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Sample records for cedro cedrela fissilis

  1. Crescimento e qualidade de mudas de cedro (Cedrela fissilis Vellozo em viveiro, mediante diferentes técnicas de produção. Cedro seedlings (Cedrela fissilis Vell. growth rate and quality, at nursery, under different production systems.

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    Edgar Fernando de LUCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso da silvicultura de espécies nativas depende da qualidade das mudas, mas poucos estudos existem sobre técnicas adequadas para produção de mudas de cada espécie. Compararam-se sete técnicas de produção de mudas de Cedrela fissilis (cedro, compreendendo semeadura direta e repicagem, três tipos de recipientes (saco plástico com 1.710 cm3, e tubetes com 32 cm3 e 170 cm3 com a repicagem aos 40, 65 e 90 dias após a semeadura. Ao final do ciclo produtivo (180 dias a repicagem para saco plástico não favoreceu o crescimento em altura aérea ou diâmetro do colo, mas proporcionou maior desenvolvimento em fitomassa, principalmente se feita aos 40 dias. Mudas repicadas para tubete sofreram drástica redução em altura e, em menores proporções, houve também redução do diâmetro. Em comparação às mudas repicadas para saco plástico, a fitomassa das mudas repicadas para tubete foi menor. Por outro lado, a repicagem para tubete resultou em maior número de raízes secundárias e maior robustez, indicando melhor qualidade das mudas de cedro.To succeed, the forestry of native species relies on the seedlings quality. However, there are only few studies dealing with seedlings production systems to every species. This paper describes the study and evaluation of seven Cedro seedlings production systems: direct sowing, nursery lifting (made at 40, 65 and 90 days after sowing and the use of three types of seedlings containers (1,710 cm³ polyethylene bags, and 32 cm³ and 170 cm³ polypropylene tubes. At the end of the productive cycle (180 days after sowing, the nursery lifting to the polyethylene bags did not improve the seedlings development considering height or root collar diameter growth. However, it improved the phytomass development, highlighting the 40 days after sowing production system. Seedlings transplanted to the polypropylene tubes had drastic reduction considering height rates. They also presented a reduction considering

  2. Avaliação da qualidade de sementes de cedro (Cedrela fissilis - meliaceae pelo teste de raios X Evaluation of the seed quality in Cedrela fissilis - (meliaceae by X-ray test

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    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O teste de raios X tem se demonstrado uma técnica muito eficiente no controle de qualidade de sementes de espécies florestais, caracterizando fases do desenvolvimento, danos causados por secagem, beneficiamento e predação, entre outros. Objetivouse com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade física de sementes de cedro (Cedrela fissilis pelo teste de raios X. Para isso, após o beneficiamento, as sementes de cedro foram expostas às seguintes condições de intensidade de radiação e tempos (25 Kv durante 60/30 segundos e 30 Kv durante 40 segundos para determinar o padrão de raios X. De acordo com a anatomia visualizada pela imagem radiográfica, as sementes foram classificadas em Sementes Cheias, Sementes Com Danos, Sementes Mal Formadas e Sementes Vazias. Em seguida, foi realizado o teste de germinação em BOD, utilizando-se substrato de papel umedecido dentro de caixas para germinação, sob 25ºC e luz branca constante. Ao final de 20 dias, foram registrados os números de plântulas normais, anormais e sementes mortas. Pelos resultados obtidos, a intensidade de radiação de 25 Kv durante 60 segundos permitiu melhor visualização das características internas e os danos observados pela imagem radiográfica afetaram a germinação das sementes, reduzindo a qualidade do lote.The X-ray has showed to be a very efficient technique in the quality control of forest tree seeds, characterizing development phases, damages caused by dehydration, improvement and infestation, among others. The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical quality of cedar seeds (Cedrela fissilis by X-ray test. For this, the cedar seeds were exposed at the following conditions of radiation intensity and times (25 Kv during 60/30 seconds and 30 Kv during 40 seconds to determine the pattern of X-rays. According to the anatomy visualized by the radiographic image, seeds were classified in Full Seeds; Seeds With Damages, Deformed Seeds and Empty Seeds. Soon after, the

  3. Bactérias associadas à decomposição de folhas de Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Cedro em mata tropical subcaducifólia do noroeste do Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4485 Bacteria associated with decomposition of leaves of Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Cedro in a tropical semideciduous forest of the northwest of state of Parana - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4485

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    Valdovino Damásio dos Santos

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Cedrela fissilis Vell. (cedro, coletadas de exemplares ocorrentes no Horto Florestal de Maringá, foram colocadas em bolsas de tela de náilon e distribuídas em 10 pontos sobre o solo no interior da mata e recolhidas bimestralmente por um período de 12 meses. Pequenos discos, obtidos das folhas, foram submetidos à lavagem vigorosa em solução salina estéril 0,89% e aplicados na superfície do meio ágar nutriente. Os principais gêneros de bactérias associadas à decomposição foram os seguintes microrganismos: Bacillus, Cellulomonas, Pseudomonas e membros da família Enterobacteriaceae. Entre as enterobactérias destacam-se os gêneros Enterobacter e Erwinia. A sucessão bacteriana em Cedrela fissilis foi estudada pela caracterização da microflora do litter em diferentes estágios para compreender a natureza da sua degradação.Leaves from Cedrela fissilis Vell. grown in a tropical semideciduous urban forest reserve were placed in litterbags and collected at bimonthly intervals during twelve months. Small disks from the leaves were washed, dried and inoculated in Petri plates with agar medium nutrient and incubated at 37ºC for 24-48 hours. The most frequent bacterial groups were the following: Bacillus, Cellulomonas, Pseudomonas, and members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Enterobacter and Erwinia were the most frequent members of this family. The pattern of bacterial succession in Cedrela fissilis was studied through litter microflora characterization at different stages to understand the nature of its degradation.

  4. QUALITY EVALUATION OF Cedrela fissilis SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS

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    Edicléia Aparecida Iensen Cherobini

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Belonging to the Meliaceae family, cedro (Cedrela fissilis Vell. presents a great economical and ecological importance. The wood is light and easy to work, being suggested to the manufacturing of furniture in general, also it is used to reset degraded areas. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of Cedrela fissilis seedlings and seeds from Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná, through the accomplishment of varied tests of vigor, test of health and evaluation of the quality of seedlings produced from these seeds. The present study showed that the presence of fungi pathological potential – Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. – can cause losses in the germination. Considering tests with seeds collected in the different states of the South Region, it was possible to verify that differences of the vigor levels exist. The fungi found in the seeds can cause damages in the production.

  5. Germinação de sementes de Lafoensia glyptocarpa Koehne (mirindiba-rosa, Myroxylon peruiferum L. f. (cabreúva-vermelha e Cedrela fissilis Vell. (cedro-rosa. Seed germination of Lafoensia glyptocarpa Koehne (mirindiba-rosa, Myroxylon peruiferum L. f. (cabreúva-vermelha and Cedrela fissilis Vell. (cedro-rosa.

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    Márcia Balistiero FIGLIOLIA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar osefeitos de três fatores externos que influenciama germinação das sementes de três espéciesflorestais nativas do Brasil, visando obterinformações sobre a capacidade de germinar emcondições naturais e recomendar as condições aserem adotadas no teste padrão de germinação.As espécies estudadas foram Lafoensia glyptocarpa(mirindiba-rosa, Myroxylon peruiferum (cabreúvavermelhae Cedrela fissilis (cedro-rosa e os fatorestestados foram umidade do substrato, temperaturae qualidade de luz. O substrato (30 g de vermiculitapor gerbox foi umedecido com 45, 90 e 135 mLde água destilada e as sementes foram submetidasàs temperaturas constantes de 25 e 30 ºC e alternadade 20-30 ºC, na ausência de luz e sob luzes brancae vermelha, com fotoperíodo de oito horas.Foram avaliados a porcentagem final e o índicede velocidade de germinação das sementes.Os resultados obtidos sugerem que as sementes dastrês espécies são capazes de germinar, em condiçõesnaturais, tanto sob o dossel como em clareiras.O teste padrão de germinação, utilizando a vermiculitacomo substrato, pode ser conduzido com fotoperíodode oito horas sob luz branca, em laboratório,adotando as seguintes condições: 90 a 135 mL deágua a 30 ºC ou 20-30 ºC, para L. glyptocarpa;90 mL de água a 25 ºC, para M. peruiferum; 45 a90 mL de água a 25 ou 30 ºC, para C. fissilis.This research aimed to study the effect ofthree extrinsical factors of seed germination inthree Brazilian tree species, in order to predict theseed capacity to germinate in natural conditionsand to recommend the conditions for the germinationstandard test. Lafoensia glyptocarpa (Lythraceae,Myroxylon peruifereum (Papilionaceae and Cedrelafissilis (Meliaceae were the studied species andsubstrate moisture content, temperature and lightquality were the tested factors. Vermiculite wasused as substrate (30 g/gerbox, moistened with 45,90 and 130 mL of distilled water and

  6. IN VITRO CALLOGENESIS FROM CEDRELA FISSILIS LEAVES

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    A. P. Menezes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cedrela fissilis is a species native to Brazil which offers great economic value for its high quality wood as well as medicinal importance by contain therapeutic properties. Seeds were used for in vitro establishment which form submitted to four asseptic treatments that varied in relation to the time of immersion in 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The seeds were inoculated in the culture medium Vacin & Went, supplemented with sucrose 20 g/L and 7 g/L agar. To 56 days of cultivation were removed leaves of seedlings obtained in vitro and inoculated in Vacin&Went culture medium with different combinations of growth regulators for callus induction being T1 (control; T2: 2,5 mM ANA e 2,5 mM BAP; T3: 2,5 mM ANA e 5,0 mM BAP; T4: 5,0 mM ANA e 2,5 mM BAP. The percentage of germinated seeds was approximately 10% and the aseptic treatment showed lower percentage of contamination (78% differed from other treatments was T4 where the seeds remained submerged during 100 minutes in 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. About the calogênese treatment with combinations of 2,5 µM ANA and 2,5 µM BAP proved to be the most efficient for callus induction, differing from the others reaching 84% calogênicos of percentage 56 days of in vitro cultivation. T1 with absence of growth regulators was the only one to present the formation of roots 26%.

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF CEDRELA FISSILIS VELL. ELEMENTES IN ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION AREA IN CAMPO MOURÃO/ PARANÁ

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    Letícia Benedetti F. de Castro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The populational density of Cedrela fissilis Vell. was evaluated. In a secondary forest area in Parque Estadual Lago Azul from Campo Mourão/PR, twenty-four parcels of 20m x 25m were used, totalizing 12,000 m2. Measures of circumference at breast height (CBH were taken, as well as distinctions between young, adult and old individuals were established. 74 individuals have been sampled: 38 young, 20 adult and 16 old individuals. It was observed that density of Cedrela fissilis population was 61,6 individuals in each hectare represented by: 51,35% of young, 27.02% of adult and 21,61% of old individuals. Results, in accordance with searched literature, are significant and indicate that the secondary forest of the Parque Estadual Lago Azul is passing by a reconstitution phase.

  8. Limonoids from Cipadessa fruticosa and Cedrela fissilis and their insecticidal activity

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    Leite, Ana C.; Fernandes, Joao B.; Vieira, Paulo C.; Silva, M. Fatima das G. Fernandes da; Bueno, Fabiana C.; Oliveira, Cintia G.; Bueno, Odair C.; Pagnocca, Fernando C.; Hebling, M. Jose A.; Bacci Junior, Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the fruits of Cipadessa fruticosa (Meliaceae) afforded the new limonoid cipadesin B and the known swietemahonolide. From the roots of Cedrela fissilis (Meliaceae) were isolated the limonoid 3β-acetoxycarapin, new as natural product, along with the triterpenes oleanolic and oleanonic acid. These compounds and other six mexicanolide limonoids previously isolated from C. fruticosa showed insecticidal activity against the leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens rubropilosa. (author)

  9. Atividade antibacteriana de extratos do caule de Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae Antibacterian activity of extracts from wood of Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae

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    Tânia Ueda Nakamura

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae é uma árvore nativa das florestas do Paraná, Brasil, utilizada na medicina popular como adstringente, emética, no combate à leucorréia e na lavagem de úlceras e feridas. Extratos de diferentes polaridades, obtidos do caule, foram utilizados para avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana sobre Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Do extrato hexânico foi isolada uma mistura de sitosterol (50,40%, estigmasterol (21,70% e campesterol (22,80%, que apresentou uma concentração mínima inibitória (CIM de 0,5mg/mL sobre Staphylococcus aureus.Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae is a native tree found in forests of the state of Paraná, Brazil, and used in folk medicine as astringent and emetic substance against leukorrhea and in the washing of ulcers and wounds. Extracts of different polarity obtained from the stem were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Hexane extract yielded a mixture of sitosterol (50,40%, stigmasterol (21,70% and campesterol (22,80% which showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 0,5mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Qualidade fisiológica e tratamentos de sementes de cedrela fissilis procedentes do sul do Brasil Physiological quality seeds and treatments of cedrela fissilis seeds from south of Brazil

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    Marília Lazarotto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de cedro (Cedrela fissilis, procedentes de localidades do sul do Brasil, através de testes de vigor e avaliar diferentes tratamentos nas sementes para controle de patógenos e para promoção da germinação da espécie. Para tanto, foram utilizadas seis amostras com procedências dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná, as quais foram submetidas à determinação de teor de água, teste de germinação e primeira contagem, envelhecimento acelerado (testando períodos de exposição às condições de envelhecimento, emergência em viveiro e tratamento de sementes. Os tratamentos utilizados para controle de patógenos foram: testemunha (T0; físico com calor seco a 70°C±3°C por 48 horas (T1; extrato aquoso de alho (Allium sativum (T2; biológico à base de Trichoderma spp. - Agrotich Plus® (T3; e químico com fungicida protetor Captan (T4. A germinação variou de 56 a 87%; o período de 48 h sob temperatura de 41 °C foi o mais eficiente para estratificar as amostras em níveis de vigor; a emergência variou de 51 a 88% e as variáveis de desempenho de plântulas analisadas conseguiram estratificar as amostras em níveis de vigor. Quanto ao tratamento de sementes, o calor seco e o tratamento à base de extrato de alho se mostram eficientes no controle de microrganismos em semente de cedro, sem prejuízos ao vigor destas.The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physiological quality of Cedrela fissilis seeds, from different origins, using different vigor tests and evaluating different seeds treatments for control of pathogens and to promote the germination of the species. Therefore, six samples from different places in states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná were used, which were subjected to determination of water content, germination and first count of germination, accelerated aging (testing different periods

  11. Morphological and physiological responses of Cedrela Fissilis Vellozo (Meliaceae seedlings to light

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    Débora Leonardo dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Cedrela fissilis Vellozo were planted and maintained under two distinct conditions: at east border of a forest with red: far-red ratio of 1.15 and under canopy with photosynthetic photon flux density of 0.22-7% of full sun radiation and red: far-red ratio of 0.21-0.36. Seedling growth (height and stem diameter was faster under sun, the development of roots more continuous and the number of leaves almost twice of that of shade plants. The leaf area was 10 times greater in sun plants with 15-25 leaflets per leaf while under shade only 5 to 10 leaflets were found per leaf. In shade plants, a higher proportion of dry mass was found in aerial parts. Leaves of sun plants had the capacity of gas exchange to respond to high light radiation, but leaves adapted to shade presented a lower response to light changes. When shade plants were transferred and maintained under the sun for 15 days, only the young leaves were adapted to increased light radiation, reaching the same photosynthetic rate as sun plants, while old leaves were shed. Sun plants transferred to shade conditions did not lose leaves, but did not reach the same photosynthetic rate attained by shade plants.Cedrela fissilis foi semeada e mantida em dois ambientes de luz: na margem leste (tratamento sol - razão vermelho: vermelho extremo da radiação solar direta foi 1,15 e sob dossel de floresta (tratamento sombra - radiação fotossinteticamente ativa reduzida de 0.22 a 7% da radiação direta e razão vermelho:vermelho extremo de 0,21 a 0,36. O crescimento em altura e diâmetro do caule no sol foi mais rápido, o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular continua, o número de folhas foi em média o dobro das de sombra, quanto à área foliar foi 10 vezes maior em plantas de sol com 15-25 folíolos por folha, enquanto as plantas da sombra desenvolveram de 5 a 10. Nas plantas de sombra, as maiores proporções de matéria seca foram investidas em parte aérea. A capacidade de troca de

  12. SANIDADE, TRANSMISSÃO VIA SEMENTE E PATOGENICIDADE DE FUNGOS EM SEMENTES DE Cedrela fissilis PROCEDENTES DA REGIÃO SUL DO BRASIL

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    Marília Lazarotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches about seed pathology of native forest species, especially, those more extensive, are rare. This research aims to evaluate the health of Spanish-cedar seeds through two detection methods, to evaluate the possible transmission of fungi associated to Cedrela fissilis seeds to seedlings and to evaluate the pathogenicity of the fungus transmitted by Cedrela fissilis seeds. For this, seeds from six different locations from Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná states were used. The seeds were submitted to sanity tests, by blotter-test and potato-dextrose-agar (PDA methods, transmission by seeds to the seedlings and to the pathogenicity test of Rhizoctonia sp., chosen because it was commonin sanity testing and transmitted by seed. The fungi found in both of the methods were: Pestalotia sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Penicillium sp., Phomopsis sp., Rhizopus sp., Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. Both tests can be used for thesanity test in Cedrela fissilis seeds. The fungi transmitted by seeds to the seedlings were Fusarium sp. and Rhizoctoniasp., both causing problems in roots and subsequent damping-off. One of the isolates of Rhizoctonia sp. was identified as pathogenic to seedlings, causing the same symptoms observed on transmission test.

  13. Fenologia de Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae na região rural de Itirapina, SP, Brasil Phenology of Cedrela fissilis Vellozo (Meliaceae in Itirapina, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Débora Leonardo dos Santos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A fenologia de queda de folhas, brotação, floração e frutificação de Cedrela fissilis Vell. foi estudada de setembro/1999 a novembro/2001 na zona rural do Município de Itirapina, SP. Foram observados, a cada 14 dias, 10 indivíduos que apresentaram comportamento fenológico sazonal, com ocorrência seqüencial das fenofases, queda de folhas na estação seca, brotação seguida de floração no início da estação chuvosa, e frutificação longa, com a duração de 11 meses, dispersando as sementes aladas ao final da estação seca. O desfolhamento total durante os meses mais secos do ano caracterizou a espécie como decídua. A floração e frutificação ocorreram em ciclos supra anuais.The study of phenology of leaf fall, flushing, flowering and fruiting was carried at from September /1999 to November/2001. Ten trees were systematically observed every at 14 days intervals. Leaf fall ocurred at the dry season and flushing and flowering at the beginning of rain season. The fruiting period was long, and dispertion at the end of dry season. Flowering and fruiting not showed an annual cycle, years which massive flowers and fruits was followed by non productive year.

  14. Re-induction of desiccation tolerance after germination of Cedrela fissilis Vell. seeds.

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    Masetto, Tathiana E; Faria, Jose M; Fraiz, Ana C R

    2014-09-01

    This work aimed to characterize the re-induction of desiccation tolerance (DT) in germinated seeds, using polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000). Cell changes were investigated through cytological assays (cell viability and transmission electronic microscopy) as well as DNA integrity during loss and re-establishment of DT. The loss of DT was characterized by drying germinated seeds with different radicle lengths (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm) in silica gel, decreasing the moisture content to ten percentage points intervals, followed by pre-humidification (100% RH / 24 h) and rehydration. To re-induce DT, germinated seeds were treated for 72 h with PEG (-2.04 MPa) and PEG (-2.04 MPa) + ABA (100 µM) before dehydration. Germinated seeds did not tolerate desiccation to 10% moisture content, irrespectively of the radicle length. However, when incubated in PEG, those with 1 and 2 mm long radicle attained 71% and 29% survival, respectively. The PEG+ABA treatment was efficient to re-establish DT in seeds with 1 mm long radicles (100% survival). The ultrastructural assays of the cells of germinated seeds with 2 and 5 mm length confirmed the obtained physiological results. Germinated seeds of C. fissilis constitute a useful tool for desiccation tolerance investigations.

  15. Re-induction of desiccation tolerance after germination of Cedrela fissilis Vell. seeds

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    TATHIANA E. MASETTO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to characterize the re-induction of desiccation tolerance (DT in germinated seeds, using polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000. Cell changes were investigated through cytological assays (cell viability and transmission electronic microscopy as well as DNA integrity during loss and re-establishment of DT. The loss of DT was characterized by drying germinated seeds with different radicle lengths (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm in silica gel, decreasing the moisture content to ten percentage points intervals, followed by pre-humidification (100% RH / 24 h and rehydration. To re-induce DT, germinated seeds were treated for 72 h with PEG (-2.04 MPa and PEG (-2.04 MPa + ABA (100 µM before dehydration. Germinated seeds did not tolerate desiccation to 10% moisture content, irrespectively of the radicle length. However, when incubated in PEG, those with 1 and 2 mm long radicle attained 71% and 29% survival, respectively. The PEG+ABA treatment was efficient to re-establish DT in seeds with 1 mm long radicles (100% survival. The ultrastructural assays of the cells of germinated seeds with 2 and 5 mm length confirmed the obtained physiological results. Germinated seeds of C. fissilis constitute a useful tool for desiccation tolerance investigations.

  16. The tropical cedar tree (Cedrela fissilis Vell., Meliaceae) homolog of the Arabidopsis LEAFY gene is expressed in reproductive tissues and can complement Arabidopsis leafy mutants.

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    Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2006-01-01

    A homolog of FLORICAULA/LEAFY, CfLFY (for Cedrela fissilis LFY), was isolated from tropical cedar. The main stages of the reproductive development in C. fissilis were documented by scanning electron microscopy and the expression patterns of CfLFY were studied during the differentiation of the floral meristems. Furthermore, the biological role of the CfLFY gene was assessed using transgenic Arabidopsis plants. CfLFY showed a high degree of similarity to other plant homologs of FLO/LFY. Southern analysis showed that CfLFY is a single-copy gene in the tropical cedar genome. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization results showed that CfLFY was expressed in the reproductive buds during the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, as well as in floral meristems and floral organs but was excluded from the vegetative apex and leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis lfy26 mutant lines expressing the CfLFY coding region, under the control of the LFY promoter, showed restored wild-type phenotype. Taken together, our results suggest that CfLFY is a FLO/LFY homolog probably involved in the control of tropical cedar reproductive development.

  17. LINEAR MIXED MODEL TO DESCRIBE THE BASAL AREA INCREMENT FOR INDIVUDUAL CEDRO (Cedrela odorata L.TREES IN OCCIDENTAL AMAZON, BRAZIL

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    Thiago Augusto da Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable growth data from trees are important to establish a rational forest management. Characteristics from trees, like the size, crown architecture and competition indices have been used to mathematically describe the increment efficiently when associated with them. However, the precise role of these effects in the growth-modeling destined to tropical trees needs to be further studied. Here it is reconstructed the basal area increment (BAI of individual Cedrela odorata trees, sampled at Amazon forest, to develop a growth- model using potential-predictors like: (1 classical tree size; (2 morphometric data; (3 competition and (4 social position including liana loads. Despite the large variation in tree size and growth, we observed that these kinds of predictor variables described well the BAI in level of individual tree. The fitted mixed model achieve a high efficiency (R2=92.7 % and predicted 3-years BAI over bark for trees of Cedrela odorata ranging from 10 to 110 cm at diameter at breast height. Tree height, steam slenderness and crown formal demonstrated high influence in the BAI growth model and explaining most of the growth variance (Partial R2=87.2%. Competition variables had negative influence on the BAI, however, explained about 7% of the total variation. The introduction of a random parameter on the regressions model (mixed modelprocedure has demonstrated a better significance approach to the data observed and showed more realistic predictions than the fixed model.

  18. Luz, substrato e temperatura na germinação de sementes de cedro-vermelho Light, substrate and temperature in the germination of seeds of Cedrela odorata

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    Marco Antônio Amaral Passos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o tipo de substrato, a temperatura e os regimes de luz mais adequados à germinação de sementes de Cedrela odorata L. O delineamento experimental adotado, em todos os ensaios, foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada. As temperaturas constantes de 25 e 30ºC, a temperatura alternada de 20-30ºC e os substratos pó de coco e areia são as melhores condições para a germinação das sementes de C. odorata. A germinação das sementes da espécie estudada não se mostrou sensível aos diferentes regimes de luz aplicados.This work aimed to evaluate the kind of substrate, and temperature and light conditions more suitable for seed germination of Cedrela odorata L. The experimental design adopted in all experiments was the completely randomized design with four repetitions of twenty-five seeds each. The constant temperatures (25 and 30ºC, the alternated temperature (20-30ºC, and the coconut fiber and sand substrates are the better conditions for seed germination of C. odorata. Seed germination of the studied specie showed no sensitiveness to the different levels of light applied.

  19. Essential oils of toona and Cedrela species (Meliaceae): taxonomic and ecological implications.

    OpenAIRE

    MAIA, B. H. L. N. S.; PAULA, J. R. de; SANT' ANA, J.; SILVA, M. F. das G. F. da; FERNANDES, J. B.; VIEIRA, P. C.; COSTA, M. do S. S.; OHASHI, O. S.; SILVA, J. N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The essential oils of Toona ciliata, Cedrela odorata and C. fissilis have been analysed by GC-MS. Cedrela contains the main sesquiterpenes formed from the cis- and trans-farnesyl pyrophosphate. In contrast, Toona tend to produce mainly sesquiterpenes formed from the trans-precursor. These results show that the affiliation of Toona in the tribe Cedreleae together with Cedrela is still rather problematic. Mean electroantennogram responses (EAGs) to the essential oils from T. ciliata and C. odor...

  20. Essential oils of Toona and Cedrela Species (Meliaceae: taxonomic and ecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Beatriz H. L. N. S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of Toona ciliata, Cedrela odorata and C. fissilis have been analysed by GC-MS. Cedrela contains the main sesquiterpenes formed from the cis- and trans-farnesyl pyrophosphate. In contrast, Toona tend to produce mainly sesquiterpenes formed from the trans-precursor. These results show that the affiliation of Toona in the tribe Cedreleae together with Cedrela is still rather problematic. Mean electroantennogram responses (EAGs to the essential oils from T. ciliata and C. odorata, in Hypsipyla grandella females were significantly greater than those obtained for males, suggesting that females would use attractant odours messages from the host-plant (genera of Swietenioideae as search strategy behaviour for habitat location and oviposition.

  1. Quality cedar seedlings in function of the use of fertilizers and containers with different sizes = Qualidade de mudas de cedro em função da utilização de fertilizantes e recipientes de diferentes tamanhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique de Castro Pias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of quality seedlings, together with low costs, is critical to the success of forestry projects. Accordingly, choosing the correct source of fertilizer and type of container is essential. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate the quality of seedlings of Cedrela fissilis, known locally as cedro-rosa, resulting from the use of fertilizers and containers of different sizes. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme (containers of different sizes x sources of fertilizer, with three replications. The containers being tested were plastic pots (3,000 cm 3, plastic bags (1,000 cm 3 and tubes (175 cm 3. The sources of fertilizer were Osmocote® , Kimcoat® and conventional. The following evaluations of the seedlings were carried out 90 days after transplanting: height, stem diameter, leaf area, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and total dry weight. These variables were used to calculate the Dickson quality index. Seedlings grown in plastic pots or in plastic bags displayed the best quality, although the former presented higher values. The highest levels of quality for the seedlings of cedro-rosa were provided by the Osmocote® fertilizer, however values did not differ from the conventional source of fertilizer. With a view to reducing production costs for seedlings of cedro-rosa, the use of plastic bags with conventional fertilizer is recommended = A produção de mudas de qualidade, aliada a um baixo custo, é fundamental para o sucesso dos projetos florestais. Neste sentido, a escolha correta da fonte de fertilizante e do tipo de recipiente é essencial. Diante disso, objetivou-se com esse estudo avaliar a qualidade de mudas de Cedro-rosa em função do uso de fertilizantes e recipientes com diferentes tamanhos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 (recipientes com diferentes tamanhos x fontes de fertilizante, com tr

  2. Floral development in the tribe Cedreleae (Meliaceae, sub-family Swietenioideae): Cedrela and Toona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvêa, Cantídio Fernando; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2008-01-01

    Floral development of Cedrela and Toona, the genera comprising the basal tribe Cedreleae of the sub-family Swietenioideae of Meliaceae, is described. The focus was on three endangered, ecologically and economically important species: Cedrela fissilis, Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. The aims of the study were to characterize the patterns of floral development in the tribe and to establish apomorphic and plesiomorphic floral characters in relation to other taxa within the family based on the current molecular phylogeny of Meliaceae. A detailed floral structural and developmental study was completed using both scanning electron microscopy and visualization of microtome sections with a light microscope. Twelve floral developmental stages were identified. The initial development of the pentamerous flowers of both Toona and Cedrela is strikingly similar. The morphological differences observed between them are due to differential patterns of organ elongation and adnation/connation occurring late in development. Additionally, the formation of functionally male and female flowers was found to occur at specific positions within the inflorescence. Due to the basal position of the tribe Cedreleae in the phylogeny of Meliaceae, functionally either male or female pentamerous flowers and the presence of (at least partially) free stamens may be considered plesiomorphic traits within the family. In contrast, sympetaly and the absence of nectaries in Cedrela species are synapomorphies.

  3. Floral Development in the Tribe Cedreleae (Meliaceae, Sub-family Swietenioideae): Cedrela and Toona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvêa, Cantídio Fernando; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral development of Cedrela and Toona, the genera comprising the basal tribe Cedreleae of the sub-family Swietenioideae of Meliaceae, is described. The focus was on three endangered, ecologically and economically important species: Cedrela fissilis, Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. The aims of the study were to characterize the patterns of floral development in the tribe and to establish apomorphic and plesiomorphic floral characters in relation to other taxa within the family based on the current molecular phylogeny of Meliaceae. Methods A detailed floral structural and developmental study was completed using both scanning electron microscopy and visualization of microtome sections with a light microscope. Key Results Twelve floral developmental stages were identified. The initial development of the pentamerous flowers of both Toona and Cedrela is strikingly similar. The morphological differences observed between them are due to differential patterns of organ elongation and adnation/connation occurring late in development. Additionally, the formation of functionally male and female flowers was found to occur at specific positions within the inflorescence. Conclusions Due to the basal position of the tribe Cedreleae in the phylogeny of Meliaceae, functionally either male or female pentamerous flowers and the presence of (at least partially) free stamens may be considered plesiomorphic traits within the family. In contrast, sympetaly and the absence of nectaries in Cedrela species are synapomorphies. PMID:17981877

  4. Efecto bioestimulante de Trichoderma harzianum Rifai en posturas de Leucaena, Cedro y Samán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonides Castellanos González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo evaluó el efecto bioestimulante de Trichoderma harzianum Rifai en la producción de postura de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit., Cedrela odorata L. y Albizia saman (Jacq. Merr. Se desarrollaron tres experimentos en condiciones de vivero, uno para cada especie. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorio con cuatro parcelas por tratamiento. En cada experimento los tratamientos fueron: Trichoderma harzianum a razón de 20 g.L-1, 40 g.L-1 y un testigo. Se evaluó el porcentaje de germinación y las variables morfométricas diámetro y altura del tallo, así como biomasa seca en raíz y parte aérea de la planta. Los tratamientos con Trichoderma no incrementaron el porcentaje de germinación en cedro, samán y leucaena. T. harzianum incrementó la altura, el número de hojas y la biomasa seca del área foliar en las plántulas de cedro, mientras que en leucaena y samán solo provocó incrementos del diámetro basal de las plántulas.

  5. Influence of gamma radiation on mechanical and thermal properties of Cedrella fissilis and Ocotea porosa used in works of art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severiano, Lucio C.; Bardi, Marcelo A.G.; Machado, Luci D.B.; Lahr, Francisco A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Woods, as other materials, are susceptible to alterations in their internal structure because of physical, chemical or biological agents. Wood can be considered a natural composite with high strength capacity provided by cellulose and hemicellulose agglutinated by lignin, substances with very distinct structures. In several applications, the use of radiation can be interesting, once it turns wood more resistant to biological demand. The application of gamma radiation in work of arts and archaeological artifacts preservation began in 1970, in France. By other side, no changes in wood properties and no remaining radioactive waste were desirable. Gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source usually is applied as a tool to the decontamination of insects and microorganisms, as well as to provide resins cure in impregnated wood. In this way, the aim of this paper is to evaluate gamma radiation effects on some physical, thermal and resistance mechanical of Brazilian wood species used in carving, as Cedro Rosa (Cedrella fissilis) and Imbuia (Ocotea porosa). Gamma radiation process considered different doses (25 kGy, 50 kGy and 100 kGy). Results showed that no gamma radiation influences were detected in the studied wood properties in the dose range applied. This is a relevant conclusion that will improve safety on arts conservation around the world. (author)

  6. Growth and nutritional status of Brazilian wood species Cedrella fissilis and Anadenanthera peregrina in bauxite spoil in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and substrate amendment Crescimento e estado nutricional das espécies Cedrella fissilis e Anadenanthera peregrina em estéril de mineração de bauxita em resposta à inoculação com fungos micorrízicos-arbusculares e à melhoria do substrato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rogério Tótola

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Cedrella fissilis Vell. (Cedro Rosa and of Anadenanthera peregrina Benth (Angico Vermelho in bauxite spoil was studied to evaluate their response to substrate amendment or to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. The plants were grown in bauxite spoil, topsoil or spoil amended with either topsoil or compost, and inoculated with the AMF Acaulospora scrobiculata, Gigaspora margarita or Glomus etunicatum. Root colonization was highly dependent on the interaction plant-fungus-substrate. In C. fissilis, root colonization by Gigaspora margarita dropped from 75% in bauxite spoil to only 4% in topsoil. Contrarily, root colonization of A. peregrina by the same fungus increased from 48% in spoil to 60% in topsoil. Root colonization of C. fissilis in topsoil was lower than in the three other substrates. The opposite was observed for A. peregrina. Inoculation of the plants with Acaulospora scrobiculata or Glomus etunicatum was very effective in promoting plant growth. Plants of both C. fissilis and A. peregrina did not respond to amendments of bauxite spoil unless they were mycorrhizal. Also, a preferential partitioning of photosynthates to the shoots of A. peregrina inoculated with G. etunicatum or A. scrobiculata, and of C. fissilis inoculated with any of the three species of AMF was observed. C. fissilis showed a greater response to mycorrhizal inoculation than A. peregrina. The mean mycorrhizal efficiency (ME for dry matter production by C. fissilis was 1,847% for A. scrobiculata, 1,922% for G. etunicatum, and 119% for G. margarita. In A. peregrina, the ME was 249% for A. scrobiculata, 540% for G. etunicatum, and 50% for G. margarita. The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on plant growth seems to be related in part to an enhanced phosphorus absorption by inoculated plants. Moreover, the efficiency with which the absorbed nutrients were used to produce plant biomass was much greater in plants inoculated with A. scrobiculata or

  7. Processo germinativo e vigor de sementes de Cedrela odorata L. sob estresse salino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elane Grazielle Borba de Sousa Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050988444O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do estresse salino na viabilidade e vigor de sementes de Cedrela odorata L. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente de laboratório (temperatura média de 28 ºC e UR média 84 %, sob regime de luz contínua, onde quatro repetições de 25 sementes foram colocadas para germinar em papel mata-borrão e umedecidos com soluções de NaCl, KCl e CaCl2 em diferentes concentrações (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 mM. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: porcentagem de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, comprimento da raiz primária e do hipocótilo e massa seca da plântula. Os efeitos adversos do estresse salino sob a germinação e o vigor de plântulas de cedro são efetivamente evidentes a partir da concentração de 25 mM de NaCl, KCl e CaCl2, o que indica que sua utilização em ambientes salinos pode ser limitada. As sementes de cedro são mais sensíveis ao CaCl2 e KCl em relação ao NaCl, o efeito da salinidade foi mais agressivo sobre a germinação e vigor das sementes do que no vigor das plântulas.

  8. CRECIMIENTO DE Cedrela odorata L. BIOFERTILIZADA CON Rhizophagus intraradices y Azospirillum brasilense EN VIVERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Aguirre-Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cedrela odorata L. es una especie que se distingue por la calidad de su madera. El cedro esta - blecido en campo debe adaptarse a cambios en disponibilidad de recursos; la sobrevivivencia es mayor cuando el sistema radical se asocia con microorganismos que mejoran la nutrición y crecimiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de Rhizophagus intraradi - ces y Azospirillum brasilense sobre el crecimiento de C. odorata y la capacidad de absorción de nitrógeno (N y fósforo (P. Las semillas de cedro se sembraron en macetas de acuerdo con los siguientes trata - mientos: testigo, fertilización 15 N -15 P -15 K , R. intraradices , A. brasilense , R. intraradices + A. brasilense , y R. intraradices + A. brasilense + fertilización 15 N -15 P -15 K . Las variables morfológicas y fisiológicas de rendimiento y la colonización radical se registraron cada 28 días, y los contenidos de N y P, al final del experimento (140 días. En general, R. intraradices promovió mayor crecimiento vegetal ( P ≤ 0.05 de los componentes morfológicos y fisiológicos del rendimiento. La altura máxima (97 cm se registró en las plantas con R. intraradices + A. brasilense + fertilización 15 N -15 P -15 K , representando 40 % más altura que el testigo. El N y P incrementaron con la inoculación de los microorganismos solos y combinados.

