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Sample records for cefaclor

  1. Cefaclor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat certain infections caused by bacteria, such as pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; and ... effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.If you experience ...

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivama Viviane M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of cefaclor. The method involves alkaline hydrolysis of the drug in ammonia buffer solution at pH 10 to yield diketopiperazine-2,5-dione derivative and subsequent measurement at 340 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 1.8 - 55 mg/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical formulations.

  3. Do We Bury Antibacterials When Launching? Cefaclor Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Zdenko; Tomas, Ana; Vukmirović, Saša; Mikov, Momir; Horvat, Olga; Tomić, Nataša; Sabo, Ana

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to compare existing dosing regimens of cefaclor with recommended pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters and to see if the proposed dosing regimen could have been the reason for development of bacterial resistance. PKs of cefaclor were determined after administrating the highest therapeutic dose of 750 mg in standard release (SF) and modified release form (MRF) in 12 volunteers. The study was performed on clinical isolates of the most frequent causative agents in urinary and respiratory infections. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), postantibiotic effect, and PK/PD efficacy indices were determined. Peak plasma concentrations of 23.142 ± 5.67 (SF) and 8.7 ± 2.09 μg/mL (MRF) were observed after 40-60 min and 3.04 ± 0.75 h, respectively. MIC for investigated bacterial strains ranged from 1 to 4 mg/L. Postantibiotic effect lasted from 2.10-2.18 ± 0.2 h for Gram-positive to 0.58-0.90 ± 0.05 h for Gram-negative bacteria. PK/PD indices (t > MIC) ranged from 27.08 ± 5.93% to 43.23 ± 6.54% of 8-h dosing interval (SF) and 22.57 ± 8.93% to 49.65 ± 1.95% of 12-h dosing interval (MRF). Plasma levels were below MIC for more than 50% of the dosing interval even for the most sensitive pathogens (MIC = 1 mg/L). During both dosing intervals the total "antibacterial activity" was not longer than 6 h for Gram-positive and 5 h for Gram-negative bacteria for SF and 9 h for Gram-positive and 5 h for Gram-negative bacteria for MRF. PMID:26886327

  4. Structures of cefradine dihydrate and cefaclor dihydrate from DFT-D calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Streek, Jacco; Rantanen, Jukka; Bond, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of cefradine dihydrate, C16H19N3O4S·2H2O, is considered in the pharmaceutical sciences to be the epitome of an isolated-site hydrate. The structure from single-crystal X-ray data was described in 1976, but atomic coordinates were not published. The atomic coordinates...... from comparison with cefaclor dihydrate, C15H14ClN3O4S·2H2O, which is isomorphous and for which more complete single-crystal data are available. H-atom positions have not previously been published for either compound. The DFT-D calculations confirm that both cefradine and cefaclor are present...... are determined here by combining the information available from the published single-crystal data with a dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) method that has been validated to reproduce molecular crystal structures very accurately. Additional proof for the correctness of the structure comes...

  5. Use of solubility parameter to design dry suspension of cefaclor as a dual pack system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksal, Kiran; Pathak, Kamla

    2008-09-01

    One of the important methods to improve the solubility of a less water-soluble drug is by the use of co solvents. The solubility enhancement produced by two binary blends with a common co solvent (water-propylene glycol and propylene glycol-ethyl acetate) was studied against the solubility parameter of solvent blends (δ(1)) to evaluate the solubility parameter of drug (δ(2)). The binary blend water:propylene glycol (20:80) gave maximum solubility with an experimental δ(2) value of 16.52 (Cal/cm(3))(0.5) that was comparable to the theoretical value of 16.52 (Cal/cm(3))(0.5) determined by molar volume method and 16.35 (Cal/cm(3))(0.5) when determined by method proposed by Lin and Nash. The solvent blend water:propylene glycol (20:80) in which the drug exhibited maximum solubility was used as the reconstituting medium for formulation of dry suspension of cefaclor. The percentage cumulative drug release of cefaclor from the formulation F7 was compared to the marketed formulation by calculating the f1 (dissimilarity factor) and f2 (similarity factor) factors. A higher f1 value and f2 value below 50 indicates difference between the two dissolution profiles. PMID:21394257

  6. Use of solubility parameter to design dry suspension of cefaclor as a dual pack system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuksal Kiran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important methods to improve the solubility of a less water-soluble drug is by the use of co solvents. The solubility enhancement produced by two binary blends with a common co solvent (water-propylene glycol and propylene glycol-ethyl acetate was studied against the solubility parameter of solvent blends (δ1 to evaluate the solubility parameter of drug (δ2 . The binary blend water:propylene glycol (20:80 gave maximum solubility with an experimental δ2 value of 16.52 (Cal/cm 3 0.5 that was comparable to the theoretical value of 16.52 (Cal/cm 3 0.5 determined by molar volume method and 16.35 (Cal/cm 3 0.5 when determined by method proposed by Lin and Nash. The solvent blend water:propylene glycol (20:80 in which the drug exhibited maximum solubility was used as the reconstituting medium for formulation of dry suspension of cefaclor. The percentage cumulative drug release of cefaclor from the formulation F7 was compared to the marketed formulation by calculating the f 1 (dissimilarity factor and f 2 (similarity factor factors. A higher f 1 value and f 2 value below 50 indicates difference between the two dissolution profiles.

  7. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of cefaclor in the pharyngo-tonsillitis and acute otitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eandi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharyngotonsillitis (FT and acute otitis media (OMA are among the most frequent infectious diseases of the childhood and exact a heavy toll on the Italian national health service (INHS, families and society as a whole. In case of established or suspected bacterial origin, current treatment guidelines for FT recommend 5-10 days of oral antibiotics, chosen among available penicillins, cephalosporins, or macrolides. More controversial appears the systematical use of an antibiotic for OMAs, but prevalent expert opinion suggests use of the same agents. In this paper, an economical appraisal of five of the most prescribed oral antibiotics for these indications in Italy (cefaclor, amoxicyllin, amoxicyllin/clavulanate, clarithromycin and azithromycin is provided. The evaluation was conducted through the development and implementation of two distinct models, constructed to reflect national treatment patterns of these infections. Clinical and economical data were obtained from several sources: literature review, including published meta-analyses, consultation of an expert panel and, most importantly, from the results of a specific questionnaire-based survey completed by 136 pediatricians, based throughout Italy. The models were run to conduct both cost-effectiveness and cost-minimization analyses, that consistently indicated cefaclor and amoxicyllin to be substantially equivalent in terms of total costs to the INHS and the Italian society, but significantly more convenient than amoxicyllin/clavulanate, claritrhomycin or azithromycin. Extensive probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of this conclusion.

  8. Determination of the etiological organism during acute exacerbations of COPD and efficacy of azithromycin, ampicillin-sulbactam, ciprofloxacin and cefaclor. Turkish Thoracic Society COPD Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umut, S; Tutluoglu, B; Aydin Tosun, G; Müsellim, B; Erk, M; Yildirim, N; Vahapoglu, H; Yilmaz, N; Arseven, O; Türker, H; Erelel, M; Ilvan, A; Göylüsün, V; Yilmaz Kuyucu, T; Koşar, F; Soysal, F; Gür, A; Unutmaz, S; Oztürk, S; Akman, M

    1999-06-01

    Acute exacerbations, most of which are due to lower respiratory tract infections, cause great morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and most of these are due to lower respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the causative organism and the effects of azithromycin, ampicillin sulbactam (sultamicillin), ciprofloxacin and cefaclor monohydrate therapy in COPD. One hundred and six patients with COPD in acute exacerbation were randomized into four groups for empiric antibiotic treatment following lung function tests and sputum examination. The most common strains isolated from sputum were Haemophilus influenzae (30.8%), Streptoccocus pneumoniae (12%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (7.7%). Azithromycin, sultamicillin, ciprofloxacin and cefaclor monohydrate were found to be effective in treating COPD exacerbations. PMID:10435684

  9. 头孢克洛治疗上呼吸道感染的临床观察%Clinical Effect of Cefaclor in the Treatment of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛苏恩

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of cefaclor in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection. Methods 76 patients with upper respiratory tract infection in our hospital from January 2O11 to August 2O13 were randomly di-vided into observation group and control group,38 cases in each group. Control group was treated with cephalexin,observation group was treated with cefaclor,to observe the clinical symptoms,signs disappeared time and clinical effect. Results After treatment,the time of clinical symptoms and signs disappeared in observation group were less than control group,the difference was statistically significant(P O. O5). Conclusion Cefaclor in the treatment of upper respiratory tract in-fection has better clinical effect,can improve the clinical symptoms and signs,which is worthy of further clinical application.%目的:探讨头孢克洛治疗上呼吸道感染的临床疗效。方法选取本院2O11年1月-2O13年8月收治的76例上呼吸道感染患者,将患者随机分为观察组和对照组,每组38例。对照组患者给予口服头孢氨苄治疗,观察组患者给予口服头孢克洛治疗,观察两组患者的临床症状、体征消失时间及临床疗效。结果观察组患者治疗后的临床症状及体征消失时间均少于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P O. O5)。结论头孢克洛治疗上呼吸道感染临床疗效好,能够促进患者临床症状及体征的消失,值得临床进一步推广使用。

  10. Cefaclor in Children with Acute Otitis Media and Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Contrast Analysis%头孢克洛和阿莫西林克拉维酸钾用于儿童急性中耳炎治疗的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢寒冰

    2014-01-01

    Objective Comparison of acute otitis media in children with application of cefaclor and amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium two kinds of the clinical ef icacy of drug treatment. Methods From March 2011 to February 2013 treated 120 cases of children with acute otitis media in this study, random grouping. Children with the control group given amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium therapy, cefaclor treatment group. compared with two groups of children always show the dif erences of ef iciency and adverse reactions. Results After treatment, we found that the experimental group after treatment with total total ef iciency was 93.33%, control group the total ef iciency of 88.33%, dif erences between groups have no statistical significance ( >0.05). Experimental group the incidence of adverse reactions was 0%, the control group, the incidence of adverse reactions was 10.0%between groups was statistical y significant dif erence ( 0.05)。实验组不良反应发生率为0%,对照组不良反应发生率为10.0%,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采用头孢克洛和阿莫西林克拉维酸钾两种药物治疗儿童急性中耳炎,可将其在临床进行推广应用。

  11. 头孢克洛血清病样反应患儿血浆D-乳酸和尿乳果糖/甘露醇的检测与分析%Detection and Analysis of Plasma D-lactate and Urinary Lactulose/Mannitol in Children with Serum Sickness-like Reactions after Cefaclor Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向赟; 张振; 蔡小芳; 汪在华; 王晓梅; 陈红波; 郑义

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨头孢克洛血清病样反应患儿血浆D-乳酸和尿乳果糖/甘露醇的变化及其临床意义.方法 选择42例用头孢克洛治疗后发生血清病样反应(SSLR)的上呼吸道感染患儿为SSLR阳性组,40例用头孢克洛治疗后未发生SSLR的上感患儿为SSLR阴性组,同时选择30例健康儿童作为正常对照组.在上呼吸道感染患儿口服头孢克洛后的第7、9、11、13、15天,利用改良酶学分光光度法和电化学高效液相色谱法分别检测血浆D-乳酸水平和尿乳果糖/甘露醇(L/M)比值.对照组儿童除不服用头孢克洛外,其它实验情况与两研究组一致.结果 SSLR阳性组、阴性组及对照组的血浆D-乳酸结果 比较差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).而SSLR阳性组患儿的尿L/M从口服头孢克洛后的第7天至第13天逐渐增加,第13天达到最高峰,第13天至第15天尿L/M开始下降.SSLR阳性组患儿第7、9、11、13、15天的尿L/M均比阴性组和对照组高,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);SSLR阴性组和对照组儿童尿L/M结果 比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 服用头孢克洛可导致部分患儿产生SSLR,并影响其肠道屏障功能的变化.针对该类不良反应的监测方法 中,尿L/M比值的监测比血浆D-乳酸的监测结果 更为敏感和可靠.%Objective To examine the changes of plasma D-lactate levels and urinary lactulose/mannitol( L/M) ratios in children with serum sickness-like reactions(SSLR) from cefaclor and to explore its clinical significance. Methods A total of 82 pediatric patients with upper respiratory tract infection following cefaclor therapy were divided into SSLR positive group and SSLR negative group based on the presence or absence of SSLR after taking cefaclor,and 30 healthy volunteers served as control group. Plasma D-lactate levels and urinary L/M ratios were determined using enzymatic spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively

  12. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of cefaclor for suspension after single dose administration in healthy volunteers%健康受试者单剂量口服头孢克洛干混悬剂的药动学及生物等效性(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛洪源; 杨汉煜; 侯艳宁; 杨荣慧; 贾丽霞; 楚波

    2009-01-01

    AIM To study the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of two cefaclor for suspensions. METHODS A single oral administration of 250 mg test and reference of cefaclor for suspensions were given to 20 healthy male volunteers according to a randomized crossover design. The concentrations of cefaclor in plasma were determined by a HPLC-MS/MS method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and the bioequivalence were compared by DAS (Ver 1.0) program. RESULTS The pharmacokinetics parameters of test and reference preparations were as follows; pmax were (9.0 ± s 1.7) and (9.6 ± 1.6) mg-L-1, tmax were (0.37 ± 0.12) and (0.35 ±0.05) h, t1/2 were (0.88 ± 0.16) and (0.87 ± 0.11) h, AUC0-5hwere (7.9 ± 1.0) and (7.9 ± 1.1) mg·h·L-1, AUCo-∞. were (8.0 ± 1.0) and (8.0 ± 1.1) mg·h·L-1, respectively. There were no significant differences in tmax, pmax AUCo-5h, AUC0-∞, and t1/2 between the two preparations (P > 0.05). The relative bioavailability of test suspensions was (101 ± 12)%. CONCLUSION The test and reference preparations were bioequivalence.%目的 研究头孢克洛2种干混悬剂的药动学及生物等效性.方法 采用随机交叉试验设计,20名健康男性志愿者单剂量口服2种头孢克洛干混悬剂各250 mg,用液相色谱一串联质谱法测定血浆中头孢克洛的浓度,将20名受试者的经时血药浓度录入DAS(Ver 1.0)程序,进行统计分析.结果 单剂量口服试验与参比制剂后头孢克洛的p_(max)分别为(9.04±s 1.7)和(9.6±1.6)mg·L~(-1),tmax分别为(0.37±0.12)和(0.35 ±0.05)h,t_(1/2)分别为(0.88±0.16)和(0.87±0.11)h,AUC_(0~5h)分别为(7.9±1.0)和(7.94±1.1)mg·h·L~(-1),AUC_(0~∞)分别为(8.0±1.O)和(8.0±1.1)mg·h·L~(-1).2种制剂的t_(max)、p_(max)、AUC_(0~5h)、AUC_(0~∞)均无显著差异.试验制剂的相对生物利用度为(101±12)%.结论 试验制剂与参比制剂具有生物等效性.

