WorldWideScience

Sample records for cefamandole

  1. Prospective randomized controlled study of prophylaxis with cefamandole in high risk patients undergoing operations upon the biliary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáinzos, M; Potel, J; Puente, J L

    1985-01-01

    In this study, 52 high risk patients who underwent operations upon the biliary tract were assigned to receive either antibiotic prophylaxis or no treatment with antibiotics. Twenty-seven patients were given 2 grams of cefamandole intramuscularly 30 minutes before operation and 2 grams every eight hours for two days postoperatively. The remaining patients were in the control group and did not receive antibiotics. Surgical wounds were inspected daily by a surgeon while the patients were in the hospital and a follow-up revision was done four weeks after discharge from the hospital. Samples of exudate or pus were taken when the wound appeared infected and cultures of aerobic and anaerobic organism done. Chi-square affinity test with Yate's correction was used for statistical results; only p values more than or equal to 0.5 were considered significant. Seven patients (28 per cent) in the control group had complications develop postoperatively; seven surgical wound infections, one of which included a subphrenic abscess. Postoperatively, there were no septic complications in the group who received cefamandole as a prophylaxis. The incidence of infection was higher for females than males. The organisms most frequently isolated were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella; only in one instance was Clostridum sporogenes found. Polymicrobial infections accounted for 42.8 per cent of the infections. No incidences were reported with the use of cefamandole in those patients who were treated prophylactically. In view of these results, we believe that cefamandole is an ideal antibiotic to be used in the prophylactic treatment of infections of high risk patients who undergo operations upon the biliary tract.

  2. Inoculum effect on growth-delay time of oxacillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis exposed to cefamandole, cefazolin, and cefuroxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourassowsky, E; van der Linden, M P; Crokaert, F

    1990-04-01

    Cephalosporins have been recommended as prophylactic antibiotics in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. The major function of these antibiotics is to protect patients against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis infections. The lowest inoculum amount responsible for infection during surgery is unknown but is probably low. To determine the comparative activities of cefazolin, cefuroxime, and cefamandole against S. aureus and S. epidermidis for prophylactic purposes, we selected five strains of S. aureus and S. epidermidis that presented homogeneous resistances to oxacillin. A continuously monitored turbidimetric method was used to evaluate cultures with variable inoculum sizes ranging from 10(6) to 1 CFU/ml and exposed to cefazolin, cefuroxime, and cefamandole at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 micrograms/ml. Growth was defined as an increase of 0.1 optical density unit. The relationship between the time required for growth, the antibiotic concentration, and the initial bacterial density showed that cefamandole was more active than cefazolin, which, in turn, was revealed to be more active than cefuroxime against S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

  3. Incompatibility investigation between cefamandole nafate for injection and omeprazole sodium for injection%注射用头孢孟多酯钠与注射用奥美拉唑钠的配伍禁忌探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎敏如

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incompatibility between cefamandole nafate for injection and omeprazole sodium for injection.Methods High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to detect changes of external appearance, relative amount and pH of cefamandole nafate and omeprazole sodium in different time points during 6 h under 4, 25, and 30℃.Results After 6 h under indoor temperature (25 and 30℃), the solutions had obvious changes in external appearance, clarity, and pH. Contents of cefamandole nafate and omeprazole sodium were remarkably decreased.Conclusion Cefamandole nafate for injection is incompatible with omeprazole sodium for injection, and they should be applied separately.%目的:探讨注射用头孢孟多酯钠与注射用奥美拉唑钠的配伍禁忌。方法高效液相色谱法(HPLC)法测定头孢孟多酯钠、奥美拉唑钠配伍液在4、25、30℃环境下放置6 h内不同时间点外观、相对含量及pH值的变化。结果在室温(25、30℃)条件6 h下,配伍液外观、澄明度及pH值发生明显变化,且头孢孟多酯钠、奥美拉唑钠含量明显降低。结论注射用头孢孟多酯钠与注射用奥美拉唑钠存在配伍禁忌,应间隔使用。

  4. Formylation of Mandelic Acid Chloride to Cefamandole Nafate on the Influence of the Material%甲酰化扁桃酰氯对头孢孟多酯钠有关物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 王金星; 侯善波; 张继文