  9. Possible Tyromyces fissilis (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) co-infection in a lung transplant recipient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrenková, V.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Hubáček, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2015), s. 33-35 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : fungal diseases * Tyromyces fissilis * cystic fibrosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.335, year: 2015

  10. CRECIMIENTO DE CEDRO REAL Y CAOBA EN EL LABORATORIO NATURAL SAN PABLO URACCAN-LAS MINAS 2009-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín de Jesús Peralta Tercero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se evalúa el crecimiento de las especies de Cedro real (Cedrela odorata L y Caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King, establecidas en el laboratorio natural San Pablo, propiedad de la Universidad de las Regiones Autónomas de la Costa Caribe Nicaragüense (URACCAN, municipio de Siuna. Encontrándose que la Caoba presenta los mejores índices de crecimiento en cuanto a altura y diámetro (altura: Incremento medio anual (IMA 0.66, Incremento Corriente Anual (ICA 0.60; diámetro: IMA 0.86, ICA 0.98. Mientras que el Cedro real presenta: alturas (IMA 0.40, ICA 0.34; diámetro (IMA 0.66; ICA 0.87. En conjunto las dos especies presenta los siguientes índices de crecimiento: altura: (IMA 0.53, ICA 0.47; diámetro (IMA 0.76, ICA 0.93. De acuerdo a los resultados de afectación por el barrenador, ambas especies fueron atacadas  a diferentes alturas y se encontró los mayores ataques en la Caoba cuando alcanza más de los tres metros de altura (70.97% de afectación y en el Cedro a más de dos metros de altura (56.77% de afectación. Con relación a la calidad de la plantación, el 5% de la plantas se encuentran en calidad mala; sin embargo el 70% se encuentra en calidad aceptable, a pesar que hay una alta afectación por la plaga se realizan prácticas de corrección del fuste (poda para asegurar que la planta continúe con su crecimiento de la mejor manera posible. Summary This research was done in order to evaluate the growth of the species of Real Cedar (Cedrela odorata L and Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, established in San Pablo natural laboratory, property of the University of the Autonomous Regions of the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua (URACCAN, municipality of Siuna. Some of the findings showed that the Mahogany presents the best growth rates in height and diameter (height: annual average increase (AAI 0.66; annual current increase (ACI 0.60; diameter: AAI 0.86, 0.98 ACI. While the Real Cedar presents: heights (AAI 0.40, 0

  11. In vitro rhizogenesis: histoanatomy of Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae microcuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Millán-Orozco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae is considered as one of the most valuable forest tree in the tropics. Clonal propagation of this species provide an alternative method to propagate superior genotypes, being the production of good quality adventitious roots one of the most important steps in micropropagation techniques. The sequence of anatomical changes that takes place during the formation of adventitious roots in shoots of Cedrela odorata cultured in vitro is described in this study. Eigth-week-old shoots, from multiplication cultures, were rooted in Murashige and Skoog´s medium (1962 with half- strength macronutrients and with 0 or 1mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. Between 12 and 24h after the start of rooting, some cambium, phloem and interfascicular parenchyma cells became dense cytoplasm, nuclei with prominent nucleoli and the first cell divisions were observed, especially in shoots treated with auxin (dedifferentiation phase. After 3-4 days, the number of dedifferentiated cells and mitotic divisions increased considerably, and the formation of groups of some 30-40 meristematic cells (meristemoids was observed (induction phase. The first primordial roots developed from the 4th-5th day. The vascular tissues of these primordia connected to those of the explant, and roots began to emerge from the base by day 6. Development of the primordial roots was similar in the control shoots and shoots treated with 1mg/l IBA, although there were more roots per explant in the latter. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 447-453. Epub 2011 March 01.Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae es una especie tropical de gran valor económico. La propagación in vitro de esta especie ofrece una vía alternativa para la clonación de genotipos superiores, siendo la formación de un buen sistema radical uno de los pasos claves en la micropropagación. En este trabajo analizamos la secuencia de cambios anatómicos que tienen lugar durante la formación de raíces adventicias en microestaquillas

  12. In vitro rhizogenesis: histoanatomy of Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae microcuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Millán-Orozco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae is considered as one of the most valuable forest tree in the tropics. Clonal propagation of this species provide an alternative method to propagate superior genotypes, being the production of good quality adventitious roots one of the most important steps in micropropagation techniques. The sequence of anatomical changes that takes place during the formation of adventitious roots in shoots of Cedrela odorata cultured in vitro is described in this study. Eigth-week-old shoots, from multiplication cultures, were rooted in Murashige and Skoog´s medium (1962 with half- strength macronutrients and with 0 or 1mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. Between 12 and 24h after the start of rooting, some cambium, phloem and interfascicular parenchyma cells became dense cytoplasm, nuclei with prominent nucleoli and the first cell divisions were observed, especially in shoots treated with auxin (dedifferentiation phase. After 3-4 days, the number of dedifferentiated cells and mitotic divisions increased considerably, and the formation of groups of some 30-40 meristematic cells (meristemoids was observed (induction phase. The first primordial roots developed from the 4th-5th day. The vascular tissues of these primordia connected to those of the explant, and roots began to emerge from the base by day 6. Development of the primordial roots was similar in the control shoots and shoots treated with 1mg/l IBA, although there were more roots per explant in the latter. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 447-453. Epub 2011 March 01.

  13. Productividad de lindero maderable de cedrela odorata1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Viera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Productividad de lindero maderable de Cedrela odorata. Se estudió la producción de madera aserrada de linderos maderables sembrados en 1980 de Cedrela odorata con distanciamiento de 17 m entre plantas y sin ningún manejo. El estudio se llevó a cabo en el CIC-JAP La Fe, Ilama, Santa Bárbara a 750 msnm, 14° 59’ latitud norte y 88° 31’ longitud oeste, con precipitación promedio de 2.800 mm/año, los suelos son muy fértiles con alto contenido de bases cambiables, materia orgánica y micro nutrientes, no se presentan problemas de acidez, la topografía del terreno es inclinada con pendiente que varia de 10 a 20% aproximadamente. No se realizó un manejo agronómico a los árboles, por estar asociados con el cultivo de café, manejado técnicamente: prácticas de manejo de malezas y fertilización. Los IMA en altura y diámetros fueron de 1,09 m y 3,77 cm que se considera alto ya que es el promedio de 20 años, y una producción promedio por árbol de 596 pies tablar, para una proyección de un km de lindero con el distanciamiento del estudio, representaría un total de 35.164 pies tablar, con un ingreso bruto de Lps 316.476,00 a 386.804,00 de precio de madera puesta en finca (Lps 9.00 a 11,00 pies tablar que representa un ingreso extra sin afectar la producción de café, y aprovechar las calles internas con que cuenta la finca. Por la bifurcación que presentaron los árboles se dedujo que hubo ataque de barrenador de las meliáceas (Hypsipyla grandella Zeller.

  14. Funções de distribuição diamétrica em um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Diametric distribution functions in a fragment of Mixed Ombrophylous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram ajustar e selecionar funções de densidade probabilística que caracterizem a estrutura diamétrica desse fragmento e das espécies: Cedrela fissilis (Cedro, Luehea divaricata (Açoita Cavalo, Gochnatia polymorpha (Cambará, Sebastiania commersoniana (Branquilho e Casearia sylvestris (Cafezeiro de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista com 15,24ha, localizado em Curitiba, Paraná. Para avaliar a distribuição diamétrica dessa floresta e das cinco espécies selecionadas, foram ajustadas sete funções probabilísticas para intervalos de classe de 5cm. Segundo os critérios de seleção adotados, o modelo que melhor representou a distribuição diamétrica para toda a floresta, o cedro, o cambará e o branquilho foi o de Weber; para o cafezeiro, a função Gamma (Adaptada foi a mais eficiente e para o açoita cavalo nenhuma dessas funções foi aderente. O branquilho, o açoita cavalo, o cafezeiro e a floresta como um todo apresentaram distribuição em "J" invertido ou decrescente. Entretanto, o cedro e o cambará apresentaram distribuição tendendo à unimodalidade com forte assimetria à direita.The objective of this study was to adjust and select probability density functions that characterize the diametric structure of this forest fragment and for the species: Cedrela fissilis, Luehea divaricata, Gochnatia polymorpha, Sebastiania commersoniana and Casearia sylvestris for a 15.24 hectare fragment of Mixed Ombrophylous Forest, located in Curitiba, State of Paraná. In order to evaluate the diametric distributions of this forest and the five selected species, seven probability functions were adjusted for 5cm class intervals. According to the criteria of selection adopted, the model that best represented the diametric distributions for the whole forest, Cedrela fissilis, Gochnatia polymorpha and Sebastiania commersoniana was the Weber model; for Casearia sylvestris, the Gamma function (adapted was the most

  15. A semi-empirical model for predicting crown diameter of cedrela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi-empirical model relating age and breast height has been developed to predict individual tree crown diameter for Cedrela odorata (L) plantation in the moist evergreen forest zones of Ghana. The model was based on field records of 269 trees, and could determine the crown cover dynamics, forecast time of canopy ...

  16. Tolerância ao frio e características silviculturais do cedro-australiano no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available O cedro australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem é uma espécie difundida no Sudeste, Centro-Oeste e Nordeste do Brasil, onde alcança boa produtividade. Possui madeira de excelente qualidade para finalidades nobres. Entretanto, na região Sul do Brasil apresenta problemas de adaptação devido à ocorrência de geadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a tolerância ao frio e o potencial silvicultural de cedro-australiano em dois locais no Sul do Brasil. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantio puro de cedro-australiano e misto, com Mimosa scabrella e Eucalyptus benthamii em Lages, SC, e puro e sob Pinus taeda em Ibiam, SC. Durante dois anos após a implantação avaliou-se sobrevivência, danos por geada, bifurcação/brotação, altura total e diâmetro do colo. O cedro-australiano apresentou sérios danos pela geada no município de Lages, reduzindo drasticamente a sobrevivência e prejudicando as características silviculturais. O plantio do cedro-australiano sob pínus em Ibiam apresentou baixa taxa de mortalidade devido a geadas. O plantio puro nesta mesma região também apresentou baixa mortalidade, contudo, os efeitos das geadas foram consideráveis. O plantio de cedro-australiano não é indicado para as regiões com geadas intensas, contudo, em locais com geadas menos severas, o plantio sob pínus é uma alternativa potencial.

  17. Bark essential oil composition of Cedrela tonduzii C. DC. (Meliaceae from Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah M. Eason

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The bark essential oils from two different individuals of Cedrela tonduzii were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The chemical compositions of the two oils were qualitatively similar, but showed quantitative differences. One sample had abundant quantities of a -selinene (32% and germacrene-D (17%, while the second sample was rich in a-humulene (34%, β-caryophyllene (13% and germacrene-D (13%.

  18. Plan de empresa para un café-bar en la Plaza del Cedro (Valencia)

    OpenAIRE

    REY CORONADO, CARLOS

    2012-01-01

    [ES] Mi proyecto consiste en un Plan De Empresas de un Café-Bar en Valencia, más concretamente en la Plaza del Cedro. El trabajo va dirigido a la Comisión Coordinadora del Trabajo Final de Carrera, a los miembros del tribunal examinador y a futuros alumnos del TFC. La elección de este tema para el Proyecto Final de Carrera, nace bajo una profunda reflexión y motivación: Reflexión por la situación actual del sector de la restauración, el cual ha perdido más de 12.000 establecimientos en los...

  19. Paleomagnetism of mesozoic red chert from Cedros Island and the San Benito Islands, Baja California, Mexico revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; Sedlock, Richard L.

    1992-02-01

    Previous paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic subduction-complex rocks on Cedros Island and the San Benito Islands, Mexico, shows that these rocks have been remagnetized; a single-polarity magnetization was found in chert sections and underlying pillow basalt deposited during a mixed-polarity interval of the geomagnetic field. Reanalysis of the Cedros and San Benito chert samples (101 total) shows that 13 samples also retain a high blocking-temperature component of magnetization (600° to 680°C) indicating a polarity stratigraphy and deposition of the bedded chert near 2° ± 3° paleolatitude. These data are similar to those for red chert in California and Japan implying that many of the Mesozoic ophiolitic chert sequences now exposed around the Pacific rim were initially deposited within the equatorial zone of high biologic productivity. These new data also support accretion of the Cedros and San Benito chert to the American margin at tropical paleolatitudes requiring significant northward translation (and clockwise rotation) to bring them to their present position with respect to the continental interior.

  20. Resgate vegetativo e propagação de cedro-australiano por estaquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane de Oliveira Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar métodos de resgate vegetativo para a produção de estacas (corte raso, anelamento total e semianelamento de árvores adultas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata var. australis. Avaliou-se o número de brotos produzidos aos 60, 120 e 180 dias, bem como a correlação entre o diâmetro médio do tronco à altura do peito (DAP e o número de brotos. Com as brotações resultantes de cada método, produziram-se estacas que foram submetidas à retirada e ao corte de folíolos, e então receberam a aplicação de ácido indolbutírico (AIB (0 e 6.000 mg L-1. Avaliou-se a influência dos fatores método de resgate, tempo de coleta, número de folíolos das estacas e planta matriz, em presença e ausência de AIB, na sobrevivência e no enraizamento das estacas. Não houve correlação entre o DAP das árvores e o número de brotações. O corte raso aos 120 dias proporcionou a maior produção de brotos (15,31. Estacas obtidas do semianelamento apresentaram maior sobrevivência (57,8% e enraizamento (55,5%. Estacas com dois pares de folíolos inteiros e tratadas com 6.000 mg L-1 de AIB apresentaram maior sobrevivência (65,5% e enraizamento (56,7%. Houve grande variação na sobrevivência e no enraizamento entre plantas matrizes. O resgate vegetativo e a estaquia apresentam potencial para multiplicação clonal de árvores adultas de cedro-australiano.

  1. Evaluation of Cedrela gum as a binder and bioadhesive component in ibuprofen tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ayodele Odeniyi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The compressional, mechanical and bioadhesive properties of tablet formulations incorporating a new gum obtained from the incised trunk of the Cedrela odorata tree were evaluated and compared with those containing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC. Compressional properties were evaluated using Hausner's ratio, Carr's Index, the angle of repose, and Heckel, Kawakita and Gurnham plots. Ibuprofen tablets were prepared using the wet granulation method. Bioadhesive studies were carried out using the rotating cylinder method in either phosphate buffer pH 6.8 or 0.1 M hydrochloric acid media. The gum is a low viscosity polymer (48 cPs, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of a hydroxyl group. Py and Pk values, which are measures of plasticity, showed the gum to be significantly (pPropriedades de compressão, mecânicas e de formulações de comprimidos bioadesivos, que incorporam nova goma de mascar obtidas a partir de incisão de tronco da árvore de Cedrela odorata, foram avaliadas e comparadas com aquelas contendo hidroxipropilmetilcelulose (HPMC. Propriedades de compressão foram avaliadas usando a razão de Hausner, índice de Carr, ângulo de repouso e os gráficos de Heckel, Kawakita e Gurnham. Prepararam-se comprimidos de ibuprofeno utilizando o método de granulação a úmido. Realizaram-se estudos de bioadesividade utilizando o método de cilindro rotativo em tampão fosfato pH 6,8, ou meio ácido com 0,1 M de ácido clorídrico. A goma é um polímero de baixa viscosidade (48 cPs e a espectroscopia no infravermelho por Transformada de Fourier (FTIR revelou a presença de um grupo hidroxila. Valores de Py e Pk, que são medidas de plasticidade, mostraram que a goma é significativamente (p <0,05 mais plástica do que HPMC e que a plasticidade aumenta com a concentração de polímero. Todas as formulações de comprimidos mostraram-se não-friáveis (<1,0% e aquelas contendo a goma apresentaram maior resist

  2. Perros ferales en la isla de Cedros, Baja California, México: una posible amenaza para los pinnípedos Feral dogs at Isla de Cedros, Baja California, Mexico: a possible threat for pinnipeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Concepción García-Aguilar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de perros ferales (Canis lupus familiaris en la isla de Cedros, Baja California, México, fue documentada hace más de 15 años. En el verano de 2009 e invierno 2009/2010, se realizaron 2 campañas de muestreo en la costa noreste de la isla para evaluar los hábitos alimentarios de los perros en las cercanías de las zonas de reproducción y descanso del lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus y del elefante marino del norte (Mirounga angustirostris. Los mamíferos constituyeron el grupo consumido más importante en la alimentación de los perros (85.4%. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que en la costa noreste de la isla de Cedros los perros se alimentan de pinnípedos: el elefante marino fue la especie que más se consumió, con el mayor porcentaje en ambas temporadas (43.3% en verano y 51.9% en invierno; el lobo marino, fue la segunda durante el verano (23.3%, aunque su porcentaje disminuyó en el invierno (5.8%. Además del potencial impacto que el consumo por los perros pueda tener sobre las poblaciones de los pinnípedos, una amenaza adicional es la posible transmisión de los patógenos caninos, con serias consecuencias epizoóticas.The presence of feral dogs (Canis lupus familiaris in Isla de Cedros, Baja California, Mexico, has been documented for over 15 years. In the summer of2009 and the winter of 2009/2010, 2 sampling surveys were conducted in the northeast coastal portion of the island to assess the diet of feral dogs in the vicinity of hauled out California sea lions (Zalophus californianus and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris. Mammals were the most important prey group in the diet of dogs (85.4%. Our results show that in the northeast coast of Isla de Cedros, feral dogs feed on pinnipeds: the elephant seal was the most important prey in both seasons (43.3% in summer and 51.9% in winter, followed by the sea lion as the second most important prey during the summer (23.3%, while its

  3. Perros ferales en la isla de Cedros, Baja California, México: una posible amenaza para los pinnípedos Feral dogs at Isla de Cedros, Baja California, Mexico: a possible threat for pinnipeds

    OpenAIRE

    María Concepción García-Aguilar; Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso

    2012-01-01

    La presencia de perros ferales (Canis lupus familiaris) en la isla de Cedros, Baja California, México, fue documentada hace más de 15 años. En el verano de 2009 e invierno 2009/2010, se realizaron 2 campañas de muestreo en la costa noreste de la isla para evaluar los hábitos alimentarios de los perros en las cercanías de las zonas de reproducción y descanso del lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus) y del elefante marino del norte (Mirounga angustirostris). Los mamíferos constituy...

  4. Biodegradação de produtos à base da madeira de cedro australiano (toona ciliata m. roem. var australis)

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Natália Amarante

    2014-01-01

    A madeira de cedro australiano (Toona ciliata) tem sido usada na construção civil, pisos e mobiliários, no entanto, suas propriedades tecnológicas são pouco conhecidas. Por isso, os objetivos do trabalho foram: (i) avaliar a resistência de painéis reconstituídos (OSB e aglomerados) e da madeira de Toona ciliata com idade de 18 anos ao teste acelerado de laboratório (ASTM D 2017) por fungos xilófagos de podridão parda (Gloeophyllum trabeum) e branca (Trametes versicolor), (ii) caracterizar os ...

  5. Resistência das madeiras de pinus, cedro australiano e seus produtos derivados ao ataque de Cryptotermes brevis

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Marcelo Xisto; Bufalino, Lina; Mendes, Lourival Marin; Sá, Vania Aparecida de; Santos, Alexandre dos; Tonoli, Gustavo Henrique Denzin

    2014-01-01

    Neste trabalho, objetivou-se comparar a resistência das madeiras de cedro australiano (Toona ciliata) e pinus (Pinus sp.) e de painéis aglomerados produzidos com essas espécies ao ataque do cupim de madeira seca Cryptotermes brevis, bem como quantificar a mortalidade dos insetos. Foram colocados 30 pseudo-operários em placas de Petri de acrílico de 9,5 cm de diâmetro, contendo as amostras (1,5 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm) e folhas de algodão posicionadas sobre as tampas perfuradas umedecidas diariamente c...

  6. Tissue culture methods for the clonal propagation and genetic improvement of Spanish red cedar (Cedrela odorata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Ramírez, Yuri; Juárez-Gómez, Juan; González-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Robert, Manuel L

    2012-01-01

    The choice of a method to culture red cedar tissues depends on the final objectives pursued. If homogeneous clonal material is required for experimental purposes, the easiest way is to generate the lines through adventitious shoot induction from seedlings germinated from seeds. If the objective is to generate high yielding material for plantation purposes, the choice will be the same method but starting from mature vegetative tissues from selected elite plants. Most of the process are the same, but the initial steps are less efficient and much more elaborate. If the purpose is to generate lines with new genetic characteristics through somaclonal variation, mutagenesis, or genetic transformation, somatic embryogenesis will be required. No single method in its present form is suitable for all purposes. Eventually, the efficient production of somatic embryos from rejuvenated shoots collected from mature selected plants is the ideal way to culture this species, but for the time being we have to choose one or the other. In this chapter, we present a grafting procedure to rejuvenate and maintain mother plants in the greenhouse and the in vitro culture systems we have developed for the production of Cedrela odorata propagules using explants from both young seedlings and mature tissues from selected old trees. Using a modified TY17 medium and the BioMINT(®) temporary immersion system, we obtained high multiplication and ex vitro transplantation rates for efficient large-scale propagation of this species.

  7. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography reveals colonization history of a Neotropical tree, Cedrela odorata L., in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavers, S; Navarro, C; Lowe, A J

    2003-06-01

    Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata L.) is a globally important timber species which has been severely exploited in Mesoamerica for over 200 years. Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms, its chloroplast (cp) DNA phylogeography was studied in Mesoamerica with samples from 29 populations in six countries. Five haplotypes were characterized, phylogenetically grouped into three lineages (Northern, Central and Southern). Spatial analysis of ordered genetic distance confirmed deviation from a pattern of isolation by distance. The geographically proximate Northern and Central cpDNA lineages were genetically the most differentiated, with the Southern lineage appearing between them on a minimum spanning tree. However, populations possessing Southern lineage haplotypes occupy distinct moist habitats, in contrast to populations possessing Northern and Central lineage haplotypes which occupy drier and more seasonal habitats. Given the known colonization of the proto-Mesoamerican peninsula by South American flora and fauna prior to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, it seems most likely that the observed population structure in C. odorata results from repeated colonization of Mesoamerica from South American source populations. Such a model would imply an ancient, pre-Isthmian colonization of a dry-adapted type (possessing the Northern lineage or a prototype thereof), with a secondary colonization via the land bridge. Following this, a more recent (possibly post-Pleistocene) expansion of moist-adapted types possessing the Southern lineage from the south fits the known vegetation history of the region.

  8. Viability, morphometric, and anatomical characteristics of Cedrela odorata L. and Cariniana pyriformis Miers seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mariano Espitia Camacho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify morphometric, anatomical, and the viability characteristics of the seeds of Cedrela odorata and Cariniana pyriformis. The study was carried out at the Universidad de Córdoba of Montería, Colombia, from April 2012 to July 2014; the study was carried out with a laboratory descriptive methodology, tetrazolium and germination tests in germination chamber were performed. Seeds of commercial lots from three locations in the department of Cordoba, were used. Five trees of each specie were randomly selected and from each tree, five samples of one hundred seeds, were randomly selected. The description of the shape and the anatomy of the seeds was made according to ten seeds of each specie. For the tetrazolium tests, a completely randomized design experiment, with six treatments, and four replications of 25 seeds, was established. The six treatments were originated by combining the tetrazolium concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%, with two and three hours of immersion in the solution. The external characteristics of C. odorata showed less variation than C. pyriformis, especially in weight. Four topological patterns were identified in each specie. It was possible to determine the viability for C. pyriformis and C. odorata with immersion for two hours at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0% tetrazolium, respectively.

  9. Distribuição espacial de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Montana Spatial distribution of a Mixed Ombrophylus Forest fragment

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    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a distribuição espacial de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Montana, bem como de três espécies de grupos sucessionais distintos pertencentes a ela, pela função K de Ripley. Os dados utilizados provêm de um censo realizado em um fragmento localizado no Campus Jardim Botânico da UFPR, Curitiba-PR, onde todas as árvores com DAP acima de 10cm foram georreferenciadas. Foi utilizada uma parcela de 4 ha para a análise da distribuição espacial da floresta bem como das espécies de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze (Araucária, Casearia Sylvestris Sw. (Cafezeiro e Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Cedro. Foi analisada a relação espacial entre as espécies, bem como a relação espacial entre classes diamétricas destas. A floresta apresentou uma distribuição espacial aleatória, entretanto, as três espécies selecionadas apresentaram um padrão espacial agregado, quando analisadas separadamente. O Cafezeiro apresentou relação de atração com a Araucária e com o Cedro; estes, por sua vez, apresentaram relação de repulsão entre si. A relação espacial entre classes de DAP da Araucária foi de atração entre os indivíduos de classes menores com os indivíduos maiores. Este resultado reflete a forma de dispersão de sementes das espécies, em que a regeneração ocorre em proximidade às árvores parentais. Para o cafezeiro e o Cedro, ocorreu agregação apenas entre os indivíduos menores.The objective of this research was to analyze the spatial distribution of a Mixed Ombrophylus Forest fragment, as well as of three species pertaining to distinct successional groups belonging to the same, by the Ripley's K function. The data came from a census carried out in a fragment located in the Campus Botanical Garden, UFPR, Curitiba - PR, Brazil, where all trees with DBH above 10cm were georeferenced. One plot with 4 ha was used for the analysis of the spatial distribution of the forest and

  10. Rescate y germinación in vitro de embriones inmaduros de cedro negro (Juglans neotropica Diels

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    Oscar Darío Quintero-García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Embriones inmaduros de cedro negro (Juglans neotropica (Juglandaceae con 16 y 20 semanas de desarrollo fueron removidos asépticamente de los frutos y sembrados durante 60 días en los medios de cultivo MS (Murashige y Skoog, 1962, WPM (Lloyd y McCown, 1980 y DKW (Driver y Kuniyuki, 1984, sin reguladores de crecimiento. Se observó que embriones con 16 semanas de desarrollo no germinaron en los tres medios de cultivo; por el contrario, los embriones con 20 semanas de desarrollo presentaron una germinación de 100%. Se encontró un marcado efecto del medio en el crecimiento de los embriones, siendo el medio MS mejor (P < 0.05 que los medios DKW y WPM, debido a que en él los embriones presentaron mayor altura y proporción tallo/raíz para la obtención de plántulas completas.

  11. Antioxidant and Antiglycating Constituents from Leaves of Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata

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    Rizwan Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela Serrata plants have a folkloric use in Pakistan for treatments of different ailments, i.e., Jaundice, Hepatitis, Diabetes, and antimicrobial. Until now, none of the research studies have reported any phytochemical work on leaves of these two plants. This study aimed to isolate and perform phytochemical analysis in order to search for the constituent having the active role in treatment of the aforementioned ailments. A bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedure was used to isolate the concerned phytochemicals present in leaf extracts of Z. oxyphylla and C. serrata. The process involved the hyphenated techniques, i.e., Flash Chromatography, Semi-Preparative HPLC/DAD, UPLC/MS, and NMR in order to isolate and elucidate the structure of the phytochemicals. Seven compounds (1–7 were isolated and identified as flavonoids, more in particular glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. They showed DPPH scavenging activity, compound 3 (isoquercitrin being the most active one with an IC50 of 10.8 µg/mL (positive control quercetin; IC50 3.6 µg/mL. The superoxide-radical scavenging and total antioxidant (ABTS assays indicated IC50 values ranging from 200 to 910 µg/mL and 170 to 320 µg/mL, respectively (positive control quercetin: 374 and 180 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds had low IC50 values for inhibition of protein glycation (AGEs inhibition, ranging from 530 to 818 µg/mL, comparable to aminoguanidine (510 µg/mL used as a positive control. This study resulted in the identification of seven flavonoid glycosides for the first time from the leaves of Z. oxyphylla and C. serrata with antioxidative and antiglycating activities.

  12. Influência da saturação por bases na qualidade e crescimento de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis)

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Marilena de Melo; Furtini Neto, Antonio Eduardo; Oliveira, Anna Hoffmann

    2015-01-01

    O cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis) é uma espécie promissora para plantios comerciais em função da qualidade e ampla utilização da sua madeira e de seu alto retorno financeiro em um pequeno espaço de tempo. No entanto, são escassas as informações sobre o comportamento desta espécie em relação à acidez do solo. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de saturação por bases sobre o crescimento e a qualidade de mudas de cedro-australiano. A sa...

  13. Phytochemical screening and anti-oxidant activity of the two plants Ziziphus oxyphylla Edgew and Cedrela serrata Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmad, Mansoor; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Phytochemical studies of medicinal plants are a basic and helping tool for the isolation of active secondary metabolites. The isolation of active compounds is made easy by the help of preliminary phytochemical studies, which shows the presence of a specific class or group of compounds present in these medicinal plants. Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata are medicinal plants with valuable local uses. The present study is for the first Phytochemical investigation of these two medicinal plants which consists of, Quantitative tests showing very good results except Ziziphus oxyphylla plants which does not showed the results for Ester value and Peroxide value. Color reactions are studied for all the crude extracts showing the presence of a number of chemical groups belonging to the class of Alkaloids, Phenol compounds, Phenothiazines, Aromatic compounds, Amino acids, Sulfur compounds etc. Brine shrimp activity was performed which showed a LD50 value of 45.74 and 53.36 in the case of Ziziphus oxyphylla roots and Cedrela serrata bark respectively, which is comparable to the standard drug Cyclophosphamide results of 16.09. Insecticidal activity did not show any promising result indicating the absence of any insect killing potency. Antioxidant activity was very positive for all the extract particularly, the Ziziphus oxyphylla roots, which showed even better results than the standard drug Ascorbic acid used in various dilutions.

  14. Respuesta de la Semilla de Cedro Negro (Juglans Neotropica Diels a la Aplicación de Tratamientos Pregerminativos

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    López Carvajal Jaime

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available La semilla de cedro negro (Juglans neotropica Diels presenta una baja capacidad germinativa, baja uniformidad de su germinación y latencia profunda, por lo cual se procedió a la aplicación de tratamientos pregerminativos cuyos efectos se evaluaron por medio de los parámetros capacidad germinativa, velocidad de la germinación, vigor y dispersión de la germinación. La investigación se llevó a cabo en el laboratorio de Semillas Forestales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia y en el invernadero del Jardín Botánico de Medellín. El experimento tuvo un diseño completamente al azar con ocho tratamientos, cuarto repeticiones y la unidad muestral (repetición estuvo conformada por 25 semillas. Los tratamientos aplicados fueron: estratificación durante 30 y 60 días, osmoacondicionamiento en soluciones con potenciales osmóticos de -0.5, -1.0 y -1 .5 MPa y la combinación de osmoacondicionamiento en solución con un potencial de -l. 0 MPa más estratificación durante 30 y 60 días y un testigo. Además se realizaron pruebas de contenido de humedad, de absorción de agua, de peso, tamaño, forma y viabilidad para caracterizar adecuadamente la semilla de cedro negro. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que los tratamientos de osmoacondicionamiento fueron efectivos para aumentar la velocidad de germinación y el vigor de la semilla, mientras que los tratamientos de estratificación no fueron efectivos para aumentar la capacidad germinativa ni para disminuir la dispersión de la germinación. Los tratamientos de osmoacondicionamiento más estratificación aumentaron la dispersión de la germinación . El efecto de ambos sobre la velocidad de germinación y el vigor son contrastantes, pues la combinación con 60 días de estratificación aumentó la velocidad de la germinación y el vigor; en cambio la combinación con 10 días de estratificación no fue efectiva para mejorar la capacidad germinativa la velocidad ni el vigor de esta semilla.

  15. Perdas de Nutrientes por Lixiviação na Produção de Mudas de Cedro Australiano

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    Clovis Orlando Da Ros

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo do trabalho foi quantificar as perdas de nutrientes por lixiviação associadas ao uso de fertilizante mineral na produção de mudas de cedro australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis em diferentes substratos. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições, com dois substratos (substrato comercial e composto de dejetos de suínos e quatro doses de fertilizante mineral (0 kg; 3 kg; 6 kg e 9 kg m-3. No decorrer de 105 dias foram avaliadas as perdas de N, P e K por lixiviação e, no final desse período, quantificado o crescimento e a qualidade das mudas. O substrato comercial proporcionou menor perda de nutrientes por lixiviação e, quando associado ao fertilizante mineral, apresentou maior potencial de crescimento e de qualidade de mudas em comparação ao composto de dejetos de suínos.

  16. Rescate y germinación in vitro de embriones inmaduros de cedro negro (Juglans neotropica Diels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero García Oscar Darío

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Embriones inmaduros de cedro negro (Juglans neotropica (Juglandaceae con 16 y 20 semanas de desarrollo fueron removidos asépticamente de los frutos y sembrados durante 60 días en los medios de culti+o M- (Muras3ige 4 -koog, 99<=, WPM (Blo4d 4 McCoFn, 9980 4 GHW (Gri+er 4 Huni4uki,

    9984, sin reguladores de crecimiento. -e  obser+ó que embriones con 9< semanas de desarrollo no germinaron en los tres medios de cultivo; por el contrario, los embriones con 20 semanas de desarrollo presentaron una germinación de 100%. Se encontró un marcado efecto del medio en el crecimiento de los embriones, siendo el medio M- meOor (P P 0.05 que los medios GHW 4 WPM, debido a que en él los embriones Wresentaron ma4or altura 4 WroWorción talloXraiY Wara la obtención de WlZntulas comWletas

  17. Effect of Household Solid Waste on Initial Growth Performance of Acacia auriculiformis and Cedrela toona in Mycorrhiza Inoculated Soil

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    M.M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste disposal and management became one of the major environmental concerns in Bangladesh. Realising the problem, the present study has been undertaken with a view to find a sound and effective way of bio-degradable solid waste management. The study was carried out in the nursery of Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences at University of Chittagong to determine the effects of solid waste and waste inoculated with mycorrhizal soil on initial growth performance of Acacia auriculiformis and Cedrela toona. Before planting the seedlings, decomposable waste and mycorrhiza inoculated decomposable waste were placed on the planting holes. Physical growth parameters of seedlings (shoot and root length, leaf and branch number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root and nodulation status and the macro nutrients (N, P and K were recorded after six months of planting. The highest performance of physical parameters was recorded in the soil treated by mycorrhiza inoculated waste. Cedrela toona was represented by maximum nutrients uptake (N-2.60%, P-0.21% and K-2.34% respectively in the soil treated with mycorrhiza. In case of Acacia auriculiformis, N uptake was maximum (3.02% in control while K uptake was highest (1.27% in soil with waste and P (0.18% uptake was highest in the soil treated with mycorrhiza inoculated waste. Highest initial growth performance was revealed by seedlings treated with mycorrhiza inoculated waste. This study suggested to use mycorrhiza and waste for plantation purposes for hygienic disposal of solid waste and to reduce cost of cultivation.

  18. Caracterização da madeira de quatro espécies florestais

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    Javan Pereira Motta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das relações existentes entre a estrutura anatômica da madeira com suas propriedades físicas ou mecânicas é importante para seu uso adequado. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a anatomia microscópica e propriedades físicas da madeira de quatro diferentes espécies florestais. A madeira estudada foi proveniente das seguintes espécies: Cedrela fissilis (Cedro, Híbrido clonal Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis (Eucalipto urograndis, Hovenia dulcis (Uva do Japão e Gallesia integrifolia (Pau d'alho. Para a determinação da retratibilidade, utilizou-se a norma MB26/40 da ABNT (1940; as dimensões lineares foram obtidas com palmer, precisão de 0,001mm. O estudo da anatomia da madeira seguiu as recomendações da norma de procedimento em estudos de anatomia de madeira, da COPANT (1974 e também da IAWA (1989. Os caracteres anatômicos avaliados foram: diâmetro tangencial (µm e frequência de vasos (nomm-2; comprimento de fibra (µm, diâmetro de lume (µm e espessura de parede de fibra (µm; altura (µm, largura (µm e frequência de raios (nomm-1. Os valores do coeficiente anisotrópico foram de 1,16; 1,77; 1,81 e 1,84 para a madeira de C. fissilis, H. dulcis, Híbrido clonal e G. integrifolia, respectivamente, demonstrando que a madeira de C. fissilis possui elevada estabilidade dimensional e as demais madeiras, valores aceitáveis para esse coeficiente.

  19. Influência da saturação por bases na qualidade e crescimento de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis)

    OpenAIRE

    Braga,Marilena de Melo; Furtini Neto,Antonio Eduardo; Oliveira,Anna Hoffmann

    2015-01-01

    O cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis) é uma espécie promissora para plantios comerciais em função da qualidade e ampla utilização da sua madeira e de seu alto retorno financeiro em um pequeno espaço de tempo. No entanto, são escassas as informações sobre o comportamento desta espécie em relação à acidez do solo. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de satura...

  20. INFLUÊNCIA DA POSIÇÃO DAS MINIESTACAS NA QUALIDADE DE MUDAS DE CEDRO AUSTRALIANO E NO SEU DESEMPENHO INICIAL NO PÓS-PLANTIO

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Daniele de Alvarenga; Barroso, Deborah Guerra; Silva, Mírian Peixoto Soares da; Souza, Juliana Sobreira de; Freitas, Teresa Aparecida Soares de; Carneiro, José Geraldo de Araújo

    2012-01-01

    RESUMO O cedro australiano, originário da Austrália, adaptou-se muito bem no Brasil, que apresenta condições adequadas para o seu desenvolvimento, sobretudo no sul da Bahia e em toda a região sudeste. Porém, os plantios são irregulares e as sementes são insumo limitante, por sua sazonalidade de oferta e curta viabilidade. A finalidade deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade das mudas obtidas de miniestacas apicais, intermediárias e basais com 6 cm de comprimento oriundas de brotos de minicepas d...

  1. Propriedades físicas, químicas e mecânicas da madeira de cedro australiano cultivado em Corupá, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilani Trianoski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O cedro australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem é uma espécie de elevado valor comercial, com características similares ao mogno e cedros nativos, que vem se destacando em plantios florestais no Brasil, cuja madeira produzida deve ser alvo de pesquisas tecnológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as propriedades físicas, químicas e mecânicas desta espécie em plantio com 18 anos. Foi observada massa específica baixa (0,330 g cm3, estabilidade dimensional média baixa (anisotropia: 2,22, teor de extrativos elevado (10,33% e propriedades mecânicas moderadas: MOR e MOE à flexão: 498 kgf cm-2 e 66.163 kgf cm-2; MOR e MOE à compressão paralela: 258 kgf cm-2 e 100,813 kgf cm-2; cisalhamento: 82 kgf cm-2, e dureza média: 208 kgf.

  2. Cedrela odorata L. PRODUCTION IN A RAW SAWDUST SUBSTRATE IN TECHNICIAN SYSTEM AT TECPAN DE GALEANA, GUERRERO, MEXICO

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    José Justo Mateo-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursery high quality plants production by using expensive commercial substrates (peat moss, perlite, vermiculite decreases profits; this is the main reason to search alternative production substrates. Pine sawdust is a sub product of forestry industry cheap and available in forest areas. In recent years it has been used as a substrateproviding good results. In this study it was evaluated the effect of different sawdust mixtures on Cedrela odorata L. plant growth in a technician system in forest nursery under shade cloth covered. A completely randomized experimental design was used with eleven substrate components combinations (sawdust + peat moss-perlite-vermiculite mixtures ranging from 0% to 100% each. After three and a half months morphological variables were measured so as some quality indexes in seedlings. The largest diameter was obtained by the mixture of 70% sawdust + 30% peat moss mix-vermiculite-perlite. The highest in height by using the mixture 80% sawdust + 20% peat moss - vermiculite – perlite mixture. The highest leaves dry weight corresponded to 90 % sawdust + 10% peat moss-vermiculite-perlite mixture. However the highest root weight and total dry weight values occurred in 60% sawdust + 40% peat moss – perlite - vermiculite mixture. As for the height-diameter ratio (slenderness index, the best value is obtained a mixture of 80% sawdust + 20% peat moss, perlite, vermiculite. According to Dickson Quality Index (DQI, used to predict the plant field surviving, the highest value was obtained for the 60% sawdust + 40% peat moss-perlite-vermiculite mixture.