  13. Use of Solubility Parameter to Design Dry Suspension of Cefaclor as a Dual Pack System

    OpenAIRE

    Kuksal Kiran; Pathak Kamla

    2008-01-01

    One of the important methods to improve the solubility of a less water-soluble drug is by the use of co solvents. The solubility enhancement produced by two binary blends with a common co solvent (water-propylene glycol and propylene glycol-ethyl acetate) was studied against the solubility parameter of solvent blends (δ1 ) to evaluate the solubility parameter of drug (δ2 ). The binary blend water:propylene glycol (20:80) gave maximum solubility with an experimental δ2 value of...

  14. 头孢克洛缓释片与头孢氨苄缓释片治疗120例呼吸道感染的随机对照研究%Cefaclor versus Cefalexin in the Treatment of 120 Cases of Bacterial Respiratory Infections: A Randomized Control Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜佳新; 顾玉红

    2010-01-01

    目的:评价头孢克洛缓释片治疗细菌性呼吸道感染的疗效和安全性.方法:将120例呼吸道细菌性感染患者,随机分为两组.治疗组63例,采用头孢克洛缓释片口服;对照组57例,采用头孢氨苄缓释片口服,两组疗程均为7天.结果:头孢克洛缓释片治疗组的总有效率为90.4%,细菌学清除率为88.1%;头孢氨苄缓释片治疗组的总有效率为75.5%,细菌学清除率为80.0%.治疗过程中两组患者的不良反应均较轻微.结论:头孢克洛缓释片口服治疗呼吸道细菌性感染具有显著疗效.

  15. Nafcillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to nafcillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  16. Oxacillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxacillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  17. Ampicillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to ampicillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin (Ancef, ...

  18. Effect of Dachengqi Granules(大承气汤颗粒剂)on Level of Endotoxin in Enterogenous Endotoxemia in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀珍; 郑尧; 马德禄; 谢文利; 赵珊; 吴咸中

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of Dachengqi Granule (DCQG) on endotoxin level in rats ofenterogenous endotoxemia. Methods: Enterogenous endotoxemia model of rats was made by peritoneal in-jection of E. coli. In the treated groups, the rats were treated with different doses of DCQG, cefaclor andDCQG plus cefaclor respectively, starting from 3 days before to 1 day after modeling. Endotoxin levels inplasma, urine and stool were determined and compared. Results: Except for the cefaclor group, the plasmaand urine endotoxin levels in the treated groups were lower significantly (P<0.05), while the endotoxinlevel in stool was obviously higher than that in the untreated model group. Conclusion: DCQG has the intes-tinal barrier protective effect including anti-bacteria, anti-inflammation and clearing endotoxin.

  19. Study of the Electrophoretic Behavior of Cephalosporins by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Hancu; Adina Sasebeşi; Aura Rusu; Hajnal Kelemen; Adriana Ciurba

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was the characterization of the electrophoretic behavior of cephalosporins from different generation having different structural characteristics in order to develop a rapid, simple and efficient capillary electrophoretic method for their identification and simultaneous separation from complex mixtures. Methods: Ten cephalosporin derivatives (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ce...

  20. Comparative antimicrobial activity of ceftibuten against multiply-resistant microorganisms from Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbist, L; Jacobs, J; Hens, K

    1991-01-01

    To study the activity of ceftibuten, we obtained multiply-resistant isolates from approximately 20 hospitals in Belgium. Against Enterobacteriaceae, all of the tested comparative compounds were more active than cefaclor, and ceftibuten and tigemonam were the most active of the agents tested. Ceftibuten MIC50s were less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml for most enteric bacilli species and 85% of strains were susceptible (less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml). This level of activity compared favorably to that recorded for cefaclor (less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml), cefetamet (less than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml), and cefteram (less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml), that is, 37%, 69%, and 59%, respectively. Ceftibuten, cefetamet, cefteram, and tigemonam were highly active against isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. None of the comparative agents were as active as cefaclor against staphylococcal isolates. Against streptococci, cefteram was the most active, and tigemonam the least active of the agents. The MIC90s of ceftibuten for strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes were 2 micrograms/ml and 0.5 microgram/ml, respectively. Strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were resistant to both ceftibuten and tigemonam; cefaclor and cefteram inhibited 100% of isolates of this species. Strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were consistently resistant to all of the compounds. Overall, ceftibuten exhibited potent activity against many multiply-resistant clinical isolates. PMID:1901535

  1. [Treatment of acute otitis media in paediatrics: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Silvano; Novelli, Andrea; Noviello, Silvana

    2005-06-01

    Otitis represents the second most common infection of the upper respiratory tract, its treatment being the most common cause for prescribing antibiotics in the United States. A large number of antimicrobials, especially beta-lactams and macrolides, are generally used for treating acute otitis media (AOM) in paediatric patients, owing to their antibacterial spectrum including the main aetiological pathogens. Efficacy, safety and compliance of Cefaclor were compared with those of other antibiotics in the treatment of paediatric AOM in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials published between 1981 and 2004. Overall, evaluations were performed on 24 studies (Medline/PubMed, keywords "Cefaclor and otitis") which proved eligible (jadad score > or = 1); sixteen out of the 24 studies were multicentre, seven were double-blind. Mostly, the comparator agent was a beta-lactam, in four and three cases it was a macrolide or the association trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Efficacy and safety were end-points of all studies whereas only 9 studies evaluated compliance. For the majority of studies (16/24) Cefaclor was administered for 10-day course. The analysis was based on a 2 x 2 contingency table with classification by treatment and number of improvements/cures, side-effects, and compliance of individual studies. The global estimate of the effective treatments was obtained with the weighted mean of the log OR (Odd Ratio) according to Mantel-Haenszel and associated confidence intervals (CI) at 95%. All the calculations were performed using SAS v.8. Chi-square test was performed. Clinical efficacy evaluation, number of improvements/cures, did not evidence a statistically significant difference among Cefaclor and comparators (86.8% vs 88.7%; Odds Ratio 0.77, IC 0.61/0.94). In the Cefaclor-treated patients, adverse events were observed in a statistically significant lower percentage compared to other antibiotics: 13.3% vs 19.4% (P antibiotics usually employed in

  2. Simultaneous determination of 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Sheng Wu; Jin Lan Zhang; Yan Ling Qiao; Yi Lin Wang; Zhi Rong Chen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was established and validated to determine the 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products, including 1 (ceftazidime), 2 (cefaclor), 3 (cefdinir), 4 (ampicillin), 5 (cefalexin), 6 (ceftezole), 7 (cefotaxim), 8 (cefradine), 9 (cefuroxime), 10 (cephazoline), 11 (cefathiamidine), 12 (cefoperazone), 13 (cafalotin), 14 (piperacillin).

  3. Pharmacokinetics of cefetamet in plasma and skin blister fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerli, W; Sansano, S; Wittke, B

    1996-01-01

    Cefetamet pivoxil is an oral cephalosporin with enhanced affinity for the target penicillin-binding proteins 1 and 3 and an increased stability to beta-lactamases compared with older cephalosporins, such as cefalexin or cefaclor. The pharmacokinetics of cefetamet pivoxil was determined after the seventh and final dose of 500 mg of cefetamet pivoxil in eight healthy volunteers. Concentrations in plasma and cantharidin-induced skin blister fluid were determined by a high-performance liquid chro...

  4. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of cephalosporins

    OpenAIRE

    Hancu Gabriel; Kelemen Hajnal; Rusu Aura; Gyéresi Árpád

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and simple capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of six extensively used cephalosporin antibiotics (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefuroxim, ceftazidim, ceftriaxon). The determination of cephalosporins was performed at a pH 6.8, using a 25 mM phospate - 25 mM borate mixed buffer, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 °C. We achieved a baseline separation in approximately 10 minutes. The separation resolution was increased by a...

  5. In vivo evaluation of tigemonam, a novel oral monobactam.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, J M; Olsen, S. J.; Weinberg, D S; Dalvi, M.; Whitney, R R; Bonner, D P; Sykes, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    Tigemonam, a new monobactam with excellent activity against gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated for in vivo efficacy and absorption after oral administration to laboratory animals. Tigemonam is absorbed when administered orally to mice and dogs. In a variety of gram-negative systemic infections in mice, orally administered tigemonam was efficacious in all infections studied. Comparison drugs such as amoxicillin, cephalexin, and cefaclor were less efficacious, especially in infections caused...

  6. Lack of in vitro efficacy of oral forms of certain cephalosporins, erythromycin, and oxacillin against Pasteurella multocida.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Richwald, G A

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of human isolates of Pasteurella multocida to oral antimicrobial agents from our current study and from a review of the literature suggests that dicloxacillin (oxacillin), erythromycin, clindamycin, cephalexin, cefaclor, and cefadroxil should not be used for empiric therapy of animal bite wounds. Agents that were consistently active against P. multocida were penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol, trimethopri...

  7. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of cephalosporins in pharmaceutical preparations using tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II)-potassium permanganate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flow injection (FI) method using the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)32+]-potassium permanganate chemiluminescence(CL) was developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of cephalosporins such as cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefaclor and cefoperazone. The method is based on the CL reaction of cephalosporins and Ru(bpy)32+ with potassium permanganate in the presence of perchloric acid, catalyzed by Mn(II). Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves are linear over the range 0.10-12.0 μg ml-1 for cefoxitin, 0.10-10.0 μg ml-1 for cefoperazone and 0.10-15.0 μg ml-1 for cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, and cefaclor, respectively. The limits of detection (3σ) are 0.03 μg ml-1 for cefoxitin and cefadroxil, 0.06 μg ml-1 for cefoperazone and 0.08 μg ml-1 for cefazolin, cephalexin and cefaclor, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin and cefadroxil in pharmaceutical formulations with a sample throughput of 90 h-1. There were no interference effects from some common excipients used in pharmaceutical preparations

  8. Biochemical characterization of systemic bacteria in bananas, sensitivity to antibiotics and plant phytotoxicity during shoot proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the biochemically systemic bacterial isolated from banana plants, to evaluate the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, and to determine the phytotoxicity of banana shoots during in vitro proliferation. Systemic bacteria belonging to the Klebsiella and Aeromonas genera were isolated from the “Maravilha” (FHIA 01 AAAB, “Preciosa” (PV 4285 AAAB and “Thap Maeo” (AAB varieties and were then characterized. Tests of shoot sensitivity to antibiotics were performed, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and phytotoxic effects of selected antibiotics to plants were determined. Among the 20 antibiotics evaluated, the strains showed sensitivity to cefaclor, cefalexin, cefalotin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin. However, during MIC determination, the best results were obtained with cefaclor, vancomycin or nalidixic acid alone in concentrations ranging from 512 to 1,024 mg L-1. In culture medium, cefaclor at 1,024 mg L-1 was the only antibiotic to affect the multiplication and the shoot survival in culture.

  9. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of cephalosporins in pharmaceutical preparations using tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II)-potassium permanganate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thongpoon, Chalermporn [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Liawruangrath, Boonsom [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Liawruangrath, Saisunee [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wheatley, R. Alan [Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Townshend, Alan [Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: A.townshend@hull.ac.uk

    2005-11-30

    A flow injection (FI) method using the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+}]-potassium permanganate chemiluminescence(CL) was developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of cephalosporins such as cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefaclor and cefoperazone. The method is based on the CL reaction of cephalosporins and Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+} with potassium permanganate in the presence of perchloric acid, catalyzed by Mn(II). Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves are linear over the range 0.10-12.0 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefoxitin, 0.10-10.0 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefoperazone and 0.10-15.0 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, and cefaclor, respectively. The limits of detection (3{sigma}) are 0.03 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefoxitin and cefadroxil, 0.06 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefoperazone and 0.08 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefazolin, cephalexin and cefaclor, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin and cefadroxil in pharmaceutical formulations with a sample throughput of 90 h{sup -1}. There were no interference effects from some common excipients used in pharmaceutical preparations.

  10. In vitro susceptibilities of Borrelia burgdorferi to five oral cephalosporins and ceftriaxone.

    OpenAIRE

    Agger, W A; Callister, S M; Jobe, D A

    1992-01-01

    We determined the in vitro susceptibilities of eight Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to five oral cephalosporins. MICs for B. burgdorferi 297 were 23 micrograms/ml (cephalexin), 45 micrograms/ml (cefadroxil), 91 micrograms/ml (cefaclor), 0.13 microgram/ml (cefuroxime), 0.8 microgram/ml (cefixime), and 0.02 microgram/ml (ceftriaxone). When B. burgdorferi isolates were exposed to concentrations twice the MIC of cefuroxime, cefixime, or ceftriaxone, at least 72 h of incubation was required to kill...

  11. A comparative study of capillary zone electrophoresis and pH-potentiometry for determination of dissociation constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasi, Melinda; Buglyo, Peter; Zekany, Laszlo; Gaspar, Attila

    2007-09-01

    Acidity constants of six cephalosporin antibiotics, cefalexin, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefotaxim, cefoperazon and cefoxitin are determined using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and pH-potentiometric titrations. Since CZE is a separation method, it is not necessary for the samples to be of high purity and known concentration because only mobilities are measured. The effect on determination of dissociation constants of different matrices (serum, 0.9% NaCl, fermentation matrix) was examined. The advantages of CZE can be utilized in those fields where potentiometry has limitations (sample quantity, solubility, purity, simultaneous determinations), although pK(a) values that are close to each other can be determined by potentiometry with more accuracy.

