Sample records for cefaclor

  1. Development and Optimization of Cefaclor Gastroretentive Osmotic control release Tablets

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    Prasad Garrepally


    Full Text Available The purpose of this present research work was to development and optimization of different formulations of osmotic control gastroretentive tablets containing Cefaclor. The cefaclor osmotic control gastroretentive tablets was formulated by 3 step process involve core tablet, coating and pore forming. Core tablets were formulated by using different polymers HPMC, polyox and sodium CMC alone and in combination. Initially drug excipients interactions were carried by using FTIR spectra; results showed that there was no interaction. Twelve different formulations of cefaclor osmotic control gastroretentive were prepared and characterized for flow properties and physical properties. Results of these parameters were within the Pharmacopoeial limits. Floating behaviour of all formulations was reported to be less than 100sec of floating lag time and greater than 12hr of duration of floating. F 7 formulation was selected as a optimised based on in vitro drug release studies. It showed the drug release patters similar to that of theoretical release. In vitro dissolution data of all formulation were fit into different kinetic models to know the mechanism of drug release; results revealed that the optimised F 7 formulation gave perfect zero order type of drug transport. Finally, stability studies were performed for optimised formulation and result revealed no significant difference between before and after storage for selected formula.

  2. Structures of cefradine dihydrate and cefaclor dihydrate from DFT-D calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Streek, Jacco; Rantanen, Jukka; Bond, Andrew D

    determined here by combining the information available from the published single-crystal data with a dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) method that has been validated to reproduce molecular crystal structures very accurately. Additional proof for the correctness of the structure comes...... from comparison with cefaclor dihydrate, C15H14ClN3O4S·2H2O, which is isomorphous and for which more complete single-crystal data are available. H-atom positions have not previously been published for either compound. The DFT-D calculations confirm that both cefradine and cefaclor are present in the...... zwitterionic form in the two dihydrate structures. A potential ambiguity concerning the orientation of the cyclohexadienyl ring in cefradine dihydrate is also clarified, and on the basis of the calculated energies it is shown that disorder should not be expected at room temperature. The DFT-D methods can be...

  3. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of cefaclor in the pharyngo-tonsillitis and acute otitis in children

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    Mario Eandi


    Full Text Available Pharyngotonsillitis (FT and acute otitis media (OMA are among the most frequent infectious diseases of the childhood and exact a heavy toll on the Italian national health service (INHS, families and society as a whole. In case of established or suspected bacterial origin, current treatment guidelines for FT recommend 5-10 days of oral antibiotics, chosen among available penicillins, cephalosporins, or macrolides. More controversial appears the systematical use of an antibiotic for OMAs, but prevalent expert opinion suggests use of the same agents. In this paper, an economical appraisal of five of the most prescribed oral antibiotics for these indications in Italy (cefaclor, amoxicyllin, amoxicyllin/clavulanate, clarithromycin and azithromycin is provided. The evaluation was conducted through the development and implementation of two distinct models, constructed to reflect national treatment patterns of these infections. Clinical and economical data were obtained from several sources: literature review, including published meta-analyses, consultation of an expert panel and, most importantly, from the results of a specific questionnaire-based survey completed by 136 pediatricians, based throughout Italy. The models were run to conduct both cost-effectiveness and cost-minimization analyses, that consistently indicated cefaclor and amoxicyllin to be substantially equivalent in terms of total costs to the INHS and the Italian society, but significantly more convenient than amoxicyllin/clavulanate, claritrhomycin or azithromycin. Extensive probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of this conclusion.

  4. Determination of the etiological organism during acute exacerbations of COPD and efficacy of azithromycin, ampicillin-sulbactam, ciprofloxacin and cefaclor. Turkish Thoracic Society COPD Working Group. (United States)

    Umut, S; Tutluoglu, B; Aydin Tosun, G; Müsellim, B; Erk, M; Yildirim, N; Vahapoglu, H; Yilmaz, N; Arseven, O; Türker, H; Erelel, M; Ilvan, A; Göylüsün, V; Yilmaz Kuyucu, T; Koşar, F; Soysal, F; Gür, A; Unutmaz, S; Oztürk, S; Akman, M


    Acute exacerbations, most of which are due to lower respiratory tract infections, cause great morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and most of these are due to lower respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the causative organism and the effects of azithromycin, ampicillin sulbactam (sultamicillin), ciprofloxacin and cefaclor monohydrate therapy in COPD. One hundred and six patients with COPD in acute exacerbation were randomized into four groups for empiric antibiotic treatment following lung function tests and sputum examination. The most common strains isolated from sputum were Haemophilus influenzae (30.8%), Streptoccocus pneumoniae (12%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (7.7%). Azithromycin, sultamicillin, ciprofloxacin and cefaclor monohydrate were found to be effective in treating COPD exacerbations. PMID:10435684

  5. 头孢克洛血清病样反应患儿血浆D-乳酸和尿乳果糖/甘露醇的检测与分析%Detection and Analysis of Plasma D-lactate and Urinary Lactulose/Mannitol in Children with Serum Sickness-like Reactions after Cefaclor Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向赟; 张振; 蔡小芳; 汪在华; 王晓梅; 陈红波; 郑义


    目的 探讨头孢克洛血清病样反应患儿血浆D-乳酸和尿乳果糖/甘露醇的变化及其临床意义.方法 选择42例用头孢克洛治疗后发生血清病样反应(SSLR)的上呼吸道感染患儿为SSLR阳性组,40例用头孢克洛治疗后未发生SSLR的上感患儿为SSLR阴性组,同时选择30例健康儿童作为正常对照组.在上呼吸道感染患儿口服头孢克洛后的第7、9、11、13、15天,利用改良酶学分光光度法和电化学高效液相色谱法分别检测血浆D-乳酸水平和尿乳果糖/甘露醇(L/M)比值.对照组儿童除不服用头孢克洛外,其它实验情况与两研究组一致.结果 SSLR阳性组、阴性组及对照组的血浆D-乳酸结果 比较差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).而SSLR阳性组患儿的尿L/M从口服头孢克洛后的第7天至第13天逐渐增加,第13天达到最高峰,第13天至第15天尿L/M开始下降.SSLR阳性组患儿第7、9、11、13、15天的尿L/M均比阴性组和对照组高,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);SSLR阴性组和对照组儿童尿L/M结果 比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 服用头孢克洛可导致部分患儿产生SSLR,并影响其肠道屏障功能的变化.针对该类不良反应的监测方法 中,尿L/M比值的监测比血浆D-乳酸的监测结果 更为敏感和可靠.%Objective To examine the changes of plasma D-lactate levels and urinary lactulose/mannitol( L/M) ratios in children with serum sickness-like reactions(SSLR) from cefaclor and to explore its clinical significance. Methods A total of 82 pediatric patients with upper respiratory tract infection following cefaclor therapy were divided into SSLR positive group and SSLR negative group based on the presence or absence of SSLR after taking cefaclor,and 30 healthy volunteers served as control group. Plasma D-lactate levels and urinary L/M ratios were determined using enzymatic spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively

  6. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of cefaclor for suspension after single dose administration in healthy volunteers%健康受试者单剂量口服头孢克洛干混悬剂的药动学及生物等效性(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛洪源; 杨汉煜; 侯艳宁; 杨荣慧; 贾丽霞; 楚波


    AIM To study the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of two cefaclor for suspensions. METHODS A single oral administration of 250 mg test and reference of cefaclor for suspensions were given to 20 healthy male volunteers according to a randomized crossover design. The concentrations of cefaclor in plasma were determined by a HPLC-MS/MS method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and the bioequivalence were compared by DAS (Ver 1.0) program. RESULTS The pharmacokinetics parameters of test and reference preparations were as follows; pmax were (9.0 ± s 1.7) and (9.6 ± 1.6) mg-L-1, tmax were (0.37 ± 0.12) and (0.35 ±0.05) h, t1/2 were (0.88 ± 0.16) and (0.87 ± 0.11) h, AUC0-5hwere (7.9 ± 1.0) and (7.9 ± 1.1) mg·h·L-1, AUCo-∞. were (8.0 ± 1.0) and (8.0 ± 1.1) mg·h·L-1, respectively. There were no significant differences in tmax, pmax AUCo-5h, AUC0-∞, and t1/2 between the two preparations (P > 0.05). The relative bioavailability of test suspensions was (101 ± 12)%. CONCLUSION The test and reference preparations were bioequivalence.%目的 研究头孢克洛2种干混悬剂的药动学及生物等效性.方法 采用随机交叉试验设计,20名健康男性志愿者单剂量口服2种头孢克洛干混悬剂各250 mg,用液相色谱一串联质谱法测定血浆中头孢克洛的浓度,将20名受试者的经时血药浓度录入DAS(Ver 1.0)程序,进行统计分析.结果 单剂量口服试验与参比制剂后头孢克洛的p_(max)分别为(9.04±s 1.7)和(9.6±1.6)mg·L~(-1),tmax分别为(0.37±0.12)和(0.35 ±0.05)h,t_(1/2)分别为(0.88±0.16)和(0.87±0.11)h,AUC_(0~5h)分别为(7.9±1.0)和(7.94±1.1)mg·h·L~(-1),AUC_(0~∞)分别为(8.0±1.O)和(8.0±1.1)mg·h·L~(-1).2种制剂的t_(max)、p_(max)、AUC_(0~5h)、AUC_(0~∞)均无显著差异.试验制剂的相对生物利用度为(101±12)%.结论 试验制剂与参比制剂具有生物等效性.

  7. Nafcillin Injection (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to nafcillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  8. Oxacillin Injection (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxacillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  9. Ampicillin Injection (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to ampicillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin (Ancef, ...

  10. Comparative antimicrobial activity of ceftibuten against multiply-resistant microorganisms from Belgium. (United States)

    Verbist, L; Jacobs, J; Hens, K


    To study the activity of ceftibuten, we obtained multiply-resistant isolates from approximately 20 hospitals in Belgium. Against Enterobacteriaceae, all of the tested comparative compounds were more active than cefaclor, and ceftibuten and tigemonam were the most active of the agents tested. Ceftibuten MIC50s were less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml for most enteric bacilli species and 85% of strains were susceptible (less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml). This level of activity compared favorably to that recorded for cefaclor (less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml), cefetamet (less than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml), and cefteram (less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml), that is, 37%, 69%, and 59%, respectively. Ceftibuten, cefetamet, cefteram, and tigemonam were highly active against isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. None of the comparative agents were as active as cefaclor against staphylococcal isolates. Against streptococci, cefteram was the most active, and tigemonam the least active of the agents. The MIC90s of ceftibuten for strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes were 2 micrograms/ml and 0.5 microgram/ml, respectively. Strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were resistant to both ceftibuten and tigemonam; cefaclor and cefteram inhibited 100% of isolates of this species. Strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were consistently resistant to all of the compounds. Overall, ceftibuten exhibited potent activity against many multiply-resistant clinical isolates. PMID:1901535

  11. Study of the Electrophoretic Behavior of Cephalosporins by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis


    Gabriel Hancu; Adina Sasebeşi; Aura Rusu; Hajnal Kelemen; Adriana Ciurba


    Purpose: The aim of the study was the characterization of the electrophoretic behavior of cephalosporins from different generation having different structural characteristics in order to develop a rapid, simple and efficient capillary electrophoretic method for their identification and simultaneous separation from complex mixtures. Methods: Ten cephalosporin derivatives (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ce...

