Sample records for cefaclor

  1. Cefaclor (United States)

    ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefaclor will not work for colds, ... infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical preparations

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    Ivama Viviane M.


    Full Text Available A simple spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of cefaclor. The method involves alkaline hydrolysis of the drug in ammonia buffer solution at pH 10 to yield diketopiperazine-2,5-dione derivative and subsequent measurement at 340 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 1.8 - 55 mg/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical formulations.

  3. Bioequivalence studies of 2 oral cefaclor capsule formulations in chinese healthy subjects. (United States)

    Chen, J; Jiang, B; Lou, H; Yu, L; Ruan, Z


    An open-label, single-dose, randomized, crossover study was carried out in 20 Chinese healthy male subjects to compare the pharmacokinetics of 2 cefaclor (CAS 53994-73-3) formulations after administration of a single 250 mg dose of each drug with a 1-week wash-out period. Blood samples were collected before and with 6 h after drug administration. Plasma concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detector. 2 formulations were evaluated using the following pharmacokinetic parameters: AUC0-t, Cmax and tmax was analyzed nonparametrically. The 90% confidence interval (CI) of the ratios (teat/reference) of log-transformed AUC0-t and Cmax fell within the bioequivalence acceptance range of 80-125%. The results showed that the 90% CI of the ratios of AUC0-t and Cmax were 105.1% (101.0-109.4%) and 92.4% (82.5-103.4%), respectively, which therefore could conclude 2 oral cefaclor capsule formulations of cefaclor are bioequivalent. Both treatments showed similar tolerability and safety.

  4. Development and application of spectrophotometric method for the determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical formulations


    Asad Raza; Abdul Subhan Ijaz; Shabbir Ahmad


    A simple, fast and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical raw and dosage forms based on reaction with ninhydrin is developed, optimized and validated. The purple color (Ruhemenn's purple) that resulted from the reaction was stabilized and measured at 560 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 4-80 µg mL-1 with molar absorptivity of 1.42 × 10(5) L mole-1 cm-1. All variables including the reagent concentration, heating time, ...

  5. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of cefaclor in the pharyngo-tonsillitis and acute otitis in children

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    Mario Eandi


    Full Text Available Pharyngotonsillitis (FT and acute otitis media (OMA are among the most frequent infectious diseases of the childhood and exact a heavy toll on the Italian national health service (INHS, families and society as a whole. In case of established or suspected bacterial origin, current treatment guidelines for FT recommend 5-10 days of oral antibiotics, chosen among available penicillins, cephalosporins, or macrolides. More controversial appears the systematical use of an antibiotic for OMAs, but prevalent expert opinion suggests use of the same agents. In this paper, an economical appraisal of five of the most prescribed oral antibiotics for these indications in Italy (cefaclor, amoxicyllin, amoxicyllin/clavulanate, clarithromycin and azithromycin is provided. The evaluation was conducted through the development and implementation of two distinct models, constructed to reflect national treatment patterns of these infections. Clinical and economical data were obtained from several sources: literature review, including published meta-analyses, consultation of an expert panel and, most importantly, from the results of a specific questionnaire-based survey completed by 136 pediatricians, based throughout Italy. The models were run to conduct both cost-effectiveness and cost-minimization analyses, that consistently indicated cefaclor and amoxicyllin to be substantially equivalent in terms of total costs to the INHS and the Italian society, but significantly more convenient than amoxicyllin/clavulanate, claritrhomycin or azithromycin. Extensive probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of this conclusion.

  6. Kinetically Controlled Synthesis of Cefaclor using Penicillin G Acylase%酶法合成头孢克罗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 魏东芝; 薛屏; 卢冠忠


    Enzymatic synthesis of cefaclor from 7-aminodesacetoxymethyl-3-chlorocephalosporanic acid (7-ACCA) and phenylglycine derivatives using penicillin G acylase was studied. Many factors that affect the conversion of 7-ACCA to cefaclor were examined. The immobilized enzyme from Bacillis megaterium gave a better catalytic properties and the higher conversion was obtained using phenylglycine methyl ester (PGME) as acyl donor. And the external mass transfer limitation could be eliminated when the stirring rate was more than 150 r/min. Low temperature was beneficial for the synthesis and the results showed that the synthetase activity was hardly influenced by temperature while the amidase activity was affected greatly by temperature. The optimum reaction conditions were determined at pH 6.5 and 10 ℃, respectively. The best 7-ACCA conversion of 56% was achieved when the initial concentration of 7-ACCA and PGME was at 50 mM and 150 mM, respectively.%以7-氨基去乙酰氧甲基-3-氯头孢烷酸(7-ACCA)和苯甘氨酸衍生物为底物, 利用青霉素酰化酶酶促合成头孢克罗(cefaclor). 对影响转化率的各种因素进行了考察. 来源于巨大芽孢杆菌的固定化酶催化头孢克罗合成的能力较好, 以苯甘氨酸甲酯(PGME)为底物较酰氨的效果好. 当搅拌转速超过150 r/min时, 外扩散限制可被消除. 实验表明: 低温有利于头孢克罗的合成, 青霉素酰化酶的合成酶活受温度影响较小, 而水解酶活受温度影响较大. 在pH6.5 和10 ℃下, 当7-ACCA和PGME浓度分别为50mM, 100mM时, 转化率可达56%.

  7. Disulfiram like reaction due to cefaclor%头孢克洛致双硫仑样反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧娟; 曹涛; 王征; 李亚林; 王长远


    A 60-year-old male suddenly developed right limb weakness and disturbance of consciousness on process of drinking.One hour later,he was sent to the Emergency Department,Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University.Physical examination showed blood pressure of 70/40 mmHg,heart rate of 112 beats/min,breathing rate of 20 times/min,sluggish light reflex,both upper limbs muscle strength of grade 0,Babinski sign of left side (+) and right side (±).His random blood glucose was 6.4 mmol/L and his cranial CT examination was normal.Electrocardiographic monitoring,oxygen inhalation,and drugs of raising blood pressure were given immediately.Two hours after visiting the emergency department,the patient developed vomiting and received Ⅳ naloxone 0.4 mg.About 5 hours after visiting emergency,the doctor was informed from the patient's family member that the patient might have taken cefaclor.Disulfiram-like reactions due to drinking after administration of cephalosporin antibiotics was considered.Then dexamethasone 5 mg intravenously was given and about 7 hours after visiting the emergency department,the patient's blood pressure was 90/50 mmHg,light reflex was sensitive,muscle strength was grade 5,and bilateral babinski signs were negative.About 14 hours after visiting emergency department,the patient recovered.Then he said he had taken cefaclor for upper respiratory tract infection.%1例60岁男性饮酒期间突发右侧肢体无力和意识障碍,约1h后就诊于首都医科大学宣武医院急诊科,血压70/40 mm Hg(1 mmHg =0.133 kPa),心率112次/min,呼吸20次/min,对光反射迟钝,双上肢肌力0级,巴宾斯基征左侧(+),右侧(±),随机血糖6.4 mmol/L,头部CT检查未见异常.立即给予心电监护、吸氧、维持血压等治疗.就诊后约2h患者出现呕吐,静脉给予纳洛酮0.4 mg.就诊后约5h家属述患者可能服用头孢克洛,考虑为应用头孢类抗生素后饮酒出现的双硫仑样反应,静脉给予地塞米松5 mg.就诊后约7

  8. Pretreatment of plasma samples by a novel hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltrate device for the determination of cefaclor concentrations in human plasma. (United States)

    Li, Jun-Mei; Li, Cen; Jiang, Ye; Ren, Shu-Meng


    A simple sample preparation method was developed by using a centrifugal ultrafiltration (CF-UF) device with hollow fiber (HF) for the determination of cefaclor in plasma by HPLC. Samples were placed into a homemade device, which was consisted of a glass tube and a U-shaped hollow fiber. The filtrate was withdrawn from the hollow fiber into a syringe after centrifugation and 20 μL was directly injected into the HPLC for analysis. The HPLC method had a linear calibration curve in the concentration range of 6.00×10(-2)-30.7 μg mL(-1)(r=0.9996). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.02 and 0.06 μg mL(-1), respectively. The intra and inter-day precisions (RSD) were 1.7%, 1.2%, 1.0% and 3.6%, 2.5%, 1.9%, respectively, for three concentrations. Assay accuracy was higher than 99.2% and the absolute recovery was 86.8-92.5%. It is feasible to use this novel and low cost device for sample pretreatment for the analysis of cefaclor in plasma.

  9. Cefaclor in Children with Acute Otitis Media and Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Contrast Analysis%头孢克洛和阿莫西林克拉维酸钾用于儿童急性中耳炎治疗的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective Comparison of acute otitis media in children with application of cefaclor and amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium two kinds of the clinical ef icacy of drug treatment. Methods From March 2011 to February 2013 treated 120 cases of children with acute otitis media in this study, random grouping. Children with the control group given amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium therapy, cefaclor treatment group. compared with two groups of children always show the dif erences of ef iciency and adverse reactions. Results After treatment, we found that the experimental group after treatment with total total ef iciency was 93.33%, control group the total ef iciency of 88.33%, dif erences between groups have no statistical significance ( >0.05). Experimental group the incidence of adverse reactions was 0%, the control group, the incidence of adverse reactions was 10.0%between groups was statistical y significant dif erence ( 0.05)。实验组不良反应发生率为0%,对照组不良反应发生率为10.0%,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采用头孢克洛和阿莫西林克拉维酸钾两种药物治疗儿童急性中耳炎,可将其在临床进行推广应用。

  10. Pharmacokinetic interaction between cefaclor and bromhexine in healthy Chinese volunteers%头孢克洛与溴己新在中国健康人体内药动学环节的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚倩; 胡哲益; 黄志壮; 王黎青; 刘文芳; 郭歆; 曹伟; 王霆; 程泽能


    目的:研究头孢克洛和溴己新在中国健康成人体内药动学环节的相互作用.方法:采用3×3拉丁方试验设计,12名健康受试者在不同周期内分别多剂量口服头孢克洛片、盐酸溴己新片或头孢克洛片加盐酸溴己新片,周期间洗脱时间(Wash-out)为14 d.血及尿样中头孢克洛浓度采用HPLC-UV法测定,溴己新浓度采用HPLC-MS法测定.结果:将合并给予头孢克洛及溴己新组与单独给予头孢克洛组的主要药动学参数进行比较.头孢克洛的Cmax,AUC0-6(梯形面积)经对数转化后进行方差分析,结果表明二者均无统计学差异,双单侧t检验表明,两参数均落在各自相应的90%可信区间内,合用与单独使用相比,头孢克洛生物等效.tmax经Mann-Whitney检验,结果表明两组间无统计学差异.其他药动学参数(如:Vd/F,t1/2,Clr及MRT等)进行方差分析,结果显示:Vd/F有统计学差异,其他参数无统计学差异.将合并给予头孢克洛和溴己新组与单独给予溴己新组的主要药动学参数进行比较.溴己新的主要药动学参数Cmax,AUC0-24(梯形面积)经对数转化后进行方差分析,结果表明二者无统计学差异,双单侧t检验表明,两参数均落在各自相应的90%可信区间内,合用与单独使用相比,溴己新生物等效.tmax经Mann-Whitney检验,结果表明无统计学差异.其他药动学参数(如:Vd/F,t1/2,Clr及MRT)进行方差分析,参数均无统计学差异.结论:联合服用盐酸溴己新片与头孢克洛,药物的吸收、代谢及排泄不受影响;头孢克洛的表观分布容积高于单用头孢克洛,这可能是两药药效学协同作用的药动学基础.%Objective To determine the pharmacokinetic interaction between cefalor and bromhexine in healthy Chinese volunteers. Methods Twelve subjects received a cefaclor (CEF) treatment, a bromhexine (BHX) treatment, and a co-treatment of CEF and BHX with a 3 × 3 Latin square design. The wash-out time between

  11. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of cefaclor for suspension after single dose administration in healthy volunteers%健康受试者单剂量口服头孢克洛干混悬剂的药动学及生物等效性(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛洪源; 杨汉煜; 侯艳宁; 杨荣慧; 贾丽霞; 楚波


    AIM To study the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of two cefaclor for suspensions. METHODS A single oral administration of 250 mg test and reference of cefaclor for suspensions were given to 20 healthy male volunteers according to a randomized crossover design. The concentrations of cefaclor in plasma were determined by a HPLC-MS/MS method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and the bioequivalence were compared by DAS (Ver 1.0) program. RESULTS The pharmacokinetics parameters of test and reference preparations were as follows; pmax were (9.0 ± s 1.7) and (9.6 ± 1.6) mg-L-1, tmax were (0.37 ± 0.12) and (0.35 ±0.05) h, t1/2 were (0.88 ± 0.16) and (0.87 ± 0.11) h, AUC0-5hwere (7.9 ± 1.0) and (7.9 ± 1.1) mg·h·L-1, AUCo-∞. were (8.0 ± 1.0) and (8.0 ± 1.1) mg·h·L-1, respectively. There were no significant differences in tmax, pmax AUCo-5h, AUC0-∞, and t1/2 between the two preparations (P > 0.05). The relative bioavailability of test suspensions was (101 ± 12)%. CONCLUSION The test and reference preparations were bioequivalence.%目的 研究头孢克洛2种干混悬剂的药动学及生物等效性.方法 采用随机交叉试验设计,20名健康男性志愿者单剂量口服2种头孢克洛干混悬剂各250 mg,用液相色谱一串联质谱法测定血浆中头孢克洛的浓度,将20名受试者的经时血药浓度录入DAS(Ver 1.0)程序,进行统计分析.结果 单剂量口服试验与参比制剂后头孢克洛的p_(max)分别为(9.04±s 1.7)和(9.6±1.6)mg·L~(-1),tmax分别为(0.37±0.12)和(0.35 ±0.05)h,t_(1/2)分别为(0.88±0.16)和(0.87±0.11)h,AUC_(0~5h)分别为(7.9±1.0)和(7.94±1.1)mg·h·L~(-1),AUC_(0~∞)分别为(8.0±1.O)和(8.0±1.1)mg·h·L~(-1).2种制剂的t_(max)、p_(max)、AUC_(0~5h)、AUC_(0~∞)均无显著差异.试验制剂的相对生物利用度为(101±12)%.结论 试验制剂与参比制剂具有生物等效性.

  12. 头孢曲松和头孢曲松加头孢克罗序贯疗法治疗下呼吸道感染的成本-效果分析%Cost-effective analysis of ceftriaxone and sequential therapy of ceftriaxone followed by cefaclor in treatment of lower respiratory tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 李静; 曹玉


    目的头孢曲松与头孢曲松加头孢克罗序贯疗法治疗下呼吸道感染的成本效果分析.方法64例下呼吸道感染患者前瞻性随机对照研究和药物经济学成本效果分析,头孢曲松、头孢克罗序贯疗法组(n=34),先以头孢曲松2g,iv gtt,bid,3d后改用头孢克罗250mg,po,tid,5~7d;头孢曲松组(n=30)以头孢曲松2g,iv gtt,bid,8~10d.结果两组治疗总有效率分别为94.1%,93.3%,无显著性差异(P>0.05),序贯疗法每例可节省2000元左右.结论头孢曲松加头孢克罗序贯疗法治疗中、重度下呼吸道感染比单用头孢曲松静脉滴注更具成本效果.

