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Sample records for cedo-australiano toona ciliata

  1. Propagação vegetativa de cedo-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roemer por miniestaquia Vegetative propagation of Toona ciliata M. Roemer by the minicutting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonicélia Cristina Araújo Vieira de Souza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O método de propagação usual do cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata é via seminal, entretanto a oferta sazonal das sementes e sua curta viabilidade ao longo do tempo representam um problema para a produção contínua de mudas destinadas à implantação de povoamentos. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade da propagação vegetativa da espécie por miniestaquia e a necessidade da aplicação de acido indolbutírico (AIB para o enraizamento das miniestacas. A partir de um banco de estacas de origem seminal, foram obtidas brotações para produção de mudas clonais, em três diferentes épocas de coleta (2,5; 4,5; e 5,5 meses após a recepa das mudas. Antes do estaqueamento, as miniestacas tiveram suas bases imersas em quatro concentrações de AIB (0; 1.500; 3.000; e 4.500 mg L-1. Durante o experimento, obtiveram-se 100% de sobrevivência das minicepas e das miniestacas. Houve 100% de enraizamento das miniestacas nas três coletas, não ocorrendo diferença no comprimento de raízes em função das doses de auxina aplicadas. Quanto maior o intervalo entre as coletas e quanto maiores as brotações que originaram as miniestacas, maior a velocidade de crescimento das mudas. Miniestacas de cedro-australiano possuem capacidade de enraizamento, e mudas recepadas apresentam brotação, possibilitando a clonagem da espécie pelo processo de miniestaquia.Sexual propagation is the method commonly used for the Australian Red Cedar Toona ciliata. However, seasonal seed availability and short viability are a concern for the continuous offer of seeds for implantation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the viability of vegetative propagation of this species through minicutting and to test indolbutiric acid (IBA application for rooting of minicuttings. Sprouts for clonal minicutting production were obtained from a miniclonal garden established from seeds, in three different harvest times (2.5; 4.5 and 5.5 months

  2. Tree-ring anomalies in Toona ciliata

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Ingo; Banks, John Charles Gripper

    2006-01-01

    New increment core samples of Toona ciliata collected in the Australian tropics and subtropics compared to already existing material from the Upper Kangaroo Valley, near Sydney exhibit distinct differences in tree-ring structures. This necessitated a closer examination of the wood anatomy, possible false rings and the species’ crossdating capacity in northeast Australia. During tree-ring analysis two growth anomalies (extensive zones of narrow and indistinct rings) and three types of false ri...

  3. Biosolids as substrate for Toona ciliata var. australis seedlings production

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira, Marcos Vinicius Winckler; Gomes, Daniele Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Elzimar de Oliveira; Delarmelina, William Macedo; Sperandio, Huezer Viganô; Trazzi, Paulo André

    2012-01-01

    O êxito de plantios florestais não está ligado unicamente à espécie utilizada, mas depende diretamente do tipo de recipiente, da qualidade das sementes e do substrato utilizado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do biossólido como substrato na produção de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata). O experimento foi realizado em casa de sombra do Viveiro Florestal/CCA/UFES. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído de seis tratamento...

  4. Anti-ulcer activity of crude alcoholic extract of Toona ciliata Roemer (heart wood).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malairajan, P; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Narasimhan, S; Veni, K Jessi Kala; Kavimani, S

    2007-03-21

    The ethanol extract of Toona ciliata Roemer (heart wood) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against aspirin plus pylorous ligation induced gastric ulcer (antisecretory), HCl-ethanol induced ulcer (cytoprotective) and water immersion stress induced ulcer in rats. We found that Toona ciliata extract at a dose of 300mg/kg p.o. markedly decrease the incidence of ulcers in all the three models. Ethanol extract of Toona ciliata showed significant reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index. The plant extract also showed gastro protective activity (52.94%), whereas standard drug sucralfate showed 94.85%. Toona ciliata extract showed protection index 43.0% in water immersion stress induced ulcer, whereas standard drug omeprazole showed protection index 100%.

  5. Variation in phenology, growth, and wood anatomy of Toona sinensis and Toona ciliata in relation to different environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Ingo; Banks, John Charles Gripper

    2006-01-01

    Tree-ring proxy data from subtropical to tropical Australasia are valuable though rare sources for climate reconstructions. Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) M. Roem. and Toona ciliata M. Roem. occurring naturally in this region are among the most promising tree species for future tree-ring research. However, little is known about their phenological behaviors and the influence of environmental conditions on their intraseasonal growth and wood anatomical properties. Growth experiments were conducted o...

  6. Biodegradação de produtos à base da madeira de cedro australiano (toona ciliata m. roem. var australis)

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Natália Amarante

    2014-01-01

    A madeira de cedro australiano (Toona ciliata) tem sido usada na construção civil, pisos e mobiliários, no entanto, suas propriedades tecnológicas são pouco conhecidas. Por isso, os objetivos do trabalho foram: (i) avaliar a resistência de painéis reconstituídos (OSB e aglomerados) e da madeira de Toona ciliata com idade de 18 anos ao teste acelerado de laboratório (ASTM D 2017) por fungos xilófagos de podridão parda (Gloeophyllum trabeum) e branca (Trametes versicolor), (ii) caracterizar os ...

  7. Toona ciliata genotype selection with the use of individual BLUP with repeated measures

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    Rulfe Tavares Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for raw material for multiple uses of forest products and by-products has attracted the interest for fast growing species, such as the Australian Cedar (Toona ciliata, which presents high productive and economic potential. This study aimed at estimating genotypic parameters and values for the species through the use of the BLUP procedure, at individual level, with repeated measures, by means of the conventional evaluation procedures and the introduction of innovative digitalization of the measurements by digital camera with the images provided by the Imagej software system. The main objective is to subsidize the beginning of a breeding program for the species. The assays were carried out in private properties, in plantations located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results generated by three evaluations revealed that the image digital analysis is adequate to quantify characteristics of Toona ciliata. It is also an effective and accurate alternative to minimize the costs of data collection in evaluations with the species. There was high accuracy for the characters plant height, diameter at breast height and cylindrical volume. Out of the 90 genotypes evaluated, 38 expressed genotypic values predicted for the diameter at breast height higher than the general average of this character, 33 for the cylindrical volume and 49 for height, allowing gains of up to 24.9 % in average for cylindrical volume. The method of mixed models (REML/BLUP applied via the SELEGEN software system, using the BLUP procedure at individual level and repeated measures in each individual proved to be adequate to estimate the genetic parameters and predict genotypic values in situations of unbalanced data. Therefore, it is very useful and practical for Toona ciliata genetic breeding programs.

  8. Qualidade de superfícies usinadas em madeira de toona ciliata m. roem

    OpenAIRE

    Soragi, Lívia de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Toona ciliata M. Roem (cedro australiano) está entre as espécies exóticas que são plantadas para produção de madeira serrada. A indústria moveleira carece de metodologias específicas para qualificar a superfície usinada de seus produtos. A definição de padrões de qualidade requer novos equipamentos e metodologias para superfícies de madeiras usinadas. Almeja-se uniformizar a produção, reduzir custos, definir usos e aumentar a competitividade do setor. Os objetivos foram i) avaliar a qualidade...

  9. Melhoramento genético do cedro australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roemer var. australis)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Alisson Moura

    2013-01-01

    Com o objetivo de estudar a variabilidade genética, estimar os parâmetros genéticos e avaliar o desempenho inicial dos indivíduos no teste clonal e teste de procedência/progênie instalou-se dois experimentos em Campo Belo, MG. Por meio do teste de procedência/progênie de Toona ciliata avaliou-se 78 progênies de polinização aberta, provenientes de 16 procedências distintas da Austrália. O experimento foi instalado em janeiro de 2008 no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com 3 repetições e 16 pla...

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from an endangered tree species, Toona ciliata var. pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Sun, Z-X; Chen, Y-T; Jiang, J-M

    2012-12-17

    Toona ciliata var. pubescens is considered an endangered tree species native to China. In order to help develop a conservation program for this species, we evaluated its genetic diversity and population genetics. We isolated microsatellite DNA loci using streptavidin beads. A genomic library, enriched with microsatellites, was constructed and screened by sequencing. We detected 8 polymorphic microsatellite loci from the tree tissue samples. The population of T. ciliata var. pubescens used in this study is located within the Guanshan National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi Province, China. Sixty-five individuals were collected for the study. The Guanshan population was split into two subpopulations due to terrain. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 6, with expected heterozygosity from 0.2386 to 0.6772. Four of the 8 loci, except loci Tc02, Tc04, Tc05, and Tc07 showed no significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The mean observed heterozygosity was 0.59. The average coefficient of genetic differentiation between the two subpopulations was quite low (F(ST) = 0.0235). The level of gene flow (N(m)) was 10.39, reflecting a high degree of gene flow between the two subpopulations.

  11. [Seed rain, soil seed bank, and natural regeneration of natural Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Lu; Liao, Cheng-Kai

    2012-04-01

    Taking the natural Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest in the Jiujiangshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province of China as test object, an investigation was conducted on the seed rain, soil seed bank, and seedlings number in 2008-2011. The seed rain of the forest was dispersed from late October to the end of December. In 2010, the seed rain intensity in different sampling plots was in the order of Xiagongtang observatory (320.3 +/- 23.5 seeds x m(-2)) > Xiagongtang protection station (284.7 +/- 24.2 seeds x m(-2)) > Daqiutian protection station (251.6 +/- 24.7 seeds x m(-2)), and the quantity of the intact seeds in soil supplied for seed germination and regeneration was 222.0, 34.3, and 22.6 seeds x m(-2), respectively. The seed bank reserves was affected by the seed production amount, bird feeding, and seed viability, etc., of which, bird feeding was the prime factor for the substantial drop of the seed bank reserves. Due to the low resistance against storage and a large number of rot during storage, the seeds in soil could hardly be effectively stored beyond one month. The seedlings germinated in December were averagely less than 2 stands x m(-2), and the soil seed reserves in the next January was the least (6.7-11.8 seeds x m(-2)), with the germinated seedlings averagely 0.4-0.6 stands x m(-2), which was consistent with the rare distribution of natural seedlings in the forest. It was concluded that the small seed rain reserves, low seed vigor of soil seed bank, and low seedling establishment were the important factors impacting the natural regeneration of T. ciliata var. pubescens.

  12. Growth and mineral nutrition in seedlings of australian cedar (Toona ciliata subjected to nutrient deprivation

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    Bruno da Silva Moretti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate nutritional requirements and the effect of nutrient deprivation on the development of seedlings of Australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis, a greenhouse experiment was conducted. The substrate used was a dystroferric red latosol with low nutrient availability, using 15 treatments and applying the missing element technique. The experiment included two complete treatments (one provided N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Zn with limestone while another provided N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu and Zn without limestone, besides deprivation of each nutrient (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S, -B, -Cu and -Zn, one treatment with combined deprivation of B, Cu and Zn, one treatment applying limestone only, one treatment applying N, P, K, S, B, Cu and Zn, without limestone, and one absolute control treatment (natural soil. The following characteristics were evaluated: height, diameter, shoot dry matter and root dry matter, and nutrient content in the shoot dry matter after 150 days. Australian cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, and nutrients P, N, S, Ca, K, Mg and Cu, in that order, were found to be limiting factors to plant development. B and Zn deprivation did not affect plant development. Limestone application was essential for the development of Australian cedar plants. Initial deficiency symptoms were found to be the result of S, limestone and N deprivation.

  13. Biossólido como substrato para produção de mudas de Toona ciliata var. australis Biosolids as substrate for Toona ciliata var. australis seedlings production

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    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O êxito de plantios florestais não está ligado unicamente à espécie utilizada, mas depende diretamente do tipo de recipiente, da qualidade das sementes e do substrato utilizado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do biossólido como substrato na produção de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata. O experimento foi realizado em casa de sombra do Viveiro Florestal/CCA/UFES. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído de seis tratamentos contendo biossólido, em proporções decrescentes, associado com terra de subsolo e dois tratamentos sem o uso de biossólido (esterco bovino + terra de subsolo e substrato comercial, respectivamente, com oito repetições. No geral, os melhores resultados para as características morfológicas analisadas foram obtidos com a utilização de 100 a 70% de biossólido na composição do substrato. Portanto, o biossólido pode ser considerado adequado para o crescimento de mudas de Toona ciliata o que demonstra uma alternativa viável de disposição final desse resíduo.The demand for wood for various purposes increases dramatically to meet the demand and need to produce forest seedlings in quantity and quality, to establish good stands. In this sense, the success of forest plantations is not linked solely to the species used, but directly depends on the type of container, the quality of seeds and substrate used. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of biosolids as substrate for the production of seedlings of Australian cedar (Toona ciliata. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at forest nursery/CCA / UFES. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of six treatments with biosolids, in decreasing proportions associated with subsoil, and two treatments without the use of biosolids (manure + soil and commercial substrate, respectively, with 8 repetitions. In general, the best results for the morphological

  14. Evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of plywoods produced with Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Cristina do Sacramento Albino; Vânia Aparecida de Sá; Lina Bufalino; Lourival Marin Mendes; Natalia Amarante Almeida

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels produced with Toona ciliata wood using two different pressure levels and two spread rates; besides the effect of Pinus sp. veneer inclusion on the quality of the panels. The phenol formaldehyde resin was used to produce plywood of five veneers. The physical-mechanical tests were conducted according to ABNT 31:000.05-001/2:2001 standard. The results of apparent density, water absorption after 24 hours...

  15. Biodeterioration of products made from australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis

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    Natália Amarante Almeida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the natural resistance of composite and solid wood panels from Toona ciliata to fungal attack through accelerated laboratory testing, to characterize the anatomical components of the wood according to IAWA, to quantify the soluble and insoluble lignin contents by acid hydrolysis and to determine the colorimetric parameters before and after fungal attack by using the CIE-L*a*b*(1976 system. Solid wood was classified as moderately and highly resistant to white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor and to brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum. OSB panels were found to be resistant and moderately resistant to white-rot fungus and highly resistant to brown-rot fungus. Variation in species and particle type did not have a positive effect on the treatments. As regards the wood, both fungi were inhibited by the presence of phenolic resin. Particleboard panels were classified as moderately resistant to white-rot fungus. Treatments T2 (cedar and T4 (cedar-eucalyptus were resistant while treatment T3 (cedar-pine was not resistant to attack by brown-rot fungus. The urea-formaldehyde resin failed to inhibit attack in the same way the phenolic resin did. Anatomically, the species was found to have medium texture, straight vessel lines, pleasant smell after incision and poor luster on the radial surface. Its anatomical structure favored colonization by the threadlike filaments of the fungi. All treatments caused wood darkening after attack by the G. trabeum fungus, with total variation in color. It was observed that with weight loss an increase followed in insoluble lignin contents, in all treatments, indicating that this chemical property is a determining factor in wood resistance to the attack of the fungi being evaluated.

  16. Evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of plywoods produced with Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina do Sacramento Albino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels produced with Toona ciliata wood using two different pressure levels and two spread rates; besides the effect of Pinus sp. veneer inclusion on the quality of the panels. The phenol formaldehyde resin was used to produce plywood of five veneers. The physical-mechanical tests were conducted according to ABNT 31:000.05-001/2:2001 standard. The results of apparent density, water absorption after 24 hours, static bending (MOR and MOE and glue line dry shear strength presented significant statistical differences between the treatments. All the treatments presented parallel MOE and MOR value above the one established by the NBR 31.000.001/2:2001 standard; however just the panels with inclusion of Pinus sp. in the inner presented perpendicular MOE and MOR above the one established by the same. For the glue line shear strength tests, the panels presented values above the minimum established by EN 314-2 (1993 standard.It was not observed influence of the spread rate and pressure on the physical and mechanical properties between the panels produced only with Toona ciliata. The inclusion of Pinus sp. veneers both in the face and inner of the panels contributed to improve most of the physical and mechanical properties.

  17. Biossólido como substrato para produção de mudas de Toona ciliata var. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O êxito de plantios florestais não está ligado unicamente à espécie utilizada, mas depende diretamente do tipo de recipiente, da qualidade das sementes e do substrato utilizado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do biossólido como substrato na produção de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata. O experimento foi realizado em casa de sombra do Viveiro Florestal/CCA/UFES. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído de seis tratamentos contendo biossólido, em proporções decrescentes, associado com terra de subsolo e dois tratamentos sem o uso de biossólido (esterco bovino + terra de subsolo e substrato comercial, respectivamente, com oito repetições. No geral, os melhores resultados para as características morfológicas analisadas foram obtidos com a utilização de 100 a 70% de biossólido na composição do substrato. Portanto, o biossólido pode ser considerado adequado para o crescimento de mudas de Toona ciliata o que demonstra uma alternativa viável de disposição final desse resíduo.

  18. Long-term growth decline in Toona ciliata in a moist tropical forest in Bangladesh: Impact of global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mizanur; Islam, Rofiqul; Islam, Mahmuda

    2017-04-01

    Tropical forests are carbon rich ecosystems and small changes in tropical forest tree growth substantially influence the global carbon cycle. Forest monitoring studies report inconsistent growth changes in tropical forest trees over the past decades. Most of the studies highlighted changes in the forest level carbon gain, neglecting the species-specific growth changes which ultimately determine community-level responses. Tree-ring analysis can provide historical data on species-specific tree growth with annual resolution. Such studies are inadequate in Bangladesh, which is one of the most climate sensitive regions in the tropics. In this study, we investigated long-term growth rates of Toona ciliata in a moist tropical forest of Bangladesh by using tree-ring analysis. We sampled 50 trees of varying size, obtained increment cores from these trees and measured tree-ring width. Analyses of growth patterns revealed size-dependent growth increments. After correcting for the effect of tree size on tree growth (ontogenetic changes) by two different methods we found declining growth rates in T. ciliata from 1960 to 2013. Standardized ring-width index (RWI) was strongly negatively correlated with annual mean and maximum temperatures suggesting that rising temperature might cause the observed growth decline in T. ciliata. Assuming that global temperatures will rise at the current rate, the observed growth decline is assumed to continue. The analysis of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes may reveal more insight on the physiological response of this species to future climatic changes.

  19. [Trunk sap flow dynamic changes in response to the slopes of plantation of Toona ciliata var. pubescens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Wen-Rong; Xu, Jin-Liang; Zou, Jun; Jiang, Jing-Min; Li, Yan-Jie; Diao, Song-Feng

    2014-08-01

    The sap flow and environmental factors, including temperature, water content and water potential of soil, were continuously measured by using an auto-data collection system at the upper and lower slopes of Toona ciliata var. pubescens plantation in July to October, 2012 to investigate the relationships between the sap flow and environmental factors. The results showed that, the trunk sap flow velocity of the two positions both presented a typical single-peak curve, with high values in the daytime and low values in the nighttime. The average sap flow of the lower slope was significantly higher than that of the upper slope. Soil temperature of the upper slope was significantly higher than that of the lower slope, and soil water content and water potential were vice versa. Soil water content and water potential were the leading environmental factors affecting the trunk sap flow velocity at the lower slope, while soil temperature and water potential were the main environmental factors at the upper slope.

  20. Efeito do volume de tubetes na produção de mudas de Calophyllum brasiliense e Toona ciliata

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    Alysson Canabrava Lisboa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A demanda por informações silviculturais de espécies florestais alternativas para reflorestamentos com fins econômicos, entre as quais incluem os métodos de produção de mudas, tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de volumes de tubetes, com dimensões de 115, 180 e de 280 cm³, no crescimento de mudas de guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. e cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur. O substrato utilizado foi composto por uma mistura de 80% de substrato comercial e 20% de argila. Foram avaliados o diâmetro de colo e a altura das mudas aos 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a repicagem. Nessa última ocasião, determinou-se também o peso de massa seca da parte aérea, do sistema radicular e total, bem como o Índice de Qualidade de Dickson. Houve efeito do volume do tubete sobre as características das mudas, sendo o cedro-australiano a espécie mais responsiva. Conclui-se que para o guanandi o tubete mais indicado é o de 180 cm³ e para o cedro-australiano, o de 280 cm³.

  1. Influência da saturação por bases na qualidade e crescimento de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis)

    OpenAIRE

    Braga,Marilena de Melo; Furtini Neto,Antonio Eduardo; Oliveira,Anna Hoffmann

    2015-01-01

    O cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis) é uma espécie promissora para plantios comerciais em função da qualidade e ampla utilização da sua madeira e de seu alto retorno financeiro em um pequeno espaço de tempo. No entanto, são escassas as informações sobre o comportamento desta espécie em relação à acidez do solo. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de satura...

  2. Avaliação das propriedades físico-mecânicas de painéis compensados de Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis

    OpenAIRE

    Albino,Vanessa Cristina do Sacramento; Sá,Vânia Aparecida de; Bufalino,Lina; Mendes,Lourival Marin; Almeida,Natalia Amarante

    2011-01-01

    Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar as propriedades físicas e mecânicas de painéis compensados produzidos a partir de madeira de Toona ciliata com duas pressões e duas gramaturas distintas, além da influência da inclusão de lâminas de Pinus sp. na qualidade desses painéis. Foram produzidos compensados de cinco lâminas com resina fenol-formaldeído. Os ensaios físico-mecânicos foram realizados de acordo com as especificações descritas na norma ABNT 31:000.05-001/2(2001). Os resultado...

  3. Influência da saturação por bases na qualidade e crescimento de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis)

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Marilena de Melo; Furtini Neto, Antonio Eduardo; Oliveira, Anna Hoffmann

    2015-01-01

    O cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis) é uma espécie promissora para plantios comerciais em função da qualidade e ampla utilização da sua madeira e de seu alto retorno financeiro em um pequeno espaço de tempo. No entanto, são escassas as informações sobre o comportamento desta espécie em relação à acidez do solo. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de saturação por bases sobre o crescimento e a qualidade de mudas de cedro-australiano. A sa...

  4. INFLUÊNCIA DA SATURAÇÃO POR BASES NA QUALIDADE E CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE CEDRO-AUSTRALIANO (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena de Melo Braga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis is a promising species for commercial plantations based on the quality and wide use of its wood and high financial returns in short time. However, there is little information about the behavior of this species in relation to soil acidity. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different base saturation levels on growth and quality of Australian cedar seedlings. The substrate saturation was raised to 21.3; 33.2; 47.9; 60.4 and 70.0%, by adding different doses of limestone content of 12% MgO and 50% CaO in vessels with capacity of 3.5 dm3 of a typical dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol. At 120 days after transplanting were obtained height, stem diameter, root dry matter, aerial parts and total. It was also determined the relationship height/stem diameter, height/aerial parts dry matter, aerial parts dry matter/root dry matter and Dickson’s quality index. Australian cedar seedlings respond positively to the base saturation increase. The positive responses of morphological variables pointed to need to do the acidity correction increasing the level of saturation to 50 %, in order to maximize the crop yield.

  5. Variações na qualidade de toras de Toona ciliata M. Roem. com dezoito anos de idade

    OpenAIRE

    Nassur,Otávio Augusto Carvalho; Rosado,Lucas Rodrigues; Rosado,Sebastião Carlos da Silva; Carvalho,Pablo Marcílio de

    2013-01-01

    A família meliácea contém as mais valiosas espécies produtoras de madeira na região tropical, no entanto o cultivo dessas espécies em sua área de ocorrência natural é limitado, em decorrência do ataque de brocas do gênero Hypsipyla. Em contrapartida, plantios exóticos de cedro australiano (T. ciliata) no Brasil tem tido grande sucesso especialmente pela resistência ao ataque da broca dos cedros, e também por apresentar bom crescimento vegetativo e adaptação ao solo e ao clima. No entanto, a m...

  6. Avaliação do potencial de uso da madeira de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata para produção de painéis OSB

    OpenAIRE

    Iwakiri, Setsuo; Potulski, Daniele Cristina; Sanches, Felipe Gustavo; Silva, Janice Bernardo da; Trianoski, Rosilani; Pretko, Williams Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de uso da madeira de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata, e mistura destas espécies, para produção de painéis OSB. Os painéis foram produzidos em laboratório com densidade nominal de 0,75 g/cm³, utilizando resina fenol-formaldeído em quantidade de 6% de sólido resinoso e 1% de emulsão de parafina. Foram avaliadas as propriedades de absorção de água e inchamento em espessura 2 e 24 horas, tração perpen...

  7. Estratégias de seleção de clones de Toona ciliata M. Roemer var. australis para biomecânica de árvores e qualidade da madeira

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Mara Lúcia Agostini

    2014-01-01

    Com o objetivo de propor uma metodologia para seleção de clones para aumentar a estabilidade mecânica de árvores e melhorar a qualidade da madeira para processamento primário avaliou-se sete clones de T. ciliata, cultivados em plantio piloto e com três anos de idade. Foram avaliadas as tensões de crescimento na madeira de tração e normal dentro de uma amplitude de posição angular de 0 a 270⁰. Na análise dos dados constatou-se significantes efeitos da interação de posição dentro de clone as qu...

  8. Floral Development in the Tribe Cedreleae (Meliaceae, Sub-family Swietenioideae): Cedrela and Toona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvêa, Cantídio Fernando; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral development of Cedrela and Toona, the genera comprising the basal tribe Cedreleae of the sub-family Swietenioideae of Meliaceae, is described. The focus was on three endangered, ecologically and economically important species: Cedrela fissilis, Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. The aims of the study were to characterize the patterns of floral development in the tribe and to establish apomorphic and plesiomorphic floral characters in relation to other taxa within the family based on the current molecular phylogeny of Meliaceae. Methods A detailed floral structural and developmental study was completed using both scanning electron microscopy and visualization of microtome sections with a light microscope. Key Results Twelve floral developmental stages were identified. The initial development of the pentamerous flowers of both Toona and Cedrela is strikingly similar. The morphological differences observed between them are due to differential patterns of organ elongation and adnation/connation occurring late in development. Additionally, the formation of functionally male and female flowers was found to occur at specific positions within the inflorescence. Conclusions Due to the basal position of the tribe Cedreleae in the phylogeny of Meliaceae, functionally either male or female pentamerous flowers and the presence of (at least partially) free stamens may be considered plesiomorphic traits within the family. In contrast, sympetaly and the absence of nectaries in Cedrela species are synapomorphies. PMID:17981877

  9. Shrinkage of the Toona ciliata wood from three counties in the south of Minas Gerais state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the shrinkage, in the bottom-up and pith-bark direction, of the australian cedar wood from three Counties in the south of Minas Gerais state, and also to check the variation in chemical composition of wood due the location of planting. The australian cedar wood was obtained with four years of age and in three cities in the south of Minas Gerais state (Campo Belo, Cana Verde and Santo Antonio do Amparo. The chemical constituents of wood, shrinkage values (tangential, radial, longitudinal and volumetric and the anisotropy coefficient. According to the results, there was no significant variation in the levels of holocellulose were determined, lignin, extractives and ashes between the three plantation sites evaluated. For the shrinkage of the wood in the bottom-up direction, there was no significant variation of the radial and longitudinal contractions for the three locations evaluated. However, significant variation was observed for the tangential and volumetric contractions for cities of Campo Belo and Cana Verde, and significant variation of Tangential contraction for the plantation of Santo Antonio do Amparo. In the pith-bark direction, significant variation was observed only on the radial contraction and the coefficient of anisotropy for location of Cana Verde.

