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Sample records for cefaclor

  1. Cefaclor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, such as pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; and infections of the skin, ears, throat, tonsils, and urinary tract. Cefaclor is ... the growth of bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefaclor will not work for ...

  2. Immunologic evaluation of immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye-Soo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Tae-Bum; Nam, Young-Hee; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-11-01

    Cefaclor is widely prescribed for various infectious diseases. As its consumption increases, the number of hypersensitivity reactions to cefaclor has increased. This study aimed to evaluate the immunologic findings of immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor. We enrolled 47 patients with immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor from Ajou University Hospital and Asan Medical Center. Serum specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 antibodies to cefaclor-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugate were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most common phenotype was anaphylaxis (Group I, 78.7%), followed by urticaria (Group II, 21.3%). The detection of specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 to cefaclor-HSA conjugate by ELISA tended to be higher in Group I (40.5%, 41.7%, 21.6%) than in Group II (20.0%, 20.0%, 0%) with no statistical significance. Significant associations were found between specific IgE and IgG1 or IgG4 (pimmediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor was anaphylaxis, most of which was mediated by IgE; however, a non-IgE mediated direct basophil activation mechanism was suggested in a subset of anaphylaxis patients.

  3. Comparative treatment trial of augmentin versus cefaclor for acute otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, C M; Kusmiesz, H; Shelton, S; Nelson, J D

    1985-05-01

    A total of 150 children with acute otitis media were randomly allocated to treatment with amoxicillin-potassium clavulanate (Augmentin) or with cefaclor. Each drug was given in a daily dosage of approximately 40 mg/kg in three divided doses for ten days. Tympanocentesis done before treatment yielded specimens that contained pneumococcus or Haemophilus sp or both in 67% of specimens. Viridans group streptococci were isolated from 10% of specimens and Branhamella catarrhalis from 6%. Patients were scheduled for follow-up examinations at midtreatment, end of therapy, and at 30, 60, and 90 days. Of the 150 children, 130 were evaluable. Five of 60 patients (8%) treated with cefaclor were considered therapeutic failures because of persistent purulent drainage and isolation of the original pathogen or suprainfection. There were no failures among patients treated with Augmentin (P = .019). Rates of relapse, recurrent acute otitis media with effusion, and persistent middle ear effusion were comparable in the two groups of patients. Diaper rash, or loose stools, or both were significantly more common in children treated with Augmentin (34%) than in those taking cefaclor (12%), but in no case was it necessary to discontinue medication because of these mild side effects (P = .002). Cefaclor therapy was discontinued in one patient because of severe abdominal pain and vomiting. In this study, treatment with Augmentin was superior to treatment with cefaclor in the acute phase of acute otitis media with effusion, but Augmentin produced more adverse effects. The rates of persistent middle ear effusion and recurrent acute otitis media with effusion were comparable with the two regimens.

  4. Molecularly imprinted polymers based stir bar sorptive extraction for determination of cefaclor and cefalexin in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Liu, Donghao; Shi, Tian; Tian, Huairu; Hui, Xuanhong; He, Hua

    2017-07-01

    Although stir bar sportive extraction was thought to be a highly efficiency and simple pretreatment approach, its wide application was limited by low selectivity, short service life, and relatively high cost. In order to improve the performance of the stir bar, molecular imprinted polymers and magnetic carbon nanotubes were combined in the present study. In addition, two monomers were utilized to intensify the selectivity of molecularly imprinted polymers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and selectivity experiments showed that the molecularly imprinted polymeric stir bar was successfully prepared. Then micro-extraction based on the obtained stir bar was coupled with HPLC for determination of trace cefaclor and cefalexin in environmental water. This approach had the advantages of stir bar sportive extraction, high selectivity of molecular imprinted polymers, and high sorption efficiency of carbon nanotubes. To utilize this pretreatment approach, pH, extraction time, stirring speed, elution solvent, and elution time were optimized. The LOD and LOQ of cefaclor were found to be 3.5 ng · mL -1 and 12.0 ng · mL -1 , respectively; the LOD and LOQ of cefalexin were found to be 3.0 ng · mL -1 and 10.0 ng · mL -1 , respectively. The recoveries of cefaclor and cefalexin were 86.5 ~ 98.6%. The within-run precision and between-run precision were acceptable (relative standard deviation bar did not decrease dramatically. This demonstrated that the molecularly imprinted polymeric stir bar based micro-extraction was a convenient, efficient, low-cost, and a specific method for enrichment of cefaclor and cefalexin in environmental samples.

  5. Effect of Tropical Climatic Conditions on the Stability of Cefaclor Dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different formulations were manufactured and placed in twelve amber coloured glass bottles for each test condition. One set of bottles was sealed by heat induction technique under vacuum to ensure the integrity of the seal while the other set was without a seal but had a child-resistant cap. Both types of bottles were stored ...

  6. Aerobic bacteria in safe type chronic suppurative otitis media in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone. Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin appear to be the best choices for empiric therapy in patients with CSOM. In contrast, the use of amoxyclav, cotrimoxazole, cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone should be discouraged. Keywords: Aerobic bacteria, Chronic suppurative otitis media, Gezira ...

  7. Anti-Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Macrolide Antibiotic Roxithromycin in Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    that other antibiotics, such as amoxicillin, cefaclor, penicillin, and cephalosporin , had no such effects even at high concentration (data not...amino sugars attached. Macrolides: broad spectrum antibiotics. Macrolides Have Anti-Inflammatory Activities Roxithromycin: a representative macrolide

  8. aerobic bacteria in safe type chronic suppurative otitis media

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin appear to be the best choices for empiric therapy in patients with CSOM. In contrast, the use of amoxyclav, cotrimoxazole, cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone should be discour- aged. INTRODUCTION. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a persistent inflammatory disorder of the middle.

  9. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of cholic acid hydrazone analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasras, Anas J M; Al-Tel, Taleb H; Al-Aboudi, Amal F; Al-Qawasmeh, Raed A

    2010-06-01

    Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of cholic acid analogues 4a-t are reported. The synthesis of 4a-t was accomplished from ethylcholate 2. The hydrazone moiety was introduced via coupling of the cholic acid hydrazide (3) with appropriately functionalized aldehyde utilizing acetic acid as a catalyst. Quiet of interest in relation to the synthesized hydrazones is the formation of two rotamers s-cis.E and s-trans.E. Most compounds showed stronger antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than Cefaclor and Cefixime. Compounds 4d, 4i and 4j indicated 15-fold stronger antimicrobial activities against Enterobacter faecalis compared to Cefaclor and Cefixime. Some of the synthesized compounds (e.g. 4a, 4c, 4d, 4i, and 4l) reflected two-folds less activity against Escherichia coli relative to Cefixime. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of bond strength of self-etch adhesive to pulp chamber dentin after placement of calcium hydroxide and various antibiotic pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hakan; Akcay, Merve; Çakir, Mustafa; Gok, Adem; Yasa, Bilal; Dalli, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide, double antibiotic paste (DAP) and triple antibiotic paste (TAP) with minocycline, cefaclor and amoxicillin on the micro tensile bond strength (µTBS) of self-etch adhesive to pulp chamber dentin. Sixty mandibular first molars were cut horizontally and randomly divided into a control group and five experimental groups, which received an intra-canal dressing, as follows: calcium hydroxide, DAP, TAP with minocycline, TAP with cefaclor and TAP with amoxicillin. After storing the specimens for 4 weeks, the medicaments were removed by irrigation with 10 mL each of the following solution: 2.5% NaOCl, 17% EDTA and distilled water. A self-etch adhesive (Clearfil S3 Bond, Okayama, Japan) was applied and composite resin (Clearfil Majesty Posterior, Kuraray Medical Inc., Japan) was placed into the cavity. A µTBS test was performed on each specimen using a universal test machine. The DAP reduced the µTBS of self-etch adhesive compared to the control group, calcium hydroxide and TAP with minocycline and with cefaclor (p self-etch adhesive to pulp chamber dentin as compared to the control group (p > 0.05). The use of DAP resulted in a reduced µTBS of self-etch adhesive to pulp chamber dentin.

