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Sample records for cefaclor

  1. Cefaclor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefaclor will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  2. Modeling of Radiolytic Degradation of Cefaclor by Ionizing Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Seungho; Choi, Dongkyu; Lee, Myunjoo

    2008-01-01

    Recently, many researches have been conducted on the treatments of antibiotics found in groundwater, surface water, and wastewater. Ingerslev et al. showed that antibiotics under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were not readily biodegradable. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been suggested in recent years as a suitable alternative for the removal of refractory organic compounds found in a variety of environment. AOPs by using free radicals such as the hydroxyl radical (·OH) include ozone, ozone/UV, TiO 2 photo catalysis, fenton's reaction, H 2 O 2 /UV, H 2 O 2 /O 3 and ionizing radiation. Herein are reported the results of the radiolytic degradation of cefaclor. This study focused on the use of gamma radiation as an AOP for the complete mineralization of antibiotics. Among the many kinds of antibiotics, the target antibiotic in this study was cefaclor, which a β lactam antibiotic widely used for the medical treatment of microbial infective diseases. The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate the decomposition and mineralization of cefaclor using gamma irradiation; 2) to study the decomposition kinetics of cefaclor; and 3) to simulate radiolytic decomposition of cefaclor with experimentally measured kinetic parameters

  3. Effect of Tropical Climatic Conditions on the Stability of Cefaclor Dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Two critical factors that govern the stability of pharmaceutical formulations in the tropics are humidity and temperature. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of moisture sorption at two different storage conditions on Cefaclor dry powder for oral suspension and predict the effect of moisture interaction on ...

  4. Development and application of spectrophotometric method for the determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Raza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical raw and dosage forms based on reaction with ninhydrin is developed, optimized and validated. The purple color (Ruhemenn's purple that resulted from the reaction was stabilized and measured at 560 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 4-80 µg mL-1 with molar absorptivity of 1.42 × 10(5 L mole-1 cm-1. All variables including the reagent concentration, heating time, reaction temperature, color stability period, and cefaclor/ninhydrin ratio were studied in order to optimize the reaction conditions. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvant. The developed method is easy to use, accurate and highly cost-effective for routine studies relative to HPLC and other techniques.

  5. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of cefaclor in the pharyngo-tonsillitis and acute otitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eandi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharyngotonsillitis (FT and acute otitis media (OMA are among the most frequent infectious diseases of the childhood and exact a heavy toll on the Italian national health service (INHS, families and society as a whole. In case of established or suspected bacterial origin, current treatment guidelines for FT recommend 5-10 days of oral antibiotics, chosen among available penicillins, cephalosporins, or macrolides. More controversial appears the systematical use of an antibiotic for OMAs, but prevalent expert opinion suggests use of the same agents. In this paper, an economical appraisal of five of the most prescribed oral antibiotics for these indications in Italy (cefaclor, amoxicyllin, amoxicyllin/clavulanate, clarithromycin and azithromycin is provided. The evaluation was conducted through the development and implementation of two distinct models, constructed to reflect national treatment patterns of these infections. Clinical and economical data were obtained from several sources: literature review, including published meta-analyses, consultation of an expert panel and, most importantly, from the results of a specific questionnaire-based survey completed by 136 pediatricians, based throughout Italy. The models were run to conduct both cost-effectiveness and cost-minimization analyses, that consistently indicated cefaclor and amoxicyllin to be substantially equivalent in terms of total costs to the INHS and the Italian society, but significantly more convenient than amoxicyllin/clavulanate, claritrhomycin or azithromycin. Extensive probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of this conclusion.

  6. Molecularly imprinted polymers based stir bar sorptive extraction for determination of cefaclor and cefalexin in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Liu, Donghao; Shi, Tian; Tian, Huairu; Hui, Xuanhong; He, Hua

    2017-07-01

    Although stir bar sportive extraction was thought to be a highly efficiency and simple pretreatment approach, its wide application was limited by low selectivity, short service life, and relatively high cost. In order to improve the performance of the stir bar, molecular imprinted polymers and magnetic carbon nanotubes were combined in the present study. In addition, two monomers were utilized to intensify the selectivity of molecularly imprinted polymers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and selectivity experiments showed that the molecularly imprinted polymeric stir bar was successfully prepared. Then micro-extraction based on the obtained stir bar was coupled with HPLC for determination of trace cefaclor and cefalexin in environmental water. This approach had the advantages of stir bar sportive extraction, high selectivity of molecular imprinted polymers, and high sorption efficiency of carbon nanotubes. To utilize this pretreatment approach, pH, extraction time, stirring speed, elution solvent, and elution time were optimized. The LOD and LOQ of cefaclor were found to be 3.5 ng · mL -1 and 12.0 ng · mL -1 , respectively; the LOD and LOQ of cefalexin were found to be 3.0 ng · mL -1 and 10.0 ng · mL -1 , respectively. The recoveries of cefaclor and cefalexin were 86.5 ~ 98.6%. The within-run precision and between-run precision were acceptable (relative standard deviation bar did not decrease dramatically. This demonstrated that the molecularly imprinted polymeric stir bar based micro-extraction was a convenient, efficient, low-cost, and a specific method for enrichment of cefaclor and cefalexin in environmental samples.

  7. Study on the efficacy of cefaclor for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria and lower urinary tract infections in pregnant women with a history of hypersensitivity to penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatiou, K; Alevizos, A; Petrakos, G; Lentzas, I; Papathanasiou, M; Mariolis, A; Panagopoulos, P; Sofras, F

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety profile of twice daily versus the conventional three daily intake of cefaclor administrated orally for five to seven days in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria or acute cystitis in pregnant women with a history of hypersensitivity to penicillin. Between August 2003 and August 2004, 63 pregnant women with a positive urine culture and a history of suspicion of hypersensitivity to penicillin were randomly divided into two groups. The women in the first group received 500 mg of cefaclor while those in the second group received 750 mg of cefaclor for five to seven days. Laboratory and clinical results were assessed a week and a month after complettion of the therapy. Final therapy (bacteriologic eradication) succeeded in 93.7% (30/32) of the first group and in 90.3% (28/31) of the second group. Dosage of cefaclor at 750 mg is as effective as conventional cefaclor at 500 mg and better tolerated.

  8. Effect of Tropical Climatic Conditions on the Stability of Cefaclor Dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of moisture sorption at two different storage conditions ... Keywords: Dry powder for suspension; Moisture content; Colour; Stability; Moisture migration;. Interaction. ..... condensation. Sorption of ...

  9. Structures of cefradine dihydrate and cefaclor dihydrate from DFT-D calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Streek, Jacco; Rantanen, Jukka; Bond, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    in the zwitterionic form in the two dihydrate structures. A potential ambiguity concerning the orientation of the cyclohexadienyl ring in cefradine dihydrate is also clarified, and on the basis of the calculated energies it is shown that disorder should not be expected at room temperature. The DFT-D methods can...

  10. Aerobic bacteria in safe type chronic suppurative otitis media in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone. Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin appear to be the best choices for empiric therapy in patients with CSOM. In contrast, the use of amoxyclav, cotrimoxazole, cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone should be discouraged. Keywords: Aerobic bacteria, Chronic suppurative otitis media, Gezira ...

  11. Not all pustules are infective in nature: acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis causing pustular eruptions in an elderly woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwah, Y C; Leow, Y H

    2005-07-01

    Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an adverse drug reaction that can occur in any age group. It is commonly mistaken as pustular psoriasis or cutaneous infection, resulting in unnecessary commencement of medications such as methotrexate and antibiotics that can cause harm to the patient or interact and adversely affect the efficacy of other medications. Early diagnosis of AGEP avoids unnecessary investigations and treatment, which not only can harm the patient but also escalate health care, as the condition is self-limiting. This case report illustrates AGEP secondary to Cefaclor occurring in a 72-year-old Chinese woman. Although the literature has documented the occurrence of AGEP with Cefaclor, the unique feature of this case is the occurrence of AGEP following repeated uneventful courses of Cefaclor. This case highlights that AGEP must never be forgotten in the work-up for pustular eruptions in an elderly patient.

  12. aerobic bacteria in safe type chronic suppurative otitis media

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin appear to be the best choices for empiric therapy in patients with CSOM. In contrast, the use of amoxyclav, cotrimoxazole, cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone should be discour- aged. INTRODUCTION. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a persistent inflammatory disorder of the middle.

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance of Breakthrough-Urinary Tract Infections in Children under Antimicrobial Prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Toshihito; Hisata, Ken; Toyama, Yudai; Sakaguchi, Keita; Igarashi, Naru; Nakao, Akihiro; Matsunaga, Nobuaki; Komatsu, Mitsutaka; Obinata, Kaoru; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis using cefaclor or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) is recommended for children with vesicoureteral reflex (VUR) to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). This retrospective study was performed by reviewing the data of children ≥5 years of age treated for recurrent UTI in six hospitals from 2010 to 2015. The criteria for UTI diagnosis is fever (≥38°C) and positive results in urine culture (>104 colony-forming units/ml in midstream or withdrawn ...