  13. Effect of Dachengqi Granules(大承气汤颗粒剂)on Level of Endotoxin in Enterogenous Endotoxemia in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀珍; 郑尧; 马德禄; 谢文利; 赵珊; 吴咸中


    Objective:To study the effect of Dachengqi Granule (DCQG) on endotoxin level in rats ofenterogenous endotoxemia. Methods: Enterogenous endotoxemia model of rats was made by peritoneal in-jection of E. coli. In the treated groups, the rats were treated with different doses of DCQG, cefaclor andDCQG plus cefaclor respectively, starting from 3 days before to 1 day after modeling. Endotoxin levels inplasma, urine and stool were determined and compared. Results: Except for the cefaclor group, the plasmaand urine endotoxin levels in the treated groups were lower significantly (P<0.05), while the endotoxinlevel in stool was obviously higher than that in the untreated model group. Conclusion: DCQG has the intes-tinal barrier protective effect including anti-bacteria, anti-inflammation and clearing endotoxin.

  14. Clathrate type complexation of cephalosporin antibiotics : function, design and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, Gerardus Johannes


    This thesis deals with selective complexation of the Ø-lactam antibiotics Cephalexin, Cephradine, Cefaclor and Cefadroxil. These life-saving antibiotics belong to the class of the cephalosporins and are already on the market for approximately 25 years. An important driving force behind innovations o

  15. [Treatment of acute otitis media in paediatrics: a meta-analysis]. (United States)

    Esposito, Silvano; Novelli, Andrea; Noviello, Silvana


    Otitis represents the second most common infection of the upper respiratory tract, its treatment being the most common cause for prescribing antibiotics in the United States. A large number of antimicrobials, especially beta-lactams and macrolides, are generally used for treating acute otitis media (AOM) in paediatric patients, owing to their antibacterial spectrum including the main aetiological pathogens. Efficacy, safety and compliance of Cefaclor were compared with those of other antibiotics in the treatment of paediatric AOM in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials published between 1981 and 2004. Overall, evaluations were performed on 24 studies (Medline/PubMed, keywords "Cefaclor and otitis") which proved eligible (jadad score > or = 1); sixteen out of the 24 studies were multicentre, seven were double-blind. Mostly, the comparator agent was a beta-lactam, in four and three cases it was a macrolide or the association trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Efficacy and safety were end-points of all studies whereas only 9 studies evaluated compliance. For the majority of studies (16/24) Cefaclor was administered for 10-day course. The analysis was based on a 2 x 2 contingency table with classification by treatment and number of improvements/cures, side-effects, and compliance of individual studies. The global estimate of the effective treatments was obtained with the weighted mean of the log OR (Odd Ratio) according to Mantel-Haenszel and associated confidence intervals (CI) at 95%. All the calculations were performed using SAS v.8. Chi-square test was performed. Clinical efficacy evaluation, number of improvements/cures, did not evidence a statistically significant difference among Cefaclor and comparators (86.8% vs 88.7%; Odds Ratio 0.77, IC 0.61/0.94). In the Cefaclor-treated patients, adverse events were observed in a statistically significant lower percentage compared to other antibiotics: 13.3% vs 19.4% (P antibiotics usually employed in

  16. Serum sickness in children after antibiotic exposure: estimates of occurrence and morbidity in a health maintenance organization population. (United States)

    Heckbert, S R; Stryker, W S; Coltin, K L; Manson, J E; Platt, R


    The computerized outpatient records of the Harvard Community Health Plan, a 230,000-member health maintenance organization, were used to determine the frequency with which serum sickness is recognized in the practice setting after exposure to antibiotics. The medical records of 3,487 children who had been prescribed cefaclor or amoxicillin were searched in December 1986 for coded diagnoses of serum sickness and related conditions. Diagnoses were validated by blinded review of dictated and written office notes. There were 12 cases of serum sickness in 11,523 child-years. During this time, these children were prescribed 13,487 courses of amoxicillin, 5,597 courses of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ), 3,553 courses of cefaclor, and 2,325 courses of penicillin V. Serum sickness was considered to be antibiotic-related if it occurred within 20 days of initiation of antibiotic therapy. Five cases were temporally associated with cefaclor, one with both amoxicillin and TMP-SMZ, four with TMP-SMZ alone, and one with penicillin V alone. One case was not associated with any antibiotic exposure. All antibiotic-related cases occurred in children under age 6 years who were treated for otitis media or streptococcal pharyngitis, and most cases began 7-11 days after initiation of antibiotic. All but one of the antibiotic-related cases occurred in children who had relatively heavy lifetime antibiotic exposure. The risk of serum sickness was significantly elevated after cefaclor compared with amoxicillin, even among the most heavily exposed children (relative risk = 14.8, p = 0.01, 95% confidence interval 2.0-352.0). Most cases prompted several physician visits, but none required hospitalization.

  17. Simultaneous determination of 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Sheng Wu; Jin Lan Zhang; Yan Ling Qiao; Yi Lin Wang; Zhi Rong Chen


    In this study, a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was established and validated to determine the 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products, including 1 (ceftazidime), 2 (cefaclor), 3 (cefdinir), 4 (ampicillin), 5 (cefalexin), 6 (ceftezole), 7 (cefotaxim), 8 (cefradine), 9 (cefuroxime), 10 (cephazoline), 11 (cefathiamidine), 12 (cefoperazone), 13 (cafalotin), 14 (piperacillin).

  18. Biochemical characterization of systemic bacteria in bananas, sensitivity to antibiotics and plant phytotoxicity during shoot proliferation

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    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the biochemically systemic bacterial isolated from banana plants, to evaluate the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, and to determine the phytotoxicity of banana shoots during in vitro proliferation. Systemic bacteria belonging to the Klebsiella and Aeromonas genera were isolated from the “Maravilha” (FHIA 01 AAAB, “Preciosa” (PV 4285 AAAB and “Thap Maeo” (AAB varieties and were then characterized. Tests of shoot sensitivity to antibiotics were performed, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and phytotoxic effects of selected antibiotics to plants were determined. Among the 20 antibiotics evaluated, the strains showed sensitivity to cefaclor, cefalexin, cefalotin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin. However, during MIC determination, the best results were obtained with cefaclor, vancomycin or nalidixic acid alone in concentrations ranging from 512 to 1,024 mg L-1. In culture medium, cefaclor at 1,024 mg L-1 was the only antibiotic to affect the multiplication and the shoot survival in culture.

  19. A comparative study of capillary zone electrophoresis and pH-potentiometry for determination of dissociation constants. (United States)

    Andrasi, Melinda; Buglyo, Peter; Zekany, Laszlo; Gaspar, Attila


    Acidity constants of six cephalosporin antibiotics, cefalexin, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefotaxim, cefoperazon and cefoxitin are determined using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and pH-potentiometric titrations. Since CZE is a separation method, it is not necessary for the samples to be of high purity and known concentration because only mobilities are measured. The effect on determination of dissociation constants of different matrices (serum, 0.9% NaCl, fermentation matrix) was examined. The advantages of CZE can be utilized in those fields where potentiometry has limitations (sample quantity, solubility, purity, simultaneous determinations), although pK(a) values that are close to each other can be determined by potentiometry with more accuracy.

  20. New valid spectrofluorimetric method for determination of selected cephalosporins in different pharmaceutical formulations using safranin as fluorophore. (United States)

    Derayea, Sayed M; Ahmed, Hytham M; Abdelmageed, Osama H; Haredy, Ahmed M


    A new validated spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of some cephalosporins namely; cefepime, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefpodoxime and cefexime. The method was based on the reaction of these drugs with safranin in slightly alkaline medium (pH 8.0), to form ion-association complexes. The fluorescent products were extracted into chloroform and their fluorescence intensities were measured at 544-565 nm after excitation at 518-524 nm. The reaction conditions influencing the product formation and stability were investigated and optimized. The relative fluorescence intensity was proportional to the drug concentration in the linear ranges of 0.15-1.35, 0.35-1.25, 0.35-1.25, 0.20-1.44 and 0.20-1.25 μg/mL for cefepime, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefpodoxime proxetil and cefexime, respectively. The detection limits were 40, 100, 100, 60 and 70 ng/mL, respectively. The performance of the developed method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed methods over the reference spectrophotometric method. Various pharmaceutical formulations were successfully analyzed using the proposed method and the results were in good agreement with those of the previously reported methods.

  1. Metagenomic analysis of antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota in a pregnant rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran eKhan


    Full Text Available Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA-approved category B antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat infections during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (GM that occur during pregnancy. The 16S rRNA amplicon deep-sequencing method was used to analyse the effect of category B antibiotics (azithromycin, amoxicillin and cefaclor on GM during pregnancy using a rat model. The GM composition was substantially modulated by pregnancy and antibiotics administration. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Chlamydiae, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria were the dominant phyla. Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and reduced Firmicutes. The genera Shigella, Streptococcus, Candidatus Arthromitus and Helicobacter were significantly (p<0.05 more abundant during pregnancy. Antibiotics significantly (p<0.05 reduced the relative abundance of Lactobacillus but increased that of Enterobacter. There was a significant (p<0.05 decrease in Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillus crispatus during pregnancy. Antibiotic treatment reduced bacterial diversity; the lowest number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs were detected in the cefaclor-treated groups. Antibiotics significantly (p<0.05 promoted weight gain during pregnancy, and increased relative abundance of Shigella sonnei, Enterococcus hormaechei and Acinetobacter sp. GM perturbations were accompanied by increases in Proteobacteria abundance and weight gain in pregnancy following antibiotic treatment

  2. A Biosurfactant-Sophorolipid Acts in Synergy with Antibiotics to Enhance Their Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Joshi-Navare


    Full Text Available Sophorolipids (SLs, biosurfactants with antimicrobial properties, have been tried to address the problem of antibiotic resistance. The synergistic action of SL and antibiotics was checked using standard microdilution and spread plate methods. With Staphylococcus aureus, SL-tetracycline combination achieved total inhibition before 4 h of exposure while tetracycline alone couldnot achieve total inhibition till the end of 6 h. The inhibition caused by exposure of bacterium to SL-tetracycline mixture was ~25% more as compared to SL alone. In spite of known robustness of gram-negative bacteria, SL-cefaclor mixture proved to be efficient against Escherichia coli which showed ~48% more inhibition within 2 h of exposure as compared to cefaclor alone. Scanning electron microscopy of the cells treated with mixture revealed bacterial cell membrane damage and pore formation. Moreover, SLs being a type of asymmetric bola, they are expected to form self-assemblies with unique functionality. This led to the speculation that SLs being amphiphilic in nature can span through the structurally alike cell membrane and facilitate the entry of drug molecules.

  3. Resistência a antimicrobianos de Escherichia coli isolada de dejetos suínos em esterqueiras Antibiotic-resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from stored pig slurry

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    F.F.P. Silva


    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance of 96 Escherichia coli strains isolated from a stabilization pond system on a pig-breeding farm was evaluated. Strains were tested for their resistance against 14 antimicrobial using the agar diffusion method. E. coli strains showed resistance to tetracycline (82.3%, nalidixic acid (64%, ampicilin (41%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprin (36%, sulfonamide (34%, cloranphenicol (274%, ciprofloxacin (19%, cefaclor (16%, streptomicyn (7.3%, neomicyn (1%, amoxacilin/ clavulanic acid (1%, and amikacin (1%. No resistance was observed to gentamicin and tobramycin, and 37.5% of E. coli strains were resistant to four or more antimicrobials. The multiresistance pattern was found in strains isolated during all sampled period. Strains showed a high variability in the antimicrobial resistance pattern.

  4. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro profile based interaction with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells of alginate-chitosan-silica biocomposite. (United States)

    Balaure, Paul Catalin; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Yang, Chih-Hui; Chifiriuc, Carmen Mariana; Lin, Yung-Sheng


    This work is focused on the fabrication of a new drug delivery system based on polyanionic matrix (e.g. sodium alginate), polycationic matrix (e.g. chitosan) and silica network. The FT-IR, SEM, DTA-TG, eukaryotic cell cycle and viability, and in vitro assay of the influence of the biocomposite on the efficacy of antibiotic drugs were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated the biocompatibility and the ability of the fabricated biocomposite to maintain or improve the efficacy of the following antibiotics: piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, piperacillin, imipenem, gentamicin, ceftazidime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and cefazolin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 reference strains.

  5. Sensitivity of clinical isolates from German hospitals to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Augmentin) compared with other antibiotics. (United States)

    Focht, J; Klietmann, W; Nösner, K; Rolinson, G N; Johnsen, J


    17,244 pathogens isolated from clinical specimens of 24 hospitals in the Moers area (North-Rhine Westphalia, FRG) were tested in regard to their susceptibility to Augmentin (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid). For this purpose, minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined by use of microbroth dilution technique. 80% of Gram-negative, 98% of Gram-positive and 97% of anaerobic isolates were susceptible to Augmentin (breakpoint 4 mg/l amoxicillin in the presence of 2.5 mg/l clavulanic acid). In a second part of the study the susceptibility to Augmentin of 4.137 Gram-negative and 10.958 Gram-positive pathogens was compared to their sensitivity against benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin, mezlocillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, fusidic acid, ampicillin, cefaclor and doxycyclin.

  6. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of cephalosporins

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    Hancu Gabriel


    Full Text Available A rapid and simple capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of six extensively used cephalosporin antibiotics (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefuroxim, ceftazidim, ceftriaxon. The determination of cephalosporins was performed at a pH 6.8, using a 25 mM phospate - 25 mM borate mixed buffer, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 °C. We achieved a baseline separation in approximately 10 minutes. The separation resolution was increased by addition of an anionic surfactant, 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, to the buffer solution. The proposed separation was evaluated on the basis of detection and quantification limits, effective electrophoretic mobility and relative standard deviation for migration times and peak areas.

  7. Antibacterial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from burns and wounds of cancer patients

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    Sulaiman A. Alharbi


    Full Text Available In this study 540 burns and wound swabs were collected from cancer patients of some Egyptian hospitals. The single infection was detected from 210, and 70 cases among wounded and burned patients, while mixed infection was 30 and 45, respectively. We recovered where 60 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 60 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 7 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 4 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 25 isolates of Escherichia coli, 23 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 27 isolates of Proteus vulgaris from 355 burn and surgical wound infections . All bacterial isolates showed high resistance to the commonly used β-lactams (amoxycillin, cefaclor, ampicillin, vancomycin, amoxicillin/clavulonic, and low resistance to imepenim and ciprofloxacin. Plasmid analysis of six multidrug resistant and two susceptible bacterial isolates revealed the same plasmid pattern. This indicated that R-factor is not responsible for the resistance phenomenon among the isolated opportunistic bacteria. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the isolated bacteria was studied.