  11. The effect of medicaments used in endodontic regeneration technique on the dislocation resistance of mineral trioxide aggregate to root canal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Arslan, Hakan; Akçay, Merve; Saygili, Gökhan; Çakici, Fatih; Topçuoğlu, Gamze

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide (CH) and antibiotic pastes, including a mixture of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin, with and without minocycline or cefaclor, on the dislocation resistance of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) to root dentin. Eighty single-rooted human mandibular premolars were selected. The teeth were prepared by using the ProTaper system. The prepared teeth were then instrumented to a #6 Peeso reamer to obtain a standard internal diameter of 1.5 mm. The reamers were passed 1 mm beyond apex to simulate immature teeth. The specimens were then randomly divided into a control group (no intracanal medicament was used) and 4 experimental groups that were treated with an intracanal medicament: CH, double antibiotic paste (DAP) with metronidazole and ciprofloxacin, triple antibiotic paste (TAP) with minocycline, or TAP with cefaclor (n = 16). After 3 weeks, the medicaments were removed, and approximately 3 mm of MTA was placed in the coronal third of the canals. A push-out test was used to measure the dislocation resistance between the root dentin and MTA. Data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. The dislocation resistance values of the CH, TAP with minocycline, and TAP with cefaclor groups were similar to those of the control group (P > .05), whereas the DAP group had the lowest dislocation resistance when compared with the other groups (P < .05). Overall, there was a predominance of cohesive failures between root dentin and MTA. The results of this study indicate that the application of DAP as an intracanal medicament reduced the dislocation resistance of MTA to root dentin. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mass Spectral Profile for Rapid Differentiating Beta-Lactams from Their Ring-Opened Impurities

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    Hecheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC MS has been widely used for β-lactam antibiotics determination. However, its application to identify impurities of these frequently used drugs is not sufficient at present. In this job, characteristic profiles of the collision induced dissociation (CID spectra of both β-lactams and ring-opened β-lactams were extracted from the MS data of six β-lactam antibiotics and their forty-five impurities, and were confirmed by the MS data reported in the literature. These characteristics have been successfully applied to rapid differentiation of β-lactam and ring-opened β-lactam impurities in cefixime, cefdinir, and cefaclor. However, these characteristic profiles can only be obtained under low activating voltage. They did not display in the high energy activated CID spectra. Diagnostic fragmentations for determining the localization of double bond and substituents on the thiazine ring and the side chain were also observed. In addition, several characteristic fragmentations are hopeful to be used to differentiate the configurations of C-2 on the thiazine ring of ring-opened impurities, which is generally disadvantageous of mass spectrometry. Taken together, forty-five impurities were identified from the capsules of cefixime, cefdinir, and cefaclor.

  13. Metagenomic analysis of antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota in a pregnant rat model

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    Imran eKhan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA-approved category B antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat infections during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (GM that occur during pregnancy. The 16S rRNA amplicon deep-sequencing method was used to analyse the effect of category B antibiotics (azithromycin, amoxicillin and cefaclor on GM during pregnancy using a rat model. The GM composition was substantially modulated by pregnancy and antibiotics administration. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Chlamydiae, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria were the dominant phyla. Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and reduced Firmicutes. The genera Shigella, Streptococcus, Candidatus Arthromitus and Helicobacter were significantly (p<0.05 more abundant during pregnancy. Antibiotics significantly (p<0.05 reduced the relative abundance of Lactobacillus but increased that of Enterobacter. There was a significant (p<0.05 decrease in Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillus crispatus during pregnancy. Antibiotic treatment reduced bacterial diversity; the lowest number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs were detected in the cefaclor-treated groups. Antibiotics significantly (p<0.05 promoted weight gain during pregnancy, and increased relative abundance of Shigella sonnei, Enterococcus hormaechei and Acinetobacter sp. GM perturbations were accompanied by increases in Proteobacteria abundance and weight gain in pregnancy following antibiotic treatment

  14. A Biosurfactant-Sophorolipid Acts in Synergy with Antibiotics to Enhance Their Efficiency

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    Kasturi Joshi-Navare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sophorolipids (SLs, biosurfactants with antimicrobial properties, have been tried to address the problem of antibiotic resistance. The synergistic action of SL and antibiotics was checked using standard microdilution and spread plate methods. With Staphylococcus aureus, SL-tetracycline combination achieved total inhibition before 4 h of exposure while tetracycline alone couldnot achieve total inhibition till the end of 6 h. The inhibition caused by exposure of bacterium to SL-tetracycline mixture was ~25% more as compared to SL alone. In spite of known robustness of gram-negative bacteria, SL-cefaclor mixture proved to be efficient against Escherichia coli which showed ~48% more inhibition within 2 h of exposure as compared to cefaclor alone. Scanning electron microscopy of the cells treated with mixture revealed bacterial cell membrane damage and pore formation. Moreover, SLs being a type of asymmetric bola, they are expected to form self-assemblies with unique functionality. This led to the speculation that SLs being amphiphilic in nature can span through the structurally alike cell membrane and facilitate the entry of drug molecules.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance among lower respiratory tract isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: results of a 1992-93 western Europe and USA collaborative surveillance study. The Alexander Project Collaborative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, F W; Acar, J F

    1996-07-01

    One thousand, eight hundred and fifty-six Streptococcus pneumoniae strains, collected in 1992 and 1993 from 15 centres in Western Europe and USA were tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics. The overall resistance to penicillin was 23% (range 6-54%), with the highest prevalences in Madrid, Barcelona, Toulouse and Cleveland. Seven centres reported low-level penicillin resistance only. Amoxycillin was more active than ceftriaxone against strains with intermediate resistance to penicillin, and at least four-fold more active than cefuroxime; cefaclor and cefixime had poor activity. Against penicillin-resistant strains, ceftriaxone was slightly more active than amoxycillin, cefuroxime exhibited borderline activity and cefixime and cefaclor were inactive. Ten strains fully susceptible to penicillin had MICs of ceftriaxone > or = 0.1 mg/L; this may represent a first step towards the development of cephalosporin resistance. With the exception of fluoroquinolones, resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics (chloramphenicol, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin) was considerably higher in penicillin-resistant strains compared with penicillin-susceptible isolates. Erythromycin-resistant isolates were also resistant to the other macrolides tested.

  16. Probenecid: an unexplained effect on cephalosporin pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, P G; Dean, S; Selen, A; Kendall, M J; Wise, R

    1979-01-01

    1 The influence of probenecid on serum levels and urinary excretion of orally administered cephradine and cefaclor has been investigated. 2 Probenecid caused serum levels of both antibiotics to be increased and also prolonged. Urinary excretion of antibiotic activity was slightly but not significantly decreased by probenecid during the initial 6 h postdosing. It was significantly increased in 6-12 h urine, but only a small percentage of the doses were excreted during that period. 3 The increased serum levels of antibiotic were greater than could be accounted for by reduced elimination rate alone. Possible mechanisms to account for increased circulating levels of antibiotic in the presence of probenecid are discussed in the light of previous observations on probenecid induced changes in tissue distribution of beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:508557

  17. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance patterns and class 1 integrons in Escherichia coli O26 isolated from humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Velusamy; Gillespie, Barbara E; Nguyen, Lien T; Headrick, Susan I; Murinda, Shelton E; Oliver, Stephen P

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistance patterns and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes and class 1 integrons in 35 Escherichia coli O26 isolated from humans and food-producing animals were evaluated. All isolates were resistant to cefaclor, cefalothin and sulfonamide and were susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin, cefmetazole, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and trimethoprim. Most isolates were resistant to aztreonam, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and kanamycin. All ampicillin- and streptomycin-resistant E. coli O26 carried ampC and strA-strB gene sequences, respectively. Florfenicol- and chloramphenicol-resistant isolates carried floR but not cmlA. Class1 integrons were identified in 14% of E. coli O26 isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of multiple antimicrobial resistance genes in E. coli O26 isolated from human and animal origins.

