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Sample records for cefamandole

  1. Formylation of Mandelic Acid Chloride to Cefamandole Nafate on the Influence of the Material%甲酰化扁桃酰氯对头孢孟多酯钠有关物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 王金星; 侯善波; 张继文

    2013-01-01

    Objectiveensure the quality of formylation of mandelic acid chloride to cefamandole nafate on the influence of the material.Method:Choose diferent quality of formylation of mandelic acid chloride,with same synthetic process to get cefamandole nafate and HPLC related substance inspection.Result:the quality of formylation of mandelic acid chloride have a strong impact on cefamandole nafate single impurity content in related substance.%目的:确定甲酰化扁桃酰氯的质量对头孢孟多酯钠有关物质的影响。方法选择不同质量的甲酰化扁桃酰氯,用相同的合成工艺制的头孢孟多酯钠,对制的的头孢孟多酯钠进行HPLC的有关物质检查。结果甲酰化扁桃酰氯的质量严重影响头孢孟多酯钠的有关物质中的单杂含量。

  2. Cephalosporin-induced hypoprothrombinemia: is the N-methylthiotetrazole side chain the culprit?

    OpenAIRE

    Agnelli, G.; Del Favero, A.; Parise, P; Guerciolini, R; Pasticci, B; Nenci, G G; Ofosu, F

    1986-01-01

    The reported high incidence of vitamin-K-reversible hypoprothrombinemia associated with the new beta-lactamase-stable cephalosporins prompted us to evaluate the effect on hemostasis of three cephalosporins (cefamandole, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime) in 30 patients with serious infections. Cefamandole and ceftriaxone, both containing a sulfhydryl group, induced a significant and similar prolongation of prothrombin time and decrease in factor VII activity. Ceftazidime, in contrast, had no effec...

  3. Effect of clavulanic acid on the activities of ten beta-lactam agents against members of the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, F; Auger, F; Lacroix, J M

    1984-01-01

    Clavulanic acid reduced the MICs of amoxicillin, carbencillin , cefamandole, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cephalothin, and penicillin G, but not of cefoxitin or moxalactam, against 77 isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group, all rapidly beta-lactamase positive by the nitrocefin slide test. It had no effect on the susceptibilities of eight Bacteroides distasonis strains that were slowly beta-lactamase positive (18 h of incubation). PMID:6732233

  4. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility. PMID:3619428

  5. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility.

  6. Effect of incubation conditions on anaerobic susceptibility testing results.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, P R; Niles, A C

    1982-01-01

    We determined the effect of performing antimicrobial susceptibility tests in five different anaerobic incubation systems: GasPak jar, large GasPak jar, evacuated-gassed anaerobic jar, anaerobic chamber, and Bio-Bag. Growth of the anaerobes was equivalent in all five incubation systems. The results of testing 38 anaerobes against 11 antimicrobial agents were comparable for the anaerobic jars and anaerobic chamber. However, discordant results were observed for metronidazole and cefamandole test...

  7. In Vitro Activities of Cefminox against Anaerobic Bacteria Compared with Those of Nine Other Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Hoellman, Dianne B.; Spangler, Sheila K.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    The agar dilution MIC method was used to test the activity of cefminox, a β-lactamase-stable cephamycin, compared with those of cefoxitin, cefotetan, moxalactam, ceftizoxime, cefotiam, cefamandole, cefoperazone, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 357 anaerobes. Overall, cefminox was the most active β-lactam, with an MIC at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of 1.0 μg/ml and an MIC90 of 16.0 μg/ml. Other β-lactams were less active, with respective MIC50s and MIC90s of 2.0 and 64.0...

  8. In vitro activities of cefminox against anaerobic bacteria compared with those of nine other compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellman, D B; Spangler, S K; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1998-03-01