  14. Resistência a antimicrobianos de Escherichia coli isolada de dejetos suínos em esterqueiras

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,F.F.P.; Santos,M.A.A.; Schmidt,V.

    2008-01-01

    The antimicrobial resistance of 96 Escherichia coli strains isolated from a stabilization pond system on a pig-breeding farm was evaluated. Strains were tested for their resistance against 14 antimicrobial using the agar diffusion method. E. coli strains showed resistance to tetracycline (82.3%), nalidixic acid (64%), ampicilin (41%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprin (36%), sulfonamide (34%), cloranphenicol (274%), ciprofloxacin (19%), cefaclor (16%), streptomicyn (7.3%), neomicyn (1%), amoxacil...

  15. Antibiotic-resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from stored pig slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, F.F.P.; Santos, M.; Schmidt, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    The antimicrobial resistance of 96 Escherichia coli strains isolated from a stabilization pond system on a pig-breeding farm was evaluated. Strains were tested for their resistance against 14 antimicrobial using the agar diffusion method. E. coli strains showed resistance to tetracycline (82.3%), nalidixic acid (64%), ampicilin (41%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprin (36%), sulfonamide (34%), cloranphenicol (274%), ciprofloxacin (19%), cefaclor (16%), streptomicyn (7.3%), neomicyn (1%), amoxacil...

  16. Biochemical characterization of systemic bacteria in bananas, sensitivity to antibiotics and plant phytotoxicity during shoot proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the biochemically systemic bacterial isolated from banana plants, to evaluate the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, and to determine the phytotoxicity of banana shoots during in vitro proliferation. Systemic bacteria belonging to the Klebsiella and Aeromonas genera were isolated from the “Maravilha” (FHIA 01 AAAB, “Preciosa” (PV 4285 AAAB and “Thap Maeo” (AAB varieties and were then characterized. Tests of shoot sensitivity to antibiotics were performed, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and phytotoxic effects of selected antibiotics to plants were determined. Among the 20 antibiotics evaluated, the strains showed sensitivity to cefaclor, cefalexin, cefalotin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin. However, during MIC determination, the best results were obtained with cefaclor, vancomycin or nalidixic acid alone in concentrations ranging from 512 to 1,024 mg L-1. In culture medium, cefaclor at 1,024 mg L-1 was the only antibiotic to affect the multiplication and the shoot survival in culture.

  17. A Biosurfactant-Sophorolipid Acts in Synergy with Antibiotics to Enhance Their Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Joshi-Navare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sophorolipids (SLs, biosurfactants with antimicrobial properties, have been tried to address the problem of antibiotic resistance. The synergistic action of SL and antibiotics was checked using standard microdilution and spread plate methods. With Staphylococcus aureus, SL-tetracycline combination achieved total inhibition before 4 h of exposure while tetracycline alone couldnot achieve total inhibition till the end of 6 h. The inhibition caused by exposure of bacterium to SL-tetracycline mixture was ~25% more as compared to SL alone. In spite of known robustness of gram-negative bacteria, SL-cefaclor mixture proved to be efficient against Escherichia coli which showed ~48% more inhibition within 2 h of exposure as compared to cefaclor alone. Scanning electron microscopy of the cells treated with mixture revealed bacterial cell membrane damage and pore formation. Moreover, SLs being a type of asymmetric bola, they are expected to form self-assemblies with unique functionality. This led to the speculation that SLs being amphiphilic in nature can span through the structurally alike cell membrane and facilitate the entry of drug molecules.

  18. New valid spectrofluorimetric method for determination of selected cephalosporins in different pharmaceutical formulations using safranin as fluorophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derayea, Sayed M.; Ahmed, Hytham M.; Abdelmageed, Osama H.; Haredy, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    A new validated spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of some cephalosporins namely; cefepime, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefpodoxime and cefexime. The method was based on the reaction of these drugs with safranin in slightly alkaline medium (pH 8.0), to form ion-association complexes. The fluorescent products were extracted into chloroform and their fluorescence intensities were measured at 544-565 nm after excitation at 518-524 nm. The reaction conditions influencing the product formation and stability were investigated and optimized. The relative fluorescence intensity was proportional to the drug concentration in the linear ranges of 0.15-1.35, 0.35-1.25, 0.35-1.25, 0.20-1.44 and 0.20-1.25 μg/mL for cefepime, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefpodoxime proxetil and cefexime, respectively. The detection limits were 40, 100, 100, 60 and 70 ng/mL, respectively. The performance of the developed method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed methods over the reference spectrophotometric method. Various pharmaceutical formulations were successfully analyzed using the proposed method and the results were in good agreement with those of the previously reported methods.

  19. Serological characterisation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains isolated from pigs in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C B; Rodríguez Barbosa, J I; Tascón, R I; Costa, L; Riera, P; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1995-07-15

    Seventy-one isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from the lungs of pigs in outbreaks of pleuropneumonia in Spain were serotyped by indirect haemagglutination. Serotype 4 (42.2 per cent), serotype 7 (22.5 per cent) and serotype 2 (12.8 per cent) were predominant, whereas serotypes 1, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12 and untypable isolates were present only in small numbers. Serotypes 1, 2, 4 and 7 originated mainly from cases of acute pleuropneumonia, whereas serotypes 3, 6, 8, 9 and 12 were associated with chronically infected herds. The susceptibility of the isolates to 20 antimicrobial agents was determined by agar disc diffusion. Most were susceptible to cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefazolin, kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, oxolinic acid, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, thiamphenicol, colistin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Marked resistance was found with amoxicillin, ticarcillin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline and metronidazole. Rifampicin, fosfomycin and tiamulin were the agents most effective against the isolates tested.

  20. Antibacterial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from burns and wounds of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman A. Alharbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study 540 burns and wound swabs were collected from cancer patients of some Egyptian hospitals. The single infection was detected from 210, and 70 cases among wounded and burned patients, while mixed infection was 30 and 45, respectively. We recovered where 60 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 60 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 7 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 4 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 25 isolates of Escherichia coli, 23 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 27 isolates of Proteus vulgaris from 355 burn and surgical wound infections . All bacterial isolates showed high resistance to the commonly used β-lactams (amoxycillin, cefaclor, ampicillin, vancomycin, amoxicillin/clavulonic, and low resistance to imepenim and ciprofloxacin. Plasmid analysis of six multidrug resistant and two susceptible bacterial isolates revealed the same plasmid pattern. This indicated that R-factor is not responsible for the resistance phenomenon among the isolated opportunistic bacteria. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the isolated bacteria was studied.

  1. Resistência a antimicrobianos de Escherichia coli isolada de dejetos suínos em esterqueiras Antibiotic-resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from stored pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F.P. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance of 96 Escherichia coli strains isolated from a stabilization pond system on a pig-breeding farm was evaluated. Strains were tested for their resistance against 14 antimicrobial using the agar diffusion method. E. coli strains showed resistance to tetracycline (82.3%, nalidixic acid (64%, ampicilin (41%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprin (36%, sulfonamide (34%, cloranphenicol (274%, ciprofloxacin (19%, cefaclor (16%, streptomicyn (7.3%, neomicyn (1%, amoxacilin/ clavulanic acid (1%, and amikacin (1%. No resistance was observed to gentamicin and tobramycin, and 37.5% of E. coli strains were resistant to four or more antimicrobials. The multiresistance pattern was found in strains isolated during all sampled period. Strains showed a high variability in the antimicrobial resistance pattern.

  2. Antibiotic resistance patterns of community-acquired urinary tract infections in children with vesicoureteral reflux receiving prophylactic antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Hui; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Su, Lin-Hui; Tsau, Yong-Kwei; Lin, Chi-Jen; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2008-12-01

    The goal was to examine bacterial antimicrobial resistance of recurrent urinary tract infections in children receiving antibiotic prophylaxis because of primary vesicoureteral reflux. We reviewed data retrospectively for children with documented vesicoureteral reflux in 2 hospitals during a 5-year follow-up period. The patients were receiving co-trimoxazole, cephalexin, or cefaclor prophylaxis or prophylaxis with a sequence of different antibiotics (alternative monotherapy). Demographic data, degree of vesicoureteral reflux, prophylactic antibiotics prescribed, and antibiotic sensitivity results of first urinary tract infections and breakthrough urinary tract infections were recorded. Three hundred twenty-four patients underwent antibiotic prophylaxis (109 with co-trimoxazole, 100 with cephalexin, 44 with cefaclor, and 71 with alternative monotherapy) in one hospital and 96 children underwent co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in the other hospital. Breakthrough urinary tract infections occurred in patients from both hospitals (20.4% and 25%, respectively). Escherichia coli infection was significantly less common in children receiving antibiotic prophylaxis, compared with their initial episodes of urinary tract infection, at both hospitals. Children receiving cephalosporin prophylaxis were more likely to have an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organism for breakthrough urinary tract infections, compared with children with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to almost all antibiotics decreased with cephalosporin prophylaxis when recurrent urinary tract infections developed. The extent of decreased susceptibilities was also severe for prophylaxis with a sequence of different antibiotics. However, antimicrobial susceptibilities decreased minimally in co-trimoxazole prophylaxis groups. Children receiving cephalosporin prophylaxis are more likely to have extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria or multidrug-resistant uropathogens