    2013-01-01

    Objectiveensure the quality of formylation of mandelic acid chloride to cefamandole nafate on the influence of the material.Method:Choose diferent quality of formylation of mandelic acid chloride,with same synthetic process to get cefamandole nafate and HPLC related substance inspection.Result:the quality of formylation of mandelic acid chloride have a strong impact on cefamandole nafate single impurity content in related substance.%目的:确定甲酰化扁桃酰氯的质量对头孢孟多酯钠有关物质的影响。方法选择不同质量的甲酰化扁桃酰氯,用相同的合成工艺制的头孢孟多酯钠,对制的的头孢孟多酯钠进行HPLC的有关物质检查。结果甲酰化扁桃酰氯的质量严重影响头孢孟多酯钠的有关物质中的单杂含量。

  5. 头孢孟多酯引起双硫仑样反应1例%One Case of Disulfiram-like Reaction Induced by Cefamandole Nafate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海; 张青春; 杨海

    2013-01-01

    目的 报道头孢孟多酯不良反应1例,为临床使用头孢孟多酯提供参考.方法 从1例病例的用药过程进行分析,对双硫仑样不良反应的机理、临床表现及治疗等方面进行了阐述.结果与结论 发生双硫仑样不良反应时,临床要及时、正确地处理,减少药害事件的发生.

  6. Diverse modulation of spa transcription by cell wall active antibiotics in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Roggenbuck, Michael; Haaber, Jakob Krause

    2012-01-01

    , expression of all three genes were repressed by aminoglycosides and induced by fluoroquinolones and penicillins. In contrast, the beta-lactam sub-group cephalosporins enhanced expression of RNAIII and hla but diversely affected expression of spa. The compounds cefalotin, cefamandole, cefoxitin, ceftazidime...

  7. [Antibiotic prophylaxis with cephalosporins in heart surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, B; Klinner, W; Adam, D

    1981-08-13

    60 minutes after i.v. injection tissue levels of 7 different cephalosporins were obtained using biological assay. The following concentrations were measured: cephalothn 1.4 micrograms/g; cepharin 4.7 micrograms/g; cephacetrile 11.2 micrograms/g; cephradine 15.4 micrograms/g; cefazedone 26.9 micrograms/g; cefamandole 40.3 micrograms/g, and finally cefoxitin 43 micrograms/g. The high tissue levels of cefamandole and cefoxitin are especially remarkable as i.v. doses of both antibiotics had been 50 mg/kg body weight ( doses of all other cephalosporins 100 mg/kg body weight). Except cephalothin, all cephalosporins tested were suitable for antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery.

  8. Effect of clavulanic acid on the activities of ten beta-lactam agents against members of the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, F; Auger, F; Lacroix, J M

    1984-01-01

    Clavulanic acid reduced the MICs of amoxicillin, carbencillin , cefamandole, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cephalothin, and penicillin G, but not of cefoxitin or moxalactam, against 77 isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group, all rapidly beta-lactamase positive by the nitrocefin slide test. It had no effect on the susceptibilities of eight Bacteroides distasonis strains that were slowly beta-lactamase positive (18 h of incubation). PMID:6732233

  9. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility. PMID:3619428

  10. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility.

  11. Susceptibility of Bacteroides nodosus to various antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradin, J L; Schmitz, J A

    1983-08-15

    The susceptibility of 18 strains of Bacteroides nodosus to 21 antimicrobial agents was tested in vitro. Penicillin was the most effective antibiotic tested. Other antibiotics tested, in order of relative efficacy, were cefamandole, clindamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, sodium cefoxitin, tylosin tartrate, nitrofurazone, tinidazole, and dihydrostreptomycin sulfate. Tests of solutions of 4 antibiotics in 70% ethanol indicated that ethanol served primarily as a diluent and did not contribute substantially to the curative effect of such topical medications on foot rot lesions in sheep. Of the chemicals commonly used in foot baths for treatment of ovine foot rot, copper sulfate was most effective, followed by zinc sulfate, then formalin. Several commercial disinfectants and iodine were quite effective against B nodosus, whereas 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 70% ethanol alone were relatively ineffective.