    The agar dilution MIC method was used to test the activity of cefminox, a beta-lactamase-stable cephamycin, compared with those of cefoxitin, cefotetan, moxalactam, ceftizoxime, cefotiam, cefamandole, cefoperazone, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 357 anaerobes. Overall, cefminox was the most active beta-lactam, with an MIC at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of 1.0 microg/ml and an MIC90 of 16.0 microg/ml. Other beta-lactams were less active, with respective MIC50s and MIC90s of 2.0 and 64.0 microg/ml for cefoxitin, 2.0 and 128.0 microg/ml for cefotetan, 2.0 and 64.0 microg/ml for moxalactam, 4.0 and > 128.0 microg/ml for ceftizoxime, 16.0 and > 128.0 microg/ml for cefotiam, 8.0 and >128.0 microg/ml for cefamandole, and 4.0 and 128.0 microg/ml for cefoperazone. The clindamycin MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.5 and 8.0 microg/ml, respectively, and the metronidazole MIC50 and MIC90 were 1.0 and 4.0 microg/ml, respectively. Cefminox was especially active against Bacteroides fragilis (MIC90, 2.0 microg/ml), Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (MIC90, 4.0 microg/ml), fusobacteria (MIC90, 1.0 microg/ml), peptostreptococci (MIC90, 2.0 microg/ml), and clostridia, including Clostridium difficile (MIC90, 2.0 microg/ml). Time-kill studies performed with six representative anaerobic species revealed that at the MIC all compounds except ceftizoxime were bactericidal (99.9% killing) against all strains after 48 h. At 24 h, only cefminox and cefoxitin at 4x the MIC and cefoperazone at 8x the MIC were bactericidal against all strains. After 12 h, at the MIC all compounds except moxalactam, ceftizoxime, cefotiam, cefamandole, clindamycin, and metronidazole gave 90% killing of all strains. After 3 h, cefminox at 2 x the MIC produced the most rapid effect, with 90% killing of all strains. PMID:9517922

  9. Incidence of cephalosporin resistance among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Ibadan, South- Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipo E.K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of beta-lactam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major global challenge, particularly, the rise in the resistance to 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the resistance pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to different generations of cephalosporins. Methods: A total number of one hundred clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected from June to November 2014 at University Teaching Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State. These were tested for their sensitivity to antibiotics by means of disc diffusion method using prepared antibiotics disc containing different μ of antibiotics; Cefotaxine (30μ, Cefaclor (30μ, Cefamandole (30μ, Cefixime (5μ, Cefepime (30μ, Cefpodoxime (30μ and Ceftazidime (30μ. Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed absolute resistance to all antibiotics used except Ceftazidime, and Cefepime which are third and fourth generation of cephalosporin respectively. Ceftazidime had minimal resistant of 21% and higher susceptibility rate of 76%, Cefepime had the highest susceptibility rate of 90% and minimal resistance of 6%. Cefotaxime and Cefpodoxime had minimal intermediate of 1%, Ceftazidime of 3% and Cefepime of 4%. Conclusion: The result from this study provided more evidence that among third generation of cephalosporins used, some are more active than the other while fourth generation is still the most effective of all other generations. Knowledge on the distribution of cephalosporin-resistant organisms is of ultimate importance as a guide in empirical therapy, taking note of preventive strategies as well as control measures against the spread of resistant microorganisms.

  10. Incidenza della meticillino-resistenza in Staphylococcus aureus e stafilococchi coagulasi-negativi isolati da emocolture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Siddi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococci are major cause of nosocomial blood stream infections.This local surveillance study was carry out to monitor frequency of occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS in blood stream infections and the incidence of methicillin-resistant (MET-R strains. Materials and methods: During the period January – December 2006, 9840 blood specimens were analyzed and microrganisms from positive samples were collected. Bacterial identifications were performed according to the standard methods (Murray, 2003.We evaluated, in particular, the antibiotic-resistance phenotype of staphylococci employing disk diffusion test as suggested by the CLSI (2006. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: oxacillin, penicillin, amoxiciclin-clavulanate, cefalotin, cefamandole, imipenem, teicoplanin, linezolid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamicin, rifampicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, doxiciclin, fosfomycin. Results: The microrganisms isolated were 551: 370 Gram-positives (67%, 131 Gram-negatives (24%, 11 anaerobes (2% and 39 mycetes (7%. In particular, 121 S. epidermidis, 75 S. aureus, 42 S. haemolyticus and other 39 CoNS were analyzed: methicillin-resistance occurred in more than 80% of S.aureus strains collected from Intensive Care Units (ICU and in about 50 % of those isolated from other divisions. In CoNS the incidence of MET-R ranged from 30 to 80 %, the higher values were registered among S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus. MET-R strains were characterized by high resistance rates even to ciprofloxacin (from 47 to 100%, erythromycin (from 70 to 100%, and in same cases to gentamicin (from 23 to 86% also. Conclusions: Staphylococci are the prevalent cause of blood stream infections.The distinctive feature of MET-R strains is their resistance not only to all b-lactam antibiotics, but also to a wide range of other antimicrobial agents. However, the glycopeptide teicoplanin remains 100