  12. Bioanalytical Method Development and Validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Paracetamol and Cefixime by using RP-HPLC in

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    Raveendra Babu


    Full Text Available A novel approach was used to develop and validate a bioanalytical RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Paracetamol and Cefixime in rabbit plasma using Cefaclor as internal standard. Evaluation of the content of drugs were done by employing a mixture of Phosphate buffer (pH 6.4 and Acetonitrile (80:20, v/v as the mobile phase and measure the absorbance at 245nm for Paracetamol and Cefixime. Retention time was established to be 3.618min for Cefaclor, 4.608min for Paracetamol and 5.914min for Cefixime. The results shown that the analytical technique furnished here establishes acceptable accuracy and precision, shorter and easy sample preparation, reduced the complications for equipment on satisfactory analysis time.

  13. In vivo evaluation of tigemonam, a novel oral monobactam.


    Clark, J M; Olsen, S. J.; Weinberg, D S; Dalvi, M.; Whitney, R R; Bonner, D P; Sykes, R. B.


    Tigemonam, a new monobactam with excellent activity against gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated for in vivo efficacy and absorption after oral administration to laboratory animals. Tigemonam is absorbed when administered orally to mice and dogs. In a variety of gram-negative systemic infections in mice, orally administered tigemonam was efficacious in all infections studied. Comparison drugs such as amoxicillin, cephalexin, and cefaclor were less efficacious, especially in infections caused...

  14. In vitro activity of Ro 19-5247 (T-2525) and interpretive criteria for disk diffusion susceptibility testing.


    Beskid, G; Fallat, V; Siebelist, J; Durkin, J W; Lipschitz, E R; McGarry, D H


    The activity of Ro 19-5247 (the active metabolite of the oral cephalosporin Ro 19-5248 [T-2588]) was compared with that of five orally active agents against a total of 331 bacterial strains. Ro 19-5247 was more active in vitro than amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefaclor, cefuroxime, and cephalexin against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Amoxicillin-clavulanate and amoxicillin overall were more active than the other four agents against staphylococci. Ro 19-5247, amoxicillin-c...

  15. Activities of oral and parenteral agents against penicillin-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci.


    Pankuch, G A; Visalli, M A; Jacobs, M. R.; Appelbaum, P C


    This study examined bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of oral and parenteral antibiotics for penicillin-susceptible and intermediately and fully penicillin-resistant pneumococci. beta-Lactamase inhibitors did not affect beta-lactam results. The activities of ampicillin, amoxicillin +/- clavulanate, WY-49605, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, cefdinir, cefixime, and cefaclor against two penicillin-susceptible, two intermediately penicillin-resistant, and two fully penicillin-resistant pneumoco...

  16. Simultaneous determination of 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method

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    Cai Sheng Wu; Jin Lan Zhang; Yan Ling Qiao; Yi Lin Wang; Zhi Rong Chen


    In this study, a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was established and validated to determine the 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products, including 1 (ceftazidime), 2 (cefaclor), 3 (cefdinir), 4 (ampicillin), 5 (cefalexin), 6 (ceftezole), 7 (cefotaxim), 8 (cefradine), 9 (cefuroxime), 10 (cephazoline), 11 (cefathiamidine), 12 (cefoperazone), 13 (cafalotin), 14 (piperacillin).

  17. Pharmacokinetics of cefetamet in plasma and skin blister fluid.


    Zimmerli, W; Sansano, S; Wittke, B


    Cefetamet pivoxil is an oral cephalosporin with enhanced affinity for the target penicillin-binding proteins 1 and 3 and an increased stability to beta-lactamases compared with older cephalosporins, such as cefalexin or cefaclor. The pharmacokinetics of cefetamet pivoxil was determined after the seventh and final dose of 500 mg of cefetamet pivoxil in eight healthy volunteers. Concentrations in plasma and cantharidin-induced skin blister fluid were determined by a high-performance liquid chro...

  18. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of cephalosporins


    Hancu Gabriel; Kelemen Hajnal; Rusu Aura; Gyéresi Árpád


    A rapid and simple capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of six extensively used cephalosporin antibiotics (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefuroxim, ceftazidim, ceftriaxon). The determination of cephalosporins was performed at a pH 6.8, using a 25 mM phospate - 25 mM borate mixed buffer, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 °C. We achieved a baseline separation in approximately 10 minutes. The separation resolution was increased by a...

  19. Lack of in vitro efficacy of oral forms of certain cephalosporins, erythromycin, and oxacillin against Pasteurella multocida.


    Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Richwald, G A


    The in vitro susceptibility of human isolates of Pasteurella multocida to oral antimicrobial agents from our current study and from a review of the literature suggests that dicloxacillin (oxacillin), erythromycin, clindamycin, cephalexin, cefaclor, and cefadroxil should not be used for empiric therapy of animal bite wounds. Agents that were consistently active against P. multocida were penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol, trimethopri...

  20. Pharmacokinetic and in vivo studies with azithromycin (CP-62,993), a new macrolide with an extended half-life and excellent tissue distribution. (United States)

    Girard, A E; Girard, D; English, A R; Gootz, T D; Cimochowski, C R; Faiella, J A; Haskell, S L; Retsema, J A


    Azithromycin (CP-62,993), a new acid-stable 15-membered-ring macrolide, was well absorbed following oral administration in mice, rats, dogs, and cynomolgus monkeys. This compound exhibited a uniformly long elimination half-life and was distributed exceptionally well into all tissues. This extravascular penetration of azithromycin was demonstrated by tissue/plasma area-under-the-curve ratios ranging from 13.6 to 137 compared with ratios for erythromycin of 3.1 to 11.6. The significance of these pharmacokinetic advantages of azithromycin over erythromycin was shown through efficacy in a series of animal infection models. Azithromycin was orally effective in treating middle ear infections induced in gerbils by transbulla challenges with amoxicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae or susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae; erythromycin failed and cefaclor was only marginally active against the H. influenzae challenge. Azithromycin was equivalent to cefaclor and erythromycin against Streptococcus pneumoniae. In mouse models, the new macrolide was 10-fold more potent than erythromycin and four other antibiotics against an anaerobic infection produced by Fusobacterium necrophorum. Similarly, azithromycin was effective against established tissue infections induced by Salmonella enteritidis (liver and spleen) and Staphylococcus aureus (thigh muscle); erythromycin failed against both infections. The oral and subcutaneous activities of azithromycin, erythromycin, and cefaclor were similar against acute systemic infections produced by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus viridans, or S. aureus, whereas azithromycin was more potent than erythromycin and cefaclor against the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The pharmacokinetic advantage of azithromycin over erythromycin in half-life was clearly demonstrated in prophylactic treatment of an acute mouse model of S. aureus infection. These properties of azithromycin strongly support the

  1. Biochemical characterization of systemic bacteria in bananas, sensitivity to antibiotics and plant phytotoxicity during shoot proliferation

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    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the biochemically systemic bacterial isolated from banana plants, to evaluate the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, and to determine the phytotoxicity of banana shoots during in vitro proliferation. Systemic bacteria belonging to the Klebsiella and Aeromonas genera were isolated from the “Maravilha” (FHIA 01 AAAB, “Preciosa” (PV 4285 AAAB and “Thap Maeo” (AAB varieties and were then characterized. Tests of shoot sensitivity to antibiotics were performed, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and phytotoxic effects of selected antibiotics to plants were determined. Among the 20 antibiotics evaluated, the strains showed sensitivity to cefaclor, cefalexin, cefalotin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin. However, during MIC determination, the best results were obtained with cefaclor, vancomycin or nalidixic acid alone in concentrations ranging from 512 to 1,024 mg L-1. In culture medium, cefaclor at 1,024 mg L-1 was the only antibiotic to affect the multiplication and the shoot survival in culture.

  2. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of cephalosporins in pharmaceutical preparations using tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II)-potassium permanganate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flow injection (FI) method using the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)32+]-potassium permanganate chemiluminescence(CL) was developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of cephalosporins such as cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefaclor and cefoperazone. The method is based on the CL reaction of cephalosporins and Ru(bpy)32+ with potassium permanganate in the presence of perchloric acid, catalyzed by Mn(II). Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves are linear over the range 0.10-12.0 μg ml-1 for cefoxitin, 0.10-10.0 μg ml-1 for cefoperazone and 0.10-15.0 μg ml-1 for cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, and cefaclor, respectively. The limits of detection (3σ) are 0.03 μg ml-1 for cefoxitin and cefadroxil, 0.06 μg ml-1 for cefoperazone and 0.08 μg ml-1 for cefazolin, cephalexin and cefaclor, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin and cefadroxil in pharmaceutical formulations with a sample throughput of 90 h-1. There were no interference effects from some common excipients used in pharmaceutical preparations

  3. In vitro susceptibilities of Borrelia burgdorferi to five oral cephalosporins and ceftriaxone.


    Agger, W A; Callister, S M; Jobe, D A


    We determined the in vitro susceptibilities of eight Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to five oral cephalosporins. MICs for B. burgdorferi 297 were 23 micrograms/ml (cephalexin), 45 micrograms/ml (cefadroxil), 91 micrograms/ml (cefaclor), 0.13 microgram/ml (cefuroxime), 0.8 microgram/ml (cefixime), and 0.02 microgram/ml (ceftriaxone). When B. burgdorferi isolates were exposed to concentrations twice the MIC of cefuroxime, cefixime, or ceftriaxone, at least 72 h of incubation was required to kill...

  4. [Urinary antimicrobial prophylaxis]. (United States)

    Nathanson, S; Deschênes, G


    Antibiotics are usually used to prevent childhood recurrent urinary tract infections: cystitis or pyelonephritis. The mechanism of action of these antibiotics, although imperfectly known, seems to be double: the antibiotic acts by its bactericidal effect, but also probably for minimal concentrations by reducing adhesion capability of bacteria to the urothelium. The most commonly used molecules are cotrimoxazole, trimethoprime, pivmecillinam, cefaclor and nalidixic acid. However all have not been studied rigorously as for their prophylactic capacity, and in particular very little is known for patients presenting with vesico-ureteral reflux. PMID:12053547

  5. Metagenomic Analysis of Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota in a Pregnant Rat Model (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Azhar, Esam I.; Abbas, Aymn T.; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie K.; Raoult, Didier; Yasir, Muhammad


    Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA)-approved category B antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat infections during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (GM) that occur during pregnancy. The 16S rRNA amplicon deep-sequencing method was used to analyze the effect of category B antibiotics (azithromycin, amoxicillin and cefaclor) on GM during pregnancy using a rat model. The GM composition was substantially modulated by pregnancy and antibiotics administration. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Chlamydiae, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were the dominant phyla. Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and reduced Firmicutes. The genera Shigella, Streptococcus, Candidatus Arthromitus, and Helicobacter were significantly (p < 0.05) more abundant during pregnancy. Antibiotics significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the relative abundance of Lactobacillus but increased that of Enterobacter. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillus crispatus during pregnancy. Antibiotic treatment reduced bacterial diversity; the lowest number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in the cefaclor-treated groups. Antibiotics significantly (p < 0.05) promoted weight gain during pregnancy, and increased relative abundance of Shigella sonnei, Enterococcus hormaechei, and Acinetobacter sp. GM perturbations were accompanied by increases in Proteobacteria abundance and weight gain in pregnancy following antibiotic treatment. PMID:27199748

  6. New valid spectrofluorimetric method for determination of selected cephalosporins in different pharmaceutical formulations using safranin as fluorophore (United States)

    Derayea, Sayed M.; Ahmed, Hytham M.; Abdelmageed, Osama H.; Haredy, Ahmed M.