  18. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro profile based interaction with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells of alginate-chitosan-silica biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaure, Paul Catalin; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Yang, Chih-Hui; Chifiriuc, Carmen Mariana; Lin, Yung-Sheng

    2013-01-30

    This work is focused on the fabrication of a new drug delivery system based on polyanionic matrix (e.g. sodium alginate), polycationic matrix (e.g. chitosan) and silica network. The FT-IR, SEM, DTA-TG, eukaryotic cell cycle and viability, and in vitro assay of the influence of the biocomposite on the efficacy of antibiotic drugs were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated the biocompatibility and the ability of the fabricated biocomposite to maintain or improve the efficacy of the following antibiotics: piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, piperacillin, imipenem, gentamicin, ceftazidime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and cefazolin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 reference strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibacterial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from burns and wounds of cancer patients

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    Sulaiman A. Alharbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study 540 burns and wound swabs were collected from cancer patients of some Egyptian hospitals. The single infection was detected from 210, and 70 cases among wounded and burned patients, while mixed infection was 30 and 45, respectively. We recovered where 60 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 60 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 7 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 4 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 25 isolates of Escherichia coli, 23 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 27 isolates of Proteus vulgaris from 355 burn and surgical wound infections . All bacterial isolates showed high resistance to the commonly used β-lactams (amoxycillin, cefaclor, ampicillin, vancomycin, amoxicillin/clavulonic, and low resistance to imepenim and ciprofloxacin. Plasmid analysis of six multidrug resistant and two susceptible bacterial isolates revealed the same plasmid pattern. This indicated that R-factor is not responsible for the resistance phenomenon among the isolated opportunistic bacteria. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the isolated bacteria was studied.

  20. Solar photocatalysis as disinfection technique: Inactivation of Klebsiella pneumoniae in sewage and investigation of changes in antibiotic resistance profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venieri, Danae; Gounaki, Iosifina; Bikouvaraki, Maria; Binas, Vassilios; Zachopoulos, Apostolos; Kiriakidis, George; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2017-06-15

    The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater and their resistant nature to antibiotics impose effective disinfection treatment for public health and environmental protection. In this work, photocatalysis with metal-doped titania under artificial and natural sunlight, chlorination and UV-C irradiation were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Klebsiella pneumoniae in real wastewater. Their overall effect on antibiotic resistance profile and target antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was also investigated. In particular, Mn-, Co- and binary Mn/Co-TiO 2 were tested resulting in bacterial decrease from 4 to 6 Logs upon 90 min of exposure to simulated solar irradiation. The response of catalysts under natural solar light was insufficient, as only a 2 Log reduction was recorded even after 60 min of treatment. The relative activity of the applied methods for K. pneumoniae inactivation was decreased in the order: photocatalysis with the binary Co/Mn-TiO 2 under artificial light > chlorination with dose of 5 mg/L of free chlorine > UV-C irradiation, at an initial bacterial concentration of 10 7  CFU/mL. The applied methods showed various effects on antibiotic resistance profile in residual cells. Among the tested antibiotics (ampicillin, cefaclor, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline), considerable changes in MIC values were recorded for cefaclor and tetracycline. Resistance of surviving cells after treatment remained in high levels, reflecting the abundance of the corresponding target ARGs, namely tetA, tetM, sul1, blaTEM and ampC. The notable presence of target ARGs post disinfection raises concerns and makes wastewater effluent a carrier of antibiotic resistance elements into the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The synthesis and characterization of poly({gamma}-glutamic acid)-coated magnetite nanoparticles and their effects on antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Inbaraj, B; Kao, T H; Tsai, T Y; Chiu, C P; Kumar, R; Chen, B H, E-mail: 002622@mail.fju.edu.tw [Department of Food Science, Fu Jen University, Taipei 242, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-18

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) modified with sodium and calcium salts of poly({gamma}-glutamic acid) (NaPGA and CaPGA) were synthesized by the coprecipitation method, followed by characterization and evaluation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. Superparamagnetic MNPs are particularly attractive for magnetic driving as well as bacterial biofilm and cell targeting in in vivo applications. Characterization of synthesized MNPs by the Fourier transform infrared spectra and magnetization curves confirmed the PGA coating on MNPs. The mean diameter of NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs as determined by transmission electron microscopy was 11.8 and 14 nm, respectively, while the x-ray diffraction pattern revealed the as-synthesized MNPs to be pure magnetite. Based on agar dilution assay, both NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs showed a lower minimum inhibitory concentration in Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 than the commercial antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, but the former was effective against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832, whereas the latter was effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 TWC 01. An in vitro cytotoxicity study in human skin fibroblast cells as measured by MTT assay implied the as-synthesized MNPs to be nontoxic. This outcome demonstrated that both {gamma}-PGA-modified MNPs are cytocompatible and possess antibacterial activity in vitro, and thereby should be useful in in vivo studies for biomedical applications.

  2. Cranberry Products for the Prophylaxis of Urinary Tract Infections in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Spencer H; Stamm, Pamela L; Eiland, Lea S

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the existing data regarding the use of cranberry products for the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pediatric patients. A literature search of Medline databases from 1966 to June 2015 was conducted. The databases were searched using the terms "pediatrics," "children," "cranberry," "cranberry juice," and "urinary tract infections." The identified trials were then searched for additional references applicable to this topic. A total of 8 clinical trials were identified that examined the use of cranberry products, mostly juice, for the prevention of UTIs in children. Three trials examined the use in otherwise healthy children. Five trials examined the use in pediatric patients with underlying urogenital abnormalities of which 2 compared cranberry to antibiotics. In healthy pediatric patients, cranberry use was associated with a reduction in the overall number of UTIs and a decrease in the number of antibiotic days per year for UTI treatment. In patients with urogenital abnormalities, results were conflicting, with some studies showing no reduction in UTIs compared with placebo, but others demonstrating a significant reduction. However, cranberry products had similar efficacy when compared with both cefaclor and trimethoprim. All studies used a wide variety of doses and frequencies of cranberry, making specific product recommendations difficult. Cranberry appears effective for the prevention of UTIs in otherwise healthy children and is at least as effective as antibiotics in children with underlying urogenital abnormalities. However, recommendations for cranberry dosing and frequency cannot be confidently made at this time. Larger, well-designed trials are recommended. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to various antibiotics among strains isolated from patients and healthy carriers in different regions of Brazil (1999-2000

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    F. Rossi

    Full Text Available Resistance of microbes to commonly used antibiotics became a major concern at the end of the last century. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen in respiratory infections, we conducted microbiological assessment of drug susceptibility patterns among strains collected from two different population groups: 1 adult and pediatric patients (375 isolates with different infections, and 2 healthy children in day care centers (< 5 years old; 350 isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not identified in either group. Intermediate resistance levels were similar in both groups (adults: 9.9%; children: 9.2%. The Central West region of Brazil tended to have lower susceptibility of S.pneumoniae from infected adults and children to penicillin (81% vs. 93% in the South and 90% in the Southeast, tetracycline (64% vs. 80% and 76%, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (14% vs. 34%. Susceptibility was similar among strains from nasal cultures of healthy children tested in each of 4 regions of Brazil. All isolates were susceptible to cefaclor, cefotaxime and amoxacillin/clavulanate. This study, in two distinct populations, allowed characterization of local microbiological resistance patterns. This data is expected to be of use in guiding empiric therapy in the different regions of Brazil.

  4. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria responsible of acute respiratory tract infections in children

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    Makhtar Camara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common causative agents of acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs. The objective of this study was to assess their susceptibility to several antibiotics.Materials and methods. A total of 58 strains (16 S. pneumoniae, 19 H. influenzae and 23 M. catarrhalis were isolated from samples collected in two paediatric centres, and their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics tested by E-test. Results. Among H. influenzae isolates, 10.5% were resistant to ampicillin (all β-lactamase-positive, and 88.9% were susceptible to cefaclor. High β-lactam resistance rates (penicillin: 31.3% and cephalosporins: 18.7 to 31.3% had been observed among S. pneumonia strains. Only 50% of isolates were susceptible to azithromycine. 91.3% of M. catarrhalis isolates β-lactamases producers were resistant to ampicillin while susceptible to the most tested antibiotics. Conclusions. Except M. catarrhalis β-lactamases producing strains, frequency of antibiotic resistance was mainly observed among S. pneumoniae, and to a lesser extent among H. influenzae clinical isolates, suggesting the need for continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance patterns in the management of RTIs.