  12. Metagenomic Analysis of Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota in a Pregnant Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Azhar, Esam I.; Abbas, Aymn T.; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie K.; Raoult, Didier; Yasir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA)-approved category B antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat infections during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (GM) that occur during pregnancy. The 16S rRNA amplicon deep-sequencing method was used to analyze the effect of category B antibiotics (azithromycin, amoxicillin and cefaclor) on GM during pregnancy using a rat model. The GM composition was substantially modulated by pregnancy and antibiotics administration. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Chlamydiae, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were the dominant phyla. Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and reduced Firmicutes. The genera Shigella, Streptococcus, Candidatus Arthromitus, and Helicobacter were significantly (p < 0.05) more abundant during pregnancy. Antibiotics significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the relative abundance of Lactobacillus but increased that of Enterobacter. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillus crispatus during pregnancy. Antibiotic treatment reduced bacterial diversity; the lowest number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in the cefaclor-treated groups. Antibiotics significantly (p < 0.05) promoted weight gain during pregnancy, and increased relative abundance of Shigella sonnei, Enterococcus hormaechei, and Acinetobacter sp. GM perturbations were accompanied by increases in Proteobacteria abundance and weight gain in pregnancy following antibiotic treatment. PMID:27199748

  13. New valid spectrofluorimetric method for determination of selected cephalosporins in different pharmaceutical formulations using safranin as fluorophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derayea, Sayed M.; Ahmed, Hytham M.; Abdelmageed, Osama H.; Haredy, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    A new validated spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of some cephalosporins namely; cefepime, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefpodoxime and cefexime. The method was based on the reaction of these drugs with safranin in slightly alkaline medium (pH 8.0), to form ion-association complexes. The fluorescent products were extracted into chloroform and their fluorescence intensities were measured at 544-565 nm after excitation at 518-524 nm. The reaction conditions influencing the product formation and stability were investigated and optimized. The relative fluorescence intensity was proportional to the drug concentration in the linear ranges of 0.15-1.35, 0.35-1.25, 0.35-1.25, 0.20-1.44 and 0.20-1.25 μg/mL for cefepime, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefpodoxime proxetil and cefexime, respectively. The detection limits were 40, 100, 100, 60 and 70 ng/mL, respectively. The performance of the developed method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed methods over the reference spectrophotometric method. Various pharmaceutical formulations were successfully analyzed using the proposed method and the results were in good agreement with those of the previously reported methods.

  14. Sensitivity of clinical isolates from German hospitals to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Augmentin) compared with other antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, J; Klietmann, W; Nösner, K; Rolinson, G N; Johnsen, J

    1988-01-01

    17,244 pathogens isolated from clinical specimens of 24 hospitals in the Moers area (North-Rhine Westphalia, FRG) were tested in regard to their susceptibility to Augmentin (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid). For this purpose, minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined by use of microbroth dilution technique. 80% of Gram-negative, 98% of Gram-positive and 97% of anaerobic isolates were susceptible to Augmentin (breakpoint 4 mg/l amoxicillin in the presence of 2.5 mg/l clavulanic acid). In a second part of the study the susceptibility to Augmentin of 4.137 Gram-negative and 10.958 Gram-positive pathogens was compared to their sensitivity against benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin, mezlocillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, fusidic acid, ampicillin, cefaclor and doxycyclin.

  15. Antibacterial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from burns and wounds of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman A. Alharbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study 540 burns and wound swabs were collected from cancer patients of some Egyptian hospitals. The single infection was detected from 210, and 70 cases among wounded and burned patients, while mixed infection was 30 and 45, respectively. We recovered where 60 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 60 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 7 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 4 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 25 isolates of Escherichia coli, 23 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 27 isolates of Proteus vulgaris from 355 burn and surgical wound infections . All bacterial isolates showed high resistance to the commonly used β-lactams (amoxycillin, cefaclor, ampicillin, vancomycin, amoxicillin/clavulonic, and low resistance to imepenim and ciprofloxacin. Plasmid analysis of six multidrug resistant and two susceptible bacterial isolates revealed the same plasmid pattern. This indicated that R-factor is not responsible for the resistance phenomenon among the isolated opportunistic bacteria. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the isolated bacteria was studied.

  16. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of cephalosporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancu Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of six extensively used cephalosporin antibiotics (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefuroxim, ceftazidim, ceftriaxon. The determination of cephalosporins was performed at a pH 6.8, using a 25 mM phospate - 25 mM borate mixed buffer, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 °C. We achieved a baseline separation in approximately 10 minutes. The separation resolution was increased by addition of an anionic surfactant, 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, to the buffer solution. The proposed separation was evaluated on the basis of detection and quantification limits, effective electrophoretic mobility and relative standard deviation for migration times and peak areas.

  17. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro profile based interaction with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells of alginate-chitosan-silica biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaure, Paul Catalin; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Yang, Chih-Hui; Chifiriuc, Carmen Mariana; Lin, Yung-Sheng

    2013-01-30

    This work is focused on the fabrication of a new drug delivery system based on polyanionic matrix (e.g. sodium alginate), polycationic matrix (e.g. chitosan) and silica network. The FT-IR, SEM, DTA-TG, eukaryotic cell cycle and viability, and in vitro assay of the influence of the biocomposite on the efficacy of antibiotic drugs were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated the biocompatibility and the ability of the fabricated biocomposite to maintain or improve the efficacy of the following antibiotics: piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, piperacillin, imipenem, gentamicin, ceftazidime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and cefazolin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 reference strains.

  18. Resistência a antimicrobianos de Escherichia coli isolada de dejetos suínos em esterqueiras Antibiotic-resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from stored pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F.P. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance of 96 Escherichia coli strains isolated from a stabilization pond system on a pig-breeding farm was evaluated. Strains were tested for their resistance against 14 antimicrobial using the agar diffusion method. E. coli strains showed resistance to tetracycline (82.3%, nalidixic acid (64%, ampicilin (41%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprin (36%, sulfonamide (34%, cloranphenicol (274%, ciprofloxacin (19%, cefaclor (16%, streptomicyn (7.3%, neomicyn (1%, amoxacilin/ clavulanic acid (1%, and amikacin (1%. No resistance was observed to gentamicin and tobramycin, and 37.5% of E. coli strains were resistant to four or more antimicrobials. The multiresistance pattern was found in strains isolated during all sampled period. Strains showed a high variability in the antimicrobial resistance pattern.

  19. 盐酸头孢他美酯体内和体外抗菌作用研究%In vivo and in vitro antibacterial activities of cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride against clinic isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晓姗; 唐映红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride against clinical isolates and compare with Cefaclor. Methods Minimal inhibitory concentrations(MICs)tests were determined by means of broth-dilutions methods.The affecting factors were also determined.Drugs were administered by gavage 1 h and 6 h after mice were infected intraperitoneally with 1 mL of bacterial suspension.The median efective dose (ED50) was calculated by the probit method. Results The results indicated that cefetamet showed good activity against gram-positive bacteria.The MIC50 value was 0.25μg/mL for both Streptococcus pneumoniae and Beta hemolytic streptococcus . Cefetamet also showed good activity against gram- negative bacteria.It was also active against gram-negative bacteria. The MIC50 value was 0.25,0.5,0.5,and 0.5μg/mL for Gonococcus,Klebsiella pneumonia,Bacillus dysenteriae and Haemophilus influenzae.The protective effects of cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride against experimental systemic infections in mice were observed.ED50 of cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride agains Staphylococcus anreus and Eescherichia coli were 24.6 and 9.3 mg/kg,respectively.Antibacterial activity of cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride against Staphylococcus aureus was weaker than cefaclor, but its antibacterial activity against Eescherichia coli was more active than cefaclor. Conclusion Cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride showed a good activity against clinical isolates.%目的:评价盐酸头孢他美对临床常见致病菌的体外和体内抗菌作用。方法采用试管二倍稀释法测定最低抑菌浓度(MIC),同时与对照药头孢克洛进行对比。结果头孢他美对革兰氏阳性菌如乙型溶血性链球菌、肺炎链球菌有较强的抗茵活性,MIC50均为0.25μg/mL;对革兰阴性菌如淋球菌、肺炎克雷伯杆菌、痢疾杆菌、流感嗜血杆菌也有较强的抗菌活性,MIC50分别为0.25、0.5、0.5和0.5μg/mL。头孢他

  20. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Chinese children: four hospitals surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈叙庄; 陆权; 叶启慈; 张国成; 俞桑洁; 张泓; 邓秋莲; 杨永弘

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the nasal carriage of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci in children of <5 years old in the following four cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Xi'an.Methods A total of 647 pneumococci strains were isolated and detected. Minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics were determined by E-test. Disk diffusion test was used for the measurement of antimicrobial susceptibility.Results Prevalence of penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in the four cities was 41%, with Guangzhou (60.8%) ranking first, followed by Xi'an (45%), Shanghai (37%) and Beijing (25.9%). The majority of penicillin non-susceptibility isolates (23.9%-53.8%) had a low level of resistance (MIC 0.64-1.5 μg/ml). The most sensitive antimicrobials in terms of percentage of susceptible organisms were amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (99.4%), followed by ceftriaxone (92.1%); cefurxime and cefaclor were slightly more sensitive than penicillin with susceptibility of 74.8% and 77.9%. Erythromycin, tetracycline and TMP-SMZ were highly resistant (83.6%, 82.1% and 76.2% respectively). Among erythromycin resistant isolates, 100% were resistant to azithromycin, 98.6% to clarithromycin, 97.2% to roxithromycin and spiramycin, and 96.6% to clindamycin. 97.2% (141/145) were typical of the macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramons B (MLSB ) resistance phenotype, and 2.8% (4/145) were M phenotype. The group of PRSP was with significantly higher rates of non-susceptibility for ceftriaxone (18.4%), cefurxime (58.6%), cefaclor (53.4%), compared with the group of PEN-S (0.5%, 1.8% and 0.2%, respectively) and the rate of multi-drug resistance in the isolates of PRSP group (92.9%) was significantly higher than that of PEN-S group (59.2%).Conclusion The rates of penicillin and multi-drug resistance among isolates of pneumococci carried nasally in are high children and the high prevalence of multi-drug resistance in the Chinese population may be becoming one of the most serious

  1. 上海地区119家医院2009-2011年头孢菌素类药利用分析%Analysis of the Utilization of Cephalosporin Antibacterial Drugs in 119 Hospitals from Shanghai Area during 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石卫峰; 归成; 李晓宇; 刘皋林

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utilization and tendency of cephalosporin antibacterial drugs in hospitals from Shanghai area. METHODS: The utilization of cephalosporins in 119 hospitals of Shanghai area during 2009 - 2011 was analyzed statistically in respect of main categories, consumption sum, DDDs and DDC, etc. RESULTS: The consumption sum of cephalosporins reached a peak in 2010 and decreased obviously in 2011. The consumption sum of oral cephalosporins showed a small increase and that of injections showed a downward trend. Over the 3 years, cefaclor, cefixime and cefdinir ranked the top 3 in the list of consumption sum; and cefuroxime axetil, cefaclor and cefixime ranked the top 3 in the list of DDDs; cefotiam, cefuroxime and cefoxi-tin occupied the top 3 in the list of consumption sum and DDDs of injections. CONCLUSIONS: The management of clinical application of cephalosporin antibacterial drugs should continue to be strengthened so as to ensure effective, safe and economical use of drugs in the clinic.%目的:评价上海地区医院头孢菌素类药的应用现状和趋势.方法:对2009-2011年上海地区119家医院头孢菌素类药的主要品种、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日均费用(DDC)等进行统计、分析.结果:该地区医院头孢菌素类药的销售金额在2010年达到高峰,2011年出现明显下降;口服剂的销售金额呈现小幅增长,注射剂的销售金额有下降趋势;3年来,头孢克洛、头孢克肟和头孢地尼的销售金额在口服剂中排名前3位,头孢呋辛酯、头孢克洛和头孢克肟的DDDs排名前3位,头孢替安、头孢呋辛和头孢西丁在注射剂中占销售金额和DDDs排名的前3位.结论:应继续加强头孢菌素类的临床应用管理,以确保临床用药的有效、安全和经济.

  2. Production, Optimization, and Characterization of Organic Solvent Tolerant Cellulases from a Lignocellulosic Waste-Degrading Actinobacterium, Promicromonospora sp. VP111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lebin; Ram, Hari; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Ved Pal

    2016-07-01

    High costs of natural cellulose utilization and cellulase production are an industrial challenge. In view of this, an isolated soil actinobacterium identified as Promicromonospora sp. VP111 showed potential for production of major cellulases (CMCase, FPase, and β-glucosidase) utilizing untreated agricultural lignocellulosic wastes. Extensive disintegration of microcrystalline cellulose and adherence on it during fermentation divulged true cellulolytic efficiency of the strain. Conventional optimization resulted in increased cellulase yield in a cost-effective medium, and the central composite design (CCD) analysis revealed cellulase production to be limited by cellulose and ammonium sulfate. Cellulase activities were enhanced by Co(+2) (1 mM) and retained up to 60 °C and pH 9.0, indicating thermo-alkaline tolerance. Cellulases showed stability in organic solvents (25 % v/v) with log P ow  ≥ 1.24. Untreated wheat straw during submerged fermentation was particularly degraded and yielded about twofold higher levels of cellulases than with commercial cellulose (Na-CMC and avicel) which is especially economical. Thus, this is the first detailed report on cellulases from an efficient strain of Promicromonospora that was non-hemolytic, alkali-halotolerant, antibiotic (erythromycin, kanamycin, rifampicin, cefaclor, ceftazidime) resistant, multiple heavy metal (Mo(+6) = W(+6) > Pb(+2) > Mn(+2) > Cr(+3) > Sn(+2)), and organic solvent (n-hexane, isooctane) tolerant, which is industrially and environmentally valuable. PMID:26956574

  3. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface water and groundwater samples in a pig production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Neto Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics, so excessive and indiscriminate in intensive animal production, has triggered an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms which can be transported to aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of the antimicrobial resistance of samples of Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater and surface water in a region of pig breeding. Through the test of antimicrobial susceptibility, we analyzed 205 strains of E. coli. A high rate of resistance to cefaclor was observed, both in surface water (51.9% and groundwater (62.9%, while all samples were sensitive to amikacin. The percentages of multi-resistant samples were 25.96% and 26.73% in surface water and groundwater, respectively, while 19.23% and 13.86% were sensitive to all antibiotics tested. It was determined that the rate of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR was 0.164 for surface water and 0.184 for groundwater. No significant differences were found in the profile of the antimicrobial resistance in strains of E. coli isolated in surface water and groundwater, but the index MAR calculated in certain points of groundwater may offer a potential risk of transmission of resistant genes.