    A new validated spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of some cephalosporins namely; cefepime, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefpodoxime and cefexime. The method was based on the reaction of these drugs with safranin in slightly alkaline medium (pH 8.0), to form ion-association complexes. The fluorescent products were extracted into chloroform and their fluorescence intensities were measured at 544-565 nm after excitation at 518-524 nm. The reaction conditions influencing the product formation and stability were investigated and optimized. The relative fluorescence intensity was proportional to the drug concentration in the linear ranges of 0.15-1.35, 0.35-1.25, 0.35-1.25, 0.20-1.44 and 0.20-1.25 μg/mL for cefepime, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefpodoxime proxetil and cefexime, respectively. The detection limits were 40, 100, 100, 60 and 70 ng/mL, respectively. The performance of the developed method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed methods over the reference spectrophotometric method. Various pharmaceutical formulations were successfully analyzed using the proposed method and the results were in good agreement with those of the previously reported methods.

  7. Mass Spectral Profile for Rapid Differentiating Beta-Lactams from Their Ring-Opened Impurities. (United States)

    Wang, Hecheng; Huang, Haiwei; Cao, Jin; Chui, Dehua; Xiao, Shengyuan


    High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC MS) has been widely used for β-lactam antibiotics determination. However, its application to identify impurities of these frequently used drugs is not sufficient at present. In this job, characteristic profiles of the collision induced dissociation (CID) spectra of both β-lactams and ring-opened β-lactams were extracted from the MS data of six β-lactam antibiotics and their forty-five impurities, and were confirmed by the MS data reported in the literature. These characteristics have been successfully applied to rapid differentiation of β-lactam and ring-opened β-lactam impurities in cefixime, cefdinir, and cefaclor. However, these characteristic profiles can only be obtained under low activating voltage. They did not display in the high energy activated CID spectra. Diagnostic fragmentations for determining the localization of double bond and substituents on the thiazine ring and the side chain were also observed. In addition, several characteristic fragmentations are hopeful to be used to differentiate the configurations of C-2 on the thiazine ring of ring-opened impurities, which is generally disadvantageous of mass spectrometry. Taken together, forty-five impurities were identified from the capsules of cefixime, cefdinir, and cefaclor. PMID:26090434

  8. Antibacterial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from burns and wounds of cancer patients

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    Sulaiman A. Alharbi


    Full Text Available In this study 540 burns and wound swabs were collected from cancer patients of some Egyptian hospitals. The single infection was detected from 210, and 70 cases among wounded and burned patients, while mixed infection was 30 and 45, respectively. We recovered where 60 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 60 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 7 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 4 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 25 isolates of Escherichia coli, 23 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 27 isolates of Proteus vulgaris from 355 burn and surgical wound infections . All bacterial isolates showed high resistance to the commonly used β-lactams (amoxycillin, cefaclor, ampicillin, vancomycin, amoxicillin/clavulonic, and low resistance to imepenim and ciprofloxacin. Plasmid analysis of six multidrug resistant and two susceptible bacterial isolates revealed the same plasmid pattern. This indicated that R-factor is not responsible for the resistance phenomenon among the isolated opportunistic bacteria. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the isolated bacteria was studied.

  9. Resistência a antimicrobianos de Escherichia coli isolada de dejetos suínos em esterqueiras Antibiotic-resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from stored pig slurry

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    F.F.P. Silva


    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance of 96 Escherichia coli strains isolated from a stabilization pond system on a pig-breeding farm was evaluated. Strains were tested for their resistance against 14 antimicrobial using the agar diffusion method. E. coli strains showed resistance to tetracycline (82.3%, nalidixic acid (64%, ampicilin (41%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprin (36%, sulfonamide (34%, cloranphenicol (274%, ciprofloxacin (19%, cefaclor (16%, streptomicyn (7.3%, neomicyn (1%, amoxacilin/ clavulanic acid (1%, and amikacin (1%. No resistance was observed to gentamicin and tobramycin, and 37.5% of E. coli strains were resistant to four or more antimicrobials. The multiresistance pattern was found in strains isolated during all sampled period. Strains showed a high variability in the antimicrobial resistance pattern.

  10. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of cephalosporins

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    Hancu Gabriel


    Full Text Available A rapid and simple capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of six extensively used cephalosporin antibiotics (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefuroxim, ceftazidim, ceftriaxon. The determination of cephalosporins was performed at a pH 6.8, using a 25 mM phospate - 25 mM borate mixed buffer, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 °C. We achieved a baseline separation in approximately 10 minutes. The separation resolution was increased by addition of an anionic surfactant, 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, to the buffer solution. The proposed separation was evaluated on the basis of detection and quantification limits, effective electrophoretic mobility and relative standard deviation for migration times and peak areas.

  11. 盐酸头孢他美酯体内和体外抗菌作用研究%In vivo and in vitro antibacterial activities of cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride against clinic isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晓姗; 唐映红


    Objective To evaluate in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride against clinical isolates and compare with Cefaclor. Methods Minimal inhibitory concentrations(MICs)tests were determined by means of broth-dilutions methods.The affecting factors were also determined.Drugs were administered by gavage 1 h and 6 h after mice were infected intraperitoneally with 1 mL of bacterial suspension.The median efective dose (ED50) was calculated by the probit method. Results The results indicated that cefetamet showed good activity against gram-positive bacteria.The MIC50 value was 0.25μg/mL for both Streptococcus pneumoniae and Beta hemolytic streptococcus . Cefetamet also showed good activity against gram- negative bacteria.It was also active against gram-negative bacteria. The MIC50 value was 0.25,0.5,0.5,and 0.5μg/mL for Gonococcus,Klebsiella pneumonia,Bacillus dysenteriae and Haemophilus influenzae.The protective effects of cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride against experimental systemic infections in mice were observed.ED50 of cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride agains Staphylococcus anreus and Eescherichia coli were 24.6 and 9.3 mg/kg,respectively.Antibacterial activity of cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride against Staphylococcus aureus was weaker than cefaclor, but its antibacterial activity against Eescherichia coli was more active than cefaclor. Conclusion Cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride showed a good activity against clinical isolates.%目的:评价盐酸头孢他美对临床常见致病菌的体外和体内抗菌作用。方法采用试管二倍稀释法测定最低抑菌浓度(MIC),同时与对照药头孢克洛进行对比。结果头孢他美对革兰氏阳性菌如乙型溶血性链球菌、肺炎链球菌有较强的抗茵活性,MIC50均为0.25μg/mL;对革兰阴性菌如淋球菌、肺炎克雷伯杆菌、痢疾杆菌、流感嗜血杆菌也有较强的抗菌活性,MIC50分别为0.25、0.5、0.5和0.5μg/mL。头孢他

  12. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Chinese children: four hospitals surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈叙庄; 陆权; 叶启慈; 张国成; 俞桑洁; 张泓; 邓秋莲; 杨永弘


    Objective To investigate the nasal carriage of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci in children of <5 years old in the following four cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Xi'an.Methods A total of 647 pneumococci strains were isolated and detected. Minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics were determined by E-test. Disk diffusion test was used for the measurement of antimicrobial susceptibility.Results Prevalence of penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in the four cities was 41%, with Guangzhou (60.8%) ranking first, followed by Xi'an (45%), Shanghai (37%) and Beijing (25.9%). The majority of penicillin non-susceptibility isolates (23.9%-53.8%) had a low level of resistance (MIC 0.64-1.5 μg/ml). The most sensitive antimicrobials in terms of percentage of susceptible organisms were amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (99.4%), followed by ceftriaxone (92.1%); cefurxime and cefaclor were slightly more sensitive than penicillin with susceptibility of 74.8% and 77.9%. Erythromycin, tetracycline and TMP-SMZ were highly resistant (83.6%, 82.1% and 76.2% respectively). Among erythromycin resistant isolates, 100% were resistant to azithromycin, 98.6% to clarithromycin, 97.2% to roxithromycin and spiramycin, and 96.6% to clindamycin. 97.2% (141/145) were typical of the macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramons B (MLSB ) resistance phenotype, and 2.8% (4/145) were M phenotype. The group of PRSP was with significantly higher rates of non-susceptibility for ceftriaxone (18.4%), cefurxime (58.6%), cefaclor (53.4%), compared with the group of PEN-S (0.5%, 1.8% and 0.2%, respectively) and the rate of multi-drug resistance in the isolates of PRSP group (92.9%) was significantly higher than that of PEN-S group (59.2%).Conclusion The rates of penicillin and multi-drug resistance among isolates of pneumococci carried nasally in are high children and the high prevalence of multi-drug resistance in the Chinese population may be becoming one of the most serious

  13. Sultamicillin. A review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use. (United States)

    Friedel, H A; Campoli-Richards, D M; Goa, K L


    Sultamicillin is the tosylate salt of the double ester of sulbactam plus ampicillin. Sulbactam is a semisynthetic beta-lactamase inhibitor which, in combination with ampicillin, extends the antibacterial activity of the latter to include some beta-lactamase-producing strains of bacteria that would otherwise be resistant. The combination of sulbactam plus ampicillin for parenteral use has previously been shown to be clinically and bacteriologically effective in a variety of infections. The chemical linkage of sulbactam and ampicillin has now produced an orally effective compound, sultamicillin, with antibacterial activity and clinical efficacy which are similar to those of the parenteral formulation. Sultamicillin has been shown to be clinically effective in non-comparative trials in patients with infections of the respiratory tract, ears, nose and throat, urinary tract, skin and soft tissues, as well as in obstetric and gynaecological infections, and in the treatment of gonorrhoea. In a small number of controlled trials, sultamicillin has shown comparable clinical efficacy to phenoxymethyl penicillin (penicillin V) and to amoxycillin (alone and in combination with clavulanic acid) in the treatment of paediatric streptococcal pharyngitis and acute otitis media, respectively; to cefaclor in the treatment of acute otitis media in adults; and to bacampicillin, cloxacillin and flucloxacillin plus ampicillin in skin and soft tissue infections in adults, children and adult diabetic patients, respectively. Sultamicillin was superior in efficacy to bacampicillin in the treatment of chronic respiratory infections, to cefaclor in the treatment of acute otitis media in adults, and to cefadroxil in the treatment of patients with complicated urinary tract infections. However, in single-dose treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea, sultamicillin (1500mg plus probenecid 1g) was inferior to a 2g intramuscular dose of spectinomycin. While in several studies the incidence of diarrhoea

  14. Production, Optimization, and Characterization of Organic Solvent Tolerant Cellulases from a Lignocellulosic Waste-Degrading Actinobacterium, Promicromonospora sp. VP111. (United States)

    Thomas, Lebin; Ram, Hari; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Ved Pal