  3. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2014-16 in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torumkuney, D; Zemlickova, H; Maruscak, M; Morrissey, I

    2018-04-01

    To determine the antibiotic susceptibility of isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae collected in 2014-16 from patients with community-acquired respiratory infections in the Czech Republic. MICs were determined by CLSI broth microdilution and susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. S. pneumoniae isolates (n = 200) showed high rates of susceptibility (>95%) to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, penicillin [intravenous (iv) non-meningitis], ceftriaxone, cefuroxime and the fluoroquinolones using CLSI breakpoints. Susceptibility to cefaclor and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was 94%-94.5%, to penicillin (oral) 91.5% and to the macrolides 89.5%. Susceptibility of H. influenzae (n = 197) to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, azithromycin and the fluoroquinolones was ≥98% by CLSI criteria. Rates of susceptibility to the remaining agents were ≥75% except for clarithromycin at 37.1%. Great variability was seen across breakpoints, especially for the macrolides, cefaclor and cefuroxime (oral), 98.0% of H. influenzae showing susceptibility to the latter by CLSI criteria, 69.5% by PK/PD and 1.5% by EUCAST standards. The β-lactamase rate was 13.7% with no β-lactamase-negative-ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) isolates by CLSI criteria. Antibiotic resistance among the two major respiratory pathogens remained low in the Czech Republic. These findings support local clinicians in continuing the historically restrictive use of antibiotics in the Czech Republic, with selection of narrower-spectrum agents for the empirical therapy of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. This highlights one of the great benefits of continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance: knowledge of current local resistance patterns reduces the need to choose broad-spectrum agents that contribute to increasing resistance worldwide.

  4. Sobrevivência e perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos de Salmonella sp. isoladas em um sistema de tratamento de dejetos de suínos Survival and resistance patterns of Salmonella sp. isolated in a pig slurry treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Schmidt

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foi avaliada a sobrevivência de Salmonella sp., presente em dejetos suínos, durante tratamento em um sistema de separação física e lagoas de estabilização ligadas em série. Nas amostras de Salmonella sp. isoladas foi determinado o perfil de resistência pelo método de difusão em ágar, usando 14 antimicrobianos. Das 20 coletas realizadas, foi possível isolar Salmonella sp. em 13 coletas no ponto correspondente ao início do sistema de tratamento e em apenas uma no ponto final do mesmo. Amostras de Salmonella sp. isoladas (161/163 pertenciam ao sorotipo Typhimurium e demonstraram resistência contra sulfonamida (100%, tetraciclina (99,4%, estreptomicina (90,1%, sulfa/trimetoprima (84,5%, ácido nalidíxico (77,6%, ampicilina (76,4%, cloranfenicol (29,2%, cefaclor (25,5%, tobramicina (13,7%, gentamicina (6,2%, amoxacilina/ácido clavulânico (5%, neomicina (5% e amicacina (3,7%. A maioria (94,5% das amostras isoladas foram resistente a 4 ou mais antimicrobianos e apresentaram grande variabilidade nos perfis de resistência. O nível de resistência e a variabilidade dos perfis mantiveram-se em nível semelhante ao longo do sistema.The survival of Salmonella sp. in pig slurry submitted to treatment in successive stabilization ponds on a pig-breeding farm was investigated. Furthermore, the isolated Salmonella strains were tested for their resistance against 14 antibiotics, using the agar diffusion method. Of a total of 20 samples taken from different points in the stabilization ponds system, 13 were positive for Salmonella sp. in the beginning and only one at the end of the system. Most of the isolated Salmonella strains (161/163 belonged to sorovar Typhimurium. These strains were resistant to sulfonamide (100%, tetracycline (9.4%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprin (84.5%, ampicillin (76.4%, cloramphenicol (29.2%, streptomycin (90.1%, nalidixic acid (77.6%, tobramycin (13.7%, neomycin (5%, amikacin (3.7%, cefaclor (25

  5. Production, Optimization, and Characterization of Organic Solvent Tolerant Cellulases from a Lignocellulosic Waste-Degrading Actinobacterium, Promicromonospora sp. VP111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lebin; Ram, Hari; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Ved Pal

    2016-07-01

    High costs of natural cellulose utilization and cellulase production are an industrial challenge. In view of this, an isolated soil actinobacterium identified as Promicromonospora sp. VP111 showed potential for production of major cellulases (CMCase, FPase, and β-glucosidase) utilizing untreated agricultural lignocellulosic wastes. Extensive disintegration of microcrystalline cellulose and adherence on it during fermentation divulged true cellulolytic efficiency of the strain. Conventional optimization resulted in increased cellulase yield in a cost-effective medium, and the central composite design (CCD) analysis revealed cellulase production to be limited by cellulose and ammonium sulfate. Cellulase activities were enhanced by Co(+2) (1 mM) and retained up to 60 °C and pH 9.0, indicating thermo-alkaline tolerance. Cellulases showed stability in organic solvents (25 % v/v) with log P ow  ≥ 1.24. Untreated wheat straw during submerged fermentation was particularly degraded and yielded about twofold higher levels of cellulases than with commercial cellulose (Na-CMC and avicel) which is especially economical. Thus, this is the first detailed report on cellulases from an efficient strain of Promicromonospora that was non-hemolytic, alkali-halotolerant, antibiotic (erythromycin, kanamycin, rifampicin, cefaclor, ceftazidime) resistant, multiple heavy metal (Mo(+6) = W(+6) > Pb(+2) > Mn(+2) > Cr(+3) > Sn(+2)), and organic solvent (n-hexane, isooctane) tolerant, which is industrially and environmentally valuable.

  6. [The outpatient use of beta lactam antibiotics in Montenegro before the introduction of new reform strategy on drug market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duborija-Kovacević, Natasa

    2006-01-01

    The study represents the first investigation of outpatient use of beta lactam antibiotics in Montenegro carried out in accordance with internationally approved methodology (DDD/ATC). The objective of our study was to establish both the scope and overall use of beta lactam antibiotics, and to assess their compatibility with current pharmacotherapeutic guidelines and their use in developed countries. The retrospective pharmaco-epidemiological study comprised a 100%-sample of beta lactams that were used in the period prior to introduction of new reform strategy on drug market. Beta lactam antibiotics (J01C, J01D) were the most frequently applied anti-infectives for systemic use (ATC group J) in 2000 (11.3 DDD/1000 inh./day, 61%). Penicillins (J01C) were the most utilized (8.0 DDD/1000 inh./day, 71%). Cephalosporin derivatives (cephalexin and cefaclor) accounted for the remaining 29% (3.3 DDD/1000 inh./day). Aminopenicillins were prevailing among penicillins (85%). Beta lactamase sensitive penicillins were in the second place and approximately accounted for 14%. The results of our study showed that the use of beta lactam antibacterials could be estimated as partially satisfactory. There is a need to make additional efforts with a view of further rationalization.

  7. Comparing recurrent antibiotic prescriptions in children treated with a brand name or a generic formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovani, Daniele; Clavenna, Antonio; Cartabia, Massimo; Bortolotti, Angela; Fortino, Ida; Merlino, Luca; Bonati, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of recurrent prescriptions and hospital admissions in children receiving a brand name or generic antibiotic prescription. The data source was a database of reimbursed prescriptions. Outpatient children/adolescents brand name formulations and for each age strata (0-5, 6-11, and 12-17 years old) for four antibiotics: amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate, clarithromycin, and cefaclor. The percentage of therapy switches was calculated. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test was used to compare the age-adjusted outcomes. In all, 17.5% (57 346) of children received at least one recurrent prescription. The rate of recurrent prescriptions was slightly lower in children receiving any generic (OR 0.96; 95%CI 0.93-0.98), compared with any brand name, antibiotic. The percentage of hospital admissions occurring in children initially treated with a brand name (1.01%; 95%CI 0.98-1.08) or generic (1.03%; 0.96-1.06) antibiotic was not different (p = 0.43). For children receiving amoxicillin clavulanate, the hospital admission rate was slightly higher in the brand name group (p = 0.002), while no differences were found for the other active substances. Children treated with generic antibiotics had no worse safety and effectiveness outcomes when compared with those receiving brand name ones. These results provide additional evidence on the safety of generic antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to various antibiotics among strains isolated from patients and healthy carriers in different regions of Brazil (1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rossi