  8. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of commensal Streptococcus pneumoniae in nine European countries. (United States)

    Yahiaoui, Rachid Y; den Heijer, Casper Dj; van Bijnen, Evelien Me; Paget, W John; Pringle, Mike; Goossens, Herman; Bruggeman, Cathrien A; Schellevis, François G; Stobberingh, Ellen E


    The human microbiota represents an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Moreover, the majority of antibiotics are prescribed in primary care. For this reason, we assessed the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of nasal carriage strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most prevalent bacterial causative agent of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, in outpatients in nine European countries. Nasal swabs were collected between October 2010 and May 2011, from 32,770 patients, recruited by general practices in nine European countries. Overall prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasal carriage in the nine countries was 2.9%. The carriage was higher in men (3.7%) than in women (2.7%). Children (4-9 years) had a higher carriage prevalence (27.2%) compared with those older than 10 years (1.9%). The highest resistance observed was to cefaclor. The highest prevalence of multidrug resistance was found in Spain and the lowest prevalence was observed in Sweden.

  9. Protein hydrolysate-induced cholecystokinin secretion from enteroendocrine cells is indirectly mediated by the intestinal oligopeptide transporter PepT1. (United States)

    Liou, Alice P; Chavez, Diana I; Espero, Elvis; Hao, Shuzhen; Wank, Stephen A; Raybould, Helen E


    Dietary protein is a major stimulant for cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion by the intestinal I cell, however, the mechanism by which protein is detected is unknown. Indirect functional evidence suggests that PepT1 may play a role in CCK-mediated changes in gastric motor function. However, it is unclear whether this oligopeptide transporter directly or indirectly activates the I cell. Using both the CCK-expressing enteroendocrine STC-1 cell and acutely isolated native I cells from CCK-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) mice, we aimed to determine whether PepT1 directly activates the enteroendocrine cell to elicit CCK secretion in response to oligopeptides. Both STC-1 cells and isolated CCK-eGFP cells expressed PepT1 transcripts. STC-1 cells were activated, as measured by ERK(1/2) phosphorylation, by both peptone and the PepT1 substrate Cefaclor; however, the PepT1 inhibitor 4-aminomethyl benzoic acid (AMBA) had no effect on STC-1 cell activity. The PepT1-transportable substrate glycyl-sarcosine dose-dependently decreased gastric motility in anesthetized rats but had no affect on activation of STC-1 cells or on CCK secretion by CCK-eGFP cells. CCK secretion was significantly increased in response to peptone but not to Cefaclor, cephalexin, or Phe-Ala in CCK-eGFP cells. Taken together, the data suggest that PepT1 does not directly mediate CCK secretion in response to PepT1 specific substrates. PepT1, instead, may have an indirect role in protein sensing in the intestine.

  10. 全细胞高通量筛选α-氨基酸酯水解酶突变体的方法%Cell-based high throughput screening of α-amino acid ester hydrolase variants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶丽娟; 王佳珉; 王辂; 曹毅


    [Objective] The study aimed to develop an efficient and sensitive high-throughput method to obtain alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase (AEH) with improved activity or thermo-stability. [Methods] Standard curve was made based on the fact that hydrolysis of cefaclor in alkaline buffer yields a derivate which has specific absorbance at 340 nm. Whole cell-based ultra-violet spectrophotometric method was applied to screen the cefaclor synthesis activity of AEH variants at a high-throughput scale. [Results] Beer's Law is obeyed in the range of (0.1-0.6)xl0~3 mol/L cefaclor. The average recovery is 99.8%-101.3%. 2 300 Clones obtained by one round of site-directed saturated mutagenesis were screened by this method. Three variants with more than 1.4-fold kcat and 4 variants with T50 5 ℃ more than wild type were obtained. [Conclusion] The screening method was precise and reliable. The screen capacity can be up to 2 000 samples per day, which was in the scale of high-throughput screening.%[目的]建立高效敏感的高通量筛选方法,用于筛选头孢克洛合成活性提高或热稳定性提高的α-氨基酸酯水解酶.[方法]根据头孢克洛在碱性条件下水解生成的衍生物在340 nm处有特征吸收峰的原理,制作出标准曲线.采用全细胞96孔板紫外分光光度法高通量测定α-氨基酸酯水解酶突变体的头孢克洛合成活性.[结果]头孢克洛含量与△A340-405在(0.1-0.6)×10-3 mol/L浓度范围内有良好的线性关系,服从朗伯-比尔定律,平均回收率为99.8%-101.3%.一轮定点饱和突变产生的2 300个克隆经该方法的筛选,获得3株Kcat提高40%以上,4株半失活温度较野生型提高5℃以上的突变体酶.[结论]该方法准确可靠,每天筛选量可达到2 000个反应,达到高通量筛选的要求.

  11. 上海地区119家医院2009-2011年头孢菌素类药利用分析%Analysis of the Utilization of Cephalosporin Antibacterial Drugs in 119 Hospitals from Shanghai Area during 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石卫峰; 归成; 李晓宇; 刘皋林


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utilization and tendency of cephalosporin antibacterial drugs in hospitals from Shanghai area. METHODS: The utilization of cephalosporins in 119 hospitals of Shanghai area during 2009 - 2011 was analyzed statistically in respect of main categories, consumption sum, DDDs and DDC, etc. RESULTS: The consumption sum of cephalosporins reached a peak in 2010 and decreased obviously in 2011. The consumption sum of oral cephalosporins showed a small increase and that of injections showed a downward trend. Over the 3 years, cefaclor, cefixime and cefdinir ranked the top 3 in the list of consumption sum; and cefuroxime axetil, cefaclor and cefixime ranked the top 3 in the list of DDDs; cefotiam, cefuroxime and cefoxi-tin occupied the top 3 in the list of consumption sum and DDDs of injections. CONCLUSIONS: The management of clinical application of cephalosporin antibacterial drugs should continue to be strengthened so as to ensure effective, safe and economical use of drugs in the clinic.%目的:评价上海地区医院头孢菌素类药的应用现状和趋势.方法:对2009-2011年上海地区119家医院头孢菌素类药的主要品种、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日均费用(DDC)等进行统计、分析.结果:该地区医院头孢菌素类药的销售金额在2010年达到高峰,2011年出现明显下降;口服剂的销售金额呈现小幅增长,注射剂的销售金额有下降趋势;3年来,头孢克洛、头孢克肟和头孢地尼的销售金额在口服剂中排名前3位,头孢呋辛酯、头孢克洛和头孢克肟的DDDs排名前3位,头孢替安、头孢呋辛和头孢西丁在注射剂中占销售金额和DDDs排名的前3位.结论:应继续加强头孢菌素类的临床应用管理,以确保临床用药的有效、安全和经济.

  12. Sobrevivência e perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos de Salmonella sp. isoladas em um sistema de tratamento de dejetos de suínos Survival and resistance patterns of Salmonella sp. isolated in a pig slurry treatment plant

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    Verônica Schmidt


    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foi avaliada a sobrevivência de Salmonella sp., presente em dejetos suínos, durante tratamento em um sistema de separação física e lagoas de estabilização ligadas em série. Nas amostras de Salmonella sp. isoladas foi determinado o perfil de resistência pelo método de difusão em ágar, usando 14 antimicrobianos. Das 20 coletas realizadas, foi possível isolar Salmonella sp. em 13 coletas no ponto correspondente ao início do sistema de tratamento e em apenas uma no ponto final do mesmo. Amostras de Salmonella sp. isoladas (161/163 pertenciam ao sorotipo Typhimurium e demonstraram resistência contra sulfonamida (100%, tetraciclina (99,4%, estreptomicina (90,1%, sulfa/trimetoprima (84,5%, ácido nalidíxico (77,6%, ampicilina (76,4%, cloranfenicol (29,2%, cefaclor (25,5%, tobramicina (13,7%, gentamicina (6,2%, amoxacilina/ácido clavulânico (5%, neomicina (5% e amicacina (3,7%. A maioria (94,5% das amostras isoladas foram resistente a 4 ou mais antimicrobianos e apresentaram grande variabilidade nos perfis de resistência. O nível de resistência e a variabilidade dos perfis mantiveram-se em nível semelhante ao longo do sistema.The survival of Salmonella sp. in pig slurry submitted to treatment in successive stabilization ponds on a pig-breeding farm was investigated. Furthermore, the isolated Salmonella strains were tested for their resistance against 14 antibiotics, using the agar diffusion method. Of a total of 20 samples taken from different points in the stabilization ponds system, 13 were positive for Salmonella sp. in the beginning and only one at the end of the system. Most of the isolated Salmonella strains (161/163 belonged to sorovar Typhimurium. These strains were resistant to sulfonamide (100%, tetracycline (9.4%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprin (84.5%, ampicillin (76.4%, cloramphenicol (29.2%, streptomycin (90.1%, nalidixic acid (77.6%, tobramycin (13.7%, neomycin (5%, amikacin (3.7%, cefaclor (25

  13. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Chinese children: four hospitals surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈叙庄; 陆权; 叶启慈; 张国成; 俞桑洁; 张泓; 邓秋莲; 杨永弘


    Objective To investigate the nasal carriage of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci in children of <5 years old in the following four cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Xi'an.Methods A total of 647 pneumococci strains were isolated and detected. Minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics were determined by E-test. Disk diffusion test was used for the measurement of antimicrobial susceptibility.Results Prevalence of penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in the four cities was 41%, with Guangzhou (60.8%) ranking first, followed by Xi'an (45%), Shanghai (37%) and Beijing (25.9%). The majority of penicillin non-susceptibility isolates (23.9%-53.8%) had a low level of resistance (MIC 0.64-1.5 μg/ml). The most sensitive antimicrobials in terms of percentage of susceptible organisms were amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (99.4%), followed by ceftriaxone (92.1%); cefurxime and cefaclor were slightly more sensitive than penicillin with susceptibility of 74.8% and 77.9%. Erythromycin, tetracycline and TMP-SMZ were highly resistant (83.6%, 82.1% and 76.2% respectively). Among erythromycin resistant isolates, 100% were resistant to azithromycin, 98.6% to clarithromycin, 97.2% to roxithromycin and spiramycin, and 96.6% to clindamycin. 97.2% (141/145) were typical of the macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramons B (MLSB ) resistance phenotype, and 2.8% (4/145) were M phenotype. The group of PRSP was with significantly higher rates of non-susceptibility for ceftriaxone (18.4%), cefurxime (58.6%), cefaclor (53.4%), compared with the group of PEN-S (0.5%, 1.8% and 0.2%, respectively) and the rate of multi-drug resistance in the isolates of PRSP group (92.9%) was significantly higher than that of PEN-S group (59.2%).Conclusion The rates of penicillin and multi-drug resistance among isolates of pneumococci carried nasally in are high children and the high prevalence of multi-drug resistance in the Chinese population may be becoming one of the most serious

  14. The potential for community exposures to pathogens from an urban dairy. (United States)

    Alvarado, Carla S; Gibbs, Shawn G; Gandara, Angelina; Flores, Carissa; Hurd, William W; Green, Christopher F


    The objectives of the study described in this article were to evaluate the variation and transport of fungal and bacterial concentrations in the air of a northern Mexico dairy cattle confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) and to determine the concentration and incidence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Two-stage viable cascade impactors were used to measure the culturable airborne fungal organisms and bacteria. S. aureus resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, or cefaclor was identified. Samples were collected at three locations that were designated as on site, upwind of the cattle, and downwind of the cattle. The highest concentrations of culturable bacterial bioaerosols were consistently recovered from the on-site location. More than half of the organisms were antibiotic resistant at the on-site location. Elevated levels of culturable bacterial bioaerosols were recovered from the upwind site that may have been associated with the surrounding community. Bioaerosol concentrations were found in higher amounts than in a facility in the southwestern U.S. examined in the authors' previous study. The urban setting of the CAFO resulted in a higher potential for immediate community exposures.

  15. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface water and groundwater samples in a pig production area

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    Roger Neto Schneider


    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics, so excessive and indiscriminate in intensive animal production, has triggered an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms which can be transported to aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of the antimicrobial resistance of samples of Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater and surface water in a region of pig breeding. Through the test of antimicrobial susceptibility, we analyzed 205 strains of E. coli. A high rate of resistance to cefaclor was observed, both in surface water (51.9% and groundwater (62.9%, while all samples were sensitive to amikacin. The percentages of multi-resistant samples were 25.96% and 26.73% in surface water and groundwater, respectively, while 19.23% and 13.86% were sensitive to all antibiotics tested. It was determined that the rate of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR was 0.164 for surface water and 0.184 for groundwater. No significant differences were found in the profile of the antimicrobial resistance in strains of E. coli isolated in surface water and groundwater, but the index MAR calculated in certain points of groundwater may offer a potential risk of transmission of resistant genes.

  16. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

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    Mohammad Alshara


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  17. Bacteriological Analysis, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Detection of 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by PCR in Drinking Water Samples of Earthquake Affected Areas and Other Parts of Pakistan

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    Rasheed, F.


    Full Text Available In Pakistan, clean drinking water is not available to most of the population. Main source of drinking water in Hazara, Azad Jammu and Kashmir-Pakistan is underground and spring water, due to earthquake water reservoirs in these areas were immensely contaminated. Moreover, drinking water treatment and proper sanitary facilities were also lacking. This study was conducted to analyze the quality of drinking water available in most of the cities of Pakistan including earthquake hit areas. For this purpose, 112 water samples were collected and analyzed by membrane filtration method. Microbial isolates were identified using QTS-10 and biochemical tests. Almost all samples were found to be contaminated but in earthquake affected areas quality of drinking water was substandard than other areas of Pakistan. Results revealed the detection of following bacterial pathogens among the water samples: Enterobacter sp., Klebsiellasp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Salmonella sp., Proteus sp., Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. Furthermore, these bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin (32.1%, amoxicillin (30.4%, sulphometoxazole (20.5% and cefaclor (31.3%. All drinking water samples were analyzed for 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by using PCR, however no positive result was found in these samples. Based on our results it is suggested that authorities should pay attention to supply safe water and proper sanitary facilities to avoid epidemics of infectious diseases in future.