  10. Characterization of Micronutrient Deficiency in Australian Red Cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno da Silva Moretti; Antonio Eduardo Furtini Neto; Bruno Peres Benatti; Eduane José de Pádua; Lauana Lopes Santos; Julian Junio de Jesus Lacerda; Soami Fernanda Caio Deccetti

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Red Cedar presents a great exploitation potential in Brazil, but works about the nutrient requirements and deficiency characterization in that species are still scarce. The objectives of this work were evaluating the effects of the omission of micronutrients and characterizing the nutrient deficiency symptoms in Australian Red Cedar saplings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse for a 90-day period. Australian Red Cedar cuttings were cultivated in pots with a nutrient s...

  11. Characterization of Micronutrient Deficiency in Australian Red Cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Moretti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Red Cedar presents a great exploitation potential in Brazil, but works about the nutrient requirements and deficiency characterization in that species are still scarce. The objectives of this work were evaluating the effects of the omission of micronutrients and characterizing the nutrient deficiency symptoms in Australian Red Cedar saplings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse for a 90-day period. Australian Red Cedar cuttings were cultivated in pots with a nutrient solution under the missing element technique. The omission of the micronutrients B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn affect negatively the height, diameter, and dry matter yield of the Australian Red Cedar plants. The micronutrient which affected the relative growth of the plants the most was B. Australian Red Cedar plants deficient in micronutrients present several visual symptoms characteristic of the metabolism disorders. The perception of the deficiencies through the visual diagnosis can be useful in the nutrient management of the culture of the Australian Red Cedar.

  12. Mitragyna ciliata and its trypanocidal activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... The trypanocidal activity of different fractions of hydroethanolic root extract of Mitragyna ciliata Aubrev and Pellegr (Rubiaceae) were evaluated in rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei field isolates from a cow. Oral administration of the fractions at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 5 days (10 days post-infection).

  13. Bio-potency of Dictyota ciliata J. Agardh

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    Kalaiarasi Velayutham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal the antibacterial, cytotoxicity, larvicidal potentials of Dictyota ciliata J. Agardh (D. ciliata. Methods: Phytochemical, antibacterial screening, cytotoxicity and larvicidal properties of the D. ciliata extracts were carried out according to standard methods. Cytotoxicity and larvicidal potentials were analyzed by means of computerized probit analysis program. Results: The phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic groups, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and tannins in the crude extracts of D. ciliata. The methanolic extracts of D. ciliata showed the highest metabolites presence compared to other tested extracts. The antibacterial activity illustrated that the acetone extracts of D. ciliata exhibited the highest zone of inhibition [(10±0.2 mm] against Morganella morganii. Highest larval mortality (50% was observed in the crude methanolic extracts of D. ciliata against Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50=202.82 mg/L and LC90 value is 488.52 mg/L. The result of brine shrimp lethality bioassay showed highest cytotoxicity in methanolic extracts of D. ciliata with LC50 and LC90 values at 340.14 mg/L and 555.58 mg/L respectively. Conclusions: The results of the present phytochemical analysis and biological assays will help the manufacturers for identification and selection of raw materials for drug production.

  14. Antioxidation activity and total phenolic contents of various Toona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-11

    Sep 11, 2012 ... Antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of phenolic compounds from argentinean herbs infusions. Food Control 21:779-. 785. Wang KJ, Yang CR, Zhang YJ (2007). Phenolic antioxidants from. Chinese toon (fresh young leaves and shoots of Toona sinensis). Food Chem. 101:365-371. Williams GM ...

  15. Anxiolytic - like properties of Hallea ciliata in mice | Stephanie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiolytic - like properties of Hallea ciliata in mice. Njapdounke Kameni Jacqueline Stephanie, Nkantchoua Nkamguie Gisele, Moto Okomolo Fleur Clarisse, Taiwe Sotoing Germain, Sidiki Neteydji, Pale Simon, Ayissi Mbomo Espoir Rigobert, Ngo Bum Elisabeth ...

  16. ANXIOLYTIC - LIKE PROPERTIES OF Hallea ciliata IN MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie, Njapdounke Kameni Jacqueline; Gisele, Nkantchoua Nkamguie; Clarisse, Moto Okomolo Fleur; Germain, Taiwe Sotoing; Neteydji, Sidiki; Simon, Pale; Rigobert, Ayissi Mbomo Espoir; Elisabeth, Ngo Bum

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic properties of the decoction of stem bark of Hallea ciliate in mice. The decoction of Hallea ciliata is used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat diseases like anxiety disorders, fever, infantile convulsions and malaria. Stress induced hyperthermia, elevated plus maze, open field and hole-board tests were used. Four different doses of the decoction were administered to mice and their effects were compared to the effects of diazepam and vehicle. Phytochemical characterization of the decoction revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. Administration of Hallea ciliata resulted in a significant decrease of stress induced hyperthermia in mice at the doses of 29.5, 59 and 118 mg/kg. In the elevated plus maze test, Hallea ciliata increased the number of entries and the percentages of entries and time into the open arms, and reduced the number of entries and the percentages of entries and time into the closed arms. In the hole-board test, Hallea ciliata increased the number of both head-dipping and crossing and decreased the latency to the first head-dips and rearing. The decoction of Hallea ciliata and diazepam increased locomotion in the open field test. The number of rearing and the mass of fecal boli produced were decreased in mice treated with decoction and diazepam. In conclusion, the results indicated that decoction of Hallea ciliata has anxiolytic-like properties in mice and could potentially be used for anxiety treatment.

  17. Lactam Triterpenoids from the Bark of Toona sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Qian Meng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three new limonoid-type triterpenoids, namely toonasins A–C (1–3 with a rare lactam E ring, along with six known compounds (4–9 were isolated from the barks of Toona sinensis. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data, and the relative configuration of compound 1 was further characterized by X-ray crystallographic analyses. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human tumor cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480, and compounds 3 and 5 showed weak cytotoxicities.

  18. Effects of Toona Sinensis Leaf Extract on Lipolysis in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hseng-Kuang Hsu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of substances extracted from Toona sinensis leaves with 50% alcohol solution on lipolysis was investigated in cultured 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocytes. The amount of glycerol released from cells into culture medium was used to measure lipolysis activity. Glycerol release was increased by Toona sinensis leaf extract in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Following treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells with various concentrations of Toona sinensis leaf extract (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mg/mL for 6 hours, the amounts of glycerol released from 3T3-L1 cells increased from a control value of 99 nmol/mg protein to 127, 144, and 154 nmol/mg protein, respectively. The lipolytic effect of Toona sinensis leaf extract was not inhibited by pretreatment of cells with cycloheximide, econazole, baicalein, or indomethacin. However, the lipolytic activity induced by Toona sinensis leaf extract was diminished by dibutyryl cyclic adenosine-5'-monophosphate (dibutyryl cAMP and the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C. These results indicate that the lipolytic effect induced by Toona sinensis leaf substances may be involved in the protein kinase C pathway and may be down-regulated by cAMP.

  19. Life-history regulation in the subtidal red alga Calliblepharis ciliata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, FJ; Venekamp, LAH; Breeman, AM

    The life-history strategy of the subtidal red alga Calliblepharis ciliata has been studied in the field and in laboratory culture. Bi-monthly observations on a C. ciliata population at Roscoff (Brittany, France) revealed a clear seasonal pattern. In April young plants appeared and grew through the

  20. PENGARUH BEBERAPA PERLAKUAN PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP PERKECAMBAHAN BENIH SUREN (Toona sureni

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    Heri Suryanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood of Suren (Toona sureni has a good reputation for wood quality for various uses including building materials, plywood, container and furniture. Therefore this species is preferred for plantation development. Seed is important on planting material for establish forest plantation. The characteristics of seeds are hygroscopic and depending on the factors of relative air humidity and the temperature of environment where the seeds are stored. This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of storage temperature on seed quality of suren which was stored on seed (after extraction and on fruit (before extraction. The study was arranged in a Factorial Completely Randomized Design with pattern of 3 factors and 3 replications. The first factor is room storage at room temperature and Dry Cold Storage (DCS, the second factor of packaging materials were paper, cloth, aluminum foil, and plastic. The third factor was the storage period of 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Each treatment consisted of three replications, as many as 50 seeds of each. The parameters used were water content (% and germination (%. The result were observed showed that aluminum foil packaging at room temperature until 4 weeks was able to store seeds of suren properly and efficiently in which the water content was stable from 6.11% to 10.82% with 71% germination rate.Keywords: Suren, room storage, storage period, packaging material, germination

  1. CRESCIMENTO, ACÚMULO DE NUTRIENTES E FENÓIS TOTAIS DE MUDAS DE CEDROAUSTRALIANO (Toona ciliata INOCULADAS COM FUNGOS MICORRÍZICOS

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    Késsia Barreto Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the Australian red cedar seedlings for their ability to growth, nutrition and production of phenolic compounds under arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation. An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, with three treatments consisting of Gigaspora margarita, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus clarum in single inoculation, and four treatments composed by the combination of these species, Gigaspora margarita + Glomus clarum, Gigaspora margarita + Glomus etunicatum, Glomus clarum + Glomus etunicatum and Gigaspora margarita + Glomus etunicatum + Glomus clarum. All treatments with the fungal inoculum were evaluated without addition of phosphorus in the substrate. In comparison, three treatment controls were used (without fungus containing in random blocks with five replicates. After 140 days of germination, it was observed that all species of AMF inoculated alone or in combination, led to significant benefits on growth, nutrition and production of phenolic compounds in Australian red cedar seedlings in soils containing low phosphorus availability. The mixture in the soil of Gigaspora margarita, Glomus etunicatum and Glomus clarum was able to provide significant increases in plant growth in most parameters assessed, resulting in performance equivalent or higher than non-mycorrhizal and control plants grown in soil fertilized with phosphorus. This suggests that AMF can promote reduction in phosphorus addition during the production of Australian red cedar seedlings.

  2. Auto-incompatibilidade em Miconia ciliata (L.C.Rich. DC. (Miconieae - Melastomataceae Self-incompatibility in Miconia ciliata (L.C.Rich. DC. (Miconieae-Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Flavia de Melo

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Miconia ciliata é uma espécie arbustiva, com período de floração que se estende por 11 meses. As flores são hermafroditas e apresentam antese diurna. A interrupção do crescimento do tubo polínico ocorre no estilete, sugerindo haver um mecanismo de autoincompatibilidade do tipo gametofítico. Foram registradas visitas de duas espécies de abelhas Halictidae, que coletam pólen através de vibração (buzz pollination. A pequena quantidade de flores abertas diariamente por inflorescencia, provavelmente induz os polinizadores efetivos a visitarem maior número de inflorescencia por indivíduo, promovendo a fecundação cruzada. Miconia ciliata é uma espécie cujo sucesso reprodutivo é favorecido pelas frequentes visitas dos polinizadores efetivos, elevada razão P/O e viabilidade polínica.Miconia ciliata is a shrub whith flowers over a period of 11 months. The flowers are hermaphrodite with diurnal anthesis. Probably Miconia ciliata exhibits gametophytic incompatibility - pollen tube growth's interrupted in the style. Bees of the family Halictidae were observed to use the vibration technique to extract pollen (buzz pollination. Only few flowers per inflorescence open each day. which probably induces the effective pollinators to visit a larger number of inflorescence in each individual plant, promoting cross pollination. Reproductive success in Miconia ciliata is favoured by the high frequency of pollinators visits, high P/O ration and high pollen fertility.

  3. Isolasi Senyawa Flavonoida Dari Daun Tumbuhan Ingul (Toona Sureni (Blume) Merr.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sidabutar, Iwan Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of flavonoid from the leaves of ingul (Toona sureni (Blume) Merr.) has been done by using extraction methods. Extract Ingul leaves separated by using Column Cromatography methods. Identification process was analyzed by Spectroscopy Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), Spectroscopy Infra Red (FT-IR) and Spectroscopy Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonancy (1H-NMR). The result analysis of spectrum showed that isolation compound a flavonoida group isoflavone, is yellow crystal with a mass = 47mg a...

  4. Effects of aqueous extract from the leaves of Chrysocoma ciliata L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of Chrysocoma ciliata leaves at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight for 14 days on some ... extract did not have any significant effect (p > 0.05) on the serum concentrations of sodium, ...

  5. Niet Ptenothrix atra maar P. ciliata komt voor in Nederland (Hexapoda: Entognatha: Collembola)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    In een recent artikel werd het springstaartengenus Ptenothrix besproken, met een nieuwe soort voor de Nederlandse fauna: P. atra. Na toezending van het artikel aan de Belgische springstaartenspecialist Frans Janssens kwam er een mailtje retour met de opmerking dat op de foto’s P. ciliata te zien is

  6. Toona Sinensis Extracts Induced Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in the Human Lung Large Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yuan Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Toona sinensis extracts have been shown to exhibit anti-cancer effects in human ovarian cancer cell lines, human promyelocytic leukemia cells and human lung adenocarcinoma. Its safety has also been confirmed in animal studies. However, its anti-cancer properties in human lung large cell carcinoma have not been studied. Here, we used a powder obtained by freeze-drying the super-natant of centrifuged crude extract from Toona sinensis leaves (TSL-1 to treat the human lung carcinoma cell line H661. Cell viability was evaluated by the 3-(4-,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that TSL-1 blocked H661 cell cycle progression. Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of cell cycle proteins that promote cell cycle progression, including cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and cyclin D1, and increased the expression of proteins that inhibit cell cycle progression, including p27. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that TSL-1 induced H661 cell apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that TSL-1 reduced the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2, and degraded the DNA repair protein, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase. TSL-1 shows potential as a novel therapeutic agent or for use as an adjuvant for treating human lung large cell carcinoma.

  7. Flow generation by the corona ciliata in Chaetognatha - quantification and implications for current functional hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Steffen; Müller, Carsten H G; Graf, Gerhard; Hanke, Wolf

    2017-12-01

    The corona ciliata of Chaetognatha (arrow worms) is a circular or elliptical groove lined by a rim from which multiple lines of cilia emanate, located dorsally on the head and/or trunk. Mechanoreception, chemosensation, excretion, respiration, and support of reproduction have been suggested to be its main functions. Here we provide the first experimental evidence that the cilia produce significant water flow, and the first visualisation and quantification of this flow. In Spadella cephaloptera, water is accelerated toward the corona ciliata from dorsal and anterior of the body in a funnel-shaped pattern, and expelled laterally and caudally from the corona, with part of the water being recirculated. Maximal flow speeds were approximately 140μms -1 in adult specimens. Volumetric flow rate was Q=0.0026μls -1 . The funnel-shaped directional flow can possibly enable directional chemosensation. The flow measurements demonstrate that the corona ciliata is well suited as a multifunctional organ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrastructure developments during spermiogenesis in Polydora ciliata (Annelida: Spionidae), a parasite of mollusca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Libin; Qiu, Tianlong; Xue, Dongxiu; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Spionid worms of Polydora ciliata inhabit the shells of many commercially important bivalves and cause disease in molluscan aquaculture. Their sperm structure is closely related to their fertilization method. To give an insight into the sperm structure and spermatogenesis, ultrastructure details of the subcellular components of germ cells during spermiogenesis of Polydora ciliata are detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In P. ciliata, during spermiogenesis, chromatin is regularly arranged as dense fibrils and becomes more condensed when the nucleus elongates. Microtubules do not surround the nucleus during its elongation. The Golgi phase is characterized by the formation of proacrosomal granules within the Golgi apparatus. The proacrosomal granules fuse to form a single, spherical acrosomal vesicle that migrates to the anterior pole of the cell. At the time of nuclear condensation, mitochondria become reduced in number but increased in size, causing deep indentation at the base of the nucleus. The mid-piece has a few mitochondria. The cap phase includes the spreading of the acrosomal granule over the surface of the nucleus of the differentiating spermatid. The acrosomal phase of spermiogenesis is typically associated with changes in the shape of the nucleus, acrosome and tail. The relationship of sperm ultrastructure to spermiogenesis in spionidae species was discussed.

  9. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Senyawa Flavonoida dari Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Batang Ingul (Toona Sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem)

    OpenAIRE

    Zendrato, Timotius

    2015-01-01

    The plant used in this research was ingul (Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem.) cortex. The ingul tree has a high value and more durable then kinds of other tree. The cortex and root oftentimes used for medicine. Testing of antibacterial activity with ethanol extract from ingul cortex had been conducted. Ingul cortex was predicted had a flavonoid compound that have an antibacterial activity. The objectives of this study are isolation and identification flavonoid compound from ingul cortex. The...

  10. Larval growth in the dominant polychaete Polydora ciliata is food-limited in a eutrophic Danish estuary (Isefjord)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Møller; Almeda, Rodrigo; Fotel, Frank Lech

    2010-01-01

    Food limitation in larval growth of the spionid polychaete Polydora ciliata was examined in a typical eutrophic estuary, Isefjord, in Denmark. In the field, food availability and the energetic requirements of the P. ciliata larval population were measured during 2 different periods in 2004 and 2007...... that together cover the productive part of the year for plankton. In the laboratory, specific growth rates (µ) of larvae reared on natural food suspensions (~0.10 d–1) were always lower than those of larvae reared on phytoplankton-enriched food suspensions (100% retention efficiency for Rhodomonas salina; ~0...

  11. Laboratory virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to two ornamental plant pests, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) and Stethobaris nemesis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we evaluated the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes to control two important ornamental pests: 1) Corythucha ciliata, a native lace bug that attacks the foliage of sycamore trees, and 2) the recently described exotic pest, Stethobaris nemesis, a weevil that attacks amaryllis leave...

  12. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of Veronica ciliata Fisch. Extracts Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Veronica ciliata Fisch. has been traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine prescriptions due to its curative effects for hepatitis, cholecystitis, rheumatism, and urticaria. The present study was focused on investigating the role of ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Veronica ciliata Fisch. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity (scavenging of DPPH, ABTS, superoxide, and nitrite radicals; reducing power; β-carotene bleaching and the hepatoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract by means of CCl4-induced oxidative stress in mice were investigated. The ethyl acetate extract of Veronica ciliata Fisch. displayed more noteworthy in vitro antioxidant activities than the aqueous extract. Moreover, it significantly prevented the increase in serum T-AOC, ALT, AST and ALP level in acute liver damage induced by CCl4, decreased the extent of MDA formation in liver and elevated the activities of SOD and GSH in liver. This activity was found to be comparable to that of bifendate. Histopathological observation of the liver was also performed to further support the evidence from the biochemical analysis. The results indicated that strong antioxidant activities and a significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 of Veronica ciliata Fisch. were concentrated in the ethyl acetate extract. The results suggested that this activity may be due to free radical-scavenging and antioxidant properties.

  13. De Novo Assembly and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Provide Insight into Lysine Biosynthesis in Toona sinensis Roem

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    Xia Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toona sinensis Roem is a popular leafy vegetable in Chinese cuisine and is also used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, leaf samples were collected from the same plant on two development stages and then used for high-throughput Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq. 125,884 transcripts and 54,628 unigenes were obtained through de novo assembly. A total of 25,570 could be annotated with known biological functions, which indicated that the T. sinensis leaves and shoots were undergoing multiple developmental processes especially for active metabolic processes. Analysis of differentially expressed unigenes between the two libraries showed that the lysine biosynthesis was an enriched KEGG pathway, and candidate genes involved in the lysine biosynthesis pathway in T. sinensis leaves and shoots were identified. Our results provide a primary analysis of the gene expression files of T. sinensis leaf and shoot on different development stages and afford a valuable resource for genetic and genomic research on plant lysine biosynthesis.

  14. Ferramentas para a avaliação das propriedades da madeira em árvores vivas de Toona ciliata (Roemer) e aplicações no melhoramento genético

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Stella Vilas Boas

    2013-01-01

    A avaliação das características tecnológicas da madeira com vistas ao melhoramento genético, normalmente se faz por meio de métodos destrutivos. Quando se deseja avaliar grande quantidade de materiais genéticos para conduzir índices de seleção mais rigorosos e, conseqüentemente, permitir o alcance de ganhos genéticos mais expressivos, os referidos métodos destrutivos se apresentam pouco eficazes. Dentre os vários fatores envolvidos nessa ineficácia se destacam a possibilidade de morte das árv...

  15. Swimming behavior and prey retention of the polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata (Johnston)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Jacobsen, Hans Henrik; Andersen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of the ubiquitous estuarine planktotrophic spionid polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata was studied. We describe ontogenetic changes in morphology, swimming speed and feeding rates and have developed a simple swimming model using low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. In the model we assumed...... that the ciliary swimming apparatus is primarily composed of the prototroch and secondarily by the telotroch. The model predicted swimming speeds and feeding rates that corresponded well with the measured speeds and rates. Applying empirical data to the model, we were able to explain the profound decrease...... in specific feeding rates and the observed increase in the difference between upward and downward swimming speeds with larval size. We estimated a critical larval length above which the buoyancy-corrected weight of the larva exceeds the propulsion force generated by the ciliary swimming apparatus and thus...

  16. PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT SURIAN (Toona sinensis (Juss, M. Roem YANG DIINOKULASI MIKORIZA PADA MEDIA TANAM TANAH ULTISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Sari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian tentang pertumbuhan bibit surian (Toona sinensis (Juss, M. Roem yang diinokulasi mikoriza pada media tanam tanah ultisol telah dilakukan dari bulan November 2014 sampai Februari 2015 di rumah kaca dan Laboratorium Fisiologi Tumbuhan Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Andalas, Padang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan bibit surian yang diinokulasi dengan beberapa dosis Fungi Mikoriza Arbuskula (FMA pada tanah ultisol. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan dan 6 ulangan. Adapun perlakuan yang diberikan adalah tanpa inokulasi; inokulan 5 g/tanaman; inokulan 10 g/tanaman; inokulan 15 g/tanaman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian dosis FMA sebanyak 15 g/tanaman pada media tanah ultisol memperlihatkan pengaruh yang nyata pada pertambahan jumlah daun tetapi tidak berpengaruh terhadap pertambahan tinggi dan diameter batang serta berat kering tanaman selama 12 minggu pengamatan. Abstract The study on the growth of surian seedling (Tonna sinensis (Juss, M. Roem that inoculated with mycorrhiza on ultisol medium had been conducted from November 2014 until February 2015 in Greenhouse and Plant Physiolgy Laboratory, Biology Department, Mathematic and Natural Sciences Faculty, Andalas University, Padang. The study aimed to find out about the growth of surian seedling that inoculated with several Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF doses on the ultisol medium. The study used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with four treatments and six replications. The treatments were 0 g Inoculation/plant; 5 g inoculants/plant; 10 g inoculants/plant and 15 g inoculants/plant. The result showed that the treatment of 15 g/plant on the ultisol medium was significantly affecting the growth of leaves, in adversely showed insignificantly effect on the height in crement and diameter of bark, as well as on the dry weight of plant during the 12 weeks

  17. Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Gallic Acid, a Major Component of Toona sinensis Leaf Extract, on Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells

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    Robert H. Chiu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Toona sinensis (TS has been reported to have various effects on cultured cell lines, including anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells. We have studied the effects of TS on various human oral squamous carcinoma cell lines (HOSCC, including UM1, UM2, SCC-4, and SCC-9. These cell lines were treated with TS leaf extract and screened for viability, apoptosis, necrosis, and apoptotic gene expression. Normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK served as a control for cytotoxic assays. Viability of TS-treated HOSCC was reduced, whereas that of NHOK was not affected. FACScan analysis revealed that the leaf extract induced apoptosis or a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, depending on cell type. Microarray and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis for apoptotic-related gene expression revealed that 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (gallic acid, one of the major bioactive compounds purified from TS extract up-regulated pro-apoptotic genes such TNF-α, TP53BP2, and GADD45A, and down-regulated the anti-apoptotic genes Survivin and cIAP1, resulting in cell death. This study suggests that gallic acid, the major bioactive compound present, is responsible for the anti-neoplastic effect of Toona sinensis leaf extract.

  18. Distribution and some biological data of sycamore lace bug – Corythucha ciliata say (Heteroptera, Tingidae in Georgia

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    A. Supatashvili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes invasion of the dangerous pest, sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata from Krasnodar District and its spread all over Georgia. The main biological aspects of the pest are studied: flight of imago, laying of eggs, life of nymphs, forms of damage and their estimation according to 5-grade scale. We also measured all phases of the pest (50 specimens each by means of the microscope“МБС-1” 8x with diopter scale. We established the difference of male and female imago of the Georgian population of the pest according to the form of abdomen. The abdomen of female is rounded, and the end of the male's abdomen is rather tapered. Financial support from the government is necessary, similarly to other countries, for the control of the pest, comprehensive study of sycamore lace bug C. ciliata Say – serious pest of city plantings of plane tree for safe biological control of the pest in Georgia.

  19. A glacial survivor of the alpine Mediterranean region: phylogenetic and phylogeographic insights into Silene ciliata Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae

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    Ifigeneia Kyrkou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Silene ciliata Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae is a species with a highly disjunct distribution which inhabits the alpine mountains of the Mediterranean Basin. We investigated the phylogeny and phylogeography of the species to (a clarify the long-suggested division of S. ciliata into two subspecies, (b evaluate its phylogenetic origin and (c assess whether the species’ diversification patterns were affected by the Mediterranean relief. For this purpose, we collected DNA from 25 populations of the species that inhabit the mountains of Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Greece and studied the plastid regions rbcL, rps16 and trnL. Major intraspecific variation was supported by all analyses, while the possibility of the existence of more varieties or subspecies was not favoured. Plastid DNA (cpDNA evidence was in accordance with the division of S. ciliata into the two subspecies, one spreading west (Iberian Peninsula and Central Massif and the other east of the Alps region (Italian and Balkan Peninsula. This study proposes that the species’ geographically disconnected distribution has probably derived from vicariance processes and from the Alps acting as a barrier to the species’ dispersal. The monophyletic origin of the species is highly supported. cpDNA patterns were shown independent of the chromosome evolution in the populations and could have resulted from a combination of geographic factors providing links and barriers, climatic adversities and evolutionary processes that took place during Quaternary glaciations.

  20. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

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    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.

  1. Toona sinensis Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammation and Migration in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species and NF-κB Signaling Pathway

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    Hsin-Ling Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toona sinensis is one of the most popular vegetarian cuisines in Taiwan and it has been shown to possess antioxidant, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the antiatherosclerotic potential of aqueous leaf extracts from Toona sinensis (TS; 25–100 μg/mL and its major bioactive compound, gallic acid (GA; 5 μg/mL, in LPS-treated rat aortic smooth muscle (A7r5 cells. We found that pretreatment with noncytotoxic concentrations of TS and GA significantly inhibited inflammatory NO and PGE2 production by downregulating their precursors, iNOS and COX-2, respectively, in LPS-treated A7r5 cells. Furthermore, TS and GA inhibited LPS-induced intracellular ROS and their corresponding mediator, p47phox. Notably, TS and GA pretreatment significantly inhibited LPS-induced migration in transwell assays. Gelatin zymography and western blotting demonstrated that treatment with TS and GA suppressed the activity or expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and t-PA. Additionally, TS and GA significantly inhibited LPS-induced VEGF, PDGF, and VCAM-1 expression. Further investigation revealed that the inhibition of iNOS/COX-2, MMPs, growth factors, and adhesion molecules was associated with the suppression of NF-κB activation and MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 phosphorylation. Thus, Toona sinensis may be useful for the prevention of atherosclerosis.