  5. Isolation and antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli from urinary tract infections in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Sumera; Ahmad Anjum, Aftab; Ijaz, Tayyaba; Asad Ali, Muhammad; Ur Rehman Khan, Muti; Nawaz, Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    The study was conducted to isolate and determine the antibiotic resistance in E. coli from urinary tract infections in a tertiary care hospital, Lahore. Urine samples (n=500) were collected from patients with signs and symptoms of Urinary tract infections. Bacteria were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical profile. Antibiotic resistance pattern of E. coli against different antibiotic was determined by Kirby-Baur method. Bacterial etiological agent was isolated from 402 samples with highest prevalence of E. coli (321, 80%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (9.4%), Proteus species (5.4%) and Pseudomonas species (5.2%). The E. coli were highly resistant to penicillin (100%), amoxicillin (100%) and cefotaxime (89.7%), followed by intermediate level of resistance to ceftazidime (73.8%), cephradine (73.8%), tetracycline (69.4%), doxycycline (66.6%), augmentin (62.6%), gentamycin (59.8%), cefuroxime (58.2%), ciprofloxacin (54.2%), cefaclor (50%), aztreonam (44.8%), ceftriaxone (43.3%), imipenem (43.3%), and low level of resistance to streptomycin (30%), kanamycin (19.9%), tazocin (14%), amikacin (12.7%) and lowest to norfloxacin (11.2%). Out of 321 E. coli isolates, 261 (81%) were declared as multiple drug resistant and 5 (1.5%) were extensive drug resistant. It is concluded that most of the urinary tract infections in human are caused by multiple drug resistant E. coli.

  6. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

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    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of superparamagnetic nanoparticles modified with glycol chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj, Tsung-Yu Tsai and Bing-Huei Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron salts in alkali media followed by coating with glycol chitosan (GC-coated IONPs. Both bare and GC-coated IONPs were subsequently characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. Comparison of Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric data of bare and GC-coated IONPs confirmed the presence of GC coating on IONPs. Magnetization curves showed that both bare and GC-coated IONPs are superparamagnetic and have saturation magnetizations of 70.3 and 59.8 emu g−1, respectively. The IONP size was measured as ~8–9 nm by transmission electron microscopy, and their crystal structure was assigned to magnetite from x-ray diffraction patterns. Both bare and GC-coated IONPs inhibited the growths of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 bacteria better than the antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, as evaluated by the agar dilution assay. GC-coated IONPs showed higher potency against E. coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832 than bare IONPs. Given their biocompatibility and antibacterial properties, GC-coated IONPs are a potential nanomaterial for in vivo applications.

  8. Bacteriological Analysis, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Detection of 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by PCR in Drinking Water Samples of Earthquake Affected Areas and Other Parts of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed, F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Pakistan, clean drinking water is not available to most of the population. Main source of drinking water in Hazara, Azad Jammu and Kashmir-Pakistan is underground and spring water, due to earthquake water reservoirs in these areas were immensely contaminated. Moreover, drinking water treatment and proper sanitary facilities were also lacking. This study was conducted to analyze the quality of drinking water available in most of the cities of Pakistan including earthquake hit areas. For this purpose, 112 water samples were collected and analyzed by membrane filtration method. Microbial isolates were identified using QTS-10 and biochemical tests. Almost all samples were found to be contaminated but in earthquake affected areas quality of drinking water was substandard than other areas of Pakistan. Results revealed the detection of following bacterial pathogens among the water samples: Enterobacter sp., Klebsiellasp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Salmonella sp., Proteus sp., Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. Furthermore, these bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin (32.1%, amoxicillin (30.4%, sulphometoxazole (20.5% and cefaclor (31.3%. All drinking water samples were analyzed for 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by using PCR, however no positive result was found in these samples. Based on our results it is suggested that authorities should pay attention to supply safe water and proper sanitary facilities to avoid epidemics of infectious diseases in future.

  9. Production, Optimization, and Characterization of Organic Solvent Tolerant Cellulases from a Lignocellulosic Waste-Degrading Actinobacterium, Promicromonospora sp. VP111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lebin; Ram, Hari; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Ved Pal

    2016-07-01

    High costs of natural cellulose utilization and cellulase production are an industrial challenge. In view of this, an isolated soil actinobacterium identified as Promicromonospora sp. VP111 showed potential for production of major cellulases (CMCase, FPase, and β-glucosidase) utilizing untreated agricultural lignocellulosic wastes. Extensive disintegration of microcrystalline cellulose and adherence on it during fermentation divulged true cellulolytic efficiency of the strain. Conventional optimization resulted in increased cellulase yield in a cost-effective medium, and the central composite design (CCD) analysis revealed cellulase production to be limited by cellulose and ammonium sulfate. Cellulase activities were enhanced by Co(+2) (1 mM) and retained up to 60 °C and pH 9.0, indicating thermo-alkaline tolerance. Cellulases showed stability in organic solvents (25 % v/v) with log P ow  ≥ 1.24. Untreated wheat straw during submerged fermentation was particularly degraded and yielded about twofold higher levels of cellulases than with commercial cellulose (Na-CMC and avicel) which is especially economical. Thus, this is the first detailed report on cellulases from an efficient strain of Promicromonospora that was non-hemolytic, alkali-halotolerant, antibiotic (erythromycin, kanamycin, rifampicin, cefaclor, ceftazidime) resistant, multiple heavy metal (Mo(+6) = W(+6) > Pb(+2) > Mn(+2) > Cr(+3) > Sn(+2)), and organic solvent (n-hexane, isooctane) tolerant, which is industrially and environmentally valuable.

  10. The synthesis and characterization of poly(γ-glutamic acid)-coated magnetite nanoparticles and their effects on antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbaraj, B. Stephen; Kao, T. H.; Tsai, T. Y.; Chiu, C. P.; Kumar, R.; Chen, B. H.

    2011-02-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) modified with sodium and calcium salts of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (NaPGA and CaPGA) were synthesized by the coprecipitation method, followed by characterization and evaluation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. Superparamagnetic MNPs are particularly attractive for magnetic driving as well as bacterial biofilm and cell targeting in in vivo applications. Characterization of synthesized MNPs by the Fourier transform infrared spectra and magnetization curves confirmed the PGA coating on MNPs. The mean diameter of NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs as determined by transmission electron microscopy was 11.8 and 14 nm, respectively, while the x-ray diffraction pattern revealed the as-synthesized MNPs to be pure magnetite. Based on agar dilution assay, both NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs showed a lower minimum inhibitory concentration in Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 than the commercial antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, but the former was effective against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832, whereas the latter was effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 TWC 01. An in vitro cytotoxicity study in human skin fibroblast cells as measured by MTT assay implied the as-synthesized MNPs to be nontoxic. This outcome demonstrated that both γ-PGA-modified MNPs are cytocompatible and possess antibacterial activity in vitro, and thereby should be useful in in vivo studies for biomedical applications.

  11. [The outpatient use of beta lactam antibiotics in Montenegro before the introduction of new reform strategy on drug market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duborija-Kovacević, Natasa

    2006-01-01

    The study represents the first investigation of outpatient use of beta lactam antibiotics in Montenegro carried out in accordance with internationally approved methodology (DDD/ATC). The objective of our study was to establish both the scope and overall use of beta lactam antibiotics, and to assess their compatibility with current pharmacotherapeutic guidelines and their use in developed countries. The retrospective pharmaco-epidemiological study comprised a 100%-sample of beta lactams that were used in the period prior to introduction of new reform strategy on drug market. Beta lactam antibiotics (J01C, J01D) were the most frequently applied anti-infectives for systemic use (ATC group J) in 2000 (11.3 DDD/1000 inh./day, 61%). Penicillins (J01C) were the most utilized (8.0 DDD/1000 inh./day, 71%). Cephalosporin derivatives (cephalexin and cefaclor) accounted for the remaining 29% (3.3 DDD/1000 inh./day). Aminopenicillins were prevailing among penicillins (85%). Beta lactamase sensitive penicillins were in the second place and approximately accounted for 14%. The results of our study showed that the use of beta lactam antibacterials could be estimated as partially satisfactory. There is a need to make additional efforts with a view of further rationalization.

  12. Template synthesis and characterization of biologically active transition metal complexes comprising 14-membered tetraazamacrocyclic ligand

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    DHARMPAL SINGH

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of complexes of the type [M(C28H24N4X2], whereM = Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II, X = Cl–, NO3–, CH3COO– and (C28H24N4 corresponds to the tetradentate macrocyclic ligand, were synthe¬sized by template condensation of 1,8-diaminonaphthalene and diacetyl in the presence of divalent metal salts in methanolic medium. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductance and magnetic measurements, as well as by UV/Vis, NMR, IR and MS spectroscopy. The low values of the molar conductance indicate non-electrolyte type of complexes. Based on these spectral data, a distorted octahedral geometry may be proposed for all of these complexes. All the synthesized macrocyclic complexes were tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacterial strains, viz Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC values shown by the complexes against these bacterial strains were compared with the MIC shown by the standard antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor.