  4. Study of the Electrophoretic Behavior of Cephalosporins by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hancu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was the characterization of the electrophoretic behavior of cephalosporins from different generation having different structural characteristics in order to develop a rapid, simple and efficient capillary electrophoretic method for their identification and simultaneous separation from complex mixtures. Methods: Ten cephalosporin derivatives (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone were analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis using different background electrolyte solutions at different pH values. Electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes were calculated, the influence of the electrophoretic parameteres on the separation was established and the analytical conditions were optimized. Results: Taking into consideration their structural and chemical properties cephalosporins can be detected over a pH range between 6 and 10. The best results were obtained using a buffer solution containing 25 mM disodium hydrogenophosphate - 25 mM sodium dihydrogenophosphate, at a pH – 7.00, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 C, UV detection at 210 nm. Using the optimized analytical conditions we achieved the simultaneous baseline separation for seven cephalosporins in less then 10 minutes. Conclusion: Using the described optimized electrophoretic procedures, capillary electrophoresis can be used for the identification and determination of cephalosporins in formulated pharmaceutical products and for their separation from complex mixtures.

  5. Clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, S S

    1989-01-01

    The sputum pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections is reviewed. Following intravenous administration, ciprofloxacin penetrates rapidly into bronchial tissue; the elimination half life is between 3 and 4 h and a dose dependency is seen. Following oral intake, the time to reach maximal concentrations is approximately two hours and after a dose of 750 mg the concentration may reach 1.7 mg/l in patients without cystic fibrosis and range from 0.5 to 3.4 mg/l in cystic fibrosis patients. Coadministration of ciprofloxacin increases serum levels and decreases total body clearance of theophylline. In controlled comparative clinical trials, ciprofloxacin has been found to have similar clinical efficacy as amoxycillin, ampicillin, cefalexin, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, imipenem-cilastatin and ceftazidime for the treatment of a range of lower respiratory tract infections. Ciprofloxacin has been found to be superior in clinical efficacy to cefaclor. Experimental animal models suggest a role for ciprofloxacin in infections caused by Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The clinical and bacteriological efficacy of ciprofloxacin is less pronounced in lung infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but is comparable to the combination of beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. Development of resistance is frequently observed during ciprofloxacin treatment of Ps. aeruginosa. Because of the availability of other oral and effective agents, ciprofloxacin is not recommended for empirical treatment of community acquired lower respiratory infections, but should be reserved for infections caused by multiply resistant organisms. PMID:2667111

  6. [Activity of cefpodoxime and other oral beta-lactams against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae with different susceptibilities to penicillin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, A; Robledo, O; Lerma, M; Giménez, M J; Cebrián, L; Casal, J; Aguilar, L; Gómez-Lus, M L

    2006-03-01

    This study explores the influence on the intrinsic activity of different oral beta-lactams of beta-lactamase production in Haemophilus influenzae and penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three substudies were performed: a) a general susceptibility study, analyzing 550 strains received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout February and March 2005; b) a study on the influence of penicillin resistance on the activity of beta-lactams, analyzing 251 penicillin-susceptible strains (MICor=2 mg/l) randomly chosen among those received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout 2005; and c) an H. influenzae susceptibility study analyzing 150 strains received by Instituto Valenciano de Microbiologia throughout 2005. A total of 71% of S. pneumoniae strains were susceptible to penicillin, 21% exhibited intermediate resistance and 8% strains presented full resistance. H. influenzae beta-lactamase production rate was 18.6%. Of the non-beta-lactamase-producing strains, 3% were not susceptible to ampicillin. Cefpodoxime and cefixime exhibited the highest intrinsic activity against H. influenzae, while amoxicillin and cefpodoxime were the most active compounds against S. pneumoniae. All H. influenzae strains were susceptible to oral cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The increase in penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae influenced cefixime, cefaclor and cefuroxime to a higher degree than amoxicillin and cefpodoxime.

  7. Susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to various antibiotics among strains isolated from patients and healthy carriers in different regions of Brazil (1999-2000

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    F. Rossi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of microbes to commonly used antibiotics became a major concern at the end of the last century. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen in respiratory infections, we conducted microbiological assessment of drug susceptibility patterns among strains collected from two different population groups: 1 adult and pediatric patients (375 isolates with different infections, and 2 healthy children in day care centers (< 5 years old; 350 isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not identified in either group. Intermediate resistance levels were similar in both groups (adults: 9.9%; children: 9.2%. The Central West region of Brazil tended to have lower susceptibility of S.pneumoniae from infected adults and children to penicillin (81% vs. 93% in the South and 90% in the Southeast, tetracycline (64% vs. 80% and 76%, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (14% vs. 34%. Susceptibility was similar among strains from nasal cultures of healthy children tested in each of 4 regions of Brazil. All isolates were susceptible to cefaclor, cefotaxime and amoxacillin/clavulanate. This study, in two distinct populations, allowed characterization of local microbiological resistance patterns. This data is expected to be of use in guiding empiric therapy in the different regions of Brazil.

  8. Incidence of cephalosporin resistance among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Ibadan, South- Western Nigeria

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    Oladipo E.K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of beta-lactam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major global challenge, particularly, the rise in the resistance to 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the resistance pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to different generations of cephalosporins. Methods: A total number of one hundred clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected from June to November 2014 at University Teaching Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State. These were tested for their sensitivity to antibiotics by means of disc diffusion method using prepared antibiotics disc containing different μ of antibiotics; Cefotaxine (30μ, Cefaclor (30μ, Cefamandole (30μ, Cefixime (5μ, Cefepime (30μ, Cefpodoxime (30μ and Ceftazidime (30μ. Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed absolute resistance to all antibiotics used except Ceftazidime, and Cefepime which are third and fourth generation of cephalosporin respectively. Ceftazidime had minimal resistant of 21% and higher susceptibility rate of 76%, Cefepime had the highest susceptibility rate of 90% and minimal resistance of 6%. Cefotaxime and Cefpodoxime had minimal intermediate of 1%, Ceftazidime of 3% and Cefepime of 4%. Conclusion: The result from this study provided more evidence that among third generation of cephalosporins used, some are more active than the other while fourth generation is still the most effective of all other generations. Knowledge on the distribution of cephalosporin-resistant organisms is of ultimate importance as a guide in empirical therapy, taking note of preventive strategies as well as control measures against the spread of resistant microorganisms.

  9. Refined models of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 with inhibitors: an QM/MM modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Cheng, Tian-Lu

    2016-10-01

    New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) has been identified as a potential target for the treatment of multi-drug resistance bacterial infections. We used molecular docking, normal MD, SIE, QM/MM MD simulations, QM/MM GBSA binding free energy, and QM/MM GBSA alanine-scanning mutagenesis techniques to investigate interactions of the NDM-1 with 11 inhibitors (Tigecycline, BAL30072, D-captopril, Penicillin G, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Cephalexin, Cefaclor, Nitrocefin, Meropenem, and Imipenem). From our normal MD and QM/MM simulations, the correlation coefficients between the predicted binding free energies and experimental values are .88 and .93, respectively. Then simulations, which combined QM/MM/GBSA and alanine-scanning mutagenesis techniques, were performed and our results show that two residues (Lys211 and His250) have the strongest impact on the binding affinities of the 11 NDM-1/inhibitors. Therefore, our approach theoretically suggests that the two residues (Lys211 and His250) are responsible for the selectivity of NDM-1 associated inhibitors. PMID:26488313

  10. The synthesis and characterization of poly({gamma}-glutamic acid)-coated magnetite nanoparticles and their effects on antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Inbaraj, B; Kao, T H; Tsai, T Y; Chiu, C P; Kumar, R; Chen, B H, E-mail: 002622@mail.fju.edu.tw [Department of Food Science, Fu Jen University, Taipei 242, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-18

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) modified with sodium and calcium salts of poly({gamma}-glutamic acid) (NaPGA and CaPGA) were synthesized by the coprecipitation method, followed by characterization and evaluation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. Superparamagnetic MNPs are particularly attractive for magnetic driving as well as bacterial biofilm and cell targeting in in vivo applications. Characterization of synthesized MNPs by the Fourier transform infrared spectra and magnetization curves confirmed the PGA coating on MNPs. The mean diameter of NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs as determined by transmission electron microscopy was 11.8 and 14 nm, respectively, while the x-ray diffraction pattern revealed the as-synthesized MNPs to be pure magnetite. Based on agar dilution assay, both NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs showed a lower minimum inhibitory concentration in Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 than the commercial antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, but the former was effective against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832, whereas the latter was effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 TWC 01. An in vitro cytotoxicity study in human skin fibroblast cells as measured by MTT assay implied the as-synthesized MNPs to be nontoxic. This outcome demonstrated that both {gamma}-PGA-modified MNPs are cytocompatible and possess antibacterial activity in vitro, and thereby should be useful in in vivo studies for biomedical applications.

  11. The synthesis and characterization of poly(γ-glutamic acid)-coated magnetite nanoparticles and their effects on antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbaraj, B. Stephen; Kao, T. H.; Tsai, T. Y.; Chiu, C. P.; Kumar, R.; Chen, B. H.

    2011-02-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) modified with sodium and calcium salts of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (NaPGA and CaPGA) were synthesized by the coprecipitation method, followed by characterization and evaluation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. Superparamagnetic MNPs are particularly attractive for magnetic driving as well as bacterial biofilm and cell targeting in in vivo applications. Characterization of synthesized MNPs by the Fourier transform infrared spectra and magnetization curves confirmed the PGA coating on MNPs. The mean diameter of NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs as determined by transmission electron microscopy was 11.8 and 14 nm, respectively, while the x-ray diffraction pattern revealed the as-synthesized MNPs to be pure magnetite. Based on agar dilution assay, both NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs showed a lower minimum inhibitory concentration in Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 than the commercial antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, but the former was effective against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832, whereas the latter was effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 TWC 01. An in vitro cytotoxicity study in human skin fibroblast cells as measured by MTT assay implied the as-synthesized MNPs to be nontoxic. This outcome demonstrated that both γ-PGA-modified MNPs are cytocompatible and possess antibacterial activity in vitro, and thereby should be useful in in vivo studies for biomedical applications.

  12. Ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersive extraction for the simultaneous analysis of β-lactams (four penicillins and eight cephalosporins) in milk by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgou, Eftichia G; Samanidou, Victoria F; Papadoyannis, Ioannis N

    2012-10-01

    The application of ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersive extraction for the confirmatory analysis of 12 β-lactam antibiotics in milk by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection has been proposed herein. Four penicillins (cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, and amoxicillin) and eight cephalosporins (cefaclor, cefadroxil, ceftiofur, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefazolin, cephalexin, and cefotaxime) are effectively extracted using a mixed sorbent of Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe technique and OASIS HLB providing a matrix free from any endogenous interference. Examined analytes were well resolved on an Inertsil ODS-3 analytical column with a mobile phase of CH(3)COONH(4) (0.05 M) and acetonitrile delivered under a gradient program. 1,7-Dimethyl-xanthine was used as internal standard. The method was validated meeting the European Legislation determining linearity, selectivity, stability, decision limit, detection capability, accuracy, precision, and ruggedness according to the Youden approach. Recoveries of all antibiotics rated from 85.0 to 115.7%, while RSD values were <12.7%. Finally, the method was successfully applied to milk samples purchased from local market. PMID:22941669

  13. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

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    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  14. Antibiotic resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae isolated from respiratory tract specimens

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    Hikmet Eda Aliskan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are two of the major pathogens in respiratory infections, treatment is usually started empirically. The aim of this study was to detect in vitro resistance rates of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae strains isolated from different lower respiratory clinical samples to the antibotics which are used for therapy of infections due to these pathogens. Material and Methods: Seventy seven S.pneumoniae and 117 H.influenzae strains, isolated from patients were included in the study. S.pneumoniae isolates which gave an inhibition zone diameter of >20 mm for oxacillin were considered susceptible for penicilin. For the isolates which had an oxacillin zone diameter of 2 mg/l and 31.1 % were intermediately resistant to parenteral penicillin. Resistance rates to antibiotics were as follows: erythromycin 40 %, trimethoprim/sulphametoxazole (TMP/SMX 54.5 % and ofloxacin 6.4%. beta-lactamases were detected in 15.6% of the H.influenzae isolates by nitrocefin positivity. Conclusion: H.influenzae strains (8.6% were identified as beta-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR strains. Resistance rates for other antibiotics were as follows: ampicillin 28.6%, cefaclor 36.5% , cefuroxime 30.1%, clarithromycin 9.6%, cloramphenicol 7% and TMP-SMX 43.9%. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 201-207

  15. Bacteriological Analysis, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Detection of 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by PCR in Drinking Water Samples of Earthquake Affected Areas and Other Parts of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed, F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Pakistan, clean drinking water is not available to most of the population. Main source of drinking water in Hazara, Azad Jammu and Kashmir-Pakistan is underground and spring water, due to earthquake water reservoirs in these areas were immensely contaminated. Moreover, drinking water treatment and proper sanitary facilities were also lacking. This study was conducted to analyze the quality of drinking water available in most of the cities of Pakistan including earthquake hit areas. For this purpose, 112 water samples were collected and analyzed by membrane filtration method. Microbial isolates were identified using QTS-10 and biochemical tests. Almost all samples were found to be contaminated but in earthquake affected areas quality of drinking water was substandard than other areas of Pakistan. Results revealed the detection of following bacterial pathogens among the water samples: Enterobacter sp., Klebsiellasp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Salmonella sp., Proteus sp., Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. Furthermore, these bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin (32.1%, amoxicillin (30.4%, sulphometoxazole (20.5% and cefaclor (31.3%. All drinking water samples were analyzed for 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by using PCR, however no positive result was found in these samples. Based on our results it is suggested that authorities should pay attention to supply safe water and proper sanitary facilities to avoid epidemics of infectious diseases in future.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of superparamagnetic nanoparticles modified with glycol chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj, Tsung-Yu Tsai and Bing-Huei Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron salts in alkali media followed by coating with glycol chitosan (GC-coated IONPs. Both bare and GC-coated IONPs were subsequently characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. Comparison of Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric data of bare and GC-coated IONPs confirmed the presence of GC coating on IONPs. Magnetization curves showed that both bare and GC-coated IONPs are superparamagnetic and have saturation magnetizations of 70.3 and 59.8 emu g−1, respectively. The IONP size was measured as ~8–9 nm by transmission electron microscopy, and their crystal structure was assigned to magnetite from x-ray diffraction patterns. Both bare and GC-coated IONPs inhibited the growths of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 bacteria better than the antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, as evaluated by the agar dilution assay. GC-coated IONPs showed higher potency against E. coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832 than bare IONPs. Given their biocompatibility and antibacterial properties, GC-coated IONPs are a potential nanomaterial for in vivo applications.