  12. [Evaluation of an automated procedure determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabaut, A; Durosoir, J L; Meyran, M

    1982-06-01

    The ABAC system allows to distribute simultaneously and automatically a standardized inoculum into microtube-cuvettes containing in lyophilized broth medium twofold serial dilutions of the antibiotics. After an 18 hours incubation time, The system prints automatically the MIC. We have compared the MIC of beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefamandole, cefuroxime and cefotaxime) and 6 aminoglycoside (gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmycin, amikacin, kanamycin, lividomycin) obtained by the ABAC system and by the Agar dilution method for 302 gram negative bacilli. We also made a comparison of the MIC of 8 antibiotics (oxacillin, oleandomycin, spiramycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, doxycycline, vancomycin) obtained by the 2 methods for 117 Staphylococcus aureus strains. The evaluation shows that the reproducibility of the results obtained by the ABAC system is good. The statistical analysis shows that the correlation between the MIC obtained with the 2 methods is excellent and that there is no significant discrepancy.

  13. [Comparative susceptibility of Ochrobactrum anthropi, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosidans and Bordetella bronchiseptica against 35 antibiotics including 17 beta-lactams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, C; Bizet, J

    1995-04-01

    Ochrobactrum anthropi, formerly known as "Achromobacter sp." or CDC group Vd has been isolated from water, hospital environment (antiseptic solutions, dialysis fluids ... ). O. anthropi is a Gram negative, motile, strictly aerobic, oxydase positive and non-fermentative bacteria with a strong urease activity. The susceptibility of 13 strains of O. anthropi was determined by agar diffusion method and compared to those of type strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The MICs of 20 antimicrobial agents confirmed the distinct phenotype susceptibility of O. anthropi. All the strains of O. anthropi are sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin, nalidixic acid, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin, colistin, sulphonamides and rifampicin and resistant to ampicillin, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid, ticarcillin, mezlocillin, cefuroxime, cefamandol, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazon, ceftazidime, cefsulodin, aztreonam, streptomycin, kanamycin, pipemidic acid, chloramphenicol, erythromicin, pristinamycin, trimethoprim and fosfomycin. O. anthropi is implicated in nosocomial infections. O. anthropi was the species with the greatest resistance to beta-lactamins.

  14. Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to cephalosporins by radiometric and conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifets, L.B.; Iseman, M.D.; Cook, J.L.; Lindholm-Levy, P.J.; Drupa, I.

    1985-01-01

    Among eight cephalosporins and cephamycins tested in preliminary in vitro screening against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most promising for further study was found to be ceforanide, followed by ceftizoxime, cephapirin, and cefotaxime. Moxalactam, cefoxitin, cefamandole, and cephalothin were found to be not active enough against M. tuberculosis to be considered for further in vitro studies. The antibacterial activity of various ceforanide concentrations was investigated by three methods: (i) the dynamics of radiometric readings (growth index) in 7H12 broth; (ii) the number of CFU in the same medium; and (iii) the proportion method on 7H11 agar plates. There was a good correlation among the results obtained with these methods. The MIC for most strains ranged from 6.0 to 25.0 micrograms/ml. The BACTEC radiometric method is a reliable, rapid, and convenient method for preliminary screening and determination of the level of antibacterial activity of drugs not commonly used against M. tuberculosis.

  15. Prospective survey of acute osteoarticular infections in a French paediatric orthopedic surgery unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroni, A; Al Khoury, H; Dana, C; Quesne, G; Berche, P; Glorion, C; Péjin, Z

    2013-09-01

    The epidemiology of acute paediatric osteoarticular infections (OAI) has recently evolved, mainly due to the improvement of microbiological diagnosis. We conducted a prospective study to analyse the recent epidemiology and the clinical evolution of paediatric OAI in order to validate the adequacy of our probabilistic first-line antibiotic treatment (intraveinous cefamandole + gentamicin). All children suspected of community acquired OAI were included and followed-up for 3 years. The etiologic diagnosis was based on blood cultures, joint aspirations and bone punctures. All osteoarticular (OA) samples were systematically inoculated into blood culture bottles. Real-time universal 16S rRNA and PCR targeted on Staphylococcus aureus, Kingella kingae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes were performed twice a week. From 17 March 2007 to 26 February 2009, 98 septic arthritis, 70 osteomyelitis, 23 osteoarthritis and six spondylodiscitis were analysed. A portal of entry was suspected in 44% of cases, including 55% of otorhinolaryngological infections. C reactive protein was the most sensitive inflammatory marker. PCR increased by 54% the performance of bacteriological diagnosis. Among the patients completely investigated (blood culture and OAI samples), there were 63% documented OAI. The main pathogens found were K. kingae (52%), S. aureus (28%), S. pyogenes (7%), S. pneumoniae (3%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (2%). All isolated bacteria were sensitive to the probabilist treatment and outcome was favorable. PCR has significantly improved the performance and the delay of IOA diagnosis in children, for which K. kingae turned out to be the first causative agent. The probabilistic treatment was active against the main bacteria responsible for paediatric OAI.

