-lactamase genes. Among the 450 nonduplicate urine samples, 11.3% were positive for ESBL-E by using the DDST, the ESBL determinants being mostly of the CTX-M type (CTX-M-15) according to molecular testing. Results of the ESBL NDP test were obtained within 15 min. The sensitivity and specificity of the ESBL NDP test were 98% and 99.8%, respectively, whereas the positive and negative predictive values of this test were 98% and 99.8%, respectively. A perfect correlation between cefotaxime resistance and positivity of the ESBL NDP test was observed. Therefore, the ESBL NDP test offers a powerful tool for a rapid identification of ESBL-E and associated resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. It may be useful in particular for guiding first-line antibiotic therapy.

  1. Analysis of the drug-resistant characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the respiratory tract and CTX-M ESBL genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S Y; Pan, K Y; Liu, X Q; Xie, X Y; Dai, X L; Chen, B J; Wu, X Q; Li, H Y

    2015-10-05

    The main aim of this study was to understand the relationship between the drug-resistant characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae and CTX-M-type extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), and to detect the distributions of CTX-M-type ESBLs in clinically isolated strains. CTX-M ESBL genes isolated from the clinical samples were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and identified by sequence analysis; the antibiotic susceptibility of the samples was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. One hundred and five strains among the 246 isolated strains of K. pneumoniae tested positive for ESBL production (42.68%); 92 of these produced CTX-M ESBLs. Of the 92 CTX-M ESBL strains, 81 produced CTX-M-1 ESBLs and 11 produced CTX-M-25 ESBLs. Fifty-seven of the CTX-M-1 ESBL- and six of the CTX-M-25 ESBL-producing bacteria had CTX-M ESBL genes that coexisted in the plasmid and chromosome. The Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility method revealed that CTX-M ESBL-positive strains showed a higher rate of resistance to cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, levofloxacin, and cotrimoxazole, compared to the CTX-M ESBL-negative strains (P ESBL genes were commonly observed in the K. pneumoniae isolated from respiratory tract samples; these were significantly associated with the drug-resistant characteristics of K. pneumoniae to β-lactam antibiotics.

  2. The Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae from Community Settings in Taiwan, a Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wu-Pu; Wang, Jann-Tay; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Chang, Feng-Yee; Fung, Chang-Phone; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Chen, Yao-Shen; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Tan, Mei-Chen; Wang, Hui-Ying; Lai, Jui-Fen; Huang, I-Wen; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, especially extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or AmpC β-lactamase-producing strains, is an emerging problem worldwide. However, few data focusing on drug susceptibility of K. pneumoniae from community is available. In this study, we analyzed 1016 K. pneumoniae isolates from outpatients or those visiting emergency rooms collected during 2002–2012 from Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance program. Significantly decreased susceptibilities to 3rd generation cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin were found during the study period. By 2012, susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin was 83.6% and 81.6%, respectively. The prevalence of ESBL-producers increased from 4.8% in 2002 to 11.9% in 2012 (P = 0.012), while that of AmpC β-lactamase-producers increased from 0% to 9.5% in the same period (P ESBL and AmpC-β-lactamase-producers by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multi-locus sequence typing revealed wide genetic diversity even among the most common sequence type 11 isolates (33.0%). By multivariate analysis, later study year, elderly, and urine isolates were associated with carriage of ESBL genes, while only urine isolates were associated with carriage of AmpC β-lactamase genes. Further studies are needed to determine which antibiotics are reasonable empirical therapy options for patients presenting with severe sepsis that might be caused by K. pneumoniae. PMID:27824151

  3. Molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and Escherichia coli isolated from retail foods including chicken meat in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kumiko; Goto, Kensuke; Nakane, Kunihiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2014-02-01

    Contamination of retail meat with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has been reported, but only limited data have been documented in Japan. One hundred fifty-three retail foods including chicken meat, beef, pork, and vegetables were purchased from 29 supermarkets between January and October in 2010. ESBL producers were recovered from each food sample using McConkey agar plate supplemented with 1 mg/L of cefotaxime. ESBL type was identified by DNA sequencing analysis after polymerase chain reaction amplification. Antibiogram, O serotype, plasmid replicon type, pulsotype, and multilocus sequence type were also determined. Fifty-two epidemiologically unrelated Escherichia coli isolates producing ESBL were recovered from 35 (22.9%) of 153 samples, all of which were chicken meat. ESBL types were mainly CTX-M-2 group followed by CTX-M-1 group and CTX-M-8 group. The numbers of bacterial isolates (8 of 21, 38.1%) harboring bla(CTX-M-8) recovered from imported meat samples were significantly larger than those of domestic ones (one of 31, 3.2%) (pESBL-producing E. coli isolates recovered from retail chicken meat samples in Japan are generally divergent in both genetic and serological aspects. Further comparative analyses of bla(CTX-M)-mediating genetic elements would be continued in the next step to characterize the ESBL producers from retail foods in Japan.

  4. E240V substitution increases catalytic efficiency toward ceftazidime in a new natural TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-149, from Enterobacter aerogenes and Serratia marcescens clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilli, Mariagrazia; Celenza, Giuseppe; De Santis, Francesca; Pellegrini, Cristina; Forcella, Chiara; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Stefani, Stefania; Amicosante, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase that belongs to the TEM family, the TEM-149 enzyme, and that was isolated from the urine of two hospitalized patients from different hospitals in southern Italy. The peculiarity of this enzyme was the finding of a valine residue at position 240. The array of amino acid substitutions found in TEM-149 was as follows: E104K, R164S, M182T, and E240V. A reversion of a threonine residue at position 182 was also performed to create a new mutant, TEM-149 T182M, in order to assess the contribution of this substitution on the kinetic profile and the stability of TEM-149. The bla TEM-149 and bla TEM-149/T182M genes were cloned into pBC-SK, and the corresponding enzymes were purified from recombinant Escherichia coli HB101 by the same procedure. Both enzymes hydrolyzed all beta-lactams tested, with a preference for ceftazidime, which was found to be the best substrate. By comparison of the kinetic parameters of the TEM-149 and the TEM-149 T182M enzymes, a reduction of the catalytic efficiency for the TEM-149 T182M mutant was observed against all substrates tested except benzylpenicillin, cefotaxime, and aztreonam. Tazobactam, clavulanic acid, and sulbactam were good inhibitors of the TEM-149 beta-lactamase.

  5. Hospital clonal dissemination of Enterobacter aerogenes producing carbapenemase KPC-2 in a Chinese teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaohua; Yang, Yang; Hu, Fupin; Zhu, Demei

    2014-02-01

    Carbapenems are first-line agents for the treatment of serious nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. However, resistance to carbapenems has increased dramatically among Enterobacteriaceae in our hospital. In this study, we report clonal dissemination caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes (CREA). In 2011, CREA was identified from 12 patients admitted to the neurosurgical ward. All 12 clinical isolates were non-susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, ertapenem, imipenem or meropenem. All isolates carried the gene encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2), except for the isolate E4. However, a remarkably lower expression level of the porin OmpF was detected in the non-KPC-2-producing isolate E4 on SDS-PAGE compared with the carbapenem-susceptible isolate. Epidemiological and molecular investigations showed that a single E. aerogenes strain (PFGE type A), including seven KPC-2-producing clinical isolates, was primarily responsible for the first isolation and subsequent dissemination. In a case-control study, we identified risk factors for infection/colonization with CREA. Mechanical ventilation, the changing of sickbeds and previous use of broad-spectrum antibiotics were identified as potential risk factors. Our findings suggest that further studies should focus on judicious use of available antibiotics, implementation of active antibiotic resistance surveillance and strict implementation of infection-control measures to avoid the rapid spread or clonal dissemination caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in healthcare facilities.