  17. 蜂毒蜜点涂佐治小儿急性细菌性扁桃体炎的疗效与安全性%The efficacy and safety of the adjuvant Treatment of the children with acute bacterial tonsillitis by pointing the Honey Bee Venom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊莉; 成永明; 邓庭超; 朱锦妍; 洁珍; 黄晨娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价蜂毒蜜点涂佐治小儿急性细菌性扁桃体炎的临床疗效与安全性。方法:将符合本方案入选条件的患儿125例,随机分成治疗组和对照组,其中治疗组为64例,对照组为61例。治疗组在口服头孢克洛颗粒的基础上,用蜂毒蜜1ml点涂咽部两侧与双侧扁桃体,每天2次,疗程5d;对照组仅口服头孢克洛颗粒,不用蜂毒蜜点涂,疗程相同。结果:治疗组48小时退热率为73.4%,总有效率为100%,不良反应率为3.1%。对照组48小时退热率为55.7%,总有效率为90.2%,不良反应率为1.6%。经统计学处理:两组临床疗效有显著性差异(P0.05)。结论:蜂毒蜜点涂佐治小儿急性细菌性扁桃体炎安全、有效,易于被患儿接受。%Objective:To assess the efficacy and safety of the adjuvant treatment of the children with acute bacterial tonsillitis by pointing the honey bee Venom. Methods:To divide 125 patients into two groups randomly-the treatment group (sixty four) and the control group (sixty one). On the basis of oral cefaclor granules,the treatment group were pointed on the pharynx and bilateral amygdala with the one milliliter of the honey bee venom, twice a day for five days, and control group only with oral cefaclor particles for five days. Results: The treatment group showed antipyretic rate of 73.4% within 48 hours and the total effective rate was 100% with the rate of adverse events of 3.1%. The control group showed antipyretic rate of 55.7% within 48 hours, the total effective rate was 90.2%, the incidence rate of adverse events of 1.6%; After the statistics treatment, the significant difference was seen between the two groups in the antipyretic rate within 48 hours and clinical curative effect (P0.05).Conclusion: The adjuvant treatment with pointing honey bee venom was safe, effective, and easily acceptant in the children with acute bacterial tonsillitis.

  18. 老年晚期肺癌化疗前后肺部感染细菌培养及药敏试验变化研究%Research on change of spectrum distribution and drug susceptibility of bacterial culture for pulmonary infections in elderly patients with advanced cancer before and after chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺顺斌; 杜开齐

    2013-01-01

    , ampicillin, cefaclor, and imipenem were 6. 45%, 19. 35%, 6.45%, and 8.06% respectively before the chemotherapy and were 33. 33%, 61. 11%, 37. 50%, and 33. 33% respectively after the chemotherapy , the difference in the drug resistance rate to aztreonam, ampicillin, cefaclor, or imipenem between before and after the chemotherapy was statistically significant (P<0. 05). CONCLUSION The isolation rate of the bacteria causing the pulmonary infections in the elderly patients with advanced lung cancer is increasing, the chemotherapy has little impact on the drug susceptibility to the main antibiotics, but it can increase the drug resistance to some antibiotics.

  19. Caracterização da mastite subclínica em caprinos produzidos em sistema orgânico no Rio Grande do Sul Characterization of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats herds raised on an organic system in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Schmidt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O leite e derivados são reconhecidos como veículos de patógenos para humanos, secundário a contaminação pós-ordenha ou de infecções do próprio animal, particularmente na mastite. Foi estudada a ocorrência de mastite e aspectos do manejo em cabras de três propriedades criadas em sistema orgânico. O exame clínico da glândula mamária de 64 cabras em diferentes períodos de lactação, não acusou a presença de mastite clínica. Entretanto, o Califórnia Mastitis Test (CMT identificou 54 (22,7% metades mamárias reagentes (+ ou ++. Foram colhidas 238 amostras de leite, das quais houve isolamento bacteriano em 37 (15,6%. Em apenas oito amostras houve coincidência entre o isolamento bacteriano e o resultado do CMT, indicando sensibilidade de 21,6% para este teste no diagnóstico de mastite subclínica em caprinos. Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN foi o microrganismo mais freqüente (83,8%. O teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro revelou resistência das linhagens de SCN ao cotrimoxazol (50%, ampicilina (48,1%, nitrofurantoína (7,7%, cefaclor (7,14% e oxacilina (3,85%. Cefalotina, gentamicina, neomicina, estreptomicina e tetraciclina foram os antimicrobianos mais efetivos frente aos isolados. Não se evidenciou relação entre a ocorrência de mastite subclínica com a raça, a fase de lactação, sistema de ordenha ou qualidade da água utilizada nas propriedades.Milk and derivates are recognized as vehicle of different pathogens for humans. These micoorganisms may manifest as post-milking contamination or as in infections in the animal itself, particularly in mastitis. The aim of present study was characterizes the occurrence of mastitis and management aspects in dairy-goats raised in three farms of organic milk. The correlation between mastitis and goat husbandry was also investigated. The clinical exam of the mammary glands of 64 dairy-goats did not reveal the presence of clinical mastitis. Nevertheless, the California

  20. A gold immunochromatographic assay for the rapid and simultaneous detection of fifteen β-lactams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanni; Wang, Yongwei; Liu, Liqiang; Wu, Xiaoling; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Li, Aike; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-10-01

    A novel gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) based on anti-β-lactam receptors was innovatively developed that successfully allowed rapid and simultaneous detection of fifteen β-lactams in milk samples in 5-10 minutes. By replacing the antibodies used in traditional GICA with anti-β-lactam receptors, the difficulty in producing broad specific antibodies against β-lactams was overcome. Conjugates of ampicillin with BSA and goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (IgG) were immobilized onto the test and control lines on the nitrocellulose membrane, respectively. Since goat anti-mouse IgG does not combine with receptors, negative serum from mice labelled with gold nanoparticles (GNP) was mixed with GNP-labelled receptors. Results were obtained within 20 min using a paper-based sensor. The utility of the assay was confirmed by the analysis of milk samples. The limits of detection (LOD) for amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, cefaclor, ceftezole, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, cefoperazone, cefathiamidine, and cefepime were 0.25, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 1, 5, 5, 10, 25, 10, 100, 10, 5, 5, and 2 ng mL-1, respectively, which satisfies the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by the European Union (EU). In conclusion, our newly developed GICA-based anti-β-lactam receptor assay provides a rapid and effective method for one-site detection of multiple β-lactams in milk samples.A novel gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) based on anti-β-lactam receptors was innovatively developed that successfully allowed rapid and simultaneous detection of fifteen β-lactams in milk samples in 5-10 minutes. By replacing the antibodies used in traditional GICA with anti-β-lactam receptors, the difficulty in producing broad specific antibodies against β-lactams was overcome. Conjugates of ampicillin with BSA and goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (IgG) were immobilized onto the test and control lines on the nitrocellulose membrane, respectively

  1. 氟氯西林钠阿莫西林治疗呼吸系感染80例临床观察%Clinical Observation of 80 Cases of Flucloxacillin Sodium Amoxicillin Treatment of Respiratory Tract Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔方

    2013-01-01

      目的观察氟氯西林钠阿莫西林胶囊在治疗呼吸系感染疾病的临床疗效,评价其应用价值。方法80例临床呼吸道感染患者随机分为治疗组40例和对照组40例。对照组给予头孢克洛片,治疗组给予氟氯西林钠阿莫西林胶囊,两周一个疗程。结果治疗组的显效率和总有效率高于对照组;治疗组的细菌清除率为100%,优于对照组细菌清除率的94.7%。结论氟氯西林钠阿莫西林可安全有效地治疗呼吸道感染疾病。%  Objective Observe clinical curative effect flucloxacillin sodium amoxicillin capsule in the treatment of respiratory system infection disease , evaluate its application value. Methods 80 cases of clinical respiratory tract infection patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group forty cases and cases. Control group received cefaclor tablet, the treatment group was given flucloxacillin sodium amoxicillin capsule, two weeks a treatment. Results Treatment group’s total effective rate of significant and the efficiency are higher than those in the control group;the treatment group of bacteria clearance is 100%,better than control bacterial clearance’s 94.7%. Conclusion Respiratory tract infection can be effectively and safely treated by Ampicillin sodium amoxicillin fluorine chlorine.

  2. Rapid and sensitive screening and selective quantification of antibiotics in human urine by two-dimensional ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-Xing; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the screening and selective quantification of antibiotics in urine by two-dimensional ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed. This method allowed the injection of 200 μL urine extract. The 200-μL injection volume used in this method increased the absolute sensitivity for target antibiotics in solvent by an average 13.3 times, with a range from 8.4 to 28.5 times, compared with the 10-μL conventional injection volume. A 96-well solid phase extraction procedure was established to eliminate the contamination on the chromatographic column resulting from the large-volume injection and increase the throughput of sample preparation. Fourteen target antibiotics from six common categories (β-lactams, quinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides, sulfonamides, and chloramphenicols) were selected as model compounds, and a database containing an additional 74 antibiotics was compiled for posttarget screening. The limit of detection of the target antibiotics, defined as a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, ranged from 0.04 to 1.99 ng/mL. The mean interday recoveries ranged between 79.6 and 121.3 %, with a relative standard deviation from 2.9 to 18.3 % at three spiking levels of 20 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, and 100 ng/mL. This method was successfully applied in 60 real urine samples from schoolchildren aged 8-11 years, and four target antibiotics (azithromycin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, and oxytetracycline) and two posttarget antibiotics (sulfadimidine and cefaclor) were found in the urine samples. This method can be used as a large-scale biomonitoring tool for exposure of the human population to antibiotics. PMID:25354887

  3. [Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Kolczyńska, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal flora can be a reservoir of bacteria caused acute otitis media in children. The aim of the study was to identify microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities of pathogens from the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with acute otitis media. The study comprised 128 children ages 1 year to 14 years with diagnosed of acute otitis media with purulent discharge. The nasopharyngeal and middle ear samples were collected at the same time. Agar, chocolate, blood and Chapman plates were inoculated for isolation of bacteria. The plates were incubated at 37 degrees C and examined at 24 hours. The susceptibility of bacteria was determined by disk diffusion technique containing concentration gradients for following antibiotics: penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, erythromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. 196 organisms from nasopharynx and 325 organisms from middle ear were isolated. Most frequent cultured bacteria were: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis--75.6% in nasopharynx and 77.8% in middle ear. We observed statistically significant (p bacteria from nasopharynx and 81.8% of bacteria from middle ear. Most organisms were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole--60.7% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 62.6% of bacteria from middle ear. Penicillin resistance was observed in 25.0% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 25.6% of bacteria from middle ear. The correlation in resistance of bacteria between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin (r = 0.4886) and between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and penicillin (r = 0.5027) was observed. Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media is similar. In that case susceptibility of bacteria from the nasopharynx can be useful for empirical treatment of acute otitis media in children.

  4. [Bacterial flora in children with recurrent acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Kolczyńska, Magdalena

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the study was to identify microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities of pathogens from middle ear in children with recurrent acute otitis media and acute otitis media. The study comprised 83 children--42 with recurrent acute otitis media and 41 with acute otitis emdia classified for paracentesis. Agar, chocolate, blood and Chapman plates were inoculated for isolation of bacteria. The plates were incubated at 37 degrees C and examined at 24 hours. The susceptibility of bacteria was determined by disk diffusion technique containing concentration gradients for following antibiotics: penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, erythromycin, azithromycin, clinadamycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. 217 organisms from middle ear in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 131 organisms from middle ear in children with acute otitis media were isolated. Most frequent cultured bacteria were: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis--71.4% in recurrent acute otitis media and 47.3% in acute otitis media. We observed statistically significant (p acute otitis media older than 2 years. The best susceptibility was observed to amoxicillin/clavulanate (79.7% of bacteria in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 83.2% of bacteria in children with acute otitis media). The most of organisms presented resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole--65.9% of bacteria in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 62.6% of bacteria in children with acute otitis media. Our investigation showed that resistance to bacteria increase in children with recurrent acute otitis media, most frequent appear in children older than 2 years and depend on number of episodes of acute otitis media and day care.

  5. Evaluation of the Clinical Efficacy of Qingqiao Capsule (清窍胶囊) in Treating Patients with Secretory Otitis Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yong-dong; CHEN Long-hui; HU Wen-jian; JIANG Yu-liang; CHEN Xiao-lin; ZHANG Shi-bo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To ooserve the clinical efficacy of Qingqiao Capsule (清窍胶囊, QQC) in treating patients with secretory otitis media (SOM). Methods: A total of 90 patients were randomly assigned into the treated group (n=45 ) and the control group (n =45). Patients in the treated group were administrated with QQC, 5 capsules each time, 3 times a day for totally 10-14 days, and those in the control group were given per os cefaclor capsules 0.5g each time for adult, 3 times a day, or 20mg/(kg· d) for children, for 10-14 days. The therapeutic efficacy of treatment on the patients was observed and compared after treatment and followed up for 3-6 months. Results: (1) The clinical efficacy in the treated group was superior to that in the control group with significant statistical difference ( P<0.01 ); (2) Comparison of the efficacies in patients of three different TCM syndrome types (the external pathogenic wind invasion caused auditory orifice stuffiness type, the Gan-Dan damp-heat steaming up auditory orifice type and the Pi-deficiency dysfunction induced dirty dampness blocking ear type) showed no statistically significant difference(P>0.05); (3) The vanishing rate and time needed of the main symptoms and signs in the treated group were superior to those in the control group on ear muffle, tinnitus, hearing impairment, hydrotypanum, pure tone threshold and abnormal tongue figure, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05 or P<0.01), only those of earache,otopiesis and abnornal pulse figure were insignificantly different between the two groups ( P>0.05). Conclusion: QQC is an effective Chinese composite medicine on patients with SOM, and shows no obvious adverse reaction.