  16. Incidenza della meticillino-resistenza in Staphylococcus aureus e stafilococchi coagulasi-negativi isolati da emocolture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Siddi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococci are major cause of nosocomial blood stream infections.This local surveillance study was carry out to monitor frequency of occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS in blood stream infections and the incidence of methicillin-resistant (MET-R strains. Materials and methods: During the period January – December 2006, 9840 blood specimens were analyzed and microrganisms from positive samples were collected. Bacterial identifications were performed according to the standard methods (Murray, 2003.We evaluated, in particular, the antibiotic-resistance phenotype of staphylococci employing disk diffusion test as suggested by the CLSI (2006. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: oxacillin, penicillin, amoxiciclin-clavulanate, cefalotin, cefamandole, imipenem, teicoplanin, linezolid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamicin, rifampicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, doxiciclin, fosfomycin. Results: The microrganisms isolated were 551: 370 Gram-positives (67%, 131 Gram-negatives (24%, 11 anaerobes (2% and 39 mycetes (7%. In particular, 121 S. epidermidis, 75 S. aureus, 42 S. haemolyticus and other 39 CoNS were analyzed: methicillin-resistance occurred in more than 80% of S.aureus strains collected from Intensive Care Units (ICU and in about 50 % of those isolated from other divisions. In CoNS the incidence of MET-R ranged from 30 to 80 %, the higher values were registered among S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus. MET-R strains were characterized by high resistance rates even to ciprofloxacin (from 47 to 100%, erythromycin (from 70 to 100%, and in same cases to gentamicin (from 23 to 86% also. Conclusions: Staphylococci are the prevalent cause of blood stream infections.The distinctive feature of MET-R strains is their resistance not only to all b-lactam antibiotics, but also to a wide range of other antimicrobial agents. However, the glycopeptide teicoplanin remains 100

  17. Phenotypic Characters and Molecular Epidemiology of Campylobacter Jejuni in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dexin; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xue, Feng; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Luyan; Jiang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution, phenotypic and molecular typing characters of Campylobacter jejuni in domestic fowl, and livestock populations in East China, to provide some reference for researches on its molecular epidemiology. A total of 1250 samples were collected from different animal sources, and C. jejuni strains were then isolated and tested for antibiotic sensitivity. Antibiotics-resistance gene and pathogenic genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenic analysis on the C. jejuni strains was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. The results showed that 108 out of the 1250 samples (mean 8.64%) were C. jejuni positive. These 108 C. jejuni strains were highly sensitive to antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, amoxicillin, amikacin, cefotaxime, and azithromycin, whereas they were highly resistant to antibiotics such as cefoperazone, cotrimoxazole, cefamandole, sulfamethoxazole, and cefradine. Pathogenicity related gene identification indicated that the mean carrying rate of adhesion related gene cadF and racR, flagellin gene flaA, toxin regulating gene cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, wlaN and virB11, heat shock proteins and transferring proteins related genes dnaJ and ceuE, CiaB and pldA were 92.45%, 38.69%, 73.58%, 71.70%, 52.83%, 96.23%, 12.26%, 1.89%, 0.94%, 65.09%, 39.62% and 9.43%, respectively. A total of 58.82% of these strains contained more than 6 pathogenicity-related genes. MLST typed 58 ST types from the 108 isolated C. jejuni strains, including 24 new types, and ST-21 was the major type, accounting for 39.3% of the total strains.