  11. 415例介入治疗患者抗菌药物预防使用情况分析%Prophylactic Use Situation of Antibacterial Drugs in 415 Cases of Intervention Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怡苹; 秦侃; 汪永宏; 范鲁雁

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查介入手术患者围手术期预防使用抗菌药物情况,分析存在的问题。方法回顾性分析医院2012年1月至12月介入手术患者抗菌药物使用情况,剔除原有感染已使用抗菌药物的病例,同时实施干预管理。结果监测患者415例,预防使用抗菌药物27例,使用率6.51%;用药天数1~7 d,平均1.78 d;使用频率排名前5位的依次为头孢孟多、头孢西丁、青霉素、头孢哌酮他唑巴坦、头孢拉定。结论介入手术患者抗菌药物预防性使用情况比较合理,但仍存在用药时间过长、选取不正确等情况,需进一步提高临床医师对抗菌药物使用知识的了解,提高抗菌药物预防性应用的合理性。%Objective To investigate the perioperative prophylactic antibacterial drug use in the patients with intervention surgery and to analyze the existing problems. Methods The retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the perioperative antibacterial drug use in the patients with intervention surgery from January to December 2012. The cases of original infection treated by the antibacterial drugs were excluded and at the same time the intervention management was implemented. Results A total of 415 cases were monitored, 27 cases used the prophylactic antibacterial drugs with the use rate of 6. 51%,the medication time ranged 1-7 d, average 1. 78 d. The top 5 of antibacterial drug use frequency in turn were cefamandole, cefoxitin, penicillin, cefoperazone tazobactam and cephradine. Conclusion The use of perioperative prophylactic antibacterial drug use in the patients undergoing intervention surgery is basically rea-sonable, but there are still some conditions such as too long time of antibacterial drug use and incorrect selection of antibacterial drugs, which needs to further increase the clinical doctors' understanding on the use knowledge of prophylactic antibacterial drugs for enhanc-ing the rationality of prophylactic

  12. 鼻中隔偏曲矫正术围手术期应用抗生素的临床意义%Evaluation the significance of antibiotics in septoplasty peri-operation duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付亚峰; 冯肖连; 林美芳; 龙朝庆

    2015-01-01

    Absract:Objective To study the real necessity of antibiotics in septoplasties.Methods A total of 180 patients underwent septoplasty and were randomly divided into group A (n =60),group B (n =60)and group C (n =60). Group A was without antibiotics,group B and group C were respectively given cephradine(3.0 g)or cefamandole (1.5 g)both in the anesthesical induction and post-operatively for 3 days.Results There were 6 cases(10.0%) infected in group A,7 cases(11.7%)infected in group B,and 5 cases(8.3%)infected in group C.The infection rate had no significant difference in the three groups (χ2 =0.370,P =0.831).Conclusion In peri-operative period of sep-toplasty,routine prophylactic use of antibiotics can not reduce the incidence of post-operative infection.%目的:探讨鼻中隔偏曲矫正术围手术期预防性应用抗生素的临床意义。方法收集鼻中隔偏曲患者180例,随机分成三组,A 组60例,围手术期不用任何抗生素;B 组60例,术前30 min 及术后3 d 内静脉滴注头孢拉定(3.0 g);C 组60例,术前30 min 及术后3 d 内静脉滴注头孢孟多酯(1.5 g),比较各组术后感染率。结果A 组感染6例(10.0%),B 组感染7例(11.7%),C 组感染5例(8.3%)。三组患者术后感染率差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.370,P =0.831)。结论鼻中隔偏曲矫正术围手术期常规预防性应用抗生素不能降低术后感染发生率,提示围术期可能不必要预防性应用抗生素。

  13. 老年患者医院感染产超广谱β-内酰胺酶大肠埃希菌的检测与耐药性研究%The detection and antibiotic resistance of extend-spectrumβ-lactamases producing Escherichia coli in old patients with hospital infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛文娟; 荆菁华; 朱建奎