  6. In Vitro antibacterial activity of ibuprofen and acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdul Hussein S AL-Janabi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ibuprofen and acetaminophen are common chemical agents that have anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activity. Aims: To detect any potential antibacterial effects of ibuprofen and acetaminophen on pathogenic bacteria. Materials and methods: Ibuprofen and acetaminophen were tested for antibacterial activity against seven isolates of bacteria including gram positive bacteria (Staphylococci aureus and Bacillus subtilis and gram negative bacteria (E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella typhi and Paracoccus yeei. Spectrophotometer assay was applied to determine the antibacterial activities of ibuprofen and acetaminophen. Three controls were included in this study: Ampicilline sodium (20 μg/ml; cefotaxime sodium (20 μg/ml and chemical free medium. Results: Staphylococcus aureus and Paracoccus yeei were susceptible to lower concentrations of ibuprofen and acetaminophen (MIC=1.25 mg/ml, while two strains of Enterobacter exhibited resistance to these agents. Conclusions: Ibuprofen and acetaminophen showed a potential antibacterial effect on isolated strains of bacteria. They had the same ability to inhibit bacterial growth.

  7. Meropenem vs standard of care for treatment of late onset sepsis in children of less than 90 days of age: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Cabre Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late onset neonatal sepsis (LOS with the mortality of 17 to 27% is still a serious disease. Meropenem is an antibiotic with wide antibacterial coverage. The advantage of it over standard of care could be its wider antibacterial coverage and thus the use of mono-instead of combination therapy. Methods NeoMero-1, an open label, randomised, comparator controlled, superiority trial aims to compare the efficacy of meropenem with a predefined standard of care (ampicillin + gentamicin or cefotaxime + gentamicin in the treatment of LOS in neonates and infants aged less than 90 days admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 550 subjects will be recruited following a 1:1 randomisation scheme. The trial includes patients with culture confirmed (at least one positive culture from normally sterile site except coagulase negative staphylococci in addition to one clinical or laboratory criterion or clinical sepsis (at least two laboratory and two clinical criteria suggestive of LOS in subjects with postmenstrual age The study will start recruitment in September 2011; the total duration is of 24 months. Trial registration EudraCT 2011-001515-31

  8. [Lyme disease--clinical manifestations and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is a systemic infectious disease that can present in a variety of clinical manifestations. The disease is caused by a group of spirochaetes--Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato or Lyme borrelia--that are transmitted to humans by the bite of Ixodes ticks. Lyme disease is the most common arthropode-borne infectious disease in many European countries including Germany. Early localized infection is typically manifested by an erythema migrans skin lesion, in rarer cases as a borrelial lymphocytoma. The most common early disseminated manifestation is (early) neuroborreliosis. In adults, neuroborreliosis appears typically as meningoradiculoneuritis. Neuroborreliosis in children, however, is typically manifested by meningitis. In addition, multiple erythema migrans lesions and Lyme carditis occur relatively frequently. The most common manifestation oflate Lyme disease is Lyme arthritis. Early manifestations (and usually also late manifestations) of Lyme disease can be treated successfully by application of suitable antibacterial agents. For the treatment of Lyme disease, doxycycline, certain penicillins such as amoxicillin and some cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime axetil) are recommended in current guidelines. A major challenge is the treatment of chronic, non-specific disorders, i. e., posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome and "chronic Lyme disease". Prevention of Lyme disease is mainly accomplished by protecting against tick bites. Prophylactic administration of doxycycline after tick bites is generally not recommended in Germany. There is no vaccine available for human beings.

  9. Characterization of antibiotic resistance in commensal bacteria from an aquaculture ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eHuang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to improve understanding of antibiotic resistance (AR ecology through characterization of antibiotic resistant commensal isolates associated with an aquaculture production system. A total of 4767 isolates non-susceptible to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline, erythromycin, or cefotaxime, originated from fish, feed, and environmental samples of an aquaculture farm with no known history of antibiotic applications were examined. Close to 80% of the isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance in media containing the corresponding antibiotics, and representative AR genes were detected in various isolates by PCR, with feed isolates had the highest positive rate detected. Identified AR gene carriers involve 18 bacterial genera. Selected AR genes led to acquired resistance in other bacteria by transformation. The AR traits in many isolates were stable in the absence of selective pressure. AR-rich feed and possibly environmental factors may contribute to AR in the aquaculture ecosystem. For Minimum Inhibitory Concentration test, Brain Heart Infusion medium was found more suitable for majority of the bacteria examined than cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton broth, with latter being the recommended medium for clinical isolates by standard protocol. The data indicated a need to update the methodology due to genetic diversity of microbiota for better understanding of the AR ecology.

  10. Intraphagocytic bactericidal activity of ofloxacin compared with that of aztreonam and ceftriaxone against Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, W H; Spohr, M; Bauer, D

    1986-02-01

    Addition of phenylbutazone (2 mg/ml) to 55 vol % of fresh defibrinated human blood permitted leukocytic ingestion of serum-resistant Serratia marcescens bacteria, but blocked phagocytic killing activity. The group A (phage tail) bacteriocin bA+ 16 served to kill extraphagocytic test bacteria. At greater than or equal to 2 X MBC, the DNA gyrase inhibitor ofloxacin revealed potent intraphagocytic bactericidal activity against S. marcescens test bacteria (99% kill; 3 h observation period) which corresponded to that of the control drug rifampin (97% kill). The monobactam aztreonam (11% kill) and the third generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone (14% kill) corresponded to cefotaxime (26% kill) in terms of suboptimal intraphagocytic activity. Ofloxacin and aztreonam yielded additive effects following combination of supra-(2 X MIC) and inhibitory (MIC), but not sub-inhibitory (0.5 X MIC) concentrations with 55 vol % of defibrinated human blood against S. marcescens and Escherichia coli control strain ATCC 25922; sub- and inhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone yielded indifferent effects.

  11. Conjunctival bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance pattern in patients undergoing cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantes Tiago Eugênio Faria e

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the conjunctival bacterial flora and its antibiotic resistance pattern in eyes of patients undergoing cataract surgery. METHODS: From August to October 2004, 50 patients undergoing cataract surgery in the "Fundação Altino Ventura", Recife, Brazil, were prospectively evaluated. Conjunctival material was obtained on the day of surgery, before the application of topical anesthetic, antibiotic or povidone-iodine. The collected material was inoculated and bacterioscopic analysis was carried out. In the cases where there was bacterial growth, antibiotic susceptibility tests and cultures, for isolation and identification of the bacteria, were performed. RESULTS: Of the 50 eyes, 43 (86.0% had positive cultures. The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS, found in 27 (54.0% eyes, was the most frequent organism. More than 90% of the isolates of this bacterium were susceptible to cephalotin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin and gatifloxacin; 70 to 90% were susceptible to gentamicin, cefotaxime, oxacillin and ciprofloxacin; and less than 70% were sensible to neomycin. Four (10.5% of the bacterial isolates were resistant to four or more antibiotics, two of them were CNS. CONCLUSION: The most frequent bacterium in the conjunctival flora is the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. The isolates of this organism showed low susceptibility rate to neomycin, and high susceptibility rates to cephalotin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin and gatifloxacin.

  12. Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS): beta-lactam and quinolone antibiotics stimulate virulent phage growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, André M; Tétart, Françoise; Trojet, Sabrina N; Prère, Marie-Françoise; Krisch, H M

    2007-08-29

    Although the multiplication of bacteriophages (phages) has a substantial impact on the biosphere, comparatively little is known about how the external environment affects phage production. Here we report that sub-lethal concentrations of certain antibiotics can substantially stimulate the host bacterial cell's production of some virulent phage. For example, a low dosage of cefotaxime, a cephalosporin, increased an uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain's production of the phage PhiMFP by more than 7-fold. We name this phenomenon Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS). A related effect was observed in diverse host-phage systems, including the T4-like phages, with beta-lactam and quinolone antibiotics, as well as mitomycin C. A common characteristic of these antibiotics is that they inhibit bacterial cell division and trigger the SOS system. We therefore examined the PAS effect within the context of the bacterial SOS and filamentation responses. We found that the PAS effect appears SOS-independent and is primarily a consequence of cellular filamentation; it is mimicked by cells that constitutively filament. The fact that completely unrelated phages manifest this phenomenon suggests that it confers an important and general advantage to the phages.