    High costs of natural cellulose utilization and cellulase production are an industrial challenge. In view of this, an isolated soil actinobacterium identified as Promicromonospora sp. VP111 showed potential for production of major cellulases (CMCase, FPase, and β-glucosidase) utilizing untreated agricultural lignocellulosic wastes. Extensive disintegration of microcrystalline cellulose and adherence on it during fermentation divulged true cellulolytic efficiency of the strain. Conventional optimization resulted in increased cellulase yield in a cost-effective medium, and the central composite design (CCD) analysis revealed cellulase production to be limited by cellulose and ammonium sulfate. Cellulase activities were enhanced by Co(+2) (1 mM) and retained up to 60 °C and pH 9.0, indicating thermo-alkaline tolerance. Cellulases showed stability in organic solvents (25 % v/v) with log P ow  ≥ 1.24. Untreated wheat straw during submerged fermentation was particularly degraded and yielded about twofold higher levels of cellulases than with commercial cellulose (Na-CMC and avicel) which is especially economical. Thus, this is the first detailed report on cellulases from an efficient strain of Promicromonospora that was non-hemolytic, alkali-halotolerant, antibiotic (erythromycin, kanamycin, rifampicin, cefaclor, ceftazidime) resistant, multiple heavy metal (Mo(+6) = W(+6) > Pb(+2) > Mn(+2) > Cr(+3) > Sn(+2)), and organic solvent (n-hexane, isooctane) tolerant, which is industrially and environmentally valuable. PMID:26956574

  15. Incidence of cephalosporin resistance among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Ibadan, South- Western Nigeria

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    Oladipo E.K


    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of beta-lactam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major global challenge, particularly, the rise in the resistance to 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the resistance pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to different generations of cephalosporins. Methods: A total number of one hundred clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected from June to November 2014 at University Teaching Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State. These were tested for their sensitivity to antibiotics by means of disc diffusion method using prepared antibiotics disc containing different μ of antibiotics; Cefotaxine (30μ, Cefaclor (30μ, Cefamandole (30μ, Cefixime (5μ, Cefepime (30μ, Cefpodoxime (30μ and Ceftazidime (30μ. Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed absolute resistance to all antibiotics used except Ceftazidime, and Cefepime which are third and fourth generation of cephalosporin respectively. Ceftazidime had minimal resistant of 21% and higher susceptibility rate of 76%, Cefepime had the highest susceptibility rate of 90% and minimal resistance of 6%. Cefotaxime and Cefpodoxime had minimal intermediate of 1%, Ceftazidime of 3% and Cefepime of 4%. Conclusion: The result from this study provided more evidence that among third generation of cephalosporins used, some are more active than the other while fourth generation is still the most effective of all other generations. Knowledge on the distribution of cephalosporin-resistant organisms is of ultimate importance as a guide in empirical therapy, taking note of preventive strategies as well as control measures against the spread of resistant microorganisms.

  16. [Tinea capitis profunda due to Trichophyton verrucosum with cMRSA superinfection in an infant]. (United States)

    Blömer, R-H; Keilani, N; Faber, A; Rodeck, B; Krüger, C; Uhrlaß, S; Gräser, Y; Nenoff, P


    A 28-month-old boy developed a cutaneous and subcutaneous lesion of the scalp together with alopecia. Treatment with sulfadiazine silver ointment and oral administration of cefaclor failed. The boy lived on a farm where cows and calves were present. He presented with a 5 cm erythematous, erosive, edematous, and sharply defined lesion with yellow crusts and circumscribed alopecia on the temporoparietal scalp. Peripheral hairs were easily epilated. Swabs from the wound revealed cMRSA (community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Panton Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] toxin negative). There was no improvement after treatment with cefuroxime intravenously over 3 days. Therapy was changed to vancomycin and fosfomycin. Because of the purulent abscess, surgical incision was performed. PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-Elisa assay detected Trichophyton (T.) interdigitale-DNA from wound secretion and skin biopsy. Because of the clinical and molecular diagnosis of tinea capitis, oral antifungal therapy with fluconazole 5 mg kg(-1) body weight was started, along with cotrimoxazole and fosfomycin for the cMRSA. After 4 weeks incubation, the causative agent T. verrucosum was grown on culture and its identity confirmed by sequencing of the "internal transcribed spacer" (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA. After 4 weeks of fluconazole, the lesion was nearly healed. PMID:22406762

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infection patients in Shanghai City, China. (United States)

    Qin, Liang; Zhou, Zhaoyan; Hu, Bijie; Yamamoto, Taro; Watanabe, Hiroshi


    Haemophilus influenzae is an important causative pathogen of community-acquired respiratory infection in China. In this study we investigated 37 H. influenzae strains isolated from patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI) in Shanghai city between Dec 2008 and Apr 2009. H. influenzae clinical isolates were identified, and b-lactamase production tests were conducted and minimal inhibitory concentrations(MIC) were measured. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis(PFGE) was introduced as an effective finger printing method. Two isolates (5.4%) were verified as serotype b strains, and 30 strains (81.1%) were nontypeable H. influenzae. Furthermore, 10 (27.0%) were b-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistance (BLPAR) (TEM-1 type)strains, 11 (29.8%) were low-b-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae (Low-BLNAR) strains,and the rest were b-lactamase-negative ampicillin-susceptible(BLNAS) strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations(MIC90; lg/ml) were 2 for ampicillin/sulbactam, 0.05 force fotaxime, 16 for cefaclor, 2 for azithromycin, 0.12 for levofloxacin, and 4 for imipenem. Fingerprint typing by PFGE revealed 23 independent patterns for the isolates. Pattern A (defined in this study) was predominant in BLPAR strains, and a variety of other patterns were detected in Low-BLNAR and BLNAS strains. Although the incidence of ampicillin resistant H. influenzae is increasing in CARTI patients in China, current antimicrobial chemotherapy seems to be effective. PMID:22302696

  18. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of superparamagnetic nanoparticles modified with glycol chitosan

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    Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj, Tsung-Yu Tsai and Bing-Huei Chen


    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron salts in alkali media followed by coating with glycol chitosan (GC-coated IONPs. Both bare and GC-coated IONPs were subsequently characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. Comparison of Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric data of bare and GC-coated IONPs confirmed the presence of GC coating on IONPs. Magnetization curves showed that both bare and GC-coated IONPs are superparamagnetic and have saturation magnetizations of 70.3 and 59.8 emu g−1, respectively. The IONP size was measured as ~8–9 nm by transmission electron microscopy, and their crystal structure was assigned to magnetite from x-ray diffraction patterns. Both bare and GC-coated IONPs inhibited the growths of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 bacteria better than the antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, as evaluated by the agar dilution assay. GC-coated IONPs showed higher potency against E. coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832 than bare IONPs. Given their biocompatibility and antibacterial properties, GC-coated IONPs are a potential nanomaterial for in vivo applications.

  19. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

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    Mohammad Alshara


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  20. Plant-derived compounds inactivate antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains. (United States)

    Ravishankar, Sadhana; Zhu, Libin; Law, Bibiana; Joens, Lynn; Friedman, Mendel


    Sixty-three Campylobacter jejuni isolates were screened for their resistance to the antibiotics ampicillin, cefaclor, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Based on this screen, the resistant strains D28a and H2a and the nonresistant strain A24a were selected for evaluation of their resistance and susceptibility to inactivation by cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol, the main constituents of plant-derived cinnamon and oregano oils, respectively. Different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2% [vol/vol] in sterile phosphate-buffered saline) of cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol were added to C. jejuni cultures with initial populations of 10(4) CFU/ml. The samples were then mixed thoroughly and incubated at 37 degrees C. Viable bacterial populations were enumerated at incubation periods of 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. The results indicate that the extent of inhibition of microbial survival was related to both the nature and concentration of antimicrobials and the incubation time. Both cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol exhibited rapid antimicrobial activity against both antibiotic-resistant and non-resistant C. jejuni strains, at concentrations of approximately 0.1% and higher. The antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamaldehyde was greater than that of carvacrol. The possible significance of the results for microbiological food safety is discussed. PMID:18592739

  1. Study of the Electrophoretic Behavior of Cephalosporins by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

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    Gabriel Hancu


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was the characterization of the electrophoretic behavior of cephalosporins from different generation having different structural characteristics in order to develop a rapid, simple and efficient capillary electrophoretic method for their identification and simultaneous separation from complex mixtures. Methods: Ten cephalosporin derivatives (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone were analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis using different background electrolyte solutions at different pH values. Electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes were calculated, the influence of the electrophoretic parameteres on the separation was established and the analytical conditions were optimized. Results: Taking into consideration their structural and chemical properties cephalosporins can be detected over a pH range between 6 and 10. The best results were obtained using a buffer solution containing 25 mM disodium hydrogenophosphate - 25 mM sodium dihydrogenophosphate, at a pH – 7.00, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 C, UV detection at 210 nm. Using the optimized analytical conditions we achieved the simultaneous baseline separation for seven cephalosporins in less then 10 minutes. Conclusion: Using the described optimized electrophoretic procedures, capillary electrophoresis can be used for the identification and determination of cephalosporins in formulated pharmaceutical products and for their separation from complex mixtures.

  2. Clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections. (United States)

    Pedersen, S S


    The sputum pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections is reviewed. Following intravenous administration, ciprofloxacin penetrates rapidly into bronchial tissue; the elimination half life is between 3 and 4 h and a dose dependency is seen. Following oral intake, the time to reach maximal concentrations is approximately two hours and after a dose of 750 mg the concentration may reach 1.7 mg/l in patients without cystic fibrosis and range from 0.5 to 3.4 mg/l in cystic fibrosis patients. Coadministration of ciprofloxacin increases serum levels and decreases total body clearance of theophylline. In controlled comparative clinical trials, ciprofloxacin has been found to have similar clinical efficacy as amoxycillin, ampicillin, cefalexin, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, imipenem-cilastatin and ceftazidime for the treatment of a range of lower respiratory tract infections. Ciprofloxacin has been found to be superior in clinical efficacy to cefaclor. Experimental animal models suggest a role for ciprofloxacin in infections caused by Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The clinical and bacteriological efficacy of ciprofloxacin is less pronounced in lung infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but is comparable to the combination of beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. Development of resistance is frequently observed during ciprofloxacin treatment of Ps. aeruginosa. Because of the availability of other oral and effective agents, ciprofloxacin is not recommended for empirical treatment of community acquired lower respiratory infections, but should be reserved for infections caused by multiply resistant organisms. PMID:2667111

  3. Bacteriological Analysis, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Detection of 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by PCR in Drinking Water Samples of Earthquake Affected Areas and Other Parts of Pakistan

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    Rasheed, F.


    Full Text Available In Pakistan, clean drinking water is not available to most of the population. Main source of drinking water in Hazara, Azad Jammu and Kashmir-Pakistan is underground and spring water, due to earthquake water reservoirs in these areas were immensely contaminated. Moreover, drinking water treatment and proper sanitary facilities were also lacking. This study was conducted to analyze the quality of drinking water available in most of the cities of Pakistan including earthquake hit areas. For this purpose, 112 water samples were collected and analyzed by membrane filtration method. Microbial isolates were identified using QTS-10 and biochemical tests. Almost all samples were found to be contaminated but in earthquake affected areas quality of drinking water was substandard than other areas of Pakistan. Results revealed the detection of following bacterial pathogens among the water samples: Enterobacter sp., Klebsiellasp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Salmonella sp., Proteus sp., Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. Furthermore, these bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin (32.1%, amoxicillin (30.4%, sulphometoxazole (20.5% and cefaclor (31.3%. All drinking water samples were analyzed for 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by using PCR, however no positive result was found in these samples. Based on our results it is suggested that authorities should pay attention to supply safe water and proper sanitary facilities to avoid epidemics of infectious diseases in future.