  6. Enterococcal urinary tract infections: eight years experience at a regional hospital in Trinidad, West Indies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of significant enterococcal isolates from urine and determine what factors are associated with the increased prevalence, with particular reference to antibiotic susceptibilities. Methods Retrospective analysis over an 8-year period of hospital laboratory records of urinary isolates of enterococci was done. Species were identified via colony morphology, growth in 6.5% sodium chloride and their ability to hydrolyze esculin in the presence of 40% bile salts. Susceptibility testing via the disc diffusion technique with 9 commonly used antibiotics was also done as defined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Results From 39?881 urine specimens, 9116 (22.9%) were culture positive. Of this 9116, 1001 (11.0%) were enterococci, the 4th most common urinary isolate. E. coli was the most common (36.2%). Most enterococci were from pediatric patients (28.4%) and the urology unit (24.5%). All enterococci were fully sensitive to ampicillin and augmentin (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid). Sensitivity to gentamicin decreased significantly from 79% in 1990 to 58% in 1997 (P<0.005). Sensitivity to the cephalosporins and nitrofuratoin were relatively stable, but sensitivity to nalidixic acid varied. No resistance to vancomycin was detected during the study, and no cases of bacteremia complicated bacteriuria were seen. Conclusion Isolation of enterococci was relatively stable during the 8-year period, and all isolates were fully sensitive to the older β-lactams, ampicillin, cefaclor and augmentin, but displayed varying degrees of multi-resistance to other commonly used urinary agents such as nalidixic acid and co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). Because of the emergence of multi-resistant enterococci in many countries, and the high cost of drugs in our society, it is imperative that vigilance be maintained in monitoring enterococcal infections in hospitals.

  7. Physician behaviour for antimicrobial prescribing for paediatric upper respiratory tract infections: a survey in general practice in Trinidad, West Indies

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    Ramdhanie Joseph

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are among the most frequent reasons for physician office visits in paediatrics. Despite their predominant viral aetiology, URTIs continue to be treated with antimicrobials. We explored general practitioners' (GPs prescribing behaviour for antimicrobials in children (≤ 16 years with URTIs in Trinidad, using the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as a reference. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 92 consenting GPs from the 109 contacted in Central and East Trinidad, between January to June 2003. Using a pilot-tested questionnaire, GPs identified the 5 most frequent URTIs they see in office and reported on their antimicrobial prescribing practices for these URTIs to trained research students. Results The 5 most frequent URTIs presenting in children in general practice, are the common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis and acute otitis media (AOM in rank order. GPs prescribe at least 25 different antibiotics for these URTIs with significant associations for amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefaclor, cefuroxime, erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin (p 30 years were more likely to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold (p = 0.014. Severity (95.7% and duration of illness (82.5% influenced doctors' prescribing and over prescribing in general practice was attributed to parent demands (75% and concern for secondary bacterial infections (70%. Physicians do not request laboratory investigations primarily because they are unnecessary (86% and the waiting time for results is too long (51%. Conclusions Antibiotics are over prescribed for paediatric URTIs in Trinidad and amoxicillin with co-amoxiclav were preferentially prescribed. Except for AOM, GPs' prescribing varied from the CDC guidelines for drug and duration. Physicians recognise antibiotics are overused and consider parents expecting antibiotics and a concern for secondary

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China.

  9. Meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid formulations for acute respiratory infections in children%小儿急性呼吸道感染阿莫西林-克拉维酸制剂临床疗效Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆权; 罗剑锋; 车大钿; 董晓艳; 张嵬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid(Amo/Clav)preparations for treatment of children with acute respiratory tract infections. Methods We performed computer-based retrieval of Medline (on OvidSP) , EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Bio-medicine Database(CBM) , Wan-fang Database System and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI).Data of randomized controlled studies of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid preparations for treatment of respiratory tract infections from January 1985 to December 2011 was collected. RevMan5.1.4 Meta-analysis of count data and odds ratio(OR)with 95% confidence interval(95% Cl)were applied. Funnel plot was used to assess published deviation. Results We retrieved 219 literatures, of which 164 were in English and 55 in Chinese . Twenty-seven articles that met the inclusion criteria were chosen by final screening, including azithromycin contrast 20 and cefaclor 7 for control. The total cases were 2971 and in control group there were 3057 cases. Comparing Amo/Clav with azithromycin in upper respiratory tract infections literature Meta analysis, OR(95% CI)= 1.34(1.02 ~ 1.76), Z = 2.08(P=0.04), while in lower respiratory infections literature Meta analysis, OR(95 % CI)= 1.31(0.56 ~ 3.09) ,Z = 0.62(P = 0.53). Comparing Amo/Clav preparation with cefaclor,OR(95% CI) = 0.88(0.32 ~ 2.45) ,Z = 0.24(P = 0.81). Conclusion Literatures Meta-analysis indicates Amo/Clav treatment for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory infections is superior to azithromycin clinically, but in the treatment of chil- dren with acute bacterial lower respiratory tract infections , the clinical efficacy of both is similar. The Amo/ Clav and cefaclor have similar clinical efficacy in the treatment of. children with acute bacterial respiratory infections.%目的 评估阿莫西林-克拉维酸(Amo/Clav)制剂治疗小儿急性呼吸道感染的临床有效性.方法 计算机检索Medline (Ovid

  10. A Diagnostic Algorithm for the Detection of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldaş, Özlem; Altındiş, Mustafa; Cufalı, Davut; Aşık, Gülşah; Keşli, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile is a common cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea, which is usually associated with previous antibiotic use. The clinical manifestations of C. difficile infection (CDI) may range from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis. Clostridium difficile should be considered in diarrhea cases with a history of antibiotic use within the last 8 weeks (community-associated CDI) or with a hospital stay of at least 3 days, regardless of the duration of antibiotic use (hospital-acquired CDI). Aims: This study investigated the frequency of CDI in diarrheic patients and evaluated the efficacy of the triple diagnostic algorithm that is proposed here for C. difficile detection. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: In this study, we compared three methods currently employed for C. difficile detection using 95 patient stool samples: an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for toxin A/B (C. diff Toxin A+B; Diagnostic Automation Inc.; Calabasas, CA, USA), an EIA for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) (C. DIFF CHEK-60TM, TechLab Inc.; Blacksburg, VA, USA), and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay (GeneXpert® C. difficile; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) that detects C. difficile toxin genes and conventional methods as well. In this study, 50.5% of the patients were male, 50 patients were outpatients, 32 were from inpatient clinics and 13 patients were from the intensive care unit. Results: Of the 95 stool samples tested for GDH, 28 were positive. Six samples were positive by PCR, while nine samples were positive for toxin A/B. The hypervirulent strain NAP-1 and binary toxin was not detected. The rate of occurrence of toxigenic C. difficile was 5.1% in the samples. Cefaclor, ampicillin-sulbactam, ertapenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam were the most commonly used antibiotics by patients preceding the onset of diarrhea. Among the patients who were hospitalized in an intensive care unit for more than 7 days, 83.3% were positive for CDI by PCR screening. If the PCR

  11. Ten years of antibiotic consumption in ambulatory care: Trends in prescribing practice and antibiotic resistance in Austria

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    Apfalter Petra

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aims of this study were (i to determine the quantity and pattern of antibiotic use in Austria between 1998 and 2007 and (ii to analyze antibiotic resistance rates in relation to antibiotic consumption in important clinical situations in order to provide data for empirical therapeutic regimens for key indications. Methods Consumption data and resistance data were obtained via the Austrian surveillance networks European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS and European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC. The EARSS collects data on isolates from blood and cerebrospinal fluid obtained predominantly in the hospital setting. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification and the Defined Daily Dose (DDD measurement units were assigned to the data. The number of DDDs and packages per 1,000 inhabitants (PID were used to calculate the level of antibiotic consumption. Antibiotic resistance was expressed in resistance rates, i.e., the percentage of resistant isolates compared to all isolates of one bacterial species. Results The overall antibiotic consumption measured in DIDs increased by 10% between 1998 and 2007, whereas PIDs decreased by 3%. The consumption of substances within the drug utilization 90% segment (measured in PID increased for ciprofloxacin (+118.9, clindamycin (+76.3, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (+61.9%, cefpodoxime (+31.6, azithromycin (+24.7; and decreased for erythromycin (-79.5%, trimethoprim (-56,1%, norfloxacin (-48.8%, doxycycline (-44.6, cefaclor (-35.1%, penicillin (-34.0%, amoxicillin (-22.5, minocycline (-21.9% and clarithromycin (-9.9%. Starting in 2001, an increase in the percentage of invasive E. coli isolates resistant to aminopenicillins (from 35% to 53%, fluoroquinolones (from 7% to 25.5% and third-generation cephalosporins (from 0% to 8.8% was observed. The percentage of nonsusceptible or intermediate penicillin-resistant pneumococcal isolates remained

  12. Emergence of quinupristin/dalfopristin resistance among livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus ST9 clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangyou; Lu, Chaohui; Liu, Yunling; Sun, He; Shang, Yongpeng; Ding, Yu; Li, Dan; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Huang, Xiaoying; Li, Yuping; Hu, Longhua; Wang, Liangxing

    2014-11-01

    Quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) is a valuable alternative to vancomycin for the treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. However, not long after Q/D was approved, bacteria with resistance to this newer antimicrobial agent were reported. To investigate the prevalence of Q/D resistance, a total of 1476 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates, including 775 MRSA, from a Chinese tertiary hospital were selected randomly from 2003 to 2013. Of the 775 MRSA, 3 (0.4%) were resistant to Q/D. All meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were susceptible to Q/D. The prevalence of Q/D resistance among S. aureus was 0.2% (3/1476). The three isolates with Q/D resistance had the same antimicrobial resistance profile, except for cefaclor and chloramphenicol. All three Q/D-resistant MRSA were positive for five streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA and msrB) and two streptogramin A resistance genes (vatC and vgaA) as determined by PCR and DNA sequencing. MRSA WZ1031 belonged to ST9-MRSA-SCCmecV-t899, whilst MRSA WZ414 and WZ480 belonged to ST9-MRSA-SCCmecNT(non-typeable)-t899. ST9 has been reported predominantly in livestock-associated (LA) MRSA in some Asian countries. The three patients with these MRSA isolates were not livestock handlers and did not keep close contact with livestock. The origin of these important LA-MRSA isolates causing human infections is not known. Taken together, Q/D resistance, which was caused by a combination of ermA-ermB-ermC-msrA-msrB-vatC-vgaA, was first found among S. aureus clinical isolates in China. The present study is the first report of the emergence of human infections caused by ST9 LA-MRSA isolates with Q/D resistance. PMID:25218154

  13. Penicillin Binding Protein 1 Is Important in the Compensatory Response of Staphylococcus aureus to Daptomycin-Induced Membrane Damage and Is a Potential Target for β-Lactam–Daptomycin Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Andrew D.; Theisen, Erin; Sauer, John-Demian; Nonejuie, Poochit; Olson, Joshua; Pogliano, Joseph; Sakoulas, George; Nizet, Victor; Proctor, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The activity of daptomycin (DAP) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is enhanced in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics. This effect is more pronounced with β-lactam antibiotics that exhibit avid binding to penicillin binding protein 1 (PBP1). Here, we present evidence that PBP1 has a significant role in responding to DAP-induced stress on the cell. Expression of the pbpA transcript, encoding PBP1, was specifically induced by DAP exposure whereas expression of pbpB, pbpC, and pbpD, encoding PBP2, PBP3, and PBP4, respectively, remained unchanged. Using a MRSA COL strain with pbpA under an inducible promoter, increased pbpA transcription was accompanied by reduced susceptibility to, and killing by, DAP in vitro. Exposure to β-lactams that preferentially inactivate PBP1 was not associated with increased DAP binding, suggesting that synergy in the setting of anti-PBP1 pharmacotherapy results from increased DAP potency on a per-molecule basis. Combination exposure in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model system with β-lactams that preferentially inactivate PBP1 (DAP-meropenem [MEM] or DAP-imipenem [IPM]) resulted in more-rapid killing than did combination exposure with DAP-nafcillin (NAF) (nonselective), DAP-ceftriaxone (CRO) or DAP-cefotaxime (CTX) (PBP2 selective), DAP-cefaclor (CEC) (PBP3 selective), or DAP-cefoxitin (FOX) (PBP4 selective). Compared to β-lactams with poor PBP1 binding specificity, exposure of S. aureus to DAP plus PBP1-selective β-lactams resulted in an increased frequency of septation and cell wall abnormalities. These data suggest that PBP1 activity may contribute to survival during DAP-induced metabolic stress. Therefore, targeted inactivation of PBP1 may enhance the antimicrobial efficiency of DAP, supporting the use of DAP–β-lactam combination therapy for serious MRSA infections, particularly when the β-lactam undermines the PBP1-mediated compensatory response. PMID:26525797

  14. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

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    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  15. 武汉地区儿童流感嗜血菌耐药性的分析%Antibiotic resistance of haemophilus influenzae isolated from children in Wuhan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 虞涛; 鲍连生; 余星

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the antibiotic resistance of Heamophilus influenzae isolated from children in Wuhan area. METHODS A total of 2212 strains of H. influenzae isolated from hospitalized children were collected between Jan 2009 and Jun 2010, bacterial susceptibility testing was carried out by using Kirby-Bauer and E-test method. The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2008. The variance of antibiotics resistance was analyzed by Chi-squared methods. RESULTS The antibiotics resistance rates of 2212 strains of H. influenzae to azithromycin, ampicillin/sulbactam, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, meropenem, cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone were 1. 45%, 3. 89%, 35. 71%, 75. 50%, 0. 36%, 0. 59%, 2. 53% and 2. 26%, respectively.CONCLUSION The resistant rates of H. influenzae isolated from the children in Wuhan area to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole are high, and the drug resistance situation is grim, the monitoring of the drug sensitivity and the rational use of antibiotics should be strengthened in clinics.%目的 了解武汉地区儿童呼吸道感染流感嗜血菌(HIN)的耐药情况. 方法 收集医院2009年1月-2010年6月住院患儿分离的流感嗜血菌2212株,采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)进行抗菌药敏试验,对其进行β-内酰胺酶测定,按CLSI 2008年版判断结果 ,使用χ2检验分析耐药性的变化.结果 2212株流感嗜血菌对阿奇霉素、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、氨苄西林、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶、美罗培南、头孢呋辛、头孢克洛、头孢曲松的耐药率分别为:1.45%、3.89%、35.71%、75.50%、0.36%、0.59%、2.53%、2.26%. 结论 武汉地区儿童分离流感嗜血菌对氨苄西林及磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶的耐药率高,耐药形势严峻,临床应加强对其的药敏监测并合理使用抗菌药物.