  3. Pharmacological and Genotoxic Properties of Polyphenolic Extracts of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. Barks in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte-Flores, Dulce Carolina; Paniagua-Castro, Norma; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo; Rosales-Castro, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. bark extracts was performed in vitro. Juglans regia showed greater extract concentration and higher antioxidant activity. Hypoglycemic activity in rats was assessed by generating a glucose tolerance curve and determining the area under the curve (AUC). Diabetes was later induced by an injection with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg of b.w.) and confirmed after 24 hours. The extract was administered (200 mg/kg b.w.) over 10 days, and blood glucose was monitored and compared with a control group. The glucose AUC showed a hypoglycemic effect of J. regia and C. odorata in normal rats. Both extracts reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats. Polyphenolic extracts reduced cholesterol levels in a hypercholesterolemic mouse model and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Polyphenolic extract doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. were administered alone or with cyclophosphamide (CPA) 50 mg/kg ip, which was used as a positive control. Analyses were performed using leukocytes in a comet assay after 4 and 24 h of treatment. Genotoxic effects were evaluated by the comet assay, which showed that while J. regia extract had no effect, C. odorata extract induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 0 and 1 comets. PMID:25945104

  4. Pharmacological and Genotoxic Properties of Polyphenolic Extracts of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. Barks in Rodents

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    Dulce Carolina Almonte-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. bark extracts was performed in vitro. Juglans regia showed greater extract concentration and higher antioxidant activity. Hypoglycemic activity in rats was assessed by generating a glucose tolerance curve and determining the area under the curve (AUC. Diabetes was later induced by an injection with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg of b.w. and confirmed after 24 hours. The extract was administered (200 mg/kg b.w. over 10 days, and blood glucose was monitored and compared with a control group. The glucose AUC showed a hypoglycemic effect of J. regia and C. odorata in normal rats. Both extracts reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats. Polyphenolic extracts reduced cholesterol levels in a hypercholesterolemic mouse model and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Polyphenolic extract doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. were administered alone or with cyclophosphamide (CPA 50 mg/kg ip, which was used as a positive control. Analyses were performed using leukocytes in a comet assay after 4 and 24 h of treatment. Genotoxic effects were evaluated by the comet assay, which showed that while J. regia extract had no effect, C. odorata extract induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 0 and 1 comets.

  5. Desenvolvimento in vitro do fungo simbionte de Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em meio de cultura com diferentes extratos vegetais Development in vitro of the symbiotic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in culture medium with different plant extracts

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    Marcelo Dias de Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento in vitro de Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, fungo simbionte de Atta sexdens rubropilosa, em meio de cultura acrescido com extratos de 24 espécies vegetais. O fungo foi inoculado no meio BDA, acrescido com os extratos vegetais, além de quatro controles, em placas de Petri. As placas foram mantidas em câmaras climatizadas à temperatura de 25±1°C no escuro, por um período de 42 dias. O crescimento do fungo foi avaliado semanalmente através do diâmetro da colônia. Os resultados mostraram que o fungo simbionte dessas formigas apresenta um crescimento diferenciado em relação aos extratos fornecidos nas placas, sendo que o meio acrescido com os extratos de arica (Physocalymma scaberrimum, cerejeira (Amburana acreana, cedro (Cedrela fissilis, timbó (Magonia pubescens, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e mogno (Swietenia macrophylla prejudicaram o desenvolvimento. No entanto, os extratos de genipapo (Genipa americana, seringueira (Heveaa brasiliensis, ingá (Inga edulis e cambará (Vochysia divergens apresentaram melhores condições de desenvolvimento para o fungo simbionte.The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro development of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa in culture medium added with extracts of 24 plant species. The fungus was inoculated in PDA added with vegetables extracts and four controls, in Petri dishes. The dishes were maintained in climate chambers at temperature of 25±1°C in the dark, to period of 42 days. The fungal growth was evaluated weekly by diameter of the colony. The results showed that the symbiotic fungus of these ants has differentiated growth when compared to the extracts provided in the dishes, and the medium supplemented with extracts of aricá (Physocalymma scaberrimum, cerejeira (Amburana acreana, cedro (Cedrela fissilis, timbó (Magonia pubescens, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e mogno (Swietenia

  6. Effects of donor plant age and explants on in vitro culture of Cedrela montana Moritz ex Turcz

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    Sofía Basto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the organogenic potential of Cedrela montana Moritz ex Turcz. Explants from mature (10-20 year-old and juvenile (7-18 month-old trees were collected. The first grouping included buds, leaves, and nodes derived from juvenile basal offshoots and rejuvenated shoots from cuttings. The second, included leaves, petioles, nodes, internodes and nodes of in vitro elongated shoots. The highest organogenic potential was observed in nodes from juvenile trees: 45.8% of explants presented axillary bud elongation, while 56.2% presented rooting in a growth regulator free culture medium. Fifty-one percent of elongated shoots produced adventitious shoots with 0.5 μM NAA and 0.5 μM BA; 30% with 0.5 μM NAA and 1 μM BA; and 30% with 1 μM BA. Twenty percent presented roots with 0.5 μM NAA. Root formation was stimulated in a medium supplemented with activated charcoal (5 gL-1. The acclimatization of eighty percent of plantlets regenerated from nodes, and of 72.5% in vitro generated shoots was successful. On the contrary, mature trees material presented low organogenic response. Axillary bud elongation was recorded just in 10.7% of explants from juvenile shoots and in 6.7% of explants from rejuvenated shoots. The age of donor plant and type of explant affect the organogenic potential of C. montana. This study contributes to the understanding of this species’ response under in vitro conditions.

  7. Possibilidade de ganho de fuste em espécies euxilóforas nativas da região central do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Rodrigo Mattos Borges de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed to observe and quantify the possibility of stem gain in five native euxylophorous species [Angico (Parapiptadenia rigida, Canjerana (Cabralea canjerana, Cedro (Cedrela fissilis, Grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa, and Louro (Cordia trichotoma] in non managed native forests of São João do Polêsine municipality, state of RS. There were studied 17 temporary plots of 10 x 100 m. In the trees of the five elected species for this study, that presented diameter at breast height (dbh larger than 5 cm, the total height, the commercial height and the potential commercial height of the stems were measured. The stem gain was defined as the difference between the current and potential commercial height, in relation to current commercial height and was expressed in percentage. The average percentile of shaft gain for all the species was larger than 70%, while Louro showed a stem gain significantly smaller than the other species. By a regression analysis (stepwise procedure, mathematical models were selected to describe the stem gain of each species and all the species together. The results showed that there is a potenctial for value adding to the native forest formations of the area, not yet explored by silviculture practices.

  8. Eficiência nutricional de espécies arbóreas em função da fertilização fosfatada

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    Alexandre Gomes Fontes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre fertilização e nutrição florestal de espécies nativas e exóticas fornecem subsídios para programas de manejo para recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de biomassa e a eficiência nutricional de plântulas das espécies arbóreas Swietenia macrophylla (mogno, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (sabiá, Cedrela fissilis (cedro-rosa e Toona ciliata (cedroaustraliano, em resposta à fertilização fosfatada em dois níveis de calagem. Constatouse que as espécies responderam de maneira distinta à aplicação de P. O sabiá apresentou maior produção de matéria seca total e maior eficiência na utilização de P em solos com baixos teores deste elemento e foi mais responsivo à adição do fertilizante fosfatado. O mogno apresentou maior eficiência na translocação e na aquisição de P e maior relação parte aérea/raiz. As doses de P adicionadas para atingir 90% da máxima produção de matéria seca variaram de acordo com a espécie.

  9. POSSIBILITY OF STEM GAIN OF NATIVE EUXYLOPHOROUS SPECIES FROM THE CENTRAL REGION OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Borges de Mattos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed to observe and quantify the possibility of stem gain in five native euxylophorous species [Angico (Parapiptadenia rigida, Canjerana (Cabralea canjerana, Cedro (Cedrela fissilis, Grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa, and Louro (Cordia trichotoma] in non managed native forests of São João do Polêsine municipality, state of RS. There were studied 17 temporary plots of 10 x 100 m. In the trees of the five elected species for this study, that presented diameter at breast height (dbh larger than 5 cm, the total height, the commercial height and the potential commercial height of the stems were measured.  The stem gain was defined as the difference between the current and potential commercial height, in relation to current commercial height and was expressed in percentage. The average percentile of shaft gain for all the species was larger than 70%, while Louro showed a stem gain significantly smaller than the other species. By a regression analysis (stepwise procedure, mathematical models were selected to describe the stem gain of each species and all the species together. The results showed that there is a potenctial for value adding to the native forest formations of the area, not yet explored by silviculture practices.

  10. Development of clonal matrices of australian red cedar in different substrates under fertilizer doses Desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro Australiano em diferentes substratos sob doses de fertilizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Peres Benatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate fertilizers doses in different substrates for growth and development of clonal matrices of Australian Red Cedar [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], an experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Five substrates were evaluate, with proportions by volume, the first consisting of 100% of Multiplant florestal®, the second of 50% vermiculite, 20% carbonized rice hulls, 20% soil and 10% coconut fiber, the third with 50% soil and 50% sand, the fourth was composed by 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% soil and 40% coconut fiber and the fifth with 65% of Multiplant florestal®, 25% vermiculite and 10% carbonized rice hulls. The fertilizers doses applied were 0.0; 0.3; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4 of fertilization suggested by Malavolta (1980 for vases. The characteristics evaluated were: collar diameter of the matrices, production of dry mater by shoots, root system and total and accumulation of nutrients by shoot at the end of the experimental period of 150 days. The Australian Red Cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, as showed by the better development obtained with higher fertilizer doses than those suggested by Malavolta (1980. The substrate three provided the worst development to clonal matrices while the substrates 1, 4 and 5 provided the best environment for the development considering all the fertilizer doses and all variables.Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes substratos com taxas de fertilizantes para o crescimento e desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro australiano [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. Foram avaliados cinco substratos, com as proporções em volume, sendo o primeiro composto por 100% Multiplant florestal®, o segundo de 50% Vermiculita, 20% casca de arroz carbonizada, 20% terra e 10% fibra de coco, o terceiro com 50% terra e 50% areia, o quarto com proporção de 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% terra e 40% de fibra de coco e

  11. Climate and Streamflow Reconstruction on the São Francisco Basin, Brazil, Using Tree-Ring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G. D. A.; Barbosa, A. C. M. C.; Granato-Souza, D.; Stahle, D. W.; Torbenson, M.; dos Santos, R. M.; Rodrigues Alves Delfino Barbosa, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    The São Francisco River crosses the most drought-prone region of Brazil and regional economic dynamics are dependent on the water availability in the basin. The seasonally dry forests are widely distributed in the basin, where Cedrela fissilis Vell (cedro) are frequently found. This semi-arid region provides a favorable setting where the deciduous cedro trees form well-defined semi-ring porous annual rings that can be exactly crossdated and used to build climate sensitive chronologies. Therefore, we have developed chronologies of cedro from seasonally dry forest fragments of three sites located in the middle-sector of the São Francisco River basin and south limit of the Brazilian Drought Polygon. The samples were analyzed according to standard procedures: sample preparation, ring count, crossdating and measurement of the tree rings. Dating quality was tested using the computer program COFECHA and ring-width time series where detrended and standardized to produce the final index chronology using the ARSTAN program. The results show that crossdating within and among trees from different sites demonstrate the potential to expand the spatial sampling. The tree-ring chronologies are sensitive with wet season precipitation totals (October - March), and can explain approximately 40% of the variance (1961-2015). Significant correlation was also observed with total annual discharge of the Rio São Francisco River measured at Barra (r=0.48; 1961-2015). However, the correlation disapears after 1993 (r=0.64 for 1961-1993, but r=-0.004 for 1994-2015) and we suspect that the stream gage at Barra has been impacted by human activity. Tree-ring chronologies can provide important information on climate and streamflow variability of São Francisco River, where hydrological records are often short and discontinuous. This chronology is now being extended with 150-yr old trees from the region and may be used to reconstruct climate and streamflow records back to the pre

  12. Current and Future Distribution of the Tropical Tree Cedrela odorata L. in Mexico under Climate Change Scenarios Using MaxLike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Meyer, Enrique; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is recognized as an important threat to global biodiversity because it increases the risk of extinction of many species on the planet. Mexico is a megadiverse country and native tree species such as red cedar (Cedrela odorata) can be used to maintain forests while helping mitigate climate change, because it is considered a fast growing pioneer species with great economic potential in the forestry industry. In order to assess possible shifts in areas suitable for C. odorata plantations in Mexico with ecological niche models, we used the MaxLike algorithm, climate variables, the geo-referenced records of this species, three general circulation models and three scenarios of future emissions. Results show a current potential distribution of 573,079 km2 with an average probability of occurrence of 0.93 (± 0.13). The potential distribution area could increase up to 650,356 km2 by 2060 according to the general circulation model HADCM3 B2, with an average probability of occurrence of 0.86 (± 0.14). Finally, we delimited an area of 35,377 km2 that has a high potential for the establishment of C. odorata plantations, by selecting those sites with optimal conditions for its growth that are outside protected areas and are currently devoid of trees. C. odorata has a significant potential to help in the mitigation of the effects of climate change. Using MaxLike we identified extense areas in Mexico suitable to increase carbon sequestration through plantations of this highly valued native tree species. PMID:27732622

  13. Current and Future Distribution of the Tropical Tree Cedrela odorata L. in Mexico under Climate Change Scenarios Using MaxLike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Contreras, Israel; Equihua, Miguel; Laborde, Javier; Martínez Meyer, Enrique; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is recognized as an important threat to global biodiversity because it increases the risk of extinction of many species on the planet. Mexico is a megadiverse country and native tree species such as red cedar (Cedrela odorata) can be used to maintain forests while helping mitigate climate change, because it is considered a fast growing pioneer species with great economic potential in the forestry industry. In order to assess possible shifts in areas suitable for C. odorata plantations in Mexico with ecological niche models, we used the MaxLike algorithm, climate variables, the geo-referenced records of this species, three general circulation models and three scenarios of future emissions. Results show a current potential distribution of 573,079 km2 with an average probability of occurrence of 0.93 (± 0.13). The potential distribution area could increase up to 650,356 km2 by 2060 according to the general circulation model HADCM3 B2, with an average probability of occurrence of 0.86 (± 0.14). Finally, we delimited an area of 35,377 km2 that has a high potential for the establishment of C. odorata plantations, by selecting those sites with optimal conditions for its growth that are outside protected areas and are currently devoid of trees. C. odorata has a significant potential to help in the mitigation of the effects of climate change. Using MaxLike we identified extense areas in Mexico suitable to increase carbon sequestration through plantations of this highly valued native tree species.

  14. Current and Future Distribution of the Tropical Tree Cedrela odorata L. in Mexico under Climate Change Scenarios Using MaxLike.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Estrada-Contreras

    Full Text Available Climate change is recognized as an important threat to global biodiversity because it increases the risk of extinction of many species on the planet. Mexico is a megadiverse country and native tree species such as red cedar (Cedrela odorata can be used to maintain forests while helping mitigate climate change, because it is considered a fast growing pioneer species with great economic potential in the forestry industry. In order to assess possible shifts in areas suitable for C. odorata plantations in Mexico with ecological niche models, we used the MaxLike algorithm, climate variables, the geo-referenced records of this species, three general circulation models and three scenarios of future emissions. Results show a current potential distribution of 573,079 km2 with an average probability of occurrence of 0.93 (± 0.13. The potential distribution area could increase up to 650,356 km2 by 2060 according to the general circulation model HADCM3 B2, with an average probability of occurrence of 0.86 (± 0.14. Finally, we delimited an area of 35,377 km2 that has a high potential for the establishment of C. odorata plantations, by selecting those sites with optimal conditions for its growth that are outside protected areas and are currently devoid of trees. C. odorata has a significant potential to help in the mitigation of the effects of climate change. Using MaxLike we identified extense areas in Mexico suitable to increase carbon sequestration through plantations of this highly valued native tree species.

  15. Potassium and lime effect in the quality of seedling of Bombacopsis quinata. = Efeito do potássio e do calcário na qualidade de mudas de cedro doce (Bombacopsis quinata

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    Paula Monique Carvalho Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The proper nutrition during the seedling nursery stage is crucial to reduce the time of transplanting and grafting in the field. And although the cedro doce is commercially exploited, there is no information available about its nutrition. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the levels of correction of the substrate with dolomitic limestone and five doses of potassium applied, through foliar method and in form of covering, to cedro doce seedling in early stage of development and grown in nurseries. The experiment was carried out in the seedling nursery of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias of Universidade Federal de Roraima. The treatments resulted from the combination of two factors, namely: two levels of correction of soilacidity with dolomitic limestone and five doses of potassium in the form of KCl (0; 5; 10; 15 and 30 gm plant of K2O. The delineation applied was entirely randomized in a factorial pattern with four repetitions. On the fiftieth day were evaluated the following: the height of the aerial part (HEP, root length (RL, stem diameter (SD, fresh and dry biomass of the aerial part, root (FBAP; DBAP; FBR; DBR and the HEP/SD; HEP/DBAP; DBR/BSPA and DQI rates. It was concluded that the factors under study acted independently in the seedling quality; the liming effect was restricted to the variables related to the root; the potassium doses determined positive increments in the HEP, RL, SD, FBAP, DBAP, DBR and in the Dickson Quality Index (DQI. In the HEP/SD; HEP/FBAP and DBR/DBAP rates the increments were negatives. The doses under study were short of the seedling nutritional demand indicating that cedro doce has high demand of K. = Resumo - A nutrição adequada da plântula durante a fase de viveiro é determinante para reduzir o tempo de transplantio e pegamento no campo. O cedro doce, embora seja explorado comercialmente, carece de informações científicas acerca do seu processo produtivo, sobretudo na

  16. Genetic diversity in Australian Cedar genotypes selected by mixed models Diversidade genética em genótipos de Cedro Australiano selecionados via modelos mistos

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    Rulfe Tavares

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for raw material for multiple uses of forest products and by-products has attracted the interest for fast growing species, such as the Australian Cedar (Toona ciliata, which presents high productive and economic potential. The present work aimed at estimating genetic diversity by DNA markers and morphological traits supported for the mixed models. The following traits were measured and genotypes were sampled randomly in different areas: diameter at breast height, height, cylindrical volume, diameter, distance between nodes and crown diameter. Twelve RAPD primers were used and generated a total of 91 marks, 82 of which were polymorphic. The high percentage of polymorphic markers, 90.10%, demonstrated that discrimination in this species is efficient, but it yet little studied, for this case we can find the extent of the genetic basis for the application of technical improvement. The assessment of genetic diversity by the UPGMA method using the binary and morphological data provided the expression of genetic dissimilarities among the accessions evaluated, optimizing the perception of this divergence. The use of mixed models was efficient to assess combined genetic diversity to optimize the selection of genotypes with divergent genetic values for diameter at breast height.A crescente demanda por matéria-prima para múltiplos usos dos produtos florestais e subprodutos tem despertado o interesse para espécies de crescimento rápido, como o cedro australiano (Toona ciliata, que apresenta potencial produtivo e econômico. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estimar a diversidade genética por marcadores de DNA e caracteres morfológicos com o uso dos modelos mistos. Os seguintes caracteres foram medidos e os genótipos foram amostrados aleatoriamente em diferentes áreas de plantio: diâmetro à altura do peito, altura, volume cilíndrico, distância entre nós e diâmetro de copa. Doze primers RAPD foram utilizados e geraram um total

  17. Evaluación de fenoles y limonoides en hojas de Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae de una plantación experimental establecida en Tezonapa Veracruz, México

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    Samantha del Rocío Mariscal-Lucero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae es una especie forestal maderable nativa de América Tropical, conocida por la alta calidad de su madera. Plantaciones de esta especie son atacadas severamente por Hypsipyla grandella; la atracción o repelencia de la plaga está relacionada con metabolitos secundarios tipo fenoles y limonoides (triterpenos, por lo que el estudio de estos compuestos es importante para comprender algunos fenómenos fitoquímicos. Se evaluó la concentración de fenoles totales y limonoides en hojas de C. odorata (Meliaceae de una plantación establecida en Tezonapa Veracruz México, se analizaron 66 individuos de siete procedencias. La concentración de fenoles y limonoides mostró diferencias significativas, no solo entre las procedencias sino también entre los árboles de una determinada procedencia (Tukey, p≤0.05. La concentración de fenoles totales varió de 49 a 223mg EAG/g e, los flavonoides de 7 a 158mg EC/g e y las proantocianidinas de 4 a 104mg EC/g e, mientras que en limonoides se obtuvieron valores de 227 a 748mg EL/g e. Mediante Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Resolución con detector UV-Arreglo de Diodos (HPLC-UV-DAD se encontró un compuesto mayoritario que corresponde a un flavonol de tipo glicósido de Kaempferol y se identificó el flavanol catequina a bajas concentraciones. Por medio de Cromatografía de Gases-Espectrometría de Masas (CG-MS se identificaron los sesquiterpenos β-elemeno, E-cariofileno, aromadendreno, humuleno, gama-cadineno, D-germacreno, biciclogermacreno y los poli terpenos Di-α-Tocoferol y β-sitosterol. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la evaluación de los fenoles puede desempeñar un papel importante como parámetro de selección en programas de mejora y conservación, si se complementan con las prácticas convencionales de mejoramiento genético.

  18. Produção de mudas de essências florestais em diferentes substratos e acompanhamento do desenvolvimento em campo Yield of seedling species forestry of four using different substrates and development in field

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    Rone Batista de Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o efeito de substratos com diferentes características físicas e químicas na formação de mudas e o desenvolvimento no campo das espécies Cedrela fissilis Vell. (cedro rosa, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden (eucalipto, Acacia holocericea A. Cunn. ex G. Don (acácia e Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (aroeirinha, produzidas em tubetes de 55 cm³. Os substratos no viveiro foram constituídos de diversas combinações dos seguintes materiais: húmus de minhoca, esterco bovino curtido, esterco de galinha, turfa, casca de amendoim processada, casca de arroz carbonizada e palha de café. Na primeira etapa foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. Foram avaliadas as variáveis morfológicas das mudas e suas relações. O delineamento estatístico no campo foi em blocos, em parcelas subdivididas e as covas foram preenchidas com dois diferentes tipos de adubações - esterco bovino e esterco bovino + condicionador de solo. Nessa etapa, foram avaliadas as variáveis altura e diâmetro das plantas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de média (Newman-Keuls 5%. Conforme os resultados obtidos na etapa de viveiro, os substratos que podem ser recomendados para produção de mudas das espécies estudadas foram os à base de Húmus de minhoca, casca de amendoim processada e turfa. Na etapa de campo, a adubação com esterco bovino + condicionador de solo proporcionou maiores valores das variáveis em todas as espécies, com exceção da altura das plantas para a acácia.This experiment was installed with the aim of evaluating the substrates effect with different chemical and physical characteristics in the formation of seedling of Cedrela fissilis Vell. (cedro rosa, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden (eucalipto, Acacia holocericea A. Cunn. ex G. Don (acacia and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (aroeirinha produced in tubes of 55 cm³. The substrates had been constituted of

  19. POSSIBILIDADE DE GANHO DE FUSTE EM ESPÉCIES EUXILÓFORAS NATIVAS DA REGIÃO CENTRAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    Alessandro Dal’Col Lúcio

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o intuito de observar e quantificar a possibilidade de ganho de fuste em cinco espécies euxilóforas (Angico (Parapiptadenia rigida, Canjerana (Cabralea canjerana, Cedro (Cedrela fissilis, Grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa, e Louro (Cordia trichotoma em matas nativas, não-manejadas, de São João do Polêsine, RS. Foram levantadas 17 parcelas temporárias de 10 x 100 m nas matas nativas do município. Nas árvores das cinco espécies eleitas para este estudo, que apresentavam diâmetro à altura do peito (dap superior a 5 cm, foram medidas a altura total, a altura comercial atual e a altura comercial potencial dos troncos. O ganho de fuste foi definido como a diferença entre a altura comercial atual e potencial, em relação à altura comercial atual e expresso em porcentagem. O percentual médio de ganho de fuste para todas as espécies em conjunto foi superior a 70%. O Louro mostrou um ganho de fuste significativamente menor que as demais espécies. Mediante a análise de regressão (stepwise, selecionou-se modelos matemáticos que melhor descrevem o ganho de fuste de cada espécie e das espécies em conjunto. Os resultados mostraram que existe um potencial para o aumento do valor das formações florestais nativas da região, ainda não-explorado por ações silviculturais.

  20. LEVANTAMENTO FLORÍSTICO DO ESTRATO ARBÓREO DE TRÊS FRAGMENTOS DE FLORESTA CILIAR COMO SUBSÍDIO À RECOMPOSIÇÃO DA VEGETAÇÃO DO RIO CEDRO, MONTES CLAROS – MG

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    Maria Clara Oliveira Durães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to know the floristic composition of three fragments of riparian forest from Rio Cedro, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais state and select species to be used in its recomposition. It was done a floristic survey, similarity analysis and sucessional classification of species. We sampled 356 individuals in three fragments, and: 99 at the 1st one, 117 at the 2nd one and 140 at the 3rd one with a total of 53 species, 2 unidentified, 46 genera and 22 families. The majority floristic wealth was found at the 1st fragment: 28 species, then at the 2rd one with 26 last at the 3nd with 25. The families with the highest number of individuals were Fabaceae (111, Malvaceae (50, Arecaceae (45, Anacardiaceae (32. The Fabaceae family showed the greatest number of species represented. By the tests, Sorensen’s similarity rate was obtained for the fragments: 1 and 2, 52.8%, 2 and 3, 40% and 1 and 3 33.3%. The greatest wealth of pioneering species and secondary ones characterize an initial phase of transition from forest pioneering, typical of sucessional medium probation and show characteristics of seasonal decidual forest. The fragments studied are disrupted. In order to the recomposition of the riparian forest, a selection of species to be used in its recomposition and the combination of different ecological groups are proposed.

  1. Spanish-cedar : Cedrela spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1964-01-01

    From the earliest days of exploration and colonization in tropical America, Spanish-cedar has been one of the most important timber trees of the area. The wood became an article for the export trade during the 1800’s when the cigar industry demanded the use of Spanish-cedar for packing cigars. These fragrant boxes were commonplace before rising costs in the 1930’s...

  2. Chemical and energetic characterization for utilization of thinning and slab wood from Australian red cedar Caracterização química e energética para aproveitamento da madeira de costaneira e desbaste de cedro australiano

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    Lina Bufalino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This work aimed to quantify and compare chemical and energetic properties of Australian red cedar Toona ciliata MJ Roem var. australis (FV Muell. C. DC wood from thinning and primary sawing for reconstituted panel and energy production; and also to verify the efficiency of extractive removal by water treatments, in order to improve wood quality for particleboard production. Lignin, holocellulose, extractives, ash, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur contents and higher heating value were determined. Two water treatments for extractive removal were performed: immersion in cold water for 24 hours and immersion in boiling water for 2 hours. Lower values of ash, holocellulose, hydrogen and nitrogen contents and higher contents of lignin, total extractives, hydrogen and nitrogen contents were found for wood from primary sawing residues. For other properties, the values were significantly equal. Australian red cedar wood presents high extractive content, being water pre-treatment necessary for the production of some particleboards. Higher heating values of materials indicate potential for energy production.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.13

    O objetivo desse trabalho foi quantificar e comparar as propriedades químicas e energéticas da madeira de cedro australiano Toona ciliata MJ Roem var. australis (FV Muell. C. DC proveniente de desbaste e desdobro para produção de painéis reconstituídos e energia, além de verificar a eficiência da remoção de extrativos por tratamentos em água para viabilizar a produção de painéis de partículas. Os teores de lignina, holocelulose, extrativos totais, cinzas, carbono, hidrogênio, oxigênio, nitrogênio, enxofre e poder calorífico superior foram determinados. Dois tratamentos em água para remoção de extrativos foram realizados nos materiais: imersão em água fria durante 24 horas e em água fervente durante 2 horas. Foram encontrados menores teores de cinzas, holocelulose

  3. Short communication. Characterization of chloroplast region rrn16-rrn23S from the tropical timber tree Cedrela odorata L. and de novo construction of a transplastomic expression vector suitable for Meliaceae trees and other economically important crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ochoa, L A; Apolinar-Hernández, M M; Peña-Ramírez, Y J

    2015-02-20

    The forest tree Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata L.) is well-known for its high-value timber; however, this species is attacked by the shoot borer (Hypsipyla grandella) during its early years of development, resulting in branched stems and making the plants useless for high-quality wood production. The generation of resistant varieties expressing entomotoxic proteins may be an alternative to pesticide treatments. The use of plastid transformation rather than nuclear transformation should be used because it reduces the risk of transgene dissemination by pollen. Chloroplast transformation vectors require an expression cassette flanked by homologous plastid sequences to drive plastome recombination. Thus, C. odorata plastome sequences are a prerequisite. The rrn16-rrn23 plastome region was selected, cloned, and characterized. When the sequence identity among the rrn16-rrn23 regions from C. odorata and Nicotiana tabacum was compared, 3 inDels of 240, 104, and 39 bp were found that might severely affect transformation efficiency. Using this region, a new transformation vector was developed using pUC19 as a backbone by inserting the rrn16-trnI and trnA-rrn23 sequences from C. odorata and adding 2 independent expression cassettes into the trnI-trnA intergenic region, conferring spectinomycin resistance, the ability to express the gfp reporter gene, and a site that can be used to express any other gene of interest.

  4. Áreas prioritárias na Amazônia para conservação dos recursos genéticos de espécies florestais nativas: fase preliminar Priority areas for genetic resources conservation of native Forest Species: preliminary phase

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    Angela Maria Conte Leite

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available O CENARGEN/EMBRAPA está realizando a prospecção das áreas prioritárias para a conservação in situ dos recursos genéticos de espécies com importância sócio-econômica para cada bioma existente no Brasil, buscando a conservação da variabilidade genética das mesmas. Para a prospecção da floresta tropical úmida amazônica, inicialmente foram feitos levantamentos de herbários nacionais bem como de literatura, para tentar definir os padrões de distribuição geográfica de algumas espécies prioritárias da região. A ocorrência das mesmas foi correlacionada com solos, clima, vegetação e com a existência de unidades de conservação na Amazônia, no intuito de se propor as áreas mais adequadas para a implantação de reservas genéticas (conservação in situ e de bancos de germoplasma (conservação ex situ à campo. As espécies relatadas no presente trabalho são Aniba rosaeodora Ducke (pau-rosa, Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. (castanha-do-Pará, Carapa quianensis Aubl. (andiroba, Cedrela fissilis Veil, e C. odorata L. (cedros, Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. e C. multijuga Hayne (copaibas, Cordia goeldiana Huber (freijó, Jacaranda copaia (Aubl. D. Dom (pará-pará, Simaruba amara Aubl. e Virola sebifera Aubl. e V. surinamensis Warb. (ucuúbas e Voucapoua americana Aubl. e V. pallidor Ducke (acapús. Trabalhos posteriores com as mesmas incluirão a corroboração à campo dos dados obtidos nos herbários e na literatura, bem como estudos a nível de população dentro das áreas selecionadas.CENARGEN/EMBRAPA is investigating priority areas for in situ conservation of genetic resources of socially and economically important species. Herbaria and the literature were consulted to determine the distribution patterns of some tropical rain forest species. Known species distribution were correlated with soils, climate, vegetation types and the existence of conservation units, in order to propose the establishment of genetic reserves for

  5. Dinámica de la concentración y acumulación de nutrimentos en los componentes de la biomasa aérea de Cedrela odorata L. en Costa Rica

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    Daniel Ramírez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Se planteó el presente estudio con el objetivo de estudiar la dinámica de la concentración y la acumulación de nutrimentos en árboles de Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae, para mejorar el conocimiento y la gestión de las plantaciones forestales tropicales. Mediante una serie falsa de tiempo (crono secuencia compuesta por 15 plantaciones en bosque Muy Húmedo Tropical de Costa Rica, se determinó la biomasa aérea, la concentración de nutrimentos y se estimó su acumulación en los componentes de la biomasa en árboles seleccionados. Como resultado se obtuvo que la concentración de los nutrimentos presentó tendencia a disminuir en el orden: nitrógeno > potasio > magnesio > calcio > azufre > fósforo para los macro nutrimentos, mientras que los micro elementos siguen la secuencia hierro > boro > zinc > manganeso > cobre > aluminio. Destacaron los altos valores de concentración de potasio medidos en los pecíolos (1,46 ± 0,48% en contraste con contenidos más bajos de este elemento en el follaje (1,09 ± 0,21%. Se desarrolló modelos de regresión lineal para evaluar el comportamiento de la concentración de nutrimentos y se observó tendencia a la disminución de la concentración nitrógeno, fósforo, potasio y magnesio con el incremento de la edad, al ser este comportamiento más evidente en el potasio del fuste. Por otro lado, los modelos de regresión generados para evaluar el comportamiento de la acumulación de nutrimentos en los distintos componentes de la biomasa presentaron un comportamiento exponencial, con significancia estadística principalmente en el fuste y en el total acumulado. Dichos modelos permiten estimar posibles salidas de nutrimentos del sitio de plantación durante la cosecha, así como el reciclaje de cantidades de nutrimentos en componentes de la biomasa que permanecen en el sitio de plantación.

  6. Atividade inseticida de extratos vegetais contra Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens, 1831 (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae

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    Juliana Ferreira da silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso indiscriminado de produtos sintéticos na agricultura pode trazer sérios prejuízos à saúde humana, além de proporcionar o surgimento de insetos resistentes. Uma alternativa é o emprego de plantas com ação inseticida. Diante o exposto, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a atividade inseticida de extratos hidroalcoólicos de quatro espécies vegetais sobre Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens, 1831 (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae. O bioensaio foi conduzido no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus I. Os extratos vegetais foram preparados a partir das folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica A Juss e citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt, e das cascas de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume e cedro (Cedrela fissilis Vell. Esses extratos foram avaliados quanto a sua atividade inseticida sobre C. ferrugineus nas doses 0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5 mL. Essas foram consideradas para análise estatística como 0,0; 0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4 e 0,5 mL devido terem sido aplicadas em cinco tubos simultaneamente. Após 24 horas registrou-se o número de insetos mortos em cada tratamento. O experimento foi organizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 6 (extratos x doses, considerando o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os dados foram transformados em x+1 e em seguida submetidos à Análise de Variância pelo teste F (P ≤ 0,05. Para o fator qualitativo, empregou o teste de Scott-Knott (P ≤ 0,05 e para o fator quantitativo utilizou-se Regressão na Análise de Variância (P ≤ 0,05.  Os extratos de nim e citronela apresentaram efeito inseticida sobre C. ferrugineus, com mortalidade de 68 e 52% respectivamente, quando utilizada a maior dose.

  7. STUDY OF THE ARBORIZATION AND GREEN AREAS OF THE CAMPUS II OF THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF GOIÁS, BRAZIL ESTUDO DA ARBORIZAÇÃO E DAS ÁREAS VERDES DO CAMPUS II DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE GOIÁS

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    Márcia Yuriko Hashimoto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Continuing the study of the green areas of the Campus II of the Federal University of Goiás it was developed a research in order to check the situation of the arborization at Campus. The sites of the present study consisted of spaces among buildings, streets, places, parking places and a little wood. A scale of 1:5000 was used to localize them in an aerophotogramatic plant The plants were located and identified. The native species are remainders of the semideciduous forest occurring in the locality, e. g. Apuleia molaris Spruce (garapa, Anadenanthera peregrina L. (angico, Cedrela fissilis Vel. (cedro and Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl. Nichols. (ipê amarelo and many other species. Spathodea campanulata Beauv. (espatódea, Delonix regia Rafin (flamboyant, Pachira aquatica Aublet. (munguba, Caesalpinia echinata Lan. (pau-brasil and Syagrus oleracea (Mat. Becc. (guariroba are some of the exotic species from other states and from the flora of Goiás. The totality of 1,389 individuals were distributed among 43 families and 84 genres. The study showed that some species have not been planted in adequate localities because of the high tonnage, root system and falling of the leaves. This investigation will permit an amplification, improvement of the arborization and recomposition of the green areas of Campus II. It will also contribute to future landscaping projects.

    Em continuidade ao estudo das áreas verdes do Campus II da UFG, desenvolveu-se um trabalho para verificar a situação da arborização localizada no referido Campus. O local para o estudo da vegetação consistiu nos espaços entre prédios, sistema viário, praças, estacionamentos e mini-bosque e para a localização dos mesmos usou-se uma planta aerofotogram

  8. Ensayos de propagación de algunas especies forestales aptas para el manejo de la microcuenca La Lejía, Cundinamarca, Colombia

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    Julieth Pérez-Vega

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Propagation trials were conducted on 13 tree spe- cies considered in previous studies as a suitable for rehabilitation of the La Lejiamicrobasin in Cun- dinamarca, Colombia. Studied species were Gua- dua angustifolia (guadua, Trichanthera gigantea (madre de agua, Tabebuia rosea (ocobo, Cordia alliodora (nogal cafetero, Croton spp (drago, Erythrina edulis (balú, Persea americana (agua- cate, Cedrela montana (cedro de altura, Cedrela odorata(cedro rosado, Ficus spp (caucho, Ficus carica (brevo, Psidium guajava (guayaba and So- lanum betaceum (tomate de árbol. In three com- munity nurseries we evaluated the response of seeds, rescued seedlings and hardwood cuttings in five substrate types (i.e. 1. soil, 2. soil and organic fertilizer, 3. soil and rice husk, 4. soil and a mi- crobial mixture, and 5. all types combined. Spe- cies response was measured during three months in terms of germination/survival percentage and changes in leaf number and seedling height. The re- sults showed that survival and growth were signifi- cantly higher in soil and organic fertilizer and soil and rice husk for any propagation type. The best performance was exhibited by Cedrela Montana and Erythrinaedulis. We highlight the importance of community nurseries for successful monitoring and implementation of propagation strategies of valuable tree species for local communities.

  9. Veracruz, México

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    E. López-Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo establece las bases para la instrumentación de plantaciones forestales comerciales (PFC por medio de sistemas agroforestales (SAF como alternativa para un sistema de producción sustentable. Propone los estándares para el diseño, establecimiento y manejo de los principales sistemas agroforestales con referencia a la región de Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, que incluyen dentro de sus componentes arbóreos cedro rojo (Cedrela odorata L., cedro nogal (Juglans pyriformis Liebm. y primavera (Roseodendron donnell-smithii (Rose Miranda en combinación con maíz, cacahuate y café, los principales cultivos agrícolas de la región. El desarrollo actual de las plantaciones forestales comerciales y la experiencia desarrollada determina las combinaciones agroforestales como una opción técnica viable. La evaluación financiera de los SAF muestra ganancias tres y cinco veces mayores del cedro rojo sobre la primavera ($1’600,000.00 vs $500,000.00 y sobre el cedro nogal ($1’600,000.00 vs $300,000.00 respectivamente; los indicadores financieros TIR, VAN y R B/C respaldan estos dividendos. La rentabilidad de los cultivos agrícolas en un periodo similar al de las plantaciones agroforestales arrojan cifras negativas; el establecimiento conjunto de las especies agrícolas y forestales produce una sinergia positiva financiera.