  13. Development and validation of an ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of 10 cephalosporins and desacetylcefapirin in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-Lin; Wu, Yin-Liang; Lv, Yan; Xu, Xiu-Qin; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Ting

    2013-07-15

    A simple, sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 cephalosporins and desacetylcefapirin in bovine milk by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Samples were directly purified through HLB cartridge after dilution with 50mM phosphate buffer solution (pH 8.5). Then the eluate was dried under nitrogen and the residue was redissolved in mobile phase. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS on an Acquity UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column with gradient elution. The samples were quantified using ceftiofur-D3 as internal standard. The proposed method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The CCα values were 111, 0.04, 140, 55, 55, 67, 23, 23, 68, 0.10 and 113μg/kg for cefalexin, cefradine, cefacetrile, cefazolin, cefoperazone, cefapirin, cefalonium, cefquinome, desacetylcefapirin, cefotaxime and ceftiofur, respectively. The mean recoveries, repeatability (expressed as coefficient of variation, CVr), and reproducibility (CVR) varied from 94.6% to 117.1%, from 5.6% to 13.6% (CVr), and from 5.9% to 27.9% (CVR), respectively. The method is demonstrated to be suitable for the determination of 10 cephalosporins and desacetylcefapirin in bovine milk. The total time required for the analysis of one sample, including sample preparation, was about 40min.

  14. ESBL, plasmidic AmpC, and associated quinolone resistance determinants in coliforms isolated from hospital effluent: first report of qnrB2, qnrB9, qnrB19, and blaCMY-4 in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anssour, Lynda; Messai, Yamina; Derkaoui, Meriem; Alouache, Souhila; Estepa, Vanesa; Somalo, Sergio; Torres, Carmen; Bakour, Rabah

    2014-04-01

    The characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases , plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC), and associated plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants in cefotaxime-resistant coliforms isolated from hospital effluent in Algiers showed blaCTX-M genes in 89%, blaTEM-1 in 79·8%, and pAmpC genes (blaCIT) in 2·7% isolates. Association of ISEcp1B with blaCTX-M was found in all CTX-M+ isolates, and 97·2% harboured class 1 integrons. Sequencing showed blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-3, and blaCMY-4 genes. blaCTX-M-3 and blaCTX-M-15 were located in Inc L/M conjugative plasmids. The PMQR determinants identified were qnrB1, qnrB2, qnrB9, qnrB19, qnrS2, and aac(6')-Ib-cr. qnrB2, qnrB9, qnrB19, and blaCMY-4 are described for the first time in Algeria and qnrB19 for the first time in non-clinical environments. This study highlights the major potential role of hospital effluents as providers of resistance genes to natural environments.

  15. Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates from red foxes in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhouani, Hajer; Igrejas, Gilberto; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Estepa, Vanesa; Sargo, Roberto; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-02-01

    The presence of broad-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates and the implicated mechanisms of resistance and virulence factor genes were investigated in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Portugal. Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates were isolated from two of 52 fecal samples (4 %), being both ESBL producers. The β-lactamase genes found in the two isolates were bla(SHV-12) + bla(TEM-1b). The tet(A) and sul2 genes were also detected in these isolates, together with the non-classical class 1 integron (intI1-dfrA12-orfF-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3) with the PcH1 promoter. The two isolates belonged to the phylogroup A. Amino acid changes in GyrA (S83L + D87G) and ParC (S80I) proteins were identified in our study. Concerning MLST typing, both isolates were assigned to ST1086, never found before in wild animals, and they presented closely related PFGE patterns. This study reveals the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, in a wild ecosystem, which could be disseminated through the environment to other niches.

  16. The microbiological quality of ready-to-eat salads in Turkey: a focus on Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurler, Zeki; Pamuk, Sebnem; Yildirim, Yeliz; Ertas, Nurhan

    2015-03-02

    The microbiological safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods is of special concern as they are not exposed to further processing before consumption. In the present study, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 15(6%) and 21(8%) samples respectively out of 261 RTE foods commercialized in Turkey. Escherichia coli was present in 10(4%) samples analyzed. Psychrotrophic aerobic populations >6logCFU/g were found in 36 (14%) of the samples, while total coliforms were detected in 155 (59%) of samples analyzed. All of the Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes isolates tested, exhibited resistance to one or more antimicrobial agents used. For Salmonella spp. isolates, resistance to penicillin (69%), erythromycin (38%), gentamicin (36%), tetracycline (36%) neomycin (33%), ampicillin (33%), amikacin (33%), vancomycin (33%), streptomycin (29%) cefotaxime (9%) and oxacillin (9%) was observed. For L. monocytogenes isolates, resistance to erythromycin (23%) and cephalothin (20%) was evident. The presence of pathogens and the relatively high resistance among the bacteria tested in RTE foods could pose public health and therapeutic problems in consumers. These results indicate the need of implementing hygienic rules in the production chain of RTE foods to ensure microbiological safety and to improve shelf life.

  17. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Grenada, West Indies, and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M; Amadi, V; Zieger, U; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2013-09-01

    Cloacal swabs and caecal contents sampled from 58 cane toads (Bufo marinus) in St George's parish, Grenada, during a 7-month period in 2011 were examined by an enrichment and selective culture method for presence of Salmonella spp. Twenty-four (41%) toads were positive for Salmonella spp. of which eight were Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana, and eight were S. enterica serovar Rubislaw. The other serovars were as follows: Montevideo, 6; Arechavaleta, 1; and serovar: IV:43:-:-, 1. The high frequency of isolation of serovar Javiana, an emerging human pathogen associated with several outbreaks in the recent years in the eastern United States, suggests a possible role for cane toads in transmission of this serovar. Although S. Rubislaw has been isolated from lizards, bats and cases of some human infections, there is no report of its carriage by cane toads, and in such high frequency. The rate of carriage of S. Montevideo, a cause for human foodborne outbreaks around the world was also over 10% in the 58 toads sampled in this study. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal and is of little concern. Antimicrobial resistance was limited to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in one isolate of S. Javiana and one isolate of S. Rubislaw. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars not identified previously in cane toads in Grenada, West Indies.

  18. Detection of antibiotic resistance, virulence gene determinants and biofilm formation in Aeromonas species isolated from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the antibiogram of Aeromonas strains recovered from cattle faeces and the potential pathogenic status of the isolates. The antibiogram of the Aeromonas isolates demonstrated total resistance to clindamycin oxacillin, trimethoprim, novobiocin and ticarcillin. However, Aeromonas strains were sensitive to cefotaxime, oxytetracycline and tobramycin. The Aeromonas strains from Lovedale and Fort Cox farms were found to possess some virulence genes. The percentage distribution was aer 71.4%, ast 35.7%, fla 60.7%, lip 35.7% and hlyA 25% for Lovedale farm and aer 63.1%, alt 10.5%, ast 55.2%, fla 78.9%, lip 21% and hlyA 35.9% for Fort Cox farm. Class 1 integron was present in 27% of Aeromonas isolates; the bla TEM gene was present in 34.8%, while the blaP1 class A β-lactamase gene was detected in 12.1% of the isolates. Approximately 86% of the isolates formed a biofilm on microtitre plates. The presence of multiple antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in Aeromonas isolates from cattle faeces reveals the pathogenic and infectious importance of these isolates and is of great significance to public health. The possession of a biofilm-forming capability by such isolates may lead to difficulty during the management of infection related to Aeromonas species.