  16. Pharmacodynamic evaluation of commonly prescribed oral antibiotics against respiratory bacterial pathogens

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    Pignatari Antonio CC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper and lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs account for a substantial portion of outpatient antibiotic utilization. However, the pharmacodynamic activity of commonly used oral antibiotic regimens has not been studied against clinically relevant pathogens. The objective of this study was to assess the probability of achieving the requisite pharmacodynamic exposure for oral antibacterial regimens commonly prescribed for RTIs in adults against bacterial isolates frequently involved in these processes (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catharralis. Methods Using a 5000-subject Monte Carlo simulation, the cumulative fractions of response (CFR, (i.e., probabilities of achieving requisite pharmacodynamic targets for the most commonly prescribed oral antibiotic regimens, as determined by a structured survey of medical prescription patterns, were assessed against local respiratory bacterial isolates from adults in São Paulo collected during the same time period. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 230 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (103, Haemophilus influenzae (98, and Moraxella catharralis (29 from a previous local surveillance were used. Results The most commonly prescribed antibiotic regimens were azithromycin 500 mg QD, amoxicillin 500 mg TID, and levofloxacin 500 mg QD, accounting for 58% of the prescriptions. Varied doses of these agents, plus gatifloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, moxifloxacin, and cefaclor made up the remaining regimens. Utilizing aggressive pharmacodynamic exposure targets, the only regimens to achieve greater than 90% CFR against all three pathogens were amoxicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanate 500 mg TID (> 91%, gatifloxacin 400 mg QD (100%, and moxifloxacin 400 mg QD (100%. Considering S. pneumoniae isolates alone, azithromycin 1000 mg QD also achieved greater than 90% CFR (91.3%. Conclusions The only regimens to achieve high CFR against all three pathogen populations in both scenarios

  17. Sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas do trato respiratório de pacientes com infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade: resultados brasileiros do Programa SENTRY de Vigilância de Resistência a Antimicrobianos dos anos de 1997 e 1998 Susceptibility to respiratory tract isolated bacteria to antimicrobial agents in patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections: 1997 and 1998 Brazilian data of the SENTRY surveillance program of resistance to antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉLIO S. SADER

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento da pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC é habitualmente empírico e o uso de antimicrobianos é baseado em estudos de vigilância. O programa SENTRY foi desenhado para monitorar a resistência a antimicrobianos através de uma rede internacional de laboratórios. Três centros no Brasil participaram do Programa SENTRY em 1997 e em 1998. Métodos: Um total de 344 isolados bacterianos coletados de pacientes com PAC em 1997 e 1998 foram testados contra mais de 20 agentes antimicrobianos pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Resultados: Entre os S. pneumoniae (176 isolados, 71,6% foram sensíveis à penicilina. Alto nível de resistência à penicilina e resistência à cefotaxima foram encontrados em 2,3 e 4,0%, respectivamente. As novas quinolonas levofloxacina (MIC90, 2mig/mL e gatifloxacina (MIC90, 0,5mig/mL foram ativas contra 100% dos isolados testados. Entre os outros antimicrobianos não beta-lactâmicos testados, os mais ativos foram (% de sensibilidade: cloranfenicol (97,5% > clindamicina (94% > azitromicina (90,3% > claritromicina (89,4% > tetraciclina (76,4% > sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (60,2%. A percentagem de Haemophilus influenzae (101 isolados resistentes à amoxicilina foi de 90,1%, enquanto entre Moraxella catarrhalis (67 isolados somente 9,0% foram sensíveis. O ácido clavulânico restaurou a atividade de amoxicilina contra H. influenzae e M. catarrhalis. Porém, H. influenzae demonstrou níveis aumentados de resistência para sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (55,1% de sensibilidade, claritromicina (80,4% de sensibilidade e cefaclor (88,2% de sensibilidade. Todos os isolados de H. influenzae e M. catarrhalis foram sensíveis à levofloxacina (MIC90, Background: Antimicrobial treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI is usually empiric and antibiotics are chosen on the basis of surveillance studies. The SENTRY Program was designed to monitor antimicrobial resistance via a worldwide

  18. 2010-2012年流感嗜血杆菌耐药性监测%2010-2012 surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙姗姗; 喻华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of haemophilus influenzae ,and to pro-vide reference for reasonable use of antibiotics .Methods Clinical isolates from patients in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2012 were identified by VITEK2-compact automatic identification system , bacterial susceptibility tests were per-formed on strains by ATB system , the results were determined according to the guidelines of CLSI in 2012,and β-lactamase was detected by nitrocefin disk diffusion method .WHONET5.6 software was applied for data analysis .Results A total of 201 strains of haemophilus influenzae were obtained from our hospital in recent three years .Among them,193 strains were from sputum specimen (96.0%),6 from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen (2.9%),2 from blood specimen (1.1%).As for the distribution of haemophilus influenzae in clinical departments ,the top three were respiratory department (104 strains, 51. 7%),surgical department (31 strains,15.4%) and ICU (27 strains,13.4%).The results of bacterial susceptibility tests showed that haemophilus influenzae was sensitive to rifampicin , ampicillin,chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole with a rate of 45.5%,73.4%,87.5%and 87.1%respectively,and that the sensitive rate of haemophilus influenzae to amoxicillin /clavu-lanic acid,cefotaxime,cefaclor,tetracycline, cefuroxime and ofloxacin was higher than 90%.Isolates from adults were more sensitive to ampicillin and rifampicin than those from children ,but for tetracycline , isolates from children were more sensitive than those from adults .52 strains were positive to β-lactamase with a rate of 25.9%, and the rate of β-lactamase positive strains from children was significantly higher than that from adults .Conclusion Haemophilus influenzae has a higher resistant rate to rifampicin.Amoxicillin /clavulanate,cefotaxime,cefaclor,cefuroxime and ofloxacin are still the effective antibiotics for the control of haemophilus influenzae

  19. 1例结肠癌患者应用西妥昔单抗后出现严重痤疮样皮疹的药学监护%Pharmaceutical Care for One Colon Cancer Patient with Severe Acneiform Rash after the Treatment of Cetuximab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔树佳; 李砚文

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨对结肠癌肝转移患者行西妥昔单抗联合氟尿嘧啶+亚叶酸钙+伊立替康+奥沙利铂( FOLFIRINOX)方案化疗后出现严重痤疮样皮疹的治疗实施药学监护的切入点。方法:临床药师参与该患者的临床药物治疗全过程,对患者用药后出现痤疮的原因及治疗用药进行分析,开展药学监护。结果:经分析,该患者应用西妥昔单抗联合FOLFIRINOX方案后出现痤疮样皮疹,为西妥昔单抗引起的不良反应。临床药师建议临床医师使用莫匹罗星及头孢克洛对症治疗,减轻了痤疮样皮疹对该患者继续应用西妥昔单抗治疗的影响,确保了患者能够接受足够疗程的治疗,避免了病情延误。结论:临床药师深入临床开展药学监护,可协助临床医师安全、有效用药,避免或减少药品不良反应的发生。%OBJECTIVE:To probe into the entry point of pharmaceutical care for one colorectal liver metastases patient with severe acneiform rash after the treatment of cetuximab combined with chemotherapy FOLFIRINOX. METHODS:Clinical pharmacists participated in the whole course of the patient's therapeutic regimen,and analyzed the cause of acne and application of acne medication then provided pharmaceutical care for the patient.RESULTS:With the analysis of clinical pharmacists, acneiform rash was turned out to be the adverse reactions induced by cetuximab combined with chemotherapy FOLFIRINOX.The clinicians were advised to use mupirocin and cefaclor as expectant treatment,which released the effect of acneiform rash on the patients with continuously application of cetuximab treatment and ensured the patients could receive enough treatment course,avoid delay of the disease.CONCLUSIONS:The clinical pharmacists go into the clinic to develop pharmaceutical care can assist the clinicians with safety and effective medication,and avoid or reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions.

  20. Etiología y sensibilidad bacteriana en infección urinaria en niños. Hospital Infantil Club Noel y Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2007-06-01

    gentamicina. Mostraron sensibilidad intermedia entre 61% y 70%: amoxacilina-clavulanato, cefaclor, ciprofloxacina, nitrofurantoína y baja sensibilidad (<60%: amoxacilina, ampicilina, cefadroxilo, cefalexina, cefradina, trimetoprim-sulfa, ampicilina-sulbactan, cefalotina, cefazolina.Conclusiones: Escherichia coli fue la bacteria que más produjo infección urinaria en la población estudiada. Para el manejo ambulatorio se recomiendan como medicamentos empíricos de primera línea los antibióticos orales que mostraron mayor sensibilidad como cefuroxime, cefproxil, cefixime y ácido nalidíxico, mientras se procesa el urocultivo. A pesar de la buena sensibilidad que mostró la norfloxacina, se debe reservar su uso sólo en casos especiales donde haya resistencia a los antibióticos mencionados antes. Debe evitarse en primera instancia el uso de medicamentos como cefalexina, trimetoprim, ampicilina y amoxacilina. Si el estado clínico del paciente amerita hospitalización, los medicamentos parenterales recomendados serían: ceftriazone o amikacina.

  1. 2006-2011年浙江省杭州市萧山区流感嗜血杆菌耐药性监测%Surveillance of drug resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in Hangzhou.Zhejiang, 2006 -2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭远瑜; 吴伟志; 沈丽芳; 董华丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查了解流感嗜血杆菌的临床分布及耐药情况,为临床用药提供依据.方法 对2006年1月至2011年12月浙江萧山医院临床分离的流感嗜血杆菌,用ATB嗜血杆菌药敏板条测定抗菌药物的敏感性,用头孢硝噻吩纸片法测定β-内酰胺酶,所有数据用WHONET 5.6软件进行回顾性分析.结果 共检出流感嗜血杆菌375株,对复方新诺明、氨苄西林耐药分别为248株(66.1%)和127株(33.8%),对氯霉素、头孢克洛和四环素耐药分别为38株(10.2%)、52株(13.8%)和55株(14.7%);其他几种常用药物阿莫西林/克拉维酸、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、利福平和氧氟沙星对流感嗜血杆菌保持较好的抗菌活性(耐药率≤5.0%);β-内酰胺酶阳性菌株对多种药物的耐药率显著高于阴性菌株(P<0.01).结论 复方新诺明耐药率高而不宜用于流感嗜血杆菌感染的治疗,氨苄西林应慎重用于经验治疗;流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西林耐药率呈下降趋势,对二代头孢菌素耐药率呈上升趋势,临床应根据药敏结果合理使用抗菌药物.%Objective To understand the clinical distribution and drug resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in Xiaoshan district in Hangzhou and provide evidence for clinical antibiotic use. Methods The drug susceptibility of H. influenzae strains isolated in Zhejiang Xisoahn hospital from January 2006 to December 2011 was tested by using ATB HAEMO strip, β-lactamases was detected with Nitrocefin discs test, and the results were analyzed retrospectively by using WHONTET 5. 6 software. Results A total of 375 H. influenzae isolates were tested, the resistance rate was 66.1% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ), 33.8% to ampicillin, 10.2% to chloramphenicol, 13.8% to cefaclor and 14.7% to tetracycline. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, rifampicin and ofloxac in had good antibacterial activity on H. influenzae (the resistance rate ≤5.0% ). The

  2. Curative Effect Analysis of Antipyretic Clear Solution Soup Combined with Western Medicine in the Treatment of Fever Caused by Exogenous Pathogens in Children%退热清解汤联合西药治疗小儿外感发热疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 刘栩; 杨恺

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the curative effect of antipyretic clear solution soup combined with western medicine in the treatment of fever caused by exogenous pathogens in children. Methods 126 cases of patients with fever patients treated in the pediatric internal medicine of our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were selected and randomly divided in-to treatment group (n=64)and control group(n=62),the causes of the control group were divided into bacterial infection and non-bacterial infection such as viruses according to the hemogram result, and they were respectively given cefaclor anti in-fection treatment and leigh bhave lin virus treatment; the treatment group were given antipyretic clear solution soup treat-ment on the basis of the treatment of the control group, the treatment effects of the two groups were observed. Results The total effective rate of the treatment group was 92.19%, and 75.81%of the control group, the difference was statistically sig-nificant (P<0.05). Conclusion The curative effect of antipyretic clear solution soup combined with western medicine was better than that of only western medicine in the treatment of fever caused by exogenous pathogens in children, which is worthy of promotion and application.%目的 探讨退热清解汤联合西药治疗小儿外感发热的疗效. 方法 整群选取该院2013年1月—2014年12月期间小儿内科发热患者126例,将其随机分成治疗组(n=64)和对照组(n=62),对照组根据血象结果分为细菌感染和非细菌性(如病毒)感染所致,分别给予头孢克洛抗感染治疗和利巴韦林抗病毒治疗;治疗组在对照组处理的基础上加用退热清解汤治疗,观察两组患儿的治疗效果. 结果 治疗组患儿总有效率为92.19%,对照组患儿总有效率为75.81%,其差异有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 退热清解汤联合西药治疗小儿外感发热的疗效较单纯西药治疗小儿外感发热的效果好,值得临床推广应用.