  2. Effect of Phenolic Compounds from Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.leaves on Experimental kidney stones

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    Byahatti, Vivek V.; Pai, K. Vasantkumar; D’Souza, Marina G

    2010-01-01

    Kidney stone formation or Urolithiasis is a complex process that results from series of several physicochemical events including super-saturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention within the kidneys. Among the treatments include Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and drug treatment. Even this ESWL treatment may cause acute renal injury, decrease in renal function and increase in stone recurrence. In addition, persistent residual stone fragments and possibility of infection after ESWL represent a serious problem in the treatment of stones. Data from in-vitro, in-vivo and clinical trials reveal that phytotherapeutic agents could be useful as either alternative or an adjunct therapy in the management of Urolithiasis. Medicinal plants /natural products are more acceptable to the body because they promote the repair mechanism in natural way. Various plant species of the genus Bergenia, have been reported to posses antiurolithiatic property. Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl, is one the ingredient of reputed herbal formulation Cy stone for the treatment of kidney stones. In this study alcohol, butanol, ethyl acetate extracts and isolated phenolic compounds from the Ayurvedic and Unani herb, Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. leaves (Saxifragaceae) were evaluated for their potential to dissolve experimentally prepared kidney stones-calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, by an in-vitro model. Phenolic compound P1 isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves, demonstrated highest dissolution of both stones when compared to test extracts at 10 mg concentration. However, it was more effective in dissolving calcium phosphate stones (67.74 %) than oxalate (36.95%). Reference standard-formulation Cystone was found to be more effective (48.48%) when compared to compound P1. PMID:22557418

  3. Thidiazuron: A potent cytokinin for efficient plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall. using leaf explants

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    Gaurav Aggarwal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Populus species are important resource for certain branches of industry and have special roles for scientific study on biological and agricultural systems. The present investigation was undertaken with an objective of enhancing the frequency of plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall.. The effect of Thiadizuron (TDZ alone and in combination with adenine and α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA were studied on the regeneration potential of leaf explants. A high efficiency of shoot regeneration was observed in leaf (80.00% explants on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.024 mg/l TDZ and 79.7 mg/l adenine. Elongation and multiplication of shoots were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium, containing 0.5 mg/l 6. Benzyl aminopurine (BAP + 0.2mg/l Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA + 0.3 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3. High frequency root regeneration from in vitro developed shoots was observed on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l Indole 3-butyric acid(IBA. Maximum of the in vitro rooted plantlets were well accomplished to the mixture of sand: soil (1:1 and exhibited similar morphology with the field plants. A high efficiency plant regeneration protocol has been developedfrom leaf explants in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall..

  4. A New Alkamide with an Endoperoxide Structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae and Its in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity

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    Narjara Silveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Acmella ciliata (H.B.K. Cassini (basionym Spilanthes ciliata Kunth; Asteraceae, three alkamides were isolated and identified by mass- and NMR spectroscopic methods as (2E,6E,8E-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol, (1, N-(2-phenethyl-2E-en-6,8-nonadiynamide (2 and (2E,7Z-6,9-endoperoxy-N-isobutyl-2,7-decadienamide (3. While 1 and 2 are known alkamides, compound 3 has not been described until now. It was found that the unusual cyclic peroxide 3 exists as a racemate of both enantiomers of each alkamide; the 6,9-cis- as well as the 6,9-trans-configured diastereomers, the former represents the major, the latter the minor constituent of the mixture. In vitro tests for activity against the human pathogenic parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum revealed that 1 and 3 possess activity against the NF54 strain of the latter (IC50 values of 4.5 and 5.1 µM, respectively while 2 was almost inactive. Compound 3 was also tested against multiresistant P. falciparum K1 and was found to be even more active against this parasite strain (IC50 = 2.1 µM with considerable selectivity (IC50 against L6 rat skeletal myoblasts = 168 µM.

  5. Thidiazuron: A potent cytokinin for efficient plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall. using leaf explants

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    Gaurav Aggarwal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Populus species are important resource for certain branches of industry and have special roles for scientific study on biological and agricultural systems. The present investigation was undertaken with an objective of enhancing the frequency of plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliataWall.. The effect of Thiadizuron (TDZ alone and in combination with adenine and alpha-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA were studied on the regeneration potential of leaf explants. A high efficiency of shoot regeneration was observed in leaf (80.00% explants on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.024 mg/l TDZ and 79.7 mg/l adenine. Elongation and multiplication of shoots were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium, containing 0.5 mg/l 6. Benzyl aminopurine (BAP + 0.2mg/l Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA + 0.3 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3. High frequency root regeneration from in vitro developed shoots was observed on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l Indole 3-butyric acid (IBA. Maximum of the in vitro rooted plantlets were well accomplished to the mixture of sand: soil (1:1 and exhibited similar morphology with the field plants. A high efficiency plant regeneration protocol has been developed from leaf explants in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall.. 

  6. The Effectiveness and Mechanism of Toona sinensis Extract Inhibit Attachment of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 Virus

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    Huey-Ling You

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available TSL-1 is a fraction of the aqueous extract from the tender leaf of Toona sinensis Roem, a nutritious vegetable. The pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus is a recently described, rapidly contagious respiratory pathogen which can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and poses a major public health threat. In this study, we found that TSL-1 inhibited viral yields on MDCK plaque formation by pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus on infected A549 cells with high selectivity index. Meanwhile, TSL-1 also suppressed viral genome loads in infected A549 cells, quantified by qRT-PCR. This study further demonstrated that TSL-1 inhibited pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus activity through preventing attachment of A549 cells but not penetration. TSL-1 inhibited viral attachment through significant downregulation of adhesion molecules and chemokines (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, IL-8, and fractalkine compared to Amantadine. Our results suggest that TSL-1 may be used as an alternative treatment and prophylaxis against pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus.

  7. Interventional effects of pretreatment with total polyphenols extracted from Toona sinensis on the injury induced by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in rats

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    Hong-yue LI; Chen, Chao

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the interventional effects of pretreatment with total polyphenols extracted from Toona sinensis Roem on the injury induced by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in rats.Methods Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups:sham operation group,model group and 3 pretreatment groups in which the rats were treated with total polyphenols in 3 different doses.Rats in sham operation and model group were treated with 5 sodium carboxy methyl cellulose,and in 3 pretreatment g...

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Helicobacter Activities of Eryngium foetidum (Apiaceae), Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), and Galinsoga ciliata (Asteraceae) against Helicobacter pylori

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    Kouitcheu Mabeku, Laure brigitte; Eyoum Bille, Bertrand; Nguepi, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of extracts of Bidens pilosa, Galinsoga ciliata, and Eryngium foetidum against 6 clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in vivo. Broth microdilution method was used in vitro. In vivo, Swiss mice were inoculated with H. pylori and divided into 5 groups; the control group received the vehicle and the four others received 125, 250, and 500?mg/kg of methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum and ciprofloxacin (500?mg/kg) f...

  9. Anaerobic respiration and antioxidant responses of Corythucha ciliata (Say) adults to heat-induced oxidative stress under laboratory and field conditions.

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    Ju, Rui-Ting; Wei, He-Ping; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo

    2014-03-01

    High temperature often induces oxidative stress and antioxidant response in insects. This phenomenon has been well documented under controlled laboratory conditions, but whether it happens under fluctuating field conditions is largely unknown. In this study, we used an invasive lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) as a model species to compare the effects of controlled thermal treatments (2 h at 33-43 °C with 2 °C intervals in the laboratory) and naturally fluctuating thermal conditions (08:00-14:00 at 2-h intervals (29.7-37.2 °C) on a hot summer day in a field in Shanghai, China) on lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) was the marker) and anaerobic respiration (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was the marker), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione reductase (GR). The results show that MDA concentration increased significantly in response to heat stresses with similar trend in the laboratory and field. LDH activities did not significantly vary across temperatures in the laboratory-exposed individuals, but they significantly increased by rising temperature in the field. The activities or concentrations of SOD, CAT, GSH, and GR all significantly increased with increasing temperature in the two populations. These findings indicate that high temperature induces oxidative stress, resulting in high anaerobic respiration and antioxidant defenses in C. ciliata under both the laboratory and field conditions, which likely provide a defense mechanism against oxidative damage due to the accumulation of ROS.

  10. Interventional effects of pretreatment with total polyphenols extracted from Toona sinensis on the injury induced by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in rats

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    Hong-yue LI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the interventional effects of pretreatment with total polyphenols extracted from Toona sinensis Roem on the injury induced by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in rats.Methods Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups:sham operation group,model group and 3 pretreatment groups in which the rats were treated with total polyphenols in 3 different doses.Rats in sham operation and model group were treated with 5 sodium carboxy methyl cellulose,and in 3 pretreatment groups the rats were treated with 50,100 and 200mg/kg of total polyphenols,respactively,by gavage for 7 days,and then the myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by ligating the left coronary artery(LAD for 30min followed by a 120 min reperfusion in anesthetized rats.Rats in sham operation group were operated with placing the ligature but without ligating.ECGs were recorded before and 30 min after ligating LAD,and 30,60 and 90min after reperfusion.The levels of J point at different time were observed and compared.After reperfusion,the blood was collected from abdominal aorta to prepare serum samples.The activity of CK,the level of cTnI,TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α in serum were then determincd.Finally,the hearts of rats below the ligature were cut into 5 slices and stained with 1% TTC for 15 min,the extent of myocardial infarction was calculated.Results Compared with that in sham operation group,the J point of ECG elevated obviously in model group,the activity of serum CK and the contents of cTnI and TXB2 increased markedly,while the 6-keto-PGF1α level declined significantly(P < 0.05,and notable myocardial infarction was apparent.Compared with those in model group,the height of J point descended,the activity of CK and the level of cTnI and TXB2 in serum decreased,while the level of 6-keto-PGF1α increased,and the degree of myocardial infarction was alleviated in the 3 pretreatment groups.All the data were found to have statistically significant

  11. Quercetin Isolated from Toona sinensis Leaves Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Protects Hepatocytes in High-Carbohydrate/High-Fat Diet and Alloxan Induced Experimental Diabetic Mice

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    Yali Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of diabetes mellitus is related to oxidant stress induced by a high carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HFD. Quercetin, as a major bioactive component in Toona sinensis leaves (QTL, is a natural antioxidant. However, the exact mechanism by which QTL ameliorate diabetes mellitus is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypoglycemic effects and hepatocytes protection of QTL on HFD and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Intragastric administration of QTL significantly reduced body weight gain, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels compared to those of diabetic mice. Furthermore, it significantly attenuated oxidative stress, as determined by lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and as a result attenuated liver injury. QTL also significantly suppressed the diabetes-induced activation of the p65/NF-κB and ERK1/2/MAPK pathways, as well as caspase-9 and caspase-3 levels in liver tissues of diabetic mice. Finally, micrograph analysis of liver samples showed decreased cellular organelle injury in hepatocytes of QTL treated mice. Taken together, QTL can be viewed as a promising dietary agent that can be used to reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus and its secondary complications by ameliorating oxidative stress in the liver.

  12. Chemopreventive effect of Toona sinensis leaf extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch squamous cell carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chen; Chen, Ching-Yi; Hsu, Hseng-Kuang; Lin, Li-Min; Chen, Yuk-Kwan

    2016-10-01

    Toona sinensis leaf extract (TSL) has been shown to have anti-tumor effects on cancer cell lines. This study aimed to investigate the chemopreventive potential and the underlying mechanism of TSL during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. One hundred hamsters were divided into control (n=30), carcinogenic (n=20), preventive (n=42), and therapeutic (n=8) groups. The animals in carcinogenic and preventive groups were administered reverse osmosis water (carcinogenic group) or TSL (1g/kg bw) (preventive group) by gavage daily for 4 weeks, and their bilateral pouches were painted with a 0.5% DMBA solution for 4, 9, and 12 weeks. The animals in the therapeutic group were treated with DMBA for 12 weeks prior to TSL administration for 4 weeks. Expression levels of survivin, X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Apoptotic activity was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method, cytochrome C, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In the preventive group, the results showed significant decreases not only in the incidences of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (50%) and epithelial dysplasia (62.5%) but also in the tumor number, tumor volume, tumor burden, and the severity of dysplastic lesions. The down-regulation of survivin, XIAP, PCNA, iNOS, and COX-2 proteins and the increased apoptotic activity indicated anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing abilities of TSL on DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis. The results suggested that TSL might be a promising candidate for the prevention of oral cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. INVASÃO BIOLÓGICA DE Corythucha ciliata EM ESPAÇOS VERDES URBANOS DE PORTUGAL: MODELAÇÃO DO NICHO ECOLÓGICO COM O MÉTODO DE MÁXIMA ENTROPIA

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    Maria Alice da Silva Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae is an insect native to North America which has been introduced into Europe, through Italy, in 1964. Since then it has expanded across Europe being its date of arrival and distributional range in Portugal unknown. This important invasive pest feeds on the underside of the leaves of sycamore trees, one of the most widespread ornamental tree in urban areas of Portugal, causing their premature senescence and eventually death, in case of consecutive severe infestations. Habitat modeling is becoming an increasingly important tool for managing biological invasions, either prior or after the introduction of the invasive organism. In this study the software MaxEnt (maximum entropy was used to model the distribution of Corythucha ciliata in its Portuguese invasive range, from a set of environmental variables and georeferenced occurrence data obtained from observation of Platanus spp. leaves sampled all over the country. According to the best model developed, the areas of greater suitability to invasion of Corythucha ciliata are located in the northern portion of the country whereas the more southern and mountainous areas are of low or virtually null suitability. Laboratory observations of Corythucha ciliata biology allied to records of pest absence across several localities of southern Portugal and predominant occurrence in the northern half of Spain support the model developed. However, model validation requires future prospection in the areas of predicted reduced suitability and where the pest was virtually absent at the moment of sampling. Suitability models can be a useful tool for decision making in management of green spaces.

  14. Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and a pro-apoptotic effect in SGC-7901 of the essential oil from Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roem. leaves.

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    Wu, Jian-Guo; Peng, Wei; Yi, Jun; Wu, Yan-Bin; Chen, Ti-Qiang; Wong, Ka-Hing; Wu, Jin-Zhong

    2014-05-28

    Leaves of Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roem. (TSL), a popular vegetable in China, have anti-inflammatory, antidoting, and worm-killing effects and are used in folk medicine for the treatment of enteritis, dysentery, carbuncles, boils, and especially abdominal tumors. Our aim was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and anticancer property of the essential oil from TSL (TSL-EO), especially the pro-apoptotic effect in SGC-7901. TSL-EO obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC/MS and was tested in vitro against twenty clinically isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus (SA 1-20), which were either methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and two standard strains viz. ATCC 25923 and ATCC 43300. The anticancer activity of TSL-EO was evaluated in vitro against HepG2, SGC7901, and HT29 through MTT assay. Moreover, the apoptosis-inducing activity of TSL-EO in SGC7901 cells was determined by Hoechst 33324 staining and flow cytometry methods. Also, the apoptosis-related proteins viz. Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were detected by western-blotting. GC-MS analysis showed that TSL-EO contained a high amount of sesquiterpenes (84.64%), including copaene (8.27%), β-caryophyllene (10.16%), caryophyllene (13.18%) and β-eudesmene (5.06%). TSL-EO inhibited the growth of both MSSA and MRSA, with the lowest MIC values of 0.125 and 1mg/ml, respectively. Treatment with TSL-EO for 24h could significantly suppress the viability of three different cancer cell lines (P<0.05). Furthermore, the apoptosis-inducing activity of TSL-EO in SGC7901 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner, potentially resulting from the up-regulated expression of Bax, caspase-3 and down-regulated expression of Bcl-2. TSL-EO possessed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells and particularly prominent pro-apoptotic activity in SGC7901 cells

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Helicobacter Activities of Eryngium foetidum (Apiaceae), Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), and Galinsoga ciliata (Asteraceae) against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouitcheu Mabeku, Laure Brigitte; Eyoum Bille, Bertrand; Nguepi, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of extracts of Bidens pilosa, Galinsoga ciliata, and Eryngium foetidum against 6 clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in vivo. Broth microdilution method was used in vitro. In vivo, Swiss mice were inoculated with H. pylori and divided into 5 groups; the control group received the vehicle and the four others received 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum and ciprofloxacin (500 mg/kg) for 7 days, respectively. Helicobacter pylori colonization and number of colonies in gastric biopsies culture were assessed on days 1 and 7 after treatment. The lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) and the best spectrum of bactericidal effect (MBC/MIC = 1) were obtained with the methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum. The number of H. pylori infected animals was 17% (plant-extract) and 0% (ciprofloxacin) compared to 100% for the infected untreated group. Plant-extract (381.9 ± 239.5 CFU) and ciprofloxacin (248 ± 153.2 CFU) significantly reduced bacterial load in gastric mucosa compared to untreated, inoculated mice (14350 ± 690 CFU). Conclusion. The present data provided evidence that methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum could be a rich source of metabolites with antimicrobial activity to fight Helicobacter pylori infections.

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Helicobacter Activities of Eryngium foetidum (Apiaceae, Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae, and Galinsoga ciliata (Asteraceae against Helicobacter pylori

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    Laure brigitte Kouitcheu Mabeku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of extracts of Bidens pilosa, Galinsoga ciliata, and Eryngium foetidum against 6 clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in vivo. Broth microdilution method was used in vitro. In vivo, Swiss mice were inoculated with H. pylori and divided into 5 groups; the control group received the vehicle and the four others received 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum and ciprofloxacin (500 mg/kg for 7 days, respectively. Helicobacter pylori colonization and number of colonies in gastric biopsies culture were assessed on days 1 and 7 after treatment. The lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL and the best spectrum of bactericidal effect (MBC/MIC = 1 were obtained with the methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum. The number of H. pylori infected animals was 17% (plant-extract and 0% (ciprofloxacin compared to 100% for the infected untreated group. Plant-extract (381.9±239.5 CFU and ciprofloxacin (248±153.2 CFU significantly reduced bacterial load in gastric mucosa compared to untreated, inoculated mice (14350±690 CFU. Conclusion. The present data provided evidence that methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum could be a rich source of metabolites with antimicrobial activity to fight Helicobacter pylori infections.

  17. Active Fragment of Veronica ciliata Fisch. Attenuates t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress Injury in HepG2 Cells through Antioxidant and Antiapoptosis Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the body are a key factor in the development of hepatopathies such as hepatitis. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidation effect in vitro and hepatoprotective activity of the active fragment of Veronica ciliata Fisch. (VCAF. Antioxidant assays (DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals scavenging were conducted, and hepatoprotective effects through the application of tert-butyl hydroperoxide- (t-BHP- induced oxidative stress injury in HepG2 cells were evaluated. VCAF had high phenolic and flavonoid contents and strong antioxidant activity. From the perspective of hepatoprotection, VCAF exhibited a significant protective effect on t-BHP-induced HepG2 cell injury, as indicated by reductions in cytotoxicity and the levels of ROS, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, and protein carbonyls. Further study demonstrated that VCAF attenuated the apoptosis of t-BHP-treated HepG2 cells by suppressing the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8. Moreover, it significantly decreased the levels of ALT and AST, increased the activities of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT, and increased total antioxidative capability (T-AOC. Collectively, we concluded that VCAF may be a considerable candidate for protecting against liver injury owing to its excellent antioxidant and antiapoptosis properties.

  18. Dendroclimatological potential of the Australian red cedar

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Ingo; Banks, J. C. G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined Toona ciliata M.Roemer (Australian red cedar) for its potential to deliver annually resolved tree-ring proxy data. Such proxies are valuable and sought-after sources for reconstructing climate beyond instrumental records, especially in Australia. T. ciliata was chosen because it is one of the few deciduous tree species in Australia experiencing a seasonally dormant period of the cambium. This was confirmed by a preliminary tree-ring analysis which revealed distinct growth rings. B...

  19. INTAKE AND DIGESTIBILITY OF LOW QUALITY RHODES GRASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at Bunda College, Malawi, to determine the effect of magadi (a sodium sesquicarbonate- Na2CO3, NaHCO3.2H2O) treated forages on their intake and digestibility and growth of sheep. Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth), Cedrela (Toona ciliata, M. Roem) and Sesbania [Sesbania sesban ...

  20. Electron microscopy of Paramecium (Ciliata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Klaus; Allen, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Paramecium may be the best known single-celled organism in existence (Hausmann et al., 2003). Today its image often appears on television programs where the producers use it to illustrate a stereotypic microorganism, be it pathogenic or nonpathogenic, prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Paramecium was probably one of the first single-celled organisms observed with a light microscope by the Dutch cloth vendor and amateur lens maker Antoni van Leuwenhoek (1632-1723) (Dobell, 1932), and it is still being investigated in the 21st century in the days of the modern electron microscopes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malairajan, P; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; Narasimhan, S; Jessi Kala Veni, K

    2006-07-19

    In the present study of some of the Indian medicinal plants Sida acuta whole plant (Malvaeae), Stylosanthes fruticosa (whole plant) (Papilionaceae), Toona ciliata (heart wood) (Meliaceao), Bougainvilla spectabilis (leaves) (Nyctaginaceae), Ficus glomerata (bark, leaves) (Moraceae) and Polyalthia longifolia (leaves) (Annonaceae). The different plants were used in folklore medicine in the treatment of toothache and strengthening of gums, anthelmintic, kidney diseases, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anticancer. The extract was prepared using powdered material with ethanol, concentrated under vacuo and were evaluated for analgesic activity by analgesiometer at three dose level (100, 300 and 500mg/kg). Analgesic activity was significant with Toona ciliata (heart wood) ethanolic extract when compared with other extracts and its activity was confirmed by tail immersion method.

  2. INFLUÊNCIA DA POSIÇÃO DAS MINIESTACAS NA QUALIDADE DE MUDAS DE CEDRO AUSTRALIANO E NO SEU DESEMPENHO INICIAL NO PÓS-PLANTIO

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele de Alvarenga Ferreira; Deborah Guerra Barroso; Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva; Juliana Sobreira de Souza; Teresa Aparecida Soares de Freitas; José Geraldo de Araújo Carneiro

    2012-01-01

    The Toona ciliata (Australian cedar), originated from Australia showed high acclimatization in Brazil, where it found appropriate conditions for its growth, particularly in southern Bahia and throughout the southeastern region. However, the plantings presented irregular stems. Besides the seeds are a limiting resource, in result of their production seasonality and short viability period. This study aimed the evaluation of the quality of cuttings grown from 6 cm length apical, middle and basal...

  3. Interdecadal modulation of the relationship between ENSO, IPO and precipitation: insights from tree rings in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo Heinrich; K. Weidner; Gerhard Helle; H. Vos; J. Lindesay; Jonathan Banks

    2009-01-01

    Australian climate-proxy reconstructions based on tree rings from tropical and subtropical forests have not been achieved so far due to the rarity of species producing anatomically distinct annual growth rings. Our study identifies the Australian Red Cedar (Toona ciliata) as one of the most promising tree species for tree-ring research in Australasia because this species exhibits distinct annual tree rings, a prerequisite for high quality tropical dendroclimatology. Based on these preliminary...

  4. INFLUENCE OF THE MINICUTTING POSITION, IN THE QUALITY OF AUSTRALIAN CEDAR CUTTINGS AND THEIR INICIAL GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele de Alvarenga Ferreira; Deborah Guerra Barroso; Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva; Juliana Sobreira de Souza; Teresa Aparecida Soares de Freitas; José Geraldo de Araújo Carneiro

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987553The Toona ciliata (Australian cedar), originated from Australia showed high acclimatization in Brazil, where it found appropriate conditions for its growth, particularly in southern Bahia and throughout the southeastern region. However, the plantings presented irregular stems. Besides the seeds are a limiting resource, in result of their production seasonality and short viability period. This study aimed the evaluation of the quality of cuttings grown fro...

  5. Resistance of pine, australian red cedar woods and their derivate products to Cryptotermes brevis attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Xisto Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the resistance of Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata and pine (Pinus sp. woods and particleboards made from these species to dry-wood termite Cryptotermes brevis attack, as much as to quantify the mortality of the insects. 30 termite pseudo-workers were put in each 9,5 cm-diameter Petri dishes containing the samples (1,5 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm and cotton sheets positioned on the perforated covers, daily moisturized with 5 ml of water. The dishes were maintained in BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand at 24±5 ºC and 24 h of escotophase. A control sample without any feed source was included in the bioassay. The deterioration index (ID and mortality of the insects were evaluated after 60 days. Termites from the control sample presented higher termite mortality than the other treatments, which did not differ among each other. Toona ciliata wood was more resistant than Pinus sp. wood to Cryptotermes brevis attack. The average deterioration indexes were 1.74% and 6.62% respectively for those woods. The average deterioration index of the panels made with 100% Toona ciliata (ID=1.58% was similar to the deterioration index of particleboards made with this specie mixed with Pinus sp. (ID=1.87%.

  6. Mitragyna ciliata and its trypanocidal activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    1976). Trypanosoma brucei: a rapid matching method for estimating the host parasiteamia. Exp. Parasitol. 40: 427-31. Iwu MM (1993). Handbook of African Medicinal plants. CRC Press Inc. pp. 4-10. Kono Y, Fridiwich I (1982).

  7. Resistance of pine, australian red cedar woods and their derivate products to Cryptotermes brevis attack

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Xisto Ribeiro; Lina Bufalino; Lourival Marin Mendes; Vania Aparecida de Sá; Alexandre dos Santos; Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the resistance of Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata) and pine (Pinus sp.) woods and particleboards made from these species to dry-wood termite Cryptotermes brevis attack, as much as to quantify the mortality of the insects. 30 termite pseudo-workers were put in each 9,5 cm-diameter Petri dishes containing the samples (1,5 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm) and cotton sheets positioned on the perforated covers, daily moisturized with 5 ml of water. The dishes were maintained...

  8. Resistência das madeiras de pinus, cedro australiano e seus produtos derivados ao ataque de Cryptotermes brevis

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Marcelo Xisto; Bufalino, Lina; Mendes, Lourival Marin; Sá, Vania Aparecida de; Santos, Alexandre dos; Tonoli, Gustavo Henrique Denzin

    2014-01-01

    Neste trabalho, objetivou-se comparar a resistência das madeiras de cedro australiano (Toona ciliata) e pinus (Pinus sp.) e de painéis aglomerados produzidos com essas espécies ao ataque do cupim de madeira seca Cryptotermes brevis, bem como quantificar a mortalidade dos insetos. Foram colocados 30 pseudo-operários em placas de Petri de acrílico de 9,5 cm de diâmetro, contendo as amostras (1,5 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm) e folhas de algodão posicionadas sobre as tampas perfuradas umedecidas diariamente c...