  19. Cat-scratch disease presenting as multiple hepatic lesions: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Andrade Baptista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although infectious diseases are the most prevalent cause of fevers of unknown origin (FUO, this diagnosis remains challenging in some pediatric patients. Imaging exams, such as computed tomography (CT are frequently required during the diagnostic processes. The presence of multiple hypoattenuating scattered images throughout the liver associated with the history of cohabitation with cats should raise the suspicion of the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease (CSD, although the main etiologic agent of liver abscesses in childhood is Staphylococcus aureus. Differential diagnosis by clinical and epidemiological data with Bartonella henselae is often advisable. The authors report the case of a boy aged 2 years and 9 months with 16-day history of daily fever accompanied by intermittent abdominal pain. Physical examination was unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasound performed in the initial work up was unrevealing, but an abdominal CT that was performed afterwards disclosed multiple hypoattenuating hepatic images compatible with the diagnosis of micro abscesses. Initial antibiotic regimen included cefotaxime, metronidazole, and oxacillin. Due to the epidemiology of close contact with kittens, diagnosis of CSD was considered and confirmed by serologic tests. Therefore, the initial antibiotics were replaced by clarithromycin orally for 14 days followed by fever defervescence and clinical improvement. The authors call attention to this uncommon diagnosis in a child presenting with FUO and multiple hepatic images suggestive of micro abscesses.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance in invasive non-typhoid Salmonella from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: emergence of decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta lactamases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavie Lunguya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-resistance against the first-line antibiotics ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole or multidrug resistance (MDR is common in non typhoid Salmonella (NTS. Use of alternative antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins is threatened by increasing resistance, but remains poorly documented in Central-Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As part of a microbiological surveillance study in DR Congo, blood cultures were collected between 2007 and 2011. Isolated NTS were assessed for serotype and antimicrobial resistance including decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production. In total, 233 NTS isolates (representing 23.6% of clinically significant organisms were collected, mainly consisting of Salmonella Typhimurium (79% and Salmonella Enteritidis (18%. The majority of NTS were isolated in the rainy season, and recovered from children ≤2 years old. MDR, decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility, azithromycin and cefotaxime resistance were 80.7%, 4.3%, 3.0% and 2.1% respectively. ESBL production was noted in three (1.3% isolates. Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility was associated with mutations in codon 87 of the gyrA gene, while ESBLs all belonged to the SHV-2a type. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Presence of almost full MDR among NTS isolates from blood cultures in Central Africa was confirmed. Resistance to fluoroquinolones, azithromycin and third generation cephalosporins is still low, but emerging. Increased microbiological surveillance in DR Congo is crucial for adapted antibiotic therapy and the development of treatment guidelines.

  1. Outbreak of Salmonella Typhi enteric fever in sub-urban area of North India:A public health perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nidhi Singla; Neha Bansal; Varsha Gupta; Jagdish Chander

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of enteric fever are a major health concern not only due to significant human morbidity and mortality but also fear of spread of multidrug resistant strains.We report an outbreak of enteric fever caused bySalmonella enterica serotypeTyphi in a suburban area, in cityChandigarh ofNorthIndia.Twenty-seven strains ofS. typhi were isolated from blood cultures over a period of two weeks with18 of these27 patients residing in the same area.Maximum cases were in the age group5-14 years(10 patients,55.5%) while4(22.2%) cases were children under5 years.All the strains showed similar resistogram being resistant to ampicillin and nalidixic acid, intermediate to ciprofloxacin and sensitive to chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cotrimoxazole and azithromycin on disc diffusion testing.Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin was determined by agar dilution method and was found to be raised(≥2 μg/mL).This nalidixic acid resistant S. typhioutbreak report warrants the necessity of implementing stringent sanitation practices in public health interest.

  2. Outbreak of Salmonella Typhi enteric fever in sub-urban area of North India: a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Nidhi; Bansal, Neha; Gupta, Varsha; Chander, Jagdish

    2013-02-01

    Outbreaks of enteric fever are a major health concern not only due to significant human morbidity and mortality but also fear of spread of multidrug resistant strains. We report an outbreak of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi in a suburban area, in city Chandigarh of North India. Twenty-seven strains of S. typhi were isolated from blood cultures over a period of two weeks with 18 of these 27 patients residing in the same area. Maximum cases were in the age group 5-14 years (10 patients, 55.5%) while 4 (22.2%) cases were children under 5 years. All the strains showed similar resistogram being resistant to ampicillin and nalidixic acid, intermediate to ciprofloxacin and sensitive to chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cotrimoxazole and azithromycin on disc diffusion testing. Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin was determined by agar dilution method and was found to be raised (≥ 2 μ g/mL). This nalidixic acid resistant S. typhi outbreak report warrants the necessity of implementing stringent sanitation practices in public health interest.

  3. 鸭疫里氏杆菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation, Identification and Drug-sensitivity Tests of Riemerella anatipestifer Isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘淑惠; 王璇; 郭光容; 徐景峨; 吴位珩; 杨莉; 余波

    2011-01-01

    为鸭疫里氏杆菌病的防治提供参考,2009年5月,对贵州某肉鸭养殖场送检病鸭进行了剖检病变观察、细菌分离鉴定,并进行了药敏试验.结果表明,分离细菌通过细菌形态、染色特性、生化试验、培养特征鉴定为鸭疫里氏杆菌,7株菌对头孢拉定、头孢曲松钠、头孢噻肟和氟苯尼考高度敏感,对庆大霉素、新霉素、青霉素、多粘菌素B、氟哌酸、复方新诺明、链霉素和卡那霉素耐药.%To make references for prevention and treatment of Riemerella anatipestifer, in May 2009, pathological changes of sick duck was observed, bacteria were isolated and identified and drug-sensitivity tests were carried out in Guizhou meat duck farm. The results showed that the isolated bacteria were identified as Riemerella anatipestifer by bacterium form, biochemistry and cultured characteristics. The seven strains were highly susceptible to cefradine, ceftriaxone sodium, cefotaxime, florfenicol, not susceptible to gentamicin, neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin B, norfloxacin, sinomin compositea, streptomycin and kanamycin.

  4. Activity of the antiseptic polyhexanide against gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, Werner Hugo Karl; Kock, Hans-Jürgen; Vahlensieck, Winfried

    2014-04-01

    The activity of the antiseptic polyhexanide was tested against 250 gram-negative clinical isolates, that is, 50 isolates each of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by using a serial broth microdilution technique according to DIN 58940. Time-kill studies were performed for reference stains E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumoniae ATCC 4352, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442, M. catarrhalis ATCC 43617, and H. influenzae ATCC 49247. All tested isolates had MICs and MBCs within a range of 1-32 mg/L and were regarded as susceptible to polyhexanide. The highest values were found for P. aeruginosa and H. influenzae with MICs and MBCs of 32 mg/L. Addition of up to 4% albumin to the test medium did not change MICs and MBCs. Time-kill studies of the reference strains showed reduction rates from 3 log10 colony forming units (CFU)/ml to more than 5 log10 CFU/ml for 200 and 400 mg/L polyhexanide within 5-30 min. Testing of polyhexanide in combination with antibiotics showed indifference with amoxicillin, cefotaxime, imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin; no antagonism was found. As no resistance and no antagonism with antibiotics were detected, polyhexanide is regarded as suitable agent for topical eradication of gram-negative bacteria.

  5. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactamases. DNA sequencing showed that all isolates encoded genes for TEM-1-type β-lactamase. Moreover, 78.2% of the isolates transferred the TEM-1-type β-lactamase gene via conjugation. In plasmid replicon typing of all donors, IncFIB and IncFIA were identified in 71.4% and 41.0% of plasmids, respectively. In transconjugants, IncFIB and IncFIA were the most frequent types detected (61.5% and 41.0%, respectively). Overall, the present study indicates that selection pressures of antimicrobials on β-lactamases in beef cattle may be low relative to other livestock animals in Korea. Moreover, to reduce selection pressure and dissemination of β-lactamase, the long-term surveillance of antimicrobial use in domestic beef cattle should be established.

  6. Successful neuroendoscopic treatment of intraventricular brain abscess rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Nishizaki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular rupture of a brain abscess is still associated with a high mortality rate. Here, we report such a case in a patient with normal immunity that was treated successfully using neuroendoscopic approach. A 69-yearold man who had presented with headache and fever developed confusion and restlessness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass with ring enhancement extending to the right ventricle. Emergency aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from the spinal canal revealed severe purulent meningitis. Bacterial culture of the CSF and blood was negative. Because of prolonged consciousness disturbance, the patient underwent evacuation of the intraventrcular abscess using a neuroendoscope. The pus was centrifuged and collected for bacterial culture, and this revealed Streptococcus intermedius/milleri. After implantation of a ventricular catheter, gentamicin sulfate was administered twice a day for 9 days. Cefotaxime sodium was also administered intravenously for 14 days, followed by oral administration of cefcapene pivoxil hydrochloride for 10 days. The patient made a complete recovery, and was discharged 31 days after admission. After 20 months of follow-up, he is doing well and has returned to his work. In cases of intraventricular rupture of a brain abscess, a neuroendoscopic approach is useful for evacuation of intraventricular debris or septum, and identification of the causative bacterium for selection of antibiotics, possibly reducing the period of hospitalization.