    Full Text Available Resistance of microbes to commonly used antibiotics became a major concern at the end of the last century. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen in respiratory infections, we conducted microbiological assessment of drug susceptibility patterns among strains collected from two different population groups: 1 adult and pediatric patients (375 isolates with different infections, and 2 healthy children in day care centers (< 5 years old; 350 isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not identified in either group. Intermediate resistance levels were similar in both groups (adults: 9.9%; children: 9.2%. The Central West region of Brazil tended to have lower susceptibility of S.pneumoniae from infected adults and children to penicillin (81% vs. 93% in the South and 90% in the Southeast, tetracycline (64% vs. 80% and 76%, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (14% vs. 34%. Susceptibility was similar among strains from nasal cultures of healthy children tested in each of 4 regions of Brazil. All isolates were susceptible to cefaclor, cefotaxime and amoxacillin/clavulanate. This study, in two distinct populations, allowed characterization of local microbiological resistance patterns. This data is expected to be of use in guiding empiric therapy in the different regions of Brazil.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of superparamagnetic nanoparticles modified with glycol chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen Inbaraj, Baskaran; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron salts in alkali media followed by coating with glycol chitosan (GC-coated IONPs). Both bare and GC-coated IONPs were subsequently characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. Comparison of Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric data of bare and GC-coated IONPs confirmed the presence of GC coating on IONPs. Magnetization curves showed that both bare and GC-coated IONPs are superparamagnetic and have saturation magnetizations of 70.3 and 59.8 emu g −1 , respectively. The IONP size was measured as ∼8–9 nm by transmission electron microscopy, and their crystal structure was assigned to magnetite from x-ray diffraction patterns. Both bare and GC-coated IONPs inhibited the growths of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 bacteria better than the antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, as evaluated by the agar dilution assay. GC-coated IONPs showed higher potency against E. coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832 than bare IONPs. Given their biocompatibility and antibacterial properties, GC-coated IONPs are a potential nanomaterial for in vivo applications.

  10. The synthesis and characterization of poly(γ-glutamic acid)-coated magnetite nanoparticles and their effects on antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen Inbaraj, B; Kao, T H; Tsai, T Y; Chiu, C P; Kumar, R; Chen, B H

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) modified with sodium and calcium salts of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (NaPGA and CaPGA) were synthesized by the coprecipitation method, followed by characterization and evaluation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. Superparamagnetic MNPs are particularly attractive for magnetic driving as well as bacterial biofilm and cell targeting in in vivo applications. Characterization of synthesized MNPs by the Fourier transform infrared spectra and magnetization curves confirmed the PGA coating on MNPs. The mean diameter of NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs as determined by transmission electron microscopy was 11.8 and 14 nm, respectively, while the x-ray diffraction pattern revealed the as-synthesized MNPs to be pure magnetite. Based on agar dilution assay, both NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs showed a lower minimum inhibitory concentration in Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 than the commercial antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, but the former was effective against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832, whereas the latter was effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 TWC 01. An in vitro cytotoxicity study in human skin fibroblast cells as measured by MTT assay implied the as-synthesized MNPs to be nontoxic. This outcome demonstrated that both γ-PGA-modified MNPs are cytocompatible and possess antibacterial activity in vitro, and thereby should be useful in in vivo studies for biomedical applications.

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of the Two Porcine Salmonella Typhimurium Isolates

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    Kemal METİNER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to detect the presence of the Salmonella species in swine with diarrhea, and to investigate their antimicrobial resistance and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL and/or AmpC β-lactamase production. For this purpose, stool samples from three commercial pig farms in Istanbul and Tekirdag were collected and processed for Salmonella isolation by culture and isolates were identified by biochemical activity tests. Salmonella isolates were confirmed by PCR then serotyped. Antimicrobial resistance and ESBL and AmpC production of the isolates were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI standard. In the study, two hundred and thirty eight stool samples were examined. Salmonella spp. were obtained from 2 samples, and the isolation rate was determined as 0.8%. Both of the isolates were defined as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (serotype 1, 4, [5], 12: I: 1, 2 by serotyping. Both of them were resistant to cefaclor, cloxacillin and lincomycin (100%. Multidrug resistance (resistance ≥3 antimicrobials observed in all isolates. ESBL and AmpC production were not detected in any of the isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of S. Typhimurium in pigs with diarrhea in Turkey. This study also represents the first report of multi-drug resistant S. Typhimurium isolates from pig stools in Turkey.

  12. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface water and groundwater samples in a pig production area

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    Roger Neto Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics, so excessive and indiscriminate in intensive animal production, has triggered an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms which can be transported to aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of the antimicrobial resistance of samples of Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater and surface water in a region of pig breeding. Through the test of antimicrobial susceptibility, we analyzed 205 strains of E. coli. A high rate of resistance to cefaclor was observed, both in surface water (51.9% and groundwater (62.9%, while all samples were sensitive to amikacin. The percentages of multi-resistant samples were 25.96% and 26.73% in surface water and groundwater, respectively, while 19.23% and 13.86% were sensitive to all antibiotics tested. It was determined that the rate of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR was 0.164 for surface water and 0.184 for groundwater. No significant differences were found in the profile of the antimicrobial resistance in strains of E. coli isolated in surface water and groundwater, but the index MAR calculated in certain points of groundwater may offer a potential risk of transmission of resistant genes.

  13. Radiation-induced reduction and mineralization of cephalosporins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Seungho; Lee Myunjoo; Lee Byungjin

    2006-01-01

    Reports in the literature show that pharmaceuticals used in human and animal husbandry are present in soil, sediment, surface water, and groundwater. Cephalosporin belongs to a group of β-lactam antibiotics active against bacteria by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, and is one of the widely used antibiotics in today's human medicine practice. For the study of cephalosporin oxidation by radiation, irradiations were performed with a 60 Co source available at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in Korea. 30 mg/L and 50 mg/L of Cefaclor and Cephradine in solution, respectively, were irradiated at 0-100 kGy. Both antibiotics were completely transformed into the byproducts at 600 Gy. No differences in results were found after purging with N 2 and O 2 gases, respectively. However, maximum 20% of COD and TOC were removed with N 2 purged, while more than 60% with O 2 purged at lower than 10 kGy. Almost 100% removal efficiency was obtained with O 2 purged at 100 kGy. In order to investigate the effect of various radicals produced, methanol and thiourea were used as radical scavengers. The experimental results showed that ·OH radical was mainly responsible for the oxidation of Cephaolosporins. (authors)

  14. The synthesis and characterization of poly({gamma}-glutamic acid)-coated magnetite nanoparticles and their effects on antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Inbaraj, B; Kao, T H; Tsai, T Y; Chiu, C P; Kumar, R; Chen, B H, E-mail: 002622@mail.fju.edu.tw [Department of Food Science, Fu Jen University, Taipei 242, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-18

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) modified with sodium and calcium salts of poly({gamma}-glutamic acid) (NaPGA and CaPGA) were synthesized by the coprecipitation method, followed by characterization and evaluation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. Superparamagnetic MNPs are particularly attractive for magnetic driving as well as bacterial biofilm and cell targeting in in vivo applications. Characterization of synthesized MNPs by the Fourier transform infrared spectra and magnetization curves confirmed the PGA coating on MNPs. The mean diameter of NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs as determined by transmission electron microscopy was 11.8 and 14 nm, respectively, while the x-ray diffraction pattern revealed the as-synthesized MNPs to be pure magnetite. Based on agar dilution assay, both NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs showed a lower minimum inhibitory concentration in Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 than the commercial antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, but the former was effective against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832, whereas the latter was effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 TWC 01. An in vitro cytotoxicity study in human skin fibroblast cells as measured by MTT assay implied the as-synthesized MNPs to be nontoxic. This outcome demonstrated that both {gamma}-PGA-modified MNPs are cytocompatible and possess antibacterial activity in vitro, and thereby should be useful in in vivo studies for biomedical applications.

  15. PEDIATRIC URINARY INFECTIONS, CAUSED BY EXTENDED-SPECTRUM BETA-LACTAMASE - PRODUCING MICROORGANISMS IN VARNA, BULGARIA

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    Neli M. Ermenlieva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLs producing bacteria are microorganisms which have the ability to hydrolyze β-lactame ring of a large part of the antibiotics, commonly used to treat bacterial infections including urinary tract infections. Purpose: The aim of this study is present the epidemiology of childhood urinary tract infections caused by ESBL-producing strains in Varna, Bulgaria. Material/methods: A total of 3895 urine samples of children patients (aged 0 to 18 years were examined during the period 2010-2012 for presence of ESBL-producing bacteria. Results: Six percent of the tested urinary samples were positive for ESBL production. All of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, cefprozil, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, levofloxacin, cefaclor, but were were sensitive to meropenem and imipenem. Conclusions: Cephalosporins and penicillins are the most used antibiotics in Bulgaria, but they should be very precisely prescribed in medical practice, because otherwise preconditions for maintaining high share of ESBLs are created.