  18. Occurrence and antibiotic resistance of mesophilic Aeromonas in three riverine freshwaters of Marrakech, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imziln, B

    2001-12-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of pollution and sewage on the occurrence and antibiotic resistance of mesophilic aeromonads in riverine freshwaters of Marrakech, samples were collected from three rivers (Oukaimeden, Ourika, and Tensift) upstream and downstream from the principal bordering villages. During a 2-year study, indicators of pollution increased dramatically in the downstream waters. Bacterial indicators (faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) correlated with mesophilic aeromonads only in heavily polluted waters. In low and moderately polluted sources, densities of mesophilic aeromonads were independent of water quality indicators and did not correlate statistically with faecal indicators. Average counts of Aeromonas in low and heavily polluted waters were 2.5 x 10(3) and 2.1 x 10(6) colony forming units per 100 ml, respectively. The biochemical identification of 841 isolates indicated a predominance of A. caviae in heavily and moderately polluted water and sediment. A. hydrophila was dominant only in low polluted waters and when the temperature was below 12 degrees C. High densities of A. sobria were found in low, moderately polluted, or cleaned waters and when the water temperature was above 18 degrees C. All selected isolates (total = 841) were tested for antibiotic susceptibility against 21 antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance frequencies recorded were: ampicillin and amoxicillin, 100%; novobiocin, 96%; cefalotin, 81%; colistin, 72%; sulfamethoxazole, 40%; cefamandole, 37%; polymyxin B, 23%; trimethoprim, 17%; erythromycin, 15%; streptomycin, 8%; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 5%. Resistance to cefotaxime, kanamycin, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, nalidixic acid, rifampicin, or trimethoprim-sulfameth-oxazole was found to be polluted samples. Since no correlation between mesophilic aeromonads and conventional faecal pollution indicators was observed in low or moderately polluted waters, and since these freshwaters are used for

  19. 老年患者医院感染产超广谱β-内酰胺酶大肠埃希菌的检测与耐药性研究%The detection and antibiotic resistance of extend-spectrumβ-lactamases producing Escherichia coli in old patients with hospital infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛文娟; 荆菁华; 朱建奎

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To find out the detection and antibiotic resistance of extend‐spectrum β‐lactamases (ES‐BLs)‐producing Escherichia coli infected by old patients ,so as to provide basis for rational drug use .METHODS From Jul .2011 to Dec .2013 ,a total of 423 strains of E .coli were isolated and were detected by AST‐GN13 sus‐ceptibility cards .RESULTS The detection rate of ESBLs‐producing E .coli was 56 .3% .ESBLs‐producing E .coli were mainly isolated from urine ,accounting for 33 .2% ,followed by sputum ,accounting for 20 .6% ,blood ,ac‐counting for 13 .4% ,fluid drainage ,accounting for 8 .8% ,bile ,accounting for 7 .6% ,pleural effusion ,account‐ing for 6 .3% ,and secretions ,accounting for 4 .6% . E .coli were mainly isolated from ICU ,accounting for 25 .6% ,followed by emergency department ,accounting for 16 .4% ,oncology ,accounting for 13 .4% ,general surgery ,accounting for 11 .3% ,respiratory medicine ,accounting for 9 .2% ,neurosurgery ,accounting for 7 .6% , gastroenterology accounted for 3 .8% and neurology ,accounted for 2 .9% .The resistance rates of ESBLs‐produ‐cing E .coli to piperacillin ,cefazolin ,cefamandole ,cefoxitin ,ceftriaxone ,ceftazidime ,cefotaxime ,cefoperazone , aztreonam ,ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were significantly higher than those non‐ESBLs‐producing E .coli(P0 .05) .ESBLs‐produ‐cing E .coli showed high resistance to piperacillin ,cefazolin ,cefamandole ,ceftriaxone ,cefotaxime ,cefoperazone , and the resistance rates were all above 80 .0% ,while sensitive to cefoxitin ,ceftazidime ,amikacin and imipenem , and the resistance rates were below 20% .CONCLUSION ESBLs‐producing E .coli are mainly isolated from urine and ICU and have serious drug resistance to antibiotics .Hence clinics should take effective measures based on riskfactors to use drug rationally so as to control emergence and dissemination of resistant strains .%目的:了解老年患者医院感染产超广谱β‐内酰胺酶(ESBLs)

  20. 剖宫产围手术期预防性应用注射用头孢唑林钠的回顾性分析%Retrospective Analysis on Prophylactic Usage of Injecting Cefazolin Sodium in Perioperative Period of Cesarean Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭玲; 张珂

    2012-01-01

    mL, qd, 3d after operation. Therapy group was given intravenous infusion of cefamandole sodium acetate 2 g quickly at 30 min before operation; intravenous infusion of tinidazole sodium chloride injection, immediately after ligation of the umbilical cord; intravenous infusion of cefamandole sodium acetate 1 g, bid, 3 d and tinidazole sodium chloride injection qd, 3 d after operation. Infection, average duration after operation and cost of drugs in 2 groups were compared. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in disease, incision infection, uterus infection, time when body temperature becomes normal, the proportion of the total number of leukocytes and neutrophils and average duration after operation (P> 0.05). But the cost of observation group was significantly lower than therapy group (57.30 yuan vs 849.90 yuan, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Cefazolin sodium was safe, effective, reasonable, economical and worthy of promotion for antibiotic prophylaxis in perioperative period of cesarean section.