  18. The synthesis and characterization of poly({gamma}-glutamic acid)-coated magnetite nanoparticles and their effects on antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Inbaraj, B; Kao, T H; Tsai, T Y; Chiu, C P; Kumar, R; Chen, B H, E-mail: [Department of Food Science, Fu Jen University, Taipei 242, Taiwan (China)


    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) modified with sodium and calcium salts of poly({gamma}-glutamic acid) (NaPGA and CaPGA) were synthesized by the coprecipitation method, followed by characterization and evaluation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. Superparamagnetic MNPs are particularly attractive for magnetic driving as well as bacterial biofilm and cell targeting in in vivo applications. Characterization of synthesized MNPs by the Fourier transform infrared spectra and magnetization curves confirmed the PGA coating on MNPs. The mean diameter of NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs as determined by transmission electron microscopy was 11.8 and 14 nm, respectively, while the x-ray diffraction pattern revealed the as-synthesized MNPs to be pure magnetite. Based on agar dilution assay, both NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs showed a lower minimum inhibitory concentration in Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 than the commercial antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, but the former was effective against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832, whereas the latter was effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 TWC 01. An in vitro cytotoxicity study in human skin fibroblast cells as measured by MTT assay implied the as-synthesized MNPs to be nontoxic. This outcome demonstrated that both {gamma}-PGA-modified MNPs are cytocompatible and possess antibacterial activity in vitro, and thereby should be useful in in vivo studies for biomedical applications.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of superparamagnetic nanoparticles modified with glycol chitosan

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    Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj, Tsung-Yu Tsai and Bing-Huei Chen


    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron salts in alkali media followed by coating with glycol chitosan (GC-coated IONPs. Both bare and GC-coated IONPs were subsequently characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. Comparison of Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric data of bare and GC-coated IONPs confirmed the presence of GC coating on IONPs. Magnetization curves showed that both bare and GC-coated IONPs are superparamagnetic and have saturation magnetizations of 70.3 and 59.8 emu g−1, respectively. The IONP size was measured as ~8–9 nm by transmission electron microscopy, and their crystal structure was assigned to magnetite from x-ray diffraction patterns. Both bare and GC-coated IONPs inhibited the growths of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 bacteria better than the antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, as evaluated by the agar dilution assay. GC-coated IONPs showed higher potency against E. coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832 than bare IONPs. Given their biocompatibility and antibacterial properties, GC-coated IONPs are a potential nanomaterial for in vivo applications.

  20. [Activity of cefpodoxime and other oral beta-lactams against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae with different susceptibilities to penicillin]. (United States)

    Fenoll, A; Robledo, O; Lerma, M; Giménez, M J; Cebrián, L; Casal, J; Aguilar, L; Gómez-Lus, M L


    This study explores the influence on the intrinsic activity of different oral beta-lactams of beta-lactamase production in Haemophilus influenzae and penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three substudies were performed: a) a general susceptibility study, analyzing 550 strains received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout February and March 2005; b) a study on the influence of penicillin resistance on the activity of beta-lactams, analyzing 251 penicillin-susceptible strains (MICor=2 mg/l) randomly chosen among those received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout 2005; and c) an H. influenzae susceptibility study analyzing 150 strains received by Instituto Valenciano de Microbiologia throughout 2005. A total of 71% of S. pneumoniae strains were susceptible to penicillin, 21% exhibited intermediate resistance and 8% strains presented full resistance. H. influenzae beta-lactamase production rate was 18.6%. Of the non-beta-lactamase-producing strains, 3% were not susceptible to ampicillin. Cefpodoxime and cefixime exhibited the highest intrinsic activity against H. influenzae, while amoxicillin and cefpodoxime were the most active compounds against S. pneumoniae. All H. influenzae strains were susceptible to oral cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The increase in penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae influenced cefixime, cefaclor and cefuroxime to a higher degree than amoxicillin and cefpodoxime.

  1. The outpatient use of beta lactam antibiotics in Montenegro before the introduction of new reform strategy on drug market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duborija-Kovačević Nataša


    Full Text Available Introduction: The study represents the first investigation of outpatient use of beta lactam antibiotics in Montenegro carried out in accordance with internationally approved methodology (DDD/ATC. Objective: The objective of our study was to establish both the scope and overall use of beta lactam antibiotics, and to assess their compatibility with current pharmacotherapeutic guidelines and their use in developed countries. Methods: The retrospective pharmaco-epidemiological study comprised a 100%-sample of beta lactams that were used in the period prior to introduction of new reform strategy on drug market. Results: Beta lactam antibiotics (J01C, J01D were the most frequently applied anti-infectives for systemic use (ATC group J in 2000 (11.3 DDD/1000 inh./day, 61%. Penicillins (J01C were the most utilized (8.0 DDD/1000 inh./day, 71%. Cephalosporin derivatives (cephalexin and cefaclor accounted for the remaining 29% (3.3 DDD/1000 inh./day. Aminopenicillins were prevailing among penicillins (85%. Beta lactamase sensitive penicillins were in the second place and approximately accounted for 14%. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that the use of beta lactam antibacterials could be estimated as partially satisfactory. There is a need to make additional efforts with a view of further rationalization.

  2. Impact of acute otitis media pathogen shifts on the clinical efficacy of several antibiotics: a therapeutic outcomes model. (United States)

    Canut, A; Martin-Herrero, J E; Maortua, H; Labora, A; Isla, A; Rodriguez-Gascon, A


    The aim of this study was to predict the clinical efficacy of different antimicrobials in the treatment of patients with acute otitis media (AOM), before and after the change in the proportion of middle ear pathogens observed after the introduction of the new conjugated heptavalent penumococcal vaccine (pPCV-7). The therapeutic Outcomes model was used to predict the likelihood of clinical success. According to this mathematical model the obtained rank order of predicted clinical efficacy was similar in the pre-PVC7 period and the post-PVC period. The results suggest that ceftriaxone and amoxicillin/clavulanate are the antibiotics with the highest predicted clinical efficacy, whereas cefaclor, azithromycin, erythromycin and clarithromycin are those with the lowest predicted clinical efficacy. The differences between antibiotics with good and those with low antibacterial activity were greater when only cases of bacterial AOM were considered. Antibiotics for which the highest clinical efficacy was predicted should maximize the likelihood of cure in outpatient antibiotic treatment of AOM.

  3. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria responsible of acute respiratory tract infections in children

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    Makhtar Camara


    Full Text Available Background and aims. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common causative agents of acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs. The objective of this study was to assess their susceptibility to several antibiotics.Materials and methods. A total of 58 strains (16 S. pneumoniae, 19 H. influenzae and 23 M. catarrhalis were isolated from samples collected in two paediatric centres, and their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics tested by E-test. Results. Among H. influenzae isolates, 10.5% were resistant to ampicillin (all β-lactamase-positive, and 88.9% were susceptible to cefaclor. High β-lactam resistance rates (penicillin: 31.3% and cephalosporins: 18.7 to 31.3% had been observed among S. pneumonia strains. Only 50% of isolates were susceptible to azithromycine. 91.3% of M. catarrhalis isolates β-lactamases producers were resistant to ampicillin while susceptible to the most tested antibiotics. Conclusions. Except M. catarrhalis β-lactamases producing strains, frequency of antibiotic resistance was mainly observed among S. pneumoniae, and to a lesser extent among H. influenzae clinical isolates, suggesting the need for continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance patterns in the management of RTIs.

  4. Antibiotic resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae isolated from respiratory tract specimens

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    Hikmet Eda Aliskan


    Full Text Available Purpose: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are two of the major pathogens in respiratory infections, treatment is usually started empirically. The aim of this study was to detect in vitro resistance rates of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae strains isolated from different lower respiratory clinical samples to the antibotics which are used for therapy of infections due to these pathogens. Material and Methods: Seventy seven S.pneumoniae and 117 H.influenzae strains, isolated from patients were included in the study. S.pneumoniae isolates which gave an inhibition zone diameter of >20 mm for oxacillin were considered susceptible for penicilin. For the isolates which had an oxacillin zone diameter of 2 mg/l and 31.1 % were intermediately resistant to parenteral penicillin. Resistance rates to antibiotics were as follows: erythromycin 40 %, trimethoprim/sulphametoxazole (TMP/SMX 54.5 % and ofloxacin 6.4%. beta-lactamases were detected in 15.6% of the H.influenzae isolates by nitrocefin positivity. Conclusion: H.influenzae strains (8.6% were identified as beta-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR strains. Resistance rates for other antibiotics were as follows: ampicillin 28.6%, cefaclor 36.5% , cefuroxime 30.1%, clarithromycin 9.6%, cloramphenicol 7% and TMP-SMX 43.9%. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 201-207

  5. Characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates causing urinary tract infections. (United States)

    Piccinelli, Giorgio; Biscaro, Valeria; Gargiulo, Franco; Caruso, Arnaldo; De Francesco, Maria Antonia


    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) has been implicated in urinary tract infections but the microbiological characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of these strains are poorly investigated. In this study, 87 isolates recovered from urine samples of patients who had attended the Spedali Civili of Brescia (Italy) and had single organism GBS cultured were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular characterization of macrolide and levofloxacin resistance, PCR-based capsular typing and analysis of surface protein genes. By automated broth microdilution method, all isolates were susceptible to penicillin, cefuroxime, cefaclor, and ceftriaxone; 80%, 19.5% and 3.4% of isolates were non-susceptible to tetracycline, erythromycin, and levofloxacin, respectively. Macrolide resistance determinants were iMLS(B) (n=1), cMLS(B) (n=10) and M (n=5), associated with ermTR, ermB and mefA/E. Levofloxacin resistance was linked to mutations in gyrA and parC genes. Predominant capsular types were III, Ia, V, Ib and IX. Type III was associated with tetracycline resistance, while type Ib was associated with levofloxacin resistance. Different capsular type-surface protein gene combinations (serotype V-alp2, 3; serotype III-rib; serotype Ia-epsilon) were detected. A variety of capsular types are involved in significant bacteriuria. The emergence of multidrug resistant GBS may become a significant public health concern and highlights the importance of careful surveillance to prevent the emergence of these virulent GBS.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of divalent metal complexes of the macrocyclic ligand derived from isatin and 1,2-diaminobenzene

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    Full Text Available A novel series of complexes of the type [M(C28H18N6X2], where M=Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II or Zn(II and X = Cl-, NO3- or CH3COO-, were synthesized by template condensation of isatin and 1,2-diaminobenzene in methanolic medium. The complexes were characterized with the help of various physico–chemical techniques, such as elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic measurements, and NMR, infrared and far infrared spectral studies. The low value of molar conductance indicates them to be non-electrolytes. Based on various studies, a distorted octahedral geometry may be proposed for all the complexes. All the synthesized macrocyclic complexes were also tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacterial strains. The MIC values shown by the complexes against these bacterial strains were compared with those of the standard antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor. Some of the complexes showed good antibacterial activities.

  7. Susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to various antibiotics among strains isolated from patients and healthy carriers in different regions of Brazil (1999-2000

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    F. Rossi


    Full Text Available Resistance of microbes to commonly used antibiotics became a major concern at the end of the last century. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen in respiratory infections, we conducted microbiological assessment of drug susceptibility patterns among strains collected from two different population groups: 1 adult and pediatric patients (375 isolates with different infections, and 2 healthy children in day care centers (< 5 years old; 350 isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not identified in either group. Intermediate resistance levels were similar in both groups (adults: 9.9%; children: 9.2%. The Central West region of Brazil tended to have lower susceptibility of S.pneumoniae from infected adults and children to penicillin (81% vs. 93% in the South and 90% in the Southeast, tetracycline (64% vs. 80% and 76%, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (14% vs. 34%. Susceptibility was similar among strains from nasal cultures of healthy children tested in each of 4 regions of Brazil. All isolates were susceptible to cefaclor, cefotaxime and amoxacillin/clavulanate. This study, in two distinct populations, allowed characterization of local microbiological resistance patterns. This data is expected to be of use in guiding empiric therapy in the different regions of Brazil.

  8. [The drug sensitivity of enterohemorragic Escherichia coli and antibiotics treatment for hemorrhagic enterocolitis--from an outbreak of enterocolitis in Sakai city]. (United States)

    Moriguchi, N; Yagi, K; Yamamoto, T; Yoshioka, K; Kubo, S


    In July, 1996, a massive outbreak of hemorrhagic enterocolitis involving more than 5,000 people was caused by enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 occurred mainly among elementary school children of Sakai City, Japan. The antibacterial activities in vitro against EHEC from stool specimens were determined. Norfloxacin showed the highest antibacterial activity, and fosfomycin, kanamycin, ampicillin, cefaclor were considered as effective drugs. But doxycycline showed lower antibacterial activities compared to other examined drugs, and it appears necessary to take antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli into consideration when a treatment regimen is determined. As a result of the oral administration of fosfomycin to 95 patients of hemorrhagic enterocolitis and carrier, no patients developed complications with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). However, a study of 17 patients with HUS demonstrated the fact that most of them were subjected to intravenous administration of fosfomycin. It may be needed to consider oral administration route of effective antibiotics in the treatment of enterocolitis in order to maintain high concentrations of a drug in the intestine.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance and BRO genotyping of Moraxella catarrhalis isolates from respiratory tract in children%儿童呼吸道卡他莫拉菌分离株耐药性与BRO基因分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王频佳; 谢成彬; 吴雨露


    Objectives To investigate antimicrobial resistance and beta-lactamase production of Moraxella catarrhalis isolates from respiratory tract in children and to understand the characteristics of BRO beta-lactamase gene. Methods From June 2011 to Sep-tember 2012, 401 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were obtained from respiratory tract in children. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of commonly-used antibiotics were determined by microbroth dilution assay, and beta-lactamase production was detected by Nitroceifn disk test. PCR combining restriction endonuclease analysis was employed to do the BRO genotyping. Results 96.5%iso-lates were beta-lactamase positive (387/401), MIC (MIC50/MIC90) values and resistant rates of beta-lactamase producing isolates were higher than those of non beta-lactamase producing isolates for ampicillin, cefaclor and cefuroxime (P<0.05). The positive rate of BRO gene was 99.2%in beta-lactamase producing isolates (384/387), consisting of 93.0%BRO-1 isolates and 7.0%BRO-2 isolates. MIC50 and MIC90 values of BRO-1+isolates were higher than those of BRO-2+isolates for ampicillin, cefaclor, cefuroxime and azithromycin. Conclusions The beta-lactamase production rate is high in Moraxella catarrhalis isolates from respiratory tract in children. BRO-1 type was the dominant genotype of beta-lactamase producing isolates, having more inlfuence than BRO-2 type in the inlfuence on some beta-lactams and macrolides.%  目的调查儿童呼吸道卡他莫拉菌分离株产β内酰胺酶情况和耐药性,以及菌株BRO酶基因特征。方法2011年6月至2012年9月,从儿童呼吸道分离卡他莫拉菌401株;用微量肉汤稀释法测定常用抗生素最低抑菌浓度,用Nitroceifn纸片法检测β-内酰胺酶,用PCR扩增结合限制性内切酶分析方法对分离株进行BRO基因分型。结果401株卡他莫拉菌的β-内酰胺酶产酶率为96.5%(387/401);产酶株对氨苄西林、头孢克洛、头孢呋辛的MIC50