  4. Susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to various antibiotics among strains isolated from patients and healthy carriers in different regions of Brazil (1999-2000

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    F. Rossi


    Full Text Available Resistance of microbes to commonly used antibiotics became a major concern at the end of the last century. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen in respiratory infections, we conducted microbiological assessment of drug susceptibility patterns among strains collected from two different population groups: 1 adult and pediatric patients (375 isolates with different infections, and 2 healthy children in day care centers (< 5 years old; 350 isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not identified in either group. Intermediate resistance levels were similar in both groups (adults: 9.9%; children: 9.2%. The Central West region of Brazil tended to have lower susceptibility of S.pneumoniae from infected adults and children to penicillin (81% vs. 93% in the South and 90% in the Southeast, tetracycline (64% vs. 80% and 76%, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (14% vs. 34%. Susceptibility was similar among strains from nasal cultures of healthy children tested in each of 4 regions of Brazil. All isolates were susceptible to cefaclor, cefotaxime and amoxacillin/clavulanate. This study, in two distinct populations, allowed characterization of local microbiological resistance patterns. This data is expected to be of use in guiding empiric therapy in the different regions of Brazil.

  5. Ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersive extraction for the simultaneous analysis of β-lactams (four penicillins and eight cephalosporins) in milk by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. (United States)

    Karageorgou, Eftichia G; Samanidou, Victoria F; Papadoyannis, Ioannis N


    The application of ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersive extraction for the confirmatory analysis of 12 β-lactam antibiotics in milk by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection has been proposed herein. Four penicillins (cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, and amoxicillin) and eight cephalosporins (cefaclor, cefadroxil, ceftiofur, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefazolin, cephalexin, and cefotaxime) are effectively extracted using a mixed sorbent of Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe technique and OASIS HLB providing a matrix free from any endogenous interference. Examined analytes were well resolved on an Inertsil ODS-3 analytical column with a mobile phase of CH(3)COONH(4) (0.05 M) and acetonitrile delivered under a gradient program. 1,7-Dimethyl-xanthine was used as internal standard. The method was validated meeting the European Legislation determining linearity, selectivity, stability, decision limit, detection capability, accuracy, precision, and ruggedness according to the Youden approach. Recoveries of all antibiotics rated from 85.0 to 115.7%, while RSD values were <12.7%. Finally, the method was successfully applied to milk samples purchased from local market. PMID:22941669

  6. Comparison of the serum-supplemented Todd-Hewitt and the new Haemophilus test media for broth microdilution susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (United States)

    Roger, M; Lapointe, J R


    Horse serum-supplemented Todd-Hewitt broth (STH) in use at Hôpital Ste-Justine for the last 12 years was compared to the recently proposed Haemophilus test medium (HTM), for broth microdilution susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. One hundred and twenty S. pneumoniae isolates from pediatric clinical specimens were used in this study. In general, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in STH for 15 antimicrobial agents were quite comparable to those determined in HTM but tended to be higher. Drugs which generated MICs within +/- 1 log2 concentration differences in both media included penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, rifampin, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. Cefaclor and tetracycline MICs tended to be > or = 2 log2 dilutions higher with STH for most of the isolates tested, while erythromycin MICs were often 2 log2 dilutions lower with STH than with HTM. Despite some differences in MICs noted above, few very major (0.4%), major (0.2%) and minor interpretive category errors (4.4%) were observed. The visual reading of the MICs for most of the 120 clinical isolates tested was generally easier in STH which was superior in supporting best the bacterial growth as detected by spectrophotometry. The risk of false susceptibility is thus decreased by using STH rather than HTM; furthermore, STH is free of the technical problems of the lysed horse blood Mueller-Hinton (LHB-MH) recommended by the NCCLS. PMID:8808713

  7. [Antibacterial activity and beta-lactamase stability of eleven oral cephalosporins]. (United States)

    Bauernfeind, A; Jungwirth, R; Schweighart, S; Theopold, M


    Oral cephalosporins (cefixime, cefdinir, cefetamet, ceftibuten, cefpodoxime, loracarbef, cefprozil, cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefadroxil and BAY 3522) were compared by their antibacterial profile including stability against new beta-lactamases. Both activity and antibacterial spectrum of compounds structurally related to third generation parenteral cephalosporins (of the oximino class) were superior to established compounds. Activity against staphylococci was found to be highest for cefdinir, cefprozil and BAY 3522. Cefetamet, ceftibuten and cefixime demonstrate no clinically meaningful antistaphylococcal activity while the other compounds investigated demonstrate intermediate activity. The antibacterial spectrum was broadest for cefdinir and cefpodoxime. New oral cephalosporins are equally inactive as established compounds against Enterobacter spp., Morganella, Listeria, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp., methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Enterococcus spp., penicillin-resistant pneumococci and anaerobes. New extended broad-spectrum betalactamases (TEM-3, TEM-5, TEM-6, TEM-7, SHV-2, SHV-3, SHV-4, SHV-5, CMY-1, CMY-2, and CTX-M) are active against the majority of oral cephalosporins. Ceftibuten, cefetamet, cefixime and cefdinir were stable against some of these enzymes even to a higher extent than parenteral cephalosporins. New oral cephalosporins should improve the therapeutic perspectives of oral cephalosporins due to their higher activity against pathogens marginally susceptible to established compounds (higher multiplicity of maximum plasma concentrations over MICs of the pathogens) and furthermore by including in their spectrum organisms resistant to established absorbable cephalosporins (e.g. Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Citrobacter spp., and Serratia spp.). PMID:2079378

  8. 蜂毒蜜点涂佐治小儿急性细菌性扁桃体炎的疗效与安全性%The efficacy and safety of the adjuvant Treatment of the children with acute bacterial tonsillitis by pointing the Honey Bee Venom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊莉; 成永明; 邓庭超; 朱锦妍; 洁珍; 黄晨娟


    目的:评价蜂毒蜜点涂佐治小儿急性细菌性扁桃体炎的临床疗效与安全性。方法:将符合本方案入选条件的患儿125例,随机分成治疗组和对照组,其中治疗组为64例,对照组为61例。治疗组在口服头孢克洛颗粒的基础上,用蜂毒蜜1ml点涂咽部两侧与双侧扁桃体,每天2次,疗程5d;对照组仅口服头孢克洛颗粒,不用蜂毒蜜点涂,疗程相同。结果:治疗组48小时退热率为73.4%,总有效率为100%,不良反应率为3.1%。对照组48小时退热率为55.7%,总有效率为90.2%,不良反应率为1.6%。经统计学处理:两组临床疗效有显著性差异(P0.05)。结论:蜂毒蜜点涂佐治小儿急性细菌性扁桃体炎安全、有效,易于被患儿接受。%Objective:To assess the efficacy and safety of the adjuvant treatment of the children with acute bacterial tonsillitis by pointing the honey bee Venom. Methods:To divide 125 patients into two groups randomly-the treatment group (sixty four) and the control group (sixty one). On the basis of oral cefaclor granules,the treatment group were pointed on the pharynx and bilateral amygdala with the one milliliter of the honey bee venom, twice a day for five days, and control group only with oral cefaclor particles for five days. Results: The treatment group showed antipyretic rate of 73.4% within 48 hours and the total effective rate was 100% with the rate of adverse events of 3.1%. The control group showed antipyretic rate of 55.7% within 48 hours, the total effective rate was 90.2%, the incidence rate of adverse events of 1.6%; After the statistics treatment, the significant difference was seen between the two groups in the antipyretic rate within 48 hours and clinical curative effect (P0.05).Conclusion: The adjuvant treatment with pointing honey bee venom was safe, effective, and easily acceptant in the children with acute bacterial tonsillitis.

  9. 老年晚期肺癌化疗前后肺部感染细菌培养及药敏试验变化研究%Research on change of spectrum distribution and drug susceptibility of bacterial culture for pulmonary infections in elderly patients with advanced cancer before and after chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺顺斌; 杜开齐


    , ampicillin, cefaclor, and imipenem were 6. 45%, 19. 35%, 6.45%, and 8.06% respectively before the chemotherapy and were 33. 33%, 61. 11%, 37. 50%, and 33. 33% respectively after the chemotherapy , the difference in the drug resistance rate to aztreonam, ampicillin, cefaclor, or imipenem between before and after the chemotherapy was statistically significant (P<0. 05). CONCLUSION The isolation rate of the bacteria causing the pulmonary infections in the elderly patients with advanced lung cancer is increasing, the chemotherapy has little impact on the drug susceptibility to the main antibiotics, but it can increase the drug resistance to some antibiotics.

  10. A gold immunochromatographic assay for the rapid and simultaneous detection of fifteen β-lactams (United States)

    Chen, Yanni; Wang, Yongwei; Liu, Liqiang; Wu, Xiaoling; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Li, Aike; Xu, Chuanlai


    A novel gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) based on anti-β-lactam receptors was innovatively developed that successfully allowed rapid and simultaneous detection of fifteen β-lactams in milk samples in 5-10 minutes. By replacing the antibodies used in traditional GICA with anti-β-lactam receptors, the difficulty in producing broad specific antibodies against β-lactams was overcome. Conjugates of ampicillin with BSA and goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (IgG) were immobilized onto the test and control lines on the nitrocellulose membrane, respectively. Since goat anti-mouse IgG does not combine with receptors, negative serum from mice labelled with gold nanoparticles (GNP) was mixed with GNP-labelled receptors. Results were obtained within 20 min using a paper-based sensor. The utility of the assay was confirmed by the analysis of milk samples. The limits of detection (LOD) for amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, cefaclor, ceftezole, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, cefoperazone, cefathiamidine, and cefepime were 0.25, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 1, 5, 5, 10, 25, 10, 100, 10, 5, 5, and 2 ng mL-1, respectively, which satisfies the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by the European Union (EU). In conclusion, our newly developed GICA-based anti-β-lactam receptor assay provides a rapid and effective method for one-site detection of multiple β-lactams in milk samples.A novel gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) based on anti-β-lactam receptors was innovatively developed that successfully allowed rapid and simultaneous detection of fifteen β-lactams in milk samples in 5-10 minutes. By replacing the antibodies used in traditional GICA with anti-β-lactam receptors, the difficulty in producing broad specific antibodies against β-lactams was overcome. Conjugates of ampicillin with BSA and goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (IgG) were immobilized onto the test and control lines on the nitrocellulose membrane, respectively

  11. Caracterização da mastite subclínica em caprinos produzidos em sistema orgânico no Rio Grande do Sul Characterization of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats herds raised on an organic system in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Schmidt


    Full Text Available O leite e derivados são reconhecidos como veículos de patógenos para humanos, secundário a contaminação pós-ordenha ou de infecções do próprio animal, particularmente na mastite. Foi estudada a ocorrência de mastite e aspectos do manejo em cabras de três propriedades criadas em sistema orgânico. O exame clínico da glândula mamária de 64 cabras em diferentes períodos de lactação, não acusou a presença de mastite clínica. Entretanto, o Califórnia Mastitis Test (CMT identificou 54 (22,7% metades mamárias reagentes (+ ou ++. Foram colhidas 238 amostras de leite, das quais houve isolamento bacteriano em 37 (15,6%. Em apenas oito amostras houve coincidência entre o isolamento bacteriano e o resultado do CMT, indicando sensibilidade de 21,6% para este teste no diagnóstico de mastite subclínica em caprinos. Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN foi o microrganismo mais freqüente (83,8%. O teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro revelou resistência das linhagens de SCN ao cotrimoxazol (50%, ampicilina (48,1%, nitrofurantoína (7,7%, cefaclor (7,14% e oxacilina (3,85%. Cefalotina, gentamicina, neomicina, estreptomicina e tetraciclina foram os antimicrobianos mais efetivos frente aos isolados. Não se evidenciou relação entre a ocorrência de mastite subclínica com a raça, a fase de lactação, sistema de ordenha ou qualidade da água utilizada nas propriedades.Milk and derivates are recognized as vehicle of different pathogens for humans. These micoorganisms may manifest as post-milking contamination or as in infections in the animal itself, particularly in mastitis. The aim of present study was characterizes the occurrence of mastitis and management aspects in dairy-goats raised in three farms of organic milk. The correlation between mastitis and goat husbandry was also investigated. The clinical exam of the mammary glands of 64 dairy-goats did not reveal the presence of clinical mastitis. Nevertheless, the California