  10. Evolução do uso e valorização das espécies madeiráveis da Floresta Estacional Decidual do Alto-Uruguai, SC

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    Ademir Roberto Ruschel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Species identification and their market value and price evolution since the colonization time of the remnants of the Brazilian Semi-Evergreen Forest (Floresta Estacional Decidual do Rio Uruguai for potential timber production was assessed through 41 questionnaires, applied to timbermen and settlers from the surrounding region. The diversity of species for timber production commonly known by the people reached 63. From the 15 predominant species is relevant to mention Apuleia leiocarpa, Parapiptadenia rigida, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Nectandra megapotamica, Patagonula americana, Luehea divaricata, Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Holocalyx balansae, Myrocarpus frondosus, Cabralea canjerana and Peltophorum dubium. The species with the highest commercial value were: Cordia trichotoma, Cedrela fissilis, Myrocarpus frondosus and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Data from the interviews suggest that several species from the Lauraceae family and Schefflera morototoni, Aralia warmingiana, Machaerium stipitatum, Chrysophyllum marginatum had an increment in use and commercial value during the last 15 years. Changing in the commercial value of a species was pointed out as due not only to the timber quality but also to the amount of the timber availability. Overall, it was detected that the species values changed across time and that the timber industry found several ways to adapt to the demands of forest products.

  11. RESISTANCE TO THE ATTACK OF DRY-WOOD TERMITES (Cryptotermes brevis OF SIX WOOD SPECIES

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    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The dry wood termites are one of the largest causes of damages in wood used in Brazil. This work analyzed the attackof the Cryptotermes brevis in six commercials wood species in the north of the Rio de Janeiro and south of the Espírito Santo. The testobserved the number of holes, the percentage of died individuals and the damage of the pieces. When compared to the Pinus sp(reference, the species with less susceptibility to the attack were Cedrela fissilis, Cariocar brasiliense and Goupia glabra, that alsopresented the largest percentages of mortality of termites. The Schizolobium parahyba, Toona ciliata and the Tachigalia myrmecophyllawere the species with the highest level of damage.

  12. Screening of Trypanosoma cruzi glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Leite

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activity of crude extracts of Meliaceae and Rutaceae plants on glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated at 100 μg/mL. Forty-six extracts were tested and fifteen of them showed significant inhibitory activity (IA % > 50. The majority of the assayed extracts of Meliaceae plants (Cedrela fissilis, Cipadessa fruticosa and Trichilia ramalhoi showed high ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity. The fractionation of the hexane extract from branches of C. fruticosa led to the isolation of three flavonoids: flavone, 7-methoxyflavone and 3',4',5',5,7-pentamethoxyflavone. The two last compounds showed high ability to inhibit the gGAPDH activity. Therefore, the assayed Meliaceae species could be considered as a promising source of lead compounds against Chagas' disease.

  13. EVOLUÇÃO DO USO E VALORIZAÇÃO DAS ESPÉCIES MADEIRÁVEIS DA FLORESTA ESTACIONAL DECIDUAL DO ALTO-URUGUAI, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Roberto Ruschel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com base nas informações coletadas em 41 entrevistas feitas junto a madeireiros, ex-madeireiros e colonizadores, determinou-se quais as espécies potencialmente madeiráveis, o valor de uso e a valorização econômica das espécies madeiráveis para os remanescentes da Floresta Estacional Decidual na região do Alto--Uruguai, SC, desde o início da colonização daquela região. A diversidade de espécies florestais de uso madeirável conhecida popularmente na região foi de 63 espécies. Contudo, em termos de dominância esse grupo reduz-se a 15 espécies. A maior dominância foi observada para as espécies Apuleia leiocarpa, Parapiptadenia rigida, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Nectandra megapotamica, Patagonula americana, Luehea divaricata, Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Holocalyx balansae, Myrocarpus frondosus, Cabralea canjerana e Peltophorum dubium. As espécies de maior valor comercial foram Cordia trichotoma, Cedrela fissilis, Myrocarpus frondosus e Balfourodendron riedelianum. Já Schefflera morototoni, Aralia warmingiana, Machaerium stipitatum, Chrysophyllum marginatum e várias espécies da família Lauraceae apresentaram, no decorrer do tempo, incremento no uso e na comercialização. O valor de uma espécie é condicionado tanto pela qualidade quanto pela quantidade ofertada. Em geral, verificou-se uma evolução no valor das espécies bem como na indústria madeireira que utilizou várias maneiras para se adaptar às demandas desses produtos florestais.

  14. Evolução do uso e valorização das espécies madeiráveis da Floresta Estacional Decidual do Alto-Uruguai, SC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Roberto Ruschel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Com base nas informações coletadas em 41 entrevistas feitas junto a madeireiros, ex-madeireiros e colonizadores, determinou-se quais as espécies potencialmente madeiráveis, o valor de uso e a valorização econômica das espécies madeiráveis para os remanescentes da Floresta Estacional Decidual na região do Alto--Uruguai, SC, desde o início da colonização daquela região. A diversidade de espécies florestais de uso madeirável conhecida popularmente na região foi de 63 espécies. Contudo, em termos de dominância esse grupo reduz-se a 15 espécies. A maior dominância foi observada para as espécies Apuleia leiocarpa, Parapiptadenia rigida, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Nectandra megapotamica, Patagonula americana, Luehea divaricata, Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Holocalyx balansae, Myrocarpus frondosus, Cabralea canjerana e Peltophorum dubium. As espécies de maior valor comercial foram Cordia trichotoma, Cedrela fissilis, Myrocarpus frondosus e Balfourodendron riedelianum. Já Schefflera morototoni, Aralia warmingiana, Machaerium stipitatum, Chrysophyllum marginatum e várias espécies da família Lauraceae apresentaram, no decorrer do tempo, incremento no uso e na comercialização. O valor de uma espécie é condicionado tanto pela qualidade quanto pela quantidade ofertada. Em geral, verificou-se uma evolução no valor das espécies bem como na indústria madeireira que utilizou várias maneiras para se adaptar às demandas desses produtos florestais.

  15. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-02

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects.

  16. Mercado de madeiras tropicais: substituição na demanda de exportação Tropical sawnwood market: substitution export demand

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    Alexandre Nascimento de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi abordado o grau de substituição de seis espécies da Amazônia no mercado internacional de madeira serrada. Utilizou-se como base metodológica o modelo de elasticidade de substituição. Os dados usados no modelo são mensais e foram coletados na Secretaria de Comércio Exterior do Brasil (SECEX para o período de janeiro de 1996 a setembro de 2007. As espécies analisadas foram: mogno (Swietenia macrophylla, cedro (Cedrela spp., virola (Virola surinamensis, louro (Nectandra spp. e Ocotea spp., angico (Anadenanthera spp. e ipê (Tabebuia spp.. As elasticidades estimadas indicaram que todas as espécies são boas substitutas ao mogno. Para as espécies que possuem características físicas diferentes, pode-se inferir que fatores de mercado relacionados à garantia de fornecimento do mogno influenciaram os resultados encontrados. Em geral, os resultados sugeriram uma semelhança entre as espécies consideradas nobres (mogno, ipê e cedro para o mercado internacional, indicando-as como boas substitutas entre si.This work analyzed the level of substitution of six Amazonian species on the international sawnwood market, by employing the substitution elasticity model. Data supplied by the Brazilian Department of Foreign Trade (SECEX was collected monthly from January/1996 to September/2007. The species analyzed were: mogno (Swietenia macrophylla, cedro (Cedrela spp., virola (Virola surinamensis, louro (Nectandra spp. e Ocotea spp., angico (Anadenanthera spp. e ipê (Tabebuia spp.. The elasticities indicated that all of the species as substitutes for mogno. For the species which possess different physical characteristics, market factors probably related to the supply guarantee of mogno have influenced these results. In general, the results suggested a similarity among the species considered noble (mogno, ipê and cedro on the international market indicating them as good substitutes among themselves.

  17. Avaliação do desenvolvimento de mudas nativas em uma área paludosa, no município de Inconfidentes, MG

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    Bruna Mélega Sarmento

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata-se da avaliação inicial do desenvolvimento de cem mudas nativas, durante onze meses, plantadas numa área paludosa na fazenda experimental da Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Inconfidentes – EAFI , Inconfidentes, MG. As dez espécies nativas escolhidas para o plantio foram Nectandra nitidula (canelinha, Croton urucurana (sangra-d’água, Inga vera (ingá, Triplaris americana (pau-formiga, Alchornea glandulosa (tapiá, Erythrina falcata (moxoco, Cordia ecalyculata (café-de-bugre, Cedrela odorata (cedro-do-brejo, Acacia polyphylla (monjoleiro e Citronella gongonha (laranjeira-do-brejo. Foram plantadas dez mudas de cada espécie, no espaçamento de 1,5 x 2,0 m em setembro do ano de 2007. Foram feitas avaliações mensais até o mês de julho do ano de 2008. Os parâmetros utilizados nas avaliações foram: Altura (H, Diâmetro à Altura do Solo (DAS e Diâmetro de Copa. Nas onze avaliações, esses parâmetros mostraram que as espécies apresentaram diferentes ritmos de desenvolvimento, em função da área ser permanentemente encharcada. As espécies que se destacaram em Altura, DAS e Diâmetro de Copa foram Citronella gongonha (laranjeira-do-brejo e Cedrela odorata (cedro-do-brejo, significando que essas espécies são as mais propícias para o ambiente paludoso

  18. MICORRIZAS ARBUSCULARES E FOSFATO NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE CEDRO-AUSTRALIANO

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    Emanuela Pille da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian red cedar ( Toona ciliata M. Roem var. Australis is a species that has shown potential for forest use in Brazil. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the Australian red cedar seedlings response to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in different doses of P. The experiment was conducted in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD in factorial 8 x 2, with five repetitions. The treatments consisted in inoculation of seven species of AMF: Rhizophagus clarus , Claroideoglomus etunicatum , Racocetra gregaria , Acaulospora colombiana , Acaulospora morrowiae , Gigaspora margarita and Dentiscutata heterogama , besides a treatment without inoculation; being subjected to two doses of phosphate 25 and 250 mg dm -3 and that levels were equivalent to 10.7 and 41.3 mg dm -3 , respectively. It was evaluated the percentage of colonization, sporulation, height, diameter, shoot dry matter and accumulation of nutrients, 150 days after transplanting. There were differences depending on the levels of P and isolated variables evaluated. At the lowest dose, the isolated Claroideoglomus etunicatum and Acaulospora colombiana benefit the growth and nutrient absorption, while at the highest dose, Acaulospora morrowiae showed to be more promising for the growth of plants. These isolates provided high mycorrhizal colonization in the red cedar, favoring the production of quality seedlings, aiming the establishment and productivity of commercial plantations.

  19. Melhoramento genético do cedro australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roemer var. australis)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Alisson Moura

    2013-01-01

    Com o objetivo de estudar a variabilidade genética, estimar os parâmetros genéticos e avaliar o desempenho inicial dos indivíduos no teste clonal e teste de procedência/progênie instalou-se dois experimentos em Campo Belo, MG. Por meio do teste de procedência/progênie de Toona ciliata avaliou-se 78 progênies de polinização aberta, provenientes de 16 procedências distintas da Austrália. O experimento foi instalado em janeiro de 2008 no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com 3 repetições e 16 pla...

  20. Nutrient solution and substrates for ‘cedro doce’ (Pochota fendleri seedling production

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    Oscar J. Smiderle

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study assessed the effect of different substrates and addition of nutrient solution on the production of Pochota fendleri seedlings, leaf contents of macro and micronutrients and chlorophyll a and b. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replicates. The factors were three substrates, with or without addition of nutrient solution, composing six treatments: (T1 = sand; (T2 = soil; (T3 = sand + soil (1:1; (T4 = sand + nutrient solution; (T5 = soil + nutrient solution; (T6 = sand + soil + nutrient solution. Growth characteristics (height, collar diameter, shoot dry matter, root dry matter, root/shoot ratio and total dry matter and contents of macro- and micronutrients and chlorophyll a and b were evaluated. The use of nutrient solution reduces the time to obtain seedlings of Pochota fendleri, and it is important for proper growth and quality of seedlings. The sequence of nutritional requirement presented by Pochota fendleri seedlings in three substrates with addition of nutrient solution follows the descending order: macronutrients (N > Ca > K > Mg > P > S and micronutrients (Fe > Mn > B > Zn > Cu.

  1. Conseqüências genéticas da regeneração natural de espécies arbóreas em área antrópica, AC, Brasil Genetic consequences of tree species natural regeneration in an anthropogenic area, Acre State, Brazil

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    Karina Martins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O cedro (Cedrela odorata L. e o ipê-amarelo (Tabebuia serratifolia Nichols. são espécies arbóreas tropicais economicamente valiosas e que têm sido ameaçadas pela exploração madeireira predatória e pela fragmentação florestal. Ambas apresentam dispersão anemocórica e regeneram naturalmente em áreas de pastagem. Esse estudo comparou, para as duas espécies, a diversidade genética de indivíduos estabelecidos em pastagem e em floresta. Trinta indivíduos de ipê-amarelo foram genotipados com cinco locos isoenzimáticos e 54 de cedro, com quatro locos microssatélites. A diversidade genética foi elevada nas duas subpopulações. Para ipê-amarelo, a diversidade genética foi maior na pastagem. Para cedro, observou-se perda de alelos na pastagem (Â = 11,75 alelos/loco em comparação à floresta (Â = 14,50. Além disso, 31% dos alelos de cedro foram exclusivos da floresta. Não houve divergência genética entre as subpopulações de ipê-amarelo, porém, para cedro, houve divergência significativa, embora baixa (2,2%. Os resultados mostraram que, para as duas espécies, a subpopulação da pastagem não passou por um gargalo genético severo. A colonização de áreas antrópicas mostrou-se eficiente, mas há necessidade de fluxo gênico contínuo, por sucessivas gerações, entre as áreas para restabelecer (cedro e manter (ipê os níveis de diversidade genética observados na área de vegetação primária.Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata L. and Yellow poui (Tabebuia serratifolia Nichols. are economically valuable tropical tree species that have been threatened by predatory logging and by forest fragmentation. Their seeds are wind-dispersed and both the species colonize and grow-up in pastures. This study compared the genetic diversity in a pasture-established population to a forest population. Thirty yellow poui trees were genotyped with five isozyme loci and fifty four spanish cedar trees were genotyped with four microsatellite

  2. ALTERNATIVAS PARA MEJORAR LA GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE TRES ÁRBOLES TROPICALES

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    L. Quinto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se condujo para determinar la germinación de semillas de caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King, cedro rojo (Cedrela odorata L y roble (Tabebuia rosea (Bertol DC al usar de agua de coco (Cocos nucifera L en tres fases de maduración, y la germinación de semillas de estas tres especies al ser sometidas a una temperatura ambiental alta. Se realizaron dos ensayos, uno con cinco tratamientos: agua de coco tierno, socato y seco, agua destilada y testigo sin inmersión; en el otro ensayo se comparó la germinación de las semillas de las tres especies a 28/24 °C y 12 h luz. La germinación en las tres especies mejoró (P0.05 a la encontrada con agua destilada. La mejoría en germinación sólo se dio con agua de coco tierna. A 28/24 °C y 12 h luz caoba mostró 1.4 y 2 veces mayor (P<0.05 germinación que cedro y roble, respectivamente. En general la germinación en el ensayo a temperatura alta fue mayor que en el de agua de coco quese llevó a temperatura ambiente. Se concluyó que el agua de coco puede ser un promotor de la germinación en caoba, cedro rojo y roble si el fruto es tierno y que la semilla de caoba muestra alta respuesta en germinación a la temperatura ambiental alta.

  3. Classification of CITES-listed and other neotropical Meliaceae wood images using convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Prabu; Costa, Adriana; Soares, Richard; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2018-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art for field wood identification to combat illegal logging relies on experienced practitioners using hand lenses, specialized identification keys, atlases of woods, and field manuals. Accumulation of this expertise is time-consuming and access to training is relatively rare compared to the international demand for field wood identification. A reliable, consistent and cost effective field screening method is necessary for effective global scale enforcement of international treaties such as the Convention on the International Trade in Endagered Species (CITES) or national laws (e.g. the US Lacey Act) governing timber trade and imports. We present highly effective computer vision classification models, based on deep convolutional neural networks, trained via transfer learning, to identify the woods of 10 neotropical species in the family Meliaceae, including CITES-listed Swietenia macrophylla , Swietenia mahagoni , Cedrela fissilis , and Cedrela odorata . We build and evaluate models to classify the 10 woods at the species and genus levels, with image-level model accuracy ranging from 87.4 to 97.5%, with the strongest performance by the genus-level model. Misclassified images are attributed to classes consistent with traditional wood anatomical results, and our species-level accuracy greatly exceeds the resolution of traditional wood identification. The end-to-end trained image classifiers that we present discriminate the woods based on digital images of the transverse surface of solid wood blocks, which are surfaces and images that can be prepared and captured in the field. Hence this work represents a strong proof-of-concept for using computer vision and convolutional neural networks to develop practical models for field screening timber and wood products to combat illegal logging.

  4. Extracción y evaluación de taninos condensados a partir de la corteza de once especies maderables de Costa Rica Extraction and evaluation of condensed tannins from bark of eleven species of trees from Costa Rica

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    Jorge Aguilar López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La naturaleza química de los taninos condensados los convierte en una fuente natural de compuestos orgáni- cos, con una aplicación potencialmente amplia para usos medicinales e industriales. La extracción y análisis de este tipo de metabolitos a partir de la flora de diversas regiones del planeta ha sido el objetivo del estudio de diversos grupos de trabajo, y en este caso se ha querido hacer un aporte al estado del conocimiento actual, realizando un estudio sobre la natu- raleza y la cantidad del tanino condensado que se puede extraer de la corteza de 11 especies arbóreas presentes en Costa Rica: guanacaste (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, alcornoque (Licania arborea, jobo (Spondias mom- bin, pochote (Pachira quinata, níspero (Manilkara chicle, almendro (Andira inermis, roble (Tabebuia rosea, cedro (Cedrela odorata, cenízaro (Samanea saman, pino (Pinus caribaea y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica. Las muestras de corteza fueron preparadas, secadas y extraídas con etanol. Se analizaron los extractos etanóli- cos para determinar el contenido de taninos condensa- dos a través del número de Stiasny, y se caracterizaron mediante espectroscopía infrarroja (FT-IR. Las especies con mayor proporción de material extraído fueron guanacaste (9.5841% m/m, pochote (15.0066% m/m, pino (19.3400% m/m y ciprés (10.5300% m/m, mientras que los extractos con una mayor proporción de taninos condensados correspondieron a alcornoque (61.9% m/m, jobo (66.1% m/m, pochote (72.8% m/m, níspero (50.5% m/m, cedro (72.7% m/m y pino (70.7% m/m.The chemical nature of condensed tannins offers a natural source of such organic compounds, with potential application to medicinal and industrial uses. The extraction and analysis of this type of metabo- lites from plants of many regions of the world have been the objective of researching groups. In this case, it is desired to contribute to present knowledge, establishing the nature and amounts of condensed tannins extracted

  5. ENRAIZAMENTO DE MINIESTACAS E PRODUTIVIDADE DE MINICEPAS DE CEDRO AUSTRALIANO MANEJADAS EM CANALETÕES E TUBETES

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    Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The planted forest stands aim to supply the growing demand for wood, especially for the sawing and veneer industries, that exclusively used wood from native forests. The Australian cedar (Toona ciliata belongs tothe family Meliaceae, is the species of interest for this sector. Studies with the Australian cedar propagation have carried out in latest years, mainly involving the use of mini-cuttings due to the need for high quality cuttings. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the rooting and the productive capacity of Australian cedar mini-strains, managed in lifted seedbeds and 180 cm3 plastic tubes systems. So, two mini-clone gardens were set up. The mini-strains of both gardens were grown from cut-off seedlings originated from seeds. Successive collections of sprouts were carried out to get the mini-cuttings. Afterwards, they remained in the rooting area under intermittent mist. Thirty days later the rooting characteristics of the cuttings originated from both mini-gardens were evaluated. The period of permanence of the cuttings in the gardens was seven-month long. During this period, six collections from the lifted seedbed and fourfrom the plastic tubes were carried out. The mini-strains in the two systems showed 100 % of survival rate. At the end of this seven-month period, an increasing tendency of the average number of mini-cutting was found out in both systems. Those from the lifted seedbed showed more productivity than those ones from the tubes. The plants from the mini-cuttings of the tube showed higher number and length of adventitious roots at the end rooting stage.

  6. PRODUTIVIDADE DE MINICEPAS DE CEDRO AUSTRALIANO E REMOÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES PELA COLETA SUCESSIVA DE MINIESTACAS

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    Juliana Sobreira de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of ministumps to produce minicuttings results in the continuous removal of nutrients and it is necessary replacement to avoid depletion and decline in production. Thus, it is necessary to determine the amount of nutrients removed over time, in different management models, to enable commercial production. The objective of this study was to evaluate two minigarden multiclonal systems of Toona ciliata , in plastic tubes and bed, for productivity and nutrients removal over time by ministumps, produced by seeds, submitted to successive collections of minicuttings. One hundred and eighty-six seedlings were used in each management system. In this paper, it was determined the nutrient content in shoots issued by 20 ministumps randomly selected in each system. Five shoots were collected at intervals of 32 days in bed system, while in the plastic tubes system three shoots were collected at intervals of 31 days. The data were analyzed by a sample simple random considering an infinite population of minicuttings. The qualitative treatment average was compared by confidence interval using the Student t test, 5% probability, and the quantitative treatment (productivity and nutrients removed in time by ministumps by regression. It has been found that the productivity and nutrient contents removed by ministumps in bed were higher than in the plastic tubes. Nitrogen and potassium are the nutrients most removed by ministumps in both systems. Here, it was presented the curves corresponding to the nutrients exported, to estimate the replacement that will be made in each system over time.

  7. 75 FR 47301 - Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC; Wessington Wind Energy Center, LLC; Juniper Canyon Wind Power LLC; Loraine Windpark Project, LLC; White Oak Energy LLC; Meadow... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EG10-25-000; EG10-26-000...

  8. Chapas de cimento-madeira com resíduos da indústria madeireira da Região Amazônica

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    Alcebíades Negrão Macêdo

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o emprego do resíduo da indústria madeireira da região da Amazônia brasileira na produção de material compósito cimento-madeira. Foi avaliada a compatibilidade de seis espécies de dicotiledôneas nativas da Amazônia com o cimento CP V ARI por meio da realização de ensaios de compressão axial em corpos de prova cilíndricos. Os resíduos foram utilizados ao natural e submetidos ao tratamento de lavagem em água quente por 2 h. A relação cimento-madeira foi de 3:1, em massa, juntamente com os aditivos aceleradores de pega sulfato de alumínio a 3% e cloreto de cálcio a 3% e 5%. Os resultados dos ensaios de compressão indicaram como potencial de uso os resíduos de três espécies combinado ao tratamento com o acelerador de pega cloreto de cálcio a 5%. Foram confeccionadas chapas cimento-madeira com resíduos das espécies Cedrela Odorata L. (Cedro, Vochysia máxima Ducke (Quaruba, Hymenaea courbaril L. (Jatobá e mais a mistura delas. Os resultados dos ensaios das propriedades físicas e mecânicas das chapas mostraram que todas apresentaram características adequadas para a finalidade, e as chapas da espécie cedro apresentaram o melhor desempenho.

  9. PRODUCCIÓN DE MADERA Y CARBONO EN LA REGENERACIÓN DE SISTEMAS AGROFORESTALES EN LA RESERVA INDÍGENA DE TALAMANCA, COSTA RICA

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    Wilson A. Calero Borge

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la Reserva Indígena de Talamanca, Costa Rica. Se remidieron 64 parcelas de cacao (C y banano (B, para estimar el almacenamiento y el incremento de madera y carbono de laurel (Cordia alliodora y cedro amargo (Cedrela odorata L. de regeneración natural en estos sistemas agroforestales (SAF. Se realizó inventario de laurel y cedro real y se midieron árboles con d3 4 cm. El volumen comercial (Vc (d 3 45 cm se proyectó con matrices de transición tipo Usher.Los incrementos de madera y carbono se obtuvieron en el períodocomprendido 2001-2005.No hubo diferencias signifi cativas (P<0.05 para la densidad (d y existencias totales de madera (Vt en los SAF, la d es de 52,4 árboles ha-1 en C y 53,8 árboles ha-1 en B, contienen un volumen total de 55,4 m3 ha-1 en C y 52,6 m3 ha-1 en B. Las tasas de fi jación de carbono son de 1,3 y 1,8 t ha-1 año-1 en C y B respectivamente.A cinco años de proyección los C producirán 52,0 (m3 ha-1 y los B 54,2 (m3 ha-1 de Vc con un IPAVc de 4,08 y 4,74 (m3 ha-1 año-1 en C y B respectivamente. Para todos los SAF evaluadosel aprovechamiento de madera será sostenible, con las actuales tasas de aprovechamiento y reclutamiento de individuos. Se recomienda aplicar del modelo propuesto para el diseño ymanejo de SAF.

  10. HPLC mapping of second generation ethanol production with lignocelluloses wastes and diluted sulfuric hydrolysis

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    Diogo José Horst

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood wastes are potential material for second generation ethanol production within the concept of residual forest bio-refinery. Current paper reports on ethanol production employing an HPLC method for monitoring the chemical content dispersed in the hydrolysate liquor after fermented. The proton-exchange technique was the analytical method employed. Twelve types of wood chips were used as biomass, including Hymenolobium petraeum, Tabebuia cassinoides, Myroxylon peruiferum, Nectandra lanceolata, Ocotea catharinensis, Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Cedrela fissilis Vell, Ocotea porosa, Laurus nobilis, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Pinus Elliotti and Brosimum spp. The influence of diluted sulfuric hydrolysis on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the fermentation assay was also investigated. Standard compounds mapped in the analysis comprised fructose, lactic acid, acetic acid, glycerol, glucose and ethanol. The yeast showed ethanol productivity between 0.75 and 1.91 g L-1 h-1, respectively, without the addition of supplementary nutrients or detoxification. The use of these materials for the bioconversion of cellulose into ethanol has been proved. Current analysis contributes towards the production of biofuels by wastes recovery and by process monitoring and optimization.

  11. EVALUATION OF COLOR OF THE JUVENILE AND MATURE CEDAR WOOD BY MEANS OF CIEL*a*b* METHOD

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    Rafael de Avila Delucis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to characterize the radial profile of cedar wood (Cedrela fissilis by the colorimetric technique. Three different trees of approximately 100 years old were selected in Canguçu, Rio Grande do Sul. From each felled tree, discs were removed at breast height (1,3 m with a thickness of 20 cm and subsequently samples were segmented in centimeter lengths from pith to bark. The samples were conditioned at equilibrium moisture content of 12%, to carry out the colour evaluation with a portable colorimeter Konica Minolta brand in accordance with the CIEL*a*b* method. To determine the segregation of juvenile and mature woods position was employed the apparent specific gravity to 12% (ρa12% as a parameter. With colorimetric analysis, it was found that the lightness, the green-red coordinate and hue angle presented intimate relation with the transition from juvenile and adult logs. Has a result of blueyellow coordinate and chromaticity showed approximately a linear trend in pith-bark direction.

  12. The Lepidoptera associated with forestry crop species in Brazil: a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuck, Manoela; Carneiro, E; Casagrande, M M; Mielke, O H H

    2012-10-01

    Despite the long history of forestry activity in Brazil and its importance to the national economy, there is still much disorder in the information regarding pests of forestry species. Considering the importance of the entomological knowledge for the viability of silvicultural management, this work aimed to gather information on the species of Lepidoptera associated with forestry crops within Brazil using a historical approach. Through a literature review, all registered species of Lepidoptera related to forestry crops in Brazil from 1896 to 2010 were identified. The historical evaluation was based on the comparison of the number of published articles, species richness, and community similarities of the Lepidoptera and their associated forest crops, grouped in 10-year samples. A total of 417 occurrences of Lepidoptera associated with forestry species were recorded, from which 84 species are related with 40 different forestry crops. The nocturnal Lepidoptera were dominant on the records, with Eacles imperialis magnifica Walker as the most frequent pest species cited. Myrtaceae was the most frequent plant family, with Cedrela fissilis as the most cited forestry crop species. A successional change in both Lepidoptera species and their host plants was observed over the decades. The richness of lepidopteran pest species increased over the years, unlike the richness of forestry crop species. This increase could be related to the inefficient enforcement of sanitary barriers, to the increase of monoculture areas, and to the adaptability of native pests to exotic forestry species used in monoculture stands.

  13. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  14. EFEITO RESIDUAL DE INSETICIDAS NATURAIS NO CONTROLE DE SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS MOTS. EM MILHO ARMAZENADO

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    Rodrigo Leandro Braga de Castro Coitinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The residual effect of natural insecticides was evaluated on adults of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on stored corn grains. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L., white pepper (Piper nigrum L., neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and silica dioxide powders were tested as well as neem, eucalyptus (Eucaliptus globulus Labill and Eucaliptus citriodora Hook., eugenol, andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl., rosemary (Lippia gracillis HBK., cedar (Cedrela fissilis Vell. and pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oils. Powders were tested at concentration of 1kg/t in 50g-corn-plot and the oils at dosage of 50¿L in 20g-corn-plot. The plots infestation was accomplished using 20 and 8 adults (males and females of S. zeamais being 0 to 15 days old, respectively, in the experiments with powders and oils. Silica dioxide caused 46.7, 38.3 and 37.5% of mortality, respectively, in the initial (soon after the treatment with the powders or oils and at 60 and 120 days of storage periods, but the mortality induced by the other powders was inexpressive. In the three studied storage periods, silica dioxide was the more efficient in reducing adults emergency. At the initial storage period, all the oils caused mortality above 79%, however, after 60 and 120 days, mortality was lower than 2.5%. The adult emergency increased as stored period increased, although at 120 days the best performance was obtained using neem, followed by andiroba, cedar, rosemary and E. globulus oils.

  15. Profitability of Cedrela odorata L. in Agroforestry Systems with Coffee in Pérez Zeledón, Costa Rica

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    Mariela González-Rojas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the production of cedar wood in agroforestry systems (AF with coffee, using a prediction model of the commercial volume obtained in the study area, as well as the profitability generated by the sale of coffee, wood and payment for environmental services (PPSA. The study was carried out in the canton of Pérez Zeledón, province of San José, Costa Rica. There were established 30 temporary sampling plots of 1000 m2 in AF with cedar between five and 17 years of age. The diameter growth (DBH and the commercial height (CH of the species were evaluated, as well as the management of the SAF (activities, inputs and yields and coffee production through the producer interview. The obtained models allowed to predict the commercial volume (m3 tree-1 according to age (R2 = 88.7%, DBH (R2 = 90.3% and CH (R2 = 97.2%. The average coffee production of the sampled sites was 26 fanegas ha-1 year-1. At the age of 17 years of the cedar, a production of 1.04 m3 tree-1 (92.13 m3 ha-1 of standing timber was obtained, which represented a financial contribution of 81% of the net present value (NPV of the AF in the analysis period. The estimated financial indicators allow concluding that the coffee-cedar AF is profitable since it generated a positive NPV of ₡ 8 198 601,5, an internal rate of return (IRR of 16% which was higher than the cost of money (discount rate of 6.1% and a B/C ratio of 1.34.

  16. Quantificação e Avaliação das Principais Espécies Florestais Licenciadas no Estado do Acre de 2005 a 2012

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    Flávia Alessandra Pinheiro da Rocha Cordeiro e Silva

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, identificar e quantificar os 15 principais gêneros e espécies florestais exploradas legalmente no estado do Acre, na Amazônia brasileira, bem como analisar o número de autorizações emitidas para exploração de florestas manejadas, o volume de madeira e a área de manejo licenciada pelo Instituto de Meio Ambiente do Acre de janeiro de 2005 a agosto de 2012. Os dados coletados demonstraram que a área e o volume de madeira licenciados apresentaram um crescimento no período analisado, atingindo o ápice em 2010 e 2011, respectivamente. Os 15 principais gêneros e espécies licenciados foram: cumaru-ferro (Dipteryx spp., garapeira (Apuleia spp., sumaúma (Ceiba spp., açacu (Hura crepitans L., matamatá (Eschweilera spp., jatobá (Hymenaea spp., tauari (Couratari spp., manitê (Brosimun spp., caucho (Castilla ulei Warb., cedro (Cedrela spp., guariúba (Clarisia racemosa Ruiz e Pav., faveira (Parkia spp., copaíba (Copaifera spp., guaribeiro (Phyllocarpus riedelii Tul. e abiurana (Pouteria spp..

  17. Efecto de la zona de vida y la altitud en la mortalidad y adaptabilidad al primer ano de especies forest ales en la cordillera volcanica central, Costa Rica

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    Yorleny Badilla

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los resultados de la mortalidad y adaptabilidad a los 6 y 12 meses de edad, de las especies forestales cipres (Cupressus lusitanica, eucalipto de altura (Eucalyptus globulus, pino patula (Pinus patula, pino radiata (Pinus radia- fa, roble encino (Quercus coopeyensis,jaul (Al- nus acuminata, cedro dulce (Cedrela tonduzii y tirra (Ulmus mexicana. De cada especie fueron plantadas 4 repeticiones dentro de cada una de las 3 zonas de vida de mayor representatividade la Cordillera Volcanica Central de Costa Rica, predesde los 1000 a los 2000 m de altitud. Se regis- tro una tendencia de mayor mortalidad conforme aumento la pluviosidad. Las 3 especies confferas mostraron desde los 6 meses la menor mortalidad «15% y mayor estabilidad en todas las zonas de pluvida; presentaron un alto potencial de reforesta- cion en toda la Cordillera Volcanica Central. Las especies cella dulce, tirra y jaul conformaron un grupo de especies con una mortalidad elevada, que se estabiliz6 hasta el ano de plantadas. Las especies eucalipto de altura y fable conformaron el grupo de mayor mortalidad (>50% y de adap- tabilidad mas lenta. Sin embargo, el eucalipto de altura mostro un buen crecimiento en sitios plu- viales. Un mayor cuidado de la calidad del mate- adaptrial de reforestaci6n y el empleo de tecnicas de plantaci6n como los camellones, la aporca y el drenaje, son esenciales para poder reforestar en nurszonas de altura con una elevada pluviosidad.

  18. Agrupamento em amostras de sementes de espécies florestais nativas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil Cluster in seeds samples of native forest species from the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

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    Fabiano de Oliveira Fortes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos agrupar por espécie as matrizes de porta-sementes mais similares, utilizando as variáveis observadas em análises de sementes de espécies florestais nativas no Centro de Pesquisas Florestais e Conservação do Solo, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, analisadas a partir de 1997 até março de 2001. Para a análise de agrupamento, foram utilizadas todas as espécies que possuíam quatro ou mais análises de amostras de sementes por lote coletado, pelo método de agrupamento aglomerativo hierárquico tendo a distância euclidiana média padronizada como medida de similaridade. O dendograma foi construído utilizando o método da ligação completa. Utilizou-se também a técnica de componentes principais para a redução do número de variáveis. O gênero Schinus sp. e as espécies nativas Cassia leptophylla Vogel, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Cedrela fissilis Vell., Allophylus edulis (A. St.-Hil., Cambess. & A. Juss. Radlk., Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. e Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F. Macbr. foram as espécies em que, no terceiro e quarto componentes principais, conseguiram explicar aproximadamente 80% da variação existente no conjunto de dados com a umidade e a percentagem de germinação de plântulas anormais, sendo eliminadas na maioria das espécies e as percentagem de germinação de plântulas normais e de sementes mortas presentes em todos os grupos. A análise de agrupamento mostrou-se eficiente na separação dos grupos de todas as espécies testadas sendo que a procedência pouco influenciou na formação dos grupos.This research had the objectives of clustering, the most similar seeds matrixes by species, using the observed variables in analysis of seed samples of native forest species in the Center of Forest Researches and Conservation of the Soil, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, since 1997 up to March 2001. For the cluster analysis, all the

  19. ALIGNING MICROTOMOGRAPHY ANALYSIS WITH TRADITIONAL ANATOMY FOR A 3D UNDERSTANDING OF THE HOST-PARASITE INTERFACE – PHORADENDRON SPP. CASE STUDY

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    Luiza Teixeira-Costa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The complex endophytic structure formed by parasitic plant species often represents a challenge in the study of the host-parasite interface. Even with the large amounts of anatomical slides, a three-dimensional comprehension of the structure may still be difficult to obtain. In the present study we applied the High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography (HRXCT analysis along with usual plant anatomy techniques in order to compare the infestation pattern of two mistletoe species of the genus Phoradendron. Additionally, we tested the use of contrasting solutions in order to improve the detection of the parasite’s endophytic tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show the 3-dimensional structure of host-mistletoe interface by using HRXCT technique. Results showed that Phoradendron perrottetii growing on the host Tapirira guianensis forms small woody galls with a restricted endophytic system. The sinkers were short and eventually grouped creating a continuous interface with the host wood. On the other hand, the long sinkers of Phoradendron bathyoryctum penetrate deeply into the wood of Cedrela fissilis branching in all directions throughout the woody gall area, forming a spread-out infestation pattern. The results indicate that the HRXCT is indeed a powerful approach to understand the endophytic system of parasitic plants. The combination of 3-dimensional models of the infestation with anatomical analysis provided a broader understanding of the host-parasite connection. Unique anatomic features are reported for the sinkes of Phoradendron perrottetii, while the endophytic tissue of Phoradendron bathyoryctum conformed to general anatomy observed for other species of this genus. These differences are hypothesised to be related to the 3-dimensional structure of each endophytic system and the communication stablished with the host.

  20. INFLUÊNCIA DA SATURAÇÃO POR BASES NA QUALIDADE E CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE CEDRO-AUSTRALIANO (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis

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    Marilena de Melo Braga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis is a promising species for commercial plantations based on the quality and wide use of its wood and high financial returns in short time. However, there is little information about the behavior of this species in relation to soil acidity. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different base saturation levels on growth and quality of Australian cedar seedlings. The substrate saturation was raised to 21.3; 33.2; 47.9; 60.4 and 70.0%, by adding different doses of limestone content of 12% MgO and 50% CaO in vessels with capacity of 3.5 dm3 of a typical dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol. At 120 days after transplanting were obtained height, stem diameter, root dry matter, aerial parts and total. It was also determined the relationship height/stem diameter, height/aerial parts dry matter, aerial parts dry matter/root dry matter and Dickson’s quality index. Australian cedar seedlings respond positively to the base saturation increase. The positive responses of morphological variables pointed to need to do the acidity correction increasing the level of saturation to 50 %, in order to maximize the crop yield.