  10. Caracterização da mastite subclínica em caprinos produzidos em sistema orgânico no Rio Grande do Sul Characterization of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats herds raised on an organic system in Rio Grande do Sul

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    Verônica Schmidt


    Full Text Available O leite e derivados são reconhecidos como veículos de patógenos para humanos, secundário a contaminação pós-ordenha ou de infecções do próprio animal, particularmente na mastite. Foi estudada a ocorrência de mastite e aspectos do manejo em cabras de três propriedades criadas em sistema orgânico. O exame clínico da glândula mamária de 64 cabras em diferentes períodos de lactação, não acusou a presença de mastite clínica. Entretanto, o Califórnia Mastitis Test (CMT identificou 54 (22,7% metades mamárias reagentes (+ ou ++. Foram colhidas 238 amostras de leite, das quais houve isolamento bacteriano em 37 (15,6%. Em apenas oito amostras houve coincidência entre o isolamento bacteriano e o resultado do CMT, indicando sensibilidade de 21,6% para este teste no diagnóstico de mastite subclínica em caprinos. Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN foi o microrganismo mais freqüente (83,8%. O teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro revelou resistência das linhagens de SCN ao cotrimoxazol (50%, ampicilina (48,1%, nitrofurantoína (7,7%, cefaclor (7,14% e oxacilina (3,85%. Cefalotina, gentamicina, neomicina, estreptomicina e tetraciclina foram os antimicrobianos mais efetivos frente aos isolados. Não se evidenciou relação entre a ocorrência de mastite subclínica com a raça, a fase de lactação, sistema de ordenha ou qualidade da água utilizada nas propriedades.Milk and derivates are recognized as vehicle of different pathogens for humans. These micoorganisms may manifest as post-milking contamination or as in infections in the animal itself, particularly in mastitis. The aim of present study was characterizes the occurrence of mastitis and management aspects in dairy-goats raised in three farms of organic milk. The correlation between mastitis and goat husbandry was also investigated. The clinical exam of the mammary glands of 64 dairy-goats did not reveal the presence of clinical mastitis. Nevertheless, the California

  11. Beta-lactams interfering with PBP1 induce Panton-Valentine leukocidin expression by triggering sarA and rot global regulators of Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Oana; Choudhury, Priya; Boisset, Sandrine; Badiou, Cédric; Bes, Michele; Benito, Yvonne; Wolz, Christiane; Vandenesch, François; Etienne, Jerome; Cheung, Ambrose L; Bowden, Maria Gabriela; Lina, Gerard


    Previous articles reported that beta-lactam antibiotics increase the expression of Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) by activating its transcription. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the inductor effect of beta-lactams on PVL expression by determining targets and regulatory pathways possibly implicated in this process. We measured PVL production in the presence of oxacillin (nonselective), imipenem (penicillin-binding protein 1 [PBP1] selective), cefotaxime (PBP2 selective), cefaclore (PBP3 selective), and cefoxitin (PBP4 selective). In vitro, we observed increased PVL production consistent with luk-PV mRNA levels that were 20 to 25 times higher for community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) cultures treated with PBP1-binding oxacillin and imipenem than for cultures treated with other beta-lactams or no antibiotic at all. This effect was also observed in vivo, with increased PVL mRNA levels in lung tissues from CA-MRSA-infected mice treated with imipenem but not cefoxitin. To confirm the involvement of PBP1 inhibition in this pathway, PBP1 depletion by use of an inducible pbp1 antisense RNA showed a dose-dependent relationship between the level of pbp1 antisense RNA and the luk-PV mRNA level. Upon imipenem treatment of exponential-phase cultures, we observed an increased sarA mRNA level after 30 min of incubation followed by a decreased rot mRNA level after 1 to 4 h of incubation. Unlike the agr and saeRS positive regulators, which were nonessential for PVL induction by beta-lactams, the sarA (positive) and rot (negative) PVL regulators were necessary for PVL induction by imipenem. Our results suggest that antibiotics binding to PBP1 increase PVL expression by modulating sarA and rot, which are essential mediators of the inductor effect of beta-lactams on PVL expression.

  12. Evaluation of the Clinical Efficacy of Qingqiao Capsule (清窍胶囊) in Treating Patients with Secretory Otitis Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yong-dong; CHEN Long-hui; HU Wen-jian; JIANG Yu-liang; CHEN Xiao-lin; ZHANG Shi-bo


    Objective: To ooserve the clinical efficacy of Qingqiao Capsule (清窍胶囊, QQC) in treating patients with secretory otitis media (SOM). Methods: A total of 90 patients were randomly assigned into the treated group (n=45 ) and the control group (n =45). Patients in the treated group were administrated with QQC, 5 capsules each time, 3 times a day for totally 10-14 days, and those in the control group were given per os cefaclor capsules 0.5g each time for adult, 3 times a day, or 20mg/(kg· d) for children, for 10-14 days. The therapeutic efficacy of treatment on the patients was observed and compared after treatment and followed up for 3-6 months. Results: (1) The clinical efficacy in the treated group was superior to that in the control group with significant statistical difference ( P<0.01 ); (2) Comparison of the efficacies in patients of three different TCM syndrome types (the external pathogenic wind invasion caused auditory orifice stuffiness type, the Gan-Dan damp-heat steaming up auditory orifice type and the Pi-deficiency dysfunction induced dirty dampness blocking ear type) showed no statistically significant difference(P>0.05); (3) The vanishing rate and time needed of the main symptoms and signs in the treated group were superior to those in the control group on ear muffle, tinnitus, hearing impairment, hydrotypanum, pure tone threshold and abnormal tongue figure, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05 or P<0.01), only those of earache,otopiesis and abnornal pulse figure were insignificantly different between the two groups ( P>0.05). Conclusion: QQC is an effective Chinese composite medicine on patients with SOM, and shows no obvious adverse reaction.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility, tetracycline and erythromycin resistance genes, and multilocus sequence typing of Streptococcus suis isolates from diseased pigs in China. (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Song, Yajing; Wei, Zigong; He, Hongkui; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin


    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing significant economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility, associated antibiotic-resistant determinants and sequence type (ST) of S. suis isolates from diseased pigs in China from 2008 to 2010. Serotype 2 was the most frequently observed strain (n=95) among the 106 S. suis strains collected, followed by serotypes 3 (n=3), 5 (n=3), 4 (n=2), 7 (n=1), 11 (n=1) and 28 (n=1). Multilocus sequence typing analysis revealed that ST1 (n=21) and ST7 (n=74) were the predominant STs, and serotype 2 was found to be significantly correlated with ST7 (P=0.017, Fisher's exact test) and CC1 (P=0.024, Fisher's exact test). The antimicrobial susceptibility results indicated that the antibiotic resistance rate was highest for tetracycline (99.1%), followed by azithromycin (68.9%), erythromycin (67.9%), clindamycin (67.9%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (16%), levofloxacin (2.8%), chloramphenicol (1.9%), cefaclor (0.9%) and ceftriaxone (0.9%). Antibiotic-resistant genes tet(M), tet(O), tet(O/W/32/O), tet(O/32/O), tet(S), tet(W), tet(L), tet(40), erm(B), mef(A/E) and msr(D) could be detected, and several tandem organizations of antibiotic resistance genes were also found in this study. In conclusion, S. suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in China were less diverse and multi-drug resistant.

  14. [Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media]. (United States)

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Kolczyńska, Magdalena


    Nasopharyngeal flora can be a reservoir of bacteria caused acute otitis media in children. The aim of the study was to identify microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities of pathogens from the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with acute otitis media. The study comprised 128 children ages 1 year to 14 years with diagnosed of acute otitis media with purulent discharge. The nasopharyngeal and middle ear samples were collected at the same time. Agar, chocolate, blood and Chapman plates were inoculated for isolation of bacteria. The plates were incubated at 37 degrees C and examined at 24 hours. The susceptibility of bacteria was determined by disk diffusion technique containing concentration gradients for following antibiotics: penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, erythromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. 196 organisms from nasopharynx and 325 organisms from middle ear were isolated. Most frequent cultured bacteria were: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis--75.6% in nasopharynx and 77.8% in middle ear. We observed statistically significant (p bacteria from nasopharynx and 81.8% of bacteria from middle ear. Most organisms were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole--60.7% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 62.6% of bacteria from middle ear. Penicillin resistance was observed in 25.0% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 25.6% of bacteria from middle ear. The correlation in resistance of bacteria between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin (r = 0.4886) and between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and penicillin (r = 0.5027) was observed. Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media is similar. In that case susceptibility of bacteria from the nasopharynx can be useful for empirical treatment of acute otitis media in children.

  15. [Bacterial flora in children with recurrent acute otitis media]. (United States)

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Kolczyńska, Magdalena


    The aim of the study was to identify microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities of pathogens from middle ear in children with recurrent acute otitis media and acute otitis media. The study comprised 83 children--42 with recurrent acute otitis media and 41 with acute otitis emdia classified for paracentesis. Agar, chocolate, blood and Chapman plates were inoculated for isolation of bacteria. The plates were incubated at 37 degrees C and examined at 24 hours. The susceptibility of bacteria was determined by disk diffusion technique containing concentration gradients for following antibiotics: penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, erythromycin, azithromycin, clinadamycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. 217 organisms from middle ear in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 131 organisms from middle ear in children with acute otitis media were isolated. Most frequent cultured bacteria were: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis--71.4% in recurrent acute otitis media and 47.3% in acute otitis media. We observed statistically significant (p acute otitis media older than 2 years. The best susceptibility was observed to amoxicillin/clavulanate (79.7% of bacteria in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 83.2% of bacteria in children with acute otitis media). The most of organisms presented resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole--65.9% of bacteria in children with recurrent acute otitis media and 62.6% of bacteria in children with acute otitis media. Our investigation showed that resistance to bacteria increase in children with recurrent acute otitis media, most frequent appear in children older than 2 years and depend on number of episodes of acute otitis media and day care.

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolates from pediatric population in Pakistan. (United States)

    Khalil, Uzma; Younus, Mahwish; Asghar, Naeem; Siddiqui, Fariha; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G; Wren, Brendan W; Bokhari, Habib


    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are a leading cause of diarrhea among children. The objective of this study was to define the frequency of EAEC among diarrheal children from flood-affected areas as well as sporadic cases, determine multidrug resistance, and evaluation of virulence using an in vivo model of pathogenesis. Stool samples were collected from 225 diarrheal children from 2010 to 2011 from flood-affected areas as well as from sporadic cases in Pakistan. Identified EAEC isolates were characterized by phylogrouping, antibiotic resistance patterns including the extended-spectrum beta lactamase spectrum, single nucleotide polymorphism detection in gyrA and parC, and virulence potential using wax worm, G. mellonella. A total of 35 (12.5%) confirmed EAEC isolates were identified among 225 E. coli isolates. EAEC isolates displayed high resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, and cefaclor. A total of 34.28% were ESBL positive. Single nucleotide polymorphism detection revealed 37.14% and 68.57% isolates were positive for SNPs in gyrA (A660 -T660 ) and parC (C330 -T330 ), respectively. Phylogrouping revealed that B2 phylogroup was more prevalent among all EAEC isolates tested followed by D, A, B1, and non-typeable (NT). Infection of G. mellonella with EAEC showed that killing infective dose was 100% higher than E. coli DH5 alpha control. EAEC are prevalent among Pakistani children with diarrhea, they are highly resistant to antibiotics, and predominantly fall into B2 phylogroup. Epidemiologic surveillance of EAEC and other E. coli pathotypes is critical to assess not only the role of these pathogens in diarrheal disease but also to determine the extent of multidrug resistance among the population.

  17. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from vegetables with regards to the marketing stage (farm vs. supermarket). (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karin; Helmke, Katharina; Hölzel, Christina Susanne; Bauer, Johann


    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether and to what extent fresh produce from Germany plays a role as a carrier and reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. For this purpose, 1001 vegetables (fruit, root, bulbous vegetables, salads and cereals) were collected from 13 farms and 11 supermarkets in Germany and examined bacteriologically. Phenotypic resistance of Enterobacter cloacae (n=172); Enterobacter gergoviae (n=92); Pantoea agglomerans (n=96); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=295); Pseudomonas putida (n=106) and Enterococcus faecalis (n=100) against up to 30 antibiotics was determined by using the microdilution method. Resistance to ß-lactams was most frequently expressed by P. agglomerans and E. gergoviae against cefaclor (41% and 29%). Relatively high resistance rates were also observed for doxycycline (23%), erythromycin (21%) and rifampicin (65%) in E. faecalis, for spectinomycin (28%) and mezlocillin (12%) in E. cloacae, as well as for streptomycin (19%) in P. putida. In P. aeruginosa, relatively low resistance rates were observed for the aminoglycosides amikacin, apramicin, gentamicin, neomycin, netilmicin and tobramycin (4%); 11% was resistant to streptomycin. No glycopeptide-resistant enterococci were observed. Resistance rates of bacteria isolated from farm samples were higher than those of the retail markets whenever significant differences were observed. This suggests that expressing resistance is at the expense of bacterial viability, since vegetables purchased directly at the farm are probably fresher than at the supermarket, and they have not been exposed to stress factors. However, this should not keep the customer from buying directly at the farm, since the overall resistance rates were not higher than observed in bacteria from human or animal origin. Instead, peeling or washing vegetables before eating them raw is highly recommended, since it reduces not only the risk of contact with pathogens, but also that of ingesting and spreading

  18. 氟氯西林钠阿莫西林治疗呼吸系感染80例临床观察%Clinical Observation of 80 Cases of Flucloxacillin Sodium Amoxicillin Treatment of Respiratory Tract Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      目的观察氟氯西林钠阿莫西林胶囊在治疗呼吸系感染疾病的临床疗效,评价其应用价值。方法80例临床呼吸道感染患者随机分为治疗组40例和对照组40例。对照组给予头孢克洛片,治疗组给予氟氯西林钠阿莫西林胶囊,两周一个疗程。结果治疗组的显效率和总有效率高于对照组;治疗组的细菌清除率为100%,优于对照组细菌清除率的94.7%。结论氟氯西林钠阿莫西林可安全有效地治疗呼吸道感染疾病。%  Objective Observe clinical curative effect flucloxacillin sodium amoxicillin capsule in the treatment of respiratory system infection disease , evaluate its application value. Methods 80 cases of clinical respiratory tract infection patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group forty cases and cases. Control group received cefaclor tablet, the treatment group was given flucloxacillin sodium amoxicillin capsule, two weeks a treatment. Results Treatment group’s total effective rate of significant and the efficiency are higher than those in the control group;the treatment group of bacteria clearance is 100%,better than control bacterial clearance’s 94.7%. Conclusion Respiratory tract infection can be effectively and safely treated by Ampicillin sodium amoxicillin fluorine chlorine.