  13. Refined models of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 with inhibitors: an QM/MM modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Cheng, Tian-Lu

    2016-10-01

    New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) has been identified as a potential target for the treatment of multi-drug resistance bacterial infections. We used molecular docking, normal MD, SIE, QM/MM MD simulations, QM/MM GBSA binding free energy, and QM/MM GBSA alanine-scanning mutagenesis techniques to investigate interactions of the NDM-1 with 11 inhibitors (Tigecycline, BAL30072, D-captopril, Penicillin G, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Cephalexin, Cefaclor, Nitrocefin, Meropenem, and Imipenem). From our normal MD and QM/MM simulations, the correlation coefficients between the predicted binding free energies and experimental values are .88 and .93, respectively. Then simulations, which combined QM/MM/GBSA and alanine-scanning mutagenesis techniques, were performed and our results show that two residues (Lys211 and His250) have the strongest impact on the binding affinities of the 11 NDM-1/inhibitors. Therefore, our approach theoretically suggests that the two residues (Lys211 and His250) are responsible for the selectivity of NDM-1 associated inhibitors.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of the Two Porcine Salmonella Typhimurium Isolates

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    Kemal METİNER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to detect the presence of the Salmonella species in swine with diarrhea, and to investigate their antimicrobial resistance and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL and/or AmpC β-lactamase production. For this purpose, stool samples from three commercial pig farms in Istanbul and Tekirdag were collected and processed for Salmonella isolation by culture and isolates were identified by biochemical activity tests. Salmonella isolates were confirmed by PCR then serotyped. Antimicrobial resistance and ESBL and AmpC production of the isolates were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI standard. In the study, two hundred and thirty eight stool samples were examined. Salmonella spp. were obtained from 2 samples, and the isolation rate was determined as 0.8%. Both of the isolates were defined as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (serotype 1, 4, [5], 12: I: 1, 2 by serotyping. Both of them were resistant to cefaclor, cloxacillin and lincomycin (100%. Multidrug resistance (resistance ≥3 antimicrobials observed in all isolates. ESBL and AmpC production were not detected in any of the isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of S. Typhimurium in pigs with diarrhea in Turkey. This study also represents the first report of multi-drug resistant S. Typhimurium isolates from pig stools in Turkey.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of superparamagnetic nanoparticles modified with glycol chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2012-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron salts in alkali media followed by coating with glycol chitosan (GC-coated IONPs). Both bare and GC-coated IONPs were subsequently characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. Comparison of Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric data of bare and GC-coated IONPs confirmed the presence of GC coating on IONPs. Magnetization curves showed that both bare and GC-coated IONPs are superparamagnetic and have saturation magnetizations of 70.3 and 59.8 emu g-1, respectively. The IONP size was measured as ~8-9 nm by transmission electron microscopy, and their crystal structure was assigned to magnetite from x-ray diffraction patterns. Both bare and GC-coated IONPs inhibited the growths of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 bacteria better than the antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, as evaluated by the agar dilution assay. GC-coated IONPs showed higher potency against E. coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832 than bare IONPs. Given their biocompatibility and antibacterial properties, GC-coated IONPs are a potential nanomaterial for in vivo applications.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of superparamagnetic nanoparticles modified with glycol chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen Inbaraj, Baskaran; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron salts in alkali media followed by coating with glycol chitosan (GC-coated IONPs). Both bare and GC-coated IONPs were subsequently characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. Comparison of Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric data of bare and GC-coated IONPs confirmed the presence of GC coating on IONPs. Magnetization curves showed that both bare and GC-coated IONPs are superparamagnetic and have saturation magnetizations of 70.3 and 59.8 emu g −1 , respectively. The IONP size was measured as ∼8–9 nm by transmission electron microscopy, and their crystal structure was assigned to magnetite from x-ray diffraction patterns. Both bare and GC-coated IONPs inhibited the growths of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 bacteria better than the antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, as evaluated by the agar dilution assay. GC-coated IONPs showed higher potency against E. coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832 than bare IONPs. Given their biocompatibility and antibacterial properties, GC-coated IONPs are a potential nanomaterial for in vivo applications.

  17. Antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Jamaica Resistencia a antibióticos en cepas clínicas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en Jamaica

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    Paul D. Brown

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Jamaica, and to obtain baseline information on the presence of this important pathogen. METHODS: A total of 51 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, obtained from 162 clinical specimens from major hospitals and laboratories in seven parishes in Jamaica, were analyzed between May and August 2002. Isolates were tested against 18 different antibiotics by a disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Organisms were cultured from wound swabs (56%, high vaginal swabs (10.5% and ear swabs (42.5%. Overall, the highest percentage rates of resistance were found for cefaclor (100% of all isolates, nalidixic acid (82.4%, kanamycin (76.5%, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (56.9%. Resistance rates were 25.5% or lower for tobramycin, gentamicin and polymyxin B, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, piperacillin, carbapenems and amikacin. Forty-one isolates showed intermediate sensitivity to most of the antipseudomonal antibiotics, and the remaining 10 isolates were resistant to eight or more antibiotics. The multiresistant isolates, most of which were hospital isolates, were all resistant to tetracycline, nalidixic acid and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and highly (80%-90% resistant to kanamycin, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that antibiotic resistance in this clinical pathogen is emerging in Jamaica, and suggests that due care must be taken in hospital settings to adequately diagnose pseudomonal infections and prescribe the antibiotic treatment most effective in preventing the increase in multidrug resistant organisms.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la resistencia a antibióticos de cepas clínicas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en Jamaica y obtener información de base sobre la presencia de este agente patógeno importante. MÉTODOS: Entre mayo y agosto de 2002 se analizó un total de 51 cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa que se obtuvieron de 162 especímenes cl

  18. Bacterial profile and antibiogram of otitis media among children in yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanna, M.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media is a worldwide disease and is higher in developing countries, particularly among the low socioeconomic levels of the society. The aim of the study is to identify the bacterial etiologic agents of otitis media (OM) and their antibiotics sensitivity patterns among children in Specialized Sam Paediatric Centre (SSPC) and Al-Mamoon Diagnostic Medical Centre (AMDC), in Sana'a city. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in SSPC and AMDC from January to October 2015. A total of 150 patients who had ear pus discharge and clinically diagnosed as OM were included in this study. Samples of ear discharge were collected, bacteriologically tested by standard methods and bacterial strains were identified using biochemical testes. Questionnaire was administered on patients or parents that cover the age, gender and the duration of symptoms. Results: A total of 150 children with OM, their age ranged from below 1-15 years (85 males and 65 females). Children less than 5 years of age were 100 and 50 with age ranged from 6-15 years. Bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (44%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.67%), Enterococcus species (12.67%), and Streptococcus pneumonia (10%). Bacterial culture revealed that, Staphylococcus aureus sensitivity to cefotaxime and azithromycin was 98%, to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 92% and it was 85% to gentamicin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensitivity to cefotaxime was 100%, to azithromycin and gentamicin was 98% and it was 80% to cefaclor. Enterococcus sensitivity to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 85%, to azithromycin was 80%, and it was 75% to cefotaxime, and gentamicin. Conclusion: The most common microorganism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus followed by Pseudomonas, Enterococcus species, and then Streptococcus pneumonia. The most effective antibiotics were cefotaxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, azithromycin and gentamicin. Therefore, knowledge of antimicrobial susceptibility test is essential for guiding appropriate

  19. Mass balance approaches for estimating the intestinal absorption and metabolism of peptides and analogues: theoretical development and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinko, P. J.; Leesman, G. D.; Amidon, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical analysis for estimating the extent of intestinal peptide and peptide analogue absorption was developed on the basis of a mass balance approach that incorporates convection, permeability, and reaction. The macroscopic mass balance analysis (MMBA) was extended to include chemical and enzymatic degradation. A microscopic mass balance analysis, a numerical approach, was also developed and the results compared to the MMBA. The mass balance equations for the fraction of a drug absorbed and reacted in the tube were derived from the general steady state mass balance in a tube: [formula: see text] where M is mass, z is the length of the tube, R is the tube radius, Pw is the intestinal wall permeability, kr is the reaction rate constant, C is the concentration of drug in the volume element over which the mass balance is taken, VL is the volume of the tube, and vz is the axial velocity of drug. The theory was first applied to the oral absorption of two tripeptide analogues, cefaclor (CCL) and cefatrizine (CZN), which degrade and dimerize in the intestine. Simulations using the mass balance equations, the experimental absorption parameters, and the literature stability rate constants yielded a mean estimated extent of CCL (250-mg dose) and CZN (1000-mg dose) absorption of 89 and 51%, respectively, which was similar to the mean extent of absorption reported in humans (90 and 50%). It was proposed previously that 15% of the CCL dose spontaneously degraded systematically; however, our simulations suggest that significant CCL degradation occurs (8 to 17%) presystemically in the intestinal lumen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria, isolated from patients treated at Jesenice General hospital in the period between 2004 and 2006