  9. Production of oriented strand board using four wood species from forest plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Setsuo Iwakiri; Daniele Cristina Potulski; Felipe Gustavo Sanches; Janice Bernardo da Silva; Rosilani Trianoski; Williams Carlos Pretko

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach, Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing. The panels were produced in the laboratory with a nominal density of 0.80 g / cm ³, using phenol-formaldehyde resin in an amount of 6% of solid resin. There were evaluated the properties of water absorption and thickness swelling - 2 and 24 hours, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture...

  10. Production of oriented strand board using four wood species from forest plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach, Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing. The panels were produced in the laboratory with a nominal density of 0.80 g / cm ³, using phenol-formaldehyde resin in an amount of 6% of solid resin. There were evaluated the properties of water absorption and thickness swelling - 2 and 24 hours, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in the parallel and perpendicular direction, according to EN standards. The OSB panels produced with four species and the mixture of these species showed average values of mechanical properties above the minimum standard established by the CSA 437/1993. The results of the physical and mechanical properties obtained indicate the feasibility of the use of wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach and Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing.

  11. Food resources, distribution and seasonal variations in ranging in lion-tailed macaques, Macaca silenus in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinjery, Joseph J; Kavana, T S; Singh, Mewa

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and availability of food was examined to see how it influenced ranging patterns and sleeping site selection in a group of lion-tailed macaques. The home range and core area were 130.48 ha (95% kernel) and 26.68 ha (50% kernel) respectively. The lion-tailed macaques had a longer day range, had a greater number of sleeping sites and used more core areas in the summer as compared to the monsoon and the post-monsoon seasons. The ranging patterns and sleeping site use were influenced by the major food resources used in a particular season. The ranging was mainly influenced by Artocarpus heterophyllus in monsoon, Cullenia exarillata and Toona ciliata in post- monsoon, and Artocarpus heterophyllus and Ficus amplissima in summer. The distribution of these four plant species is, therefore, critical to ranging, and thus to conservation of the lion-tailed macaque.

  12. RESISTANCE TO THE ATTACK OF DRY-WOOD TERMITES (Cryptotermes brevis OF SIX WOOD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The dry wood termites are one of the largest causes of damages in wood used in Brazil. This work analyzed the attackof the Cryptotermes brevis in six commercials wood species in the north of the Rio de Janeiro and south of the Espírito Santo. The testobserved the number of holes, the percentage of died individuals and the damage of the pieces. When compared to the Pinus sp(reference, the species with less susceptibility to the attack were Cedrela fissilis, Cariocar brasiliense and Goupia glabra, that alsopresented the largest percentages of mortality of termites. The Schizolobium parahyba, Toona ciliata and the Tachigalia myrmecophyllawere the species with the highest level of damage.

  13. Capturing chloroplast variation for molecular ecology studies: a simple next generation sequencing approach applied to a rainforest tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Hannah; van der Merwe, Marlien; Delaney, Sven K; Edwards, Mark A; Henry, Robert J; McIntosh, Emma; Rymer, Paul D; Milner, Melita L; Siow, Juelian; Rossetto, Maurizio

    2013-03-14

    With high quantity and quality data production and low cost, next generation sequencing has the potential to provide new opportunities for plant phylogeographic studies on single and multiple species. Here we present an approach for in silicio chloroplast DNA assembly and single nucleotide polymorphism detection from short-read shotgun sequencing. The approach is simple and effective and can be implemented using standard bioinformatic tools. The chloroplast genome of Toona ciliata (Meliaceae), 159,514 base pairs long, was assembled from shotgun sequencing on the Illumina platform using de novo assembly of contigs. To evaluate its practicality, value and quality, we compared the short read assembly with an assembly completed using 454 data obtained after chloroplast DNA isolation. Sanger sequence verifications indicated that the Illumina dataset outperformed the longer read 454 data. Pooling of several individuals during preparation of the shotgun library enabled detection of informative chloroplast SNP markers. Following validation, we used the identified SNPs for a preliminary phylogeographic study of T. ciliata in Australia and to confirm low diversity across the distribution. Our approach provides a simple method for construction of whole chloroplast genomes from shotgun sequencing of whole genomic DNA using short-read data and no available closely related reference genome (e.g. from the same species or genus). The high coverage of Illumina sequence data also renders this method appropriate for multiplexing and SNP discovery and therefore a useful approach for landscape level studies of evolutionary ecology.

  14. The formation of primary and secondary lysosomes in Balantidium coli, Ciliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotarczak, B

    1999-01-01

    Trophozoites, vegetative forms of Balantidum coli isolated from pigs affected by acute and asymptomatic balantidiasis were studied. Lysosomes and food vacuoles were revealed by cytochemical detection of lysosomal marker, acid phosphatase. The cytoplasm of all the B. coli trophozoites examined was found to contain numerous structures which differed widely in shape, size and location in the cells. One of them was located among the rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes and another one in the vicinity of endosomes. Those structures were regarded as the primary lysosomes. The two types of vesicular structures most probably represent two stages of the primary lysosome formation. Trophozoites were also found to contain secondary lysosomes which are formed by fusion of several primary lysosomes with phagosomes. The ultrathin sections of B. coli trohozoites showed the presence of two types of phagosomes. They were divided, based on their contents, into auto- and heterophagosomes.

  15. Antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from crude extract of Bergenia ciliata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Rehman Phull

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Green synthesized BCAgNPs showed enhanced biological activities. Present results also support the advantages of using bio-green method for the production of nanoparticles having the potential of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.

  16. Passage of selected heavy metals from Sphaerotilus (bacteria: Chlamydobacteriales) to Paramecium caudatum (protozoa: Ciliata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri-Aliabadi, M.; Sharp, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Sphaerotilus, a bacterium occurring in polluted waters, was found to take up Zn, Pb, Ni and Mn. Metal-containing cultures of this bacterium were employed to feed the protozoan Paramecium caudatum, and analytical results revealed the accumulation of Zn, Pb and Ni. Since Sphaerotilus wa the only food source for paramecia during this study, the results indicate that trace amounts of metal were passed from bacteria to protozoa in a predator-prey relationship.

  17. Swimming behavior and prey retention of the polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata (Johnston)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B.W.; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Andersen, Anders Peter

    2010-01-01

    that feed without trailing threads. We observed bell shaped particle retention spectra with a minimum prey size of approximately 4 m equivalent spherical diameter, and we found that an ontogenetic increase in maximum prey size add to a reduction in intra-specific food competition in the various larval...

  18. MICORRIZAS ARBUSCULARES E FOSFATO NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE CEDRO-AUSTRALIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Pille da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian red cedar ( Toona ciliata M. Roem var. Australis is a species that has shown potential for forest use in Brazil. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the Australian red cedar seedlings response to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in different doses of P. The experiment was conducted in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD in factorial 8 x 2, with five repetitions. The treatments consisted in inoculation of seven species of AMF: Rhizophagus clarus , Claroideoglomus etunicatum , Racocetra gregaria , Acaulospora colombiana , Acaulospora morrowiae , Gigaspora margarita and Dentiscutata heterogama , besides a treatment without inoculation; being subjected to two doses of phosphate 25 and 250 mg dm -3 and that levels were equivalent to 10.7 and 41.3 mg dm -3 , respectively. It was evaluated the percentage of colonization, sporulation, height, diameter, shoot dry matter and accumulation of nutrients, 150 days after transplanting. There were differences depending on the levels of P and isolated variables evaluated. At the lowest dose, the isolated Claroideoglomus etunicatum and Acaulospora colombiana benefit the growth and nutrient absorption, while at the highest dose, Acaulospora morrowiae showed to be more promising for the growth of plants. These isolates provided high mycorrhizal colonization in the red cedar, favoring the production of quality seedlings, aiming the establishment and productivity of commercial plantations.

  19. Tree Species Composition and Regeneration Status of Shitalpur Forest Beat under Chittagong North Forest Division, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadozzaman Nur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity erosion particularly in developing countries is a matter of great concern to the global ecological community. Species composition and regeneration indicate the health of forest. This study explored tree species composition and regeneration of natural hill forest of Shitalpur under Chittagong North Forest Division through 27 sample plots of 20 m × 20 m for trees and 2 m × 2 m for regeneration. A total of 47 tree species belonging to 29 families and 17 regenerating species belonging to 15 families were recorded. The tree stem density, basal area, and wood volume were 0.49 m2/ha, 1425 stem/ha, and 189.9 m3/ha, respectively. Mean regeneration was significantly higher in bottom hill (14374 seedlings/ha compared to top hill (9671 seedlings/ha. Toona ciliata was highest (4444 seedlings/ha at the bottom hill compared to other hill positions. The result shows that only 36% of the tree species (17 out of 47 are regenerating in the study area, meaning majority of the tree species (64% are not getting favorable conditions to regenerate. This might be due to absence of mature tree species as a result of overexploitation by local people. The findings may help in monitoring the species composition changes over time and adopting specific conservation programs for Shitalpur Forest.

  20. Chemical and energetic characterization for utilization of thinning and slab wood from Australian red cedar Caracterização química e energética para aproveitamento da madeira de costaneira e desbaste de cedro australiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Bufalino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This work aimed to quantify and compare chemical and energetic properties of Australian red cedar Toona ciliata MJ Roem var. australis (FV Muell. C. DC wood from thinning and primary sawing for reconstituted panel and energy production; and also to verify the efficiency of extractive removal by water treatments, in order to improve wood quality for particleboard production. Lignin, holocellulose, extractives, ash, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur contents and higher heating value were determined. Two water treatments for extractive removal were performed: immersion in cold water for 24 hours and immersion in boiling water for 2 hours. Lower values of ash, holocellulose, hydrogen and nitrogen contents and higher contents of lignin, total extractives, hydrogen and nitrogen contents were found for wood from primary sawing residues. For other properties, the values were significantly equal. Australian red cedar wood presents high extractive content, being water pre-treatment necessary for the production of some particleboards. Higher heating values of materials indicate potential for energy production.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.13

    O objetivo desse trabalho foi quantificar e comparar as propriedades químicas e energéticas da madeira de cedro australiano Toona ciliata MJ Roem var. australis (FV Muell. C. DC proveniente de desbaste e desdobro para produção de painéis reconstituídos e energia, além de verificar a eficiência da remoção de extrativos por tratamentos em água para viabilizar a produção de painéis de partículas. Os teores de lignina, holocelulose, extrativos totais, cinzas, carbono, hidrogênio, oxigênio, nitrogênio, enxofre e poder calorífico superior foram determinados. Dois tratamentos em água para remoção de extrativos foram realizados nos materiais: imersão em água fria durante 24 horas e em água fervente durante 2 horas. Foram encontrados menores teores de cinzas, holocelulose

  1. Development of clonal matrices of australian red cedar in different substrates under fertilizer doses Desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro Australiano em diferentes substratos sob doses de fertilizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Peres Benatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate fertilizers doses in different substrates for growth and development of clonal matrices of Australian Red Cedar [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], an experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Five substrates were evaluate, with proportions by volume, the first consisting of 100% of Multiplant florestal®, the second of 50% vermiculite, 20% carbonized rice hulls, 20% soil and 10% coconut fiber, the third with 50% soil and 50% sand, the fourth was composed by 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% soil and 40% coconut fiber and the fifth with 65% of Multiplant florestal®, 25% vermiculite and 10% carbonized rice hulls. The fertilizers doses applied were 0.0; 0.3; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4 of fertilization suggested by Malavolta (1980 for vases. The characteristics evaluated were: collar diameter of the matrices, production of dry mater by shoots, root system and total and accumulation of nutrients by shoot at the end of the experimental period of 150 days. The Australian Red Cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, as showed by the better development obtained with higher fertilizer doses than those suggested by Malavolta (1980. The substrate three provided the worst development to clonal matrices while the substrates 1, 4 and 5 provided the best environment for the development considering all the fertilizer doses and all variables.Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes substratos com taxas de fertilizantes para o crescimento e desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro australiano [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. Foram avaliados cinco substratos, com as proporções em volume, sendo o primeiro composto por 100% Multiplant florestal®, o segundo de 50% Vermiculita, 20% casca de arroz carbonizada, 20% terra e 10% fibra de coco, o terceiro com 50% terra e 50% areia, o quarto com proporção de 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% terra e 40% de fibra de coco e

  2. Genetic diversity in Australian Cedar genotypes selected by mixed models Diversidade genética em genótipos de Cedro Australiano selecionados via modelos mistos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulfe Tavares

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for raw material for multiple uses of forest products and by-products has attracted the interest for fast growing species, such as the Australian Cedar (Toona ciliata, which presents high productive and economic potential. The present work aimed at estimating genetic diversity by DNA markers and morphological traits supported for the mixed models. The following traits were measured and genotypes were sampled randomly in different areas: diameter at breast height, height, cylindrical volume, diameter, distance between nodes and crown diameter. Twelve RAPD primers were used and generated a total of 91 marks, 82 of which were polymorphic. The high percentage of polymorphic markers, 90.10%, demonstrated that discrimination in this species is efficient, but it yet little studied, for this case we can find the extent of the genetic basis for the application of technical improvement. The assessment of genetic diversity by the UPGMA method using the binary and morphological data provided the expression of genetic dissimilarities among the accessions evaluated, optimizing the perception of this divergence. The use of mixed models was efficient to assess combined genetic diversity to optimize the selection of genotypes with divergent genetic values for diameter at breast height.A crescente demanda por matéria-prima para múltiplos usos dos produtos florestais e subprodutos tem despertado o interesse para espécies de crescimento rápido, como o cedro australiano (Toona ciliata, que apresenta potencial produtivo e econômico. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estimar a diversidade genética por marcadores de DNA e caracteres morfológicos com o uso dos modelos mistos. Os seguintes caracteres foram medidos e os genótipos foram amostrados aleatoriamente em diferentes áreas de plantio: diâmetro à altura do peito, altura, volume cilíndrico, distância entre nós e diâmetro de copa. Doze primers RAPD foram utilizados e geraram um total

  3. A biodegradation study of forest biomass by Aspergillus niger F7: correlation between enzymatic activity, hydrolytic percentage and biodegradation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nivedita; Kaushal, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2012-04-01

    Aspergillus niger F7 isolated from soil was found to be the potent producer of cellulase and xylanase. The residue of forest species Toona ciliata, Celtris australis, Cedrus deodara and Pinus roxburghii was selected as substrate for biodegradation study due to its easy availability and wide use in industry. It was subjected to alkali (sodium hydroxide) treatment for enhancing its degradation. Biodegradation of forest waste by hydrolytic enzymes (cellulase and xylanase) secreted by A. niger under solid state fermentation (SSF) was explored. SSF of pretreated forest biomass was found to be superior over untreated forest biomass. Highest extracellular enzyme activity of 2201±23.91 U/g by A. niger was shown in pretreated C. australis wood resulting in 6.72±0.20 percent hydrolysis and 6.99±0.23 biodegradation index (BI). The lowest BI of 1.40±0.08 was observed in untreated saw dust of C. deodara having the least enzyme activity of 238±1.36 U/g of dry matter. Biodegradation of forest biomass under SSF was increased many folds when moistening agent i.e. tap water had been replaced with modified basal salt media (BSM). In BSM mediated degradation of forest waste with A. niger, extracellular enzyme activity was increased up to 4089±67.11 U/g of dry matter in turn resulting in higher BI of 15.4±0.41 and percent hydrolysis of 19.38±0.81 in pretreated C. australis wood. A. niger exhibited higher enzyme activity on pretreated biomass when moistened with modified BSM in this study. Statistically a positive correlation has been drawn between these three factors i.e. enzyme activity, BI and percent hydrolysis of forest biomass thus proving their direct relationship with each other.

  4. A biodegradation study of forest biomass by Aspergillus niger F7: correlation between enzymatic activity, hydrolytic percentage and biodegradation index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger F7 isolated from soil was found to be the potent producer of cellulase and xylanase. The residue of forest species Toona ciliata, Celtris australis, Cedrus deodara and Pinus roxburghii was selected as substrate for biodegradation study due to its easy availability and wide use in industry. It was subjected to alkali (sodium hydroxide treatment for enhancing its degradation. Biodegradation of forest waste by hydrolytic enzymes (cellulase and xylanase secreted by A. niger under solid state fermentation (SSF was explored. SSF of pretreated forest biomass was found to be superior over untreated forest biomass. Highest extracellular enzyme activity of 2201±23.91 U/g by A. niger was shown in pretreated C. australis wood resulting in 6.72±0.20 percent hydrolysis and 6.99±0.23 biodegradation index (BI. The lowest BI of 1.40±0.08 was observed in untreated saw dust of C. deodara having the least enzyme activity of 238±1.36 U/g of dry matter. Biodegradation of forest biomass under SSF was increased many folds when moistening agent i.e. tap water had been replaced with modified basal salt media (BSM. In BSM mediated degradation of forest waste with A. niger, extracellular enzyme activity was increased up to 4089±67.11 U/g of dry matter in turn resulting in higher BI of 15.4±0.41 and percent hydrolysis of 19.38±0.81 in pretreated C. australis wood. A. niger exhibited higher enzyme activity on pretreated biomass when moistened with modified BSM in this study. Statistically a positive correlation has been drawn between these three factors i.e. enzyme activity, BI and percent hydrolysis of forest biomass thus proving their direct relationship with each other.

  5. ENRAIZAMENTO DE MINIESTACAS E PRODUTIVIDADE DE MINICEPAS DE CEDRO AUSTRALIANO MANEJADAS EM CANALETÕES E TUBETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The planted forest stands aim to supply the growing demand for wood, especially for the sawing and veneer industries, that exclusively used wood from native forests. The Australian cedar (Toona ciliata belongs tothe family Meliaceae, is the species of interest for this sector. Studies with the Australian cedar propagation have carried out in latest years, mainly involving the use of mini-cuttings due to the need for high quality cuttings. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the rooting and the productive capacity of Australian cedar mini-strains, managed in lifted seedbeds and 180 cm3 plastic tubes systems. So, two mini-clone gardens were set up. The mini-strains of both gardens were grown from cut-off seedlings originated from seeds. Successive collections of sprouts were carried out to get the mini-cuttings. Afterwards, they remained in the rooting area under intermittent mist. Thirty days later the rooting characteristics of the cuttings originated from both mini-gardens were evaluated. The period of permanence of the cuttings in the gardens was seven-month long. During this period, six collections from the lifted seedbed and fourfrom the plastic tubes were carried out. The mini-strains in the two systems showed 100 % of survival rate. At the end of this seven-month period, an increasing tendency of the average number of mini-cutting was found out in both systems. Those from the lifted seedbed showed more productivity than those ones from the tubes. The plants from the mini-cuttings of the tube showed higher number and length of adventitious roots at the end rooting stage.

  6. Tolerância ao frio e características silviculturais do cedro-australiano no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available O cedro australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem é uma espécie difundida no Sudeste, Centro-Oeste e Nordeste do Brasil, onde alcança boa produtividade. Possui madeira de excelente qualidade para finalidades nobres. Entretanto, na região Sul do Brasil apresenta problemas de adaptação devido à ocorrência de geadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a tolerância ao frio e o potencial silvicultural de cedro-australiano em dois locais no Sul do Brasil. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantio puro de cedro-australiano e misto, com Mimosa scabrella e Eucalyptus benthamii em Lages, SC, e puro e sob Pinus taeda em Ibiam, SC. Durante dois anos após a implantação avaliou-se sobrevivência, danos por geada, bifurcação/brotação, altura total e diâmetro do colo. O cedro-australiano apresentou sérios danos pela geada no município de Lages, reduzindo drasticamente a sobrevivência e prejudicando as características silviculturais. O plantio do cedro-australiano sob pínus em Ibiam apresentou baixa taxa de mortalidade devido a geadas. O plantio puro nesta mesma região também apresentou baixa mortalidade, contudo, os efeitos das geadas foram consideráveis. O plantio de cedro-australiano não é indicado para as regiões com geadas intensas, contudo, em locais com geadas menos severas, o plantio sob pínus é uma alternativa potencial.

  7. ROOTING OF MINICUTTINGS AND MANAGED PRODUCTIVITY OF AUSTRALIAN CEDAR MINISTRAINS GROWN IN LIFTED SEEDBEDS AND TUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987552The planted forest stands aim to supply the growing demand for wood, especially for the sawing and veneer industries, that exclusively used wood from native forests. The Australian cedar (Toona ciliata belongs to the family Meliaceae, is the species of interest for this sector. Studies with the Australian cedar propagation have carried out in latest years, mainly involving the use of mini-cuttings due to the need for high quality cuttings. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the rooting and the productive capacity of Australian cedar mini-strains, managed in lifted seedbeds and 180 cm3 plastic tubes systems. So, two mini-clone                                                                      gardens were set up. The mini-strains of both gardens were grown from cut-off seedlings originated from seeds. Successive collections of sprouts were carried out to get the mini-cuttings. Afterwards, they remained in the rooting area under intermittent mist. Thirty days later the rooting characteristics of the cuttings originated from both mini-gardens were evaluated. The period of permanence of the cuttings in the gardens was seven-month long. During this period, six collections from the lifted seedbed and four from the plastic tubes were carried out. The mini-strains in the two systems showed 100% of survival rate. At the end of this seven-month period, an increasing tendency of the average number of mini-cutting was found out in both systems. Those from the lifted seedbed showed more productivity than those ones from the tubes. The plants from the mini-cuttings of the tube showed higher number and length of adventitious roots at the end rooting stage.

  8. Raamat : [Tutvustus] / Livia Viitol

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viitol, Livia, 1953-

    1996-01-01

    Toona, Elin. Lotukata; Sagan Franȯise. Kurbus kummaline tunne. Killuke päikest jahedas vees; Vee, Elo. Võlavalgel; Plath Sylvia. Klaaskuppel; Pühakuteraamat : Nende elulood, teod ja ikonograafilised embleemid; Terhart, Franjo. Mina, Grace O'Malley

  9. Ühest kunagisest teatrikoolist / Tiina Saluvere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saluvere, Tiina

    2008-01-01

    Tartu Draamateatri Seltsi Teatrikunsti Stuudio ajaloost, õppejõududest, lisatud õppenõukogu koosolekute protokollid 1933-1936. Stuudios said teatriharidust Kaarel Ird, Epp Kaidu, Aleks Sats, Enn Toona, Leo Martin ja Ermu Verme

  10. [Balantidium coli infection of the female genitals (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutschow, H

    1976-04-01

    Two cases of therapy-resistant fluorine are reported in which Balantidium coli from the class of the cilia (Ciliophora, Ciliata, Infusoria) was identified. After a personal experiment, the Balantidia must be considered extremely pathogenic. In international literature, no further indication of a ciliata infection of the female genitals was found.

  11. Fabronia Raddi (Musci) in Libya | Shabbara | Egyptian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Fabronia pusilla Raddi var. ciliata Lesq. & James is recorded for the first time from Libya. This record adds family Fabroniaceae to the moss flora of Libya and increases the number of taxa known from there to 107.

  12. Anti-cancer and antioxidant properties of phenolics isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of phenolics from the leaf extract of. Toona sinensis (TS). Methods: Acetone leaf extract of TS was screened for total phenolic and flavanoid contents, and the flanonoids were subjected to high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. Antioxidant.

  13. Meeldis. Mõjus. Mis edasi? / Mati Unt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unt, Mati, 1944-2005

    2004-01-01

    Artiklis räägitakse peamiselt Evald Hermaküla lavastusest "Tuul Olümposelt tuhka tõi" (Eesti Draamateater, 1986), mis pakkus Mati Undile toona viimase aja suurima teatrielamuse, aga ka sellest, et teatrisemiootikud pole senini saavutanud üksmeelt, mis on ikkagi etenduse segment

  14. Tiitelleht olgu asjalik / Oskar Kruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruus, Oskar, 1929-2007

    2001-01-01

    Arvustus: Veskimägi, Kaljo-Olev. Kahte kappi on ühhetassa maja tarvis... : Eesti raamatukogude ajalugu. Tallinn : K.-O. Veskimägi, 2000 ; Toona, Elin. Rõõm teeb taeva taga tuld : Ernst Enno. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2000

  15. Anti-cancer and antioxidant properties of phenolics isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of phenolics from the leaf extract of Toona sinensis (TS). Methods: Acetone leaf extract of TS was screened for total phenolic and flavanoid contents, and the flanonoids were subjected to high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. Antioxidant ...

  16. Ilmus kogumik eesti naiste elulugusid inglise keeles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Carrying Linda's stones : an anthology of Estonian women's life stories / editors: Suzanne Stiver Lie, Lynda Malik, Ilvi Jõe-Cannon, Rutt Hinrikus ; foreword by H.E. Aldona Wos. Tallinn : Tallinn University Press, 2006. Sisaldab Elin Toona jt. elulugusid. Vt. ka SL Õhtuleht, 30. sept., lk. 27

  17. Capturing chloroplast variation for molecular ecology studies: a simple next generation sequencing approach applied to a rainforest tree

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, Hannah; van der Merwe, Marlien; Delaney, Sven K; Edwards, Mark A; Henry, Robert J; McIntosh, Emma; Rymer, Paul D; Milner, Melita L; Siow, Juelian; Rossetto, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Background With high quantity and quality data production and low cost, next generation sequencing has the potential to provide new opportunities for plant phylogeographic studies on single and multiple species. Here we present an approach for in silicio chloroplast DNA assembly and single nucleotide polymorphism detection from short-read shotgun sequencing. The approach is simple and effective and can be implemented using standard bioinformatic tools. Results The chloroplast genome of Toona ...

  18. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1998-01-01

    Laretei, Käbi. Eksiil; Toona, Elin. Lotukata; Park, Eeva. Naeru õpilane; Luik, Viivi. Inimese kapike; Laaman, Ilona. Vesi ahjus; Viiding, Juhan (Üdi, Jüri). Kogutud luuletused; Paju, Juhan. Katkenud romaan; Paju, Juhan. Hõõguv rist; Estonian short stories / toim. Kajar Pruul ja Darlene Reddaway; Traat, Mats. Kartaago kiirrong; Kauksi Ülle. Säng; Kross, Jaan. Paigallend; Puhvel, Madli. Symbol of dawn; Kaplinski, Jaan. Võimaluste võimalikkus; Kaplinski, Jaan. Usk on uskmatus

  19. Fabronia Raddi (Musci) in Libya Hanaa M Shabbara*1,and Ghanem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hom

    from Libya. This record adds family Fabroniaceae to the moss flora of Libya and increases the number of taxa known from there to 107. KEY WORDS: pleurocarpous mosses, Fabronia pusilla var. ciliata, Libya. INTRODUCTION. Fabronia Raddi is a pleurocarpous moss genus, mainly distributed in tropical regions. About.

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 701 - 750 of 973 ... Vol 16, No 2 (2002), Prenylated and geranylated chalcones and flavones from the aerial parts of Dorstenia ciliata, Abstract PDF. Bonaventure T. Ngadjui, Bathelemy Ngameni, Etienne Dongo, Simeon F. Kouam, Berhanu M. Abegaz. Vol 8, No 1 (1994), Preparation and characterization of activated ...