  1. INFLUÊNCIA DA POSIÇÃO DAS MINIESTACAS NA QUALIDADE DE MUDAS DE CEDRO AUSTRALIANO E NO SEU DESEMPENHO INICIAL NO PÓS-PLANTIO

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    Daniele de Alvarenga Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Toona ciliata (Australian cedar, originated from Australia showed high acclimatization in Brazil, where it found appropriate conditions for its growth, particularly in southern Bahia and throughout the southeastern region. However, the plantings presented irregular stems. Besides the seeds are a limiting resource, in result of their production seasonality and short viability period. This study aimed the evaluation of the quality of cuttings grown from 6 cm length apical, middle and basal mini-cutting positions of the sprouts of the mini-strains - from seminal origin - and the initial growth of cuttings. It was established amulti-clone mini-garden containing a total of 284 mini-strains. After cutting off the sprouts of the seedlings - to originate the mini-strains - the mini-cuttings from the above different positions were collected. At the lifting time of the rooting sector, dry mass weight of shoot and root, length, diameter, number of adventitious roots and survival data were collected. The height and diameter were monitored fortnightly, starting from 80 days after the staking of the mini-cuttings. At the end of the production cycle, the dry mass weight of shoot, the root number, the diameter and the length of root cuttings were evaluated. Thirty percent of the cuttings were transplanted to pots of 3.8 L, in the open air where the height and basal diameter, the dry mass of shoot, the leaves and the roots were measured 60 days after the transplanting. Cuttings originated from the basal mini-cuttings at the end of the lifting time of the rooting sector, showed the highest height and diameter, however no difference was pointed out regarding to the basal diameter of cuttings originated from the middle position. There were no differences related to the shoot dry mass and the adventitious root number, the dry mass weight, the total length and the diameter of the adventitious roots of cuttings in relation to the mini-cutting positions in the sprouts. The survival was high, averaging 94.7 % for the apical, 96.3 % for the middle and 96.6 for basal position. Sixty days after transplanting, despite the differences in the diameter and the height of the cuttings at the end of the nursery phase, no difference in the height, the diameter and the dry mass weight of shoots, the leaves and the roots as pointed out in the treatments.

  2. INFLUÊNCIA DA POSIÇÃO DAS MINIESTACAS NA QUALIDADE DE MUDAS DE CEDRO AUSTRALIANO E NO SEU DESEMPENHO INICIAL NO PÓS-PLANTIO

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele de Alvarenga Ferreira; Deborah Guerra Barroso; Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva; Juliana Sobreira de Souza; Teresa Aparecida Soares de Freitas; José Geraldo de Araújo Carneiro

    2012-01-01

    The Toona ciliata (Australian cedar), originated from Australia showed high acclimatization in Brazil, where it found appropriate conditions for its growth, particularly in southern Bahia and throughout the southeastern region. However, the plantings presented irregular stems. Besides the seeds are a limiting resource, in result of their production seasonality and short viability period. This study aimed the evaluation of the quality of cuttings grown from 6 cm length apical, middle and basal...

  3. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Valladolid Ontaneda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de selección de árboles semilleros se realizó en las comunas Olón, Dos Mangas y Salanguillo del cantón Santa Elena, provincia de Santa Elena, Ecuador. El objetivo del estudio fue, identificar, caracterizar y seleccionar árboles semilleros de especies maderables con buenas características morfológicas, y que permitan disponer de semillas para trabajos de propagación de especies forestales en viveros con fines de reforestación. El estudio se inicia con la identificación y ubicación de plantaciones forestales de varias especies forestales establecidas entre los años 2000 a 2005, en las plantaciones se evaluaron las características dasométricas y morfológicas, las que permitieron seleccionar 11 árboles con características morfológicas deseables correspondientes a cinco especies forestales laurel blanco(Cordia alliodora, laurel negro(Cordia megalantha, caoba (Swietenia macrophylla, cedro (Cedrela odorata y melina (Gmelina arbórea; cada árbol fue georreferenciado utilizando coordenadas UTM Datum WGS 1984 Zona 17M. La cantidad de semillas que pueden producir dichas especies forestales es proyectada por año la cual servirá como referencia para establecer programas de reforestación con materiales propios y adaptados a las condiciones ambientales en la provincia de Santa Elena Abstract  The study of selection of seed trees was carried out in the Olón, Dos Mangas and Salanguillo communes of the canton Santa Elena, Santa Elena province, Ecuador. The objective of the study was to identify, characterize and select seedlings of timber species with good morphological characteristics, and to allow seeds to be used for the propagation of forest species in nurseries for reforestation purposes. The study began with the identification and location of forest plantations of several forest species established between 2000 and 2005, on the plantations, the dasometric and morphological characteristics were evaluated, allowing the

  4. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae

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    Francisco Soto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp. and cedars (Cedrela spp. are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata. Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 487-499. Epub 2011 March 01.En América Latina y el Caribe, algunas especies que son fuente de maderas preciosas, como las caobas (Swietenia spp. y cedros (Cedrela spp., son seriamente dañadas por la larva de Hypsipyla grandella, la cual barrena el brote principal de los árboles. En experimentos previos orientados

  5. Actividad fagodisuasiva y sistémica de una formulación derivada de un extracto de ruda (Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae sobre larvas de Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Javier Barboza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Para el manejo de Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller, cuya larva barrena el brote principal de caobas (Swietenia spp. y cedros (Cedrela spp., sería deseable contar con un producto fagodisuasivo y con buena actividad sistémica, para que proteja rápidamente los tejidos jóvenes. Por tanto, conociendo que un extracto crudo del follaje de ruda (Ruta chalepensis L. posee actividad fagodisuasiva contra dicho insecto, se formuló un producto combinando dicho extracto con varios coadyuvantes, y se evaluó en árboles de cedro amargo (Cedrela odorata L. de 75- 100cm de altura, en un invernadero. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar, con 10 árboles por cada tratamiento, los que correspondieron al producto formulado, a un testigo absoluto (agua destilada, un testigo relativo (carbofurán al 1%m/v en agua y el testigo relativo a la formulación sin el extracto crudo. Las variables medidas fueron los ataques al brote principal, el número de hojas caídas, el número de montículos y la longitud de los túneles. Para dichas variables, el producto formulado aportó excelente protección a los árboles tratados, con apenas 0.1 ataques al brote principal, en promedio, al final del período de evaluación. Asimismo, al evaluar la actividad sistémica del extracto, las sustancias presentes en él pudieron desplazarse y ser asimiladas por los árboles, causando fagodisuasión en las larvas. Finalmente, el análisis espectrofotométrico (a una longitud de onda de 355nm permitió determinar la concentración (403±1mg/l y el porcentaje (0.40% del flavonoide rutina en el extracto crudo, lo cual eventualmente podría utilizarse como un compuesto marcador analítico, si llegara a desarrollarse una formulación industrial.Phagodeterrent and systemic activity of a fomulation derived from an extract of common rue (Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae. A key neotropical pest of mahoganies (Swietenia spp. and cedars (Cedrela

  6. Fagodisuasión de un extracto de ruda (Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae y sus particiones sobre larvas de Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Javier Barboza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La larva de Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller es quizás la principal plaga forestal en América Latina y el Caribe, por perforar el brote principal de árboles de maderas reciosas, como caobas (Swietenia spp. y cedros (Cedrela spp.. En la búsqueda de un método preventivo para su manejo, se estudió la actividad fagodisuasiva del extracto crudo y de cuatro particiones fitoquímicas (agua, hexano, diclorometano y acetato de etilo del follaje de ruda (Ruta chalepensis L.. Se realizaron bioensayos de laboratorio con concentraciones crecientes del extracto crudo (0.1; 0.32; 1.0; 3.20 y 10.0%m/v y con cada una de las particiones (según el rendimiento del proceso de particionamiento, así como con el glicósido flavónico rutina. Para ello se empleó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar, con cuatro repeticiones y se expusieron larvas de instar III de H. grandella a discos de cedro (Cedrela odorata impregnados con el respectivo tratamiento, por 24h. Se midió el porcentaje de consumo de cada disco. Hubo un fuerte efecto fagodisuasivo en el extracto crudo y en la partición hexano, a concentraciones tan bajas como 0.32% y 0.074% m/v, respectivamente; las particiones de acetato de etilo (0.24%m/v y la acuosa (en todas sus concentraciones, así como la rutina (a partir del 0.064%m/v también causaron fagodisuasión. Además, se realizó un tamizaje fitoquímico del extracto crudo, utilizando varias pruebas cualitativas para detectar la presencia de los principales grupos de metabolitos secundarios, entre los cuales los más importantes fueron alcaloides, triterpenos, cumarinas y la rutina. Asimismo, se realizó una marcha fitoquímica a la partición hexano, por ser la más activa.Phagodeterrence by a crude extract of common rue (Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae and its partitions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae. Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller larva is maybe the main forest pest in Latin America and the Caribbean, as it bores into the

  7. SEMEADURA DIRETA COM TRANSPOSIÇÃO DE SERAPILHEIRA COMO METODOLOGIA DE RESTAURAÇÃO ECOLÓGICA1

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    Kelly de Almeida Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da transposição de serapilheira na semeadura direta como metodologia de restauração ecológica de áreas degradadas. O estudo foi realizado no Viveiro de Pesquisas da Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV, em canteiros a céu aberto, com delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Compararam-se três tratamentos distintos, com cinco repetições cada, deixando-se também cinco parcelas como controle. Nas parcelas controle, apenas removeu-se o solo superficial do canteiro. Os demais tratamentos consistiram da semeadura direta de quatro espécies nativas, sendo duas pioneiras (Senna macranthera e Colubrina glandulosa e duas não pioneiras (Tabebuia serratifolia e Cedrela fissilis. O tratamento 1 constituiu de apenas semeadura direta, o tratamento 2 de semeadura direta com posterior transposição de serapilheira e o tratamento 3 foi constituído de transposição de serapilheira com posterior semeadura direta. A serapilheira foi transposta de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual secundária localizado no Campus da UFV. Após dois anos, o tratamento 2 apresentou maior porcentagem de emergência de plântulas. No tratamento 1 foram encontrados 36 indivíduos arbóreos, oriundos apenas da semeadura. No tratamento 2 haviam 312 indivíduos arbóreos e no tratamento 3, 140, ambos com indivíduos oriundos da semeadura e serapilheira transposta. A transposição da serapilheira influenciou a emergência e estabelecimento das plântulas. S. macranthera e C. glandulosa foram as espécies com maior porcentagem de emergência e, portanto, apresentaram potencial para uso em projetos de restauração ecológica através de semeadura direta.

  8. Interspecific variation in vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in pioneer and non-pioneer species used in tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, Daniele R; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-09-01

    Reforestation projects have gained interest over recent years due to the loss of biodiversity in tropical regions as a result of large deforestation by anthropogenic actions. However, better knowledge on the tolerance of plant species to environmental stresses is needed for reforestation success. Here, we evaluated the photoprotective and antioxidant capacity, in terms of vitamin E accumulation, of five pioneer (Platypodium elegans Vogel, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil, Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. and Aegiphila sellowiana Cham.) and five non-pioneer (Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Cedrela fissilis Vell., Genipa americana L., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. and Hymenaea courbaril L.) species, in relation to the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. Furthermore, we examined differences between sun and shade leaves on vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation. Pioneer plants showed on average 33% higher malondialdehyde levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, than non-pioneer species, but no significant differences in vitamin E contents. In contrast, a marked interspecific variation was observed in the levels of α-tocopherol and its precursor, γ-tocopherol. Natural variation revealed interesting relationships between vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. The pioneer species, P. elegans, did not accumulate α-tocopherol and displayed the highest levels of malondialdehyde. Sun and shade leaves accumulated vitamin E levels to a similar extent, except for the pioneer L. pacari and the non-pioneer C. langsdorffii, the former accumulating more α-tocopherol in sun leaves and the latter in shade leaves. We conclude that interspecific variation is higher than both leaf type and successional-group variation in terms of vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation, and that vitamin E levels, particularly those of α-tocopherol, negatively correlate with the extent of lipid

  9. Evaluación de la resistencia al cizallamiento por compresión y falla en madera de uniones encoladas en maderas nacionales e importadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Quagliotti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados de la evaluación de la resistencia al cizallamiento por compresión y falla en madera de uniones encoladas en Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus taeda, Pinus eliottii, lapacho y cedro. El procedimiento se basó en las siguientes normas: ASTM D 5751-99, JIS K 6852-1994 y EN 205:1991. Las etapas más relevantes fueron las siguientes: encolado y corte de probetas, tratamientos de inmersión en agua a 30 ºC, 60 ºC, 100 ºC y ensayo en máquina universal. Se determinó la resistencia al cizallamiento por compresión, retención del poder adhesivo y porcentaje de falla en madera. Es posible concluir que el PVA no es un adhesivo para ser utilizado en ambientes de alta humedad, debido a los bajos valores de resistencia y porcentaje de falla comparados con los valores en seco, como se muestra en las especies  estudiadas luego de ser sometidas a los diferentes tratamientos. Cabe resaltar que, una vez realizados los tratamientos de inmersión, las probetas encoladas con isocianato de E. grandis tienen los valores de retención del poder adhesivo más altos, como también menor disminución del porcentaje de falla en madera en comparación con las otras especies estudiadas.AbstractThe results of the shear strength (by compression and wood failure of bond unions in Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus taeda, Pinus eliottii, Tabebuia ipe y Cedrela spp are shown in the present work. The process was based on the following standards: ASTM D 5751-99, JIS K 6852-1994 y EN 205:1991. The most relevant stageswere bonding and the cutting of samples, water immersion treatment (30, 60, 100 ºC and universal machine test. Shear strength, Ratio wet/dry shear and Wood Failure percentage were determined. As a conclusion, the PVA is not an adhesive to be used under high humidity conditions, due to the low values of shear strength and percentage of wood failure that the study species shown after water immersion treatment compared with the

  10. Plantas lenhosas da Floresta Ombrófila Mista do Parque Municipal das Araucárias – Guarapuava (PR / Woody plants of the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest the Araucaria Municipal Park - Guarapuava (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Cordeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento florístico das espécies lenhosas da uma área de 41 ha de Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM do Parque Municipal das Araucárias, localizado em Guarapuava (PR com coordenadas geográficas 25º 20’ 44” e 25º 21’ 35” de latitude Sul e 51º 27’ 31” e 51º 28’ 16” de longitude Oeste. O patamar altimétrico do Parque fica em torno dos 1070 m.s.n.m., o predomínio é relevo suave ondulado e solo do tipo Latossolo Bruno Ácrico Húmico. O levantamento foi realizado de mar/04 a out/08 com média de uma visita a cada vinte dias. Foram identificadas 107 espécies, pertencentes a 77 gêneros e 41 famílias botânicas, distribuídos nas formas biológicas de microfanerófitos (n=44, mesofanerófitos (n=39, nanofanerófitos (n=15, lianas (n=8 e megafanerófito (n=1. As famílias que apresentaram maior diversidade foram: Solanaceae com 12 espécies, Myrtaceae com nove, Fabaceae com oito, Bignoniaceae com seis, Asteraceae com cinco. Estas famílias agruparam 37,4% das espécies, enquanto que as outras 38 famílias responderam por 62,6% da diversidade. Aproximadamente 60,5% das famílias são representadas por apenas uma espécie cada. Considerando o critério a frequência Allophylus edulis (A. St.-Hil., A. Juss & Cambess. Hieron. ex Niederl., Casearia decandra Jacq., Cedrela fissilis Vell., Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke, Jacaranda puberula Cham., Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk., Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso, Ocotea puberula (Rich. Nees, Ocotea pulchella (Nees Mez, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Vernonanthura discolor (Spreng. H. Rob. e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. podem ser consideradas espécies companheiras da Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze na florística da FOM. Os dados quanto ao total de espécies da FOM ainda são incompletos. Faz-se necessário que levantamentos sejam direcionados aos escassos remanescentes que restam e que o critério amostral estenda-se sobre todas as formas biol

  11. Intensificación de la circulación atmosférica meridional en la región subtropical de América del sur inferida a partir de registros dendroclimatológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    variations du climat dans les zones subtropicales et établir les relations avec les changements survenus dans la circulation atmosphérique à l’échelle du continent. El principal objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la aplicabilidad de los registros dendrocronológicos para caracterizar las variaciones climáticas que, durante los últimos dos siglos, han afectado la región subtropical montano de América del Sur, al este de los Andes. Cronologías de ancho de anillos derivadas a partir del nogal criollo (Juglans australis y del cedro tucumano (Cedrela lilloi han sido usadas para estimar las variaciones regionales de la temperatura y la precipitación desde el año 1800, aproximadamente. Las series de anchos de anillos con respuesta a la precipitación muestran, al igual que los datos instrumentales, un incremento sostenido en las precipitaciones de la región montaña subtropical desde aproximadamente 1950, el cual es totalmente anómalo en el contexto histórico de los últimos 200 años. El gradiente de presión atmosférica entre las regiones tropical y subtropical de América del Sur, medido por la diferencia de presión entre Cuiabá (15° S y Reconquista (29° S, se ha intensificado progresivamente a partir de 1950. Esta intensificación del gradiente de presión, en combinación con un aumento de las temperaturas en el subtrópico, parece haber inducido una migración latitudinal hacia el sur de la celda continental de baja presión sobre América del Sur, con el consiguiente aumento de las precipitaciones y la reducción del período seco anual en el subtrópico montano. Los patrones espaciales de correlación entre el ancho de anillos y la temperatura del mar, indican que el incremento en las precipitaciones también respondería a un aumento sostenido de la temperatura en el océano Atlántico Sur, desde aproximadamente 1950. Estos resultados dan cuenta de la gran potencialidad de los registros dendrocronológicos para reconstruir las variaciones clim

  12. Moisture Absorption in Certain Tropical American Woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-08-01

    Honduras, Honduras 29.8 Increase 30 - 40 percent Cedro Granadino (Ccdrela Tonduzii) Courbaril ( Hymenaea courbaril ; Nargusta (Terminalia amazonia...Guiana Courbaril (Hymer>aea Davisii) Mylady (Aspidosperma cruentum) Courbaril ( Hymenaea courbaril ) Honduras, Br. Honduras Honduras Br«, Guiana

  13. Edificio Le Cèdre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tschumi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este importante edificio administrativo está situado en Lausana, formando parte de un magnifico paisaje, en las orillas del lago Leman, en cuyo terreno se elevan las soberbias masas de unos cedros centenarios que había que conservar a toda costa, procurando armonizar el edificio y la naturaleza. En el centro del parque se conserva también otro cedro majestuoso que cobija un antiguo pabellón octogonal, único vestigio del pasado.

  14. Los diagramas de fuerza como elemento fundamental en la enseñanza-aprendizaje de las leyes de newton bajo un enfoque constructivista estudio de caso para IX grado del colegio Gimnasio los Cedros en la ciudad de Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Macea, Fermín

    2012-01-01

    Diversos estudios entre ellos Bracikowski, Celemin [1], revelan la existencia de dificultades en la aplicacion de las leyes Newton, tales como la elaboracion de diagramas de fuerzas, utilizados en la resolucion de problemas de mecanica y ademas la existencia de preconceptos que dificultan el aprendizaje por parte de los estudiantes. En este orden de ideas, es importante en el estudio de la fisica, darle relevancia a las representaciones mentales y su caracterizacion, como por ejemplo lo...

  15. Growth of four tropical tree species in petroleum-contaminated soil and effects of crude oil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Hernández, I.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Adams, R.H.; Rivera-Cruz, M.C.; Pérez-Hernández, V.; Jarquín-Sánchez, A.; Geissen, V.; Martínez-Zurimendi, P.

    2017-01-01

    Under greenhouse conditions, we evaluated establishment of four tree species and their capacity to degrade crude oil recently incorporated into the soil; the species were as follows: Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany), and

  16. Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of Australian cedar wood cultivated in Corupá, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Trianoski, Rosilani; Matos, Jorge Luis Monteiro de; Iwakiri, Setsuo

    2014-01-01

    O cedro australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem) é uma espécie de elevado valor comercial, com características similares ao mogno e cedros nativos, que vem se destacando em plantios florestais no Brasil, cuja madeira produzida deve ser alvo de pesquisas tecnológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as propriedades físicas, químicas e mecânicas desta espécie em plantio com 18 anos. Foi observada massa específica baixa (0,330 g cm3), estabilidade dimensional média baixa (anisotropia: 2,22), te...

  17. Early results from genetic trials on the growth of Spanish cedar and itssusceptibility to the shoot borer moth in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheila E. Ward; Kevyn E. Wightman; Bartolo. Rodriguez Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Cedrela odorata (Spanish cedar) is a neotropical broadleaf tree species that is in high demand for furniture and interior fittings. In 1998, seed collections were made from Spanish cedar in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, for genetic conservation and tree improvement projects. Progeny from these collections were established in genetic trials at Bacalar, Noh Bec, and Zoh...

  18. INTAKE AND DIGESTIBILITY OF LOW QUALITY RHODES GRASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at Bunda College, Malawi, to determine the effect of magadi (a sodium sesquicarbonate- Na2CO3, NaHCO3.2H2O) treated forages on their intake and digestibility and growth of sheep. Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth), Cedrela (Toona ciliata, M. Roem) and Sesbania [Sesbania sesban ...

  19. Tolerance of Four Tropical Tree Species to Heavy Petroleum Contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Hernandez, I.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Schroeder, R.H.A.; Rivera-Cruz, M.C.; Geissen, V.

    2013-01-01

    Four species of trees were selected to evaluate the tolerance to heavy crude oil contamination by means of a tolerance index integrating germination, height, biomass and survival as variables. Fresh seeds to Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia

  20. Contributions to an integrated control programme of Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpma, P.

    1974-01-01

    The shootborer Hypsipylagrandella (Zeller) (Lep., Pyralidae) is the main obstacle to the artificial regeneration of valuable meliaceous tree species such as mahogany ( Swietenia spp.) and Spanish cedar ( Cedrela spp.) in

  1. Chemical composition and anti-bacterial activity of essential oil from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work assesses the chemical compositions and in vitro anti-bacterial activities of seed essential oil from Cedrela sinesis (A. Juss.) Roem. seed. which has abundant mineral elements such as K, Ca, Fe. The fatty acid profiles of seed essential oil are characterized by considerable unsaturated fatty acids (90.39%) ...

  2. RES COVER APR QQ April 4th Final

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ART

    Toona ciliate M. Roem. subsp. ciliata Bahadur var. ciliata. Bahadur Syn.Cedrela toona (Indian Toon or Indian Ma- hogany) of Meliaceae is a large handsome evergreen tree with a dense spreading crown. Leaves are compound, alternate with large leaflets. Flowers are a cm long, fragrant and borne on large drooping ...

  3. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ART

    Toona ciliate M. Roem. subsp. ciliata Bahadur var. ciliata. Bahadur Syn.Cedrela toona (Indian Toon or Indian Ma- hogany) of Meliaceae is a large handsome evergreen tree with a dense spreading crown. Leaves are compound, alternate with large leaflets. Flowers are a cm long, fragrant and borne on large drooping ...

  4. Variações na qualidade de toras de Toona ciliata M. Roem. com dezoito anos de idade

    OpenAIRE

    Nassur,Otávio Augusto Carvalho; Rosado,Lucas Rodrigues; Rosado,Sebastião Carlos da Silva; Carvalho,Pablo Marcílio de

    2013-01-01

    A família meliácea contém as mais valiosas espécies produtoras de madeira na região tropical, no entanto o cultivo dessas espécies em sua área de ocorrência natural é limitado, em decorrência do ataque de brocas do gênero Hypsipyla. Em contrapartida, plantios exóticos de cedro australiano (T. ciliata) no Brasil tem tido grande sucesso especialmente pela resistência ao ataque da broca dos cedros, e também por apresentar bom crescimento vegetativo e adaptação ao solo e ao clima. No entanto, a m...

  5. Callus induction in meliacea exotics (Khaya nyasica Stapf y Toona ciliata)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Daquinta; Yarianne Lezcano; Mariela Cid; Romelio Rodríguez; Danilo Pina; Maritza Escalona

    2003-01-01

    Meliaceas are very important for the programs of construction and furniture production, among other applications. Khaya nyasica is a Meliacea originally from Africa, as African Caoba. Toona ciliata is a Meliacea originally from Himalayan Region, known in Cuba as Cedro of Himalayan. Natural regeneration in these species occur by seed and grafting. These sorts of propagation are limited, when it is wished to introduced these species in the production. The objective of this paper was to provide ...

  6. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 565 ... Cade, Todd W. Cannizzo, J.K. · Carlson, K · Cedro, L · ChaloNabirye, R · Chantal, Uwimana Marie · Charlier, C · Charlier, Corinne · Chyun, D A · Cohen-Bouhacina, T · Collins, A · Coma, Véronique · Condo, J · Connell, Maureen · Cotton, P · Cubaka, VK · Culot, M · Cyprien, Munyanshongore ...

  7. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 18 of 18 ... Cade, Todd W. Cannizzo, J.K. · Carlson, K · Cedro, L · ChaloNabirye, R · Chantal, Uwimana Marie · Charlier, C · Charlier, Corinne · Chyun, D A · Cohen-Bouhacina, T · Collins, A · Coma, Véronique · Condo, J · Connell, Maureen · Cotton, P · Cubaka, VK · Culot, M · Cyprien, Munyanshongore 1 - 18 of 18 ...

  8. Contrasting the distribution of butterflies and termites in plantations and tropical forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, H.; Ramirez, J. A.; Lopez, Y.; Coronado, J.; Perez, F.; Arizala, S.; Bobadilla, R.; Leponce, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2017), s. 151-176 ISSN 0960-3115 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Barro Colorado Island * Cedro espino * faunal turnover Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.265, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10531-016-1231-6

  9. Las Plantas Cultivadas y Sus Plagas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Universidad Nacional de Colombia Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias

    1942-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo contiene en orden alfabético las plantas cultivadas con las diferentes plagas por las cuales se ven afectadas y para las que se han venido buscando mecanismos de control y erradicación. Algunas de estas plantas son: Aguacate, Acacia, Almendro, Algodón, Banana, Cacahuate, Cacao, Cafeto, Caña de azúcar, Caoba, Carambola, Cedro, Granadilla, Limón, Maíz, Tabaco, entre otras.

  10. Marine Geophysics: a Navy Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Krakatoa and watched volcanic ejecta the size of Volkswagens being hurled up from Anak Krakatoa not far from Argo’s bow. Shipboard times around...of islands such as Guadalupe , Cedros, and the San Benitos. SIO acquired Paolina-T, a former purse seiner, in 1948, and Russ began two-ship refraction...Pacific Ocean basin very thin. More detailed analyses revealed a low-velocity layer apparently related to volcanic rocks, later called Layer 2. On

  11. A Contemporary Challenge to State Sovereignty: Gangs and Other Illicit Transnational Criminal Organizations in Central America, El Salvador, Mexico, Jamaica, and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Criminal values are derived from norms based on slave holding, sexual activity with minors and their exploitation in prostitution, the farming of humans...values from norms based on slave holding, sexual activity with minors and their exploitation in prostitution, the “farming” of humans for body...de Cocaina, abuso de drogas (Coca Paste and Cocaine: The Abuse of Drugs), Lima: CEDRO, 1990, pp. 301-321; Stephen E. Flynn, The Transnational Drug

  12. Area Assessment. Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    the U.S. and O.A.S, Ambassador to the U.N, Angel Eilraondo ^olano Calderon Francisco Morales Hernandez GuillerjTio Sandoval Aguilar Federfco...Perifericos II (Max stay 5 days, simple operations) A. San Vicente de Paul ’ :;; lieredia 82’ 26 B. San Francisco de Asis San Francisco 83 33 C...dorado, Cola de pavo, Campano, Cedro amargo, Gavilan , Jicaro, Pilc5n, Botarrama, plus numerous lower-quality woods for form lumber

  13. Analýza sortimentu kosmetické firmy

    OpenAIRE

    Čekan, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyses products of Cedro sole ltd., which is a company operating on nail care market in Czech Republic. Theoretical part defines basic terms and brings basis important for practical part. Practical part deals with company presentation, customers and the market company's operating on. This is followed by company's surroundings that describe the current situation on the nail care market. Marketing mix analysis shows ways of price setting, organisation of distribution and the ways ...

  14. Predicting the direction of ornament evolution in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Darrell J; Reznick, David N; Grether, Gregory F; Endler, John A

    2009-12-22

    Sexual selection is thought to be opposed by natural selection such that ornamental traits express a balance between these two antagonistic influences. Phenotypic variation among populations may indicate local shifts in this balance, or that different stable 'solutions' are possible, but testing these alternatives presents a major challenge. In the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a small freshwater fish with male-limited ornamental coloration, these issues can be addressed by transplanting fish among sites of varying predation pressure, thus effectively manipulating the strength and nature of natural selection. Here, we contrast the evolutionary outcome of two such introductions conducted in the Trinidadian El Cedro and Aripo Rivers. We use sophisticated colour appraisal methods that account for full spectrum colour variation and which incorporate the very latest visual sensitivity data for guppies and their predators. Our data indicate that ornamentation evolved along different trajectories: whereas Aripo males evolved more numerous and/or larger orange, black and iridescent markings, El Cedro males only evolved more extensive and brighter iridescence. Examination of the El Cedro experiment also revealed little or no ornamental evolution at the control site over 29 years, which contrasts markedly with the rapid (approx. 2-3 years) changes reported for introduction populations. Finally, whole colour-pattern analysis suggested that the greatest visual difference between El Cedro introduction and control fish would be perceived by the two most salient viewers: guppies and the putatively dangerous predator Crenicichla alta. We discuss whether and how these evolutionary trajectories may result from founder effects, population-specific mate preferences and/or sensory drive.

  15. Efeito do volume de tubetes na produção de mudas de Calophyllum brasiliense e Toona ciliata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysson Canabrava Lisboa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A demanda por informações silviculturais de espécies florestais alternativas para reflorestamentos com fins econômicos, entre as quais incluem os métodos de produção de mudas, tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de volumes de tubetes, com dimensões de 115, 180 e de 280 cm³, no crescimento de mudas de guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. e cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur. O substrato utilizado foi composto por uma mistura de 80% de substrato comercial e 20% de argila. Foram avaliados o diâmetro de colo e a altura das mudas aos 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a repicagem. Nessa última ocasião, determinou-se também o peso de massa seca da parte aérea, do sistema radicular e total, bem como o Índice de Qualidade de Dickson. Houve efeito do volume do tubete sobre as características das mudas, sendo o cedro-australiano a espécie mais responsiva. Conclui-se que para o guanandi o tubete mais indicado é o de 180 cm³ e para o cedro-australiano, o de 280 cm³.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships and cryptic species diversity in the Brazilian egg-brooding tree frog, genus Fritziana Mello-Leitão 1937 (Anura: Hemiphractidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marina; Lyra, Mariana L; Haddad, Célio F B

    2018-06-01

    The genus Fritziana (Anura: Hemiphractidae) comprises six described species (F. goeldii, F. ohausi, F. fissilis, F. ulei, F. tonimi, and F. izecksohni) that are endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Although the genus has been the subject of studies dealing with its taxonomy, phylogeny, and systematics, there is considerable evidence for cryptic diversity hidden among the species. The present study aims to understand the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among the species of Fritziana, as well as the relationships among populations within species. We analyzed 107 individuals throughout the distribution of the genus using three mitochondrial gene fragments (12S, 16S, and COI) and two nuclear genes (RAG1 and SLC8A3). Our data indicated that the species diversity in the genus Fritziana is underestimated by the existence of at least three candidate species hidden amongst the group of species with a closed dorsal pouch (i.e. F. fissilis and F. ulei). We also found four species presenting geographical population structures and high genetic diversity, and thus require further investigations. In addition, we found that two candidate species show a new arrangement for the tRNA-Phe gene, unique in Anura so far. Based on our results, we suggest that the conservation status of the species, as well as the species diversity in the genus Fritziana, needs to be reviewed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculum produced on-farm and phosphorus on growth and nutrition of native woody plant species from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Claudio Goetten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal fungus inoculum produced on-farm can be used during production of woody plant seedlings to reduce costs associated with purchase of commercial inoculant and fertilization. This study aimed to test the efficiency of a mycorrhizal inoculant produced on-farm to promote growth and nutrition of woody species in combination with different levels of phosphorus. Plants were submitted to different treatments of phosphorus (0, 40 and 80 mg P/dm3 and mycorrhizal inoculation (uninoculated, and inoculation with Rhizophagus clarus [Rc] or Claroideoglomus etunicatum [Ce]. Species included were Luehea divaricata, Centrolobium robustum, Schinus terebinthifolius, Garcinia gardneriana, Cedrella fissilis, and Lafoensia pacari. The inoculum was produced using the on-farm methodology. Mycorrhizal colonization of plants inoculated with Rc and Ce ranged from 44.8 to 74.8%, except forGarcinia gardneriana. Inoculation treatment increased plant height and stem diameter of Luehea divaricata, Centrolobium robustum and Cedrella fissilis while phosphorus, inoculation and the interaction affected these parameters for G. gardneriana and Lafoensia pacari. Shoot biomass increased significantly with inoculation treatment in four species. For most species, mycorrhizal fungus inoculation and the addition of phosphorus increased the shoot phosphorus content. Mycorrhizal fungus inoculum produced on-farm successfully colonized tree seedlings and improved growth and/or nutrition under nursery conditions, producing seedlings useful for revegetation of degraded lands.

  18. Biossólido como substrato para produção de mudas de Toona ciliata var. australis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira; Daniele Rodrigues Gomes; Elzimar de Oliveira Gonçalves; William Macedo Delarmelina; Huezer Viganô Sperandio; Paulo André Trazzi

    2012-01-01

    O êxito de plantios florestais não está ligado unicamente à espécie utilizada, mas depende diretamente do tipo de recipiente, da qualidade das sementes e do substrato utilizado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do biossólido como substrato na produção de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata). O experimento foi realizado em casa de sombra do Viveiro Florestal/CCA/UFES. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído de seis tratamento...

  19. Biosolids as substrate for Toona ciliata var. australis seedlings production

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira, Marcos Vinicius Winckler; Gomes, Daniele Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Elzimar de Oliveira; Delarmelina, William Macedo; Sperandio, Huezer Viganô; Trazzi, Paulo André

    2012-01-01

    O êxito de plantios florestais não está ligado unicamente à espécie utilizada, mas depende diretamente do tipo de recipiente, da qualidade das sementes e do substrato utilizado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do biossólido como substrato na produção de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata). O experimento foi realizado em casa de sombra do Viveiro Florestal/CCA/UFES. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído de seis tratamento...

  20. Game-Changer: The Illusion of War Without Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    USMC, “Accepting Risk: Why the Attack on the Swift Reveals Strategic Vulnerability,” The Strategy Bridge ( blog ), 01 November 2016, accessed 18 March...Christopher Cedros, USN, “Distributed Lethality and the Importance of Ship Repair,” The Strategy Bridge ( blog ), 14 February 2017, accessed 18 March 2017...Howard and José de Arimatéia da Cruz, “The Cyber Vulnerabilities of the U.S. Navy,” The Maritime Executive ( blog ), 01 January 2017, accessed 20 April

  1. Qualidade de superfícies usinadas em madeira de toona ciliata m. roem

    OpenAIRE

    Soragi, Lívia de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Toona ciliata M. Roem (cedro australiano) está entre as espécies exóticas que são plantadas para produção de madeira serrada. A indústria moveleira carece de metodologias específicas para qualificar a superfície usinada de seus produtos. A definição de padrões de qualidade requer novos equipamentos e metodologias para superfícies de madeiras usinadas. Almeja-se uniformizar a produção, reduzir custos, definir usos e aumentar a competitividade do setor. Os objetivos foram i) avaliar a qualidade...

  2. Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Wet Season Rainfall Totals in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, D. W.; Lopez, L.; Granato-Souza, D.; Barbosa, A. C. M. C.; Torbenson, M.; Villalba, R.; Pereira, G. D. A.; Feng, S.; Schongart, J.; Cook, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon Basin is a globally important center of deep atmospheric convection, energy balance, and biodiversity, but only a handful of weather stations in this vast Basin have recorded rainfall measurements for at least 50 years. The available rainfall and river level observations suggest that the hydrologic cycle in the Amazon may have become amplified in the last 40-years, with more extreme rainfall and streamflow seasonality, deeper droughts, and more severe flooding. These changes in the largest hydrological system on earth may be early evidence of the expected consequences of anthropogenic climate change and deforestation in the coming century. Placing these observed and simulated changes in the context of natural climate variability during the late Holocene is a significant challenge for high-resolution paleoclimatology. We have developed exactly dated and well-replicated annual tree-ring chronologies from two native Amazonian tree species (Cedrela sp and Centrolobium microchaete). These moisture sensitive chronologies have been used to compute two reconstructions of wet season rainfall totals, one in the southern Amazon based on Centrolobium and another in the eastern equatorial Amazon using Cedrela. Both reconstructions are over 200-years long and extend the available instrumental observations in each region by over 150-years. These reconstructions are well correlated with the same regional and large-scale climate dynamics that govern the inter-annual variability of the instrumental wet season rainfall totals. Increased multi-decadal variability is reconstructed after 1950 with the Centrolobium chronologies in the southern Amazon. The Cedrela reconstruction from the eastern Amazon exhibits changes in the spatial pattern of correlation with regional rainfall stations and the large-scale sea surface temperature field after 1990 that may be consistent with recent changes in the mean position of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone in March over the western

  3. Germinação e desenvolvimento morfológico de plantas oleaginosas de floresta de várzea.

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Isaac Luiz Magalhães; Jardim, Mário Augusto Gonçalves; Medeiros, Tonny David Santiago

    2008-01-01

    A domesticação das plantas oleaginosas é importante pois, apresentam propriedades medicinais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de estudar a influência de diferentes substratos na germinação de Cedrela odorata, Licaria mahuba e Virola surinamensis, com base no tempo e porcentagem de germina- ção, crescimento do caule, raiz e número de folhas. As sementes foram coletadas em floresta de várzea e o experimento conduzido em viveiro suspenso (50% de sombreamento), no Horto Botânico Jacqu...