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    Helena Ribič

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is still one of the mayor problems in medicine. In the year 2006, microbiologists of the Institute of Public Health Kranj together with clinicians and pharmacist of Jesenice General Hospital prepared the programm of antimicrobial resistance surveillance of patients treated in the hospital. Some of the results are presented in this article.Methods: In the retrospective study, bacterial strains, isolated from different samples were analysed. The strains were isolated and studied during the routine work of microbiology laboratory of IPH Kranj in the period between 2004 and 2006.Results: The most frequently isolated bacteria from haemocultures was Escherichia coli (35.4 %. In the years 2004 and 2006, susceptibility of strains for ciprofloxacin was 95.7 % and 97.2 %, for parenteral cefuroxime (95.7 % and 94.4 %, for cefotaxime and gentamicin in both years 100 %. Susceptibility of E. coli strains from urine samples in patients from the department for internal medicine was in 2004 and 2006 for co-amoxiclav 88.5 % and 70.1 %, for co-trimoxazole 60.3 % and 81.3 %, for cefaclor 94.9 % and 89.7 %, for ciprofloxacin 83.3 % and 82.2 %. Among strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 100 % were sensitive to vancomycin and 99.3 % to linezolid in 2006. Among methicillin susceptible strains, sensitivity to erythromycin, clindamycin and ciprofloxacin lowered slightely in the three years period; in 2006 it was 87.6 %, 90.6 % and 89.1 %. Susceptibility of strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa was in 2006 similar comparing to 2004; it was 92 % for ceftazidime, 75 % for gentamicin, 64.6 % for ciprofloxacin and 96 % for imipenem. Among strains of Acinetobacter spp., sensitivity rate to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, piperacillin with tazobactam and gentamicin significantly fell in the year 2005 and stayed low in 2006.Conclusions: The results of antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance and trends of susceptibility are intended to guide

  1. Resistencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina en portadores nasofaringeos menores de 2 años

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    Theresa Jean Ochoa Woodell

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available El neumococo es un agente etiológico importante de infecciones comunes que afectan a todas las edades. En las últimas décadas han aparecido a nivel mundial cepas de neumococo resistentes a la penicilina. A nivel local no se conoce la magnitud de este problema. Objetivo: El objetivo fue determinar el porcentaje de resistencia del neumococo a la penicilina en portadores nasofaríngeos menores de 2 años en el Consultorio de Crecimiento y Desarrollo del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia en Lima. Material y métodos: Se tomaron muestras de hisopeado nasofaríngeo en 170 niños (Setiembre 1996-Marzo 1997, para cultivo de neumococo y determinación de su sensibilidad a la penicilina con el E-test y a otros antibióticos con la sensibilidad en disco. Resultados: Se encontró 44% (75/170 de portadores nasofaríngeos de neumococo en niños de 6 meses a 2 años. La presencia de tres o más niños en la familia estuvo asociado a un mayor porcentaje de portadores. De las 75 cepas aisladas, 4 (5.3% fueron resistentes a la penicilina, incluyendo 3 (4% con resistencia intermedia y 1 (1.3% con alta resistencia (MIC=1.5my g/mL. La resistencia a otros antibióticos fue: trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole 39 cepas (52%, cefaclor 18 (24%, cloranfenicol 17 (22.7%, eritromicina 14 (18.6%, clindamicina 9 (12% y rifampicina 8 (10.7%. Conclusión: La resistencia del neumococo a la penicilina continúa baja en el Hospital Cayetano Heredia; sin embargo, es urgente establecer estrategias de prevención y control de la emergencia y diseminación de microorganismos resistentes. ( Rev Med Hered 1998; 9:56-62.

  2. Removal of antibiotics in conventional and advanced wastewater treatment: implications for environmental discharge and wastewater recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, A J; Murby, E J; Costanzo, S D

    2007-10-01

    Removal of 28 human and veterinary antibiotics was assessed in a conventional (activated sludge) and advanced (microfiltration/reverse osmosis) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Brisbane, Australia. The dominant antibiotics detected in wastewater influents were cephalexin (med. 4.6 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), ciprofloxacin (med. 3.8 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), cefaclor (med. 0.5 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), sulphamethoxazole (med. 0.36 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) and trimethoprim (med. 0.34 microg L(-1), freq. 100%). Results indicated that both treatment plants significantly reduced antibiotic concentrations with an average removal rate from the liquid phase of 92%. However, antibiotics were still detected in both effluents from the low-to-mid ng L(-1) range. Antibiotics detected in effluent from the activated sludge WWTP included ciprofloxacin (med. 0.6 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), sulphamethoxazole (med. 0.27 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) lincomycin (med. 0.05 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) and trimethoprim (med. 0.05 microg L(-1), freq. 100%). Antibiotics identified in microfiltration/reverse osmosis product water included naladixic acid (med. 0.045 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), enrofloxacin (med. 0.01 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), roxithromycin (med. 0.01 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), norfloxacin (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), oleandomycin (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), trimethoprim (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), tylosin (med. 0.001 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), and lincomycin (med. 0.001 microg L(-1), freq. 66%). Certain traditional parameters, including nitrate concentration, conductivity and turbidity of the effluent were assessed as predictors of total antibiotic concentration, however only conductivity demonstrated any correlation with total antibiotic concentration (p=0.018, r=0.7). There is currently a lack of information concerning the effects of these chemicals to critically assess potential risks for environmental discharge and water recycling.

  3. Evaluation of Outpatient Antibiotic Use in Beijing General Hospitals in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan; Cai, Wen-Qiang; Zhou, Zi-Jun

    2017-02-05

    Medical misuse of antibiotics is associated with the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance, resulting in a lack of effective drugs and increased health-care cost. Nevertheless, inappropriate antibiotic use in China remains common and the situation requires urgent improvement. Here, we analyzed the prescriptions of antibiotics and evaluated the rationality of antibiotic use among outpatients in Beijing general hospitals during 2015. We collected basic medical insurance claim data from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015 in 507 general hospitals of Beijing. A descriptive analysis of outpatient antibiotic prescribing was performed. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification/defined daily doses system was used to evaluate the rationality of antibiotic use. Over the study, an estimated 721,930, 613,520, and 822,480 antibiotics were dispensed in primary, secondary, and tertiary general hospitals corresponding to 5.09%, 5.06%, and 2.53% of all prescriptions, respectively. Antibiotic combinations represented 2.95%, 7.74%, and 10.18% of the total antibiotic prescriptions, respectively. Expenditure for the top twenty antibiotics in primary, secondary, and tertiary general hospitals was RMB 42.92, 65.89, and 83.26 million Yuan, respectively. Cephalosporins were the most frequently prescribed class of antibiotic in clinical practice. The antibiotics used inappropriately included azithromycin enteric-coated capsules, compound cefaclor tablets and nifuratel nysfungin vaginal soft capsules in primary hospitals, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium dispersible tablets (7:1) and cefonicid sodium for injection in secondary hospitals, cefminox sodium for injection and amoxicillin sodium and sulbactam sodium for injection in tertiary hospitals. Antibiotic use in Beijing general hospitals is generally low; however, inappropriate antibiotic use still exists. Inappropriately used antibiotics should be subject to rigorous control and management, and public policy