  12. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from vegetables with regards to the marketing stage (farm vs. supermarket). (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karin; Helmke, Katharina; Hölzel, Christina Susanne; Bauer, Johann


    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether and to what extent fresh produce from Germany plays a role as a carrier and reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. For this purpose, 1001 vegetables (fruit, root, bulbous vegetables, salads and cereals) were collected from 13 farms and 11 supermarkets in Germany and examined bacteriologically. Phenotypic resistance of Enterobacter cloacae (n=172); Enterobacter gergoviae (n=92); Pantoea agglomerans (n=96); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=295); Pseudomonas putida (n=106) and Enterococcus faecalis (n=100) against up to 30 antibiotics was determined by using the microdilution method. Resistance to ß-lactams was most frequently expressed by P. agglomerans and E. gergoviae against cefaclor (41% and 29%). Relatively high resistance rates were also observed for doxycycline (23%), erythromycin (21%) and rifampicin (65%) in E. faecalis, for spectinomycin (28%) and mezlocillin (12%) in E. cloacae, as well as for streptomycin (19%) in P. putida. In P. aeruginosa, relatively low resistance rates were observed for the aminoglycosides amikacin, apramicin, gentamicin, neomycin, netilmicin and tobramycin (<4%); 11% was resistant to streptomycin. No glycopeptide-resistant enterococci were observed. Resistance rates of bacteria isolated from farm samples were higher than those of the retail markets whenever significant differences were observed. This suggests that expressing resistance is at the expense of bacterial viability, since vegetables purchased directly at the farm are probably fresher than at the supermarket, and they have not been exposed to stress factors. However, this should not keep the customer from buying directly at the farm, since the overall resistance rates were not higher than observed in bacteria from human or animal origin. Instead, peeling or washing vegetables before eating them raw is highly recommended, since it reduces not only the risk of contact with pathogens, but also that of ingesting and spreading

  13. Mass balance approaches for estimating the intestinal absorption and metabolism of peptides and analogues: theoretical development and applications (United States)

    Sinko, P. J.; Leesman, G. D.; Amidon, G. L.


    A theoretical analysis for estimating the extent of intestinal peptide and peptide analogue absorption was developed on the basis of a mass balance approach that incorporates convection, permeability, and reaction. The macroscopic mass balance analysis (MMBA) was extended to include chemical and enzymatic degradation. A microscopic mass balance analysis, a numerical approach, was also developed and the results compared to the MMBA. The mass balance equations for the fraction of a drug absorbed and reacted in the tube were derived from the general steady state mass balance in a tube: [formula: see text] where M is mass, z is the length of the tube, R is the tube radius, Pw is the intestinal wall permeability, kr is the reaction rate constant, C is the concentration of drug in the volume element over which the mass balance is taken, VL is the volume of the tube, and vz is the axial velocity of drug. The theory was first applied to the oral absorption of two tripeptide analogues, cefaclor (CCL) and cefatrizine (CZN), which degrade and dimerize in the intestine. Simulations using the mass balance equations, the experimental absorption parameters, and the literature stability rate constants yielded a mean estimated extent of CCL (250-mg dose) and CZN (1000-mg dose) absorption of 89 and 51%, respectively, which was similar to the mean extent of absorption reported in humans (90 and 50%). It was proposed previously that 15% of the CCL dose spontaneously degraded systematically; however, our simulations suggest that significant CCL degradation occurs (8 to 17%) presystemically in the intestinal lumen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  14. Evaluation of the Clinical Efficacy of Qingqiao Capsule (清窍胶囊) in Treating Patients with Secretory Otitis Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yong-dong; CHEN Long-hui; HU Wen-jian; JIANG Yu-liang; CHEN Xiao-lin; ZHANG Shi-bo


    Objective: To ooserve the clinical efficacy of Qingqiao Capsule (清窍胶囊, QQC) in treating patients with secretory otitis media (SOM). Methods: A total of 90 patients were randomly assigned into the treated group (n=45 ) and the control group (n =45). Patients in the treated group were administrated with QQC, 5 capsules each time, 3 times a day for totally 10-14 days, and those in the control group were given per os cefaclor capsules 0.5g each time for adult, 3 times a day, or 20mg/(kg· d) for children, for 10-14 days. The therapeutic efficacy of treatment on the patients was observed and compared after treatment and followed up for 3-6 months. Results: (1) The clinical efficacy in the treated group was superior to that in the control group with significant statistical difference ( P<0.01 ); (2) Comparison of the efficacies in patients of three different TCM syndrome types (the external pathogenic wind invasion caused auditory orifice stuffiness type, the Gan-Dan damp-heat steaming up auditory orifice type and the Pi-deficiency dysfunction induced dirty dampness blocking ear type) showed no statistically significant difference(P>0.05); (3) The vanishing rate and time needed of the main symptoms and signs in the treated group were superior to those in the control group on ear muffle, tinnitus, hearing impairment, hydrotypanum, pure tone threshold and abnormal tongue figure, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05 or P<0.01), only those of earache,otopiesis and abnornal pulse figure were insignificantly different between the two groups ( P>0.05). Conclusion: QQC is an effective Chinese composite medicine on patients with SOM, and shows no obvious adverse reaction.

  15. Enterococcal urinary tract infections: eight years experience at a regional hospital in Trinidad, West Indies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To investigate the prevalence of significant enterococcal isolates from urine and determine what factors are associated with the increased prevalence, with particular reference to antibiotic susceptibilities. Methods Retrospective analysis over an 8-year period of hospital laboratory records of urinary isolates of enterococci was done. Species were identified via colony morphology, growth in 6.5% sodium chloride and their ability to hydrolyze esculin in the presence of 40% bile salts. Susceptibility testing via the disc diffusion technique with 9 commonly used antibiotics was also done as defined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Results From 39?881 urine specimens, 9116 (22.9%) were culture positive. Of this 9116, 1001 (11.0%) were enterococci, the 4th most common urinary isolate. E. coli was the most common (36.2%). Most enterococci were from pediatric patients (28.4%) and the urology unit (24.5%). All enterococci were fully sensitive to ampicillin and augmentin (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid). Sensitivity to gentamicin decreased significantly from 79% in 1990 to 58% in 1997 (P<0.005). Sensitivity to the cephalosporins and nitrofuratoin were relatively stable, but sensitivity to nalidixic acid varied. No resistance to vancomycin was detected during the study, and no cases of bacteremia complicated bacteriuria were seen. Conclusion Isolation of enterococci was relatively stable during the 8-year period, and all isolates were fully sensitive to the older β-lactams, ampicillin, cefaclor and augmentin, but displayed varying degrees of multi-resistance to other commonly used urinary agents such as nalidixic acid and co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). Because of the emergence of multi-resistant enterococci in many countries, and the high cost of drugs in our society, it is imperative that vigilance be maintained in monitoring enterococcal infections in hospitals.

  16. Rapid and sensitive screening and selective quantification of antibiotics in human urine by two-dimensional ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Wang, He-Xing; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Qing-Wu


    A rapid and sensitive method for the screening and selective quantification of antibiotics in urine by two-dimensional ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed. This method allowed the injection of 200 μL urine extract. The 200-μL injection volume used in this method increased the absolute sensitivity for target antibiotics in solvent by an average 13.3 times, with a range from 8.4 to 28.5 times, compared with the 10-μL conventional injection volume. A 96-well solid phase extraction procedure was established to eliminate the contamination on the chromatographic column resulting from the large-volume injection and increase the throughput of sample preparation. Fourteen target antibiotics from six common categories (β-lactams, quinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides, sulfonamides, and chloramphenicols) were selected as model compounds, and a database containing an additional 74 antibiotics was compiled for posttarget screening. The limit of detection of the target antibiotics, defined as a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, ranged from 0.04 to 1.99 ng/mL. The mean interday recoveries ranged between 79.6 and 121.3 %, with a relative standard deviation from 2.9 to 18.3 % at three spiking levels of 20 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, and 100 ng/mL. This method was successfully applied in 60 real urine samples from schoolchildren aged 8-11 years, and four target antibiotics (azithromycin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, and oxytetracycline) and two posttarget antibiotics (sulfadimidine and cefaclor) were found in the urine samples. This method can be used as a large-scale biomonitoring tool for exposure of the human population to antibiotics. PMID:25354887

  17. Penicillin Binding Protein 1 Is Important in the Compensatory Response of Staphylococcus aureus to Daptomycin-Induced Membrane Damage and Is a Potential Target for β-Lactam–Daptomycin Synergy (United States)

    Berti, Andrew D.; Theisen, Erin; Sauer, John-Demian; Nonejuie, Poochit; Olson, Joshua; Pogliano, Joseph; Sakoulas, George; Nizet, Victor; Proctor, Richard A.


    The activity of daptomycin (DAP) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is enhanced in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics. This effect is more pronounced with β-lactam antibiotics that exhibit avid binding to penicillin binding protein 1 (PBP1). Here, we present evidence that PBP1 has a significant role in responding to DAP-induced stress on the cell. Expression of the pbpA transcript, encoding PBP1, was specifically induced by DAP exposure whereas expression of pbpB, pbpC, and pbpD, encoding PBP2, PBP3, and PBP4, respectively, remained unchanged. Using a MRSA COL strain with pbpA under an inducible promoter, increased pbpA transcription was accompanied by reduced susceptibility to, and killing by, DAP in vitro. Exposure to β-lactams that preferentially inactivate PBP1 was not associated with increased DAP binding, suggesting that synergy in the setting of anti-PBP1 pharmacotherapy results from increased DAP potency on a per-molecule basis. Combination exposure in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model system with β-lactams that preferentially inactivate PBP1 (DAP-meropenem [MEM] or DAP-imipenem [IPM]) resulted in more-rapid killing than did combination exposure with DAP-nafcillin (NAF) (nonselective), DAP-ceftriaxone (CRO) or DAP-cefotaxime (CTX) (PBP2 selective), DAP-cefaclor (CEC) (PBP3 selective), or DAP-cefoxitin (FOX) (PBP4 selective). Compared to β-lactams with poor PBP1 binding specificity, exposure of S. aureus to DAP plus PBP1-selective β-lactams resulted in an increased frequency of septation and cell wall abnormalities. These data suggest that PBP1 activity may contribute to survival during DAP-induced metabolic stress. Therefore, targeted inactivation of PBP1 may enhance the antimicrobial efficiency of DAP, supporting the use of DAP–β-lactam combination therapy for serious MRSA infections, particularly when the β-lactam undermines the PBP1-mediated compensatory response. PMID:26525797