  1. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia - Vol 16, No 2 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prenylated and geranylated chalcones and flavones from the aerial parts of Dorstenia ciliata · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Bonaventure T. Ngadjui, Bathelemy Ngameni, Etienne Dongo, Simeon F. Kouam, Berhanu M. Abegaz, 157-164 ...

  2. 741-IJBCS-Article-Dr Bidié Alain Philippe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Mitragyna ciliata (MYTA) is a Rubiaceae used in traditional medicine to treat malaria. Total methanolic extract of MYTA made was used for toxicological studies on laboratory mice and rats. The extract of MYTA was administered intraperitoneally. The doses ranged from 0 to 4000 mg/kg body weight (bw) (i.e.,. 0, 250, 500 ...

  3. Thesaurus of DDC Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-06-01

    BARTONELLA BACILLIFORMIS BARTONELLACEAE BORDETELLA BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS BORRELIA BORRELIA RECURRENTIS BRUCELLA BRUCELLA ABORTUS BRUCELLA ...BRONCHISEPTICA BRUCELLA MELITtNSIS BRUCELLA SUIS BRUCELLACEAE CMIKUNGUNTA VIRUS CHLAMYOIA CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS CHLAMYDIACEAE CILIATA CLOSTRIDIUM...ISLAND CARIBBEAN SEA CENTRAL AMERICA CEYLON CHESAPEAKE BAY CHILE CHINA CHUKCHI SEA COLOMBIA COLORADO CON60(LEOPOLUVILLEI CONNECTICUT

  4. A monograph of the Genus Aristida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1932-01-01

    We find the interpretation of the genus Aristida by BEAUVOIS in his work Essai d’une nouvelle Agrostographie on pag. 33. Aristida lanata is the only species mentioned by him and the genus is figured on Pl. VIII. fig. X. This figure is a rather rough sketch and represents Aristida ciliata DESF.. In

  5. The Green Tetrahymena utriculariae n. sp (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) with Its Endosymbiotic Algae (Micractinium sp.), Living in Traps of a Carnivorous Aquatic Plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pitsch, G.; Adamec, Lubomír; Dirren, S.; Nitsche, F.; Šimek, Karel; Sirová, Dagmara; Posch, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2017), s. 322-335 ISSN 1066-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ciliata * mixotrophy * Utricularia traps Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.692, year: 2016

  6. The genus Nephtys (Polychaeta: Phyllodocida) of northern Europe: A review of species, including the description of N. pulchra sp. n. and a key to the Nephtyidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, S. F.

    1991-03-01

    Twelve species of Nephtys now known from northern Europe are described, including one new species, N. pulchra sp. n. A key is provided to the 14 species of Nephtyidae, from the region. Geographic changes in the setiger in which interramal cirri first occur are recognized in N. caeca (Fabricius), N. ciliata (Müller), N. hombergii Savigny and N. pente Rainer.

  7. Environ: E00385 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00385 Elsholtzia herb Crude drug Eavacrol, p-Cymene, Thymol blue, gamma-Terpinene, Elsholtziaketone Elschol...tzia ciliata, Elsholtzia splendens [TAX:475396], Elsholtzia haichowensis [TAX:331068], Elsholt...zia [TAX:41225], Mosla chinensis [TAX:516065] Lamiaceae (mint family) Elsholtzia herb Crude drugs... [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) E00385 Elsholtzia herb ...

  8. [The activity of complement system in children with autistic spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremnykh, E G; Karpova, N S; Factor, M I; Shushpanova, O V; Simashkova, N V; Brusov, O S

    To evaluate the state of complement system (CS) activity in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and children with schizophrenia on the basis of development and implementation of a new method of CS determination. A study included 249 patients, aged from 3 to 14 years. The control group consisted of 279 age-matched children. The authors developed a method for integral evaluation of CS activity based on the changes in the death of free swimming ciliata Tetrahymena pyriformis measured with the apparatus BioLat (Moscow, Russia). The integral CS activity (T50) was estimated as the time of death of 50% of ciliata in the blood serum (serum concentration was 5%). A comparative analysis of CS activity showed statistical differences in median T50 values between patients and controls (pautism group and children schizophrenia group were identified (p<0.005). The CS activity was lower in patients with ASD compared to children with schizophrenia.

  9. Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Krisler Alveal; Héctor Romo

    1980-01-01

    Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W) estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?), Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussilum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furce...

  10. Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Alveal, Krisler; Romo, Héctor

    1980-01-01

    Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W) estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?), Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussflum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furce...

  11. Assessing intraspecific variation in effective dispersal along an altitudinal gradient: a test in two Mediterranean high-mountain plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lara-Romero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant recruitment depends among other factors on environmental conditions and their variation at different spatial scales. Characterizing dispersal in contrasting environments may thus be necessary to understand natural intraspecific variation in the processes underlying recruitment. Silene ciliata and Armeria caespitosa are two representative species of cryophilic pastures above the tree line in Mediterranean high mountains. No explicit estimations of dispersal kernels have been made so far for these or other high-mountain plants. Such data could help to predict their dispersal and recruitment patterns in a context of changing environments under ongoing global warming. METHODS: We used an inverse modelling approach to analyse effective seed dispersal patterns in five populations of both Silene ciliata and Armeria caespitosa along an altitudinal gradient in Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid, Spain. We considered four commonly employed two-dimensional seedling dispersal kernels exponential-power, 2Dt, WALD and log-normal. KEY RESULTS: No single kernel function provided the best fit across all populations, although estimated mean dispersal distances were short (<1 m in all cases. S. ciliata did not exhibit significant among-population variation in mean dispersal distance, whereas significant differences in mean dispersal distance were found in A. caespitosa. Both S. ciliata and A. caespitosa exhibited among-population variation in the fecundity parameter and lacked significant variation in kernel shape. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the complexity of intraspecific variation in the processes underlying recruitment, showing that effective dispersal kernels can remain relatively invariant across populations within particular species, even if there are strong variations in demographic structure and/or physical environment among populations, while the invariant dispersal assumption may not hold for other species in the same environment

  12. Phytotoxicity evaluation and phytochemical analysis of three medicinally important plants from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Nazif; Haq, Ihsan-Ul; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-05-01

    This work examines the crude methanolic extracts of three medicinally important plants native to Pakistan for potent phytotoxic activities and important phytochemicals. These plants include Euphorbia wallichii, Bergenia ciliata and Phytolacca latbenia. The phytotoxic effects were checked at 10,000, 1000, and 100 µg/ml against two economically important standard target species, Triticum aestivum (monocot representative) and Brassica napus (dicot representative). The phytotoxicity effects on seed germination, seedling growth and seedling weight were checked. A simple, cost-effective in vitro phytotoxicity assay (that uses petri plates) was used to evaluate the allelopathic properties of crude extracts. At highest concentration, extracts from all the three plants showed phytotoxic activities such that P. latbenia > E. wallichii > B. ciliata. In seedling growth, root length was affected more than shoot length, whereas among the target species B. napus was found to be more sensitive towards extracts when compared with T. aestivum. Phytochemical analysis showed that P. latbenia is rich in saponins and terpenoids, while E. wallichii and B. ciliata are rich in tannins, terpenoids and cardiac glycoside. P. latbenia also carries a moderate amount of cardiac glycosides. © The Author(s) 2012.

  13. Short Outlines of Books by Estonian Authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Karusoo, Merle. Kui ruumid on täis : Eesti rahva elulood teatritekstides 1982-2005. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008 ; Aleksejev, Tiit. Palveränd. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008 ; Saat, Mari. Lasnamäe lunastaja. Tallinn : Tuum, 2008 ; Tarand, Mari. Ajapildi sees. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2008 ; Ojamaa, Liisi. Jõgi asfaldi all. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008 ; Kaalep, Ain. Muusad ja maastikud. Luuletused aastaist 1945-2008. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2008 ; Toona, Elin. Ella. Tallinn : Kultuurileht, 2008 ; Hellerma, Kärt. Sinine missa. Valik reisikirju. Tallinn : Tuum, 2008 ; Raud, Rein. Vend. Tallinn : Tuum, 2008 ; Kruusa, Kalju. Pilvedgi mindgi liigutavadgi. Tallinn : Koma, 2008

  14. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2000-01-01

    Andres Ehin. Alateadvus on alatasa purjus; Peeter Torop. Kultuurimärgid; Matt Barker. Sarah' jalad; Jaan Isotamm. Mina Johnny B.; Jaan Kaplinski. Silm. Hektor; Jaan Kaplinski. Kevad kahel rannikul ehk tundeline teekond Ameerikasse; Rein Raud. Pisiasjad, mis omavad tähtsust; Kerttu Rakke. Kalevipoeg; Elin Toona. Rõõm teeb taeva taga tuld; Veera Saar. Neid ammuseid aegu; Toomas Vint. Nädalavahetusel. Mängides; Varjatud ilus haigus : valik sajandilõpu eesti luuletajaid / koostanud Kajar Pruul; Viiu Härm. Duubel kaks

  15. Preferencia de hospedadores de Culicidae (Diptera recolectados en el centro de la Argentina Host preference of Culicidae (Diptera collected in central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Almirón

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de estudiar la preferencia de hospedadores vertebrados por mosquitos hembras, durante 2 períodos octubre-abril (primavera-verano, se realizaron muestreos cada 15 días en Córdoba y Cosquín (Argentina. Se utilizaron trampas de latón con cebo animal: anfibios (sapos, aves (pollos, mamíferos (conejos y reptiles (tortugas. El 92,9% de los especímenes recolectados pertenecen al género Culex, mientras que un 7,0% corresponde a Aedes y el 0,02% restante a Psorophora ciliata, única especie que se capturó de ese género. En trampas con pollo se recolectó el mayor número de hembras (68,7%, siguiendo en orden las trampas con conejos (29,9%, con tortugas (0,8% y con sapos (0,5%, por lo tanto, la mayoría de los mosquitos entraron en las trampas con hospedadores homeotermos. Culex dolosus se alimentó sobre todos los cebos, mientras que Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri y Cx. quinquefasciatus se alimentaron sobre pollos, conejos y tortugas; Ae. albifasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. bidens y Cx. coronator lo hicieron sobre ambos hospedadores homeotermos; Cx. apicinus, Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis y Cx. spinosus se alimentaron solamente sobre pollos y Ps. ciliata sobre conejos.Com o propósito de estudar a preferência de mosquitos fêmeas por hospedeiros vertebrados, realizaram-se amostragens quinzenais nas cidades de Córdoba e Cosquín (Argentina, durante o período de outubro a abril (primavera-verão, por dois anos consecutivos. Utilizaram-se armadilhas com iscas animais: anfíbios, aves, mamíferos e répteis. Dos espécimes coletados, 92,9% pertenciam ao gênero Culex, 7,0% a Aedes e 0,02% a Psorophora ciliata, única espécie coletada desse gênero. A maior proporçãoo de fêmeas (68,7% foi capturada em armadilhas iscadas com galinhas, seguindo-se em ordem as armadilhas com coelhos (29,9%, com tartarugas (0,8% e com anfíbios (0,05%. Assim, a maioria dos mosquitos foi coletada em armadilhas com hospedeiros homeotermos. Culex

  16. Control de malezas en arroz de temporalcon clomazone, solo y en mezcla con propanily 2,4-d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valent\\u00EDn A. Esqueda

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Control de malezas en arroz de temporal con clomazone, solo y en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D. Se establecieron tres experimentos con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del herbicida clomazone sólo y en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D en el control de malezas y la toxicidad al arroz cv. Milagro Filipino desarrollado en condiciones de temporal. Los tres experimentos se establecieron en la zona arrocera de Los Naranjos, localizada en el Mpio. de Tres Valles en el estado de Veracruz. Las especies dominantes de malezas fueron: Cyperus iria, Echinochloa colona, Cyperus rotundus, Scleria setuloso- ciliata y Malachra fasciata. El clomazone aplicado en preemergencia, controló eficientemente E. colona en dosis de 0,72 y 0,96 kg i.a./ha, pero tuvo un efecto temporal y limitado sobre S. setuloso-ciliata y no tuvo efecto sobre C. iria y C. rotundus. La mezcla de clomazone + propanil + 2,4-D controló E. colona y C. iria a partir de la dosis de 0,60 + 1,44 + 0,24 kg i.a./ha. Asimismo, tuvo un buen control inicial de C. rotundus, pero su efecto sobre esta especie se perdió entre los 45 y 60 días después de la aplicación y su efecto sobre S. setuloso-ciliata estuvo influenciado por las condiciones de humedad en el terreno, a mayor humedad se tuvo mejor control de esta maleza y viceversa. En todos los casos, los rendimientos de arroz palay obtenidos con los tratamientos en donde se aplicó el clomazone sólo o en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D, fueron estadísticamente semejantes a los obtenidos en los testigos regionales

  17. Low level of genetic variation within Melica transsilvanica populations from the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland and the Pieniny Mts revealed by AFLPs analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szczepaniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragmented distribution, the breeding system and effects of genetic drift in small-size populations occurring at edge of the species range play an important role in shaping genetic diversity of such a species. Melica transsilvanica is a plant rare in the flora of Poland, where it reaches the northern limit of its continuous range. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP DNA profiling method was applied to measure genetic diversity among and within populations of M. transsilvanica. Additionally, genetic relationships between M. transsilvanica and Melica ciliata, two closely related species, were explored. A total of 68 plants from 7 populations of M. transsilvanica and 24 plants from 2 populations of M. ciliata, collected in Poland and outside it, were analyzed. Using 294 AFLP fragments from 3 primer combinations, accessions were grouped into two major clusters associating with M. ciliata and M. transsilvanica, respectively. Further, two subclusters, corresponding to the samples collected from the Pieniny Mts and from the Kraków - Częstochowa Upland were clearly distinguished within the M. transsilvanica group. The hierarchical AMOVA exhibited significant genetic distinction between these geographic regions (60.89%, p < 0.001. The obtained results showed that the most genetic diversity resided between the populations of M. transsilvanica (86.03% while considerably lower genetic variation was found within the populations (13.97%, which is consistent with the results reported for self-plants. The low level of AFLP genetic variation of M. transsilvanica can be caused by the geographic isolation of populations, which preserves the dominant self-mating breeding system of the species. Individual populations of M. transsilvanica are characterized by isolated gene pools differing by a small number of loci.

  18. Identifying Chloris Species from Cuban Citrus Orchards and Determining Their Glyphosate-Resistance Status

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    Enzo R. Bracamonte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Chloris genus is a C4 photosynthetic species mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Populations of three Chloris species occurring in citrus orchards from central Cuba, under long history glyphosate-based weed management, were studied for glyphosate-resistant status by characterizing their herbicide resistance/tolerance mechanisms. Morphological and molecular analyses allowed these species to be identified as C. ciliata Sw., Chloris elata Desv., and Chloris barbata Sw. Based on the glyphosate rate that causes 50% mortality of the treated plants, glyphosate resistance (R was confirmed only in C. elata, The R population was 6.1-fold more resistant compared to the susceptible (S population. In addition, R plants of C. elata accumulated 4.6-fold less shikimate after glyphosate application than S plants. Meanwhile, populations of C. barbata and C. ciliata with or without glyphosate application histories showed similar LD50 values and shikimic acid accumulation rates, demonstrating that resistance to glyphosate have not evolved in these species. Plants of R and S populations of C. elata differed in 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation. The R population exhibited 27.3-fold greater 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS activity than the S population due to a target site mutation corresponding to a Pro-106-Ser substitution found in the EPSPS gene. These reports show the innate tolerance to glyphosate of C. barbata and C. ciliata, and confirm the resistance of C. elata to this herbicide, showing that both non-target site and target-site mechanisms are involved in its resistance to glyphosate. This is the first case of herbicide resistance in Cuba.

  19. Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile

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    Krisler Alveal

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?, Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussilum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furcellatus and Gigartina chamissoii in scatterd patches.

  20. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Brita Melts, Rutt Hinrikus, Maire Iro and Maret Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtna, Maarja. Läved ja tüved. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2013 ; Sauter, Peeter. Ära jäta mind rahule. Tallinn : P. Sauter, 2012 ; Viiding, Elo. Teised. Tallinn : Tuum, 2012 ; Mathura. Kumalasepäev. Lelle : Allikaäärne, 2012 ; Kadastik, Mart. Kevad saabub sügisel. Tallinn : Varrak, 2013 ; Mutt, Mihkel. Kooparahvas läheb ajalukku. Tallinn : Fabian, 2012 ; Hargla, Indrek. Apteeker Melchior ja Pirita kägistaja. Tallinn : Varrak, 2013 ; Raud, Rein. Rekonstruktsioon. Tallinn : Mustvalge Kirjastus, 2012 ; Toona, Elin. Into exile : a life story of war and peace. Woodsville (N.H.) : Lakeshore Press, 2013 ; Berg, Maimu. Moemaja. Tartu : Petrone Print, 2012 ; Kareva, Doris, Rooste, Jürgen. Elutants. Tallinn : Verb, 2013 ; Ehin, Kristiina. Paleontoloogi päevaraamat. Tartu : Petrone Print, 2013 ; Maria Lee. Stereomeetria. Tallinn : Verb, 2012

  1. Hepatoprotective effect of three herbal extracts on aflatoxin B1-intoxicated rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamal, S; Latha, P G; Suja, S R; Shine, V J; Anuja, G I; Sini, S; Pradeep, S; Shikha, P; Rajasekharan, S

    2010-04-01

    Roots of Ixora coccinea (Rubiaceae), and Rhinacanthus nasuta (Acanthaceae) and whole plants of Spilanthes ciliata (Asteraceae) are extensively used by tribal communities in South India to treat liver diseases. However, the veracity of these tribal claims has not been investigated scientifically using the liver toxin, aflatoxin. This study reports on the protective effects of these three herbal ethanolic extracts on the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-intoxicated livers of albino male Wistar rats. Biochemical parameters, including serum hepatic enzymes (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase), were studied. Hepatic tissues were processed for assay of reduced glutathione (GSH) and histological alterations. Pre-treatment of the rats with oral administration of the plant ethanolic extracts, Ixora coccinea (IC), Rhinacanthus nasuta (RN), Spilanthes ciliata (SC), prior to AFB1 was found to provide significant protection against toxin-induced liver damage, determined 72 hours after the AFB1 challenge (1.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) as evidenced by a significant lowering of the activity of the serum enzymes and enhanced hepatic reduced GSH status. Pathological examination of the liver tissues supported the biochemical findings. The three plant extracts, IC, RN and SC, showed significant antilipid peroxidant effects in vitro. It was concluded that the hepatoprotective effects of the three plant extracts observed in this study might result from their potent antioxidative properties.

  2. Antimicrobial and Antiradical Activity of Extracts Obtained from Leaves of Five Species of the Genus Bergenia: Identification of Antimicrobial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żbikowska, Beata; Franiczek, Roman; Sowa, Alina; Połukord, Grażyna; Krzyżanowska, Barbara; Sroka, Zbigniew

    2017-09-01

    An important focus of modern medicine is the search for new substances and strategies to combat infectious diseases, which present an increasing threat due to the growth of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Another problem concerns free radicals, which in excess can cause several serious diseases. An alternative to chemical synthesis of antimicrobial and antiradical compounds is to find active substances in plant raw materials. We prepared extracts from leaves of five species of the genus Bergenia: B. purpurascens, B. cordifolia, B. ligulata, B. crassifolia, and B. ciliata. Antimicrobial and antiradical features of extracts and raw materials were assessed, and the quantities of phenolic compounds were determined. We also evaluated, using high-performance liquid chromatography, the amounts of arbutin and hydroquinone, compounds related to antimicrobial activity of these raw materials. The strongest antiradical properties were shown by leaves of B. crassifolia and B. cordifolia, the lowest by leaves of B. ciliata. The antiradical activity of extracts showed a strong positive correlation with the amount of phenols. All raw materials have significant antimicrobial properties. Among them, the ethyl acetate extracts were the most active. Antimicrobial activity very weakly correlated with the amount of arbutin, but correlated very strongly with the contents of both hydroquinone and phenolic compounds. Additional experiments using artificially prepared mixtures of phenolic compounds and hydroquinone allowed us to conclude that the most active antimicrobial substance is hydroquinone.

  3. Preferencia de hospedadores de Culicidae (Diptera recolectados en el centro de la Argentina

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    Almirón Walter R.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de estudiar la preferencia de hospedadores vertebrados por mosquitos hembras, durante 2 períodos octubre-abril (primavera-verano, se realizaron muestreos cada 15 días en Córdoba y Cosquín (Argentina. Se utilizaron trampas de latón con cebo animal: anfibios (sapos, aves (pollos, mamíferos (conejos y reptiles (tortugas. El 92,9% de los especímenes recolectados pertenecen al género Culex, mientras que un 7,0% corresponde a Aedes y el 0,02% restante a Psorophora ciliata, única especie que se capturó de ese género. En trampas con pollo se recolectó el mayor número de hembras (68,7%, siguiendo en orden las trampas con conejos (29,9%, con tortugas (0,8% y con sapos (0,5%, por lo tanto, la mayoría de los mosquitos entraron en las trampas con hospedadores homeotermos. Culex dolosus se alimentó sobre todos los cebos, mientras que Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri y Cx. quinquefasciatus se alimentaron sobre pollos, conejos y tortugas; Ae. albifasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. bidens y Cx. coronator lo hicieron sobre ambos hospedadores homeotermos; Cx. apicinus, Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis y Cx. spinosus se alimentaron solamente sobre pollos y Ps. ciliata sobre conejos.

  4. [Diagnosis for the ecological conservation of Jatropha spp. (Euphorbiaceae) and their habitats in the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Reserve, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha spp. is an important phytogenetic resource used as food, medicine, and biofuel. In this study, we verified the taxonomic identity of Jatropha species for The Biosphere Reserve Tehuacan-Cuicatlan, and the Ecological Land Units (ELU) occupied by them. We assessed the conservation status of their habitats, and the vulnerability of Jatopha spp. populations. A total of 15 sampling sites were selected in the Reserve. The taxonomic work was based on specimens, original descriptions and type material from herbaria and those available on-line. ELUs were classified using biophysical variables, and gvSIG software. Ecological attributes were determined using a quantitative analysis by the point-centered quarter method; disturbance was estimated through site indicators, and the conservation status of the Jatropha populations was assessed using the Method for Evaluation of the Risk of Extinction of Plants in Mexico (MER). Jatropha frequently dominated the physiognomy of plant communities. The current distribution of Jatropha species in the Reserve was mainly determined by elevation, temperature, and precipitation variables. The confirmed species were Jatropha ciliata Sessd ex Cerv., Jatropha neopauciflora Pax, Jatropha oaxacana J. Jiménez Ram. & R. Torres, Jatropha rufescens Brandegee, and Jatropha rzedowskii J. Jiménez Ram., which are distributed in four of the six defined ELU. J. neopauciflora and J. rzedowskii were the most widespread species; this last species concur in four, J. oaxacana in two, while J. rufescens and J. ciliata in one ELU, being the most restricted. The richness of the genera in the associated communities ranged from 16 to 42. The maximum and minimum Importance Value Indexes were observed.in San Nicolas Tepoxtitlan for J. neopauciflora (53.75%) and J. rzedowskii (1.50%). The disturbance index varied from 0.22 to 0.82, with an average of 0.51, where the livestock variable had a high contribution. Considering the risk categories of MER, we

  5. The Moss Flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey

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    Kerem Canli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér. W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab. M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp., Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb. Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey.

  6. The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Kerem; Çetin, Barbaros

    2014-01-01

    The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey) was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér.) W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab.) M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp.), Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb.) Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey.

  7. Caracterização morfológica de minas foliares em espécies de Melastomataceae de Mata Atlântica, PE Morphological characterization of leaf mines in species of Melastomataceae in Atlantic Forest, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretuza B Brito-Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a morfologia e a anatomia de folhas íntegras e minadas de cinco espécies de Melastomataceae, ocorrentes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, PE. As minas foram visualizadas em uma ou ambas as faces das folhas, possuindo padrão sinuoso ou retilíneo, distribuídas entre as nervuras ou por toda a lâmina, sendo estas características distintas para cada espécie. As folhas apresentam epiderme uniestratificada com estômatos presentes na face abaxial e tricomas dendríticos, multicelulares, estrelados e com mais de cinco ramos, em ambas ou apenas uma das faces. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e o sistema vascular em forma de arco. As larvas minadoras observadas em Miconia minutiflora (Bonpl. DC., M. albicans (Sw. Triana e Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl. D. Don consomem o parênquima paliçádico e esponjoso, enquanto as de M. prasina (Sw. DC. e M. ciliata (Rich. DC. se alimentam do conteúdo e das paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas, caracterizando-as como do tipo epidérmica. Entretanto, em M. minutiflora, M. albicans e C. capitellata a epiderme permaneceu intacta formando uma proteção para o minador, enquanto que em M. prasina e M. ciliata a proteção é realizada pelas paredes periclinais externas e cutícula da folha. Tecido de cicatrização foi observado ao longo das minas em M. prasina.This study describes the morphology and anatomy of whole and mined leaves of five species of Melastomataceae native to an Atlantic Forest fragment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Mines can be found on one or both sides of the leaves, with a sinuous or rectilinear pattern, and distributed between the veins or throughout the entire leaf blade. These characteristics are distinct for each species. The leaves, in cross section, have a uniseriate epidermis, stomata on the abaxial surface, and unbranched hairs on both or at least one side. The mesophyll is bifacial and the vascular bundle is semi-circular. The leaf-miner larvae observed in

  8. Neuroptera and Raphidioptera in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve

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    Alexander B. Ruchin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of Neuroptera and Raphidioptera of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve has been studied during 2008–2016. It includes 21 and one species of the studied groups, respectively. The majority of species was collected on low vegetation (including undergrowth of deciduous trees in clearings and fire-breaks of the forests, openings, meadows, grasslands and forest edges. The most abundant lacewing species is Chrysopa perla. Such typical chortobiots (i.e., living on herbaceous plants as Micromus angulatus, M. variegatus, Chrysopa walkeri, Ch. phyllochroma, Ch. commata and Ch. abbreviata were recorded. However, the arboreal complex is still not understood completely. For example, only one species, which is characteristic for Pinus (Chrysopa dorsalis was found, and no species was found on Picea. Typical arboreal lacewings (e.g., Nineta vittata, N. alpicola and Chrysotropia ciliata, which are typical for deciduous trees, are represented by few specimens.

  9. Biodiversity Status, Distribution and Use Pattern of Some Ethno-Medicinal Plants

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    Priti KUMARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosion of plant biodiversity is a matter of global concern. Due to unawareness the building blocks of entire ecosystems are disappearing. Some medicinal plants like Taxus baccata Linn., Thymus serpyllum Linn., Coleus forskohli Will., Oroxylum indicum Linn., Valeriana hardwickii Wall., Malaxis acuminata D.Don, Habenaria edgeworthii Hook. f.ex.Collett., Costus speciosus (Koen. Sm., Dioscorea deltodea Wall., Gloriosa superba Linn., Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. and Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., Thalictrum foliolosum DC., Berberis aristata DC., Baliospermum montanum Will., Bergenia ciliata (Haworth Sternb., Clerodendrum serratum Linn., Valeriana jatamansii Jones, Celastrus paniculatus Will., Habenaria intermedeia D. Don, and Curculigo orchioides Gaerth are reached on the border of extinction. The 2008 IUCN Red List shows that the number of threatened plant species is increasing gradually (IUCN 2008. Therefore, there is an immediate need for conservation steps to be taken up along with promotion of conservation of medicinal plants.