  7. Resistance to Cefepime and Cefpirome Due to a 4-Amino-Acid Deletion in the Chromosome-Encoded AmpC β-Lactamase of a Serratia marcescens Clinical Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammeri, Hedi; Poirel, Laurent; Bemer, Pascal; Drugeon, Henri; Nordmann, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    A multiresistant Serratia marcescens strain, HD, isolated from a patient with a urinary tract infection, was resistant to amino-, carboxy-, and ureidopenicillins, ceftazidime, and cefepime and was susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, according to the guidelines of the NCCLS. No synergy was found between expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and clavulanic acid, according to the double-disk synergy test. The blaAmpC gene of the strain was amplified by PCR and cloned into Escherichia coli DH10B, giving rise to high-level resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. Sequencing analysis revealed that the blaAmpC gene from S. marcescens HD had a 12-nucleotide deletion compared to the blaAmpC gene from reference strain S. marcescens S3, leading to a 4-amino-acid deletion located in the H-10 helix of the β-lactamase. Kinetic analysis showed that this enzyme significantly hydrolyzed ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. This work underlined that resistance to the latest expanded-spectrum cephalosporins may be mediated by structurally modified AmpC-type β-lactamases. PMID:14982755

  8. Resistance to cefepime and cefpirome due to a 4-amino-acid deletion in the chromosome-encoded AmpC beta-lactamase of a Serratia marcescens clinical isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammeri, Hedi; Poirel, Laurent; Bemer, Pascal; Drugeon, Henri; Nordmann, Patrice

    2004-03-01

    A multiresistant Serratia marcescens strain, HD, isolated from a patient with a urinary tract infection, was resistant to amino-, carboxy-, and ureidopenicillins, ceftazidime, and cefepime and was susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, according to the guidelines of the NCCLS. No synergy was found between expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and clavulanic acid, according to the double-disk synergy test. The bla(AmpC) gene of the strain was amplified by PCR and cloned into Escherichia coli DH10B, giving rise to high-level resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. Sequencing analysis revealed that the bla(AmpC) gene from S. marcescens HD had a 12-nucleotide deletion compared to the bla(AmpC) gene from reference strain S. marcescens S3, leading to a 4-amino-acid deletion located in the H-10 helix of the beta-lactamase. Kinetic analysis showed that this enzyme significantly hydrolyzed ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. This work underlined that resistance to the latest expanded-spectrum cephalosporins may be mediated by structurally modified AmpC-type beta-lactamases.

  9. Multi-drug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis among Egyptian patients with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkareem, Mohammad Z; Sayed, Mohamed; Hassuna, Noha A; Mahmoud, Mahmoud S; Abdelwahab, Sayed F

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) infections among Egyptians with urinary tract infection (UTI), their antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance are under investigated. In this study, 300 urine samples were collected from UTI patients to identify E. faecalis. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents was tested. The presence of aac(6)-Ie-aph(2)Ia, erm(B) and mef(A/E) genes was examined by PCR. Fifty-seven (19%) isolates were identified as E. faecalis. All isolates were sensitive to teicoplanin and were completely resistant to nalidixic acid, cefotaxime and cefadroxil. Multi-drug-resistant (MDR) was found to be 100% with 45 different antibiotypes. The aac(6)Ia-aph(2)Ia gene was found in 100 and 90% of the isolates resistant to gentamicin at concentrations of 120 and 10 μg, respectively. erm(B) and mef(A/E) genes were present in 92.5% (37/40) and 2.5% (1/40) of erythromycin-resistant isolates, respectively. We conclude that there is a high prevalence of E. faecalis in UTI cases with a 100% MDR rate indicating a serious problem in treating infections by this organism in Egypt.

  10. Antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, and genotoxic properties of two complexes of Ag(I) with sulfachloropyridazine (SCP): X-ray diffraction of [Ag(SCP)]n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosconi, Natalia; Giulidori, Cecilia; Velluti, Francesca; Hure, Estela; Postigo, Agustina; Borthagaray, Graciela; Back, Davi Fernando; Torre, María H; Rizzotto, Marcela

    2014-06-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, antibacterial and antifungal activities, phytotoxicity, and genotoxicity of two new complexes of silver(I) with sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), one of which is heteroleptic with SCP and SCN(-) ligands (Ag-SCP-SCN), the other of which is homoleptic (Ag-SCP); furthermore, the crystal structure of the homoleptic complex is disclosed. The heterocyclic N atom nearest to the Cl atom and the N(sulfonamide) atom could be coordination sites for the silver ion in the Ag-SCP-SCN complex. The Ag-SCP complex is a polymeric compound with metal-metal bonds, and the heterocyclic and sulfonamide N atoms are points of coordination for Ag(I) . Both complexes showed activity against all the tested bacteria, and in the cases of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the action was better than that of SCP. In all cases, both silver-SCP complexes showed better antifungal activity than SCP, which was inactive against the tested fungi. Notably, the activity against P. aeruginosa, a nosocomial multidrug-resistant pathogen, was better than that of the reference antibiotic cefotaxim. Both silver-sulfa complexes displayed moderate activity against the tested yeast, especially for C. neoformans, which is an important fact considering the incidence of cryptococcosis, mainly in immune-deficient patients. No chromosomal aberrations were observed with the Allium cepa test, which is auspicious for further study of these complexes as potential drugs.

  11. [Determination of antibiotype by a computer program. Epidemiological significance and antibiogram-identification correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, T; Macone, F; Laffont, C

    1988-06-01

    By means of a computer program disk diffusion diameter were analysed and an antibiotic susceptibility code (antibiotype) was determined for enterobacteriaceae. This code was a 6 figure-number. Each figure summarised susceptibility (susceptible or resistant) to 3 antibiotics. Thus a 18 serial antibiotics was necessary to calculate the 6 figure-code. At least following antibiotics were chosen for their characteristic behavior: amoxycillin, ticarcillin, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid, cephalothin, ticarcillin + clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, gentamycin, tobramycin, amikacin, nalidixic acid, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, fosfomycin and colistin. This code allowed three kind of utilisation: epidemiology by comparing biochemical and susceptibility patterns of same isolated species; laboratory control: a data base with main antibiotic susceptibility patterns for each species allowed a rapid compatibility control of biochemical identification with antibiogram. An inconsistent result lead to a checking of biochemical and susceptibility tests or to record a new code in a file to a further enrichment of the data base. Impression of a message depending of the code for a therapeutic purpose.

  12. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Kolkata, India, and In Vitro Experiments on Effect of Combined Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication states the changing patterns of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi isolates causing enteric fever in and around Kolkata, India. Among the isolates resistance to ampicillin (A, chloramphenicol (C, cotrimoxazole (Co and tetracycline (T were plasmid mediated; the plasmid was unstable in S. Typhi, and the other enteric bacteria like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris were found to be the potential source of dissemination of such plasmids into S. Typhi. The infection with such S. Typhi strains were successfully treated with ciprofloxacin (Cp: MICs 0.0075–0.075 μg mL−1 and/or ofloxacin (Ofx: MICs 0.0125–0.075 μg mL−1, but in the later course, the S. Typhi strains, showing resistance to nalidixic acid, developed low level of resistance to Cp and Ofx, causing the treatment failure. Thus, the treatment regimen was shifted to the third generation cephalosporins like ceftriaxone (Ct and cefotaxime (Cf. Keeping in mind the anticipation of development of resistance to Ct/Cf, we prepared the treatment regimen for MDR enteric fever, based on the double-drug synergy tests in vitro; Cp-gentamycin (FICI 0.121–0.216 and Cp-trimethoprim (FICI 0.14–0.483 combinations were found effective against S. Typhi isolates having decreased sensitivity to cp (MICs: 0.5–1.25 μg mL−1.

  13. Genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene in Serratia marcescens isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Pei-Yu; Peng, Chien-Fang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene were characterized among 14 isolates of cefotaxime-resistant Serratia marcescens using PCR and BLAST DNA sequence analysis. A total of 3 types of genetic architectures in the regions surrounding this blaCTX-M-3 gene were identified. Type I architecture was characterized by the presence of a complete insertion sequence of tnpA-ISEcp1, identified as interrupting a reverse IS26 sequence in the upstream region of the blaCTX-M-3 gene. A reverse-directional orf477 fragment was located downstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene, which was in the same direction of the mucA gene. A common region containing the orf513 element was located upstream of the mucA gene. Moreover, a copy of the 3'-CS2 element was located immediately upstream of the orf513 element. A novel complex class 1 integron was characterized by the presence of the dfrA19 gene, which was flanked by two copies of class 1 integrons. This is the first report to describe the dfrA19 gene within a novel complex class 1 integron in S. marcescens isolates from Taiwan. This novel complex class 1 integron structure was located distantly upstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene.