  18. A Diagnostic Algorithm for the Detection of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea (United States)

    Yoldaş, Özlem; Altındiş, Mustafa; Cufalı, Davut; Aşık, Gülşah; Keşli, Recep


    Background: Clostridium difficile is a common cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea, which is usually associated with previous antibiotic use. The clinical manifestations of C. difficile infection (CDI) may range from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis. Clostridium difficile should be considered in diarrhea cases with a history of antibiotic use within the last 8 weeks (community-associated CDI) or with a hospital stay of at least 3 days, regardless of the duration of antibiotic use (hospital-acquired CDI). Aims: This study investigated the frequency of CDI in diarrheic patients and evaluated the efficacy of the triple diagnostic algorithm that is proposed here for C. difficile detection. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: In this study, we compared three methods currently employed for C. difficile detection using 95 patient stool samples: an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for toxin A/B (C. diff Toxin A+B; Diagnostic Automation Inc.; Calabasas, CA, USA), an EIA for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) (C. DIFF CHEK-60TM, TechLab Inc.; Blacksburg, VA, USA), and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay (GeneXpert® C. difficile; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) that detects C. difficile toxin genes and conventional methods as well. In this study, 50.5% of the patients were male, 50 patients were outpatients, 32 were from inpatient clinics and 13 patients were from the intensive care unit. Results: Of the 95 stool samples tested for GDH, 28 were positive. Six samples were positive by PCR, while nine samples were positive for toxin A/B. The hypervirulent strain NAP-1 and binary toxin was not detected. The rate of occurrence of toxigenic C. difficile was 5.1% in the samples. Cefaclor, ampicillin-sulbactam, ertapenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam were the most commonly used antibiotics by patients preceding the onset of diarrhea. Among the patients who were hospitalized in an intensive care unit for more than 7 days, 83.3% were positive for CDI by PCR screening. If the PCR

  19. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

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    Thamires Martins


    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  20. Pharmacodynamic evaluation of commonly prescribed oral antibiotics against respiratory bacterial pathogens

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    Pignatari Antonio CC


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper and lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs account for a substantial portion of outpatient antibiotic utilization. However, the pharmacodynamic activity of commonly used oral antibiotic regimens has not been studied against clinically relevant pathogens. The objective of this study was to assess the probability of achieving the requisite pharmacodynamic exposure for oral antibacterial regimens commonly prescribed for RTIs in adults against bacterial isolates frequently involved in these processes (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catharralis. Methods Using a 5000-subject Monte Carlo simulation, the cumulative fractions of response (CFR, (i.e., probabilities of achieving requisite pharmacodynamic targets for the most commonly prescribed oral antibiotic regimens, as determined by a structured survey of medical prescription patterns, were assessed against local respiratory bacterial isolates from adults in São Paulo collected during the same time period. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 230 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (103, Haemophilus influenzae (98, and Moraxella catharralis (29 from a previous local surveillance were used. Results The most commonly prescribed antibiotic regimens were azithromycin 500 mg QD, amoxicillin 500 mg TID, and levofloxacin 500 mg QD, accounting for 58% of the prescriptions. Varied doses of these agents, plus gatifloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, moxifloxacin, and cefaclor made up the remaining regimens. Utilizing aggressive pharmacodynamic exposure targets, the only regimens to achieve greater than 90% CFR against all three pathogens were amoxicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanate 500 mg TID (> 91%, gatifloxacin 400 mg QD (100%, and moxifloxacin 400 mg QD (100%. Considering S. pneumoniae isolates alone, azithromycin 1000 mg QD also achieved greater than 90% CFR (91.3%. Conclusions The only regimens to achieve high CFR against all three pathogen populations in both scenarios

  1. Emergence of quinupristin/dalfopristin resistance among livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus ST9 clinical isolates. (United States)

    Yu, Fangyou; Lu, Chaohui; Liu, Yunling; Sun, He; Shang, Yongpeng; Ding, Yu; Li, Dan; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Huang, Xiaoying; Li, Yuping; Hu, Longhua; Wang, Liangxing


    Quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) is a valuable alternative to vancomycin for the treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. However, not long after Q/D was approved, bacteria with resistance to this newer antimicrobial agent were reported. To investigate the prevalence of Q/D resistance, a total of 1476 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates, including 775 MRSA, from a Chinese tertiary hospital were selected randomly from 2003 to 2013. Of the 775 MRSA, 3 (0.4%) were resistant to Q/D. All meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were susceptible to Q/D. The prevalence of Q/D resistance among S. aureus was 0.2% (3/1476). The three isolates with Q/D resistance had the same antimicrobial resistance profile, except for cefaclor and chloramphenicol. All three Q/D-resistant MRSA were positive for five streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA and msrB) and two streptogramin A resistance genes (vatC and vgaA) as determined by PCR and DNA sequencing. MRSA WZ1031 belonged to ST9-MRSA-SCCmecV-t899, whilst MRSA WZ414 and WZ480 belonged to ST9-MRSA-SCCmecNT(non-typeable)-t899. ST9 has been reported predominantly in livestock-associated (LA) MRSA in some Asian countries. The three patients with these MRSA isolates were not livestock handlers and did not keep close contact with livestock. The origin of these important LA-MRSA isolates causing human infections is not known. Taken together, Q/D resistance, which was caused by a combination of ermA-ermB-ermC-msrA-msrB-vatC-vgaA, was first found among S. aureus clinical isolates in China. The present study is the first report of the emergence of human infections caused by ST9 LA-MRSA isolates with Q/D resistance. PMID:25218154

  2. Etiología y sensibilidad bacteriana en infección urinaria en niños. Hospital Infantil Club Noel y Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

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    Iris de Castaño


    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common renal disease in childhood. To find the etiologic microorganism and an early adequate antibiotic therapy are essential to avoid permanent kidney injuries. Objectives: To know the etiologic bacteria and their antibiotic sensibility in urine cultures of children with UTI consulting University Hospital and Club Noel Hospital in Cali, Colombia. Methodology: A total of 123 children under 14 years of age that came into Emergency Service or outpatient clinics at University Hospital or Club Noel Hospital with clinical suspicion of UTI from August 2004 to February 2005 were included in a descriptive transversal study. Urine cultures were taken by supra-pubic aspiration, urine catheterization or mid strain urine. UTI definition was based on colony counts according to recollection method. Positive urine cultures, type of bacteria and antibiotic sensibility were considered for the analysis. Children having either urine cultures with colony counts inferior to recollection method, asymptomatic bacteriuria, occasional catheterization, immunosuppression, vesicostomy or previous admission to intensive care unit, were excluded. Results: Among 123 children entering to the study, 31 were eliminated for colony counts inferior to the recollection method. A total of 123 urine cultures were left for the analysis: 50% of urine cultures were obtained by catheterization, 33% via mid void stream and 17% by supra-pubic aspiration; 58% of patients were females. Escherichia coli was cultured in 72% of the cases, Klebsiella in 16.4%, Proteus 2.5% and other type of bacteria account for 9%. Antibiotics and antibacterials with sensibility over 80% were: cefixime, norfloxocin, cefuroxime, cefprozil, nalidixic acid, ceftriaxone, amikacin, and gentamicin. Intermediate sensibility from 61 to 70%: amoxicillin-clavulinic, cefaclor, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin. Sensibility under 60% was found for amoxicillin, ampicillin


    Kuvat, Nuray; Nazik, Hasan; Berkiten, Rahmiye; Öngen, Betigül


    Resistance of 235 Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates from Istanbul Medical Faculty Hospital, Turkey were determined against 19 antibiotics by disc diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of those found resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxim, chloramphenicol and meropenem were measured using E-test. Ampicillin-resistant isolates producing beta-lactamase as demonstrated by a nitrocefin assay were analyzed for the presence of TEM-1 and ROB-1 genes by PCR. Eleven percent of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin (10 µg/ml), of which 73% were beta-lactamase positive and carried TEM-1 gene, but none were positive for ROB-1 gene. All isolates susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (20/10 µg/ml), azithromycin (15 µg/ml), aztreonam (30 µg/ml), cefotaxime (30 µg/ml), ceftriaxone (30 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (5 µg/ml), levofloxacin (5 µg/ml), and telithromycin (15 µg/ml) but 24%, 15%, 4%, 4%, 2%, 1%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 µg/ml), tetracycline (30 µg/ml), cefaclor (30 µg/ml), clarithromycin (15 µg/ml), cefuroxime (30 µg/ml), meropenem (10 µg/ml), chloramphenicol (30 µg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (10/10 µg/ml), nalidixic acid (30 µg/ml), and fosfomycin (30 µg/ml), respectively. MIC values of three cefuroxime-resistant isolates was 24, 48 and > 256 µg/ml, respectively; of two meropenem-resistant strains > 256 µg/ml; and of two chloramphenicol-susceptible isolates (by disc diffusion method) 6 µg/ml (considered as intermediate susceptible). Multiple- antibiotics resistance was detected in 15% of the strains, with resistance to 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 antibiotics in 8.5%, 4%, 2%, 0.5% and 0.5% of the isolates, respectively. By identifying beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, empirical therapy with beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and second generation cephalosporins would be inappropriate for such patients (approximately 3%). Our findings will

  4. Ten years of antibiotic consumption in ambulatory care: Trends in prescribing practice and antibiotic resistance in Austria

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    Apfalter Petra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aims of this study were (i to determine the quantity and pattern of antibiotic use in Austria between 1998 and 2007 and (ii to analyze antibiotic resistance rates in relation to antibiotic consumption in important clinical situations in order to provide data for empirical therapeutic regimens for key indications. Methods Consumption data and resistance data were obtained via the Austrian surveillance networks European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS and European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC. The EARSS collects data on isolates from blood and cerebrospinal fluid obtained predominantly in the hospital setting. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification and the Defined Daily Dose (DDD measurement units were assigned to the data. The number of DDDs and packages per 1,000 inhabitants (PID were used to calculate the level of antibiotic consumption. Antibiotic resistance was expressed in resistance rates, i.e., the percentage of resistant isolates compared to all isolates of one bacterial species. Results The overall antibiotic consumption measured in DIDs increased by 10% between 1998 and 2007, whereas PIDs decreased by 3%. The consumption of substances within the drug utilization 90% segment (measured in PID increased for ciprofloxacin (+118.9, clindamycin (+76.3, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (+61.9%, cefpodoxime (+31.6, azithromycin (+24.7; and decreased for erythromycin (-79.5%, trimethoprim (-56,1%, norfloxacin (-48.8%, doxycycline (-44.6, cefaclor (-35.1%, penicillin (-34.0%, amoxicillin (-22.5, minocycline (-21.9% and clarithromycin (-9.9%. Starting in 2001, an increase in the percentage of invasive E. coli isolates resistant to aminopenicillins (from 35% to 53%, fluoroquinolones (from 7% to 25.5% and third-generation cephalosporins (from 0% to 8.8% was observed. The percentage of nonsusceptible or intermediate penicillin-resistant pneumococcal isolates remained

  5. Sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas do trato respiratório de pacientes com infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade: resultados brasileiros do Programa SENTRY de Vigilância de Resistência a Antimicrobianos dos anos de 1997 e 1998 Susceptibility to respiratory tract isolated bacteria to antimicrobial agents in patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections: 1997 and 1998 Brazilian data of the SENTRY surveillance program of resistance to antimicrobial agents