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To find out the detection and antibiotic resistance of extend‐spectrum β‐lactamases (ES‐BLs)‐producing Escherichia coli infected by old patients ,so as to provide basis for rational drug use .METHODS From Jul .2011 to Dec .2013 ,a total of 423 strains of E .coli were isolated and were detected by AST‐GN13 sus‐ceptibility cards .RESULTS The detection rate of ESBLs‐producing E .coli was 56 .3% .ESBLs‐producing E .coli were mainly isolated from urine ,accounting for 33 .2% ,followed by sputum ,accounting for 20 .6% ,blood ,ac‐counting for 13 .4% ,fluid drainage ,accounting for 8 .8% ,bile ,accounting for 7 .6% ,pleural effusion ,account‐ing for 6 .3% ,and secretions ,accounting for 4 .6% . E .coli were mainly isolated from ICU ,accounting for 25 .6% ,followed by emergency department ,accounting for 16 .4% ,oncology ,accounting for 13 .4% ,general surgery ,accounting for 11 .3% ,respiratory medicine ,accounting for 9 .2% ,neurosurgery ,accounting for 7 .6% , gastroenterology accounted for 3 .8% and neurology ,accounted for 2 .9% .The resistance rates of ESBLs‐produ‐cing E .coli to piperacillin ,cefazolin ,cefamandole ,cefoxitin ,ceftriaxone ,ceftazidime ,cefotaxime ,cefoperazone , aztreonam ,ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were significantly higher than those non‐ESBLs‐producing E .coli(P0 .05) .ESBLs‐produ‐cing E .coli showed high resistance to piperacillin ,cefazolin ,cefamandole ,ceftriaxone ,cefotaxime ,cefoperazone , and the resistance rates were all above 80 .0% ,while sensitive to cefoxitin ,ceftazidime ,amikacin and imipenem , and the resistance rates were below 20% .CONCLUSION ESBLs‐producing E .coli are mainly isolated from urine and ICU and have serious drug resistance to antibiotics .Hence clinics should take effective measures based on riskfactors to use drug rationally so as to control emergence and dissemination of resistant strains .%目的:了解老年患者医院感染产超广谱β‐内酰胺酶(ESBLs)

  14. Isolation,Identification and Drug Susceptibility Test of Salmonella and Shigella from the Intestine of Carp(Cyprinus carpio)%鲤鱼肠道中沙门氏菌、志贺氏菌分离鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡秀彩; 胡宏晓; 吕爱军

    2011-01-01

    从江苏省某市菜市场采集商品规格(体重0.5~0.6kg)的鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio),利用SS选择培养基分离纯化获得107株肠道细菌,对其中2个典型菌株(编号CS-1、CS-2)进行细菌形态学观察、生化试验及药敏试验等研究.结果表明,CS-1、CS-2菌株均为革兰氏阴性小杆菌,均能利用葡萄糖产气,MR试验阳性、氧化酶和VP试验阴性;其中CS-1菌株吲哚产生阴性,硫化氢、半固体试验阳性;CS-2菌株则相反,初步鉴定CS-1为沙门氏菌,CS-2为志贺氏菌.药敏试验结果显示,CS-1、CS-2两菌株对先锋必素、先锋霉素Ⅳ、头孢孟多、头孢噻吩、呋喃妥因、氧哌嗪青霉素等药物高度敏感;对氯沽霉素、洁霉素、灭滴灵、利福平、红霉素等药物不敏感.该研究对水产品食品安全检疫及鱼类疾病防治等具有重要参考价值.%In this study, SS agar was used for selective isolation of bacteria from the intestine of carp (Cyprinus carpio) (body weight 0.5 to 0.6 kg) sold in the open-air market of Jiangsu province. One hundred and seven strains of bacteria were gained, of which two typical strains were named CS-1 and CS-2, respectively. The results of the physiobiochemical characteristics and the antimicrobial susceptibility assay showed that they were all Gram staining negative and small rod-shaped bacteria, and produce acids and gas by using glucose, MR test were positive, oxidase and VP test were negative. The motility test and H2 S were positive, and indole was negative for CS-1 strain, while CS-2 strain were reversed. Preliminary identification of the strains of bacteria, CS-1 and CS-2 belong to Salmonellas and Shigella species, respectively. Further drug sensitivity test results revealed that two strains were highly sensitive to cefoperazone, cephalexin Ⅳ, cefamandole, cephalothin, nitrofurantoin and piperacillin, but they were resistant to clindamycin, lincomycin, metronidazole, rifampin, erythromycin. This study may provide