  16. Bacteriological Analysis, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Detection of 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by PCR in Drinking Water Samples of Earthquake Affected Areas and Other Parts of Pakistan

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    Rasheed, F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Pakistan, clean drinking water is not available to most of the population. Main source of drinking water in Hazara, Azad Jammu and Kashmir-Pakistan is underground and spring water, due to earthquake water reservoirs in these areas were immensely contaminated. Moreover, drinking water treatment and proper sanitary facilities were also lacking. This study was conducted to analyze the quality of drinking water available in most of the cities of Pakistan including earthquake hit areas. For this purpose, 112 water samples were collected and analyzed by membrane filtration method. Microbial isolates were identified using QTS-10 and biochemical tests. Almost all samples were found to be contaminated but in earthquake affected areas quality of drinking water was substandard than other areas of Pakistan. Results revealed the detection of following bacterial pathogens among the water samples: Enterobacter sp., Klebsiellasp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Salmonella sp., Proteus sp., Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. Furthermore, these bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin (32.1%, amoxicillin (30.4%, sulphometoxazole (20.5% and cefaclor (31.3%. All drinking water samples were analyzed for 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by using PCR, however no positive result was found in these samples. Based on our results it is suggested that authorities should pay attention to supply safe water and proper sanitary facilities to avoid epidemics of infectious diseases in future.

  17. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

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    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  18. Template synthesis and characterization of biologically active transition metal complexes comprising 14-membered tetraazamacrocyclic ligand

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    DHARMPAL SINGH

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of complexes of the type [M(C28H24N4X2], whereM = Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II, X = Cl–, NO3–, CH3COO– and (C28H24N4 corresponds to the tetradentate macrocyclic ligand, were synthe¬sized by template condensation of 1,8-diaminonaphthalene and diacetyl in the presence of divalent metal salts in methanolic medium. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductance and magnetic measurements, as well as by UV/Vis, NMR, IR and MS spectroscopy. The low values of the molar conductance indicate non-electrolyte type of complexes. Based on these spectral data, a distorted octahedral geometry may be proposed for all of these complexes. All the synthesized macrocyclic complexes were tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacterial strains, viz Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC values shown by the complexes against these bacterial strains were compared with the MIC shown by the standard antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor.

  19. Caracterização da mastite subclínica em caprinos produzidos em sistema orgânico no Rio Grande do Sul Characterization of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats herds raised on an organic system in Rio Grande do Sul

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    Verônica Schmidt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O leite e derivados são reconhecidos como veículos de patógenos para humanos, secundário a contaminação pós-ordenha ou de infecções do próprio animal, particularmente na mastite. Foi estudada a ocorrência de mastite e aspectos do manejo em cabras de três propriedades criadas em sistema orgânico. O exame clínico da glândula mamária de 64 cabras em diferentes períodos de lactação, não acusou a presença de mastite clínica. Entretanto, o Califórnia Mastitis Test (CMT identificou 54 (22,7% metades mamárias reagentes (+ ou ++. Foram colhidas 238 amostras de leite, das quais houve isolamento bacteriano em 37 (15,6%. Em apenas oito amostras houve coincidência entre o isolamento bacteriano e o resultado do CMT, indicando sensibilidade de 21,6% para este teste no diagnóstico de mastite subclínica em caprinos. Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN foi o microrganismo mais freqüente (83,8%. O teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro revelou resistência das linhagens de SCN ao cotrimoxazol (50%, ampicilina (48,1%, nitrofurantoína (7,7%, cefaclor (7,14% e oxacilina (3,85%. Cefalotina, gentamicina, neomicina, estreptomicina e tetraciclina foram os antimicrobianos mais efetivos frente aos isolados. Não se evidenciou relação entre a ocorrência de mastite subclínica com a raça, a fase de lactação, sistema de ordenha ou qualidade da água utilizada nas propriedades.Milk and derivates are recognized as vehicle of different pathogens for humans. These micoorganisms may manifest as post-milking contamination or as in infections in the animal itself, particularly in mastitis. The aim of present study was characterizes the occurrence of mastitis and management aspects in dairy-goats raised in three farms of organic milk. The correlation between mastitis and goat husbandry was also investigated. The clinical exam of the mammary glands of 64 dairy-goats did not reveal the presence of clinical mastitis. Nevertheless, the California

  20. Resistencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina en portadores nasofaringeos menores de 2 años

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    Theresa Jean Ochoa Woodell

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available El neumococo es un agente etiológico importante de infecciones comunes que afectan a todas las edades. En las últimas décadas han aparecido a nivel mundial cepas de neumococo resistentes a la penicilina. A nivel local no se conoce la magnitud de este problema. Objetivo: El objetivo fue determinar el porcentaje de resistencia del neumococo a la penicilina en portadores nasofaríngeos menores de 2 años en el Consultorio de Crecimiento y Desarrollo del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia en Lima. Material y métodos: Se tomaron muestras de hisopeado nasofaríngeo en 170 niños (Setiembre 1996-Marzo 1997, para cultivo de neumococo y determinación de su sensibilidad a la penicilina con el E-test y a otros antibióticos con la sensibilidad en disco. Resultados: Se encontró 44% (75/170 de portadores nasofaríngeos de neumococo en niños de 6 meses a 2 años. La presencia de tres o más niños en la familia estuvo asociado a un mayor porcentaje de portadores. De las 75 cepas aisladas, 4 (5.3% fueron resistentes a la penicilina, incluyendo 3 (4% con resistencia intermedia y 1 (1.3% con alta resistencia (MIC=1.5my g/mL. La resistencia a otros antibióticos fue: trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole 39 cepas (52%, cefaclor 18 (24%, cloranfenicol 17 (22.7%, eritromicina 14 (18.6%, clindamicina 9 (12% y rifampicina 8 (10.7%. Conclusión: La resistencia del neumococo a la penicilina continúa baja en el Hospital Cayetano Heredia; sin embargo, es urgente establecer estrategias de prevención y control de la emergencia y diseminación de microorganismos resistentes. ( Rev Med Hered 1998; 9:56-62.

  1. Self-medication with antibiotics in rural population in Greece: a cross-sectional multicenter study

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    Skliros Eystathios

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-medication is an important driver of antimicrobial overuse as well as a worldwide problem. The aim of the present study was to estimate the use of antibiotics, without medical prescription, in a sample of rural population presenting in primary care in southern Greece. Methods The study included data from 1,139 randomly selected adults (545 men/594 women, mean age ± SD: 56.2 ± 19.8 years, who visited the 6 rural Health Centres of southern Greece, between November 2009 and January 2010. The eligible participants were sought out on a one-to-one basis and asked to answer an anonymous questionnaire. Results Use of antibiotics within the past 12 months was reported by 888 participants (77.9%. 508 individuals (44.6% reported that they had received antibiotics without medical prescription at least one time. The major source of self-medication was the pharmacy without prescription (76.2%. The antibiotics most frequently used for self-medication were amoxicillin (18.3%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (15.4%, cefaclor (9.7%, cefuroxim (7.9%, cefprozil (4.7% and ciprofloxacin (2.3%. Fever (41.2%, common cold (32.0% and sore throat (20.6% were the most frequent indications for the use of self-medicated antibiotics. Conclusion In Greece, despite the open and rapid access to primary care services, it appears that a high proportion of rural adult population use antibiotics without medical prescription preferably for fever and common cold.

  2. Self-medication with antibiotics in rural population in Greece: a cross-sectional multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-medication is an important driver of antimicrobial overuse as well as a worldwide problem. The aim of the present study was to estimate the use of antibiotics, without medical prescription, in a sample of rural population presenting in primary care in southern Greece. Methods The study included data from 1,139 randomly selected adults (545 men/594 women, mean age ± SD: 56.2 ± 19.8 years), who visited the 6 rural Health Centres of southern Greece, between November 2009 and January 2010. The eligible participants were sought out on a one-to-one basis and asked to answer an anonymous questionnaire. Results Use of antibiotics within the past 12 months was reported by 888 participants (77.9%). 508 individuals (44.6%) reported that they had received antibiotics without medical prescription at least one time. The major source of self-medication was the pharmacy without prescription (76.2%). The antibiotics most frequently used for self-medication were amoxicillin (18.3%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (15.4%), cefaclor (9.7%), cefuroxim (7.9%), cefprozil (4.7%) and ciprofloxacin (2.3%). Fever (41.2%), common cold (32.0%) and sore throat (20.6%) were the most frequent indications for the use of self-medicated antibiotics. Conclusion In Greece, despite the open and rapid access to primary care services, it appears that a high proportion of rural adult population use antibiotics without medical prescription preferably for fever and common cold. PMID:20691111