  10. Interaction of Paramecium caudatum and Picornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalyan, Z A; Voskanyan, H E; Ramazyan, N V; Zakaryan, H S; Karalova, E M

    2012-12-01

    In our paper we have researched the relationship between picornaviruses (poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus and encephalomyocarditis virus) and Ciliata (Paramecium caudatum). We show that the number of Paramecium in medium sharply increased during coincubation with picornaviruses within 2-5 days. This cannot be explained only by the fact that viruses were nutrient source for Paramecium because in case of inactivated viruses the number of infusorians in medium increased a little. At the same time the titer of viruses harshly decreased whereas in the control group, which is free of Paramecium, the fall of titer was little. Picornaviruses were eliminated from medium if only living Parameciums were present in medium. After 7-9 days of coincubation only a few number of viruses were liberated from destroyed Parameciums. These results will be especially useful for management of reservoirs of picornaviruses in water and prevention of diseases.

  11. Gaidropsarus (Gadidae, Teleostei) of the North Atlantic Ocean: a brief phylogenetic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, S M; Robalo, J I; Stefanni, S; Levy, A; Almada, V C

    2014-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among the North Atlantic Gaidropsarus and between the three Gaidropsarinae genera Gaidropsarus, Ciliata and Enchelyopus are reviewed with the hitherto most comprehensive taxonomic sampling of this group. Phylogenetic results (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) based on nuclear (rhodopsin) and concatenated mitochondrial (12s, 16s and cytb) markers clearly support this subfamily. For the north-eastern Atlantic species of Gaidropsarus, two previously unreported clades were strongly supported, clarifying the relationships within the genus, and revealing fewer distinct taxa in the north Atlantic Gaidropsarus than previously stipulated. The data challenge the specific status of Gaidropsarus mediterraneus and Gaidropsarus guttatus and raise doubts concerning the distinctiveness of other species. A taxonomic revision of the genus is suggested. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Interrelations between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District

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    Tadeusz Korniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents differences and similarities between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District. The investigation was conducted in rural areas and in areas of small towns. 415 taxa of vascular plants were noted altogether in the flora examined. The segetal flora includes 259 species, and the ruderal flora - 334 ones. A comparison between species of those two florae (table l, figure l, 81 species appear in segetal habitats, and 156 in ruderal habitats. Common species, for those two comparsing florae (segetal and ruderal were 178. The following plants were classified as frequent or common in ruderal habitats of the Olsztyn Lake District, having (under certain conditions a significant influence on the weed infestation of cultivated fields: Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Atriplex patula, Chamomilla suaveolens, Cirsium arvense, Conyza canadensis, Descurainia sophia, Galinsoga ciliata, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Lapsana communis, Melandrium album, Poa annua, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus, Sisymbrium officinale, Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Tussil farfara.

  13. Evolutionary radiations in the species-rich mountain genus Saxifraga L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, J; Schnitzler, J; Favre, A; Muellner-Riehl, A N

    2017-05-25

    A large number of taxa have undergone evolutionary radiations in mountainous areas, rendering alpine systems particularly suitable to study the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that have shaped diversification patterns in plants. The species-rich genus Saxifraga L. is widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, with high species numbers in the regions adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) in particular the Hengduan Mountains and the Himalayas. Using a dataset of 297 taxa (representing at least 60% of extant Saxifraga species), we explored the variation of infrageneric diversification rates. In addition, we used state-dependent speciation and extinction models to test the effects of geographic distribution in the Hengduan Mountains and the entire QTP region as well as of two morphological traits (cushion habit and specialized lime-secreting glands, so-called hydathodes) on the diversification of this genus. We detected two to three rate shifts across the Saxifraga phylogeny and two of these shifts led to radiations within two large subclades of Saxifraga, sect. Ciliatae Haworth subsect. Hirculoideae Engl. & Irmsch. and sect. Porphyrion Tausch subsect. Kabschia Engl. GEOSSE analyses showed that presence in the Hengduan Mountains had a positive effect on diversification across Saxifraga. Influence of these mountains was strongest in Saxifraga sect. Ciliatae subsect. Hirculoideae given its pronounced distribution there, and thus the radiation in this group can be classified at least partially as geographic. In contrast, the evolution of the cushion life form and lime-secreting hydathodes had positive effects on diversification only in selected Saxifraga sections, including sect. Porphyrion subsect. Kabschia. We therefore argue that radiation in this group was likely adaptive. Our study underlines the complexity of processes and factors underpinning plant radiations: Even in closely related lineages occupying the same life zone, shifts in diversification

  14. Essential Oils from the Medicinal Herbs Upregulate Dopamine Transporter in Rat Pheochromocytoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Sun; Choi, Bang-sub; Kim, Sang Heon; Pak, Sok Cheon; Jang, Chul Ho; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Dong-il; Jeon, Songhee; Koo, Byung-Soo

    2015-10-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) protein, a component of the dopamine system, undergoes adaptive neurobiological changes from drug abuse. Prevention of relapse and reduction of withdrawal symptoms are still the major limitations in the current pharmacological treatments of drug addiction. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of essential oils extracted from Elsholtzia ciliata, Shinchim, Angelicae gigantis Radix, and Eugenia caryophyllata, well-known traditional Korean medicines for addiction, on the modulation of dopamine system in amphetamine-treated cells and to explore the possible mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect. The potential cytotoxic effect of essential oils was evaluated in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells using cell viability assays. Quantification of DAT, p-CREB, p-MAPK, and p-Akt was done by immunoblotting. DAT was significantly reduced in cells treated with 50 μM of amphetamine in a time-dependent manner. No significant toxicity of essential oils from Elsholtzia ciliata and Shinchim was observed at doses of 10, 25, and 50 μg/mL. However, essential oils from A. gigantis Radix at a dose of 100 μg/mL and E. caryophyllata at doses of 50 and 100 μg/mL showed cytotoxicity. Treatment with GBR 12909, a highly selective DAT inhibitor, significantly increased DAT expression compared with that of amphetamine only by enhancing phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and Akt. In addition, essential oils effectively induced hyperphosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), MAPK, and Akt, which resulted in DAT upregulation. Our study implies that the essential oils may rehabilitate brain dopamine function through increased DAT availability in abstinent former drug users.

  15. Some new and noteworthy diseases of poplars in India. [Botryodiplodia sett-rot; Alternaria tip blight; Cladosporium leaf spot; Fusarium pink incrustation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.

    1983-09-01

    Four new diseases of poplars namely Botryodiplodia sett-rott, Alternaria tip blight, Cladosporium leaf spot and Fusarium pink incrustation are described in this paper. Botryodiplodia palmarum causes sett-rott of poplars both at pre-sprouting and post-sprouting stage. The pathogen also causes mortality of poplar plants in the field within 4-6 weeks after planting. Alternaria stage of Pleuspora infectoria has been found as the cause of blackening and dying of growing tips and young leaves of a Populus sp. and P. deltoides in nurseries. Cladosporium humile has been recorded as the cause of brown spot followed by crumpling and premature shedding of leaves in P. ciliata, P. nigra and P. alba. The cause of Fusarium incrustation disease on P. cilata has been identified as Fusarium sp. of Gibbosum group. Pathogenicity of Botryodiplodia palmarum and Alternaria stage of Pleospora infectoria was confirmed by artificial inoculations. Brief descriptions of Alternaria, Cladosporium and Fusarium are also given. The paper also gives a short account of some noteworthy diseases recorded on poplars namely Ganoderma root rot, foliage ruts and stem cankers. Ganoderma root-rot is found to reach alarming proportions in closely spaced poplar plantations. Melampsora ciliata, an indigenous rust, is found to attack mainly clones of P. deltoides, P. yunnanensis, P. trichocarpa, P. alba and some cultivars of P. x euramericana in nurseries. A brief account of three types of stem cankers i.e. cankers due to pink disease fungus, Corticium salmonicolor, sun-scaled cankers and cankers associated with slime flux on various clones of P. deltoides is also given.

  16. ANALISA KEKUATAN TAHANAN LATERAL SAMBUNGAN KAYU-BETON

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    Efa Suriani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A prediction of shear resistance using lag screw is required to obtain a reliable design timber connection against lateral forces and to know how failure mode from that connection.In this study, shear resistance was evaluated by taking shear test of the joint to the lateral load by using monotonic loading and analysis model adopted from EYM (European Yield Model. The types of timber used were Toona sureni (specific gravity 0.45, Swietenia mahogany (specific gravity 0.51 and Artocarpus heterophyllus (specific gravity 0.54 and concrete with actual compressive strength of 15.93 MPa. Lag-screw in 8 mm diameter (length 130 mm, washer in 22.8 mm diameter and fischer S14 were also used. The percentages results of shear resistance (5% offset method between the predictions and experiment were 36,40% until 48,15%. These results showed that shear resistance to predicted equation of EYM was close enough to shear resistance based on the test results

  17. Antioxidant activity in extracts of 27 indigenous Taiwanese vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-05-23

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan's indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content.

  18. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content. PMID:24858497

  19. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

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    Pi-Yu Chao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc, Lactuca indica (Li, and Perilla ocymoides (Po contained abundant quercetin (Que, while Artemisia lactiflora (Al and Gynura bicolor (Gb were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc and Sechium edule (Se-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan and malvidin (Mal were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe, Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz. Presl (Ane, Ipomoea batatas (Ib-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content.

  20. Diagnóstico ecológico para la conservación de Jatropha spp. (Euphorbiaceae y sus hábitats, en la Reserva Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, México

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    Nancy Hernández-Nicolás

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha spp., es un importante recurso fitogenético usado como alimento, medicina y biocombustible. En este estudio verificamos la identidad taxonómica de las especies de Jatropha para la Reserva de la Biosfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, y las unidades ambientales (UA que ocupan. Evaluamos el estado de conservación de sus hábitats y la vulnerabilidad de las poblaciones de Jatropha. Los sitios de muestreo seleccionados en la Reserva fueron 15. El trabajo taxonómico estuvo basado en especímenes, descripciones originales y material tipo de herbarios y aquellos en línea. Las UA fueron clasificadas mediante variables biofísicas y el software gvSIG. Los atributos ecológicos fueron determinados con análisis cuantitativo por el método de cuadrado centrado en un punto; el disturbio fue estimado a través de indicadores de sitio, y el estado de conservación de las poblaciones de Jatropha con el Método para la Evaluación de Riesgo de Extinción de Plantas en México (MER. Jatropha frecuentemente dominó la fisonomía de las comunidades vegetales. La distribución actual de las especies de Jatropha en la Reserva estuvo principalmente determinada por las variables altitud, temperatura y precipitación. Las especies confirmadas fueron: Jatropha ciliata Sessé ex Cerv., Jatropha neopauciflora Pax, Jatropha oaxacana J. Jiménez Ram. & R. Torres, Jatropha rufescens Brandegee, y Jatropha rzedowskii J. Jiménez Ram., las cuales estuvieron distribuidas en cuatro de las seis UA definidas. J. neopauciflora y J. rzedowskii son las especies más ampliamente distribuidas; estas últimas especies concurrieron en cuatro, J. oaxacana en dos, mientras que J. rufescens y J. ciliata en una UA, siendo ésta la especie más restringida. La riqueza de géneros en las comunidades asociadas varió entre 16 y 42. Los máximos y mínimos Índices de Valores de Importancia fueron observados en San Nicolás Tepoxtitlan para J. neopauciflora (53.75% y J. rzedowskii (1.50%. El

  1. The Orchidaceae of Ruiz & Pavón’s “Flora Peruviana et Chilensis”. A taxonomic study. II

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    Pupulin, Franco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the second part of the study of the orchid illustrations produced during the Royal expedition to Peru and Chile, headed by Ruiz and Pavón in late XVIII century. Species of the genera included between Oncidium and Zygopetalum are discussed. For each taxon references to the nomenclatorial types, synonymy, illustrations and exsiccata prepared during the expedition, as well as to Ruiz’ diaries and the unpublished manuscripts of the expedition’s botanists, are provided. In the absence of any specimens referable to the type collections and associated with the protologues, Maxillaria ciliata and M. undatiflora are formally lectotypified with the type illustrations conserved in MA. Rodriguezia lanceolata, originally based on at least two syntypes, is lectotypified. New combinations are propo sed for Bletia uniflora, Humboldtia acutiflora, H. polystachya and Maxilla ria undatiflora.

    El trabajo presenta la segunda parte del estudio de las ilustraciones de orquídea producidas durante la Real Expedición al Perú y Chile, liderada por Ruiz y Pavón. Se discuten las especies de los géneros incluidos entre Oncidium y Zygopetalum. Para cada uno de los táxones se proveen referencias a los tipos nomenclaturales, sinonimia, ilustraciones y exsiccata preparados durante la expedición, así como a los diarios de Ruiz y a los manuscritos inéditos de los botánicos de la expedición. En ausencia de especímenes de las recolectas tipo o de alguna manera asociables a los protólogos, se lectotipifican Maxillaria ciliata y M. undatiflora con las ilustraciones de los tipos conservadas en MA. Se lectotipifica Rodriguezia lanceolata, originalmente basada en por lo menos dos sintipos. Se proponen nuevas combinaciones para Bletia uniflora, Humboldtia acutiflora, H. polystachya y Maxillaria undatiflora.

  2. A new bioassay with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on aquatoxic pollution; Ein neuer Biotest mit der Hefe Saccharomyces cerevisiae auf aquatische Toxizitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.; Plantikow, A.; Kreutzmann, J. [NORDUM - Inst. fuer Umwelt und Analytik GmbH, Kessin/Rostock (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The fermentation activity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as a bioindicator to detect aquatoxic effects. This is done by measuring the CO{sub 2} production of yeast cells after a multiplication period affected by toxic substances. The concentration of toxicants diminishing the fermentation by 20% is taken as a characteristic value (EC{sub 20}). Organic compounds (unpolar and polar narcotics), inorganic salts (especially of heavy metals), surfactants and plant pesticides were tested. The results are compared so far as available with data of a ciliata assay using Tetrahymena pyriformis. A congruence of 90% and an equal sensibility of the assays resulted. The results of the yeast assay are therefore representative for ecotoxicological testing. The yeast assay is reproducible, easy to handle, and offers an alternative for sewage testing because sterile handling is not necessary. (orig.) [German] Die Gaerleistung der Hefe Saccharomyces cerevisiae wird als Bioindikator zur Erfassung aquatoxischer Wirkungen genutzt. Dazu wird die CO{sub 2}-Produktion der Hefezellen nach einer Vermehrungsphase unter toxischen Einfluessen gemessen. Als Kennwert (EC{sub 20}) dient die Schadstoffkonzentration, die die Gaerung um 20% mindert. Es werden organische Verbindungen (unpolare und polare Narkotika), anorganische Salze (insbesondere von Schwermetallen), Tenside und Pflanzenschutzmittel geprueft. Die Ergebnisse werden, soweit verfuegbar, mit den Daten eines Ciliatentestes mit Tetrahymena pyriformis verglichen. Es ergab sich eine Uebereinstimmung von 90% bei vergleichbarer Testempfindlichkeit. Ergebnisse des Hefetests sind damit oekotoxikologisch aussagefaehig. Der Test ist reproduzierbar, methodisch einfach zu handhaben und bietet eine Alternative fuer die Abwasserpruefung, da steriles Arbeiten nicht erforderlich ist. (orig.) The fermentation activity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as a bioiondicator to detect aquatoxic effects. This is done by measuring the

  3. Distribution of Soil Fertility of Smallholding Arabica Coffee Farms at Ijen-Raung Highland Areas Based on Altitude and Shade Trees

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    Niken Puspita sari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is one of the most important factors influencing plant growth and productivity and it depends on the availability and quantity of nutrients in the soil. To study soil fertility status of an area, a study on soil chemistry and physics has to be conducted. The aim of this study was to investigate soil fertility status of smallholding Arabica coffee farms based on altitude and shades trees utilization. This research was carried out in April-August 2012 at IjenRaung highland areas by field survey. The results showed that the soil contained high content of organic carbon, nitrogen total, and C/N ratio; low available phosphorus; moderate to high cation exchange capacity, and low base cation of calcium, magnesium, and potassium; as well as slightly low pH. Higher altitude tended to have higher C organic and N total content, C/N ratio as well as pH. In contrast, in lower altitude tended to have lower available P, base saturation, as well as Ca, Mg, and K content. The dominant shade trees for coffee farming at the Ijen-Raung highland areas were suren (Toona sureni , dadap (Erythrina sp., kayumanis (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, pinus (Pinus mercusii, and kayu putih (Eucalyptus globulus. Different shade tree species resulted in different of soil fertility. Shade trees tended to influence cation exchange capacity from moderate to high, pH slightly acid, high base saturation, and low P available. Suren tree influenced better base cation than that of other trees but dadap tree was better in increasing soil fertility. Key word: Soil fertility, arabica coffee, andisol, shade trees, smallholding

  4. Pengaruh Metode Pengeringan dan Jenis Sortimen Kayu Suren terhadap Kecepatan dan Cacat Pengeringan

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    Yustinus Suranto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Drying Method and Lumber Dimension on Drying Rate  and Defects of Suren Wood Efforts to improve productivity of wood industry must be supported by increasing supply of wood as raw materials. The limited wood supply due to natural forest degradation can be increased by wood harvested from plantation forests, including wood of suren (Toona sureni Merr as one species composing the forests. In timber processing wood drying is an important aspect determining product quality. This study aimed to identify the effect of drying method and sortimen dimension on drying character of suren wood. Trunks of 3 suren trees of seven to nine years old were cut from Manggihan village, Getasan district, Semarang regency. The bolts were sawn (using blambangan method to obtain sortimen papan wood of 3 cm (thickness, 8 cm (width, and 210 cm (length and sortiment usuk wood of 4 cm, 6 cm and 210 cm. Beside two levels of sortimen size, two levels of drying method, e.g. natural and solar drying were also used in this research. Resulted data were analyzed with factorial complete randomized design. Measured parameters consisted of drying rate, dimension shrinkage and some drying defects e.g. bowing, cupping, end check, surface check and fungi infection. Research results showed that drying methods significantly affect drying rate, but not other parameters. Also, product dimension affects significantly to drying rate, but not other parameters. Interactions between the two factors did not give any significant effect on all parameter. To produce the same drying level on the same product size, solar drying method is faster than natural one. To reach dry wood with 14% moisture content in solar drying method, sortimen papan and usuk needs 23 and 26.8 drying days respectively, while in natural drying method, the same product size needs 44.6 and 48.50 days of drying respectively.

  5. DNA strand-scission by phloroglucinols and lignans from heartwood of Garcinia subelliptica Merr. and Justicia plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Huang; Wei, Bai-Luh; Ko, Horng-Huey; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2008-01-01

    Five 2,4,6-prenylated phloroglucinols, garcinielliptones HA (1), HB (2), HC (3), HD (4) and HE (5), were isolated from the heartwood of Garcinia subelliptica Merr. Their structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by means of spectroscopic data analysis. The ability of phloroglucinols, 1-5 and lignans, tuberculatin (8), justicidin A (9), procumbenoside A (10) and ciliatosides A (11) and B (12), isolated from Justicia ciliata and Justicia procumbens, to induce DNA-cleavage activity was examined using pBR322, a supercoiled, covalently closed circular DNA, and it was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. In the presence of Cu (II), compounds 3, 8, 10 and 11 caused significant breakage of supercoiled plasmid pBR322. The products were relaxed circles with no detectable linear forms. In the Cu(II)-mediated DNA damage of 3 and selective compound 8, Cu(I) was shown not to be an essential intermediate by using the Cu(I)-specific sequestering reagent neocuproine.

  6. Identification and chromosomal distribution of copia-like retrotransposon sequences in the coffee (Coffea L. genome

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    Juan-Carlos Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of copia-like transposable elements in seven coffee (Coffea sp. species, including the cultivated Coffea arabica, was investigated. The highly conserved domains of the reverse transcriptase (RT present in the copia retrotransposons were amplified by PCR using degenerated primers. Fragments of roughly 300 bp were obtained and the nucleotide sequence was determined for 36 clones, 19 of which showed good quality. The deduced amino acid sequences were compared by multiple alignment analysis. The data suggested two distinct coffee RT groups, designated as CRTG1 and CRTG2. The sequence identities among the groups ranged from 52 to 60% for CRTG1 and 74 to 85% for CRTG2. The multiple alignment analysis revealed that some of the clones in CRTG1 were closely related to the representative elements present in other plant species such as Brassica napus, Populus ciliata and Picea abis. Furthermore, the chromosomal localization of the RT domains in C. arabica and their putative ancestors was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis. FISH signals were observed throughout the chromosomes following a similar dispersed pattern with some localized regions exhibiting higher concentrations of those elements, providing new evidence of their relative conservation and stability in the coffee genome

  7. In vitro conservation of twenty-three overexploited medicinal plants belonging to the Indian sub continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Jain, Sheetal Prasad; Mathur, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  8. In Vitro Conservation of Twenty-Three Overexploited Medicinal Plants Belonging to the Indian Sub Continent

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    Priyanka Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  9. Macrobenthic communities of saltpans from the Sado estuary (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Maria José; Costa, Maria Helena

    1999-07-01

    A 1-year study on the evolution of benthic communities of saltpans from the Sado estuary was carried out in order to evaluate its density, biomass and diversity, and to understand its trophic-dynamic structure under harsh environmental conditions. Physical and chemical parameters of the water column and sediments were also studied. Salinity and redox potential fluctuated sharply. Of eighteen taxa observed, a few occurred in significant numbers Chironomus salinarius (99 %) at crystallisation ponds where Artemia is present in the water column at salinities ranging from 23 to 249 g .L -1, Hydrobia (95 %) at evaporation pond (salinities between 29 and 112 g .L -1), while the reservoir, with salinities from 22 to 45 g .L -1, showed higher diversity nevertheless lower than in the estuary itself. It is colonised all year by Abra ovata, Cerastoderma glaucum, Hedistes diversicolor, Capitella sp., Microspio mecznikowianus, Mellina palmata, Polydora ciliata, Capitellidae and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa. The diversity of macrobenthic communities decreases with increasing salinity. Among trophic dynamic groups, surface detritivores burrowers, which are present at 85 % of the samples, are the dominant group at evaporation and crystallisation ponds and appears as an isolated group linked to organic matter of sediments and nutrients.

  10. Protozoa in a stressed area of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast of Damietta, Egypt

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    Mohamed Moussa Dorgham

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Damietta coast is part of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta and has recently been polluted as a result of intensive human activities.The environmental parameters and protozoan community in the area were studied biweekly from January to December 2007. The results of the environmentalparameters indicated low salinity, oxic and anoxic conditions, high nutrient levels and intensive phytoplankton growth. A total of 69 protozoan specieswere identified, belonging to Amoebozoa (8 species, Foraminifera (12 species, non-tintinnid ciliates (22 species and tintinnids (27 species. The numerical density of protozoans was high over the whole area, with annual averages between 8.2 × 103 cells m-3 and 51.4 × 103 cells m-3.Spring was the most productive season for protozoans, but several distinct peaks were observed during the year at the sampling sites. The protozoangroups showed clearly different spatial patterns in both composition and abundance: whereas amoebozoans and non-tintinnid ciliates were dominant in themore polluted areas (sites IV and V, tintinnids dominated in the less polluted areas (sites, I, II and III. Several pollution indicators wererecorded: amoebozoans - Centropyxis aculeata, Centropyxis sp., Cochliopodium sp.,Difflugia sp.; non-tintinnids - Bursaridium sp., Frontonia atra,Holophrya sp., Paramecium sp., Paramecium bursaria,Vasicola ciliata, Vorticella sp., Strombidium sp.; tintinnids- Favella ehrenbergii, Helicostomella subulata, Leprotintinnus nordgvisti,Tintinnopsis beroidea, Stenosemella ventricosa, Tintinnopsis campanula,T. cylindrica, T. lobiancoi, Eutintinnus lusus-undae.

  11. Upwelling dynamics in the Baltic Sea studied by a combined SAR/infrared satellite data and circulation model analysis

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    Evgenia Gurova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Damietta coast is part of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta and has recently been polluted as a result of intensive human activities.The environmental parameters and protozoan community in the area were studied biweekly from January to December 2007. The results of the environmentalparameters indicated low salinity, oxic and anoxic conditions, high nutrient levels and intensive phytoplankton growth. A total of 69 protozoan specieswere identified, belonging to Amoebozoa (8 species, Foraminifera (12 species, non-tintinnid ciliates (22 species and tintinnids (27 species. The numerical density of protozoans was high over the whole area, with annual averages between 8.2 × 103 cells m-3 and 51.4 × 103 cells m-3.Spring was the most productive season for protozoans, but several distinct peaks were observed during the year at the sampling sites. The protozoangroups showed clearly different spatial patterns in both composition and abundance: whereas amoebozoans and non-tintinnid ciliates were dominant in themore polluted areas (sites IV and V, tintinnids dominated in the less polluted areas (sites, I, II and III. Several pollution indicators wererecorded: amoebozoans - Centropyxis aculeata, Centropyxis sp., Cochliopodium sp.,Difflugia sp.; non-tintinnids - Bursaridium sp., Frontonia atra,Holophrya sp., Paramecium sp., Paramecium bursaria,Vasicola ciliata, Vorticella sp., Strombidium sp.; tintinnids- Favella ehrenbergii, Helicostomella subulata, Leprotintinnus nordgvisti,Tintinnopsis beroidea, Stenosemella ventricosa, Tintinnopsis campanula,T. cylindrica, T. lobiancoi, Eutintinnus lusus-undae.

  12. Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Trematoda: Transversotrematidae) from inshore fishes of Australia: description of a new species and significant range extensions for three congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Scott C; Diggles, Ben K; Cribb, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    Four transversotrematid trematodes are reported from commercial teleost species in Australian waters. Transversotrema hunterae n. sp. is described from three species of Sillago Cuvier (Sillaginidae) from Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland. Molecular characterisation using ITS2 rDNA confirmed this stenoxenic specificity of Transversotrema hunterae n. sp., with identical sequence data from Sillago maculata Quoy & Gaimard, S. analis Whitley and S. ciliata Cuvier. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 28S rDNA data, demonstrates that T. hunterae n. sp. belongs to the 'Transversotrema licinum clade' and is most closely related to Transversotrema licinum Manter, 1970 and T. polynesiae Cribb, Adlard, Bray, Sasal & Cutmore, 2014, with the three species forming a well-supported clade in all analyses. We extend the known host and geographical ranges of three previously described Transversotrema species, T. licinum, T. elegans Hunter, Ingram, Adlard, Bray & Cribb, 2010 and T. espanola Hunter & Cribb, 2012. The new records represent significant range extensions for the three species and permit further examination of the patterns of biogeographical distribution in Australian waters. Host-specificity of Transversotrema species is examined, and the degree to which morphological analysis can inform taxonomic studies of this group is discussed.