  4. Callus induction in meliacea exotics (Khaya nyasica Stapf y Toona ciliata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Daquinta

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Meliaceas are very important for the programs of construction and furniture production, among other applications. Khaya nyasica is a Meliacea originally from Africa, as African Caoba. Toona ciliata is a Meliacea originally from Himalayan Region, known in Cuba as Cedro of Himalayan. Natural regeneration in these species occur by seed and grafting. These sorts of propagation are limited, when it is wished to introduced these species in the production. The objective of this paper was to provide callus formation in Toona ciliata for in vitro propagation. Mature trees of 20 year in Khaya nyasica and of 2-3 years in Toona ciliata were used. In order to use rachis of young branchesthese these plantsthey were disinfected with same protocol reported for another Meliaceas and they were established in the tissue medium MS + 0-1 mg.l-1 Thidiazuron. Nodular calli with good morphogenic characteristicwere obtained, in the explants the calli formation began by cut ends. The shoots were achieved in darkness and plants regeneration in light in Toona ciliata. Key words: callus, Caoba African, Cedro of Himalayan, plants regeneration, Thidiazuron

  5. para la república Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana I. Hladki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen doce especies del género Xylaria que se citan por primera vez para la Argentina: Xylaria adscendens, X. allantoidea, X. coccophora, X. cubensis, X. fissilis, X. gracillima, X. luxurians, X. melanura, X. multiplex, X. myosurus, X. kretschmarioidea y X. pseudoapiculata. El registro de las últimas dos especies es el segundo a nivel mundial. Se describen por primera vez los estromas anamórficos o estériles obtenidos en cultivo de X. kretschmarioidea, X. luxurians y X. melanura, y los cultivos en agar-avena de X. pseudoapiculata. Se sinominiza X. torulosa con X. coccophora, y se citan nuevos sustratos u hospedantes para la mayoría de las especies.

  6. Long-term trends in nitrogen isotope composition and nitrogen concentration in brazilian rainforest trees suggest changes in nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietz, Peter; Dünisch, Oliver; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2010-02-15

    Direct or indirect anthropogenic effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycles are important components of global change. Recent research has shown that N isotopes in tree rings reflect changes in ecosystem nitrogen sources or cycles and can be used to study past changes. We analyzed trends in two tree species from a remote and pristine tropical rainforest in Brazil, using trees of different ages to distinguish between the effect of tree age and long-term trends. Because sapwood differed from heartwood in delta(15)N and N concentration and N can be translocated between living sapwood cells, long-term trends are best seen in dead heartwood. Heartwood delta(15)N in Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata) and big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) increased with tree age, and N concentrations increased with age in Cedrela. Controlling for tree age, delta(15)N increased significantly during the past century even when analyzing only heartwood and after removing labile N compounds. In contrast to northern temperate and boreal forests where wood delta(15)N often decreased, the delta(15)N increase in a remote rainforest is unlikely to be a direct signal of changed N deposition. More plausibly, the change in N isotopic composition indicates a more open N cycle, i.e., higher N losses relative to internal N cycling in the forest, which could be the result of changed forest dynamics.

  7. RELEASE AND MUCOADHESION PROPERTIES OF DICLOFENAC MATRIX TABLETS FROM NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMER BLENDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeniyi, Michael A; Khan, Nasir H; Peh, Kok K

    2015-01-01

    The delayed release and mucoadhesive properties of Cedrela gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose blend in diclofenac sodium tablet formulations were evaluated. Tablets were prepared by direct compression and the crushing strength and detachment force were found to increase from 74.49 ± 1.22 to 147.25 ± 2.57 N and 0.302 ± 0.36 to 1.141 ± 0.05 N from low to high level of polymers, respectively. The release kinetics followed Korsmeyer-Peppas release and the n varied between 0.834 and 1.273, indicating that the release mechanism shifts from Fickian to super case I (anomalous release). The drug release profile fits a pulsatile-release pattern characterized by a lag time followed by a more or less rapid and complete drug release. The Cedrela gum-hydroxypropylmethylcelluse blend tablets delayed diclofenac release for 2 h and sustained the release for 12 h. The polymer blend delayed drug release in the 0.1 M HCl simulating gastric environment and subsequent release pH 6.8 phosphate buffer.

  8. A Re-examination of Shallow Paleomagnetic Inclinations From the Cretaceous Valle Group Sedimentary Rocks, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Kodama, K. P.; Smith, D. P.

    2001-05-01

    ) slump block test from nearby Cedros Island supports an early acquisition of magnetization for the Valle. Also, a positive regional tilt test for the site means at Campito and Cedros Island suggests that magnetization acquisition predates the regional tilting. Anisotropy of remanence measurements will be conducted to correct any inclination shallowing due to compaction since our mean stratigraphic direction is about 15° shallower than the inclination observed by Smith and Busby for the Valle at Cedros Island. Tectonic implications of the corrected results will be discussed.

  9. The feeding preferences of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on cotton plant varieties=Preferência alimentar de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em variedades de plantas algodoeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostenildo Ribeiro Campos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the attractiveness and the non-preference for feeding of newly hatched fall armyworm larvae on the cotton plant parts and different varieties used in the study. The trials were performed at 27 ± 1ºC, a 70% ± 10% relative humidity and a 14h photoperiod. Leaves, bracts, squares and carpel walls of the BRS Itamarati-90 variety and leaves of Fibermax-966, Fibermax-977, DeltaOpal, DeltaPenta, BRS Acala-90, Coodetec-408, Coodetec-409, Coodetec-410, BRS-Cedro, BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, IPR-96, IPR-120, BRS-Araçá, IAC-24 and BRS Itamarati-90 varieties were used in attractiveness, multiple-choice and confinement (no-choice non-preference feeding trials. Twenty larvae were released per petri dish test (arena system with 10 repetitions. Attractiveness trials were evaluated by counting feeding caterpillars over 60 min. and by measuring non-preference at 24h. Leaves were the most attractive item and were preferred for feeding. In the multiple-choice arena trials, Coodetec-410 was the most attractive variety, and BRS Acala-90, Fibermax-966 and DeltaPenta were the least attractive to fall armyworm larvae. In the non-preference trial, BRS-Araça was the variety favored for feeding. BRS-Cedro, BRS Itamarati-90, DeltaPenta, Coodetec-408 and BRS-Aroeira were the least-favored varieties. In the 60 min. attractiveness trials, 46 min. proved to be the most suitable time for evaluating the attractiveness of cotton plants to newly hatched fall armyworm larvae.Avaliou-se atratividade e não-preferência alimentar de lagartas recém-eclodidas de Spodoptera frugiperda por partes de plantas e plantas de variedades de algodoeiro. Testes foram realizados a 27 ± 1ºC, UR de 70% ± 10% e fotofase de 14h. Folhas, brácteas, botões florais e cascas de maçãs da variedade BRS Itamarati-90 e folhas de Fibermax-966, Fibermax-977, DeltaOpal, DeltaPenta, BRS Acala-90, Coodetec-408, Coodetec-409, Coodetec-410, BRS-Cedro, BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, IPR-96, IPR-120

  10. Mistura de três espécies de reflorestamento na produção de painéis cimento-madeira

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Vânia Aparecida de; Bufalino, Lina; Albino, Vanessa C. S.; Corrêa, Andréa A.; Mendes, Lourival M.; Almeida, Natália A.

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a viabilidade técnica de produção de painéis cimento-madeira compostos por diferentes proporções de resíduos das madeiras de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem.), Pinus taeda e clone de híbrido de Eucalyptusgrandis x Eucalyptus urophylla,utilizando-se dois processos distintos de cura: vaporização e climatização. Foi utilizado o cimento Portland CP V - ARI/Plus como aglomerante e o cloreto de cálcio como aditivo químico. As partículas de madeira fo...

  11. Morfogénesis in vitro de Toona ciliata a partir de raquis de hojas jóvenes con tidiazuron

    OpenAIRE

    Daquinta Marcos; Lezcano Yarianne; Cid Mariela

    2005-01-01

    Las Meliáceas son de gran importancia en la construcción y fabricación de muebles, entre otras aplicaciones. Toona ciliata es una Meliácea originaria de la región del Himalaya; en Cuba se conoce como cedro del Himalaya. La regeneración natural de esta especie es por semillas e injertos. Los procesos de propagación en la producción de esta especie son limitados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue lograr la formación de callos y la regeneración de plantas en Toona ciliata para la propagación in vi...

  12. ¿Por qué poedmos leer fácilmnete las paalbras con lertas trasnpuetsas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perea

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuando leemos, es fácil confundir CEDRO con CERDO. Un grupo de modelos explica los efectos de transposición de letras en función de la incertidumbre perceptiva a la hora de asignar posiciones a los objetos visuales (es decir, las letras, mientras que otro grupo de modelos los explica mediante la activación de “bigramas abiertos” a nivel ortográfico. Presentamos varios experimentos de nuestro laboratorio que fueron diseñados para discriminar entre ambos tipos de modelos. Los resultados apoyan a los modelos que asumen que existe incertidumbre perceptiva al codificar la posición de las letras en las palabras. Además, ofrecen un marco teórico para examinar aquellos tipos de dislexia que tienen como origen un déficit en los mecanismos de asignación de letras a posiciones.

  13. Modeling Long-term Creep Performance for Welded Nickel-base Superalloy Structures for Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We report here a constitutive model for predicting long-term creep strain evolution in’ strengthened Ni-base superalloys. Dislocation climb-bypassing’, typical in intermediate’ volume fraction (~20%) alloys, is considered as the primary deformation mechanism. Dislocation shearing’ to anti-phase boundary (APB) faults and diffusional creep are also considered for high-stress and high-temperature low-stress conditions, respectively. Additional damage mechanism is taken into account for rapid increase in tertiary creep strain. The model has been applied to Alloy 282, and calibrated in a temperature range of 1375-1450°F, and stress range of 15-45ksi. The model parameters and a MATLAB code are provided. This report is prepared by Monica Soare and Chen Shen at GE Global Research. Technical discussions with Dr. Vito Cedro are greatly appreciated. This work was supported by DOE program DE-FE0005859

  14. EVALUACIÓN DE LAS REFORESTACIONES EN LA FORMACIÓN DE SUELO A PARTIR DE TEPETATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rebeca Ávila-Campuzano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Para restaurar la vegetación de los lomeríos con tepetate y enmendar los problemas ambientales, la Comisión del Plan Lago de Texcoco inició en 1973 un programa de conservación del suelo y del agua, a través de la reforestación en la zona de lomeríos y la pastización en las áreas bajas en los terrenos del exLago de Texcoco. Han pasado 37 años, y son escasos los estudios donde se evalúe el impacto directo de las reforestaciones sobre la formación del suelo y la recuperación de sus funciones como parte del ecosistema. El presente estudio se realizó en la zona oriente del Estado de México, en donde se evaluaron los impactos edáficos de diferentes plantaciones forestales (cedros, eucaliptos, pinos y casuarinas sobre áreas con tepetate rojo. Se describieron tres perfiles de suelo por plantación y se realizaron análisis físicos, químicos y micromorfológicos. Los resultados evidencian que tanto las casuarinas como los cedros, son las especies que forman suelo en menos tiempo y favorecen la captación y almacenamiento del agua; mientras que los pinos y eucaliptos, si bien se adaptan favorablemente en estas condiciones ambientales, su influencia en la restauración ambiental es menor.

  15. Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2013-11-01

    Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. DISCRIMINAÇÃO DE MADEIRAS SIMILARES POR FLUORESCÊNCIA MOLECULAR E MÍNIMOS QUADRADOS PARCIAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elian Meneses Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood is an extremely complex biological material, which can show macroscopic similarities that make it difficult to discriminate between species. Discrimination between similar wood species can be achieved by either anatomic or instrumental methods, such as near infrared spectroscopy (NIR. Although different spectroscopy methods are currently available, few studies have applied them to discriminate between wood species. In this study, we applied a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA model to evaluate the viability of using direct fluorescence measurements for discriminating between Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urograndis, and Cedrela odorata. The results show that molecular fluorescence is an efficient technique for discriminating between these visually similar wood species. With respect to calibration and the validation samples, we observed no misclassifications or outliers.

  17. Isotopic footprint: ¿does the forensic analyses improve forest control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Melessa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Ecuadorian market a high percentage of timber from tropical forests is of illegal origin. Illegal acts and infringments along the production chain are more frequent if the concern species is valuable such as mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla and cedar (Cedrela odorata. In this regard, one of the most frequently falsified data is the geographical origin of wood. At date there is no forensic scientific method for determining objectively and independently the geographic source stated in the documentation of traded timber. The analysis of the isotope composition, known as a isotope fingerprint, has a clear special pattern and is feasible for this purpose.From Ecuador samples of mahogany and cedar were contributed to build a geo-referenced database and improve the method to make it more operational to serve in control and surveillance programs. This article explains the problems related to the subject, the method and its potential use. 

  18. Production and characterization of activated carbon from wood wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A. P.; Giraldo, S.; Ulloa, M.; Flórez, E.; Y Acelas, N.

    2017-12-01

    Cedarwood (Cedrela Angustifolia) and teak (Tectona Grandis) woods are typically used for furniture manufacture because they have high durability, are light and easy to work. During these manufacturing process, large amount of these wastes is generated causing disposal environmental problems. In this paper, the residual wastes (sawdust) of Cedar (C) and Teak (T) are transformed into an activated material. The chemical composition of both biomass (C and T) was determinate by TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis). Activated materials were characterized in surface area following the BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) method, morphology using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and to know their functional groups a FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) analysis was done. Their adsorption capacity was evaluated by removal of Methylene Blue (MB) and Congo Red (CR) from aqueous solutions.

  19. Crescimento e teor de metais de mudas de espécies arbóreas cultivadas em solo contaminado com metais pesados Growth and metal concentration of seedlings of woody species in a heavy metal contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza de Sá e Melo Marques

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o teor de metais pesados e o crescimento de mudas de 20 espécies arbóreas tropicais em solo com elevado grau de contaminação com metais pesados. Em casa de vegetação, as mudas foram transplantadas para vasos contendo 3,3 kg de misturas com diferentes proporções (0, 20, 40 e 60% v/v de solo contaminado. Verificou-se comportamento diferenciado das espécies quanto à inibição de crescimento e aos teores de metais na raiz e na parte aérea em decorrência da contaminação. Com base na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, concluiu-se que apenas Myrsine umbellata, Cedrella fissilis, Tabebuia impetiginosa e Copaifera langsdorffii não foram afetadas pela contaminação, enquanto Hymenaea courbaril, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Acacia mangium e Platypodium gonoacantha sofreram pequeno impacto. As demais espécies foram muito inibidas pela contaminação do solo, o que é causado pela absorção, na maioria dos casos, de Zn e Cd. Várias espécies apresentaram elevada capacidade de reter esses metais nas raízes, evitando sua translocação para a parte aérea.The objective of the paper was to evaluate metal content and ability to grow in soil with excess of heavy metals of seedlings of 20 woody species. In the greenhouse, seedlings were transplanted to pots with 3.3 kg of soil-mixes with different proportions (0, 20, 40, 60% v/v of a heavy metal contaminated soil. It was found that plant species behaved differently in terms of growth inhibition and metal content in the shoots and roots. Based upon the dry matter yield, only Myrsine umbellata, Cedrella fissilis, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Copaifera langsdorffii were not affected by increasing contamination, whereas Hymenaea courbaril, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Acacia mangium and Platypodium gonoacantha were only slightly affected by it. All the other species were highly inhibited by the excess of metals in the soil, being such effects related, in most

  20. [Phagodeterrent and systemic activity of a fomulation derived from an extract of common rue (Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae) on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Javier; Hilje, Luko; Durón, Julio; Cartín, Víctor; Calvo, Marco A

    2010-03-01

    A key neotropical pest of mahoganies (Swietenia spp.) and cedars (Cedrela spp.), the larva of Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) commonly bores into the main shoot of these valuable timber species, causing forking of the stems. Therefore, it would be desirable to count upon a phagodeterrent and systemic product which could readily protect young tissues. Since crude extracts of common rue foliage (Ruta chalepensis L.) have phagodeterrent activity on H. grandella larva, a product was formulated by combining such an extract with a number of coadjuvants, and was assessed on 75-100 cm tall Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata L.) trees, inside a greenhouse. A completely randomized design was used, with 10 trees per each one of the following treatments: the formulated product, an absolute control (distilled water), a relative control (carbofuran, 1%m/v in water), and the relative control without the crude extract. Number of attacks to the main shoot, fallen leaves and frass piles were recorded, as well as tunnel length. Regarding these variables, the formulated product provided excellent protection to treated trees, with only 0.1 attacks to the main shoot, on the average, at the end of the evaluation period. Likewise, when the systemic activity of the crude extract was assessed, substances present in it were able to translocate and get assimilated by the trees, thereafter causing phagodeterrence to larvae. Finally, an espectrophotometry analysis (performed at a wavelength of 355 nm) allowed us to determine the concentration (403+/-1 mg/l) and percentage (0.40%) of the flavonoid rutin in the crude extract, which eventually may be used as an analytical marker compound, should an industrial formulation be developed.

  1. Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of plants used in the Altiplane region of Mexico for the treatment of oral cavity infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Piñón, Yazmín; Mejía, Alicia; Díaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Aguilar, María Isabel; Sánchez-Nieto, Sobeida; Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto

    2012-06-14

    The ethnobotanical survey conducted in this study showed 47 plant species used in the Altiplane region of Mexico for the treatment of dental diseases such as toothache, dental caries, periodontal disease and gingivitis. Information was collected by performing interviews. The following data were recorded: name of the patients or herbalists with their age, sex; date and place of gathering information; pathology of persons interviewed; name of the drug (vernacular name); parts used (leaves, bark, fruits, seeds, aerial parts), mode of preparation and administration, and possible combinations. The inhibitory effects of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the medicinal plants detected during the survey the on the growth of Streptococcus mutans and Phrophyromonas gingivalis were determined using microdilution method. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined from the wells of microplate with no visible bacterial growth. In total, tree places of the Altiplane region of Mexico were visited and five healers and 100 patients were questioned. 47 wild and cultivated species were recorded. The most frequent uses were to treat tooth pain, gum diseases, bad breath and cavities. Infusions were the most frequently prepared formulation. Other applied preparations mentioned with decreasing frequency were decocts, syrups, tinctures, direct application of the plant material without prior preparation and finally macerations. The ethanolic extracts of Haematoxylon brasiletto, Punica granatum, Iostephane heterophyla, Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata and Rhus standleyi (12.5-65.0 μg/mL) as well as water extracts of Haematoxylon brasiletto, Punica granatum, Iostephane heterophyla, Amphipterygium adstringens, Argemone mexicana, Cedrela odorata, Eysenhardtia polystachya, Persea americana, Syzygium aromaticum, Cinnamomun zeylanicum, Cnidoscolus multilobus and Rhus standleyi (10.5-78.0 μg/mL) showed the highest inhibitory effect against Streptococcus mutans and

  2. Biological activity of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae and Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae extracts on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae

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    Fernando Mancebo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity of a plant extract (common rue, Ruta chalepensis and a semi purifíed fraction (from "tacaco cimarrón", Sechium pittieri on mahogany shootborer larvas (Hypsipyla grandella was studied. A randomized complete block design, with four replications, was used. H. grandella third instar larvas were exposed for 24 h to Cedrela odorata leaf discs dipped in several treatment dissolutions of each extract (0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.20, and 10%; afterwards, each larva was transferred to a flask containing an artificial diet and was allowed to complete its development. Variables measured included food consumption (foliar area eaten in 24 h, mortality, and developmental effects (developmental time for each larval instar and the pupa, and pupal weight. The common rue extract showed a clear antifeedant activity at a concentration as low as 0.32%, whereas the "tacaco cimarrón" fraction caused toxicity, especially at the two highest concentrations (3.20 and 10%.Se estudió la actividad biológica de un extracto de follaje de ruda (Ruta chalepensis y de una fracción semipurificada de "tacaco cimarrón" (Sechium pittieri sobre las larvas del gusano barrenador de las meliáceas (Hypsipyla grandella. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Durante 24 h se expusieron larvas de tercer estadio de H. grandella a discos de follaje de Cedrela odorata impregnados con cada tratamiento. Estos consistieron en disoluciones de cada extracto (0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.20 y 10%; posteriormente cada larva se transfirió a un frasco que contenía dieta artificial, donde se le permitió completar su desarrollo. Las variables de respuesta fueron el consumo de alimento (área foliar comida en 24 h, la mortalidad y efectos sobre el desarrollo (tiempo de desarrollo de cada estadio larval y de la pupa, y el peso de la pupa. El extracto de ruda causó fagodisuasión a una concentración de apenas 0.32%, mientras que la fracción de "tacaco cimarr

  3. Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Asociados a Dos Maderas en un Bosque muy Húmedo Premontano (Antioquia, Colombia

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    John Alexander Pulgarín Díaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Cedrela odorata y Jacaranda copaia son especies importantes en el neotrópico para protección y producción. Los insectos xilófagos que las atacan se han estudiado poco. Se caracterizó la diversidad de Scolytinae que perforan tales maderas y se comparó por especie forestal, época y ecosistema; se estudió su similitud por especie forestal; se probó su asociación con las maderas; y se midió su daño y el de otros insectos. Se expusieron trozas de las maderas en bosque, pastizal y su ecotono, por un mes, en época lluviosa y seca; luego se extrajeron los insectos de su interior. Las especies capturadas fueron Xyleborus ferrugineus, X. affinis y Platypodini. La diversidad de los Scolytinae fue baja, menor en J. copaia, la época seca y el potrero. Esta fauna fue similar entre las dos maderas. No se evidenció asociación entre las especies de escolitinos y las maderas. Los ataques fueron leves y no deterioraron gravemente los leños, siendo los Scolytinae los que más daños causan. Las diferencias encontradas radican principalmente en que los escolitinos capturados son generalistas y en las diferencias ambientales probadas. Se recomienda apear la madera en época seca y trasladarla a potreros para evitar ataques de organismos xilófagos.Abstract. Cedrela odorata and Jacaranda copaia are important species in the neotropics for protection and production. Xylophagous insects that attack the mentioned woods, have been little studied. Scolytinae that bore the mentioned woods diversity's was characterized and compared among species, season and ecosystem; similarity between forest species was studied; its association and woods was tested; and the damage produced by this and other insects was measured. Wood logs were exposed in a forest, grassland and its ecotono, for a month, in a rainy and dry season, then the insects from its interior were extracted. The captured species were Xyleborus ferrugineus, X. affinis and Platypodini

  4. Sobrevivência de espécies arbóreas plantadas em clareiras causadas pela colheita de madeira em uma floresta de terra firme no município de Paragominas na Amazônia brasileira Survival of seedlings planted in gaps after harvesting in a terra firme rain forest in Paragominas region in the Brazilian Amazonia

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    Jaqueline Macêdo Gomes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a sobrevivência de mudas plantadas em 400 clareiras causadas por exploração florestal de impacto reduzido, em floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Oriental. Foram plantadas 3.818 mudas de 17 espécies, das quais apenas Schizolobium amazonicum não ocorre na área de estudo. A distância entre as mudas plantadas foi de aproximadamente 5m. As avaliações ocorreram em 2005 e 2006. Com base na sobrevivência das mudas aos 11 meses após o plantio, as espécies indicadas para o enriquecimento de clareiras são: Schizolobium amazonicum, Cedrela odorata, Jacaranda copaia, Manilkara huberi, Astronium gracile, Pouteria bilocularis, Tabebuia impetiginosa,Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens, Cordia goeldiana, Parkia gigantocarpa, Simarouba amara, Sterculia pilosa, Laetia procera, Dinizia excelsa e Schefflera morototoni. Estudos sobre a taxa de crescimento, em períodos mais longos, são necessários para confirmar a utilização dessas espécies em plantios de enriquecimento de clareiras oriundas de exploração florestal, como alternativa para aumentar a produtividade e o valor econômico das florestas naturais manejadas na Amazônia brasileira.Survival of seedlings planted in 400 gaps created by reduced impact logging in a terra firme forest in the Eastern Amazonia was evaluated. 3,818 seedlings from 17 species occurring in the study area, except for Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, which is rare in natural forests of Paragominas region, were planted in the gaps. Spacing of planted seedlings was 5m. According to survival of seedlings during 11 months after planting, the species Schizolobium amazonicum, Cedrela odorata, Jacaranda copaia, Manilkara huberi, Astronium gracile, Pouteria bilocularis, Tabebuia impetiginosa,Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens, Cordia goeldiana, Parkia gigantocarpa, Simarouba amara, Sterculia pilosa, Laetia procera, Dinizia excelsa and Schefflera morototoni can be suggested for enriching in gaps created by reduced impact logging

  5. Suscetibilidade de cultivares de algodoeiro a Rhizoctonia solani e benefícios do tratamento de sementes com fungicidas Susceptibility of cotton cultivars to Rhizoctonia solani and benefits of fungicide seed treatment

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    Augusto César Pereira Goulart

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento de seis cultivares de algodoeiro (BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, BRS-Cedro, Fibermax 966, DeltaOpal e CNPA Ita 90-II ao fungo Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 e os benefícios do tratamento de sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas para cada cultivar em estudo, em relação à densidade de inóculo deste fungo. O ensaio foi conduzido na casa de vegetação da Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, MS. Foram definidas quatro densidades populacionais do fungo (0; 1; 2 e 3g de inóculo do fungo/bandeja plástica de 56x35x10cm para a realização do ensaio. As avaliações foram realizadas com base no desenvolvimento de sintomas e sobrevivência das plântulas, utilizando os dados de emergência inicial e final e de tombamento de pós-emergência. Sementes não tratadas e tratadas com a mistura fungicida tolylfluanid + pencycuron + triadimenol (30+50+50g do i.a./100kg de sementes foram semeadas em areia contida em bandejas plásticas, dispostas em orifícios individuais, eqüidistantes e a 3cm de profundidade. A inoculação com R. solani foi feita pela distribuição homogênea do inóculo do fungo na superfície do substrato. O fungo foi cultivado por 35 dias em sementes de aveia preta autoclavadas e trituradas em moinho (1mm. Houve efeito significativo das interações cultivares x níveis de inóculo, cultivares x fungicidas e níveis de inóculo x fungicidas. O comportamento das cultivares foi significativamente influenciado pelas diferentes populações de R. solani, sendo que, a medida que se aumentou a densidade de inóculo do patógeno, menores índices de emergência e maiores índices de doença foram observados. Ficou claramente demonstrada também a importância do tratamento das sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas, sendo que as melhores emergências e os menores índices de doença (tombamento e plântulas lesionadas, independente da cultivar testada, foram obtidos quando as sementes foram

  6. Mineralogy of the fraction and age estimation rubidium - strontium of the Bambui Group, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the illite crystallinity of sediments of the Upper Precambrian Bambui Group, MG, has been done to determine the zones without metamorphism, the only ones able to give the age of the sedimentation. Only the region of Januaria escaped from any sensible thermo-tectonic event. The Bambui sediments contain well crystallized vermiculite probably formed during the anchimetamorphism. The rubidium-strontium age obtained in Januaria (619 + - 17 m.y.) corresponds in fact to the main phase of the Brazilian orogenic cycle. The late isotopic homogeneization was caused by a strong late diagenesis. The anchimetamorphic phosphateous sediments in Cedro do Abate show that the ferro-magnesian illite is a more easely open system than aluminous illite, and in this case dates the later event of the Brazilian cycle at 445 + - 25 m.y. The age of 600 m.y. for the metamorphism is a younger limit for the real age of the Bambui, the late Precambrian age of which is confirmed

  7. Protección de los derechos de autor y fomento de la cultura

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    Vinent, Magdalena

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Tres son los principales propósitos del presente artículo. En primer lugar, el de exponer de forma sucinta los principales objetivos y funciones del Centro Español de Derechos Reprográficos, entidad de gestión de derechos de propiedad intelectual de autores y editores, y de qué manera contribuye a promover las condiciones propicias para el desarrollo de la cultura escrita. El segundo objetivo de este texto es presentar el enfoque con el que CEDRO aborda sus relaciones con el mundo de las bibliotecas, en virtud de la legislación vigente sobre propiedad intelectual. Por último, defenderé la idea de que el Derecho de Autor constituye uno de los fundamentos necesarios para que las bibliotecas puedan desarrollar su importante función social, y que por tanto éstas son parte interesa da en la defensa y promoción de aquél.

  8. Study of the effect of gamma radiation on some physical-mechanical properties of wood used in Brazilian cultural and artistic heritage; Estudo do efeito da radiacao gama sobre algumas propriedades fisico-mecanicas de madeiras usadas em patrimonios artisticos e culturais brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severiano, Lucio Cesar

    2010-07-01

    Wood is considered a natural composite of extreme complexity, basically composed by cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose (polyosis) and extractives. Its composition favors biological attacks from different species. In this context, several techniques have been studied and applied for disinfecting and decontaminating wood-made works of art and cultural heritage, which have been damaged by fungi, bacteria and insects. Gamma radiation emitted by unstable isotopes, such as 60- cobalt, has also been studied as an alternative to the conventional wood preservatives. So, gamma rays treatment has been shown to be efficient to the removal of infestations by insects and microorganisms in wood-made artifacts, to be fast and not to require quarantine because it does not generate toxic waste. Similar to other techniques, this process does not prevent the irradiated material of re-infestation or recontamination. In this context, the effects of relatively high disinfestation gamma radiation doses (up to 100 kGy) on cedro rosa and imbuia, two typical Brazilian wood species, are accompanied by the changes on the following attributes: apparent density, retracting, parallel compression to fibers, bending in the modulus of elasticity, hardness, shear and thermal stability. Results have shown that gamma radiation, in the studied dose range, does not promote alterations on properties of investigated wood species. In case of a re-infestation, these observations indicate that the wood species can be submitted to repeatedly irradiation processes without causing damage to their structure up to the studied dose range, in despite of radiation effects be always cumulative. (author)

  9. Caracterización de maderas usadas en Boyacá de acuerdo con el Reglamento Colombiano de Construcción Sismo Resistente

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    Julián Andrés Zárate Ramírez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizan las seis especies de maderas comúnmente utilizadas como elementos estructurales en el departamento de Boyacá, a partir de sus propiedades mecánicas y elásticas, y usando como referencia el capítulo G del Reglamento Colombiano de Construcción Sismo Resistente del 2010. Las especies estudiadas fueron: abarco, amarillo, cedro, eucalipto, guayacán y pino. Los ensayos se realizaron en el laboratorio de estructuras de la Uptc, e incluyeron: densidad aparente, contenido de humedad, resistencia a la flexión, módulo de elasticidad, resistencia a la compresión y tracción. A los datos obtenidos se les realizó un análisis estadístico y,según la metodología contenida en el NSR-10, una reducción que generaría valores equiparables a los del reglamento. Las maderas estudiadas mostraron un comportamiento óptimo para ser usadas como elementos estructurales.

  10. Biossólido como substrato para produção de mudas de Toona ciliata var. australis

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    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O êxito de plantios florestais não está ligado unicamente à espécie utilizada, mas depende diretamente do tipo de recipiente, da qualidade das sementes e do substrato utilizado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do biossólido como substrato na produção de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata. O experimento foi realizado em casa de sombra do Viveiro Florestal/CCA/UFES. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído de seis tratamentos contendo biossólido, em proporções decrescentes, associado com terra de subsolo e dois tratamentos sem o uso de biossólido (esterco bovino + terra de subsolo e substrato comercial, respectivamente, com oito repetições. No geral, os melhores resultados para as características morfológicas analisadas foram obtidos com a utilização de 100 a 70% de biossólido na composição do substrato. Portanto, o biossólido pode ser considerado adequado para o crescimento de mudas de Toona ciliata o que demonstra uma alternativa viável de disposição final desse resíduo.

  11. Study of the effect of gamma radiation on some physical-mechanical properties of wood used in Brazilian cultural and artistic heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severiano, Lucio Cesar

    2010-01-01

    Wood is considered a natural composite of extreme complexity, basically composed by cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose (polyosis) and extractives. Its composition favors biological attacks from different species. In this context, several techniques have been studied and applied for disinfecting and decontaminating wood-made works of art and cultural heritage, which have been damaged by fungi, bacteria and insects. Gamma radiation emitted by unstable isotopes, such as 60- cobalt, has also been studied as an alternative to the conventional wood preservatives. So, gamma rays treatment has been shown to be efficient to the removal of infestations by insects and microorganisms in wood-made artifacts, to be fast and not to require quarantine because it does not generate toxic waste. Similar to other techniques, this process does not prevent the irradiated material of re-infestation or recontamination. In this context, the effects of relatively high disinfestation gamma radiation doses (up to 100 kGy) on cedro rosa and imbuia, two typical Brazilian wood species, are accompanied by the changes on the following attributes: apparent density, retracting, parallel compression to fibers, bending in the modulus of elasticity, hardness, shear and thermal stability. Results have shown that gamma radiation, in the studied dose range, does not promote alterations on properties of investigated wood species. In case of a re-infestation, these observations indicate that the wood species can be submitted to repeatedly irradiation processes without causing damage to their structure up to the studied dose range, in despite of radiation effects be always cumulative. (author)

  12. Perfil de lípidos y ácidos grasos de Perna viridis, mejillón verde (Mollusca: Bivalvia en el oriente venezolano y la costa oeste de Trinidad

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    Tamar Koftayan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los lípidos totales fueron extraídos, identificados y cuantificados por gravimetría, mediante TLC/FID (sistema Iatroscan. Los ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales, fosfolípidos y triacilgliceroles fueron identificados y cuantificados por cromatografía de gases. Las mayores concentraciones de lípidos totales se presentaron en las muestras de Los Cedros, La Brea y Chaguaramas con valores de 7.92, 7.74 y 7.53%; respectivamente y los valores mínimos en las de La Restinga (6.08%. En la composición lípidica, las muestras de Chacopata presentaron la menor concentración de fosfolípidos (48.86% y los máximos valores de colesterol (38.87% y triacilgliceroles (12.26%, y las muestras de La Esmeralda y Río Caribe exhibieron concentraciones máximas de fosfolípidos (88.71-84.93%, respectivamente y mínimas de colesterol (6.50-4.42%. En los lípidos totales, los ácidos grasos saturados se encontraron entre 15.04 y 65.55%, con máximos en muestras de La Esmeralda y mínimos en Chacopata y los poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 7.80 y 37.18%, con máximos valores en la Brea y mínimos en la Esmeralda. En los fosfolípidos, la concentración de ácidos grasos saturados estuvo entre 38.81 y 48.68% para las muestras de Chaguaramas y Chacopata, respectivamente; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados se encontraron entre no detectado y 34.51%, con altas concentraciones en muestras de Los Cedros (27.97% y Chaguaramas (34.51%. En los triacilgliceroles, la composición de ácidos grasos saturados variaron entre 14.27 y 53.80%, con baja concentración en Chacopata y alta concentración en La Restinga; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 4.66 y 35.55%, con valores menores en las muestras de Chacopata (4.66% y mayores en Chaguaramas. El consumo frecuente de Perna viridis es recomendable, debido a su alto contenido de fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos insaturados.Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, Green Mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia in

  13. Estudio térmico e infrarrojo de cinco tipos de madera comercializadas en norte de santander, para su posible uso como fuente de energía

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    Yessika Contreras-Valero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wood is one of the most exploited natural resources by man; however, its use leads to the production of considerable amounts of waste, which pollute due to its decomposition. For this reason, several investigations have search different possible uses for this wastes, among which is, its use as a source of energy; however, waste contains different types of wood so, its potential is unknown. Objective: In this work, we determined the thermal properties, infrared analysis and combustion heat of five types of wood fresh and dry, marketed in Norte de Santander: cedar (Cedrela montana, pine (Cupressus lusitánica mil, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulos labill, guadua (Guadua angustifolia and pardillo (Cordia gerascanthus. Methods: Thermal behavior was determined using an equipment SDT-Q600 de T.A. Instruments with simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (TGA / differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The energetic content was studied using a Phillipson modified combustion bomb, and infrared analysis using an infrared spectrophotometer FT-IR-ATR, SHIMADZU Prestige-21. Results: Thermal analysis showed the presence two weight losses and three thermal events (2 endothermic and 1 exothermic, these events are due to the moisture and the degradation of the chemical components. Each wood has different combustion heat. Infrared analysis allowed corroborating the presence of cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose and other organic compounds. Conclusion: The analysis carried out on the wood samples allowed to establish their differences and similarities that can be used to choose each as a source of energy or as a construction material.

  14. Electrophysiological responses of female and male Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) to Swietenia macrophylla essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marisi G; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Fernandes, João B; Corrêa, Arlene G; da Silva, M Fátima G F; Vieira, Paulo C; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ohashi, Orlando S

    2003-09-01

    The mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella, is one of the most economically important Neotropical forest pest insects because it attacks valuable timber of the Meliaceae. Despite detailed information on the life cycle of H. grandella, factors influencing attack by the shoot borer are not well known. Electroantennogram studies of borer antennae indicate that both female and male moths elicited significant antennal responses to essential oil of the terminal shoots, mature and senescent leaves, in three concentrations. Gamma-himachalene, germacrene D, germacrene A, cadina-1,4-diene, hexadecanoic acid, and ethyl hexadecanoate appeared in all essential oils from Swietenia macrophylla. Germacrene-D and gamma-himachalene were also present in the active essential oil of Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. These findings suggest that these compounds play a role in attracting H. grandella to oviposit on the leaves of these plants. The GC-EAD of essential oil from S. macrophylla mature leaves to female H. grandella antennae led to the identification of beta-caryophyllene as the main constituent responsible for the antennae response.

  15. Use of grafting to prevent Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage to new world Meliaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Julian; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Hilje, Luko; Tripepi, Robert R; Aguilar, Maria E; Mesen, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The susceptible species Cedrela odorata and Swietenia macrophylla to attack by Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) larvae were grafted onto the resistant species Khaya senegalensis and Toona ciliata. Six-month-old grafted plants were then compared to their reciprocal grafts and to both intact (non-grafted) and autografted plants for damage due to H. grandella larvae and for their effects on larval performance. Two experiments were conducted: one in which the apical bud of the main plant shoot was inoculated with H. grandella eggs, and the other in which the bud was inoculated with third instars. Damage in each experiment was assessed by the number of frass piles, number and length of tunnels, number of damaged leaves, and damage to the apical bud. Larval performance was evaluated in terms of time to reach pupation and pupal weight and length. In both experiments, plant damage differed significantly among treatments (P < 0.03). Resistant rootstocks conferred resistance to susceptible scions. In both experiments, grafting by itself, regardless of the rootstock and scion combination, also reduced damage caused by H. grandella larvae. Scions of autografted susceptible species had similar resistance to susceptible scions grafted on resistant rootstocks. Few larvae reached pupation, and their pupal weight and length were similar.