  3. Bacterial profile and antibiogram of otitis media among children in yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanna, M.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media is a worldwide disease and is higher in developing countries, particularly among the low socioeconomic levels of the society. The aim of the study is to identify the bacterial etiologic agents of otitis media (OM) and their antibiotics sensitivity patterns among children in Specialized Sam Paediatric Centre (SSPC) and Al-Mamoon Diagnostic Medical Centre (AMDC), in Sana'a city. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in SSPC and AMDC from January to October 2015. A total of 150 patients who had ear pus discharge and clinically diagnosed as OM were included in this study. Samples of ear discharge were collected, bacteriologically tested by standard methods and bacterial strains were identified using biochemical testes. Questionnaire was administered on patients or parents that cover the age, gender and the duration of symptoms. Results: A total of 150 children with OM, their age ranged from below 1-15 years (85 males and 65 females). Children less than 5 years of age were 100 and 50 with age ranged from 6-15 years. Bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (44%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.67%), Enterococcus species (12.67%), and Streptococcus pneumonia (10%). Bacterial culture revealed that, Staphylococcus aureus sensitivity to cefotaxime and azithromycin was 98%, to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 92% and it was 85% to gentamicin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensitivity to cefotaxime was 100%, to azithromycin and gentamicin was 98% and it was 80% to cefaclor. Enterococcus sensitivity to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 85%, to azithromycin was 80%, and it was 75% to cefotaxime, and gentamicin. Conclusion: The most common microorganism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus followed by Pseudomonas, Enterococcus species, and then Streptococcus pneumonia. The most effective antibiotics were cefotaxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, azithromycin and gentamicin. Therefore, knowledge of antimicrobial susceptibility test is essential for guiding appropriate

  4. Removal of antibiotics in a parallel-plate thin-film-photocatalytic reactor: Process modeling and evolution of transformation by-products and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkal, Can Burak; Frontistis, Zacharias; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Meriç, Süreyya

    2017-10-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) antibiotic has been studied under recycling batch and homogeneous flow conditions in a thin-film coated immobilized system namely parallel-plate (PPL) reactor. Experimentally designed, statistically evaluated with a factorial design (FD) approach with intent to provide a mathematical model takes into account the parameters influencing process performance. Initial antibiotic concentration, UV energy level, irradiated surface area, water matrix (ultrapure and secondary treated wastewater) and time, were defined as model parameters. A full of 2 5 experimental design was consisted of 32 random experiments. PPL reactor test experiments were carried out in order to set boundary levels for hydraulic, volumetric and defined defined process parameters. TTIP based thin-film with polyethylene glycol+TiO 2 additives were fabricated according to pre-described methodology. Antibiotic degradation was monitored by High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis while the degradation products were specified by LC-TOF-MS analysis. Acute toxicity of untreated and treated SMX solutions was tested by standard Daphnia magna method. Based on the obtained mathematical model, the response of the immobilized PC system is described with a polynomial equation. The statistically significant positive effects are initial SMX concentration, process time and the combined effect of both, while combined effect of water matrix and irradiated surface area displays an adverse effect on the rate of antibiotic degradation by photocatalytic oxidation. Process efficiency and the validity of the acquired mathematical model was also verified for levofloxacin and cefaclor antibiotics. Immobilized PC degradation in PPL reactor configuration was found capable of providing reduced effluent toxicity by simultaneous degradation of SMX parent compound and TBPs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Biofilm formation in Haemophilus parasuis: relationship with antibiotic resistance, serotype and genetic typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Xu, Chenggang; Shen, Haiyan; Li, Jingyi; Guo, Lili; Cao, Guojie; Feng, Saixiang; Liao, Ming

    2014-10-01

    Biofilms are surface-associated microbial communities, which are encased in self-synthesized extracellular environment. Biofilm formation may trigger drug resistance and inflammation, resulting in persistent infections. Haemophilus parasuis is the etiological agent of a systemic disease, Glässer's disease, characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, arthritis and meningitis in pigs. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between biofilm and antibiotic resistance among the clinical isolates of H. parasuis. In the present study, we tested biofilm-forming ability of 110 H. parasuis isolates from various farms using polystyrene microtiter plate assays. Seventy-three isolates of H. parasuis (66.4%) showed biofilm formation and most of them performed weak biofilm-forming ability (38/73). All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents by the broth microdilution method. H. parasuis isolates showed very high resistance (>90%) to sulfanilamide, nalidixic acid, and trimethoprim. Resistance to eight antibiotics such as penicillin (41.1% vs 8.1%), ampicillin (31.5% vs 8.1%), amoxicillin (28.8% vs 5.4%), gentamicin (46.6% vs 24.3%), cefazolin (19.2% vs 2.7%), doxycycline (19.2% vs 8.1%), cefotaxime (11% vs 2.7%), and cefaclor (13.7% vs 5.4%) was comparatively higher among biofilm producers than non-biofilm producers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses could distinguish various isolates. Our data indicated that H. parasuis field isolates were able to form biofilms in vitro. In addition, biofilm positive strains had positive correlation with resistance to β-lactams antibiotics. Thus, biofilm formation may play important roles during H. parasuis infections. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Second-generation Platelet Concentrate (Platelet-rich Fibrin) as a Scaffold in Regenerative Endodontics: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Hengameh; Esmaeili, Shahram; Fakhr Tabatabayi, Setareh; Ellini, Mohammad Reza; Nekoofar, Mohammad Hossein; Dummer, Paul M H

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this case series was to report the clinical and radiographic results of a pulp regenerative procedure using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), a second-generation platelet concentrate, in immature teeth with necrotic pulps. Root canal revascularization using PRF was performed on 4 immature teeth with necrotic pulps. After access cavity preparation, the root canals were irrigated with low concentration sodium hypochlorite solution (1.5% sodium hypochlorite [20 mL/canal, 5 minutes]) and then irrigated with saline (20 mL/canal, 5 minutes). Equal proportions (167 mg) of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and cefaclor were mixed and diluted to a final concentration of 1 g/mL. Finally, the canal was sealed with 3-4 mm of a temporary restorative material, and patients were dismissed for 2 to 3 weeks. At the second appointment, 9 mL of the patient's whole blood was obtained and centrifuged to prepare a PRF clot. Canals were irrigated with 17% EDTA, and a sharp spreader was inserted beyond the apex. Then, the PRF clot was placed inside the root canals, and Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur, France) was placed directly over the PRF. The teeth were restored permanently with glass ionomer cement and composite resin. Clinical examinations revealed that all cases were asymptomatic at the recall appointments at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Radiographs revealed resolution of the periapical lesions, further root development, and apical closure in all cases. On the basis of the short-term results up to 12 months, PRF clots acted as successful scaffolds for the regeneration of pulpal contents in immature teeth with necrotic pulps. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectrophotometric analysis of discoloration and internal bleaching after use of different antibiotic pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundaoğlu Küçükekenci, Funda; Çakici, Fatih; Küçükekenci, Ahmet Serkan

    2018-04-14

    To investigate teeth's antibiotic-induced color differences after bleaching using two different techniques. One hundred twenty extracted maxillar human incisors were examined. The specimens were randomly divided into six groups, each receiving one of six antibiotic paste fillings: (1) triple antibiotic paste (TAP) with minocycline, (2) double antibiotic paste (DAP), (3) TAP with amoxicillin, (4) TAP with cefaclor, (5) TAP with doxycycline, and (6) no filling (control group). Spectrophotometric measurements were obtained at baseline and then during the first, second, and third weeks after paste placement. The specimens discolored by antibiotics pastes were randomly divided into two subgroups: (1) internal bleaching with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) and (2) internal bleaching with H 2 O 2 plus Nd-YAG laser irradiation. The ∆E value was calculated and analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The ∆E for all groups showed color differences exceeding the perceptibility threshold (∆E ˃ 3.7) at all time points except in the control and DAP groups. Minocycline-induced TAP showed the most severe coronal discoloration (32.42). When the ∆E was examined, thermo/photo bleaching (22.01 ± 8.23) caused more bleaching than walking bleaching (19.73 ± 5.73) at every time point (P = 0.19). No group returned to the original color after bleaching (P bleaching with Nd-YAG laser can be useful for bleaching/removing this discoloration. For clinically successful final appearances, understanding the effects of bleaching procedures on antibiotic paste discoloration is important.

  8. Bacterial Profile And Antibiogram Of Otitis Media Among Children In Yemen.

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    Bin Mohanna, Mabrook Aidah; Bahannan, Abdurrahman Ali

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media is a worldwide disease and is higher in developing countries, particularly among the low socioeconomic levels of the society. The aim of the study is to identify the bacterial etiologic agents of otitis media (OM) and their antibiotics sensitivity patterns among children in Specialized Sam Paediatric Centre (SSPC) and Al-Mamoon Diagnostic Medical Centre (AMDC), in Sana'a city. A cross-sectional study was done in SSPC and AMDC from January to October 2015. A total of 150 patients who had ear pus discharge and clinically diagnosed as OM were included in this study. Samples of ear discharge were collected, bacteriologically tested by standard methods and bacterial strains were identified using biochemical testes. Questionnaire was administered on patients or parents that cover the age, gender and the duration of symptoms. A total of 150 children with OM, their age ranged from below 1-15 years (85 males and 65 females). Children less than 5 years of age were 100 and 50 with age ranged from 6-15 years. Bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (44%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.67%), Enterococcus species (12.67%), and Streptococcus pneumonia (10%). Bacterial culture revealed that, Staphylococcus aureus sensitivity to cefotaxime and azithromycin was 98%, to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 92% and it was 85% to gentamicin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensitivity to cefotaxime was 100%, to azithromycin and gentamicin was 98% and it was 80% to cefaclor. Enterococcus sensitivity to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 85%, to azithromycin was 80%, and it was 75% to cefotaxime, and gentamicin. The most common microorganism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus followed by Pseudomonas, Enterococcus species, and then Streptococcus pneumonia. The most effective antibiotics were cefotaxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, azithromycin and gentamicin. Therefore, knowledge of antimicrobial susceptibility test is essential for guiding appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  9. Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis.