  14. Broth Microdilution Method To Detect Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases and AmpC β-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae Isolates by Use of Clavulanic Acid and Boronic Acid as Inhibitors ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seok Hoon; Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Jae-Seok; Kim, Han-Sung; Lee, Kyu Man

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the performance of the broth microdilution (BMD) method to detect production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae by using clavulanic acid (CA) and boronic acid (BA) as ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase inhibitors, respectively. A total of 100 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were analyzed. Mueller-Hinton broth containing serial twofold dilutions of cefotaxime (CTX), ceftazidime (CAZ), aztreonam (ATM), or cefepime (FEP) with or without either or both CA and BA was prepared. An eightfold or greater decrease in the MIC of CTX, CAZ, ATM, or FEP in the presence of CA and BA was considered a positive result for ESBL and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (PABL), respectively. In tests with CA, expanded-spectrum β-lactams containing BA (CTX-BA, CAZ-BA, ATM-BA, and FEP-BA) showed higher positive rates in detecting ESBL producers than those without BA. The combination of CTX- and CAZ-based BMD tests with CA and BA showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% for the detection of ESBLs and PABLs. The BMD testing could be applicable for routine use in commercially available semiautomated systems for the detection of ESBLs and PABLs in Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:19710269

  15. Selection of potential Enterococcus faecium isolated from Thai native chicken for probiotic use according to the in vitro properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napaporn Lertworapreecha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixty strains of E. faecium were isolated from 30 samples of native chickens’ gastrointestinal tracts. All strains weretested on acid and bile tolerance. Fifteen strains passed the acid tolerance test. The best five strains were EFMC 17, 21 and24; EFMD 25; EFMI 47 and 49. Only four strains, EFMC 21; EFMD 30; EFMI 47, and 49, survived 4 hours of bile exposure.Fifteen strains that passed the acid tolerance test were tested for their ability of intestinal mucus attachment. The resultsindicated that all strains were able to attach to intestinal mucus. For the ability of pathogenic bacteria inhibition test, theresult found seven strains (EFMC 17, 21 and 24; EFMD 29 and 30; EFMI 46 and 49 showed better performance than strainEFC. All seven strains were acid producer, but only four strains (EFMC 21; EFMD 25; EFMI 47 and 49 were able to releasebacteriocin. Based on proper probiotic properties two strains (EFMI 47 and 49 of E. faecium isolated from Thai native chicksin this study have a potential use as probiotics. Antimicrobial susceptibility test of these two strains have been also performed;they were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, trimethoprime/sulphamethoxazole, vancomycin,and trimethoprim. On the other hand, they were resistant to cefotaxime, erythromycin, and tetracycline. The DNA-DNAhybridization percentage of DNA-DNA homology to E. faecium NRIC 1145 of EFMI 47 and EFMI 49 were 82.36 and 78.63%,respectively.

  16. Cefditoren: Comparative efficacy with other antimicrobials and risk factors for resistance in clinical isolates causing UTIs in outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzaki Despina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate a possible role of Cefditoren, a recently marketed in Greece third-generation oral cephalosporin in urinary infections of outpatients. Methods During a multicenter survey of Enterobacteriaceae causing UTIs in outpatients during 2005–2007, Cefditoren MICs were determined by agar dilution method in a randomly selected sample of uropathogens. Susceptibility against 18 other oral/parenteral antimicrobials was determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. Results A total of 563 isolates (330 Escherichia coli, 142 Proteus mirabilis and 91 Klebsiella spp was studied; MIC50/MIC90 of Cefditoren was 0.25/0.5 mg/L respectively, with 97.1% of the isolates being inhibited at 1 mg/L. All 12 strains producing ESBLs or AmpC enzymes were resistant to cefditoren. Susceptibility rates (% for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime axetil, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fosfomycin were 93.1- 94.1- 96.8-93.1-71.9 and 92.8% respectively. Cefditoren MIC was significantly higher in nalidixic/ciprofloxacin non-susceptible strains; resistance to cefditoren was not associated with resistance to mecillinam, fosfomycin nitrofurantoin and aminoglycosides. Multivariate analysis demonstrated history of urinary infection in the last two weeks or three months as risk factors for cefditoren resistance. Conclusions Cefditoren exhibited enhanced in vitro activity against the most common uropathogens in the outpatient setting, representing an alternative oral treatment option in patients with risk factors for resistance to first-line antibiotics.

  17. Enteric pathogens in north Indian patients with diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Diarrhoeal diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries requiring hospitalisation. AIDS and indiscriminate use of antibiotics have further worsen the condition. Objectives : To assess the etiological agents causing diarrhea with the aim to limit indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents. Methods : A cross-sectional study was done involving children and adults (of all age groups suffering from gastrointestinal infection attending the OPD or admitted to Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital. The study was analysed using chi-square test and crosstab chi-square test. Results : Of the 2534 stool samples processed, 23.2% were positive for pathogens. 4.6% were positive for Shigella species, 2.37% for Salmonella species and 1.5% for Escherichia coli (E.coli. Vibrio cholerae OI El Tor serotype Ogawa (82.55% was more common than serotype Inaba (19.5%. Vibrio cholerae strains were generally resistant to all drugs except Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, and Cefotaxime. Multidrug resistant Shigella and Salmonella species was also an important observation made. However parasitic and viral (rota virus associated diarrhea did not exceed the bacterial causes. Conclusions : New pathogens have emerged as causative organisms of diarrhoa. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics can lead to drug resistance necessitating monitoring of drug susceptibility and formulation of drug policy in hospitals.

  18. Antipneumococcal activity of ceftobiprole, a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowska, Klaudia; Hoellman, Dianne B; Lin, Gengrong; Clark, Catherine; Credito, Kim; McGhee, Pamela; Dewasse, Bonifacio; Bozdogan, Bülent; Shapiro, Stuart; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2005-05-01

    Ceftobiprole (previously known as BAL9141), an anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cephalosporin, was very highly active against a panel of 299 drug-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci, with MIC(50) and MIC(90) values (microg/ml) of 0.016 and 0.016 (penicillin susceptible), 0.06 and 0.5 (penicillin intermediate), and 0.5 and 1.0 (penicillin resistant). Ceftobiprole, imipenem, and ertapenem had lower MICs against all pneumococcal strains than amoxicillin, cefepime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, or cefdinir. Macrolide and penicillin G MICs generally varied in parallel, whereas fluoroquinolone MICs did not correlate with penicillin or macrolide susceptibility or resistance. All strains were susceptible to linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. Time-kill analyses showed that at 1x and 2x the MIC, ceftobiprole was bactericidal against 10/12 and 11/12 strains, respectively. Levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were each bactericidal against 10 to 12 strains at 2x the MIC. Azithromycin and clarithromycin were slowly bactericidal, and telithromycin was bactericidal against only 5/12 strains at 2x the MIC. Linezolid was mainly bacteriostatic, whereas quinupristin-dalfopristin and daptomycin showed marked killing at early time periods. Prolonged serial passage in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ceftobiprole failed to yield mutants with high MICs towards this cephalosporin, and single-passage selection showed very low frequencies of spontaneous mutants with breakthrough MICs towards ceftobiprole.

  19. Role of anaerobes in acute pelvic inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pouch of Douglas aspirates were collected from 50 women with history and examination suggestive of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID and 20 healthy women admitted for tubal ligation served as control. A total of 57 microorganisms were isolated from 37 patients out of 50 in study group. Of 37 positive cultures 21(56.7% were monomicrobial and 16(43.2% were polymicrobial. Most common symptom in study group was lower abdominal pain (90%, vaginal discharge (70% and irregular bleeding (40% and 30% patients had history of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD implantation. The predominant aerobic isolates were Escherichia coli, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CONS, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae while common anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus spp. Our study shows that cefotaxime, cefuroxime and gentamicin may be used for gram negative aerobic bacilli; cloxacillin, cephaloridine and erythromycin for aerobic gram positive cocci and amikacin and ceftazidime for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus for optimum therapy of acute PID it is beneficial to keep in mind major conceptual changes and therapeutic realities that have influenced current understanding of acute PID and have affected the choice of therapy.