  4. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2012–14 in Thailand, India, South Korea and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torumkuney, D.; Chaiwarith, R.; Reechaipichitkul, W.; Malatham, K.; Chareonphaibul, V.; Rodrigues, C.; Chitins, D. S.; Dias, M.; Anandan, S.; Kanakapura, S.; Park, Y. J.; Lee, K.; Lee, H.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, Y.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Tan, T. Y.; Heng, Y. X.; Mukherjee, P.; Morrissey, I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To provide susceptibility data for community-acquired respiratory tract isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis collected in 2012–14 from four Asian countries. Methods MICs were determined using Etest® for all antibiotics except erythromycin, which was evaluated by disc diffusion. Susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. For macrolide/clindamycin interpretation, breakpoints were adjusted for incubation in CO2 where available. Results Susceptibility of S. pneumoniae was generally lower in South Korea than in other countries. Penicillin susceptibility assessed using CLSI oral or EUCAST breakpoints ranged from 21.2% in South Korea to 63.8% in Singapore. In contrast, susceptibility using CLSI intravenous breakpoints was much higher, at 79% in South Korea and ∼95% or higher elsewhere. Macrolide susceptibility was ∼20% in South Korea and ∼50%–60% elsewhere. Among S. pyogenes isolates (India only), erythromycin susceptibility (∼20%) was lowest of the antibiotics tested. In H. influenzae antibiotic susceptibility was high except for ampicillin, where susceptibility ranged from 16.7% in South Korea to 91.1% in India. South Korea also had a high percentage (18.1%) of β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant isolates. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid susceptibility for each pathogen (PK/PD high dose) was between 93% and 100% in all countries except for H. influenzae in South Korea (62.5%). Conclusions Use of EUCAST versus CLSI breakpoints had profound differences for cefaclor, cefuroxime and ofloxacin, with EUCAST showing lower susceptibility. There was considerable variability in susceptibility among countries in the same region. Thus, continued surveillance is necessary to track future changes in antibiotic resistance. PMID:27048580

  5. Second-generation Platelet Concentrate (Platelet-rich Fibrin) as a Scaffold in Regenerative Endodontics: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Hengameh; Esmaeili, Shahram; Fakhr Tabatabayi, Setareh; Ellini, Mohammad Reza; Nekoofar, Mohammad Hossein; Dummer, Paul M H

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this case series was to report the clinical and radiographic results of a pulp regenerative procedure using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), a second-generation platelet concentrate, in immature teeth with necrotic pulps. Root canal revascularization using PRF was performed on 4 immature teeth with necrotic pulps. After access cavity preparation, the root canals were irrigated with low concentration sodium hypochlorite solution (1.5% sodium hypochlorite [20 mL/canal, 5 minutes]) and then irrigated with saline (20 mL/canal, 5 minutes). Equal proportions (167 mg) of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and cefaclor were mixed and diluted to a final concentration of 1 g/mL. Finally, the canal was sealed with 3-4 mm of a temporary restorative material, and patients were dismissed for 2 to 3 weeks. At the second appointment, 9 mL of the patient's whole blood was obtained and centrifuged to prepare a PRF clot. Canals were irrigated with 17% EDTA, and a sharp spreader was inserted beyond the apex. Then, the PRF clot was placed inside the root canals, and Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur, France) was placed directly over the PRF. The teeth were restored permanently with glass ionomer cement and composite resin. Clinical examinations revealed that all cases were asymptomatic at the recall appointments at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Radiographs revealed resolution of the periapical lesions, further root development, and apical closure in all cases. On the basis of the short-term results up to 12 months, PRF clots acted as successful scaffolds for the regeneration of pulpal contents in immature teeth with necrotic pulps. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli of clinical origin from the pediatric population in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Mahwish; Siddiqui, Fariha; Noreen, Zobia; Bokhari, Syeda Sadia; Gomez-Duarte, Oscar G; Wren, Brendan W; Bokhari, Habib

    2016-07-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is one of the leading causes of watery diarrhea among children. In this study EPEC isolates from the pediatric population of Pakistan (2010-2012) were subjected to phylotyping, antibiotic susceptibility, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) profiling and evaluation of one representative strain from each panel of phylotypesin Galleria mellonella, infection model. A total of 46/225 (20.4%) stool samples were positive for EPEC. Isolates mainly belong to D phylogroup (18, 39%) followed by nontypeable (10, 22%), B1 (9, 20%), B2 (8, 17%) and A (1, 2%). High resistance was observed for ampicillin (42, 91%), erythromycin (41, 89%), cefaclor (37, 80%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (36, 78%), tetracycline (36, 78%). Among nalidixic acid resistant isolates 13 (28%) showed presence of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in parC (C330-T330) whereas 1 (2%) isolate showed gyrB (A660-T660) SNP. Furthermore, 27 (59%) isolates were ESBL producers. Representative isolates of phlyotypes A and B2 showed enhance killing of G. mellonella compared to ones belonging to phylotypes B1 and D. Non-typeable EPEC strains were frequently observed. ESBL production in ESBL producers was found to be plasmid mediated. No significant association of antibiotic resistance profile with specific phylogroup of EPEC was found, however G. mellonella infection model differentiated representative phylotypes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietto-Gonçalves, Guilherme Augusto; de Almeida, Sílvia Maria; de Lima, Edna Tereza; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Pinczowski, Pedro; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2010-03-01

    Avian salmonellosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella that can cause three distinct diseases in birds: pullorum diseases, fowl typhoid, and paratyphoid infection. Various wildlife species are susceptible to infections by Salmonella, regardless of whether they live in captivity or freely in the wild. The present study verified the presence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in three captive specimens of Amazona aestiva. The study involved a total of 103 birds undergoing rehabilitation to prepare for living in the wild, after having been captured from animal traffickers and delivered to the Centrofauna Project of the Floravida Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil. This is the first report of Salmonella Enteritidis isolation in A. aestiva that originated from capture associated with animal trafficking; Salmonella was detected during the study by the serologic method of rapid serum agglutination on a plate with bacterial isolate. The antimicrobial profile exam of the isolated samples demonstrated sensitivity to ampicillin, cefaclor, ciprofloxacin, and cloranfenicol. The three samples also presented resistance to more than four antibiotics. The presence of the genes invA and spvC was verified by PCR technique and was associated with virulence and absence of class 1 integron, a gene related to antimicrobial resistance. The commercial antigen for pullorum disease was shown to be a useful tool for rapid detection in the screening of Salmonella of serogroup D1 in Psittaciformes. New studies on Salmonella carriage in birds involved in trafficking must be performed to better understand their participation in the epidemiologic cycle of salmonellosis in humans and other animals.

  8. Bacterial Profile And Antibiogram Of Otitis Media Among Children In Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Mohanna, Mabrook Aidah; Bahannan, Abdurrahman Ali

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media is a worldwide disease and is higher in developing countries, particularly among the low socioeconomic levels of the society. The aim of the study is to identify the bacterial etiologic agents of otitis media (OM) and their antibiotics sensitivity patterns among children in Specialized Sam Paediatric Centre (SSPC) and Al-Mamoon Diagnostic Medical Centre (AMDC), in Sana'a city. A cross-sectional study was done in SSPC and AMDC from January to October 2015. A total of 150 patients who had ear pus discharge and clinically diagnosed as OM were included in this study. Samples of ear discharge were collected, bacteriologically tested by standard methods and bacterial strains were identified using biochemical testes. Questionnaire was administered on patients or parents that cover the age, gender and the duration of symptoms. A total of 150 children with OM, their age ranged from below 1-15 years (85 males and 65 females). Children less than 5 years of age were 100 and 50 with age ranged from 6-15 years. Bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (44%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.67%), Enterococcus species (12.67%), and Streptococcus pneumonia (10%). Bacterial culture revealed that, Staphylococcus aureus sensitivity to cefotaxime and azithromycin was 98%, to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 92% and it was 85% to gentamicin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensitivity to cefotaxime was 100%, to azithromycin and gentamicin was 98% and it was 80% to cefaclor. Enterococcus sensitivity to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 85%, to azithromycin was 80%, and it was 75% to cefotaxime, and gentamicin. The most common microorganism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus followed by Pseudomonas, Enterococcus species, and then Streptococcus pneumonia. The most effective antibiotics were cefotaxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, azithromycin and gentamicin. Therefore, knowledge of antimicrobial susceptibility test is essential for guiding appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  9. Biofilm formation in Haemophilus parasuis: relationship with antibiotic resistance, serotype and genetic typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Xu, Chenggang; Shen, Haiyan; Li, Jingyi; Guo, Lili; Cao, Guojie; Feng, Saixiang; Liao, Ming