  16. Oxygen isotopes in tree rings are a good proxy for Amazon precipitation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, Roel J. W.; Helle, Gerd; Pons, Thijs L.; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Gloor, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    We present a unique proxy for the reconstruction of variation in precipitation over the Amazon: oxygen isotope ratios in annual rings in tropical cedar (Cedrela odorata). A century-long record from northern Bolivia shows that tree rings preserve the signal of oxygen isotopes in precipitation during the wet season, with weaker influences of temperature and vapor pressure. Tree ring δ18O correlates strongly with δ18O in precipitation from distant stations in the center and west of the basin, and with Andean ice core δ18O showing that the signal is coherent over large areas. The signal correlates most strongly with basin-wide precipitation and Amazon river discharge. We attribute the strength of this (negative) correlation mainly to the cumulative rainout processes of oxygen isotopes (Rayleigh distillation) in air parcels during westward transport across the basin. We further find a clear signature of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the record, with strong ENSO influences over recent decades, but weaker influence from 1925 to 1975 indicating decadal scale variation in the controls on the hydrological cycle. The record exhibits a significant increase in δ18O over the 20th century consistent with increases in Andean δ18O ice core and lake records, which we tentatively attribute to increased water vapor transport into the basin. Taking these data together, our record reveals a fresh path to diagnose and improve our understanding of variation and trends of the hydrological cycle of the world's largest river catchment.

  17. Extraction and evaluation of condensed tannins from bark of eleven species of trees from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Lopez, Jorge; Vega Guzman, Ileana; Borbon Alpizar, Henry; Soto Fallas, Roy Mario; Jaen Jimenez, Jean Carlo; Vargas Abarca, Ana Sofia; Jimenez Bonilla, Pablo; Herrera Nunez, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    A study is made regarding the nature and the amount of condensed tannin which can extract of bark from 11 tree species present in Costa Rica: guanacaste (Enterolobium cyclocarpum), cork oak (Licania arborea), jobo (Spondias mombin), pochote (Pachira quinata), loquat (Manilkara chicle), almond (Andira inermis), oak (Tabebuia rosea), cedar (Cedrela odorata), cenizaro (Samanea saman), pine (Pinus caribaea) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica). The cortex samples were prepared, dried and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were analyzed for condensed tannin content through the number of Stiasny, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The species with the highest proportion of extracted material were: guanacaste (9.5841% w/w), pochote (15.0066% w/w), pine (19.3400% w/w) and cypress (10.5300% w/w). The extracts with a higher proportion of condensed tannins have been: cork oak (61.9% w/w), jobo (66.1% w/w), pochote (72.8% w/w), loquat (50.5% w/w), cedar (72.7% w/w) and pine (70.7% w/w). (author) [es

  18. Antioxidant and insect growth regulatory activities of stilbenes and extracts from Yucca periculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Patricio; Avila, J Guillermo; Romo de Vivar, Alfonso; García, Ana M; Marín, Juan C; Aranda, Eduardo; Céspedes, Carlos L

    2003-09-01

    The methanol extract from the bark of Yucca periculosa F. Baker afforded 4,4'-dihydroxstilbene, resveratrol and 3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxystilbene and had growth regulatory activity against the Fall Army worm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) an insect pest of corn. The most active compound was 3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxystilbene which had significant effects at 3 microg/g in diets. In addition to the inhibitory activity on bleaching of crocin induced by alkoxyl radicals, these compounds also demonstrated scavenging properties toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl in TLC autographic and spectrophotometric assays. Our results indicate that these compounds could be involved in interference of sclerotization and moulting. These compounds appear to have selective effects on the pre-emergence metabolism of the insect. The results were fully comparable to known natural insect growth inhibitors such as gedunin and Cedrela extracts and have had a possible role as natural insecticidal agents.

  19. DIVERSITY, ESTRUCTURE AND RICHNESS INDICATORS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF VEGETATION BIODIVERSITY IN RURAL LANDSCAPES

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    Claudio Vite Cristóbal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of efficient sampling techniques for the study of linear vegetation remnants in the Mexican tropics anthropised areas was the main premise for this research, in order to determine the diversity, richness and vegetation structure of rural landscapes according to its conservation value through efficient and representative linear sampling techniques. The biological characterization of plants was performed in an area of 4,096 m2, in eight components of the landscape, a total of 2260 ha. The vegetation consists of 144 species, 127 genera and 51 families. These were distributed at herbs 71.26%, shrubs 22.80%, trees 3.49%, and vines 2.45%. High values ​​of diversity and richness were found in hedgerows, stream shore, shore road, scrub and citrus growing. It is suggested to give priority to the conservation of stream bank that protects species such as Cedrela odorata and Sapium macrocarpum. The efficiency and representativeness of the sample was 95% through rarefaction given by the best fit of Chao 1 and ACE, highly significant linear correlation between true diversity and richness of species, and the high value of spare.

  20. The impact of tree age on biomass growth and carbon accumulation capacity: A retrospective analysis using tree ring data of three tropical tree species grown in natural forests of Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhl, Michael; Neupane, Prem R; Lotfiomran, Neda

    2017-01-01

    The world's forests play a pivotal role in the mitigation of global climate change. By photosynthesis they remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store carbon in their biomass. While old trees are generally acknowledged for a long carbon residence time, there is no consensus on their contribution to carbon accumulation due to a lack of long-term individual tree data. Tree ring analyses, which use anatomical differences in the annual formation of wood for dating growth zones, are a retrospective approach that provides growth patterns of individual trees over their entire lifetime. We developed time series of diameter growth and related annual carbon accumulation for 61 trees of the species Cedrela odorata L. (Meliacea), Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabacea) and Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiacea). The trees grew in unmanaged tropical wet-forests of Suriname and reached ages from 84 to 255 years. Most of the trees show positive trends of diameter growth and carbon accumulation over time. For some trees we observed fluctuating growth-periods of lower growth alternate with periods of increased growth. In the last quarter of their lifetime trees accumulate on average between 39 percent (C. odorata) and 50 percent (G. glabra) of their final carbon stock. This suggests that old-growth trees in tropical forests do not only contribute to carbon stocks by long carbon resistance times, but maintain high rates of carbon accumulation at later stages of their life time.

  1. EFFECT OF THE PLANTATION DENSITY IN THE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF Cnidoscolus chayamansa MCVAUGH (EUPHORBIACEAE

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    Jesús Mao Estanislao Aguilar Luna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The plantation density (PD is a decisive factor in the agronomical resources of cultivation; as such, in this experiment, the effect of the growth and the productivity of the chaya plants were evaluated, as an associated growing in the cedar-lime system, to determine its optimum PD. The chaya plants were positioned at 1.50 x 3.00 m, utilizing cuttings without leaves; associated with young trees (less than 2 years of Cedrela odorata and Citrus latifolia in a circular plantation design 'Nelder' of 3154 m2. Eight PD from 2602 to 3772 plants·ha-1 were defined with 10 repetitions. The variables were: rhizogenic potential (RP, growth rate (GR, index of vigor (IV, index of leaf area (ILA and production of dry biomass (PDB. The results indicated that of the 3046 to 3772 plants·ha-1 were found to have the best RP, the ILA (5.44 and PDB (8.48 kg·plant-1; even though the IV (1.16 and GR (0.51 cm·day-1 were the best in 2602 to 2647 plants·ha-1. As the primary objective in this specie is the PDB, the PD optimal was 3046 to 3772 plants·ha-1.

  2. The impact of tree age on biomass growth and carbon accumulation capacity: A retrospective analysis using tree ring data of three tropical tree species grown in natural forests of Suriname.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Köhl

    Full Text Available The world's forests play a pivotal role in the mitigation of global climate change. By photosynthesis they remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store carbon in their biomass. While old trees are generally acknowledged for a long carbon residence time, there is no consensus on their contribution to carbon accumulation due to a lack of long-term individual tree data. Tree ring analyses, which use anatomical differences in the annual formation of wood for dating growth zones, are a retrospective approach that provides growth patterns of individual trees over their entire lifetime. We developed time series of diameter growth and related annual carbon accumulation for 61 trees of the species Cedrela odorata L. (Meliacea, Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabacea and Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiacea. The trees grew in unmanaged tropical wet-forests of Suriname and reached ages from 84 to 255 years. Most of the trees show positive trends of diameter growth and carbon accumulation over time. For some trees we observed fluctuating growth-periods of lower growth alternate with periods of increased growth. In the last quarter of their lifetime trees accumulate on average between 39 percent (C. odorata and 50 percent (G. glabra of their final carbon stock. This suggests that old-growth trees in tropical forests do not only contribute to carbon stocks by long carbon resistance times, but maintain high rates of carbon accumulation at later stages of their life time.

  3. Floristic aspects and diversity of regenerated arboreal species under a stand of Anadenanthera peregrina Speg.

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    Gutenberg de Almeida Nascimento

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the campus of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais state, in an area of 7.56ha which in earlier times was planted with Anadenanthera peregrina. It aimed to describe the floristic composition of the site so asto provide a theoretical basis to assist future local management interventions. A total of 81 plots, each measuring 10x10m, wereallocated and arranged in such way as to cover as much apparent variation in the physiognomic gradient of the vegetation as possible.All individuals with DBH (diameter at breast height > 5.0 cm were recorded. Each individual had their DBH and height recorded.Diversity was assessed using Shannon, Pielou and Jentsen indices and compared to adjacent areas and to other areas with similarhistory of land use. The sampling procedure recorded 1,180 individuals, distributed among 25 families and 66 species. The familypresenting the largest number of recorded species was Fabaceae, with 16 species (24.24%. The genera presenting the greatest floristicrichness were Casearia, with four species, Machaerium and Rollinia, each with three species, and Anadenanthera, Tapirira, Cordia,Protium, Inga, Ocotea, Miconia, Cedrela and Myrcia, each with two species. The Shannon diversity index (H was 1.47 nats.ind-1,indicating that the local community has low species diversity.

  4. Intraspecific Variability in Seed Quality of Native Tree Species in Mountain Forests in Southern Ecuador: Implications for Forest Restoration

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    Ximena Palomeque

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects in efficient plant production for restoration purposes is seed quality and its variability. The main goal of this study was to evaluate seed parameters according to the rules of “International Seed Testing Association” among different mother trees or individuals of seven native tree species (Cedrela montana, Morella pubescens, Inga acreana, Tabebuia chrysantha, Ocotea heterochroma, Oreocallis grandiflora and Myrcianthes rhopaloides in two mountain forests in the Southern of Ecuador. These species were selected based on the ecological, socioeconomic importance, and their high potential for restoration. From a total of 35 mother trees for all species, seeds were collected in their fructification periods, and in the laboratory the following seed parameters were analyzed: purity, seed weight, moisture content, and germination; in addition, the coefficient of velocity of germination was determined as well. The results showed an intraspecific similarity in each species for the majority of seed parameters. However, the seed weight showed a high intraspecific variability for all species. The germination parameter showed differences among individuals for C. montana, T. chrysantha, O. heterochroma and M. rophaloides. In regard to the coefficient of velocity of germination, individual of species such as O. grandiflora and I. acreana showed a high coefficient in contrast to the individuals of O. heterochroma and M. pubescens. The information generated in this study could be a first step in the formulation of guidelines for the mass plant production for restoration purposes.

  5. AVALIAÇÃO DE ESPECTRÔMETRO NIR PORTÁTIL E PLS-DA PARA A DISCRIMINAÇÃO DE SEIS ESPÉCIES SIMILARES DE MADEIRAS AMAZÔNICAS

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    Liz F. Soares

    Full Text Available Supervising wood exploitation can be very challenging due to the existence of many similar species and the reduced number of wood identification experts to meet the demand. There is evidence that valuable endangered wood species are being smuggled disguised as other species. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and chemometrics has been successfully used to discriminate between Amazonian wood species using high resolution instruments. In this study, a handheld spectrometer was evaluated for the discrimination of six visually similar tropical wood species using PLS-DA. Woods of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla and cedar (Cedrela odorata, both high value tropical timber species included in Appendixes II and III of the CITES, respectively; crabwood (Carapa guianensis; cedrinho (Erisma uncinatum; curupixá (Micropholis melinoniana; and jatobá (Hymenea coubaril. The data for model development and validation take into account both laboratory and field measurements. Outlier exclusion was performed based on Hotelling T2, residuals Q and errors in the estimated class values. The efficiency rates were higher than 90% for all species, showing that the handheld NIR combined with PLS-DA succeeded in discriminate between these species. These results stimulate the application of handheld NIR spectrometers in the supervision of wood exploitation, which can contribute to the species preservation.

  6. Diversidad florística y estructura en cacaotales tradicionales y bosque natural (Sumaco, Ecuador

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    Oswaldo Angel Jadán Maza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron la diversidad, estructura horizontal y vertical de la vegetación arbórea y arbustiva en cacaotales tradicionales y bosque maduro. Se evaluó la diversidad alfa, beta y se identificaron relaciones entre la riqueza con la estructura de la vegetación arbórea. El bosque registró los mayores valores en riqueza de especies, abundancia y estructura, seguido por el sistema agroforestal tradicional con cacao semilla. Las especies más importantes ecológicamente en el bosque fueron Iriartea deltoidea y Otoba glycycarpa. En todos los sistemas agroforestales tradicionales fueron Cordia alliodora y Cedrela odorata. En los sistemas agroforestales con cultivo de cacao la riqueza de especies se correlaciona positivamente con la densidad y área basal, marcando dependencia directa entre estas variables. Este resultado no puede generalizarse ya que en el bosque maduro y sistema agroforestal de subsistencia no se registran estas dependencias. Esto posiblemente es explicado por la discetaniedad, tamaños de vegetación y distribución aleatoria de los individuos sobre la riqueza de especies. Se concluyó que el bosque maduro y el sistema agroforestal con cacao semilla son los sistemas más importantes para conservación de especies arbóreas y arbustivas, según la riqueza, diversidad, índices de similitud y estructura de la vegetación.

  7. Phylogenetically diverse AM fungi from Ecuador strongly improve seedling growth of native potential crop trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüßler, Arthur; Krüger, Claudia; Urgiles, Narcisa

    2016-04-01

    In many deforested regions of the tropics, afforestation with native tree species could valorize a growing reservoir of degraded, previously overused and abandoned land. The inoculation of tropical tree seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) can improve tree growth and viability, but efficiency may depend on plant and AM fungal genotype. To study such effects, seven phylogenetically diverse AM fungi, native to Ecuador, from seven genera and a non-native AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM197198) were used to inoculate the tropical potential crop tree (PCT) species Handroanthus chrysanthus (synonym Tabebuia chrysantha), Cedrela montana, and Heliocarpus americanus. Twenty-four plant-fungus combinations were studied in five different fertilization and AMF inoculation treatments. Numerous plant growth parameters and mycorrhizal root colonization were assessed. The inoculation with any of the tested AM fungi improved seedling growth significantly and in most cases reduced plant mortality. Plants produced up to threefold higher biomass, when compared to the standard nursery practice. AM fungal inoculation alone or in combination with low fertilization both outperformed full fertilization in terms of plant growth promotion. Interestingly, root colonization levels for individual fungi strongly depended on the host tree species, but surprisingly the colonization strength did not correlate with plant growth promotion. The combination of AM fungal inoculation with a low dosage of slow release fertilizer improved PCT seedling performance strongest, but also AM fungal treatments without any fertilization were highly efficient. The AM fungi tested are promising candidates to improve management practices in tropical tree seedling production.

  8. Propagação vegetativa de cedo-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roemer por miniestaquia Vegetative propagation of Toona ciliata M. Roemer by the minicutting technique

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    Jonicélia Cristina Araújo Vieira de Souza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O método de propagação usual do cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata é via seminal, entretanto a oferta sazonal das sementes e sua curta viabilidade ao longo do tempo representam um problema para a produção contínua de mudas destinadas à implantação de povoamentos. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade da propagação vegetativa da espécie por miniestaquia e a necessidade da aplicação de acido indolbutírico (AIB para o enraizamento das miniestacas. A partir de um banco de estacas de origem seminal, foram obtidas brotações para produção de mudas clonais, em três diferentes épocas de coleta (2,5; 4,5; e 5,5 meses após a recepa das mudas. Antes do estaqueamento, as miniestacas tiveram suas bases imersas em quatro concentrações de AIB (0; 1.500; 3.000; e 4.500 mg L-1. Durante o experimento, obtiveram-se 100% de sobrevivência das minicepas e das miniestacas. Houve 100% de enraizamento das miniestacas nas três coletas, não ocorrendo diferença no comprimento de raízes em função das doses de auxina aplicadas. Quanto maior o intervalo entre as coletas e quanto maiores as brotações que originaram as miniestacas, maior a velocidade de crescimento das mudas. Miniestacas de cedro-australiano possuem capacidade de enraizamento, e mudas recepadas apresentam brotação, possibilitando a clonagem da espécie pelo processo de miniestaquia.Sexual propagation is the method commonly used for the Australian Red Cedar Toona ciliata. However, seasonal seed availability and short viability are a concern for the continuous offer of seeds for implantation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the viability of vegetative propagation of this species through minicutting and to test indolbutiric acid (IBA application for rooting of minicuttings. Sprouts for clonal minicutting production were obtained from a miniclonal garden established from seeds, in three different harvest times (2.5; 4.5 and 5.5 months

  9. Estabilidade físico-química e mercado do mexilhão (Perna perna cultivado em Ubatuba - SP Physicochemical stability and market of mussels (Perna perna cultivated in Ubatuba - SP, Brasil

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    Érika Fabiane Furlan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou caracterizar o mexilhão Perna perna como alimento no que se refere à estabilidade físico-química, valor nutricional e consumo. Os mexilhões avaliados foram coletados em três regiões distintas do litoral norte de São Paulo: praia da Barra Seca, praia do Engenho da Almada e costão do Cedro. Determinou-se a composição centesimal (umidade, proteína bruta, carboidrato, lipídios e cinza, o valor calórico, o pH e as bases voláteis nitrogenadas totais. Paralelamente foi realizado estudo de mercado, através de questionários não estruturados, aplicados aos comerciantes e consumidores locais. Detectou-se variação dos constituintes químicos dos mexilhões em função da sazonalidade, bem como, do local de origem destes. Estes constituem uma fonte protéica (9,1 g.100 g-1, com baixo teor lipídico (1,1 g.100 g-1 e calórico (72,7 Kcal.100 g-1. Apresentaram uma estabilidade físico-química de 4 dias, sob temperatura de 10 °C (±1, conforme aferido pelos resultados apresentados, que não se correlacionaram entre si. No geral, os estabelecimentos comerciais apontaram uma preferência pela aquisição do mexilhão sem as conchas e uma maior demanda do produto preparado na forma de vinagrete. Foi diagnosticado o desconhecimento do produto pelos consumidores e conseqüente necessidade de marketing visando sua promoção.This research work consisted of characterizing Perna perna mussel as a food in terms of its physicochemical stability, nutritional value and consumption. Specimens of the mussel were collected from three sites off the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, namely Barra Seca, Engenho da Almada and Costão do Cedro. The centesimal composition (humidity, crude protein, carbohydrates, lipids and ash, caloric value, pH and total basic volatile nitrogen were determined. A market study was also carried out based on a nonstructured questionnaire distributed to local tradesmen and consumers. The

  10. ALMACÉN DE CARBONO EN SISTEMAS AGROFORESTALES CON CAFÉ

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    William Espinoza-Domínguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de estimar el almacén de carbono en sistemas agroforestales (SAF con base en café en la región de Huatusco, zona de mayor producción de café (Coffea arabiga L. en el estado de Veracruz, México, a fin de obtener información cuantitativa sobre el potencial de mitigación de carbono en los SAF de la región. Para ello, se estimaron los reservorios de carbono en biomasa vegetal y la materia orgánica edáfica existentes en sistemas agroforestales de café-plátano, café-macadamia, café-cedro rosado, café-ganado ovino y café-chalahuite, y como referencia de una condición no agroforestal se incluyeron un bosque primario y un potrero con pradera natural. La recolección de muestras se hizo en parcelas de 4 x 25 m (100 m2, donde se colectó biomasa de vegetación herbácea y mantillo, y para el suelo la profundidad de muestreo fue de 0 a 30 cm. El sistema agroforestal que presentó la mayor cantidad de carbono aéreo, estimado con modelos alelométricos, fue café-cedro rosado (Ca + Ce, con 114 Mg C·ha-1, seguido de los sistemas café - macadamia (Ca + Ma, con 34 Mg C·ha-1; café-chalahuite (Ca + Ch, con 29 Mg C·ha-1; café-plátano velillo (Ca + Pl, con 27 Mg C·ha-1; y por último el sistema silvopastoril (Sp, con 2 Mg C·ha-1. Para el caso del carbono orgánico del suelo, el tratamiento (Ca + Ce fue el que presentó mayor contenido de carbono fácilmente oxidable en el suelo, con 58 Mg C·ha-1, y el menor fue el tratamiento potrero (P, con 50 Mg C·ha-1. Del carbono orgánico total entre los SAF el tratamiento Ca + Ce fue el que tuvo el mayor valor, con 172 Mg C·ha-1, y el tratamiento silvopastoril (Sp presentó el menor, con 65 Mg C·ha-1. De los sistemas evaluados se concluye que, en promedio, los SAF almacenan 102 Mg C·ha-1, mientras que el potrero almacena 52 t C·ha-1, y el bosque primario es el sistema que más almacena carbono total, con un valor de 355 Mg C·ha-1.

  11. Economia e agropecuária na microrregião de Salgueiro em Pernambuco | Economy and agriculture in the microrregion Salgueiro in Pernambuco - Brazil

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    Renato de Oliveira Coelho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A microrregião Salgueiro possui condições adversar ao ser comparado a maioria das cidades brasileiras. Possui temperatura alta, precipitação e umidade relativa baixa. Devido a estes fatores, o grande problema da região é o acesso à água, que por muitas vezes é escassa até mesmo para as necessidades mais básicas dos seus habitantes. Objetiva-se nesse trabalho fazer uma análise do desenvolvimento da microrregião com base nos dados obtidos de cada um dos sete municípios. A microrregião Salgueiro está situada na zona fisiográfica do Sertão no estado de Pernambuco, localizada nas coordenadas geográficas 8° 4′ 3″ Sul, 39° 7′ 27″ Oeste. O trabalho foi realizado a partir de dados dos Censos Demográficos de 1991 (IBGE, 1992, 2000 (IBGE, 2001 e 2010 (IBGE 2011, e Censos Agropecuários de 1975 (IBGE, 1976, 1985 (IBGE, 1986, 1995 (IBGE, 1996 e 2005 (IBGE 2006 e do Banco de Dados. Realizaram-se análises de dados referentes à população, índice de desenvolvimento humano, renda per capita, pecuária, estruturas fundiárias, agricultura, tipos de lavouras, equipamentos agrícolas e recursos edáficos. Dentre os municípios estudados, Salgueiro e Cedro, apresentaram os maiores índices de desenvolvimento, enquanto Mirandiba apresentou os menores. O elevado desenvolvimento de Salgueiro pode ser atribuído à agricultura, pecuária e sua localização. ABSTRACT: The micro region Salgueiro has adversar conditions be compared to most brazilian cities. It has high temperature, humidity and rainfall relative low. Due to these factors, the great problem of region is the access to water, that in many times and scarce even for as basic needs more their of the inhabitants. The objective is to this work make a analysis in the development in micro region Salgueiro based nos of data obtained each of the seven municipalities. The micro region is situated in the physiographic area of Sertão in state of Pernambuco, located in the

  12. The 27 May 1937 catastrophic flow failure of gold tailings at Tlalpujahua, Michoacán, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, J. L.; Corona-Chávez, P.; Sanchéz-Núñez, J. M.; Martínez-Medina, M.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; García-Tenorio, F.; Cisneros-Máximo, G.

    2014-08-01

    On 27 May 1937, after one week of sustained heavy rainfall, a voluminous flood caused the death of at least 300 people and the destruction of the historic El Carmen church and several neighborhoods in the mining region of Tlalpujahua, Michoacán, central Mexico. This destructive flood was triggered by the breaching of the impoundment of the Los Cedros tailings and the sudden release of 16 Mt of water-saturated waste materials. The muddy silty flood, moving at estimated speeds of 20-25 m s-1, was channelized along the Dos Estrellas and Tlalpujahua drainages and devastated everything along its flow path. After advancing 2.5 km downstream, the flood slammed into El Carmen church and surrounding houses at estimated speeds of ~7 m s-1, destroying many of construction walls and covering the church floor with ~2 m of mud and debris. Eyewitness accounts and newspaper articles, together with analysis of archived photographic materials, indicated that the flood consisted of three muddy pulses. This interpretation is confirmed and extended by the results of our geological investigations during 2013 and 2014. Stratigraphic relations and granulometric data for selected proximal and distal samples show that the flood behaved as a hyperconcentrated flow along most of its trajectory. Even though premonitory signs of possible impoundment failure were reported days before the flood, and people living downstream were alerted, authorities ordered no evacuations or other mitigative actions. The catastrophic flood at Tlalpujahua provides a well-documented, though tragic, example of impoundment breaching of a tailings dam caused by the combined effects of intense rainfall, dam weakness, and inadequate emergency-management protocols - unfortunately an all too common case-scenario for most of the world's mining regions.

  13. Caracterização e Seleção de Clones de Capim-Elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco

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    Mello Alexandre Carneiro Leão de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo visou caracterizar uma coleção de 71 clones de capim-elefante e selecionar os mais promissores para serem testados sob pastejo. A caracterização foi realizada na Estação Experimental do Cedro/IPA, no município de Vitória de Sto. Antão/PE, nas estações chuvosa e seca. Cada clone foi representado por parcelas não repetidas de 10 m². Segundo análise de correlação linear, os clones mais produtivos em relação à MS, também apresentaram maiores alturas de planta e de meristemas apicais, diâmetros de colmo, relações colmo/folha (C/F, números de perfilhos basais e total e comprimentos de folha. Excetuando-se a relação C/F, as mesmas características também correlacionaram-se positivamente com a produção de lâmina foliar (LF. Foi observada uma correlação linear positiva e altamente significativa (r = 0,9517 entre as produções de MS e de LF. Baseando-se nos materiais que apresentaram as maiores produções de LF/área, foram selecionados 10 clones: Mineirão/IPEACO, Hexaplóide, Mole de Volta Grande, King Grass, 591-76 ou Cameroon, CE 5 A.D., Gigante de Pinda, CE 4 A.D., Elefante da Colômbia e Vrukwona

  14. Chalet en Florida - (EE.UU.

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    Morgan, William

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available This house has been designed as a series of ascending platforms in a continuous spiral around a central staircase and the various platforms have each been assigned different room functions, such as: living room, master bedroom and children's bedroom, studio, dining room and kitchen, guest room and under the house space has been provided for a garage. The construction is entirely wooden and is lifted above the ground by 9 exposed piles to which are bolted the beams that support the exposed ceiling Joists. For these elements laminated yellow pine wood has been used as well as for the floorings, roofs and deckings. The walls are of panelled cedar plywood whereas the material of the interior doors and cabinetry is mahogany.Esta vivienda se diseñó como una secuencia de plataformas que ascienden, en espiral continua, alrededor de una escalera interior, en las cuales se dispusieron: el cuarto de estar, los dormitorios de padres y de niños, un estudio, el comedor y la cocina, una habitación para los invitados y, debajo del edificio, una plaza de aparcamiento. La construcción, realizada con madera en su totalidad, se levanta del suelo mediante nueve pilares vistos, a los que se atornillan las jácenas que soportan las viguetas, también vistas, de los forjados. Para estos elementos constructivos se empleó madera laminada de pino amarillo, al igual que para los suelos, techos y cubiertas. Los muros laterales se hicieron con un entablado de madera contrachapada de cedro, mientras que para el artesonado, las puertas interiores y las estanterías, se utilizó la madera de caoba.

  15. VICHADA: LA HOSPITALIDAD DEL ORINOCO. Pag. 150-157

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    Wilmer Velandia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Donde el cielo y la sabana se unen en el infinito, se vislumbra una sola montaña en la lejanía, parece un gigante, antiguo y oscuro al final de la inmensidad un “Tepuye”, después de unas cuantas horas de camino se acerca este gran anciano que data del precámbrico, pero no está solo. Se observan algunos compañeros iguales a él, se podrían considerar como los guardianes del imponente y hermoso Orinoko, considerado en lengua Sikuani como la gran serpiente enroscada acompañada de una gran riqueza paisajística cultural y biodiversa; bosques de galería, diferentes tipos de sabana, esteros, lagunas, morichales, bosques inundables, las que recorren aguas blancas, negras y mixtas, rodeadas por diferentes etnias y grupos indígenas como Piaroas, Sikuanis – Guahibos, Cuibas y Amoruas, que viven en forma pacífica con llaneros y colonos, orgullosos de estas tierras, amables y hospitalarios que desde hace muchos años comparten este paraíso con: bagres, pirañas, anguilas, rayas, arawanas, anacondas, ranas, sapos, caimanes, babos, iguanas, tortugas, loros, búhos, guacamayas, azucareros, pavones, paujiles, águilas, zamuros, aulladores, armadillos, ocarros, chigüiros, osos hormigueros, ocelotes, jaguares, nutrias, murciélagos, cuerpo espines, zorros, venados y delfines, que pasan sus días entre; cedros, moriches, saladillos, caraños, yarumos, laureles, caimos, guaduas, guamos, alcornoques, chaparros, arepillos, palmiches y gualtes.

  16. Gênero, maternidade e deficiência: representação da diversidade = Gender, Maternity and Deficiency: Representation of Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welter, Ivânia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de pesquisa realizada no Curso de Serviço Social da Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina (UNOESC, Campus de São Miguel do Oeste, tendo como objetivo geral identificar as principais representações sociais de mães cujos filhos têm Síndrome de Down. O interesse pela temática apresentada surgiu a partir de experiências vivenciadas no período de Estágio Curricular, realizado junto à Escola Especial “Viviane” – APAE de São José do Cedro (SC. E, também, pelo fato de o Serviço Social contribuir por intermédio da atuação profissional nas problemáticas ocasionadas pela deficiência mental. O resultado deste trabalho foi constatado através de pesquisa de campo com seis mães que possuem filhos com Síndrome de Down, bem como em referenciais teóricos nos quais foram visualizadas as principais representações sociais que se refletem desde o contato inicial com a deficiência, identificadas através da culpa, negação/aceitação no relacionamento familiar e social e, principalmente, reafirmando a condição histórica e social da mulher/mãe como principal cuidadora do filho com deficiência. Apontamos, dentre as estratégias de enfrentamento da realidade vivenciada pela mulher/mãe, a contribuição de profissionais com preparo técnico, sendo que o assistente social poderá atuar na implantação e implementação de políticas de inclusão social da pessoa com deficiência e sua família

  17. NoWMex: Continuous GNSS Sites in Northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Gonzalez-Ortega, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    Nowadays GPS has become part of daily life activities. In the near future, with the GPS modernization and the use of Glonass and Galileo as a Global Navigation Satellite System will give relative location precision from decimeters to millimeters in near real time applications. In order to realize this, we need a global array of continuously operating GNSS stations built to meet the standards of the geophysical communities and linked with gravimetric local measurements to discern the vertical component of our active Earth. Trying to follow this revolution, CICESE has been working with GPS since 1985. The GPS site CICE was built as an IGS reference station in 1995. Afterward we built 5 more continuous GPS sites in Northwest Mexico with the support of SCIGN. The CGPS NoWMex network is currently made up of six sites: CIC1, SPMX, CORX, GUAX, USMX and YESX (sopac.ucsd.edu). Recently, we implemented an experimental GPS processing lab as part of the Geodesy and Geodynamics Laboratory in the Seismology Department at CICESE. 30 stations are now currently processed from the network Red Geodesica Nacional Activa (RGNA-INEGI), NoWMex, and sites in neighbor countries. Fiducials solutions in ITRF2000 are obtained using GAMIT/GLOBK 10.31 with final igs orbits, every month since 2006. In order to make a contribution to densification of ITRF and support NAREF, SIRGAS and SNARF issues related to scientific and geomatics results; we are looking for internal (Mexican) and external colleagues as well as funding for maintenance and increase the number of CGNSS in NoWMeX including southern Basin and Ranger (Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa and Durango), Gulf of California islands, Peninsular Californias, Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima and the Mexican Pacific islands: Guadalupe (2 more sites), Cedros, Socorro (DORIS site), Clarion and Tres Marias. We must to build more and free available CGNSS sites in and around Mexico to contribute to sea level rise and global change studies.

  18. Geology of the eastern emerald belt (EEB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Giovani; Terraza, Roberto; Montoya, Diana

    2009-01-01

    The stratigraphic record in EEB begins with an upper Paleozoic basal siliciclastic sequence (Farallones Group, Devonian - Carboniferous), unconformably overlain by basal Cretaceous formations (Bata to the east, Santa Rosa - Ubala - Chivor to the west o the Quetame Massif). The Cretaceous marine ingression took place in a tectonically active basin since Triassic and Jurassic. This tectonic setting last until the end of earliest Cretaceous giving place to a thick sedimentary sequence made of the aforementioned basal units and the Lutitas de Macanal, Las Juntas, Fomeque and Une formations. Paleozoic basement highs normal fault bounded, restrict the Cretaceous sedimentation in the EEB zone, this is evidence especially for the basal Cretaceous units (Berriasian). In this way, to the east of Montecristo Anticline (overlaying Farallones Group) we found conglomerates (Bata Formation), instead to the west sedimentation was mainly lodolithic (Santa Rosa Formation, new litostratigraphic unit). Toward Ubala, overlaying Paleozoic basement (Farallones Anticline) rest a calcareous -Terrigenous set (Ubala Formation new litostratigraphic unit). In Chivor - Malacara area we found evaporitic sets with calcareous rocks (Chivor Formation, new litostratigraphic unit) overlaying Santa Rosa Formation. In Valanginian times the sea regionally drown the area of EEB and give rise to marine offshore conditions (Lutitas de Macanal Formation) with episodic events of gravity flows (El Figaro - Los Cedros members). During Hauterivian to Albian times the accumulation of a sandy - muddy sediments in tidal fats or deltaic systems give rise the record of Las Juntas -Une formations. Finally in Barremian early Albian times there are a siliciclastic - calcareous record of marine offshore environments (Fomeque Formation).

  19. La còpia privada digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martín-Prat

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available

    La còpia privada digital ha existit sempre en els sistemes de protecció de la propietat intel·lectual. En el món analògic, la còpia privada no representa -per norma general- un greu perjudici per als interessos econòmics de l'autor; o si més no, no es tracta d'un perill que no s'entengui compensat amb els sistemes de remuneració per còpia privada, donant compliment així al test de les tres etapes. Tanmateix, amb l'aparició de la tecnologia digital (facilitat de còpies de qualitat perfecta, la còpia privada posa en escac els interessos econòmics de l'autor, fins al punt que el mer "ús privat" s'arriba a convertir (per mitjà dels sistemes P2P en una vertadera "explotació" de l'obra aliena. La normativa i jurisprudència existents en aquesta matèria són divergents, sense que hi hagi una solució uniforme ni en l'àmbit nacional ni internacional. La taula rodona recull les diverses posicions i justificacions exposades a favor i en contra de l'extensió de l'excepció de còpia privada a l'àmbit digital, per part d'alguns representants dels interessos en conflicte: els titulars d'obres (IFPI, les entitats de gestió (CEDRO i els productors de tecnologia idònia per a efectuar aquestes còpies (Hewlett Packard.

  20. Dendrochronology of species from Brazilian Araucaria Forest, Candoi, PR Dendrocronologia de espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista do Município de Candói, PR

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    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the dendrochronological potential of six species of the Araucaria Forest is analyzed. The trunks of 20 trees were collected in Candoi, State of Parana, Brazil, from an area that belongs to
    ELEJOR, Centrais Elétricas do Rio Jordão, for the following species: Araucaria angustifolia, Clethra scabra, Cedrela lilloi, Ocotea porosa, Podocarpus lambertii and Sebastiania commersoniana (3 to 6, from each species. The trunks were sawed, and at breast height a sample was taken from the center of the board, from bark to bark, crossing the pith, for macroscopic analysis. These samples were dried and polished, making possible the recognition and measurement of growth rings The historical climatic data series were provided by SIMEPAR, the State weather institute. The trees presented diameter at breast height (DBH, varying from 14 cm to 40 cm, with age of 60 years, annual diameter increment of 0.6 cm, in average. Although the number of trees was small, it was possible to observe that the site was not limiting for the species, as the growth rings showed very low sensitivity.
    However, the very extreme growth condition of 1999 and 2000, when  occurred a very low precipitation period followed by a very severe winter, was registered in the growth ring series of most of the disks analyzedFoi analisado o potencial dendrocronológico de seis espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM.
    Foram coletados troncos em Candói, PR, em uma área pertencente a ELEJOR, Centrais Elétricas do Rio Jordão,
    sendo três a seis indivíduos das espécies: Araucaria angustifolia, Clethra scabra, Cedrela lilloi, Ocotea
    porosa, Podocarpus lambertii e Sebastiania commersoniana. Os troncos foram serrados, sendo retiradas amostras à altura do peito, da prancha central, de casca a casca, cruzando a medula, para análise macroscópica. Essas amostras foram secas e lixadas, possibilitando o reconhecimento e medição dos anéis de crescimento. A

  1. Dendrometric, phytopathological and entomological characteristics of a wych elm tree on mt. Goč

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medarević Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuable broadleaves, including also wych elms, belong to the category of rare tree species in the growing stock of Serbia. The conservation of Serbian forest diversity and the genetic potential of these tree species require a multidisciplinary study. In this respect, we undertook a dendrometric and health analysis of a wych elm tree on Goč, as it is a rarity by its dimensions, not only from the local, but also from the regional aspects. The tree is 266 years old, its diameter at breast height is 2.09 m, height 42.1 m, and volume (d>3 cm 56.35 m3. Current height increment culminated early, at the age of 20-30 years, attaining 0.5 m, and current diameter increment at the age of 40-50 years when its value was 14.4 mm. The above data point to a high productivity of this elm tree and to favourable site and stand conditions of its development. On the other hand, its current diameter increment and height over the last period (1.7 mm, and 0.03 m respectively indicate that the tree was in the phase of physiological dying. 10 species of fungi were identified on the tree (facultative parasites or saprophytes, the most significant being Armillaria mellea and Aurantioporus fissilis, which caused central heartwood decay. Other fungi developed saprophytically in the dead part of the stem or in dead branches. Eight insect species (secondary and tertiary pests were identified, including the two most dangerous elm beetles (Scolytus scolytus and S. multistriatus. Together with the species Saperda punctata and Cerambyx scopolii, they accelerated the dying process of twigs and branches, as well as of the whole tree. Ambrosia beetle Xyleborus monographus infested the stem and the large dead branches and caused minor technical damage in wood. The species Dorcus paralelopipedus, Oryctes nasicornis and Valgus hemipterus supported the faster progress of wood-rotting fungi and thus contributed to physiological weakening and shortened the life cycle of the study elm tree.

  2. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, D D; Vieira, I C G; Salomão, R P; Almeida, S S; Jardim, M A G

    2012-05-01

    This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha), Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha), Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha), Combu Is. reserve (10 ha), Gunma Park reserve (10 ha) and Mocambo reserve (5 ha). Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008) were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae), Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae), Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae), Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae), Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae), Manilkara huberi (Ducke) Chevalier (Sapotaceae), Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae), Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn.) Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae) and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae). Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve), as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.