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    Full Text Available O tratamento da pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC é habitualmente empírico e o uso de antimicrobianos é baseado em estudos de vigilância. O programa SENTRY foi desenhado para monitorar a resistência a antimicrobianos através de uma rede internacional de laboratórios. Três centros no Brasil participaram do Programa SENTRY em 1997 e em 1998. Métodos: Um total de 344 isolados bacterianos coletados de pacientes com PAC em 1997 e 1998 foram testados contra mais de 20 agentes antimicrobianos pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Resultados: Entre os S. pneumoniae (176 isolados, 71,6% foram sensíveis à penicilina. Alto nível de resistência à penicilina e resistência à cefotaxima foram encontrados em 2,3 e 4,0%, respectivamente. As novas quinolonas levofloxacina (MIC90, 2mig/mL e gatifloxacina (MIC90, 0,5mig/mL foram ativas contra 100% dos isolados testados. Entre os outros antimicrobianos não beta-lactâmicos testados, os mais ativos foram (% de sensibilidade: cloranfenicol (97,5% > clindamicina (94% > azitromicina (90,3% > claritromicina (89,4% > tetraciclina (76,4% > sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (60,2%. A percentagem de Haemophilus influenzae (101 isolados resistentes à amoxicilina foi de 90,1%, enquanto entre Moraxella catarrhalis (67 isolados somente 9,0% foram sensíveis. O ácido clavulânico restaurou a atividade de amoxicilina contra H. influenzae e M. catarrhalis. Porém, H. influenzae demonstrou níveis aumentados de resistência para sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (55,1% de sensibilidade, claritromicina (80,4% de sensibilidade e cefaclor (88,2% de sensibilidade. Todos os isolados de H. influenzae e M. catarrhalis foram sensíveis à levofloxacina (MIC90, Background: Antimicrobial treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI is usually empiric and antibiotics are chosen on the basis of surveillance studies. The SENTRY Program was designed to monitor antimicrobial resistance via a worldwide

  6. 2006-2011年浙江省杭州市萧山区流感嗜血杆菌耐药性监测%Surveillance of drug resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in Hangzhou.Zhejiang, 2006 -2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭远瑜; 吴伟志; 沈丽芳; 董华丽


    目的 调查了解流感嗜血杆菌的临床分布及耐药情况,为临床用药提供依据.方法 对2006年1月至2011年12月浙江萧山医院临床分离的流感嗜血杆菌,用ATB嗜血杆菌药敏板条测定抗菌药物的敏感性,用头孢硝噻吩纸片法测定β-内酰胺酶,所有数据用WHONET 5.6软件进行回顾性分析.结果 共检出流感嗜血杆菌375株,对复方新诺明、氨苄西林耐药分别为248株(66.1%)和127株(33.8%),对氯霉素、头孢克洛和四环素耐药分别为38株(10.2%)、52株(13.8%)和55株(14.7%);其他几种常用药物阿莫西林/克拉维酸、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、利福平和氧氟沙星对流感嗜血杆菌保持较好的抗菌活性(耐药率≤5.0%);β-内酰胺酶阳性菌株对多种药物的耐药率显著高于阴性菌株(P<0.01).结论 复方新诺明耐药率高而不宜用于流感嗜血杆菌感染的治疗,氨苄西林应慎重用于经验治疗;流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西林耐药率呈下降趋势,对二代头孢菌素耐药率呈上升趋势,临床应根据药敏结果合理使用抗菌药物.%Objective To understand the clinical distribution and drug resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in Xiaoshan district in Hangzhou and provide evidence for clinical antibiotic use. Methods The drug susceptibility of H. influenzae strains isolated in Zhejiang Xisoahn hospital from January 2006 to December 2011 was tested by using ATB HAEMO strip, β-lactamases was detected with Nitrocefin discs test, and the results were analyzed retrospectively by using WHONTET 5. 6 software. Results A total of 375 H. influenzae isolates were tested, the resistance rate was 66.1% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ), 33.8% to ampicillin, 10.2% to chloramphenicol, 13.8% to cefaclor and 14.7% to tetracycline. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, rifampicin and ofloxac in had good antibacterial activity on H. influenzae (the resistance rate ≤5.0% ). The

  7. Etiología y sensibilidad bacteriana en infección urinaria en niños. Hospital Infantil Club Noel y Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia

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    Consuelo de Rovetto


    gentamicina. Mostraron sensibilidad intermedia entre 61% y 70%: amoxacilina-clavulanato, cefaclor, ciprofloxacina, nitrofurantoína y baja sensibilidad (<60%: amoxacilina, ampicilina, cefadroxilo, cefalexina, cefradina, trimetoprim-sulfa, ampicilina-sulbactan, cefalotina, cefazolina.Conclusiones: Escherichia coli fue la bacteria que más produjo infección urinaria en la población estudiada. Para el manejo ambulatorio se recomiendan como medicamentos empíricos de primera línea los antibióticos orales que mostraron mayor sensibilidad como cefuroxime, cefproxil, cefixime y ácido nalidíxico, mientras se procesa el urocultivo. A pesar de la buena sensibilidad que mostró la norfloxacina, se debe reservar su uso sólo en casos especiales donde haya resistencia a los antibióticos mencionados antes. Debe evitarse en primera instancia el uso de medicamentos como cefalexina, trimetoprim, ampicilina y amoxacilina. Si el estado clínico del paciente amerita hospitalización, los medicamentos parenterales recomendados serían: ceftriazone o amikacina.

  8. Carrying rate and the epidemic characteristics of haemophilus influenzae isolated from healthy children in Zhangjiakou%张家口地区健康儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌带菌现状及DNA多态性分析

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    乔海霞; 张彦霞; 常月立; 张玉妥


    OBJECTIVE To investigate the infection status,epidemic characteristics and resistance to common antibiotics of haemophilus influenzae (HI) among children subjected to respiratory tract infection of Zhangjiakou city.To provide scientific evidences for preventing,alleviating and controlling HI infection in this region.METHODS HI strains were isolated from throat swabs from healthy children.The antibiotics susceptibility was identified by K-B method,and β-lactamase was ceilnase paper method; isolates were conducted on biological typing,random amplified polymorph DNA (RAPD) was used to identify the genotype and homology of these strains.RESULTS 31 HI strains were isolated from 100 samples of healthy children,positive rate was 31%.All of the 31 HI strains were sensitive to imipenem,chloromycetin,cefaclor,etc.The resistant rate to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol and ampicillin were 38.7% and 16.1%,5 strains were β-1actamase positive,accounting for 16.1%.Biotypes Ⅵ and Ⅷ were the prevalent biotypes accounting for 32.4% and 22.6%,respectively.The cluster analysis using RAPD indicated that HI colonizing on healthy children in this city had few cross-infection and there was no obvious central distribution trend.CONCLUSION Compared with the results of ten years ago,it has changed in HI separation rate,biotype and antibiotics resistance.RAPD cluster analysis shows that HI colonizing on healthy children in this city has few cross-infection and there is no obvious central distribution trends.%目的 了解张家口地区健康儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus infiuenzae,HI)带菌现状、对常用抗生素的耐药情况及流行特征,为预防、控制流感嗜血杆菌感染提供科学依据.方法 从健康儿童咽拭子标本中分离鉴定流感嗜血杆菌,采用K-B法测定其对抗生素的敏感性,用cefinase纸片检测菌株的β-内酰胺酶;对分离菌株进行生物分型,同时用随机扩增多态性DNA (RAPD)技

  9. In vitro susceptibility of commonly used antibiotics on community-acquired uncomplicated urinary tract infection pathogens in Beijing%北京地区社区获得性单纯性泌尿系感染病原菌对常用抗菌药物的体外活性分析

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    杨春霞; 王珊珊; 王春雷; 曲久鑫; 刘振嘉; 乔庐东; 曹彬; 陈山; 杨勇; 刘颖梅; 王辉; 王占伟; 杨启文; 黎斌斌; 栗方


    单纯性泌尿系感染的经验抗菌药物.%Objective To investigate the distribution and susceptibility patterns of common uropathogens causing community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) in Beijing. Methods A total of 300non-duplicate isolates were randomly collected from 3 hospitals in Beijing between Jan,1 2010 and Mar,312011.Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the broth microdilution methods,which were performed and interpreted according to the guidelines established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).A panel of 8 antimicrobial agents were tested:amikacin,cefaclor,cefepime,cefoperazone/sulbactam,ciprofloxacin,levofloxacin,gentamicin and nitrofurantoin. Fosfomycin trometamol MICs were determined by the agar-dilution method in cation-adjusted MH agar supplemented with glucose 6-phosphate at a concentration of 25 mg/L as detailed in the guidelines issued by 2010 CLSI. All the Escherichia coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis strains were screened and confirmed by double-disk synergy test for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs). Results Among the organisms cultured,E.coli was the predominant pathogen (65.0% ), followed by Enterococcus (11.7% ),Staphylococcus ( 6.3% ), Klebsiella pneumoniae ( 5. 3% ), Proteus mirabilis ( 4. 7% ), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.0%).Lower susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin (31.4% -47.4% ) were observed among all the stains.Amikacin,cefoperazone/sulbactam,nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin trometamol were the most active drugs (92.1%,92.1%,88.4% and 87.9% susceptible strains,respectively) among the Gram-negative strains.Isolates of Staphylococcus were highly sensitive to amikacin ( 100.0% ),cefoperazone/sulbactam (94.7%),nitrofurantoin ( 100.0% ).Higher susceptibility rates to nitrofurantoin (91.4%) and fosfomycin trometamol (90.0%) were observed in Enterococcus.ESBLs-producing strains accounted for 52.3% (102/195) in E.coli,43.8% (7/16) in K

  10. 2010-2011年中国肺炎链球菌耐药性和血清型研究%Antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from multicenters across China,2010-2011

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    王启; 张菲菲; 赵春江; 陈宏斌; 王占伟; 郭宇; 李荷楠; 王辉


    susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents was determined by agar dilution method.Serotyping of S.pneumoniae was performed by using latex and quelling reaction.Vaccine coverage by 7-,10-,13-and 23-valent conjugate vaccines was estimated by calculating the percentage of isolates that belonged to the serotypes included in the vaccines.Results Among all strains tested,50.1% (236/471) was resistant to penicillin (Oral breakpoint,MIC ≥ 2 mg/L).Overall,27.4% (129/471),60.3% (284/471),58.8% (277/471) and 18.5% (87/471) of S.pneumoniae were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate,cefaclor,cefuroxime and ceftriaxone,respectively.1.5% (7/471) of all stains were resistant to levofloxacin and 0.6% (3/471) of all strains were resistant to moxifloxacin.The resistance rates to other antibiotic agents,such as erythromycin,clindamycin,tetracycline,trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole,and chloramphenicol,were 93.2% (439/471),88.7% (417/471),89.6% (422/471),62.8% (296/471) and 22.1% (104/471),respectively.The most prevalent serotype was 19F (112,23.8%),followed by 19A(63,13.4%),3(48,10.2%),14(43,9.1%),23F(29,6.2%),15(25,5.3%)and 6A (23,4.9%).The potential coverage by 7-and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines was 45.3% (213/471)and 76% (358/471),respectively.The potential coverage of PCV7 and PCV13 in children were 59.0% (72/122) and 86.9% (106/122),and the potential coverage of PCV7 and PCV13 in adult were 42.3% (94/222) and 73.4% (163/222).Conclusions The antibiotic resistance of S.pneumoniae was serious in China,especially to tetracycline,erythromycin and clindamycin.The majority of serotypes 19A and 19F was penicillin-resistant.The potential coverage of PCV7 and PCV13 in children was higher than those in adult.PCV13 could cover most of the isolates,especially for penicillin-resistant S.pneumoniae.