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    Omidvari, K; de Boisblanc, B P; Karam, G; Nelson, S; Haponik, E; Summer, W

    1998-08-01

    Our objective was to compare therapeutic outcome and analyse cost-benefit of a 'conventional' (7-day course of i.v. antibiotic therapy) vs. an abbreviated (2-day i.v. antibiotic course followed by 'switch' to oral antibiotics) therapy for in-patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We used a multicenter prospective, randomized, parallel group with a 28 day follow-up, at the University-based teaching hospitals: The Medical Center of Louisiana in New Orleans, LA and hospitals listed in the acknowledgement. Ninety-five patients were randomized to receive either a 'conventional' course of intravenous antibiotic therapy with cefamandole 1 g i.v. every 6 h for 7 days (n = 37), or an abbreviated course of intravenous therapy with cefamandole (1 g i.v. every 6 h for 2 days) followed by oral therapy with cefaclor (500 mg every 8 h for 5 days). No difference was found in the clinical courses, cure rates, survival or the resolution of the chest radiograph abnormalities among the two groups. The mean duration of therapy (6.88 days for the conventional group compared to 7-30 days for the early oral therapy group) and the frequencies of overall symptomatic improvement (97% vs. 95%, respectively) were similar in both groups. Patients who received early oral therapy had shorter hospital stays (7.3 vs. 9.71 days, P = 0.01), and a lower total cost of care ($2953 vs. $5002, P < 0.05). It was concluded that early transition to an oral antibiotic after an abbreviated course of intravenous therapy in CAP is substantially less expensive and has comparable efficacy to conventional intravenous therapy. Altering physicians' customary management of hospitalized patients with CAP can reduce costs with no appreciable additional risk of adverse patient outcome.

  10. Physician behaviour for antimicrobial prescribing for paediatric upper respiratory tract infections: a survey in general practice in Trinidad, West Indies

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    Ramdhanie Joseph

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are among the most frequent reasons for physician office visits in paediatrics. Despite their predominant viral aetiology, URTIs continue to be treated with antimicrobials. We explored general practitioners' (GPs prescribing behaviour for antimicrobials in children (≤ 16 years with URTIs in Trinidad, using the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as a reference. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 92 consenting GPs from the 109 contacted in Central and East Trinidad, between January to June 2003. Using a pilot-tested questionnaire, GPs identified the 5 most frequent URTIs they see in office and reported on their antimicrobial prescribing practices for these URTIs to trained research students. Results The 5 most frequent URTIs presenting in children in general practice, are the common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis and acute otitis media (AOM in rank order. GPs prescribe at least 25 different antibiotics for these URTIs with significant associations for amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefaclor, cefuroxime, erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin (p 30 years were more likely to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold (p = 0.014. Severity (95.7% and duration of illness (82.5% influenced doctors' prescribing and over prescribing in general practice was attributed to parent demands (75% and concern for secondary bacterial infections (70%. Physicians do not request laboratory investigations primarily because they are unnecessary (86% and the waiting time for results is too long (51%. Conclusions Antibiotics are over prescribed for paediatric URTIs in Trinidad and amoxicillin with co-amoxiclav were preferentially prescribed. Except for AOM, GPs' prescribing varied from the CDC guidelines for drug and duration. Physicians recognise antibiotics are overused and consider parents expecting antibiotics and a concern for secondary

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria, isolated from patients treated at Jesenice General hospital in the period between 2004 and 2006

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    Helena Ribič

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is still one of the mayor problems in medicine. In the year 2006, microbiologists of the Institute of Public Health Kranj together with clinicians and pharmacist of Jesenice General Hospital prepared the programm of antimicrobial resistance surveillance of patients treated in the hospital. Some of the results are presented in this article.Methods: In the retrospective study, bacterial strains, isolated from different samples were analysed. The strains were isolated and studied during the routine work of microbiology laboratory of IPH Kranj in the period between 2004 and 2006.Results: The most frequently isolated bacteria from haemocultures was Escherichia coli (35.4 %. In the years 2004 and 2006, susceptibility of strains for ciprofloxacin was 95.7 % and 97.2 %, for parenteral cefuroxime (95.7 % and 94.4 %, for cefotaxime and gentamicin in both years 100 %. Susceptibility of E. coli strains from urine samples in patients from the department for internal medicine was in 2004 and 2006 for co-amoxiclav 88.5 % and 70.1 %, for co-trimoxazole 60.3 % and 81.3 %, for cefaclor 94.9 % and 89.7 %, for ciprofloxacin 83.3 % and 82.2 %. Among strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 100 % were sensitive to vancomycin and 99.3 % to linezolid in 2006. Among methicillin susceptible strains, sensitivity to erythromycin, clindamycin and ciprofloxacin lowered slightely in the three years period; in 2006 it was 87.6 %, 90.6 % and 89.1 %. Susceptibility of strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa was in 2006 similar comparing to 2004; it was 92 % for ceftazidime, 75 % for gentamicin, 64.6 % for ciprofloxacin and 96 % for imipenem. Among strains of Acinetobacter spp., sensitivity rate to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, piperacillin with tazobactam and gentamicin significantly fell in the year 2005 and stayed low in 2006.Conclusions: The results of antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance and trends of susceptibility are intended to guide

  12. Removal of antibiotics in conventional and advanced wastewater treatment: implications for environmental discharge and wastewater recycling.

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    Watkinson, A J; Murby, E J; Costanzo, S D

    2007-10-01

    Removal of 28 human and veterinary antibiotics was assessed in a conventional (activated sludge) and advanced (microfiltration/reverse osmosis) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Brisbane, Australia. The dominant antibiotics detected in wastewater influents were cephalexin (med. 4.6 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), ciprofloxacin (med. 3.8 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), cefaclor (med. 0.5 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), sulphamethoxazole (med. 0.36 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) and trimethoprim (med. 0.34 microg L(-1), freq. 100%). Results indicated that both treatment plants significantly reduced antibiotic concentrations with an average removal rate from the liquid phase of 92%. However, antibiotics were still detected in both effluents from the low-to-mid ng L(-1) range. Antibiotics detected in effluent from the activated sludge WWTP included ciprofloxacin (med. 0.6 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), sulphamethoxazole (med. 0.27 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) lincomycin (med. 0.05 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) and trimethoprim (med. 0.05 microg L(-1), freq. 100%). Antibiotics identified in microfiltration/reverse osmosis product water included naladixic acid (med. 0.045 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), enrofloxacin (med. 0.01 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), roxithromycin (med. 0.01 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), norfloxacin (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), oleandomycin (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), trimethoprim (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), tylosin (med. 0.001 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), and lincomycin (med. 0.001 microg L(-1), freq. 66%). Certain traditional parameters, including nitrate concentration, conductivity and turbidity of the effluent were assessed as predictors of total antibiotic concentration, however only conductivity demonstrated any correlation with total antibiotic concentration (p=0.018, r=0.7). There is currently a lack of information concerning the effects of these chemicals to critically assess potential risks for environmental discharge and water recycling.

  13. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from vegetables with regards to the marketing stage (farm vs. supermarket).

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    Schwaiger, Karin; Helmke, Katharina; Hölzel, Christina Susanne; Bauer, Johann

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether and to what extent fresh produce from Germany plays a role as a carrier and reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. For this purpose, 1001 vegetables (fruit, root, bulbous vegetables, salads and cereals) were collected from 13 farms and 11 supermarkets in Germany and examined bacteriologically. Phenotypic resistance of Enterobacter cloacae (n=172); Enterobacter gergoviae (n=92); Pantoea agglomerans (n=96); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=295); Pseudomonas putida (n=106) and Enterococcus faecalis (n=100) against up to 30 antibiotics was determined by using the microdilution method. Resistance to ß-lactams was most frequently expressed by P. agglomerans and E. gergoviae against cefaclor (41% and 29%). Relatively high resistance rates were also observed for doxycycline (23%), erythromycin (21%) and rifampicin (65%) in E. faecalis, for spectinomycin (28%) and mezlocillin (12%) in E. cloacae, as well as for streptomycin (19%) in P. putida. In P. aeruginosa, relatively low resistance rates were observed for the aminoglycosides amikacin, apramicin, gentamicin, neomycin, netilmicin and tobramycin (bacteria isolated from farm samples were higher than those of the retail markets whenever significant differences were observed. This suggests that expressing resistance is at the expense of bacterial viability, since vegetables purchased directly at the farm are probably fresher than at the supermarket, and they have not been exposed to stress factors. However, this should not keep the customer from buying directly at the farm, since the overall resistance rates were not higher than observed in bacteria from human or animal origin. Instead, peeling or washing vegetables before eating them raw is highly recommended, since it reduces not only the risk of contact with pathogens, but also that of ingesting and spreading antibiotic resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy carrier individuals in primary care in Barcelona area].