  19. Enterococcal urinary tract infections: eight years experience at a regional hospital in Trinidad, West Indies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To investigate the prevalence of significant enterococcal isolates from urine and determine what factors are associated with the increased prevalence, with particular reference to antibiotic susceptibilities. Methods Retrospective analysis over an 8-year period of hospital laboratory records of urinary isolates of enterococci was done. Species were identified via colony morphology, growth in 6.5% sodium chloride and their ability to hydrolyze esculin in the presence of 40% bile salts. Susceptibility testing via the disc diffusion technique with 9 commonly used antibiotics was also done as defined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Results From 39?881 urine specimens, 9116 (22.9%) were culture positive. Of this 9116, 1001 (11.0%) were enterococci, the 4th most common urinary isolate. E. coli was the most common (36.2%). Most enterococci were from pediatric patients (28.4%) and the urology unit (24.5%). All enterococci were fully sensitive to ampicillin and augmentin (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid). Sensitivity to gentamicin decreased significantly from 79% in 1990 to 58% in 1997 (P<0.005). Sensitivity to the cephalosporins and nitrofuratoin were relatively stable, but sensitivity to nalidixic acid varied. No resistance to vancomycin was detected during the study, and no cases of bacteremia complicated bacteriuria were seen. Conclusion Isolation of enterococci was relatively stable during the 8-year period, and all isolates were fully sensitive to the older β-lactams, ampicillin, cefaclor and augmentin, but displayed varying degrees of multi-resistance to other commonly used urinary agents such as nalidixic acid and co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). Because of the emergence of multi-resistant enterococci in many countries, and the high cost of drugs in our society, it is imperative that vigilance be maintained in monitoring enterococcal infections in hospitals.

  20. Physician behaviour for antimicrobial prescribing for paediatric upper respiratory tract infections: a survey in general practice in Trinidad, West Indies

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    Ramdhanie Joseph


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are among the most frequent reasons for physician office visits in paediatrics. Despite their predominant viral aetiology, URTIs continue to be treated with antimicrobials. We explored general practitioners' (GPs prescribing behaviour for antimicrobials in children (≤ 16 years with URTIs in Trinidad, using the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as a reference. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 92 consenting GPs from the 109 contacted in Central and East Trinidad, between January to June 2003. Using a pilot-tested questionnaire, GPs identified the 5 most frequent URTIs they see in office and reported on their antimicrobial prescribing practices for these URTIs to trained research students. Results The 5 most frequent URTIs presenting in children in general practice, are the common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis and acute otitis media (AOM in rank order. GPs prescribe at least 25 different antibiotics for these URTIs with significant associations for amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefaclor, cefuroxime, erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin (p 30 years were more likely to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold (p = 0.014. Severity (95.7% and duration of illness (82.5% influenced doctors' prescribing and over prescribing in general practice was attributed to parent demands (75% and concern for secondary bacterial infections (70%. Physicians do not request laboratory investigations primarily because they are unnecessary (86% and the waiting time for results is too long (51%. Conclusions Antibiotics are over prescribed for paediatric URTIs in Trinidad and amoxicillin with co-amoxiclav were preferentially prescribed. Except for AOM, GPs' prescribing varied from the CDC guidelines for drug and duration. Physicians recognise antibiotics are overused and consider parents expecting antibiotics and a concern for secondary

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao


    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China.

  2. Meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid formulations for acute respiratory infections in children%小儿急性呼吸道感染阿莫西林-克拉维酸制剂临床疗效Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆权; 罗剑锋; 车大钿; 董晓艳; 张嵬


    Objective To assess the clinical efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid(Amo/Clav)preparations for treatment of children with acute respiratory tract infections. Methods We performed computer-based retrieval of Medline (on OvidSP) , EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Bio-medicine Database(CBM) , Wan-fang Database System and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI).Data of randomized controlled studies of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid preparations for treatment of respiratory tract infections from January 1985 to December 2011 was collected. RevMan5.1.4 Meta-analysis of count data and odds ratio(OR)with 95% confidence interval(95% Cl)were applied. Funnel plot was used to assess published deviation. Results We retrieved 219 literatures, of which 164 were in English and 55 in Chinese . Twenty-seven articles that met the inclusion criteria were chosen by final screening, including azithromycin contrast 20 and cefaclor 7 for control. The total cases were 2971 and in control group there were 3057 cases. Comparing Amo/Clav with azithromycin in upper respiratory tract infections literature Meta analysis, OR(95% CI)= 1.34(1.02 ~ 1.76), Z = 2.08(P=0.04), while in lower respiratory infections literature Meta analysis, OR(95 % CI)= 1.31(0.56 ~ 3.09) ,Z = 0.62(P = 0.53). Comparing Amo/Clav preparation with cefaclor,OR(95% CI) = 0.88(0.32 ~ 2.45) ,Z = 0.24(P = 0.81). Conclusion Literatures Meta-analysis indicates Amo/Clav treatment for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory infections is superior to azithromycin clinically, but in the treatment of chil- dren with acute bacterial lower respiratory tract infections , the clinical efficacy of both is similar. The Amo/ Clav and cefaclor have similar clinical efficacy in the treatment of. children with acute bacterial respiratory infections.%目的 评估阿莫西林-克拉维酸(Amo/Clav)制剂治疗小儿急性呼吸道感染的临床有效性.方法 计算机检索Medline (Ovid

  3. Resistance surveillance of major pathogens for adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: a multicenter study 2012%2012年中国成人社区获得性呼吸道感染主要致病菌耐药性的多中心研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春江; 张菲菲; 王占伟; 曹彬; 徐修礼; 孙宏莉; 张嵘; 胡云健; 刘智勇


    Objective To investigate antimicrobial resistance among pathogens responsible for adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections from 11 hospitals of China.Methods From January to December 2012,a total of 599 strains causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infection were collected from 11 hospitals,including 381 Streptococcus pneumonia,137 Haemophilus influenza,and 81 Moraxella catarrhalis.The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibacterial agents was determined by agar dilution method.Results Of all the strains,50% (300/599 strains) were from adults more than 60 years old and only 16.2% (97/599 strains) were from patients aged less than 40 years.According to oral penicillin breakpoints,56.7% (216/381 strains) of Streptococcus pneumoniae were penicillin nonsusceptible strains (PNSSP).More than 90% (345/381 strains) and 39.9% (152/381 strains)-50.7% (193/381 strains) of Streptococcus pneumoniae were resistant to macrolides and oral cephalosporins respectively,but over 97.8% (372/381 strains) and 99% (377/381 strains) were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin.PNSSP strains exhibited significant higher resistance to ceftriaxone,amoxicillin/clavulanate,cefaclor and cefuroxime compared with penicillin susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP).The susceptibility rates of Haemophilus influenza to the antimicrobial agents were over 90% except for ampicillin (71.5%,272/381 strains) and cefaclor (75.2%,286/381 strains).The prevalence of β-lactamase positive Haemophilus influenza were 21.9% (30/137 strains),and β-lactamase positive Haemophilus influenza strains were more resistant to ampicillin,cefaclor,chloramphenicol and tetracycline compared with β-1actamase-negative strains.Moraxella catarrhalis strains were extremely susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested except for clindamycin,azithromycin and clarithromycin.Conclusions The activities of macrolides and oral cephalosporins against Streptococcus

  4. Penicillin Binding Protein 1 Is Important in the Compensatory Response of Staphylococcus aureus to Daptomycin-Induced Membrane Damage and Is a Potential Target for β-Lactam–Daptomycin Synergy (United States)

    Berti, Andrew D.; Theisen, Erin; Sauer, John-Demian; Nonejuie, Poochit; Olson, Joshua; Pogliano, Joseph; Sakoulas, George; Nizet, Victor; Proctor, Richard A.


    The activity of daptomycin (DAP) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is enhanced in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics. This effect is more pronounced with β-lactam antibiotics that exhibit avid binding to penicillin binding protein 1 (PBP1). Here, we present evidence that PBP1 has a significant role in responding to DAP-induced stress on the cell. Expression of the pbpA transcript, encoding PBP1, was specifically induced by DAP exposure whereas expression of pbpB, pbpC, and pbpD, encoding PBP2, PBP3, and PBP4, respectively, remained unchanged. Using a MRSA COL strain with pbpA under an inducible promoter, increased pbpA transcription was accompanied by reduced susceptibility to, and killing by, DAP in vitro. Exposure to β-lactams that preferentially inactivate PBP1 was not associated with increased DAP binding, suggesting that synergy in the setting of anti-PBP1 pharmacotherapy results from increased DAP potency on a per-molecule basis. Combination exposure in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model system with β-lactams that preferentially inactivate PBP1 (DAP-meropenem [MEM] or DAP-imipenem [IPM]) resulted in more-rapid killing than did combination exposure with DAP-nafcillin (NAF) (nonselective), DAP-ceftriaxone (CRO) or DAP-cefotaxime (CTX) (PBP2 selective), DAP-cefaclor (CEC) (PBP3 selective), or DAP-cefoxitin (FOX) (PBP4 selective). Compared to β-lactams with poor PBP1 binding specificity, exposure of S. aureus to DAP plus PBP1-selective β-lactams resulted in an increased frequency of septation and cell wall abnormalities. These data suggest that PBP1 activity may contribute to survival during DAP-induced metabolic stress. Therefore, targeted inactivation of PBP1 may enhance the antimicrobial efficiency of DAP, supporting the use of DAP–β-lactam combination therapy for serious MRSA infections, particularly when the β-lactam undermines the PBP1-mediated compensatory response. PMID:26525797


    Kuvat, Nuray; Nazik, Hasan; Berkiten, Rahmiye; Öngen, Betigül


    Resistance of 235 Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates from Istanbul Medical Faculty Hospital, Turkey were determined against 19 antibiotics by disc diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of those found resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxim, chloramphenicol and meropenem were measured using E-test. Ampicillin-resistant isolates producing beta-lactamase as demonstrated by a nitrocefin assay were analyzed for the presence of TEM-1 and ROB-1 genes by PCR. Eleven percent of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin (10 µg/ml), of which 73% were beta-lactamase positive and carried TEM-1 gene, but none were positive for ROB-1 gene. All isolates susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (20/10 µg/ml), azithromycin (15 µg/ml), aztreonam (30 µg/ml), cefotaxime (30 µg/ml), ceftriaxone (30 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (5 µg/ml), levofloxacin (5 µg/ml), and telithromycin (15 µg/ml) but 24%, 15%, 4%, 4%, 2%, 1%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 µg/ml), tetracycline (30 µg/ml), cefaclor (30 µg/ml), clarithromycin (15 µg/ml), cefuroxime (30 µg/ml), meropenem (10 µg/ml), chloramphenicol (30 µg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (10/10 µg/ml), nalidixic acid (30 µg/ml), and fosfomycin (30 µg/ml), respectively. MIC values of three cefuroxime-resistant isolates was 24, 48 and > 256 µg/ml, respectively; of two meropenem-resistant strains > 256 µg/ml; and of two chloramphenicol-susceptible isolates (by disc diffusion method) 6 µg/ml (considered as intermediate susceptible). Multiple- antibiotics resistance was detected in 15% of the strains, with resistance to 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 antibiotics in 8.5%, 4%, 2%, 0.5% and 0.5% of the isolates, respectively. By identifying beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, empirical therapy with beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and second generation cephalosporins would be inappropriate for such patients (approximately 3%). Our findings will

  6. Etiología y sensibilidad bacteriana en infección urinaria en niños. Hospital Infantil Club Noel y Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

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    Iris de Castaño


    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common renal disease in childhood. To find the etiologic microorganism and an early adequate antibiotic therapy are essential to avoid permanent kidney injuries. Objectives: To know the etiologic bacteria and their antibiotic sensibility in urine cultures of children with UTI consulting University Hospital and Club Noel Hospital in Cali, Colombia. Methodology: A total of 123 children under 14 years of age that came into Emergency Service or outpatient clinics at University Hospital or Club Noel Hospital with clinical suspicion of UTI from August 2004 to February 2005 were included in a descriptive transversal study. Urine cultures were taken by supra-pubic aspiration, urine catheterization or mid strain urine. UTI definition was based on colony counts according to recollection method. Positive urine cultures, type of bacteria and antibiotic sensibility were considered for the analysis. Children having either urine cultures with colony counts inferior to recollection method, asymptomatic bacteriuria, occasional catheterization, immunosuppression, vesicostomy or previous admission to intensive care unit, were excluded. Results: Among 123 children entering to the study, 31 were eliminated for colony counts inferior to the recollection method. A total of 123 urine cultures were left for the analysis: 50% of urine cultures were obtained by catheterization, 33% via mid void stream and 17% by supra-pubic aspiration; 58% of patients were females. Escherichia coli was cultured in 72% of the cases, Klebsiella in 16.4%, Proteus 2.5% and other type of bacteria account for 9%. Antibiotics and antibacterials with sensibility over 80% were: cefixime, norfloxocin, cefuroxime, cefprozil, nalidixic acid, ceftriaxone, amikacin, and gentamicin. Intermediate sensibility from 61 to 70%: amoxicillin-clavulinic, cefaclor, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin. Sensibility under 60% was found for amoxicillin, ampicillin

  7. Ten years of antibiotic consumption in ambulatory care: Trends in prescribing practice and antibiotic resistance in Austria

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    Apfalter Petra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aims of this study were (i to determine the quantity and pattern of antibiotic use in Austria between 1998 and 2007 and (ii to analyze antibiotic resistance rates in relation to antibiotic consumption in important clinical situations in order to provide data for empirical therapeutic regimens for key indications. Methods Consumption data and resistance data were obtained via the Austrian surveillance networks European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS and European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC. The EARSS collects data on isolates from blood and cerebrospinal fluid obtained predominantly in the hospital setting. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification and the Defined Daily Dose (DDD measurement units were assigned to the data. The number of DDDs and packages per 1,000 inhabitants (PID were used to calculate the level of antibiotic consumption. Antibiotic resistance was expressed in resistance rates, i.e., the percentage of resistant isolates compared to all isolates of one bacterial species. Results The overall antibiotic consumption measured in DIDs increased by 10% between 1998 and 2007, whereas PIDs decreased by 3%. The consumption of substances within the drug utilization 90% segment (measured in PID increased for ciprofloxacin (+118.9, clindamycin (+76.3, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (+61.9%, cefpodoxime (+31.6, azithromycin (+24.7; and decreased for erythromycin (-79.5%, trimethoprim (-56,1%, norfloxacin (-48.8%, doxycycline (-44.6, cefaclor (-35.1%, penicillin (-34.0%, amoxicillin (-22.5, minocycline (-21.9% and clarithromycin (-9.9%. Starting in 2001, an increase in the percentage of invasive E. coli isolates resistant to aminopenicillins (from 35% to 53%, fluoroquinolones (from 7% to 25.5% and third-generation cephalosporins (from 0% to 8.8% was observed. The percentage of nonsusceptible or intermediate penicillin-resistant pneumococcal isolates remained

  8. 武汉地区儿童流感嗜血菌耐药性的分析%Antibiotic resistance of haemophilus influenzae isolated from children in Wuhan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 虞涛; 鲍连生; 余星


    OBJECTIVE To investigate the antibiotic resistance of Heamophilus influenzae isolated from children in Wuhan area. METHODS A total of 2212 strains of H. influenzae isolated from hospitalized children were collected between Jan 2009 and Jun 2010, bacterial susceptibility testing was carried out by using Kirby-Bauer and E-test method. The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2008. The variance of antibiotics resistance was analyzed by Chi-squared methods. RESULTS The antibiotics resistance rates of 2212 strains of H. influenzae to azithromycin, ampicillin/sulbactam, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, meropenem, cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone were 1. 45%, 3. 89%, 35. 71%, 75. 50%, 0. 36%, 0. 59%, 2. 53% and 2. 26%, respectively.CONCLUSION The resistant rates of H. influenzae isolated from the children in Wuhan area to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole are high, and the drug resistance situation is grim, the monitoring of the drug sensitivity and the rational use of antibiotics should be strengthened in clinics.%目的 了解武汉地区儿童呼吸道感染流感嗜血菌(HIN)的耐药情况. 方法 收集医院2009年1月-2010年6月住院患儿分离的流感嗜血菌2212株,采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)进行抗菌药敏试验,对其进行β-内酰胺酶测定,按CLSI 2008年版判断结果 ,使用χ2检验分析耐药性的变化.结果 2212株流感嗜血菌对阿奇霉素、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、氨苄西林、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶、美罗培南、头孢呋辛、头孢克洛、头孢曲松的耐药率分别为:1.45%、3.89%、35.71%、75.50%、0.36%、0.59%、2.53%、2.26%. 结论 武汉地区儿童分离流感嗜血菌对氨苄西林及磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶的耐药率高,耐药形势严峻,临床应加强对其的药敏监测并合理使用抗菌药物.