    2014-10-01

    Biofilms are surface-associated microbial communities, which are encased in self-synthesized extracellular environment. Biofilm formation may trigger drug resistance and inflammation, resulting in persistent infections. Haemophilus parasuis is the etiological agent of a systemic disease, Glässer's disease, characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, arthritis and meningitis in pigs. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between biofilm and antibiotic resistance among the clinical isolates of H. parasuis. In the present study, we tested biofilm-forming ability of 110 H. parasuis isolates from various farms using polystyrene microtiter plate assays. Seventy-three isolates of H. parasuis (66.4%) showed biofilm formation and most of them performed weak biofilm-forming ability (38/73). All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents by the broth microdilution method. H. parasuis isolates showed very high resistance (>90%) to sulfanilamide, nalidixic acid, and trimethoprim. Resistance to eight antibiotics such as penicillin (41.1% vs 8.1%), ampicillin (31.5% vs 8.1%), amoxicillin (28.8% vs 5.4%), gentamicin (46.6% vs 24.3%), cefazolin (19.2% vs 2.7%), doxycycline (19.2% vs 8.1%), cefotaxime (11% vs 2.7%), and cefaclor (13.7% vs 5.4%) was comparatively higher among biofilm producers than non-biofilm producers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses could distinguish various isolates. Our data indicated that H. parasuis field isolates were able to form biofilms in vitro. In addition, biofilm positive strains had positive correlation with resistance to β-lactams antibiotics. Thus, biofilm formation may play important roles during H. parasuis infections. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. [Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy carrier individuals in primary care in Barcelona area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Carles; Boada, Albert; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Grenzner, Elisabet; Juvé, Rosa; Almeda, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). Cross-sectional study. Seven PCC in the Barcelona area. Healthy nasal carriers aged 4years or more who did not present with any sign of infectious disease, and had not taken any antibiotic or had been hospitalised in the previous 3months. A total of 3,969 nasal swabs valid for identification were collected between 2010 and 2011 and were sent to one central microbiological laboratory for isolation of both pathogens. Resistance to common antibiotics was determined on the basis of the current European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines on cut-off points. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S.aureus was 1.3% (95%CI: 0.5-2.1%), with resistance rates of 87.1% to phenoxymethylpenicillin and 11.6% to azithromycin, with no significant differences with age and gender. A total of 2.4% (95CI%: 0.1-4.7%) of the pneumococcal strains were highly resistant to both phenoxymethylpenicillin and macrolides, whereas the highest resistance rates were to cefaclor (53.3%), followed by tetracycline (20%) and cefuroxime (12.1%). These pathogens have lower resistance rates in the community than in the hospital setting. Primary Care physicians must be more aware of the current antimicrobial resistance, in order to ensure prudent use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  12. [Pathogen distribution and bacterial resistance in children with severe community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun-Yun; Luo, Rong; Fu, Zhou

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the distribution of pathogens and bacterial resistance in children with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A total of 522 children with severe CAP who were hospitalized in 2016 were enrolled as study subjects. According to their age, they were divided into infant group (402 infants aged 28 days to 1 year), young children group (73 children aged 1 to 3 years), preschool children group (35 children aged 3 to 6 years), and school-aged children group (12 children aged ≥6 years). According to the onset season, all children were divided into spring group (March to May, 120 children), summer group (June to August, 93 children), autumn group (September to November, 105 children), and winter group (December to February, 204 children). Sputum specimens from the deep airway were collected from all patients. The phoenix-100 automatic bacterial identification system was used for bacterial identification and drug sensitivity test. The direct immunofluorescence assay was used to detect seven common respiratory viruses. The quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). Of all the 522 children with severe CAP, 419 (80.3%) were found to have pathogens, among whom 190 (45.3%) had mixed infection. A total of 681 strains of pathogens were identified, including 371 bacterial strains (54.5%), 259 viral strains (38.0%), 12 fungal strains (1.8%), 15 MP strains (2.2%), and 24 CT strains (3.5%). There were significant differences in the distribution of bacterial, viral, MP, and fungal infections between different age groups (Presistance rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to erythromycin, tetracycline, and clindamycin reached above 85%, and the drug-resistance rates of Staphylococcus aureus to penicillin, erythromycin, and clindamycin were above 50%; they were all sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid. The drug-resistance rates of Haemophilus influenzae to cefaclor and cefuroxime were above 60%, but it was

  13. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O157:H7- from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Velusamy; Nguyen, Lien T; Headrick, Susan I; Murinda, Shelton E; Oliver, Stephen P

    2007-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes including O157:H7 (n = 129) from dairy cows, cull dairy cow feces, cider, salami, human feces, ground beef, bulk tank milk, bovine feces, and lettuce; and O157:H7- (n = 24) isolated from bovine dairy and bovine feedlot cows were evaluated for antimicrobial resistance against 26 antimicrobials and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetE, tetG, floR, cmlA, strA, strB, sulI, sulII, and ampC). All E. coli exhibited resistance to five or more antimicrobial agents, and the majority of isolates carried one or more target antimicrobial resistance gene(s) in different combinations. The majority of E. coli showed resistance to ampicillin, aztreonam, cefaclor, cephalothin, cinoxacin, and nalidixic acid, and all isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol. Many STEC O157:H7 and O157:H7-isolates were susceptible to amikacin, carbenicillin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, fosfomycin, moxalactam, norfloxacin, streptomycin, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and tetracycline. The majority of STEC O157:H7 (79.8%) and O157:H7- (91.7%) carried one or more antimicrobial resistance gene(s) regardless of whether phenotypically resistant or susceptible. Four tetracycline resistant STEC O157:H7 isolates carried both tetA and tetC. Other tetracycline resistance genes (tetB, tetD, tetE, and tetG) were not detected in any of the isolates. Among nine streptomycin resistant STEC O157:H7 isolates, eight carried strA-strB along with aadA, whereas the other isolate carried aadA alone. However, the majority of tetracycline and streptomycin susceptible STEC isolates also carried tetA and aadA genes, respectively. Most ampicillin resistant E. coli of both serotypes carried ampC genes. Among sulfonamide resistance genes, sulII was detected only in STEC O157:H7 (4 of 80 sulfonamide-resistant isolates) and sulI was detected in O157:H7- (1 of 16 sulfonamide resistant isolates). The emergence and

  14. Sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas do trato respiratório de pacientes com infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade: resultados brasileiros do Programa SENTRY de Vigilância de Resistência a Antimicrobianos dos anos de 1997 e 1998 Susceptibility to respiratory tract isolated bacteria to antimicrobial agents in patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections: 1997 and 1998 Brazilian data of the SENTRY surveillance program of resistance to antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉLIO S. SADER

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento da pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC é habitualmente empírico e o uso de antimicrobianos é baseado em estudos de vigilância. O programa SENTRY foi desenhado para monitorar a resistência a antimicrobianos através de uma rede internacional de laboratórios. Três centros no Brasil participaram do Programa SENTRY em 1997 e em 1998. Métodos: Um total de 344 isolados bacterianos coletados de pacientes com PAC em 1997 e 1998 foram testados contra mais de 20 agentes antimicrobianos pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Resultados: Entre os S. pneumoniae (176 isolados, 71,6% foram sensíveis à penicilina. Alto nível de resistência à penicilina e resistência à cefotaxima foram encontrados em 2,3 e 4,0%, respectivamente. As novas quinolonas levofloxacina (MIC90, 2mig/mL e gatifloxacina (MIC90, 0,5mig/mL foram ativas contra 100% dos isolados testados. Entre os outros antimicrobianos não beta-lactâmicos testados, os mais ativos foram (% de sensibilidade: cloranfenicol (97,5% > clindamicina (94% > azitromicina (90,3% > claritromicina (89,4% > tetraciclina (76,4% > sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (60,2%. A percentagem de Haemophilus influenzae (101 isolados resistentes à amoxicilina foi de 90,1%, enquanto entre Moraxella catarrhalis (67 isolados somente 9,0% foram sensíveis. O ácido clavulânico restaurou a atividade de amoxicilina contra H. influenzae e M. catarrhalis. Porém, H. influenzae demonstrou níveis aumentados de resistência para sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (55,1% de sensibilidade, claritromicina (80,4% de sensibilidade e cefaclor (88,2% de sensibilidade. Todos os isolados de H. influenzae e M. catarrhalis foram sensíveis à levofloxacina (MIC90, Background: Antimicrobial treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI is usually empiric and antibiotics are chosen on the basis of surveillance studies. The SENTRY Program was designed to monitor antimicrobial resistance via a worldwide