  20. Role of anaerobes in acute pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, S; Gupta, N; Batra, G; Arora, D R

    2003-01-01

    Pouch of Douglas aspirates were collected from 50 women with history and examination suggestive of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and 20 healthy women admitted for tubal ligation served as control. A total of 57 microorganisms were isolated from 37 patients out of 50 in study group. Of 37 positive cultures 21(56.7%) were monomicrobial and 16(43.2%) were polymicrobial. Most common symptom in study group was lower abdominal pain (90%), vaginal discharge (70%) and irregular bleeding (40%) and 30% patients had history of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) implantation. The predominant aerobic isolates were Escherichia coli, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CONS), Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae while common anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus spp. Our study shows that cefotaxime, cefuroxime and gentamicin may be used for gram negative aerobic bacilli; cloxacillin, cephaloridine and erythromycin for aerobic gram positive cocci and amikacin and ceftazidime for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus for optimum therapy of acute PID it is beneficial to keep in mind major conceptual changes and therapeutic realities that have influenced current understanding of acute PID and have affected the choice of therapy.

  1. [Occurrence and susceptibility to antibiotics of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains between 1998 and 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, Tomasz; Mikucka, Agnieszka; Skalski, Tomasz; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    P. aeruginosa rods are dangerous pathogens mainly responsible for nosocomial infections of different localization. Resistance to carbapenems, observed among them, is a serious threat due to ability to be transmitted between bacterial species. The aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the frequency of isolation and susceptibility to antibiotics of imipenem- and meropenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated between 1998 and 2009 from patients of University Hospital No 1 of dr A. Jurasz in Bydgoszcz. Study shows increasing number of isolation that type of strains from 19 in 1998 to 144 in 2009. Among all isolated P. aeruginosa strains majority was obtained from patients of the Intensive Care Units, Rehabilitation and Surgery Clinics. Examined strains of P. aeruginosa rods were mainly isolated from urine (20.5%), bronchoalveolar lavage (17.7%) and wound swabs (14.5%) samples. The isolates demonstrated frequently resistance to carbenicillin (> or 66.7%), ticarcillin (> or = 72.7%) and cefotaxime (> or = 75.6%). The lowest rate of resistant strains was observed in case of ceftazidime (< or = 68.8%), aztreonam (< or = 47.4%) and colistin (< or = 1.7%) suggesting the highest activity of that antimicrobials against infections caused by examined strains.

  2. Prevalence and characterization of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in ready-to-eat vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Seok; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Mu-sang; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-08-17

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables. A total of 189 RTE vegetable samples (91 sprouts and 98 mixed salads) were collected in a retail market in South Korea from October 2012 to February 2013. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae was 10.1%. Of these, 94.7% were from the sprout samples. All isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, and many of the ESBL producers were also resistant to non-β-lactam antibiotics, including gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin (73.7%, 63.2%, and 26.3% respectively). TEM-1, SHV-1, -2, -11, -12, -27, -28 and -61, and CTX-M-14, -15 and -55 β-lactamases were detected alone or in combination. The genetic platforms of all CTX-M producing isolates were ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-orf477 and ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-IS903 in CTX-M groups 1 and 9, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the prevalence and characterization of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated from RTE vegetables. The results of this study indicate that RTE vegetables, sprouts, in particular, may play a role in spreading antimicrobial resistant bacteria and ESBL genes to humans.

  3. CTX-M-14, CTX-M-24 and resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are the main cause of resistance to the third and forth-generation cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae, which are mediated by plasmids and can hydrolyze oxyiminoaminothiazolyl cephalosporins and mono- bactams.1 Most of ESBLs are mutants of the classical TEM and SHV types, with one or more amino-acid substitution(s) in the active site. β-lactamase inhibitors, such as clavulanic acid, can inhibit their activities. Recently, The cefotaximases (CTX-M) group, a new family of plasmid-mediated ESBLs, reported from many countries increasingly, preferentially hydrolyzes cefotaxime.2 So far, CTX-M-3 has been the most prevalent type of ESBL in China and widespread in Enterobacteriaceae, while other CTX-M type ESBLs are few reported.3 In this study, we identified the CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-24 in Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) clinical isolates from patients in Shanghai Huashan Hospital in 1999.

  4. CTX-M producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feces in Bogor slaughterhouse, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirnawati Bachrum Sudarwanto; Denny Widaya Lukman; Hadri Latif; Herwin Pisestyani; Eddy Sukmawinata; Omer Akineden; Ewald Usleber

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of CTX-M producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) from cattle feces in Bogor slaughterhouse, Indonesia. Methods: A total of 220 cattle feces samples were collected from Bogor slaughterhouse from March to April 2015. Presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli was detected by disc diffusion test based on the recommendation from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2014). Bacterial strains which were confirmed as producing ESBLs were further analyzed for the presence of bla genes of the ESBL by PCR. Results: The results showed that CTX-M producing E. coli isolates were detected in 19 samples from 220 samples (8.6%). The b-lactamase genes detected were CTX-M-1 (n = 10) and CTX-M-9 (n = 9). All of the CTX-M producing E. coli isolates showed multidrug resistance phenotypes to at least four antibiotics. The highest incidence of an-tibiotics resistance was showed to ampicillin (100.0%), cefotaxime (100.0%), and cef-podoxime (100.0%), followed by streptomycin (84.3%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (73.7%), erythromycin (52.6%), kanamycin (26.3%), doxycycline (10.5%), and ceftazi-dime (0.0%). Conclusions: Detection of CTX-M-producing E. coli in cattle feces raises important questions as they can represent a potential risk factor to public health.

  5. Antibiotic resistance patterns of more than 120 000 clinical Escherichia coli isolates in Southeast Austria, 1998-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badura, A; Feierl, G; Pregartner, G; Krause, R; Grisold, A J

    2015-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance patterns of more than 120 000 clinical Escherichia coli isolates were retrospectively analysed. Isolates originated from both hospitalized patients and outpatients from the region of southeast Austria from 1998 to 2013. Except for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin and piperacillin/tazobactam, all of the antibiotics analysed showed increasing proportions of resistant isolates over time, which were most prominent for ampicillin (from 25.4% in 1998 to 40% in 2013), cefotaxime (0.1% to 6.7%), ceftazidime (0.3% to 14.2%), ciprofloxacin (4.3% to 16.7%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (14.6% to 24.8%). There was a marked increase in extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive isolates (0.1% to 6.3%) starting in 2005, with male patients and hospital-related patients showing a higher increase than female patients and outpatients. Proportions of resistant isolates for most antibiotics were generally higher for male patients and hospital-related patients. Amikacin, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed a marked increase in resistance proportions among male subjects aged 10 to 19 years which were absent for female subjects, indicating a strong modulation potential of host characteristics.

  6. Novel genetic environment of the plasmid-mediated KPC-3 gene detected in Escherichia coli and Citrobacter freundii isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Wei, Q; Wang, Y; Du, X; Zhao, Y; Jiang, X

    2011-04-01

    The imipenem and meropenem-resistant strains Citrobacter freundii HS70 and Escherichia coli HS510 were isolated from patients in Shanghai, China. By isoelectric focusing, PCR amplification and sequencing, these strains were each found to produce four β-lactamases: TEM-1, KPC-3, SHV-7 and CTX-M-14. A conjugation experiment and plasmid restriction digestion revealed that the bla (KPC-3) gene was located on the same plasmid in both isolates. Bidirectional primer walking sequencing showed that the nucleotide sequence surrounding the 3.8 kb bla(KPC-3) contained a 671-bp insertion similar to that previously characterized in China. The insertion was located between the promoter and the coding region of the bla(KPC-3) gene. Susceptibility testing performed on recombinant strains carrying the bla(KPC-3) gene with or without the insertion revealed that minimum inhibitory concentrations of imipenem, meropenem, cefepime, and cefotaxime for E. coli EMU-KPC3 (without insertion) were four times higher than that of E. coli EKPC3 (with insertion). The 671 bp insertion reduced bla(KPC-3) expression significantly. Taken together, these results suggest that KPC-3-producing C. freundii and E. coli have begun to emerge in our hospital.