  3. 制药废水中头孢类抗生素残留检测方法及环境风险评估%Residue analysis method and environmental risk assessment of cephalosporin antibiotics in pharmaceutical wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤薪瑶; 左剑恶; 余忻; 杨波; 王凯军

    2014-01-01

    Based on solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), a testing method for 9 cephalosporin antibiotics, i.e., cefaclor, ceftriaxone, cephalexin, cefotaxime, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefalotin and cefradine, in pharmaceutical wastewater was established. The limit of quantitation was from 27.5 to 131.8ng/L, and the recovery efficiencies for different analytes ranged from 72.8% to 102.2%. With this method, cephalosporin antibiotics in the effluent of each processing unit of a pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant (P-WWTP), which adopted two-stage biological oxidation processes, were tested. Ceftriaxone, cefazolin, cefotaxime and cefuroxime were found in the pharmaceutical wastewater. Their average concentrations in influents were 7.6, 12.9, 5.6 and 91.6µg/L, in effluents of first-stage oxidation unit were 4.2, 5.2, 2.2 and 37.4µg/L, and in effluents of second-stage oxidation unit were 2.0, 2.7, 0.6 and 24.4µg/L, respectively. Risk quotient method was utilized to evaluate the environmental risks of these four antibiotics in the effluents, and all the results were high risk levels.%基于固相萃取-超高效液相色谱-两级串联质谱(SPE-UPLC/MS/MS)技术,建立了制药废水中头孢克洛、头孢曲松、头孢氨苄、头孢噻肟、头孢唑啉、头孢呋辛、头孢西丁、头孢噻吩和头孢拉定共9种头孢类抗生素的测试方法,定量限为27.5~131.8ng/L,目标物回收率为72.8%~102.2%;利用该技术,检测某采用两级生物氧化工艺的制药废水处理厂各级单元出水,共检测出头孢曲松、头孢唑啉、头孢噻肟和头孢呋辛4种头孢类抗生素,其在进水中平均浓度分别为7.6,12.9,5.6,91.6µg/L,在一级氧化出水中平均浓度分别为4.2,5.2,2.2,37.4µg/L,在二级氧化出水中平均浓度分别为2.0,2.7,0.6,24.4µg/L;风险商值法评估制药废水出水中残留的头孢曲松、头孢唑啉、头孢噻肟

  4. 儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌的耐药性分析%Antibiotic resistance of the Haemophilus inf luenzae strains isolated from respiratory tract in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓华; 谭南; 林爱心; 汪伟山

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibiotic resistance of Haemophilus influenzae isolates collected from the children with respiratory tract infection for rational use of antibiotics in clinical practice .Methods The H .influenzae strains were isolated from children and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer method .Nitrocefin disc test was used to detect the production of beta-lactamases .WHONET 5 .6 software was used to analyze the susceptibility data .Results A totalof1256strainsof H.influenzaewereisolated.About37.8% ,65.5% and16.5% ofthe1256strainsof H.influenzae were resistant to ampicillin ,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ,and ampicillin-sulbactam ,respectively .Less than 10 .0% of these strains were resistant to any other antibiotics tested .Beta-lactamase was produced in 33 .5% of the 1 256 strains of H . influenzae .Conclusions The H . influenzae strains in this study are mainly resistant ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole .About 80 .0% of these H . influenzae strains were still susceptible to cefaclor ,ampicillin-sulbactam , cefixime ,ceftazidime ,azithromycin ,ciprofloxacin ,meropenem and rifampin .The primary mechanism of ampicillin resistance in Haemophilus is production of beta-lactamases .%目的:了解儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌的临床分布特征和耐药特点,为指导临床合理用药提供科学依据。方法收集儿童痰液标本进行培养并分离出流感嗜血杆菌,用K-B纸片扩散法进行抗菌药物敏感试验,并对其进行β内酰胺酶测定;数据用WHONET5.6统计软件统计分析。结果从12374份痰液标本中共分离出1256株流感嗜血杆菌,分离率为10.2%;1256株流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西林、甲氧苄啶-磺胺甲口恶唑和氨苄西林-舒巴坦的耐药率分别为37.8%、65.5%和16.5%,对其余测试的抗菌药物耐药率均<10.0%;β内酰胺酶阳性率为33.5%。结论流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西

  5. 海口市流感嗜血杆菌流行病学及耐药性研究%Epidemiology and Drug Resistance of Haemophilus Influenzae in Haikou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林翀; 林明冠; 苏应仙

    2012-01-01

    -economic conditions, and Haemophilus influenzae in vitro results were: levofloxacin, ceftriaxone> amoxicillin / clavulanic acid, azithromycin> chloramphenicol> cefaclor> amoxicillin>arnpicillin>Sulfarnethoxazole. Conclusions: High temperatures throughout the year in Haikou, the incidence rate of Haemophilus influenzae had no significant seasonal, bacterial detection rate in different regions and between different ethnic groups. For levofloxacin, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, azithromycin, chloramphenicol resistance rate was low, and could be used as first choice drug, and to ampicillin and Sulfamethoxazole resistance rate was higher for traditional medicines will be a serious challenge.

  6. Carrying rate and the epidemic characteristics of haemophilus influenzae isolated from healthy children in Zhangjiakou%张家口地区健康儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌带菌现状及DNA多态性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔海霞; 张彦霞; 常月立; 张玉妥

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the infection status,epidemic characteristics and resistance to common antibiotics of haemophilus influenzae (HI) among children subjected to respiratory tract infection of Zhangjiakou city.To provide scientific evidences for preventing,alleviating and controlling HI infection in this region.METHODS HI strains were isolated from throat swabs from healthy children.The antibiotics susceptibility was identified by K-B method,and β-lactamase was ceilnase paper method; isolates were conducted on biological typing,random amplified polymorph DNA (RAPD) was used to identify the genotype and homology of these strains.RESULTS 31 HI strains were isolated from 100 samples of healthy children,positive rate was 31%.All of the 31 HI strains were sensitive to imipenem,chloromycetin,cefaclor,etc.The resistant rate to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol and ampicillin were 38.7% and 16.1%,5 strains were β-1actamase positive,accounting for 16.1%.Biotypes Ⅵ and Ⅷ were the prevalent biotypes accounting for 32.4% and 22.6%,respectively.The cluster analysis using RAPD indicated that HI colonizing on healthy children in this city had few cross-infection and there was no obvious central distribution trend.CONCLUSION Compared with the results of ten years ago,it has changed in HI separation rate,biotype and antibiotics resistance.RAPD cluster analysis shows that HI colonizing on healthy children in this city has few cross-infection and there is no obvious central distribution trends.%目的 了解张家口地区健康儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus infiuenzae,HI)带菌现状、对常用抗生素的耐药情况及流行特征,为预防、控制流感嗜血杆菌感染提供科学依据.方法 从健康儿童咽拭子标本中分离鉴定流感嗜血杆菌,采用K-B法测定其对抗生素的敏感性,用cefinase纸片检测菌株的β-内酰胺酶;对分离菌株进行生物分型,同时用随机扩增多态性DNA (RAPD)技

  7. Investigation on the mechanism of drug resistance mediated by class I integron in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae%Ⅰ类整合子介导大肠埃希菌与肺炎克雷伯菌耐药机制的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立涛; 万莉红; 邵振俊; 谭显曙; 匡文娟; 周黎明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the distribution and the characterization of class I integron in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and explore the relationship between class I integron and their drug resistance. Methods Agar dilution method and double disk diffusion method were used to analyze the 82 strains of clinical isolates; class Ⅰ integron and drug resistance gene cassettes integrated by integron Ⅰ were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening, DNA sequencing and sequence analysis in 36strains of Escherichia coli and 46 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Results Ten of 82 clinical isolates were were observed in class Ⅰ integron, and all of them carried the integrated drug resistance gene. Susceptibility test showed the Escherichia coifs resistance rate were as follows, 61% of cefixime, 86% of cefaclor, 86% of cephalexin, 50% of piperacillin-tazobactam, 75% of ceftazidime, 64% of cefotaxime sodium, 39% of amoxicillin/sulbactam, 47% of ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium, 30% of cefoperazone sodium/sulbactam sodiumis, respectively, while the Klebsiella pneumoniae's resistance rate were 65%, 63%, 78%, 52%, 67%, 54%, 48%, 41%, 28%. There were 10 strains of ESBLs-producing in them, Escherichia coli 4 strain, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6 strains, and all were detected to havel integron, the gene cassettes's marshaling sequence was 100% similar to the strain and its genbank number was NC010410, and all contained blaVEB-1 resistance gene cassettes.Conclusion Class Ⅰ integron and integrated gene cassettes are prevalent among the ESBLs-producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Integrons are important molecular mechanism in the development of drug resistance.%目的 了解临床分离的大肠埃希茵、肺炎克雷伯菌中Ⅰ类整合子的分布情况,探讨整合子与细菌耐药之间的关系.方法 琼脂平皿稀释法进行药敏试验;双纸片法筛选出产ESBLs的菌株;运用PCR扩增、DNA测

  8. In vitro susceptibility of commonly used antibiotics on community-acquired uncomplicated urinary tract infection pathogens in Beijing%北京地区社区获得性单纯性泌尿系感染病原菌对常用抗菌药物的体外活性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春霞; 王珊珊; 王春雷; 曲久鑫; 刘振嘉; 乔庐东; 曹彬; 陈山; 杨勇; 刘颖梅; 王辉; 王占伟; 杨启文; 黎斌斌; 栗方

    2012-01-01

    单纯性泌尿系感染的经验抗菌药物.%Objective To investigate the distribution and susceptibility patterns of common uropathogens causing community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) in Beijing. Methods A total of 300non-duplicate isolates were randomly collected from 3 hospitals in Beijing between Jan,1 2010 and Mar,312011.Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the broth microdilution methods,which were performed and interpreted according to the guidelines established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).A panel of 8 antimicrobial agents were tested:amikacin,cefaclor,cefepime,cefoperazone/sulbactam,ciprofloxacin,levofloxacin,gentamicin and nitrofurantoin. Fosfomycin trometamol MICs were determined by the agar-dilution method in cation-adjusted MH agar supplemented with glucose 6-phosphate at a concentration of 25 mg/L as detailed in the guidelines issued by 2010 CLSI. All the Escherichia coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis strains were screened and confirmed by double-disk synergy test for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs). Results Among the organisms cultured,E.coli was the predominant pathogen (65.0% ), followed by Enterococcus (11.7% ),Staphylococcus ( 6.3% ), Klebsiella pneumoniae ( 5. 3% ), Proteus mirabilis ( 4. 7% ), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.0%).Lower susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin (31.4% -47.4% ) were observed among all the stains.Amikacin,cefoperazone/sulbactam,nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin trometamol were the most active drugs (92.1%,92.1%,88.4% and 87.9% susceptible strains,respectively) among the Gram-negative strains.Isolates of Staphylococcus were highly sensitive to amikacin ( 100.0% ),cefoperazone/sulbactam (94.7%),nitrofurantoin ( 100.0% ).Higher susceptibility rates to nitrofurantoin (91.4%) and fosfomycin trometamol (90.0%) were observed in Enterococcus.ESBLs-producing strains accounted for 52.3% (102/195) in E.coli,43.8% (7/16) in K

  9. Investigation and analysis of multiple drug-resistant bacteria infection status in hospital%医院多重耐药菌感染状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武; 林仕忠; 张儒文; 陈立坚

    2014-01-01

    organism, cefepime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime. But they still sensitive to carbapenem and third generation cephalosporins compound preparations.For other antimicrobial,they were resisted in different levels. More than 88% methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococcus were resisted to cefazolin, penicillin G, cefoxitin, amoxicillin/rods acid, cefaclor, cefoperazone/ Sulbactam Sodium, clarithromycin which are the most common used antimicrobial.They were still sensitive to vancomycin and minocycline,but resisted to other antimicrobial agents in different levels.Conclusions:This situation should arouse attention of the hospital to strengthen the management of antimicrobial use and to develop a targeted prevention and control measures to restrain the ever increasing of multi-resistant bacteria infection.

  10. 2010-2011年中国肺炎链球菌耐药性和血清型研究%Antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from multicenters across China,2010-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启; 张菲菲; 赵春江; 陈宏斌; 王占伟; 郭宇; 李荷楠; 王辉

    2013-01-01

    susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents was determined by agar dilution method.Serotyping of S.pneumoniae was performed by using latex and quelling reaction.Vaccine coverage by 7-,10-,13-and 23-valent conjugate vaccines was estimated by calculating the percentage of isolates that belonged to the serotypes included in the vaccines.Results Among all strains tested,50.1% (236/471) was resistant to penicillin (Oral breakpoint,MIC ≥ 2 mg/L).Overall,27.4% (129/471),60.3% (284/471),58.8% (277/471) and 18.5% (87/471) of S.pneumoniae were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate,cefaclor,cefuroxime and ceftriaxone,respectively.1.5% (7/471) of all stains were resistant to levofloxacin and 0.6% (3/471) of all strains were resistant to moxifloxacin.The resistance rates to other antibiotic agents,such as erythromycin,clindamycin,tetracycline,trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole,and chloramphenicol,were 93.2% (439/471),88.7% (417/471),89.6% (422/471),62.8% (296/471) and 22.1% (104/471),respectively.The most prevalent serotype was 19F (112,23.8%),followed by 19A(63,13.4%),3(48,10.2%),14(43,9.1%),23F(29,6.2%),15(25,5.3%)and 6A (23,4.9%).The potential coverage by 7-and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines was 45.3% (213/471)and 76% (358/471),respectively.The potential coverage of PCV7 and PCV13 in children were 59.0% (72/122) and 86.9% (106/122),and the potential coverage of PCV7 and PCV13 in adult were 42.3% (94/222) and 73.4% (163/222).Conclusions The antibiotic resistance of S.pneumoniae was serious in China,especially to tetracycline,erythromycin and clindamycin.The majority of serotypes 19A and 19F was penicillin-resistant.The potential coverage of PCV7 and PCV13 in children was higher than those in adult.PCV13 could cover most of the isolates,especially for penicillin-resistant S.pneumoniae.