  3. Low Herbivory among Targeted Reforestation Sites in the Andean Highlands of Southern Ecuador.

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    Marc-Oliver Adams

    Full Text Available Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area, followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE. Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp. was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5% where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%. Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming.

  4. Use and management of tree fodder resources on farms in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ascencio-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó este estudio para determinar el uso y potencial de árboles y arbustos en 60 explotaciones ganaderas de los municipios de Tlapacoyan, Misantla y Martínez de la Torre, Veracruz, México. Los productores fueron encuestados con el objetivo de identificar, localizar y describir el uso de especies leñosas promisorias de interés forrajero, en tres sistemas de producción animal. Las encuestas registraron información acerca de: tamaño de la explotación, miembros (edad, escolaridad, años de experiencia de la familia, sistema de producción animal, manejo de pasturas, principales productos de la explotación; y la identificación, manejo y uso de árboles y arbustos en el sitio. Los datos se analizaron por estadísticos descriptivos como promedios y frecuencias relativas. Se caracterizaron tres sistemas de producción animal. Doble propósito (57%, cría y finalización (30%, y finalización en pasturas (13%; donde se identificaron 145 especies de árboles, siendo Bursera simaruba, Gliricidia sepium y Cedrela odorata las más comunes. Las dos primeras, de 12 especies fueron las más consumidas por el ganado, principalmente en ramoneo (38.80% o corte y acarreo (3.50%. El uso principal de estas especies fue: leña, carbón, madera y cercos vivos. El estudio mostró que existe una alta diversidad de especies leñosas de uso forrajero, con múltiples funciones en las explotaciones, destacando algunas especies como forrajeras, con un valor añadido en los sistemas de producción animal durante las épocas críticas del año.

  5. Low Herbivory among Targeted Reforestation Sites in the Andean Highlands of Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus) have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation) in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants) was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area), followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE) and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE). Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp.) was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5%) where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%). Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming.

  6. Aprovechamiento forestal maderable en cuatro municipios del departamento de Chocó, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Martínez Guardia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  Se caracterizó el aprovechamiento de los productos forestales maderables de cuatro municipiosdel departamento del Choco, Colombia, teniendo en cuenta los procesos de transformación, uso y comercialización. Para la recolección de la información, se formularon encuestas estructuradas, las cuales fueron aplicadas a los aserradores y ebanistas; paralelo a esto, se realizaron visitas al bosque donde se observaron los procesos productivos. Como resultado se obtuvo que las especies maderables más aprovechadas en los municipios de Atrato, Certegui, Istmina y Medio San Juan son: Brosimum utile, Hymenaea oblongifolia, Pseudolmedia laevigata, Cedrela odorata, Couma macrocarpa, Calophyllum longifolium y Humiriastrum procerum. Los rendimientos promedios en la cosecha del bosque son 1,72 m3 hora-1, equivalente a 412 m3  mes-1, de los cuales se obtienen bloques y trozas. El 69% de este material es comercializado con intermediario y el 31% restante es vendido a los centros de acopios locales, quienes lo transforman en 2x2, Guayacanes, 2x3, vigas, tablas y soleras. Los desperdicios generados de las labores de aprovechamiento, en casi su totalidad no son aprovechados a excepción del aserrín, del cual una parte se utiliza en labores agropecuarias y el resto es arrojado a los ríos. Producto del segundo grado de transformación a nivel local se obtienen: camas, sillas, canaletes, canoas, entre otros materiales. Las actividades de cosecha del bosque en los cuatros municipios en estudio se caracterizan porque: son realizadas con motosierra, la madera obtenida es transportada a hombro, balsas (fluvialmente y utilizando tracción animal. Referente a la relación beneficio costo, se obtuvo un valor de 6.

  7. Flora asociada a la actividad melífera en apiarios al sur del departamento del Huila, macizo colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Silva Arias

    2006-07-01

    Se determinaron 135 de las especies como melíferas, la mayoría pertenecientes a las familias Asteraceae, Fabaceae s l y Lamiaceae. Se hallaron 87 especies melíferas en La Argentina, 57 en Palestina y 43 en Pitalito. Seis de las especies melíferas encontradas se establecieron como las más importantes por presentar los mayores índices de importancia ecológica (Saurauia aromatica, Cuphea micrantha, Bidens pilosa, Baccharis nitida, Coffea arabica y Cedrela sp.. Adicionalmente se consideran como especies importantes de la flora melífera a Toxicodendron striatum, Viburnum cornifolium, Vismia baccifera, Hyptis pseudosinuata, Austroeupatorium inulaefolium e Inga cocleensis, que a diferencia de las anteriores presentan índices de importancia más bajos pero están presentes en las tres localidades muestreadas y poseen un amplio espectro de hábitats. Se presenta un catálogo digital con fotos de alta resolución de 109 especies, correspondientes a 44 familias, de los cuales 61 especies hacen parte de la flora melífera reconocida. Los resultados obtenidos permitirán escoger especies melíferas de mayor importancia para iniciar trabajos de calendarios florales y ofertas de néctar, además de proponer el manejo de especies poco comunes que además de poseer importancia melífera pueden generar otros beneficios ecológicos y financieros. Este trabajo junto con la caracterización de la vegetación de las mismas zonas, permitirán establecer la capacidad de carga apícola de acuerdo a la oferta ambiental de la zona.

  8. CARACTERIZACIÓN AGROFORESTAL EN SISTEMAS DE CAFÉ TRADICIONAL Y RÚSTICO, EN SAN MIGUEL, VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Villavicencio-Enríquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron caracterizaciones agroforestales en cafetales de tipo tradicional y rústico en la comunidad de San Miguel, Amatlán de los Reyes, Veracruz, México, con el objetivo de analizarlos y compararlos entre sí. Los resultados indican que ambos sistemas obtienen beneficios económicos similares aunque la composición de especies del dosel y los productos obtenidos son distintos. El principal producto económico son los árboles maderables (Cedrela odorata, Robinsonella mirandae y Mastichodendron capirii, seguido del café (Coffea arabica y C. canephora y las palmas Chamaedorae tepejilote y Chamaedorae elegans. La relación beneficio/costo obtenida para la venta de los productos forestales y agrícolas indica una mayor ganancia económica para el sistema rústico de café ($ 20,784.00·año-1·ha-1 respecto al sistema tradicional de café ($ 19,236.00·año-1·ha-1. Aunque las ganancias en ambos sistemas son relativamente buenas, el efecto que este tipo de explotación tiene sobre los recursos forestales puede ser poco sustentable a través del tiempo, ya que en el sistema rústico no existen labores de reforestación. El sistema tradicional de café se encuentra en una mejor condición de sustentabilidad y producción a largo plazo, ya que los elementos utilizados para la comercialización de árboles maderables y para combustible son reforestados por la importancia comercial que éstos tienen.

  9. Induction of laccases in Trametes versicolor by aqueous wood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Brandt; Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Tinoco, Raunel; Rojas-Trejo, Sonia; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo; Trejo-Hernández, María R

    2014-01-01

    The induction of laccase isoforms in Trametes versicolor HEMIM-9 by aqueous extracts (AE) from softwood and hardwood was studied. Samples of sawdust of Pinus sp., Cedrela sp., and Quercus sp. were boiled in water to obtain AE. Different volumes of each AE were added to fungal cultures to determine the amount of AE needed for the induction experiments. Laccase activity was assayed every 24 h for 15 days. The addition of each AE (50 to 150 μl) to the fungal cultures increased laccase production compared to the control (0.42 ± 0.01 U ml(-1)). The highest laccase activities detected were 1.92 ± 0.15 U ml(-1) (pine), 1.87 ± 0.26 U ml(-1) (cedar), and 1.56 ± 0.34 U ml(-1) (oak); laccase productivities were also significantly increased. Larger volumes of any AE inhibited mycelial growth. Electrophoretic analysis revealed two laccase bands (lcc1 and lcc2) for all the treatments. However, when lcc2 was analyzed by isoelectric focusing, inducer-dependent isoform patterns composed of three (pine AE), four (oak AE), and six laccase bands (cedar AE) were observed. Thus, AE from softwood and hardwood had induction effects in T. versicolor HEMIM-9, as indicated by the increase in laccase activity and different isoform patterns. All of the enzymatic extracts were able to decolorize the dye Orange II. Dye decolorization was mainly influenced by pH. The optimum pH for decolorization was pH 5 (85%), followed by pH 7 (50%) and pH 3 (15%). No significant differences in the dye decolorizing capacity were detected between the control and the differentially induced laccase extracts (oak, pine and cedar). This could be due to the catalytic activities of isoforms with pI 5.4 and 5.8, which were detected under all induction conditions.

  10. Avaliação de danos por insetos em toras estocadas em indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Abreu Raimunda Liége Souza de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa, com a utilização de um questionário,para averiguar as condições de uso e processamento da madeira e as medidas preventivas contra o ataque de insetos. Foram realizados, também,um levantamento da ocorrência de insetos em 19 espécies de madeiras utilizadas por essas indústrias e a avaliação do dano provocado pelas principais espécies de Coleoptera (besouros e Isoptera (cupins. Das respostas apuradas, constatou-se que nenhuma das empresas visitadas emprega qualquer produto para prevenir o ataque de insetos às toras, assim como a secagem e a estocagem das toras são feitas de forma incorreta, contribuindo para aumentar a intensidade de ataque de insetos. Foram encontradas uma família de cupins e 16 de besouros, ressaltando que destas apenas cinco causam danos à madeira. Do total de 13 espécies de insetos coletados, destacam-se Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff e Platypus parallelus (Fabricius, encontradas em 18 espécies madeireiras, sendo conseqüentemente responsáveis pela maioria dos danos nas toras X. volvulus (Fabricius e Platypus sp. foram encontradas em cinco espécies; X. ferrugineus (Fabricius em três espécies; Minthea rugicolis Walk, Minthea sp. e Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky em duas, e Dinoderus bifoveolatus Wollaston, Anoplotermes sp.; e Cnesinus sp. em uma. As espécies de madeiras que sofreram maior grau de deterioração, causada principalmente por coleópteros, foram Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaertn. e Copaifera multijuga Hayne, seguidas por Couroupitaguianensis Aubl., Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Cedrela odorata L., Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg., Hura crepitans L., Hymenolobium sp., Maquira coriacea (Karsten C.C. Berg, Nectandra sp., Virolasurinamensis Warb. e Vochysia sp.

  11. Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions.

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    Brienen, Roel J W; Zuidema, Pieter A; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees--those that have not attained the canopy--are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories of Cedrela odorata in a dry (Mexico) and a moist forest (Bolivia) using tree rings. We tested the following specific hypotheses: (1) moist forest juveniles show more and longer suppressions, and more and stronger releases; (2) moist forest juveniles exhibit wider variation in canopy accession pattern, i.e. the typical growth trajectory to the canopy; (3) growth variation among dry forest juveniles persists over longer time due to spatial heterogeneity in water availability. As expected, the proportion of suppressed juveniles was higher in moist than in dry forest (72 vs. 17%). Moist forest suppressions also lasted longer (9 vs. 5 years). The proportion of juveniles that experienced releases in moist forest (76%) was higher than in dry forest (41%), and releases in moist forests were much stronger. Trees in the moist forest also had a wider variation in canopy accession patterns compared to the dry forest. Our results also showed that growth variation among juvenile trees persisted over substantially longer periods of time in dry forest (>64 years) compared to moist forest (12 years), most probably because of larger persistent spatial variation in water availability. Our results suggest that periodic increases in light availability are more important for attaining the canopy in moist forests, and that spatial heterogeneity in water availability governs long-term tree growth in dry forests.

  12. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae

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    Francisco Soto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp. and cedars (Cedrela spp. are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata. Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 487-499. Epub 2011 March 01.

  13. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia

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    DD Amaral

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha, Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha, Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha, Combu Is. reserve (10 ha, Gunma Park reserve (10 ha and Mocambo reserve (5 ha. Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008 were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae, Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae, Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae, Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae, Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae, Manilkara huberi (Ducke Chevalier (Sapotaceae, Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl. (Bignoniaceae, Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn. Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae. Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve, as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.

  14. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their

  15. The 27 May 1937 catastrophic flow failure of gold tailings at Tlalpujahua, Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, J. L.; Corona-Chavez, P.; Sanchez-Nunez, J. M.; Martinez-Medina, M.; Garduno-Monroy, V. H.; Capra, L.; Garcia-Tenorio, F.; Cisneros-Maximo, G.

    2015-05-01

    On 27 May 1937, after one week of sustained heavy rainfall, a voluminous flood caused the death of at least 300 people and the destruction of the historic El Carmen church and several neighborhoods in the mining region of Tlalpujahua, Michoacan, central Mexico. This destructive flood was triggered by the breaching of the impoundment of the Los Cedros tailings and the sudden release of circa 16 Mt of water-saturated waste materials. The muddy silty flood, moving at estimated speeds of 20-25 m s-1, was channelized along the Dos Estrellas and Tlalpujahua drainages and devastated everything along its flow path. After advancing 2.5 km downstream, the flood slammed into El Carmen church and surrounding houses at estimated speeds of ~ 7 m s-1, destroying many construction walls and covering the church floor with ~ 2 m of mud and debris. Revision of eyewitness accounts and newspaper articles, together with analysis of archived photographic materials, indicated that the flood consisted of three muddy pulses. Stratigraphic relations and granulometric data for selected proximal and distal samples show that the flood behaved as a hyperconcentrated flow along most of its trajectory. A total volume of the Lamas flood deposit was estimated as 1.5 x 106 m3. The physically based bidimensional (2-D) hydraulic model FLO-2D was implemented to reproduce the breached flow (0.5 sediment concentration) with a maximum flow discharge of 8000 m3 s-1 for a total outflow volume (sediment + water) of 2.5 x 106 m3, similar to the calculations obtained using field measurements. Even though premonitory signs of possible impoundment failure were reported days before the flood, and people living downstream were alerted, authorities ordered no evacuations or other mitigative actions. The catastrophic flood at Tlalpujahua provides a well-documented, though tragic, example of impoundment breaching of a tailings dam caused by the combined effects of intense rainfall, dam weakness, and inadequate

  16. Biossólido como substrato para produção de mudas de Toona ciliata var. australis Biosolids as substrate for Toona ciliata var. australis seedlings production

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    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O êxito de plantios florestais não está ligado unicamente à espécie utilizada, mas depende diretamente do tipo de recipiente, da qualidade das sementes e do substrato utilizado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do biossólido como substrato na produção de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata. O experimento foi realizado em casa de sombra do Viveiro Florestal/CCA/UFES. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído de seis tratamentos contendo biossólido, em proporções decrescentes, associado com terra de subsolo e dois tratamentos sem o uso de biossólido (esterco bovino + terra de subsolo e substrato comercial, respectivamente, com oito repetições. No geral, os melhores resultados para as características morfológicas analisadas foram obtidos com a utilização de 100 a 70% de biossólido na composição do substrato. Portanto, o biossólido pode ser considerado adequado para o crescimento de mudas de Toona ciliata o que demonstra uma alternativa viável de disposição final desse resíduo.The demand for wood for various purposes increases dramatically to meet the demand and need to produce forest seedlings in quantity and quality, to establish good stands. In this sense, the success of forest plantations is not linked solely to the species used, but directly depends on the type of container, the quality of seeds and substrate used. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of biosolids as substrate for the production of seedlings of Australian cedar (Toona ciliata. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at forest nursery/CCA / UFES. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of six treatments with biosolids, in decreasing proportions associated with subsoil, and two treatments without the use of biosolids (manure + soil and commercial substrate, respectively, with 8 repetitions. In general, the best results for the morphological

  17. Mistura de três espécies de reflorestamento na produção de painéis cimento-madeira

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    Vânia Aparecida de Sá

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a viabilidade técnica de produção de painéis cimento-madeira compostos por diferentes proporções de resíduos das madeiras de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem., Pinus taeda e clone de híbrido de Eucalyptusgrandis x Eucalyptus urophylla,utilizando-se dois processos distintos de cura: vaporização e climatização. Foi utilizado o cimento Portland CP V - ARI/Plus como aglomerante e o cloreto de cálcio como aditivo químico. As partículas de madeira foram previamente tratadas em água fria durante 24 h. Foram considerados os seguintes parâmetros: relação madeira/cimento - 1/2,75; relação água/cimento - 1/2,5 (base peso do cimento; taxa de água de hidratação/cimento - 25% (base peso do cimento; aditivo químico - 4% (base peso do cimento; densidade nominal - 1,10 g/cm³; e dimensões dos painéis - 480 x 480 x 150 mm. Os parâmetros de prensagem foram: temperatura ambiente, pressão específica de 40 kgf/cm² e tempo de 10 min. O tempo de grampeamento foi de 24 h. As propriedades avaliadas foram absorção de água e inchamento em espessura após 24 h, flexão estática, compressão e ligação interna. O experimento foi instalado segundo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições e seis tratamentos, arranjados num esquema fatorial de três composições x dois processos de cura. Os painéis compostos pela mistura de T. ciliata com o clone de Eucalyptus apresentaram valores médios superiores para inchamento em espessura e resultados inferiores para a maioria das propriedades mecânicas. A cura a vapor melhorou as propriedades físicas, mas afetou negativamente a maioria das propriedades mecânicas.

  18. Adherence to dietary recommendations in diabetes mellitus: disease acceptance as a potential mediator

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    Jaworski M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mariusz Jaworski,1 Mariusz Panczyk,1 Małgorzata Cedro,2 Alicja Kucharska3 1Division of Teaching and Outcomes of Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Background: Adherence by diabetic patients to dietary recommendations is important for effective therapy. Considering patients’ expectations in case of diet is significant in this regard. The aim of this paper was to analyze the relationship between selected independent variables (eg, regular blood glucose testing and patients’ adherence to dietary recommendations, bearing in mind that the degree of disease acceptance might play a mediation role.Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 91 patients treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus in a public medical facility. Paper-and-pencil interviewing was administered ahead of the planned visit with a diabetes specialist. Two measures were applied in the study: the Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire and the Patient Diet Adherence in Diabetes Scale. Additionally, data related to sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle-related factors, and the course of the disease (management, incidence of complications, and dietician’s supervision were also collected. The regression method was used in the analysis, and Cohen’s methodology was used to estimate partial mediation. Significance of the mediation effect was assessed by the Goodman test. P-values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Patients’ non-adherence to dietary recommendations was related to a low level of disease acceptance (standardized regression coefficient =−0.266; P=0.010. Moreover, failure to perform regular blood glucose testing was associated with a lack of disease acceptance (standardized regression

  19. Equivalencia clínica entre el rociador nasal de propionato de fluticasona genérico y comercial en pacientes con rinitis alérgica: Clinical equival ence between generic and branded fluticasone propionate nasal spray in patients with alergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikki Brandi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Establecer la equivalencia clínica de un rociador nasal de propionato de fluticasona (RNF genérico comparado con dos formulas farmacéuticas comerciales del mismo producto (Flonase® y Flixonase® durante la estación de polinización del cedro de montaña (Juniperus ashei en Texas, EEUU. Materiales y métodos. Estudio multicéntrico, aleatorizado, doble ciego, controlado con placebo, en grupos paralelos diseñado para investigar la seguridad y eficacia de RNF (200 mcg una vez al día, Flonase® (200 mcg una vez al día y Flixonase® (200 mcg una vez al día, comparados con placebo, administrados por 13 a 15 días. Los pacientes registraron diariamente, en la mañana y en la tarde, sus síntomas nasales totales (SNT. La variable de desenlace primaria fue la suma de SNT en la mañana y tarde + 1. Las variables de desenlace secundarias fueron los SNT AM + 1 y SNT PM + 1, y la evaluación de seguridad. Resultados. No se observó diferencia estadísticamente significativa en ningún día de estudio, ni en todo el periodo de tratamiento, ni al punto de final entre SNT promedio tanto de Flonase® como Flixonase® y RNF. La equivalencia clínica entre RNF y Flonase® (cociente= 0,98; intervalo de confianza [IC] al 90%, 0,91 a 1,06, y entre RNF y Flixonase® (cociente= 1,02; IC 90%, 0,94 a 1,10 fue demostrada tanto para la variable de desenlace primaria como para las otras variables de eficacia. Conclusiones. Estos resultados respaldan la equivalencia clínica entre RNF 200 mcg una vez al día tanto con Flonase® como Flixonase® en el tratamiento de rinitis alérgica estacional.

  20. A travessia da terra vermelha: uma saga dos refugiados judeus no Brasil

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    Lucius de Melo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Os olhos da soprano viravam pássaros. Fugiam da máscara num sonoro e acelerado bater de asas porque, assim como a boca, também gostavam de cantar. A mágica que os subtraía do rosto fazia da vida uma ilusionista e da cabeça de Nora Naumann, uma cartola. Transformava os olhos em alados e afinados cantores para também tentar libertá-los da gaiola intransponível da memória. Mas, eles nada mais eram que o passado em forma de passarinho. Desprendiam-se com facilidade do corpo para voar sem pressa e prazerosamente sobre os campos verdes formados pelas copas das árvores da infinita floresta brasileira. Voavam sobre as perobas, cedros, caviúnas, marfim, canjeranas, óleo-pardo, canelas, amoreiras, araucárias e as gigantescas e imponentes figueiras brancas cujas raízes aéreas se derramavam tronco abaixo. Rodopiando como um casal em passos de valsa, desviavam do tucano solitário e do bando de papagaios tagarelas da ponta da asa vermelha. Também chegavam às praias tropicais e, misturadas às gaivotas e fragatas, voavam, voavam, ora dando rasantes sobre o mar ora furando as nuvens; depois atravessavam o oceano, cruzavam as montanhas nevadas da Europa, até pousarem cansados sobre o piano de cauda da Escola de Música de Dresden ou no palco de Teatro de Dusseldorf, na Alemanha. Só então descansavam, e, em seguida, voltavam acelerados ao interior do Brasil, cortando o céu como estrelas cadentes, cruzando a escuridão da noite, até chegarem bem perto das tímidas chamas que dançavam sobre as pontas das enferrujadas e oleosas lamparinas. Trêmulas luzes que iluminavam um pedaço de peroba-rosa enfeitado com letras talhadas à mão que identificavam o nome da singela casa de espetáculos: Ópera dos Grilos.

  1. Residencia Huck - Washington – (EE.UU.

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    Liddle, Alan

    1976-07-01

    locales de estar de la planta baja y un estudio situado sobre el nivel de la planta superior, disfruta de unas espléndidas vistas sobre el lago. La casa está revestida, en su totalidad, con láminas de madera de cedro, las cuales, con el movimiento de planos de las cubiertas y aleros proporcionan al conjunto el aspecto de un volumen escultural.

  2. Diagnóstico de um projeto de enriquecimento florestal na Comunidade do Brasileirinho, Manaus, Amazonas Diagnosis of a project of forest enrichment in the Community of the Brasileirinho, Manaus, Amazon

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    André Luis Willerding

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As ações do projeto consistiram no reconhecimento da comunidade, realizando-se entrevistas, seguidas de um levantamento da demanda por espécies florestais e frutíferas, aquisição, transporte e distribuição das mudas e sementes. Das 28 propriedades cadastradas, 18 tornaram-se participantes, engajando-se no projeto. Na comunidade, a fruticultura é a principal atividade e o cupuaçu a principal cultura, presente em oito propriedades participantes com 2950 indivíduos plantados. Outras culturas importantes são: manga, pupunha, açaí, coco. O projeto promoveu também a introdução e o plantio de espécies vegetais com valor de mercado. Com as atividades do projeto, diversificaram-se as espécies florestais e frutíferas existentes na comunidade. Distribuíram-se 12.455 mudas de pau-rosa, cedro, andiroba, mogno, maçaranduba, seringueira, camu-camu (caçari, araçá-boi, cubiu e outras. Como perspectiva, as ações pretendem fixar o agricultor no campo, propor alternativas econômicas, sensibilizar a comunidade com relação à preservação da floresta e exploração racional dos recursos naturais.The activities of this project consisted in the recognition of the community by interviews, followed by a survey of the demand for forest and fruitful species, the acquisition, transport and distribution of seedlings and seeds. Of the 28 registered properties, 18 participated in the project. In the community, fruit culture is the main activity, and cupuaçu the main fruit in eight participant properties with 2950 plants. Other cultures are: mango, pupunha, açaí, coconut. The project also promoted the introduction and plantation of vegetal species with market value. Among the project activities, community forest and fruit species were diversified with 12,455 seedlings of wood-rose, cedar andiroba, mahogany, maçaranduba, seringueira, camu-camu, araçá-boi, cubiu and anothers were distributed. As the perspective, the activities intend to fix

  3. Retention of stored water enables tropical tree saplings to survive extreme drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brett T

    2017-04-01

    Trees generally maintain a small safety margin between the stem water potential (Ψstem) reached during seasonal droughts and the Ψstem associated with their mortality. This pattern may indicate that species face similar mortality risk during extreme droughts. However, if tree species vary in their ability to regulate Ψstem, then safety margins would poorly predict drought mortality. To explore variation among species in Ψstem regulation, I subjected potted saplings of six tropical tree species to extreme drought and compared their responses with well-watered plants and pretreatment reference plants. In the drought treatment, soil water potential reached Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg., Cavanillesia platanifolia (Bonpl.) Kunth and Cedrela odorata L. had 100% survival and maintained Ψstem near -1 MPa (i.e., desiccation-avoiding species). Three other species, Cojoba rufescens (Benth.) Britton and Rose, Genipa americana L. and Hymenaea courbaril L. had 50%, 0% and 25% survival, respectively, and survivors had Ψstem <-6 MPa (i.e., desiccation-susceptible species). The desiccation-avoiding species had lower relative water content (RWC) in all organs and tissues (root, stem, bark and xylem) in the drought treatment than in the reference plants (means 72.0-90.4% vs 86.9-97.9%), but the survivors of the desiccation-susceptible C. rufescens had much lower RWC in the drought treatment (44.5-72.1%). Among the reference plants, the desiccation-avoiding species had lower tissue density, leaf-mass fraction and lateral-root surface area (LRA) than the desiccation-susceptible species. Additionally, C. platanifolia and C. odorata had reduced LRA in the drought treatment, which may slow water loss into dry soil. Together, these results suggest that the ability to regulate Ψstem during extreme drought is associated with functional traits that favor retention of stored water and that safety margins during seasonal drought poorly predict survival during extreme drought. © The Author

  4. Water use in four model tropical plant associations established in the lowlands of Costa Rica.

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    Gutiérrez-Soto, Marco V; Ewel, John J

    2008-12-01

    We examined soil water use patterns of four model plant associations established in the North Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica by comparing the stable hydrogen isotope composition, deltaD, in xylem sap and in soil water at different depths, under rainy and dry conditions. Four 5-year-old model plant associations composed of 2 tree species (Hyeronima alchorneoides and Cedrela odorata) having different architecture and phenology were studied. Average tree height was 8.9 and 7.6 m, respectively. Each tree species was grown in monoculture and in polyculture with 2 perennial monocotyledons (Euterpe oleracea and Heliconia imbricata). Maximum rooting depth at the time of 6D determination was approximately 2 m for almost all species. Most roots of all species were concentrated in the upper soil layers. Stomatal conductance to water vapor (gS) was higher in the deciduous C. odorata than in the evergreen H. alchorneoides; within each species, g, did not differ when the trees were grown in mono or in polyculture. During the rainy season, gradients in soil water 6D were not observed. Average rainy season xylem sap deltaD did not differ among members of the plant combinations tested (-30% per thousand), and was more similar to deltaD values of shallow soil water. Under dry conditions, volumetric soil water content declined from 50 to approximately 35%, and modest gradients in soil water deltaD were observed. Xylem sap deltaD obtained during dry conditions was significantly lower than rainy season values. Xylem sap deltaD of plants growing in the four associations varied between -9 and -22% per hundred, indicating that shallow water was predominantly absorbed during the dry period too. Differences in xylem sap deltaD of trees and monocots were also detected, but no significant patterns emerged. The results suggest that: (a) the plant associations examined extracted water predominantly from shallow soil layers (<1 m), (b) the natural isotopic variation in soil and plant water at

  5. Evapotranspiration modelled from stands of three broad-leaved tropical trees in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Seth

    2001-10-01

    To examine the impact of tree species on the water cycle in a wet tropical region, annual evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated in Costa Rican plantations of three native, broad-leaved tree species that contrasted strongly in leaf size, leaf area and phenology. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation for transpiration from the dry canopy, the equilibrium equation for evaporation from the understory and a modified Rutter model of interception for evaporation of water from the canopy when wetted by rainfall. Canopy conductance was estimated from stomatal conductance, leaf area and leaf boundary-layer conductance; canopy storage capacity and filling rate were estimated from throughfall measurements. Micrometeorological instruments were mounted on a scaffolding tower.Mean stomatal conductance, which ranged from 0·1 to 0·7 mol m-2 s-1, was similar to boundary-layer conductance, 0·1 to 0·5 mol m-2 s-1, indicating decoupling of stomata from atmospheric conditions. Mean canopy conductance varied from 0·6 to 0·7 mol m-2 s-1 in the 1994 wet season then dropped to 0·3-0·4 mol m-2 s-1 in stands of the two deciduous species, Cordia and Cedrela, as a result of reduced leaf area during the dry season. Despite increased understory evaporation, dry-season ET from these stands was only 78-81% of ET in stands of the evergreen species, Hyeronima. Maximum canopy water depth varied from 0·2 to 2·2 mm, causing modelled interception to vary from 6% to 25% of annual ET. Higher dry-season transpiration rates along with high rates of evaporation of intercepted rainfall in all seasons led to 14% higher annual ET in Hyeronima stands (1509 mm) than in stands of the species with lowest ET,

  6. Potencial alelopático do extrato aquoso de aveia preta e azevém na germinação e crescimento inicial do capim-sudão

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    Márcio Cavalli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A pecuária brasileira é sustentada em pastagens, pela sua praticidade e economia. Entre as espécies anuais de inverno mais utilizadas para pastejo na Região Sul do Brasil estão à aveia preta e o azevém, isolados ou em misturas, em função da facilidade na aquisição de sementes e em relação ao ciclo de produção das espécies. Entre as espécies de verão o Capim-Sudão vem se destacando, usado como alternativa para diminuir as dificuldades encontradas em obter forragem na época seca do ano, por facilidade de cultivo, rusticidade, tolerância à seca, rapidez no estabelecimento e crescimento, e facilidade de manejo sob corte e ou pelo pastejo direto. O presente estudo objetivou-se verificar o potencial alelopático do extrato aquoso em diferentes concentrações da aveia preta e azevém sobre a germinação e crescimento inicial do capim-Sudão. O experimento foi realizado na safra 2013/14, na Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina (UNOESC, campus de São José do Cedro, Santa Catarina, em estufa. Para o delineamento estatístico foi utilizado o método DBC (delineamento em blocos casualizados fatorial, com três tratamentos e cinco doses com quatro repetições. Pela porcentagem de germinação, comprimento de plantas e comprimento de raízes comparadas nas dosagens do extrato aquoso houve efeito alelopático na germinação do Capim-Sudão. E pelos índices de massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e radicular, e também visto no índice de velocidade de germinação que a partir das doses de 50% da solução aquosa dos extratos da aveia e azevém e da mistura aveia + azevém que ocorreu efeito alelopático sobre a germinação do Capim-Sudão.Allelopathic potential of the aqueous extract of black oats and ryegrass in the germination and initial growth of the sudan grassAbstract: The Brazilian livestock farming is sustained in pastures, due to its practicality and economy. Among the annual winter species most used for grazing in

  7. Water use in four model tropical plant associations established in the lowlands of Costa Rica

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    Marco V Gutiérrez-Soto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined soil water use patterns of four model plant associations established in the North Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica by comparing the stable hydrogen isotope composition, δD, in xylem sap and in soil water at different depths, under rainy and dry conditions. Four 5-year-old model plant associations composed of 2 tree species (Hyeronima alchorneoides and Cedrela odorata having different architecture and phenology were studied. Average tree height was 8.9 and 7.6 m, respectively. Each tree species was grown in monoculture and in polyculture with 2 perennial monocotyledons (Euterpe oleracea and Heliconia imbricata. Maximum rooting depth at the time of δD determination was ~ 2 m for almost all species. Most roots of all species were concentrated in the upper soil layers. Stomatal conductance to water vapor (gS was higher in the deciduous C. odorata than in the evergreen H. alchorneoides; within each species, gS did not differ when the trees were grown in mono or in polyculture. During the rainy season, gradients in soil water δD were not observed. Average rainy season xylem sap δD did not differ among members of the plant combinations tested (-30 ‰, and was more similar to δD values of shallow soil water. Under dry conditions, volumetric soil water content declined from 50 to ~ 35%, and modest gradients in soil water δD were observed. xylem sap δD obtained during dry conditions was significantly lower than rainy season values. xylem sap δD of plants growing in the four associations varied between -9 and -22‰, indicating that shallow water was predominantly absorbed during the dry period too. Differences in xylem sap δD of trees and monocots were also detected, but no significant patterns emerged. The results suggest that: a the plant associations examined extracted water predominantly from shallow soil layers (Examinamos los patrones de uso de agua del suelo de cuatro asociaciones vegetales establecidas en el Caribe norte de

  8. ESTABELECIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DE ESPÉCIES ARBÓREAS EM RECOMPOSIÇÃO DE MATAS CILIARES ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARBOREAL SPECIES IN REORGANIZATION OF GALLERY FOREST

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    Rogério Augusto Bremm Soares

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi realizado em propriedades rurais da empresa Jalles Machado, S/A Açúcar e Álcool, em Goianésia (GO. Com o objetivo de obter subsídios técnicos para orientar programas de recomposição de matas ciliares e de áreas de preservação permanente, foram avaliados a sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento, quanto à altura e o diâmetro do colo, de espécies de plantas arbóreas nativas e exóticas, conduzidas em ambientes antropizados, com características peculiares. Os dados foram registrados em intervalos de dois meses e meio, diretamente dos indivíduos plotados em 32 áreas amostrais de 400 m2 cada. Os resultados indicaram porcentagens de mortalidade de plantas superiores a 30% para as espécies açaí, barriguda, guapeva, mutamba, abacate, pau-d’óleo, açoita-cavalo, bálsamo, cedro, mogno, chichá, conde e caraíba, menos adaptadas a determinadas situações ambientais. As espécies goiabeira, sangra-d’água, gameleirinha, jamelão, tamboril-da-mata, ipê-amarelo-do-cerrado, ipê-roxo e monjoleiro apresentaram o melhor desempenho em altura e diâmetro, nas áreas amostradas cujas características ambientais se aproximavam daquelas exigidas por essas espécies. Como conclusão sugere-se um melhor planejamento quando da seleção das espécies a serem plantadas, procurando distribuí-las segundo sua aptidão natural.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Áreas degradadas; mata ciliar.

    The present study was carried out on farms of the Jalles Machado, S/A Açúcar e Álcool, a factory established in Goianésia, Goiás state

  9. Regiões com potencial climático para plantio comercial do guanandi no Brasil. Regions with climatic potential for commercial planting of guanandi in Brazil.

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    Marcos Silveira WREGE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O guanandi, nativo do Brasil, é uma espécie com usos múltiplos, produz madeira de excelente qualidade, muito apreciada no mercado e constitui excelente alternativa ao cultivo do mogno e cedro rosa. É uma espécie muito boa para uso em plantios visando ao reflorestamento ambiental, inclusive na recomposição de florestas ciliares, pelo fato de ser muito procurada pela fauna e por suportar terrenos com nível freático elevado. Apesar das inúmeras vantagens, há poucas informações sobre a espécie, havendo necessidade de aprofundar os estudos, inclusive os relativos ao zoneamento climático. O presente trabalho é importante para auxiliar no planejamento de uso da terra, servindo de base para estudos de zoneamento agrícola de riscos climáticos, importante instrumento de política agrícola para concessão de seguro rural e crédito agrícola. A identificação das regiões com os menores riscos climáticos é ferramenta essencial para auxiliar produtores rurais a conduzirem suas atividades com maior êxito, ao escolher, para cada região, a cultura mais bem adaptada. A geada e a deficiência hídrica são responsáveis pela maioria dos sinistros agrícolas no país, ocasionando perdas econômicas por longos períodos. Assim, este estudo apresenta as diferentes zonas climáticas existentes no Brasil para o cultivo comercial do guanandi, por meio das informações geoespaciais de risco de ocorrência de geadas e de déficit hídrico, mapeadas utilizando SIG. As melhores zonas para o plantio comercial do guanandi foram aquelas com baixos riscos de geada, associadas a um balanço hídrico favorável, o que ocorre em grande parte do Brasil, principalmente na região amazônica e na costa brasileira. Guanandi is a woody species native to Brazil with multiple uses, it has a wood of excellent quality, much appreciated in the market and it is a good alternative for the cultivation of mahogany and pink cedar. It is a very good species for use in

  10. Reação de cultivares de algodoeiro a Rhizoctonia solani na fase de plântula e benefícios do tratamento de sementes com fungicidas

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    Augusto César Pereira Goulart

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a reação de onze genótipos de algodoeiro ao fungo Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, na fase de plântula, com potencial de uso em futuros programas de melhoramento bem como os benefícios do tratamento de sementes com fungicidas para cada cultivar em estudo. O experimento foi conduzido por dois anos nas casas de vegetação da Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em Dourados, MS. Sementes de cada cultivar, não tratadas e tratadas com a mistura fungicida tolylfluanid + pencycuron + triadimenol (30+50+50g do i.a./100kg de sementes, foram semeadas em areia contida em bandejas plásticas, dispostas em orifícios individuais, eqüidistantes e a 3cm de profundidade. A inoculação com R. solani foi feita pela distribuição homogênea do inóculo do fungo na superfície do substrato (2,5g do inóculo do fungo/bandeja plástica com dimensões de 56x35x10cm. O fungo foi cultivado por 35 dias em sementes de aveia preta autoclavadas e trituradas em moinho (1mm. As avaliações foram realizadas com base no desenvolvimento de sintomas e sobrevivência das plântulas, utilizando os dados de emergência inicial e final, tombamento de pós-emergência e plântulas lesionadas pelo patógeno. Foi observado efeito significativo da interação cultivares x tratamento com fungicidas (P<0,05. Ficou claramente demonstrada a importância do tratamento das sementes de algodoeiro com fungicidas, sendo que as melhores emergências e os menores índices de doença (tombamento e plântulas lesionadas, independente da cultivar testada, foram obtidos quando as sementes foram tratadas. Em relação as cultivares avaliadas na ausência do tratamento da sementes com fungicidas, observou-se comportamento diferenciado de alguns genótipos com relação ao ataque do fungo R. solani, merecendo destaque BRS Aroeira, seguidas de BRS Cedro, BRS Ipê e FMT 701, demonstrando uma maior tolerância destas cultivares ao ataque de R. solani em comparação