  9. Clinical research of treatment about childhood patient with chronic sinusitis based on the "European Position Paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007"%基于《欧州鼻窦炎和鼻息肉指南2007版》的儿童慢性鼻窦炎治疗的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢君; 江远仕; 林广裕; 周晓华; 蔡晓莹; 黄素红; 林创兴; 陈派镇; 谢金纯


    目的 探讨《欧洲鼻窦炎和鼻息肉指南2007版》(《EPOS 2007》)中关于儿童慢性鼻-鼻窦炎(CRS)治疗建议的临床应用.方法 采用多中心前瞻性病例自身前后对照研究方法,选取临床和CT确诊为CRS忠儿60例,全部应用小剂量阿奇霉素和孟鲁司特钠12周以上,19例延长阿奇霉素或/和孟鲁司特钠疗程,其中9例加用短程(5 ~7 d)头孢克洛,3例加用鼻用糖皮质激素.治疗12周后,应用视觉模拟量表(VAS)主观评价和Lund-Mackay CT评分法进行客观评价.结果 60例患儿应用阿奇霉素和孟鲁司特钠12周后,VAS评分由7.92±2.66降至2.13±1.11,差异有统计学意义(t=4.01,P=0.001);Lund-Mackay CT评分由14.12±3.30降至2.53±1.71,差异有统计学意义(t=2.83,P=0.005).其中41例12周后完全停药,至今随访(18.12±6.25)个月,末见CRS复发症状;余19例分别有延长阿奇霉素或/和孟鲁司特钠疗程,其中9例加用短程头孢克洛、3例加用鼻用皮质激素等,总疗程延长至24周后均能停药,从停药随访至今(6.23 ±2.13)个月,末见CRS复发症状.结论 根据《EPOS 2007》,对儿章CRS应用小剂量阿奇霉素和孟鲁司特钠治疗3个月可获显著疗效.%Objective To explore the clinical application of treatment on childhood patient with chronic sinusitis (CRS) based on"European Position Paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007" (EPOS 2007) under the background of real world research.Methods A multi-center prospective crossover study was performed,and 60 cases of CRS diagnosed base on clinical features and CT imaging who were applied of small doses of azithromycin and montelukast for 12 weeks or more were selected.Nineteen cases prolonged azithromycin and/or montelukast treatment,and 9 cases of them were added a short course (5-7 days) of cefaclor and 3 cases of them added loratadine and nasal corticosteroids.Visual analog scale (VAS) was used for subjective evaluation and Lund-Mackay CT was used for objective

  10. 2010-2012年流感嗜血杆菌耐药性监测%2010-2012 surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙姗姗; 喻华


    Objective To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of haemophilus influenzae ,and to pro-vide reference for reasonable use of antibiotics .Methods Clinical isolates from patients in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2012 were identified by VITEK2-compact automatic identification system , bacterial susceptibility tests were per-formed on strains by ATB system , the results were determined according to the guidelines of CLSI in 2012,and β-lactamase was detected by nitrocefin disk diffusion method .WHONET5.6 software was applied for data analysis .Results A total of 201 strains of haemophilus influenzae were obtained from our hospital in recent three years .Among them,193 strains were from sputum specimen (96.0%),6 from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen (2.9%),2 from blood specimen (1.1%).As for the distribution of haemophilus influenzae in clinical departments ,the top three were respiratory department (104 strains, 51. 7%),surgical department (31 strains,15.4%) and ICU (27 strains,13.4%).The results of bacterial susceptibility tests showed that haemophilus influenzae was sensitive to rifampicin , ampicillin,chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole with a rate of 45.5%,73.4%,87.5%and 87.1%respectively,and that the sensitive rate of haemophilus influenzae to amoxicillin /clavu-lanic acid,cefotaxime,cefaclor,tetracycline, cefuroxime and ofloxacin was higher than 90%.Isolates from adults were more sensitive to ampicillin and rifampicin than those from children ,but for tetracycline , isolates from children were more sensitive than those from adults .52 strains were positive to β-lactamase with a rate of 25.9%, and the rate of β-lactamase positive strains from children was significantly higher than that from adults .Conclusion Haemophilus influenzae has a higher resistant rate to rifampicin.Amoxicillin /clavulanate,cefotaxime,cefaclor,cefuroxime and ofloxacin are still the effective antibiotics for the control of haemophilus influenzae

  11. Influences of antibiotics on the intestinal flora and immune system development of neonatal rats%抗生素对新生大鼠肠道免疫发育影响及双歧杆菌干预的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武庆斌; 王爱丽; 孙庆林


    received a daily dose of 100 mg/kg of Cefaclor intragastrically; Group C were given Bifidobacterium longum intragastrically; Group D were given Cefaclor at first and then Bifidobacterium longum after 2 hours; Group E were given equivalent volume of Sodium Chloride solution. The model-groups were administered once per day for 2 weeks. Group A were sacrificed at the beginning of the experiment without treatment. Eight rats, selected from each group at random, were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. The intestinal flora in Caecum luminal contents of the rats were counted by Fecal smears assay; The CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and histology of terminal ileum tissue were detected by immuno-histo-chemistry assay. Results Compared with Group A, C, D or E, the proportion of G+ bacilli in the intestinal flora in Group B decreased obviously, but the proportion of G bacilli and G+ cocci in Group B increased obviously (F<0.01). In Group C and E, the epithelial lining of mucosal structure was in order and the villi and glands of mucosa were well developed, while in Group A, the glands hardly developed and the villus height was short. In Group B, the mucosal membrane was swelling; part of the epithelial cells appeared degeneration, necrosis and exfoliation, and the villi and glands showed atrophy. In Group D, the villi and glands of mucosal structure was clear and in order, with only a few epithelium cells exfoliation and necrosis. Compared with Group C, D or E, the expression of CD4+ , CD8 + T cells in group B was suppressed by antibiotics (P < 0. 05). The expression of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in Group C was increased compared to Group E, with significant difference between the gray values (F<0.05). Conclusion The intestinal colonization with a balanced microflora can stimulate the development of the intestinal immune system. Antibiotics administered orally at neonate stage may destroy mucosal structures and impair the normal intestinal flora colonization, which cause flora

  12. 2005-2009年温州育英儿童医院下呼吸道感染患儿肺炎链球菌耐药性分析%Resistance analysis of Streptococcus pnemoniae in children with lower respiratory tract infection in Wenzhou area between 2005 and 2009.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石燕华; 李昌崇; 张海邻; 林立; 胡晓光; 张维溪


    Objective To examine the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) to common antimicrobial drugs in children with lower respiratory tract infection in Wenzhou area between 2005.1 and 2009.12. Methods Susceptibility data of lower respiratory tract infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children discharged from Jan.2005 to Dec.2009 were reviewed. The children hospitalized in Yuying Children's Hospital affiliated to Wenzhou Medical College.Lower respiratory tract infection included bronchitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Results Totally 643 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were found; in the S years, the order of top ten rates in the drug resistance was as follows: erythromycin 99.3%, azithromycin 98.6%, chlorine lincomycin Su 98.3%, sulfamethoxazole 95.0%, cefaclor 94.6%, cefuroxime 94.1 %, tetracycline 93.6%,penicillin 93.2%,meropenem 87.4%,cefotaxime 77.9%.There was non-Vancomycin-resistant strain. The comparisons between penicillin-susceptible streptococcus pneumoniae and penicillin non-susceptible streptococcus pneumoniae to erythromycin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime, cefaclor, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxi-cillin and meropenem were all P 0.05. The comparisons between erythromy-cin-susceptible streptococcus pneumoniae and erythromycin non-susceptible streptococcus pneumoniae to clindamycin,penicillin, tetracycline and azithromycin were all P 0.05. Conclusion The situation of SPresistance in children from Wenzhou with lower respiratory tract infection is grim. The levels of different drugs increased year by year in different degrees, which should be paid enough dinical attetion.%目的 分析下呼吸道感染儿童肺炎链球菌(SP)对常用抗生素的药敏情况.方法 采用回顾性分析方法,收集2005年1月至2009年12月温州医学院附属育英儿童医院住院患儿痰培养SP阳性且临床诊断为下呼吸道感染(包括支气管炎、毛细支气管炎、肺炎等)病例的药敏资料,分析其肺炎链球


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    可小丽; 卢迈新; 黎炯; 叶星; 高风英; 朱华平; 黄樟翰


    and 16S rRNA gene analysis, the two strains were identified as Aerococcus viridans. Moreover, in order to study the pathogenicity and aetiological condition of this organism, we employed three different artificial pathways to infected tilapia. In addition, twenty-nine antibiotics were selected to test the sensitivity to Aerococcus viridans. The results showed that Aerococcus viridans was pathogenic to tilapia but it generally could not infect healthy tilapia actively. It likely to be a conditional pathogen and the environmental stress could enhance their infection to tilapia. The drug sensitive detection showed that these two Aerococcus strains were hypersensitive to quinolone group (norfloxacin, Ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, Lomefloxacin, enoxacin, Fleroxacin), part p lactam group (ceftriaxone, cefaclor, Cefazolin, cefobis) and part Aminoglycosides group (Amikacin, Tobramycin, gentamicin) and minocycline, mid-sensitive to midecamycin, Spectinomycin and neomycin, resistant to part macrolides group (erythrocin, acetyl spiramycin, roxithromycin), part p lactam group (cephalothin, cefalexin, amoxicillin, oxacillin, penicillin, ampicillin) and tetracycline.

  14. Curative Effect Analysis of Antipyretic Clear Solution Soup Combined with Western Medicine in the Treatment of Fever Caused by Exogenous Pathogens in Children%退热清解汤联合西药治疗小儿外感发热疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 刘栩; 杨恺


    Objective To study the curative effect of antipyretic clear solution soup combined with western medicine in the treatment of fever caused by exogenous pathogens in children. Methods 126 cases of patients with fever patients treated in the pediatric internal medicine of our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were selected and randomly divided in-to treatment group (n=64)and control group(n=62),the causes of the control group were divided into bacterial infection and non-bacterial infection such as viruses according to the hemogram result, and they were respectively given cefaclor anti in-fection treatment and leigh bhave lin virus treatment; the treatment group were given antipyretic clear solution soup treat-ment on the basis of the treatment of the control group, the treatment effects of the two groups were observed. Results The total effective rate of the treatment group was 92.19%, and 75.81%of the control group, the difference was statistically sig-nificant (P<0.05). Conclusion The curative effect of antipyretic clear solution soup combined with western medicine was better than that of only western medicine in the treatment of fever caused by exogenous pathogens in children, which is worthy of promotion and application.%目的 探讨退热清解汤联合西药治疗小儿外感发热的疗效. 方法 整群选取该院2013年1月—2014年12月期间小儿内科发热患者126例,将其随机分成治疗组(n=64)和对照组(n=62),对照组根据血象结果分为细菌感染和非细菌性(如病毒)感染所致,分别给予头孢克洛抗感染治疗和利巴韦林抗病毒治疗;治疗组在对照组处理的基础上加用退热清解汤治疗,观察两组患儿的治疗效果. 结果 治疗组患儿总有效率为92.19%,对照组患儿总有效率为75.81%,其差异有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 退热清解汤联合西药治疗小儿外感发热的疗效较单纯西药治疗小儿外感发热的效果好,值得临床推广应用.

  15. 海口市流感嗜血杆菌流行病学及耐药性研究%Epidemiology and Drug Resistance of Haemophilus Influenzae in Haikou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林翀; 林明冠; 苏应仙


    -economic conditions, and Haemophilus influenzae in vitro results were: levofloxacin, ceftriaxone> amoxicillin / clavulanic acid, azithromycin> chloramphenicol> cefaclor> amoxicillin>arnpicillin>Sulfarnethoxazole. Conclusions: High temperatures throughout the year in Haikou, the incidence rate of Haemophilus influenzae had no significant seasonal, bacterial detection rate in different regions and between different ethnic groups. For levofloxacin, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, azithromycin, chloramphenicol resistance rate was low, and could be used as first choice drug, and to ampicillin and Sulfamethoxazole resistance rate was higher for traditional medicines will be a serious challenge.