  13. Reduced fecundity in small populations of the rare plant Gentianopsis ciliate (Gentianaceae)

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    Kery, M.; Matthies, D.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat destruction is the main cause for the biodiversity crisis. Surviving populations are often fragmented, i.e., small and isolated from each other. Reproduction of plants in small populations is often reduced, and this has been attributed to inbreeding depression, reduced attractiveness for pollinators, and reduced habitat quality in small populations. Here we present data on the effects of fragmentation on the rare, self-compatible perennial herb Gentianopsis ciliata (Gentianaceae), a species with very small and presumably well-dispersed seeds. We studied the relationship between population size, plant size, and the number of flowers produced in 63 populations from 1996-1998. In one of the years, leaf and flower size and the number of seeds produced per fruit was studied in a subset of 25 populations. Plant size, flower size, and the number of seeds per fruit and per plant increased with population size, whereas leaf length and the number of flowers per plant did not. The effects of population size on reproduction and on flower size remained significant if the effects were adjusted for differences in plant size, indicating that they could not be explained by differences in habitat quality. The strongly reduced reproduction in small populations may be due to pollination limitation, while the reduced flower size could indicate genetic effects.

  14. A novel Au SINE sequence found in a gymnosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Eiki; Akita, Toru; Kawahara, Taihachi

    2011-01-01

    Although many SINE families have been identified in the animal kingdom, only a few SINE families have been identified in plants, and their distribution is somewhat limited. The Au SINE (Au) has been found discontinuously in basal angiosperms, monocots, and eudicots. In this study, we examined the presence of the Au in gymnosperms and ferns by PCR using internal primers for Au. As a result, we found Au in a gymnosperm species, Ephedra ciliata. Therefore, Au was supposed to be present in the common ancestor of angiosperms and gymnosperms. The Au in E. ciliate was 15 bp shorter than the consensus sequence, which is similar to the Au SINE found in Glycine. However, the 3'end of the Au found in E. ciliate was more similar to the 3'end of the Medicago-type Au than that of the Glycine-type Au. A phylogenetic tree indicated that the Au sequence from E. ciliate is more closely related to the sequence found in Glycine than that found in Medicago/Lotus. These results indicated that Au were present in both angiosperms and gymnosperms.

  15. Zooplankton diversity of a sub-tropical reservoir of Mizoram, Northeast India

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    Sharma, B.K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study on zooplankton diversity from the state of Mizoram of northeast India, based on plankton samples collected from Khawiva reservoir during November 2005-October 2007, recorded a total of 46 species. Zooplankton indicated monthly richness ranging between 19-36 and 25-34 species; registered 52.8-88.9 and 60.0-89.3% community similarities (vide Sørensen’s index; and comprised between 31.2±12.7 and 46.7±11.3% of net plankton abundance during two years, respectively. Copepoda and Rotifera, together, influenced zooplankton abundance. Rhizopoda and Cladocera showed limited importance while Nematoda and Ciliata recorded poor densities. Mesocyclops spp. > Keratella tropica are important taxa. Our results are characterized by moderate species diversity, high evenness and low dominance except in some months. Richness, abundance and species diversity followed no definite patterns of monthly variations. Individual abiotic parameters exerted limited influence on zooplankton richness and abundance, and on abundance of its constituent groups. The canonical correspondence analysis with fifteen abiotic parameters explained high cumulative variance (84.8% of zooplankton assemblages along axis 1 and 2 with importance of water temperature, rainfall, free carbon dioxide, conductivity and phosphate. Sladecek’s Q B/T quotient and Shannon’s diversity index reflected mesotrophic nature of Khawiva reservoir.

  16. Ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics among the tribal communities of North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, M A; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Jahan, Sarwat; Sultana, Shahzia

    2010-03-24

    The present investigation is an attempt to find out ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics. We interviewed respondents in 30 remote sites of North-West Frontier Province by a structured interview form in the local language and respondents were queried for the type of herbal cure known to him. A total of 66 plant species belonging to 45 families have been recorded. Seventy-five medications for 15 skin diseases and cosmetics were documented. The mode of application was topical as well as oral administration. Water, milk, ghee, oil, eggs, sulphur and butter are used during administration of herbal remedies. About 15 plant species are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Berberis lyceum, Bergenia ciliata, Melia azedarach, Otostegia limbata, Phyla nodiflora, Prunus persica and Zingiber officinale constitutes major plants. The herbal cosmetics products range from face freshness, removal of ugly spots, hair care, and colouring of palm, feet, gums, and teeth. Most of the reported species are wild and rare; this demands an urgent attention to conserve such vital resources so as to optimize their use in the primary health care system. Since most of the skin diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi in this context, phytochemical screening for active constituents, biological activities and clinical studies is of global importance. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Major bioactive phenolics in Bergenia species from the Indian Himalayan region: Method development, validation and quantitative estimation using UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Kumar, Brijesh; Meena, Baleshwar; Srivastava, Mukesh; Mishra, Tripti; Tiwari, Vandana; Pal, Mahesh; Nair, Narayanan K.; Upreti, Dalip K.

    2017-01-01

    Bergenia species are important medicinal plants used in indigenous systems of medicine for their antilithiatic and diuretic properties. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the estimation of quantitative variation of eight major bioactive phenolics in the rhizomes (150 samples) of four species of this herb, Bergenia (B. ciliata, B. ligulata, B. purpurascens and B. stracheyi). Chromatographic separation was obtained on a Waters ACQUITY UPLCTM BEH (ethylene bridged hybrid) C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile under a gradient elution manner. A hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in negative electrospray ionization mode with multiple reactions monitoring for detection and quantification of the eight compounds. The validated method demonstrated good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9991), precision (RSD ≤ 1.87%) and accuracy (95.16–102.11%, RSD ≤ 1.83%) for all reference analytes. The quantitative results revealed that B. ligulata contains the highest amount of the major active marker-bergenin. The results also suggest that sensitive UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS method, a sensitive, accurate and convenient one, could be helpful in identification of potential accession(s), rapid quality control and establishing authenticity of Bergenia species as raw material for pharmaceutical industries. PMID:28749965

  18. Honeybee (Apis cerana) foraging responses to the toxic honey of Tripterygium hypoglaucum (Celastraceae): changing threshold of nectar acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K; Guo, Y H; Nicolson, S W; Radloff, S E; Song, Q S; Hepburn, H R

    2007-12-01

    To investigate honeybee foraging responses to toxic nectar, honey was collected from Apis cerana colonies in the Yaoan county of Yunnan Province, China, during June, when flowers of Tripterygium hypoglaucum were the main nectar source available. Pollen analysis confirmed the origin of the honey, and high-performance liquid chromatography showed the prominent component triptolide to be present at a concentration of 0.61 mug/g +/- 0.11 SD. In cage tests that used young adult worker bees, significantly more of those provided with a diet of T. hypoglaucum honey mixed with sugar powder (1:1) died within 6 d (68.3%) compared to control groups provided with normal honey mixed with sugar powder (15.8%). Honeybees were trained to visit feeders that contained honey of T. hypoglaucum (toxic honey) as the test group and honey of Vicia sativa or Elsholtzia ciliata as control groups (all honeys diluted 1:3 with water). Bees preferred the feeders with normal honey to those with toxic honey, as shown by significantly higher visiting frequencies and longer imbibition times. However, when the feeder of normal honey was removed, leaving only honey of T. hypoglaucum, the foraging bees returned to the toxic honey after a few seconds of hesitation, and both visiting frequency and imbibition time increased to values previously recorded for normal honey. Toxic honey thus became acceptable to the bees in the absence of other nectar sources.

  19. New chromosome reports in Lamiaceae of Kashmir (Northwest Himalaya), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Singh, Vijay; Bala, Santosh; Kumari, Santosh

    2017-03-01

    Meiotic studies and chromosome data are imperative in order to have an overall germplasm evaluation of a taxon. In the present effort, the meiotic study is carried out in 48 populations belonging to 26 species of Lamiaceae collected from their natural habitats in Kashmir Himalaya, which forms an important part of Northwest Himalaya. Chromosome counts in the five species viz. Dracocephalum nutans (2n = 10), Lycopus europaeus (2n = 22), Marrubium vulgare (2n = 54), Nepeta nervosa (2n = 18) and Salvia sclarea (2n = 22) are first time reported from India. Besides, 17 species are cytologically evaluated for the first time from the study area-Kashmir Himalaya. In Marrubium vulgare, hexaploid cytotype (2n = 6 × =54) is reported for the first time. Also, diploid and tetraploid cytomorphovariants are observed in Calamintha vulgaris (2n = 20, 40), Elsholtzia ciliata (2n = 16, 32) and Mentha longifolia (2n = 20, 40). Various meiotic abnormalities like chromatin stickiness, cytomixis, nonsynchronous disjunction, laggards, chromatin bridges, etc. leading to pollen abnormalities have been documented for the first time in some species. The worldwide status of chromosome number data in each genus is presented.

  20. Kudoa prunusi n. sp. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from the brain of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) cultured in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, F; Yokoyama, H; Shirakashi, S; Grabner, D; Ogawa, K; Ishimaru, K; Sawada, Y; Murata, O

    2011-01-01

    Kudoa prunusi n. sp. (Myxozoa; Multivalvulida) is described from the brain of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis cultured in Japan. Numerous white cysts, up to 0.5mm in size, were found on and in the brain. Spores having typically five spore valves and five polar capsules resembled a five-petal cherry blossom in apical view and were conical shape with a round bottom in side view. Average spore size was 9.63 (8.5-10.3) μm in width and 7.50 (6.7-8.6) μm in length. The spore dimensions of K. prunusi overlapped with those of Kudoa yasunagai ex Sillago ciliata having five to six spore valves, but they were clearly distinct in spore shape, 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA sequences (0.3% and 1.7% differences, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA revealed that K. prunusi grouped with the brain-infecting multivalvulid species, K. yasunagai, K. chaetodoni, K. lethrini and K. neurophila, rather than five-valved Kudoa spp. Combined with morphological, molecular and biological differences, K. prunusi was proven to be a new species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mode of reproduction of Brazilian species of Adesmia (Leguminosae

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    Solange B. Tedesco

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Mode of reproduction was studied in 15 species of Adesmia DC. (Leguminosae. In six species, three treatments were used: mutual pollination, mechanical stimulation and control. Fifty-four plants of these six species were grown in a greenhouse, individually isolated in nylon screen boxes. Flowers were labelled and submitted to the different treatments. In addition, the frequency of spontaneous self-pollination in the absence of pollinators was studied in 200 plants of nine other species. These 200 plants were kept in a greenhouse, which avoided contact with any possible pollinator. Adesmia bicolor, A. muricata, A. punctata and A. riograndensis produced seed both by cross- and self-pollination. Adesmia punctata and A. riograndensis need mechanical stimulation for self-pollination. Adesmia incana reproduced by self-pollination; however, the possibility of cross-pollination cannot be totally ruled out. Adesmia tristis reproduced mainly by cross-pollination and a mechanism of self-incompatibility is suggested. Among the nine species that were not exposed to pollinators, A. securigerifolia produced a large amount of seed, indicating that it is a self-pollinating species. Adesmia arillata, A. araujoi, A. ciliata, A. psoraleoides, A. rocinhensis, A. reitziana, A. sulina and A. vallsii did not produce any seed under the experimental conditions, suggesting that they are cross-pollinated or that they need mechanical stimulation to reproduce.Foram estudadas 15 espécies do gênero Adesmia DC. (Leguminosae, quanto ao modo de reprodução. Em seis espécies do gênero Adesmia, o modo de reprodução foi determinado através de três tratamentos: polinização mútua, estímulo mecânico e controle. As 54 plantas submetidas aos tratamentos foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação e mantidas isoladas individualmente, através de armações de tela de náilon. As flores foram marcadas e submetidas aos distintos tratamentos. Adicionalmente, foram observadas 200

  2. Alguns aspectos da ecologia dos mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae de uma área de planície (granjas Calábria em Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: IV. Preferências alimentares quanto ao hospedeiro e freqüência domiciliar Some aspects of the ecology of the mosquities (Diptera: Culicidade of an area of plains (grange Calabria in Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: IV. Food preferences of hosts and domiciliary frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos os resultados de capturas de mosquitos, realizadas entre janeiro de 1982 e março de 1983, em Granjas Calábria, com a finalidade de avaliar suas preferências alimentares. Usamos seis iscas: homem, cavalo, vaca, carneiro, galo e sapo. O cavalo atraiu o maior número de exemplares, seguindo-se a vaca, o homem, o galo e o carneiro, sendo que o sapo não foi atacado. A isca humana foi a que atraiu mais espécies. Observamos uma tendência zoófila para as espécies locais - An. albitarsis, An. aquasalis, Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Cq. venezuelensis, Ma. titillans, Ps. ciliata, Ph. davisi e Ph. deanei sugaram principalemte cavalo e vaca, enquanto os Culex do subgênero Culex pareceram-nos mais ornitófilos e os do subgênero Microculex preferiram animais pecilotérmicos em experimentos que realizamos no laboratório. Ma. titillans foi a espécie preponderante em todas as iscas, demonstrado elevado ecletismo. Para estudar a freqüência domiciliar e peridomiciliar fizemos, mensalmente, de agosto de 1981 a julho de 1982, capturas dentro e fora de uma casa. Excetuando algumas espécies com maior propensão à endofilia principalmente An. aquasalis e Cx. quinquefasciatus, os mosquitos locais mostram-se mais exófilos. Foram visitantes ocasionais do domicílo: Ma. titillans, Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus e Cx. saltanensis.Results are presented on mosquito catches performed between january 1982 and March 1983, in Granjas Calábria, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to evaluate their host preferences. We used six baits, man, horse, cow, sheep, cock and toad. Horse attracted the greatest number of mosquitoes, followed by cow, man, cock and sheep, no mosquito fed on toad. man was the bait which attracted the largest number of species. Most local species were definetely zoophilic - An. albitarsis, An. aquasalis, Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Cq. venezuelensis, Ma. titillans, Ps. ciliata, ph. davisi and Ph. deanei preferred

  3. Legacy of historic ozone exposure on plant community and food web structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ghersa, M Alejandra; Menéndez, Analía I; Gundel, Pedro E; Folcia, Ana M; Romero, Ana M; Landesmann, Jennifer B; Ventura, Laura; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2017-01-01

    Information on whole community responses is needed to predict direction and magnitude of changes in plant and animal abundance under global changes. This study quantifies the effect of past ozone exposure on a weed community structure and arthropod colonization. We used the soil seed bank resulting from a long-term ozone exposure to reestablish the plant community under a new low-pollution environment. Two separate experiments using the same original soil seed bank were conducted. Plant and arthropod richness and species abundance was assessed during two years. We predicted that exposure to episodic high concentrations of ozone during a series of growing cycles would result in plant assemblies with lower diversity (lower species richness and higher dominance), due to an increase in dominance of the stress tolerant species and the elimination of the ozone-sensitive species. As a consequence, arthropod-plant interactions would also be changed. Species richness of the recruited plant communities from different exposure histories was similar (≈ 15). However, the relative abundance of the dominant species varied according to history of exposure, with two annual species dominating ozone enriched plots (90 ppb: Spergula arvensis, and 120 ppb: Calandrinia ciliata). Being consistent both years, the proportion of carnivore species was significantly higher in plots with history of higher ozone concentration (≈3.4 and ≈7.7 fold higher in 90 ppb and 120 ppb plots, respectively). Our study provides evidence that, past history of pollution might be as relevant as management practices in structuring agroecosystems, since we show that an increase in tropospheric ozone may influence biotic communities even years after the exposure.

  4. Interspecies differences in the preference of ammonium and nitrate in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkengren-Grerup, Ursula

    1995-06-01

    Three solution experiments were performed to test the importance of NH 4+ versus NO 3- +NH 4+ to growth of 23 wild-forest and open-land species, using field-relevant soil solution concentrations at pH 4.5. At N concentrations of 1-200 μM growth increased with increasing N supply in Carex pilulifera, Deschampsia flexuosa, Elymus caninus and Bromus benekenii. Geum urbanum was the most N demanding species and had little growth below 200 μM. The preference for NH 4+ or NO 3- +NH 4+ was tested also at pH 4.0; no antagonism was found between NH 4+ and H+, as indicated by similar relative growth in both of the N treatments at both pH levels. Growth in solution with NH 4+ relative to NO 3- +NH 4+ , 200 μM, was negatively related to the mean pH of the field occurrence of the species tested; acid-tolerant species grew equally well with only NH 4+ as with NO 3- +NH 4+ (Oxalis acetosella, Carex pilulifera, Festuca gigantea, Poa nemoralis, Deschampsia flexuosa, Stellaria holostea, Rumex acetosella), while species of less acid soils were favoured by NO 3- +NH 4+ (Urtica dioica, Ficaria verna, Melandrium rubrum, Aegopodium podagraria, Geum urbanum, Bromus benekenii, Sanguisorba minor, Melica ciliata, Silene rupestris, Viscaria vulgaris, Plantago lanceolata). Intermediate species were Convallaria majalis, Elymus caninus, Hordelymus europaeus and Milium effusum. No antagonism between NH 4+ and Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ was indicated by the total uptake of the elements during the experiment.

  5. Traditional uses of medicinal plants against malarial disease by the tribal communities of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba Shah, Ghulam; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, Nadeem; Guo, Xinbo; Ajab Khan, Mir; Hussain, Manzoor; Bibi, Sultan; Nazir, Abdul; Ahmad Tahir, Adnan

    2014-08-08

    Malaria is among the most prevalent infectious diseases in the developing countries of world. Estimated number of annual malaria episodes in Pakistan is 1.5 million, but very little is known about medicinal plant species of Pakistan, which have great potential against malarial disease. Present study was aimed to document medicinal plant species used by the local inhabitants of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan to treat malaria. Data were collected through interviews, questionnaires and contributor observation. A total of 55 informants aged between 25 and 80 years who were familiar with malarial disease participated in the survey. A total of 84 plant species belonging to 69 genera and 50 families were recorded to treat malaria. Asteraceae was found as most cited botanical family with (11.9%) representation, followed by Lamiaceae (5.9%), Solanaceae and Verbenaceae (4.7%) and Violaceae (3.5%) respectively. About 60% of the inhabitants prefer herbal treatment by local herbalists or self-treatment with locally available medicinal plant species. Of the plants identified during present investigation against malaria, Azadirachta indica, Swertia chirayita and Swertia ciliata exhibited uppermost frequency of encounter (36.3%) and corresponding PR value 5. About 67.2% of the botanical taxa are reported for the first time in the treatment of malaria. It was observed thatover harvesting is the foremost threat to medicinal plant species of the study area. Present survey indicates that traditional knowledge about the use of plant species against various diseases and particularly to treat malaria is in decline. Similarly anthropogenic pressure, over exploitation and grazing of the botanical taxa are the major concerns regarding medicinal plant biodiversity loss. Frequently utilized plant species with significant malarial reduction should be authenticated by in vitro and in vivo standard tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reconocimiento y fluctuación poblacional arvense en el cultivo de espinaca (Spinacea oleracea L. para el municipio de Cota, Cundinamarca

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    Rodríguez Marcela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La presencia de arvenses en los cultivos influye en la cantidad y calidad del producto, sin embargo, los productores no consideran importante su manejo, ya que los daños no se observan directamente como en el caso de plagas o patógenos. En el presente trabajo se realizó un reconocimiento de arvenses asociadas al cultivo de espinaca, se compararon los resultados de fluctuación poblacional encontrados del 2003 al 2007 y se realizó una encuesta a los agricultores, con el fin de determinar el tipo de manejo que realizan. Los valores más importantes en términos de densidad (número de individuos en 0,25 m2 y cobertura (porcentaje de cobertura en 0,25 m2, se presentaron en las especies Urtica urens L. (25,85 y 20,54%, Capsella bursa-pastoris L. (1,78 y 6,71%, Ambrosia sp. (1,61 y 2,46%, Galinsoga ciliata L. (0,79 y 3,67%, Stellaria media (L. Vill. (0,58 y 4,46% y Chenopodium album L. (0,52 y 2,21%. Los agricultores que siembran espinaca en Cota se clasificaron en 6 grupos utilizando 31 variables y 251 modalidades; se concluyó que la variable más importante es el tipo de control de arvenses durante el ciclo de cultivo, que permite agruparlos en los que realizan control manual y aquellos que realizan control integrado y manual conjuntamente.

  7. Epiphytic invertebrate patterns in coastal lakes along a gradient of salinity and water exchange with the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolewski, Krystian; Bąkowska, Martyna

    2017-10-01

    The species composition and abundance of epiphytic fauna inhabiting common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) was performed in five coastal lakes in Słowiński National Park (southern Baltic coast in northern Poland). The lakes represent a salinity gradient (from freshwater to β-oligohaline waters) and four types of coastal lakes: (1) lagoon, L (Lake Łebsko, seawater enters it permanently); (2) coastal lake with periodically brackish water, CLB (Lake Gardno); (3) freshwater costal lake, CLF (Lake Smołdzińskie); and (4) coastal dune lakes, CLD (Dołgie Wielkie and Dołgie Małe). Using statistical ordination techniques, we found that the structure of epiphytic fauna (microinvertebrates and macroinvertebrates) is determined primarily by hydrological connectivity (water exchange) with the sea. Canonical Correspondence Analysis, coupled with variance partitioning, showed that hydrological connectivity accounted for 24% of the variation in the invertebrate community, followed by physico-chemical (19%) and trophic (8%) factors. Our results indicate that the assemblages of Ciliata-libera and Cnidaria are characteristic for L (β-oligohaline), Rotifera, Suctoria, Chaetogaster sp., Gastropoda and Trichoptera are characteristic for CLB (limnetic/β-oligohaline), but no taxonomic groups are characteristic for CLF and CLD (both limnetic). The index of multivariate dispersion showed a decreasing trend with the increasing lake isolation from the open sea, except for CLD. However, in terms of the structure of epiphytic fauna, Multi-Response Permutation Procedures showed that CLD significantly differed only from CLB. Our results suggest that the identified characteristic taxonomic groups of plant-associated macroinvertebrates have a high potential to be used as bioindicators of salinity and water exchange with the sea, due to their sensitivity to environmental stress.

  8. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. Methods After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Results Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86–1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Conclusion Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through

  9. Seasonal variation and tidal influences on estuarine use by bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fury, Christine A.; Harrison, Peter L.

    2011-07-01

    In order to show that dolphins use estuary habitats differently depending on the season and tidal state, possibly in response to prey distribution, temperature, risk of stranding and accessibility, Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus) were observed year-round during a 3-year study in the Clarence River estuary (CR) and Richmond River estuary (RR) in northern New South Wales, Australia. Peak dolphin sightings occurred during the spring season and one or 2 h prior to high tide. The spatial distribution of the dolphins in each estuary was analysed using the distance in kilometres that the dolphins travelled upstream with seasons and tidal phase as determinants. A General Linear Model showed that in the CR the dolphin spatial distribution in the estuary was not determined by season ( F = 0.434, df = 3, P = 0.729) but was by tidal phase ( F = 9.943, df = 3, P dolphin use of the estuary was not determined by either season ( F = 1.647, df = 3, P = 0.194) or tidal phase ( F = 0.302, df = 3, P = 0.824). In the CR, the spatial distribution of the dolphins was largest on high and flood tides. This pattern of spatial distribution may occur because the CR is a relatively shallow estuary and this increased spatial distribution may reflect a lower stranding risk and an increase in accessibility of shallow areas during periods of higher tide. These areas could also provide access to their preferred prey items of sea mullet ( Mugil cephalus) and sand whiting ( Sillago ciliata).

  10. Unravelling genetics at the top: mountain islands or isolated belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Alfredo; Segarra-Moragues, Jose Gabriel; Widmer, Alex; Escudero, Adrian; Iriondo, José María

    2012-11-01

    In mountain plant populations, local adaptation has been described as one of the main responses to climate warming, allowing plants to persist under stressful conditions. This is especially the case for marginal populations at their lowest elevation, as they are highly vulnerable. Adequate levels of genetic diversity are required for selection to take place, while high levels of altitudinal gene flow are seen as a major limiting factor potentially precluding local adaptation processes. Thus, a compromise between genetic diversity and gene flow seems necessary to guarantee persistence under oncoming conditions. It is therefore critical to determine if gene flow occurs preferentially between mountains at similar altitudinal belts, promoting local adaptation at the lowest populations, or conversely along altitude within each mountain. Microsatellite markers were used to unravel genetic diversity and population structure, inbreeding and gene flow of populations at two nearby altitudinal gradients of Silene ciliata, a Mediterranean high-mountain cushion plant. Genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients were similar in all populations. Substantial gene flow was found both along altitudinal gradients and horizontally within each elevation belt, although greater values were obtained along altitudinal gradients. Gene flow may be responsible for the homogeneous levels of genetic diversity found among populations. Bayesian cluster analyses also suggested that shifts along altitudinal gradients are the most plausible scenario. Past population shifts associated with glaciations and interglacial periods in temperate mountains may partially explain current distributions of genetic diversity and population structure. In spite of the predominance of gene flow along the altitudinal gradients, local genetic differentiation of one of the lower populations together with the detection of one outlier locus might support the existence of different selection forces at low altitudes.

  11. Legacy of historic ozone exposure on plant community and food web structure.

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    M Alejandra Martínez-Ghersa

    Full Text Available Information on whole community responses is needed to predict direction and magnitude of changes in plant and animal abundance under global changes. This study quantifies the effect of past ozone exposure on a weed community structure and arthropod colonization. We used the soil seed bank resulting from a long-term ozone exposure to reestablish the plant community under a new low-pollution environment. Two separate experiments using the same original soil seed bank were conducted. Plant and arthropod richness and species abundance was assessed during two years. We predicted that exposure to episodic high concentrations of ozone during a series of growing cycles would result in plant assemblies with lower diversity (lower species richness and higher dominance, due to an increase in dominance of the stress tolerant species and the elimination of the ozone-sensitive species. As a consequence, arthropod-plant interactions would also be changed. Species richness of the recruited plant communities from different exposure histories was similar (≈ 15. However, the relative abundance of the dominant species varied according to history of exposure, with two annual species dominating ozone enriched plots (90 ppb: Spergula arvensis, and 120 ppb: Calandrinia ciliata. Being consistent both years, the proportion of carnivore species was significantly higher in plots with history of higher ozone concentration (≈3.4 and ≈7.7 fold higher in 90 ppb and 120 ppb plots, respectively. Our study provides evidence that, past history of pollution might be as relevant as management practices in structuring agroecosystems, since we show that an increase in tropospheric ozone may influence biotic communities even years after the exposure.