  1. Study of Reducing Adverse Drug Reactions and Resistance by Gold Zone Method%应用黄金区域法研究减少药物不良反应和降低耐药性的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建萍

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To reduce adverse drug reactions and resistance of cefamandole nafate for injection and ceftriaxone sodium for injection by gold zone method. METHODS The relationships between doses and effects were studied. Using gold zone as the middle range and dividing empirical range into three sections are the keypoints to the study design. RESULTS The incidences of drug adverse reactions of both drugs complied with U-shaped rule,ie,with the increase of doses (mg·kg-1·d-1),the adverse reaction rates first decreased and then rose,and the bottom of the U-shaped curve was in the gold zone. Central limit theorem and normal distribution demonstrated that the appropriate doses existed in the gold zone,which was less than 1/4 of the empirical range but coverd nearly 70% of the probability. The relationship between the resistance and dose also followed U-shaped rule,and the bottom of the Ushaped curve was also in the gold zone. CONCLUSION Abuse,adverse reactions and resistance are the three major problems in antibiotics use today. Using gold zone method to determine dose may be a special breakthrough in solving these problems.%目的 用黄金区域法研究减少药物不良反应和降低耐药性的方法.方法 考察剂量与用药效果的关系,以黄金区域为中段,把经验范围分成三段是研究设计的关键.结果 超大容量样本调查表明,头孢孟多和头孢曲松分别随着按公斤体重剂量由小到大,不良反应率都由高变低,然后再升高,呈U形规律,U形的底部出现在黄金区域上.利用中心极限定理和正态分布的性质论证了在不到经验范围1/4的黄金区域内分布着将近70%的概率,机体对药物的准确适合量就在其中.耐药性与用药剂量的关系也符合U形规律.结论 用黄金区域法规定用药剂量可以成为解决抗菌素被滥用、不良反应和耐药性的特殊突破口.

  2. Investigation on Clinical Use of Antibiotics in Children in Grass-root Hospitals%基层医院儿童抗菌药物临床应用现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭雪玲; 张万智; 程志

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解某院儿科抗菌药物使用特点,为抗菌药物合理使用提供参考。方法:从医院信息系统(H I S)中提取2015年1-6月某院儿科抗菌药物使用品种、数量、金额,并计算其使用强度。结果:儿科住院患者抗菌药物用药频度(DDDs)排名前5位的是头孢哌酮钠-他唑巴坦、头孢美唑、氟氯西林、头孢孟多酯和头孢替安,占累计限定日剂量(DDD)构成比的80.61%;门诊患者抗菌药物使用率73.28%,住院患者抗菌药物使用率62.39%;住院患者抗菌药物使用强度为45.14 DDD,静脉滴注是主要给药途径。结论:抗菌药物在儿科的使用率和使用强度高,静脉用药的危害认识不足应该得到社会的关注,从法律层面和技术层面保障儿科患者合理使用抗菌药物。%Objective:To investigate the characteristics of application of antibiotics in the department of pediatrics of a hospital and provide a reference for the rational use of antimicrobial drugs.Methods:The data on the variety,quantity and cost of antibiotics used in department of pediatrics from January to June 2015 were collected from hospital information system(HIS)for calculation of intensity of use.Results:Cefoperazone tazobactam,cefmetazole,flucloxacillin,cefamandole esters and cefotiam ranked the first to the fifth of DDDs, which accounted for 80.61% of the cumulative proportions of DDD. The utilization rate of antimicrobial drugs in outpatients was 73.28%,while that in hospitalized patients was 62.39%. The intensity of use of antimicrobial agents in hospitalized patients was 45.14 DDD,while intravenous infusion was the main route of administration. Conclusion:High utilization rate and the intensity of use of antimicrobial agents were observed in pediatrics, indicating that the lack of understanding of the harm of intravenous infusion should be concerned by the community,and the rational use of antimicrobial drugs in pediatrics should