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    Llor, Carles; Boada, Albert; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Grenzner, Elisabet; Juvé, Rosa; Almeda, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). Cross-sectional study. Seven PCC in the Barcelona area. Healthy nasal carriers aged 4years or more who did not present with any sign of infectious disease, and had not taken any antibiotic or had been hospitalised in the previous 3months. A total of 3,969 nasal swabs valid for identification were collected between 2010 and 2011 and were sent to one central microbiological laboratory for isolation of both pathogens. Resistance to common antibiotics was determined on the basis of the current European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines on cut-off points. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S.aureus was 1.3% (95%CI: 0.5-2.1%), with resistance rates of 87.1% to phenoxymethylpenicillin and 11.6% to azithromycin, with no significant differences with age and gender. A total of 2.4% (95CI%: 0.1-4.7%) of the pneumococcal strains were highly resistant to both phenoxymethylpenicillin and macrolides, whereas the highest resistance rates were to cefaclor (53.3%), followed by tetracycline (20%) and cefuroxime (12.1%). These pathogens have lower resistance rates in the community than in the hospital setting. Primary Care physicians must be more aware of the current antimicrobial resistance, in order to ensure prudent use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Antibacterial activity of cefpodoxime against clinical isolates in 2000 and 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomomi; Fukuoka, Takashi; Sato, Yuki; Ito, Kazuyoshi; Sei, Masami

    2002-12-01

    As the post-marketing surveillance of cefpodoxime proxetil (Banan), MICs of cefpodoxime (CPDX, an active form of Banan) against 1090 clinical isolates of 22 species from 15 medical institutions all over Japan from June 2000 to March 2001 were measured using the broth microdilution method approved by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and compared with those of oral cephem antibacterials, cefaclor, cefdinir, cefditoren, and cefcapene. In this study, remarkable change in the activity of CPDX was observed in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae compared with the susceptibility in the studies before Banan was launched. This cause is considered to be the increase in the incidence of the following resistant strains: penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (47.3%), penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP, 15.1%), and beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) H. influenzae (24.0%), which were scarcely isolated in 1989 when Banan was launched. Other tested drugs also exhibited low activity against these resistant strains. However, CPDX showed comparatively good activity with MIC90 of 2 micrograms/mL against PRSP. Against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, CPDX also showed comparatively good activity with MIC90 of marketing. Against quinolones-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, CPDX showed excellent activity with MIC90 of 0.5 microgram/mL. Against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae except for Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter spp., Proteus vulgaris, and Morganella morganii, CPDX showed good activity. However, in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. Proteus spp., and Providencia spp., there are some high-resistant strains to all tested drugs including CPDX. Against Peptostreptococcus spp., MIC90 of CPDX was 8 micrograms/mL and its MIC range was widely distributed from 0.03 to 32 micrograms/mL, which were similar to those in the studies before its marketing. In

  16. Pharmacodynamic evaluation of commonly prescribed oral antibiotics against respiratory bacterial pathogens

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    Pignatari Antonio CC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper and lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs account for a substantial portion of outpatient antibiotic utilization. However, the pharmacodynamic activity of commonly used oral antibiotic regimens has not been studied against clinically relevant pathogens. The objective of this study was to assess the probability of achieving the requisite pharmacodynamic exposure for oral antibacterial regimens commonly prescribed for RTIs in adults against bacterial isolates frequently involved in these processes (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catharralis. Methods Using a 5000-subject Monte Carlo simulation, the cumulative fractions of response (CFR, (i.e., probabilities of achieving requisite pharmacodynamic targets for the most commonly prescribed oral antibiotic regimens, as determined by a structured survey of medical prescription patterns, were assessed against local respiratory bacterial isolates from adults in São Paulo collected during the same time period. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 230 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (103, Haemophilus influenzae (98, and Moraxella catharralis (29 from a previous local surveillance were used. Results The most commonly prescribed antibiotic regimens were azithromycin 500 mg QD, amoxicillin 500 mg TID, and levofloxacin 500 mg QD, accounting for 58% of the prescriptions. Varied doses of these agents, plus gatifloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, moxifloxacin, and cefaclor made up the remaining regimens. Utilizing aggressive pharmacodynamic exposure targets, the only regimens to achieve greater than 90% CFR against all three pathogens were amoxicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanate 500 mg TID (> 91%, gatifloxacin 400 mg QD (100%, and moxifloxacin 400 mg QD (100%. Considering S. pneumoniae isolates alone, azithromycin 1000 mg QD also achieved greater than 90% CFR (91.3%. Conclusions The only regimens to achieve high CFR against all three pathogen populations in both scenarios

  17. Ten years of antibiotic consumption in ambulatory care: Trends in prescribing practice and antibiotic resistance in Austria

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    Apfalter Petra

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aims of this study were (i to determine the quantity and pattern of antibiotic use in Austria between 1998 and 2007 and (ii to analyze antibiotic resistance rates in relation to antibiotic consumption in important clinical situations in order to provide data for empirical therapeutic regimens for key indications. Methods Consumption data and resistance data were obtained via the Austrian surveillance networks European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS and European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC. The EARSS collects data on isolates from blood and cerebrospinal fluid obtained predominantly in the hospital setting. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification and the Defined Daily Dose (DDD measurement units were assigned to the data. The number of DDDs and packages per 1,000 inhabitants (PID were used to calculate the level of antibiotic consumption. Antibiotic resistance was expressed in resistance rates, i.e., the percentage of resistant isolates compared to all isolates of one bacterial species. Results The overall antibiotic consumption measured in DIDs increased by 10% between 1998 and 2007, whereas PIDs decreased by 3%. The consumption of substances within the drug utilization 90% segment (measured in PID increased for ciprofloxacin (+118.9, clindamycin (+76.3, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (+61.9%, cefpodoxime (+31.6, azithromycin (+24.7; and decreased for erythromycin (-79.5%, trimethoprim (-56,1%, norfloxacin (-48.8%, doxycycline (-44.6, cefaclor (-35.1%, penicillin (-34.0%, amoxicillin (-22.5, minocycline (-21.9% and clarithromycin (-9.9%. Starting in 2001, an increase in the percentage of invasive E. coli isolates resistant to aminopenicillins (from 35% to 53%, fluoroquinolones (from 7% to 25.5% and third-generation cephalosporins (from 0% to 8.8% was observed. The percentage of nonsusceptible or intermediate penicillin-resistant pneumococcal isolates remained

  18. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

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    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  19. Sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas do trato respiratório de pacientes com infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade: resultados brasileiros do Programa SENTRY de Vigilância de Resistência a Antimicrobianos dos anos de 1997 e 1998 Susceptibility to respiratory tract isolated bacteria to antimicrobial agents in patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections: 1997 and 1998 Brazilian data of the SENTRY surveillance program of resistance to antimicrobial agents

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    HÉLIO S. SADER

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento da pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC é habitualmente empírico e o uso de antimicrobianos é baseado em estudos de vigilância. O programa SENTRY foi desenhado para monitorar a resistência a antimicrobianos através de uma rede internacional de laboratórios. Três centros no Brasil participaram do Programa SENTRY em 1997 e em 1998. Métodos: Um total de 344 isolados bacterianos coletados de pacientes com PAC em 1997 e 1998 foram testados contra mais de 20 agentes antimicrobianos pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Resultados: Entre os S. pneumoniae (176 isolados, 71,6% foram sensíveis à penicilina. Alto nível de resistência à penicilina e resistência à cefotaxima foram encontrados em 2,3 e 4,0%, respectivamente. As novas quinolonas levofloxacina (MIC90, 2mig/mL e gatifloxacina (MIC90, 0,5mig/mL foram ativas contra 100% dos isolados testados. Entre os outros antimicrobianos não beta-lactâmicos testados, os mais ativos foram (% de sensibilidade: cloranfenicol (97,5% > clindamicina (94% > azitromicina (90,3% > claritromicina (89,4% > tetraciclina (76,4% > sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (60,2%. A percentagem de Haemophilus influenzae (101 isolados resistentes à amoxicilina foi de 90,1%, enquanto entre Moraxella catarrhalis (67 isolados somente 9,0% foram sensíveis. O ácido clavulânico restaurou a atividade de amoxicilina contra H. influenzae e M. catarrhalis. Porém, H. influenzae demonstrou níveis aumentados de resistência para sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (55,1% de sensibilidade, claritromicina (80,4% de sensibilidade e cefaclor (88,2% de sensibilidade. Todos os isolados de H. influenzae e M. catarrhalis foram sensíveis à levofloxacina (MIC90, Background: Antimicrobial treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI is usually empiric and antibiotics are chosen on the basis of surveillance studies. The SENTRY Program was designed to monitor antimicrobial resistance via a worldwide