  7. Ultrastructural Changes in Clinical and Microbiota Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carriers of Genes bla SHV, bla TEM, bla CTX-M, or bla KPC When Subject to β-Lactam Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dyana Leal; Lopes, Ana Catarina de Souza; da Silva, Grasielle Vaz; Gonçalves, Gabriel Gazzoni Araújo; de Freitas, Catarina Fernandes; de Lima, Fernanda Cristina Gomes; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Brayner, Fábio André

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the ultrastructural effects caused by β-lactam antibiotics in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were selected for the study with resistance profiles for third-generation cephalosporins, aztreonam, and/or imipenem and with different resistance genes for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) or Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Two K. pneumoniae isolates obtained from the microbiota, which were both resistant to amoxicillin and ampicillin, were also analyzed. In accordance with the susceptibility profile, the clinical isolates were subjected to subminimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, and imipenem and the isolates from the microbiota to ampicillin and amoxicillin, for analysis by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The K. pneumoniae isolates showed different morphological and ultrastructural changes after subjection to β-lactams tested at different concentrations, such as cell filamentation, loss of cytoplasmic material, and deformation of dividing septa. Our results demonstrate that K. pneumoniae isolates harboring different genes that encode for β-lactamases show cell alterations when subjected to different β-lactam antibiotics, thus suggesting that they possess residual activity in vitro, despite the phenotypic resistance presented in the isolates analyzed.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter clinical isolates and emerging antibiogram trends for nosocomial infection management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: The drug resistant Acinetobacter strains are important causes of nosocomial infections that are difficult to control and treat. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Acinetobacter strains isolated from different clinical specimens obtained from patients belonging to different age groups. METHODS: In total, 716 non-duplicate Acinetobacter isolates were collected from the infected patients admitted to tertiary-care hospitals at Lahore, Pakistan, over a period of 28 months. The Acinetobacter isolates were identified using API 20E, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: The isolation rate of Acinetobacter was high from the respiratory specimens, followed by wound samples. Antibiotic susceptibility analyses of the isolates revealed that the resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime was the most common, in 710 (99.2% specimens each, followed by the resistance to gentamicin in 670 (93.6% isolates, and to imipenem in 651 (90.9% isolates. However, almost all isolates were susceptible to tigecycline, colistin, and polymyxin B. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed the alarming trends of resistance of Acinetobacter strains isolated from clinical specimens to the various classes of antimicrobials. The improvement of microbiological techniques for earlier and more accurate identification of bacteria is necessary for the selection of appropriate treatments.

  9. Occurrence of Ambler Class B Metallo-β-Lactamase Gene in Imipenem-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Clinical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Golshani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: 5TMetallo-β-lactamase (MBLs can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of beta-lactams, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Genes encoding these enzymes are located on the plasmid that can easily be transferred to other bacteria. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains encoding VIM1 gene, in clinical samples, using the PCR technique. Materials and Methods: During a 4 month period, 100 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical specimens were collected. Standard tests were performed to identify strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Resistance to antibiotics was examined and then the PCR was used to detect VIM1gene. Results:In this study, the highest rates of resistance to antibiotics, amikacin and cefotaxime was observed (65% and 62%, the lowest resistance to antibiotics piperacillin (48% and imipenem and cefepime with 55% resistance was reported. DDST method was performed for 37 strains for the MBl detection. Among the 37 isolate, 30 strains were MBL-producing with imipenem-EDTA method. Twelve strains (18% were carriers of VIM1 gene using the PCR method. Conclusion: In the present study, the prevalence of strains producing MBL genes in strains of hospitals is a growing trend; correct prescription of medications can prevent the spread of resistant pathogens. It is suggested that molecular methods for rapid detection of resistance genes can be used to prevent the spread of this genes.

  10. 头孢噻肟钠的临床应用及其副作用概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李卫平

    2006-01-01

    头孢噻肟钠(Cefotaxime sodium,氨噻肟头孢菌素钠)属第三代头孢菌素类药,与青霉素共同具有8,内酞胺环,其抗菌作用机制为抑制胞壁粘肽合成酶,即青霉素结合蛋白(penicillin binding proteins,PBPs),从而阻碍细菌细胞壁粘肽的合成,使细菌细胞壁缺损,菌体膨胀裂解而导致细菌死亡,所以Cefotaxime是一杀菌剂,其具有抗菌谱广、杀菌力强、对胃酸及R-内酞胺酶稳定、变态反应少等优点,对大肠埃希菌、奇异变形杆菌、克雷伯菌属和沙门菌属等肠杆菌科细菌等革兰阴性菌在强大杀菌活性,

  11. Structure-Based Design of Potent and Ligand-Efficient Inhibitors of CTX-M Class A [beta]-Lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Derek A.; Jaishankar, Priyadarshini; Larson, Wayne; Smith, Emmanuel; Liu, Guoqing; Beyrouthy, Racha; Bonnet, Richard; Renslo, Adam R.; Chen, Yu (USF); (UCSF); (Clermont)

    2012-07-11

    The emergence of CTX-M class A extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamases poses a serious health threat to the public. We have applied structure-based design to improve the potency of a novel noncovalent tetrazole-containing CTX-M inhibitor (K{sub i} = 21 {mu}M) more than 200-fold via structural modifications targeting two binding hot spots, a hydrophobic shelf formed by Pro167 and a polar site anchored by Asp240. Functional groups contacting each binding hot spot independently in initial designs were later combined to produce analogues with submicromolar potencies, including 6-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzoimidazole-4-carboxylic acid [3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-phenyl]-amide, which had a K{sub i} value of 89 nM and reduced the MIC of cefotaxime by 64-fold in CTX-M-9 expressing Escherichia coli. The in vitro potency gains were accompanied by improvements in ligand efficiency (from 0.30 to 0.39) and LipE (from 1.37 to 3.86). These new analogues represent the first nM-affinity noncovalent inhibitors of a class A {beta}-lactamase. Their complex crystal structures provide valuable information about ligand binding for future inhibitor design.

  12. Molecular Identification of SHV,TEM, CTX-M β lactamases Genes and Antibiotics Resistance Pattern of k.pneumoniae Isolates Collected from ICU Patients of Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Archin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: β-lactamase enzymes producing bacteria ESBL have spread widely throughout the world. The production of enzymes induces bacterial resistance to a wide range of antibiotics which is leading to the limitation of infection control and correct treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate patterns of antibiotic susceptibility to antibiotics and the presence of β-lactamase genes SHV, TEM, CTX-M, in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from clinical specimens of intensive care. Methods: Susceptibility of isolated bacteria against 10 antibiotics was determined by agar disk diffusion method according to the CLSI guidelines. The strains (DDST were examined for the presence of the spectrum β-lactamase enzymes. Using E-test, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the antibiotic was determined to cefotaxime. Moreover, SHV, TEM, CTX-M genes were identified by, Multiplex PCR method, and some of them were sequenced. Results: The antibiotic resistance against 10 antibiotics was determined. The highest percentage of isolates was resistant to ampicillin (100% and sensitivity to imipenem was 1.66%. In this study, the majority of strains produced ESBL (60%. TEM gene in 34.38% and all three genes (TEM and SHV and CTX at 33.13% of isolates were observed. Conclusion: The present study showed that the K. pneumoniae producing ESBL in patients in ICU are common. Therefore, the use of procedures and policies for infection control in hospitals and especially ICU is necessary. Key words: Klebsiella pneumoniae, ESBL, Multiplex PCR, antibiotic sensitivity

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for colonisation with extended spectrum β-lactamase producing enterobacteriacae vis-à-vis usage of antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A point prevalence study was carried out in a teaching hospital in Assam to determine the prevalence, sensitivity profile and risk factors for acquisition of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing enterobacteriacae vis-ΰ-vis amount and pattern of antibiotic use. Materials and Methods: ESBL was detected by double disc synergy method. Defined daily dose and bed-days were calculated. Result: Colonisation rate of ESBL producing enterobacteriacae ranged from 14% (n=73 in medicine to the highest 41% (n=29 in orthopaedic with an intermediate 23% (n=80 in surgery. Presence of ESBL was found to be strongly associated with resistance to specific classes of antimicrobials. Exposure to cefotaxime and gentamicin, and su