  3. 大肠杆菌耐药质粒头孢哌酮抗性基因的研究%Characterization of Cefoperazone Resistance gene on Plasmid pFC in E. coli HX88108

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁润琴; 范昕建; 冯萍; 雷秉均; 舒煦

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characterization of cefoperazoneresistance gene (CPZΓ) on plasmid pFC in E.coli HX88108 and inq uire into the mechanism of resistance to CPZ at the molecular level. Me thods E. coli HX88108 strain which demonstrated high-level resista nce to cefoperazone (MIC,>512μg/ml)was isolated from a severely infected patient in 1988.Five plasmids coexisting in the strain were designated pFC,pFT1,pFT2,pFT3 a nd pFX,respectively. Four plasmids except pFX conferred CPZ resistance.Cefoperaz one resistance gene(CPZΓ) has been cloned from plasmid pFC.β-lactamase as says with Nitrocefin were performed.Results The expression prod uct of CPZr was β-lactamase .The high level β-lactamase enzymatic activities against cephaloridine of CPZΓ transformants which were detected spectrophot ometrically at 260nm wave length demonstrated high level similarities to that of pFC. MICs of 18 antibiotics were determined according to a guideline of NCCLS by broth dilution method.CPZΓ transformants showed moderate level resistance to ampicillin,cefazolin,cefamandole and CPZ(MIC,64μg/ml).Meanwhile,susceptibili ty testing results demonstrated that the level of resistance to CPZ of pFC trans formant in this study (MIC,64μg/ml) was much lower than that in 1988 (MIC,>512 μg/ml) and resistance to nofloxacin and aminoglycosides was not observed. Induc tion experiment and temperature-sensitive mutation of CPZ resistance were perfo rmed.CPZΓ colonal strains revealed the higher-level of resistance to CPZ (M IC ,512μg/ml) due to antibiotic CPZ induction rather than temperature sensitive mu t ation. Clonclusion This observation suggests that resistance to antibiotics enco ded by plasmid might have been lower or lost under no antibiotic stress in a cer tain period,but higher under heavy stress.%目的 通过对头孢哌酮抗性基因(CPZΓ)的性质研究,进一步探讨E.coliHX88108多质粒共存并介导第三代头孢菌素耐药的分子机理。方法 采

  4. Acute purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae: a case report and literature review%肺炎链球菌致急性化脓性心包炎1例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金荣; 姚开虎; 高路; 徐保平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To improve the understanding to acute purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus Pneumoniae ( PPSP ) ,to report a case of acute PPSP serotype 6A in a Chinese child and 16 reported cases by English literature on this topic up to now. Methods Clinical manifestation and prognosis of 17 patients ( including our reported case in this article ) with acute purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus Pneumoniae were retrospectively analyzed. Results A 14-month-old previously healthy boy had a history with 7-day-tachypnea and 3-day-cough. The levels of white blood cell ( WBC ) and C-reactive protein ( CRP ) were significantly high. A computed tomographic imaging of the chest and echocardiographic stud)' showed massive pericardial fluid. Streptococcus Pneumoniae serotype 6A was recovered from pericardial fluid and was found to be sensitive to penicillin. The patient was diagnosed as PPSP and treated with intravenous infusion of cefamandole and linezolid successively. On the 19th day of hospitalization the patient was discharged in good general condition and with hemodynamically stable. Over 6 months follow-up, ultrasound cardiography only revealed a little thickening cardiac pericardium. Since 1990, only 16 cases of PPSP have been reported in children in the PubMed databases. 17 cases ( 9 males,7 females, 1 unknown ) aged from 4 months to 17 years, 10 cases were younger than 2 years old. Children were healthy without previous medical conditions and only 3cases had underlying diseases. Its clinical recognition was difficult due to insidiously subtle and varied presentations,but most of cases had fever, dyspnea and cough. The levels of WBC, neutrophil and C-reactive protein were very high. Pericardial fluid was often yellowish-brown and revealed typical manifestation of purulent pericarditis. Echocardiogram and chest CT/X ray showed a large amount of pericardial effusion, man)' cases showed pneumonia pleural effussion. 8 cases were with penicillin susceptible