  16. Sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas do trato respiratório de pacientes com infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade: resultados brasileiros do Programa SENTRY de Vigilância de Resistência a Antimicrobianos dos anos de 1997 e 1998

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    Full Text Available O tratamento da pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC é habitualmente empírico e o uso de antimicrobianos é baseado em estudos de vigilância. O programa SENTRY foi desenhado para monitorar a resistência a antimicrobianos através de uma rede internacional de laboratórios. Três centros no Brasil participaram do Programa SENTRY em 1997 e em 1998. Métodos: Um total de 344 isolados bacterianos coletados de pacientes com PAC em 1997 e 1998 foram testados contra mais de 20 agentes antimicrobianos pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Resultados: Entre os S. pneumoniae (176 isolados, 71,6% foram sensíveis à penicilina. Alto nível de resistência à penicilina e resistência à cefotaxima foram encontrados em 2,3 e 4,0%, respectivamente. As novas quinolonas levofloxacina (MIC90, 2mig/mL e gatifloxacina (MIC90, 0,5mig/mL foram ativas contra 100% dos isolados testados. Entre os outros antimicrobianos não beta-lactâmicos testados, os mais ativos foram (% de sensibilidade: cloranfenicol (97,5% > clindamicina (94% > azitromicina (90,3% > claritromicina (89,4% > tetraciclina (76,4% > sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (60,2%. A percentagem de Haemophilus influenzae (101 isolados resistentes à amoxicilina foi de 90,1%, enquanto entre Moraxella catarrhalis (67 isolados somente 9,0% foram sensíveis. O ácido clavulânico restaurou a atividade de amoxicilina contra H. influenzae e M. catarrhalis. Porém, H. influenzae demonstrou níveis aumentados de resistência para sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (55,1% de sensibilidade, claritromicina (80,4% de sensibilidade e cefaclor (88,2% de sensibilidade. Todos os isolados de H. influenzae e M. catarrhalis foram sensíveis à levofloxacina (MIC90, <= 0,5mig/mL para ambos e gatifloxacina (MIC90, <= 0,06mig/mL para ambos apresentando MICs muito baixos. Conclusões: Os resultados indicam que a prevalência de S. pneumoniae com alto grau de resistência à penicilina é ainda baixa no Brasil; porém, a prevalência de

  17. 1例结肠癌患者应用西妥昔单抗后出现严重痤疮样皮疹的药学监护%Pharmaceutical Care for One Colon Cancer Patient with Severe Acneiform Rash after the Treatment of Cetuximab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔树佳; 李砚文


    目的:探讨对结肠癌肝转移患者行西妥昔单抗联合氟尿嘧啶+亚叶酸钙+伊立替康+奥沙利铂( FOLFIRINOX)方案化疗后出现严重痤疮样皮疹的治疗实施药学监护的切入点。方法:临床药师参与该患者的临床药物治疗全过程,对患者用药后出现痤疮的原因及治疗用药进行分析,开展药学监护。结果:经分析,该患者应用西妥昔单抗联合FOLFIRINOX方案后出现痤疮样皮疹,为西妥昔单抗引起的不良反应。临床药师建议临床医师使用莫匹罗星及头孢克洛对症治疗,减轻了痤疮样皮疹对该患者继续应用西妥昔单抗治疗的影响,确保了患者能够接受足够疗程的治疗,避免了病情延误。结论:临床药师深入临床开展药学监护,可协助临床医师安全、有效用药,避免或减少药品不良反应的发生。%OBJECTIVE:To probe into the entry point of pharmaceutical care for one colorectal liver metastases patient with severe acneiform rash after the treatment of cetuximab combined with chemotherapy FOLFIRINOX. METHODS:Clinical pharmacists participated in the whole course of the patient's therapeutic regimen,and analyzed the cause of acne and application of acne medication then provided pharmaceutical care for the patient.RESULTS:With the analysis of clinical pharmacists, acneiform rash was turned out to be the adverse reactions induced by cetuximab combined with chemotherapy FOLFIRINOX.The clinicians were advised to use mupirocin and cefaclor as expectant treatment,which released the effect of acneiform rash on the patients with continuously application of cetuximab treatment and ensured the patients could receive enough treatment course,avoid delay of the disease.CONCLUSIONS:The clinical pharmacists go into the clinic to develop pharmaceutical care can assist the clinicians with safety and effective medication,and avoid or reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions.

  18. 儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌的耐药性分析%Antibiotic resistance of the Haemophilus inf luenzae strains isolated from respiratory tract in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓华; 谭南; 林爱心; 汪伟山


    Objective To investigate the antibiotic resistance of Haemophilus influenzae isolates collected from the children with respiratory tract infection for rational use of antibiotics in clinical practice .Methods The H .influenzae strains were isolated from children and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer method .Nitrocefin disc test was used to detect the production of beta-lactamases .WHONET 5 .6 software was used to analyze the susceptibility data .Results A totalof1256strainsof H.influenzaewereisolated.About37.8% ,65.5% and16.5% ofthe1256strainsof H.influenzae were resistant to ampicillin ,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ,and ampicillin-sulbactam ,respectively .Less than 10 .0% of these strains were resistant to any other antibiotics tested .Beta-lactamase was produced in 33 .5% of the 1 256 strains of H . influenzae .Conclusions The H . influenzae strains in this study are mainly resistant ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole .About 80 .0% of these H . influenzae strains were still susceptible to cefaclor ,ampicillin-sulbactam , cefixime ,ceftazidime ,azithromycin ,ciprofloxacin ,meropenem and rifampin .The primary mechanism of ampicillin resistance in Haemophilus is production of beta-lactamases .%目的:了解儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌的临床分布特征和耐药特点,为指导临床合理用药提供科学依据。方法收集儿童痰液标本进行培养并分离出流感嗜血杆菌,用K-B纸片扩散法进行抗菌药物敏感试验,并对其进行β内酰胺酶测定;数据用WHONET5.6统计软件统计分析。结果从12374份痰液标本中共分离出1256株流感嗜血杆菌,分离率为10.2%;1256株流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西林、甲氧苄啶-磺胺甲口恶唑和氨苄西林-舒巴坦的耐药率分别为37.8%、65.5%和16.5%,对其余测试的抗菌药物耐药率均<10.0%;β内酰胺酶阳性率为33.5%。结论流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西

  19. Etiología y sensibilidad bacteriana en infección urinaria en niños. Hospital Infantil Club Noel y Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Rovetto


    gentamicina. Mostraron sensibilidad intermedia entre 61% y 70%: amoxacilina-clavulanato, cefaclor, ciprofloxacina, nitrofurantoína y baja sensibilidad (<60%: amoxacilina, ampicilina, cefadroxilo, cefalexina, cefradina, trimetoprim-sulfa, ampicilina-sulbactan, cefalotina, cefazolina.Conclusiones: Escherichia coli fue la bacteria que más produjo infección urinaria en la población estudiada. Para el manejo ambulatorio se recomiendan como medicamentos empíricos de primera línea los antibióticos orales que mostraron mayor sensibilidad como cefuroxime, cefproxil, cefixime y ácido nalidíxico, mientras se procesa el urocultivo. A pesar de la buena sensibilidad que mostró la norfloxacina, se debe reservar su uso sólo en casos especiales donde haya resistencia a los antibióticos mencionados antes. Debe evitarse en primera instancia el uso de medicamentos como cefalexina, trimetoprim, ampicilina y amoxacilina. Si el estado clínico del paciente amerita hospitalización, los medicamentos parenterales recomendados serían: ceftriazone o amikacina.

  20. 社区呼吸道感染肺炎链球菌对头孢妥仑的耐药机制研究%Mechanisms of cefditoren-resistance in the strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜娟; 褚云卓; 段穷; 曹彬; 刘勇; 孙自镛; 俞云松; 杨启文; 徐英春; 孙宏莉; 陈民钧; 王辉; 张嵘; 卓超; 胡云建


    Objective To study the mechanisms of cefditoren-resistance in the clintcal strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods Thirty-seven strains of S. pneumoniae with cefditoren MICs of ≥ 1 mg/L were isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in 10 teaching hospitals from January 2009 to January 2010. Six strains of S. pneumoniae with cefditoren MICs of ≤0. 5 mg/L were collected as control group. Broth microdilution method was used to determine the MICs of penicillin, amoxicillirrclavulanic acid, cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefditoren, ceftriaxone, azithromycin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and vancomycin, Multiplex-PCR was used to determine the serotypes of all the test isolates, PCR was used to amplify the genes of pbp2b, pbp\\a, pbp2x and murM in 43 clinical isolates. PCR products were digested by restriction enzyme to analyze the DNA fingerprints. One to five FCR products exhibiting the same DNA fingerprint pattern were sequenced. Amino acid sequences were then compared to the sequence of S. pneumoniae strain R6 to analyze the mutations in the conserved motifs of PBP genes, especially for SXXK box, SXN box and KT(S)G box. Results Isolates were divided into three groups according to the susceptibility profile: Cl group included 3 strains which were susceptible to penicillin and with cefditoren MIC of≤0. 5 mg/L; C2 group included 3 strains which were intermediate to penicillin and with cefditoren MIC of≤O, 5 mg/L; R group included 37 strains which were intermediate to penicillin and with cefditoren MIC of 1-4 mg/L Isolates from group R were all susceptible to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and vancomycin, and resistant to cefuroxime, cefaclor, azithromycin and clarithromycin. Only 8.2% and 5.4% of the isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ceftriaxone, separately. The serotyping results indicated that 37 isolates of group R included 35 isolates with type 19F, 1 with type 14 and 1 with type 19A. The conserved motifs

  1. 2009-2010年中国六城市成人社区获得性呼吸道感染病原菌耐药性监测%Antimicrobial susceptibility of community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens isolated from adults in China during 2009 and 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 刘勇; 张嵘; 俞云松; 孙自镛; 卓超; 倪语星; 胡必杰; 刘亚丽; 陈民钧; 徐英春; 孙宏莉; 杨启文; 胡云建; 曹彬; 褚云卓


    .流感嗜血杆菌和卡他莫拉菌对多数抗菌药物敏感,耐药率<5%(流感嗜血杆菌16/313,卡他莫拉菌4/86);此外,13.1%(41/313)的流感嗜血杆菌和91.7%(79/86)的卡他莫拉菌产β-内酰胺酶.结论 PRSP所占比例明显增高,常规用药如大环内酯类及头孢菌素类的敏感性逐渐降低,莫西沙星对大多数呼吸道病原菌仍保持较高的抗菌活性.%Objective To investigate the drug-resistance rates of community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens isolated from adults in China during 2009 and 2010.Methods A total of 1793 strains ( S.aureus 421,S.pneumoniae 420,K.pneumoniae 404,H. influenzae 313,other Streptococcus. spp 149,and M.catarrhalis 86) of non-duplicated community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens were isolated from 11 hospitals in 6 cities.The MIC values were determined by the broth microdilution method,and the production of β-lactamase was tested using a nitrocefin-based test.Results All of the S.aureus isolates were methicillin-sensitive (MSSA).Of the MSSA isolates,less than 1% (4/421) was resistant to β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, about 13.1% (55/421) and 9% (38/421) resistant to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin,and 57% (240/421),53.2% (224/421),and 88.7% ( 373/421 ) resistant to azithromycin,clarithromycin,and penicillin,respectively.No S.aureus isolates resistant to vancomycin were detected in this study. Based on different criteria,the percentages of penicillin-sensitive S. pneumoniae (PSSP),penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP),and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) were 24.4% ( 102/420),27.3% (115/420),48.3% (203/420) (Oral) and 1.9% (8/420),9% (38/420),89.1% ( 374/420 ) ( parenteral ),respectively. The resistance rates of S.pneumonia to azithromycin,clarithromycin,cefaclor,cefuroxime,ceftriaxone and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid were 88.2% (370/420),87.4% (367/420),45.3% ( 190/420),41.9% ( 176/420),10.2% (43/420),and 5.2% (22

  2. Clinical Study on Elderly Women with Chronic Urinary Tract Infection-related Depressive Tendency%开郁补肾方治疗老年女性慢性尿路感染伴发抑郁倾向的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任飞; 周家俊


    Objective:Through clinical research, to investigate and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, action and mechanism of liver - energy - dispersing and kidney - invigorating recipe. Methods :60 cases of chronic UTI patients whose symptoms measure up to the diagnostic criterion of stagnation of liver - QI are randomly divided into two groups of treatment group (30) and control group (30) .received liver - energy - dispersing and kidney - invigorating recipe and sequential therapy of small dose antibiotics(SMZ -TMP,Cistofuran,Cefaclor or other antibiotics)respectively for 12 weeks,the changes in scores of SDS,stagnation of liver - QI symptomatic scale and stranguria symptomatic scale and recurrence rate were observed,the therapeutic effects and acting mechanism were evaluated. Results:Were evaluated Before treatment, the scores of scales between treatment group and control group have no difference (P>0.05 ) , but have obviously differences after treatment (P<0.01). Control group' scores of SDS and stagnation of liver -QI symptomatic scale have no difference after treatment (P>0.05 ) , while treatment group does (P<0.001). Both control group and treatment group' scores of stranguria symptomatic scale have notable differences after treatment. During six months' observation , the cases of relapse and the frequencies of relapse of treatment group are 15 and 22 respectively, while control group are 23 and 58 ,the differences between the two groups are significant ( P<0.05). Conclusion;Liver - energy - dispersing and kidney - invigorating recipe can alleviate the depressive and urinary irritation symptoms,and reduce the relapse rate of chronic UTI effectively.%目的:探讨开郁补肾方治疗老年女性慢性尿路感染伴发抑郁倾向患者的疗效及其作用机制.方法:采用随机对照法将符合纳入标准的60例患者分为治疗组30例和对照组30例,分别接受开郁补肾方和小剂量抗菌素(SMZCO、呋喃妥因、头孢克洛或敏

  3. Investigation on the mechanism of drug resistance mediated by class I integron in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae%Ⅰ类整合子介导大肠埃希菌与肺炎克雷伯菌耐药机制的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立涛; 万莉红; 邵振俊; 谭显曙; 匡文娟; 周黎明


    Objective To study the distribution and the characterization of class I integron in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and explore the relationship between class I integron and their drug resistance. Methods Agar dilution method and double disk diffusion method were used to analyze the 82 strains of clinical isolates; class Ⅰ integron and drug resistance gene cassettes integrated by integron Ⅰ were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening, DNA sequencing and sequence analysis in 36strains of Escherichia coli and 46 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Results Ten of 82 clinical isolates were were observed in class Ⅰ integron, and all of them carried the integrated drug resistance gene. Susceptibility test showed the Escherichia coifs resistance rate were as follows, 61% of cefixime, 86% of cefaclor, 86% of cephalexin, 50% of piperacillin-tazobactam, 75% of ceftazidime, 64% of cefotaxime sodium, 39% of amoxicillin/sulbactam, 47% of ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium, 30% of cefoperazone sodium/sulbactam sodiumis, respectively, while the Klebsiella pneumoniae's resistance rate were 65%, 63%, 78%, 52%, 67%, 54%, 48%, 41%, 28%. There were 10 strains of ESBLs-producing in them, Escherichia coli 4 strain, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6 strains, and all were detected to havel integron, the gene cassettes's marshaling sequence was 100% similar to the strain and its genbank number was NC010410, and all contained blaVEB-1 resistance gene cassettes.Conclusion Class Ⅰ integron and integrated gene cassettes are prevalent among the ESBLs-producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Integrons are important molecular mechanism in the development of drug resistance.%目的 了解临床分离的大肠埃希茵、肺炎克雷伯菌中Ⅰ类整合子的分布情况,探讨整合子与细菌耐药之间的关系.方法 琼脂平皿稀释法进行药敏试验;双纸片法筛选出产ESBLs的菌株;运用PCR扩增、DNA测