  12. Spatial analysis of stable isotope data to determine primary sources of nutrition for fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Andrew J; Connolly, Rod M

    2003-08-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were used to determine the ultimate autotrophic sources supporting production of three commercially important fish species over unvegetated mudflats in a subtropical estuary. Mean isotope values over the whole estuary for fish and autotroph sources were modeled to indicate feasible combinations of sources. Variability in isotope values among nine locations (separated by 3-10 km) was then used as a further test of the likelihood that sources were involved in fish nutrition. A positive spatial correlation between isotope values of a fish species and an autotroph indicates a substantial contribution from the autotroph. Spatial correlations were tested with a newly developed randomization procedure using differences between fish and autotroph values at each location, based on carbon and nitrogen isotopes combined in two-dimensional space. Both whole estuary modeling and spatial analysis showed that seagrass, epiphytic algae and particulate organic matter in the water column, including phytoplankton, are likely contributors to bream (Acanthopagrus australis) nutrition. However, spatial analysis also showed that mangroves were involved (up to 33% contribution), despite a very low contribution from whole estuary modeling. Spatial analysis on sand whiting (Sillago ciliata) demonstrated the importance of two sources, mangroves (up to 25%) and microalgae on the mudflats, considered unimportant based on whole estuary modeling. No spatial correlations were found between winter whiting (Sillago maculata) and autotrophs, either because fish moved among locations or relied on different autotrophs at different locations. Spatial correlations between consumer and source isotope values provide a useful analytical tool for identifying the role of autotrophs in foodwebs, and demonstrated here that both in situ production of microalgae and organic matter from adjacent habitats were important to fish over mudflats.

  13. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal.

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    Kunwar, Ripu M; Mahat, Laxmi; Acharya, Ram P; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2013-04-12

    Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86-1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management

  14. Arbovirus surveillance in South Carolina, 1996-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, A; Dowda, H E; Tolson, M W; Karabatsos, N; Vaughan, D R; Turner, P E; Ortiz, D I; Wills, W

    2001-03-01

    Arboviruses isolated and identified from mosquitoes in South Carolina (USA) are described, including new state records for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE), Flanders virus, Tensaw virus (TEN), and a variant of Jamestown Canyon virus (JC). Mosquitoes were collected at 52 locations in 30 of 46 South Carolina counties beginning in June 1996, and ending in October 1998, and tested for arboviruses. Of 1,329 mosquito pools tested by virus isolation (85,806 mosquitoes representing 34 mosquito species or complexes), 15 pools were positive. Virus isolations included EEE from 1 pool each of Anopheles crucians complex and Culex erraticus; a variant of JC from 1 pool of An. crucians complex; a California serogroup virus from 1 pool of Aedes atlanticus/tormentor; TEN from 5 pools of An. crucians complex and 1 pool each of Culex salinarius and Psorophora ciliata; Flanders virus from 1 pool of Culiseta melanura; and Potosi virus from 1 pool each of Aedes vexans, Coquillettidia perturbans, and Psorophora columbiae. Of 300 mosquito pools tested by antigen-capture assay for EEE and SLE (14,303 mosquitoes representing 16 mosquito species or complexes), 21 were positive for EEE and I was positive for SLE. Positive EEE mosquito pools by antigen-capture assay included An. crucians complex (14 pools), Anopheles punctipennis (1 pool), Anopheles quadrimaculatus (1 pool), Cq. perturbans (4 pools), and Cs. melanura (1 pool). One pool of Cx. salinarius was positive for SLE by antigen-capture assay. Arbovirus-positive mosquito pools were identified from 12 South Carolina counties, all located in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and from 4 of 8 Carolina bays surveyed.

  15. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Upper Jurassic of Europe: its subdivision and correlation

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    Zeiss, Arnold

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic of Europe has received much attention and considerable revision; much of the impetus behind this endeavour has stemmed from the work of the International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy. The Upper Jurassic Series consists of three stages, the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian which are further subdivided into substages, zones and subzones, primarily on the basis of ammonites. Regional variations between the Mediterranean, Submediterranean and Subboreal provinces are discussed and correlation possibilities indicated. The durations of the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian Stages are reported to have been 5.3, 3.4 and 6.5 Ma, respectively. This review of the present status of Upper Jurassic stratigraphy aids identification of a number of problems of subdivision and definition of Upper Jurassic stages; in particular these include correlation of the base of the Kimmeridgian and the top of the Tithonian between Submediterranean and Subboreal Europe. Although still primarily based on ammonite stratigraphy, subdivision of the Upper Jurassic is increasingly being refined by the incorporation of other fossil groups; these include both megafossils, such as aptychi, belemnites, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods, echinoderms, corals, sponges and vertebrates, and microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolaria, ciliata, ostracodes, dinoflagellates, calcareous nannofossils, charophyaceae, dasycladaceae, spores and pollen. Important future developments will depend on the detailed integration of these disparate biostratigraphic data and their precise combination with the abundant new data from sequence stratigraphy, utilising the high degree of stratigraphic resolution offered by certain groups of fossils. This article also contains some notes on the recent results of magnetostratigraphy and sequence chronostratigraphy.

  16. Identification and functional characterization of an uncharacterized antimicrobial peptide from a ciliate Paramecium caudatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pengfei; Dong, Yuan; Li, Zhijian; Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Shicui

    2016-07-01

    The global ever-growing concerns about multi-drug resistant (MDR) microbes leads to urgent demands for exploration of new antibiotics including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here we demonstrated that a cDNA from Ciliata Paramecium caudatum, designated Pcamp1, coded for a protein with features characteristic of AMPs, which is not homologous to any AMPs currently known. Both the C-terminal 91 amino acid residues of PcAMP1, cPcAMP1, expressed in Escherichia coli and the C-terminal 26 amino acid residues (predicted mature AMP), cPcAMP1/26, synthesized, underwent a coil-to-helix transition in the presence of TFE, SDS or DPC. Functional assays revealed that cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were both able to kill Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus. ELISA showed that cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were able to bind to microbe-associated molecular pattern molecules LPS and LTA, which was further corroborated by the observations that cPcAMP1 could deposit onto the bacterial membranes. Importantly, both cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were able to induce bacterial membrane permeabilization and depolarization, and to increase intracellular ROS levels. Additionally, cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were not cytotoxic to mammalian cells. Taken together, our results show that PcAMP1 is a potential AMP with a membrane selectivity towards bacterial cells, which renders it a promising template for the design of novel peptide antibiotics against MDR microbes. It also shows that use of signal conserved sequence of AMPs can be an effective tool to identify potential AMPs across different animal classes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Review on ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological evidence of Himalayan anticancer plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad

    2015-04-22

    Himalayan plants have 6500 years old history of being using as traditional medicines. Inhabitants of the region use indigenous knowledge for the preparation of various herbal recipes in order to treat different kinds of cancer. The aim of this review is to provide ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and toxicological overview of Himalayan medicinal plants having anticancer potential. This will provide a baseline for the discovery of new anticancer drugs. In total, 155 articles (mostly published) were reviewed by using online search engines like PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and floras of different Himalayan countries. Sixty four anticancer medicinal plants were documented belonging to 59 genera and 37 families. Majority of 42 plants were reported from India followed by 17 from Pakistan. Traditional healers in the region mostly prepare ethnomedicinal recipes from leaves (32% plants) and roots (30% plants) in the form of decoction. Thirty plants had reported anticancer related pharmacological and phytochemical activities. Of these, 27 plants were tested in-vitro on cellular models while 16 plants for in-vivo activities. Methanolic, ethanolic and ethylacetate extracts of plants have shown excellent cytotoxic activities against breast, stomach and blood cancers' cell lines. Total 14 active secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, glycosides, terpenoids, lignans and alkynes from the studied plants were reported active against different cancer cell lines. Plants such as Bergenia ciliata, Argemone mexicana, Capsella bursa-pastoris and Centella asiatica had toxic effects on the living systems at higher doses when studied in-vivo. Certain Himalayan medicinal plants present therapeutic properties against different types of cancer. However, not all of the plants have been fully analysed for in vitro, in vivo and toxicological activities, and isolation of secondary metabolites. Further ethnomedicinal studies would help in identifying potential

  18. A NEW METHOD TO ASSESS FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF SERUM COMPLEMENT SYSTEM

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    E. G. Cheremnykh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complement system is an important component of innate immunity, providing primary protection against pathogens invading the body. In addition, it was shown that the complement system is associated with many diseases, not only autoimmune and infectious, but also mental disorders. In this regard, it is necessary to develop affordable and fast method of measuring activity of the complement system in real-time mode. We present a new semi-automated method for assessment of serum complement activity. The assay is based on cytolytic action of complement system upon the ciliate organism Tetrahymena pyriformis. This method consists in repeated counting of live Tetrahymena motile cells by means of specially developed Biolat device, which consists of two video cameras, light sources, and movable round plate. The plate has two rows of holes. The device also includes microprocessor control unit based on AutoCiliata software, intended for control of operation module and counting the surviving cell. The calculations are based on fixation of two sequential video-frames, with subsequent software image processing. Cell death events were observed upon incubation in triethanolamine (TEA buffer containing 5% of blood serum. We have also compared complement activity in different buffers, i.e., standard medium for culturing of ciliates, Veronal-Medinalum buffer, and the TEA buffer. TEA buffer was found superior to the Veronal buffer when applied in the test system. The time of cell death in the TEA-buffered medium containing 5% serum was < 15 minutes for all the sera studied. The parameters denoting serum complement activity were as follows: a half-life time for the moving cells (TLD50, and a similar value for 100% cell inactivation (1/TLD50, functional activity of the complement system, ACS. The sensitivity of this assay was calculated from dependencies between TLD50 and ACS, and actual serum concentrations. We have suggested an opportunity for evaluation of an

  19. Testing the saprobity hypothesis in a Mediterranean lagoon: effects of confinement and organic enrichment on benthic communities.

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    Foti, A; Fenzi, G A; Di Pippo, F; Gravina, M F; Magni, P

    2014-08-01

    The macrobenthic community was compared at four sites characterized by varying degrees of freshwater input, organic enrichment and confinement in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy). Three sites, riverine (C1), confined (C2) and seaward (C3), were studied on two dates of summer 2010 and on two dates of winter 2011. A fourth site (C12), representative of the central sector of the Cabras lagoon, was included in this study using the extensive historical datasets at our disposal from previously published work. We aimed to test the hypothesis that (1) the benthos is distributed according to the recently proposed concept of habitat saprobity for coastal lagoons that unifies the Pearson-Rosenberg (sensu organic enrichment) and Guélorget-Perthuisot (sensu confinement) models, and (2) indicator species of different saprobic levels can be identified among dominant species occurring along the saprobity gradient. Salinity was also considered as an additional agent of selection in brackish environments. Irrespective of significant seasonal changes within each site, our results highlighted major environmental and biotic differences between sites. At the northward riverine site (C1), most affected by freshwater input and with limited organic matter (OM) enrichment, Corophium orientale was the single dominant species. The most confined site (C2) was characterized by the highest levels of sedimentary OM and benthic Chlorophyll-a and by mesohaline conditions; the site was inhabited mainly by the halolimnobic Hediste diversicolor and Hydrobia spp. Site C12, characterized by a high OM load and high residence time, was dominated by the opportunistic detritivorous Alitta succinea and Polydora ciliata. At the southernmost seaward site (C3) the considerable seawater renewal, resulting in high salinity (only in summer) and limited OM load, favored a much more diverse macrobenthic assemblage, essentially composed of both marine species, such as Corophium insidiosum, Gammarus aequicauda

  20. Gastrointestinal parasites of free-living Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the Northern Red Sea, Egypt.

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    Kleinertz, S; Hermosilla, C; Ziltener, A; Kreicker, S; Hirzmann, J; Abdel-Ghaffar, F; Taubert, A

    2014-04-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal parasite fauna infecting the free-living and alive Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) inhabiting waters of the Red Sea at Hurghada, Egypt. A total of 94 individual faecal samples of the examined bottlenose dolphins were collected during several diving expeditions within their natural habitats. Using classical parasitological techniques, such as sodium acetate acetic acid formalin method, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears, coproantigen ELISA, PCR and macroscopical analyses, the study revealed infections with 21 different parasite species belonging to protozoans and metazoans with some of them bearing zoonotic and/or pathogenic potential. Four identified parasite species are potential zoonotic species (Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Ascaridida indet.); three of them are known to have high pathogenic potential for the examined dolphin species (Nasitrema attenuata, Zalophotrema spp. and Pholeter gastrophilus) and some appear to be directly associated with stranding events. In detail, the study indicates stages of ten protozoan species (Giardia spp., Sarcocystis spp., Isospora (like) spp., Cystoisospora (like) spp., Ciliata indet. I and II, Holotricha indet., Dinoflagellata indet., Hexamita (like) spp., Cryptosporidium spp.), seven trematode species (N. attenuata, Nasitrema spp. I and II, Zalophotrema curilensis, Zalophotrema spp., Pholeter gastrophilus, Trematoda indet.), one cestode species (Diphyllobothrium spp.), two nematode species (Ascaridida indet, Capillaria spp.) and one crustacean parasite (Cymothoidae indet.). Additionally, we molecularly identified adult worms of Anisakis typica in individual dolphin vomitus samples by molecular analyses. A. typica is a common parasite of various dolphin species of warmer temperate and tropical waters and has not been attributed as food-borne parasitic zoonoses so far. Overall, these parasitological findings

  1. Comparative freeze-fracture study of perialgal and digestive vacuoles in Paramecium bursaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R; Lefort-Tran, M; Pouphile, M; Reisser, W; Wiessner, W

    1984-10-01

    In the endosymbiotic unit of Paramecium bursaria (Ciliata) and Chlorella sp. (Chlorophyceae) algae are enclosed individually in perialgal vacuoles, which do not show acid phosphatase activity and thus differ from digestive vacuoles. Both types of vacuoles have been studied by freeze-fracture. Perialgal vacuoles are nearly spherical; their membrane always fits tightly to the algal surface. The vacuole size and shape do not vary much. During division of the algal cell into four autospores the vacuole diameter only doubles. After autospore formation the vacuole invaginates around the algal daughter cells and divides. Newly formed perialgal vacuoles remain in intimate contact and exhibit characteristic attachment zones before final separation. The two fracture faces of perialgal vacuole membranes are homogeneously covered with intramembranous particles (IMPs) but rarely show signs of vesicles pinching off or fusing with the membrane, except during vacuole division. The P-faces bear more IMPs (3164 +/- 625 IMP/micron 2) than the E-faces (654 +/- 208 IMP/micron 2). The range of IMP density on both faces is enormous, suggesting that the membrane is not static. Membrane changes are supposed to occur simultaneously with the enlargement of the vacuole and to be caused by fusion with cytoplasmic vesicles, as the fractured necks on vacuole membranes may indicate. Digestive vacuoles in P. bursaria show significant variations in size, shape, membrane topography and IMP density, as well as signs of endocytic activity. Different vacuole populations are present in P. bursaria according to different feeding conditions: ciliates fed for a long time have small vacuoles with few IMPs (322 +/- 198 IMP/micron 2 on the E-faces, 1438 +/- 458 IMP/micron 2 on the P-faces), which are probably condensed digestive vacuoles, whereas organisms fed for a short time have larger vacuoles with highly particulate faces (680 +/- 282 IMP/micron 2 on the E-faces, 2701 +/- 503 IMP/micron 2 on the P

  2. Phytochemical investigation of crude methanol extracts of different species of Swertia from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Supreet; Shakya, Niroj; Thapa, Krishna; Pant, Deepak Raj

    2015-12-26

    The genus Swertia is reported to contain potent bitter compounds like iridoids, xanthones and c-glucoflavones that are known to heal many human disorders. In contrast to high ethnomedicinally valued Swertia chirayita, its other species have not been studied extensively, in spite of their common use in traditional medicinal system in Nepalese communities. So, the present study attempts to investigate the content of total polyphenols, flavonoids, antioxidant activity and estimate the rough content of amarogentin, swertiamarin and mangiferin from different species of Swertia from Nepalese Himalayas. Whole plant parts of S. chirayita (SCH), S. angustifolia (SAN), S. paniculata (SPA), S. racemosa (SRA), S. nervosa (SNE), S. ciliata (SCI) and S. dilatata (SDI) were collected; total phenolic and flavonoid contents were quantified spectrophotometrically and in vitro DPPH free radical scavenging assay was measured. Thin layer chromatography was performed on TLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel for identification of swertiamarin, amarogentin and mangiferin from those species and semi quantitative estimation was done using GelQuant.NET software using their standard compounds. The phenolic content was highest in the methanol extract of SCH (67.49 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g) followed by SDI, SRA, SNE, SCI, SPA and SAN. The contents of flavonoids were found in the order of SCH, SPA, SRA, SNE, SDI, SCI and SAN. Promising concentration of phenolics and flavonoids produced promising DPPH free radical scavenging values. The IC50 values for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test was lowest in SCH (23.35 ± 0.6 μg/ml), even lower than the standard ascorbic acid among the seven studied species. A significant correlation of 0.977 was observed between the polyphenol content and antioxidant values. The TLC profile showed the presence of all three major phytochemicals; amarogentin, swertiamarin and mangiferin in all of the plant samples. Among the seven studied

  3. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in Parbat district of western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Birendra; Gauchan, Dhurva P; Chhetri, Ran B

    2015-05-13

    Nepal, a mountainous country having diversified topographic and climatic conditions, gives rise to a wide range of flora and fauna. In villages ethnic people, including Magar and Majhi highly depend on medicinal plants for their primary healthcare. Due to overexploitation, encroachment in forest for arable land and destruction of natural habitat, potentially useful medicinal plants are going to be threatened in their natural environment. There is a strong need to enlist highly valuable medicinal plants and use traditional knowledge to protect, utilize and manage them in ex-situ and in-situ conservation. The present research investigates and documents traditional knowledge on medicinal plants utilization as natural medicine by two ethnic communities Magar and Majhi of Parbat district in Western Nepal. Ethnomedicinal data was collected during 2012-2013 by the following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of herbs, shrubs and trees were collected using semi-structured questionnaire, field observation, personal interview and group discussion with 334 (130 men and 204 women) pre-identified local informants, among which 13 male and 2 female were local healers. Statistical tool, informant consensus factors (F(IC)) and fidelity level (FL) values were used to analyze the importance of ethnomedicinal plants. A total of 132 ethnomedicinal plant species belonging to 99 genera and 67 families have been documented. These plants are used to treat various diseases and disorders grouped under 12 disease categories, with the highest number of species (61) being used for gastro-intestinal, parasitic and hepatobiliary disorders (FIC=0.78%), followed by blood and lymphatic system (F(IC)=0.76%) category. The highest fidelity level (FL) values recorded in Paris polyphylla (FL=96.0%) followed by Bergenia ciliata (FL=95.0%) confirms that these plants are the best plant species with medicinal properties. The two ethnic communities, Magar and Majhi, in Parbat district

  4. Atıksu Arıtma Tesisinin Diyatom (Bacillariophyceae Tür Komposizyonuna Etkileri.

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    Fatma Çolak Sabancı

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ege denizi’nin ötrofik körfezi olan İzmir Körfezi’nin fitoplankton tür komposizyonu 1998-2000-2001 ve 2002 yıllarında iç, orta, dış körfezde yer alan 14 istasyonda mevsimsel ve kalitatif olarak incelendi. Bu araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre, İzmir Körfezi’nde Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae, Dictyochophyceae, Bacillariophyceae olmak üzere 4 alg sınıfı ve Ciliata olmak üzere bir protozooplankton sınıfına ait türler saptanmıştır. Bu sınıflar içersinde tür sayısı bakımından Dinophyceae sınıfının diğer sınıflara oranla daha baskın olduğu bulunmuştur. Çiğli Atık Su Arıtma Tesisi ünitesinin 2000 yılının sonlarında devreye girmesini takiben tür çeşitliliğinde önemli düzeyde değişimler olduğu saptandı. Saptanan türlerin kalitatif tür matrisi üzerinde gerçekleştirilen hiyerarşik kümelendirme ve çok boyutlu ölçeklendirme analizlerinin sonuçlarına göre, tür assosiyasyonlarının belirlenmesi ve istasyonlar arasındaki benzerliklerin çıkartılması amaçlandı

  5. New species of Geissorhiza (Iridaceae: Crocoideae from the southern African winter rainfall zone, range extensions, taxonomic changes, and notes on pollen morphology and floral ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Field work during the past 15 years has resulted in the discovery of 12 new species of the western southern African genus Geissorhiza Ker Gawl. and range extensions for several more. Following a survey of pollen morphology in the genus, we describe new pollen types in one section each of the two subgenera: five species of section  Ciliatae Goldblatt and two of  section Weihea Eckl. ex Baker have more complex apertures than the plesiomorphic single aperture with a 2-banded oper­culum found in other species. In addition, populations currently referred to the typical white (cream-flowered  G. inflexa (D.Delaroche Goldblatt with larger, pink, red or purple flowers, have a third pollen type and are recognized as  G. erosa (Salisb. R.C.Foster. The new species are G. altimontana from the high Langeberg near Grootvadersbos; G. helmei from the Piketberg; G. lupidosa from the Du Toits Kloof Mtns; G. monticola from the Swartberg; G. platystigma from Darling, north of Cape Town; G. sufflava from the Piketberg; G. tricolor from Riversdale (all subgenus Weihea (Eckl. ex Baker Goldblatt; and G. cantharophila from the Klein Roggeveld; G. demissa from the Kamiesberg. Gitberg and Cold Bokkeveld; G. exilis from the Waaihoek Mtns in the Worcester District;  G. reclinata from the Swartberg: and G. saxicola from the northern Cedarberg-Pakhuis Mountain complex (all subgenus Geissorhiza. We also report range extensions and provide morphological notes for several species, including  G. monanthos Eckl.. new collections o f w hich show that the inclusion of G. leuisiae R.C.Foster in that species was incorrect and we resurrect the species. The addition of 12 new species and recognition of G. erosa and G. lewisiae bring to 99 the number of species in the genus. New identification keys for Geissorhiza are provided that include all new species. We have also accumulated observations of floral ecology in the genus and integrate them with what is known about this aspect

  6. Novel P450nor Gene Detection Assay Used To Characterize the Prevalence and Diversity of Soil Fungal Denitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novinscak, Amy; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Chantigny, Martin H; Filion, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Denitrifying fungi produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, as they generally lack the ability to convert N2O to dinitrogen. Contrary to the case for bacterial denitrifiers, the prevalence and diversity of denitrifying fungi found in the environment are not well characterized. In this study, denitrifying fungi were isolated from various soil ecosystems, and novel PCR primers targeting the P450nor gene, encoding the enzyme responsible for the conversion of nitric oxide to N2O, were developed, validated, and used to study the diversity of cultivable fungal denitrifiers. This PCR assay was also used to detect P450nor genes directly from environmental soil samples. Fungal denitrification capabilities were further validated using an N2O gas detection assay and a PCR assay targeting the nirK gene. A collection of 492 facultative anaerobic fungi was isolated from 15 soil ecosystems and taxonomically identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer sequence. Twenty-seven fungal denitrifiers belonging to 10 genera had the P450nor and the nirK genes and produced N2O from nitrite. N2O production is reported in strains not commonly known as denitrifiers, such as Byssochlamys nivea, Volutella ciliata, Chloridium spp., and Trichocladium spp. The prevalence of fungal denitrifiers did not follow a soil ecosystem distribution; however, a higher diversity was observed in compost and agricultural soils. The phylogenetic trees constructed using partial P450nor and nirK gene sequences revealed that both genes clustered taxonomically closely related strains together. A PCR assay targeting the P450nor gene involved in fungal denitrification was developed and validated. The newly developed P450nor primers were used on fungal DNA extracted from a collection of fungi isolated from various soil environments and on DNA directly extracted from soil. The results indicated that approximatively 25% of all isolated fungi possessed this gene and were able to convert nitrite to

  7. STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS PLANKTON DAN KONDISI LINGKUNGAN PERAIRAN DI TELUK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani Sri Nastiti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fitoplankton dan zooplankton merupakan pakan alami bagi biota laut termasuk ikan. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui struktur komunitas fitoplankton dan zooplankton serta kondisi lingkungan perairan di Teluk Jakarta. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan April, Juni, Agustus dan Oktober 2009, pengamatan di 5 stasiun TJ1, TJ2, TJ3, TJ4 dan TJ5. Parameter yang di ukur adalah: kelimpahan fitoplankton dan zooplankton, suhu air, kecerahan, oksigen terlarut, pH, salinitas,. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fitoplankton yang ditemukan 5 kelas meliputi: Cyanophyceae (6 spesies, Chlorophyceae (4 spesies, Bacillariophyceae (37 spesies, Dinophyceae (14 spesies dan Euglenophyceae (1 species. Zooplankton yang ditemukan 10 kelas meliputi : Crustacea (16 spesies, Holothuroidea (3 spesies, Ciliata (5 spesies, Sagittoidea (2 spesies, Sarcodina (3 spesies, Rotatoria (4 spesies, Echinodermata (1 spesies, Polychaeta (1 spesies, Urochordata (1 spesies dan Hydrozoa (1 spesies. Kelimpahan fitoplankton berkisar antara 1.587.086 - 3.799.799 sel/l. Kelimpahan zooplankton berkisar antara 922.010 - 3.834.261ind/l. Indeks keanekaragaman (=H  fitoplankton berkisar antara 1,74 – 3,64;indeks dominansi (=D berkisar antara 0,04-0,40 dan indeks keseragaman (=E berkisar antara 0,08-0,34. Indeks  biologi zooplankton menunjukkan nilai (=H berkisar antara 0,22-3,70; nilai  (=D berkisar antara 0,18-0,79; dan nilai (=E berkisar antara 0,01-0,37.  Suhu air berkisar  antara 29,5-31,6oC, pH berkisar antara 4,96-7,38 dan salinitas berkisar antara 12,0-31,5 o/oo. Teluk Jakarta diindikasikan mengalami tekanan lingkungan sehingga hanya beberapa spesies plankton mampu beradaptasi, yaitu dari kelas Bacillariophyceae (Chaetoceros sp dan Crustaceae (Calanus sp dan Acartia sp.  Phytoplankton and zooplankton is a natural food for other marine life including fish. Growth and development are supported by condition of aquatic environment. The research objective was to determine the community

  8. Unicapsula species (Myxosporea: Trilosporidae) of Australian marine fishes, including the description of Unicapsula andersenae n. sp. in five teleost families off Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T L; Adlard, R D

    2013-08-01

    A survey of the myxosporean fauna of Australian marine fishes revealed the presence of three previously unreported species of Unicapsula (Multivalvulida: Trilosporidae) from sites off Southeast Queensland, off Lizard Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, and from Jurien Bay in Western Australia. Morphometric data (spore, polar capsule and caudal appendage dimensions) combined with Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used for species identification and to explore relationships among these taxa. The four species of Unicapsula for which DNA data are now available for comparative purposes (Unicapsula andersenae n. sp., Unicapsula pflugfelderi, Unicapsula seriolae and Unicapsula pyramidata) formed a well-supported monophyletic sister clade to the other major multivalvulidan group, the Kudoidae. The combined morphometric and genetic diagnostic approach identified an undescribed taxon, U. andersenae n. sp., from the muscle of Argyrosomus japonicus, Acanthopagrus australis and Eleutheronema tetradactylum off the Southeast Queensland coast and in Lutjanus russellii and Sillago ciliata off Lizard Island. Intra-specific variation within U. andersenae n. sp. varied from 2-4 (0.2-0.4%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 2-20 (0.3-3.2%) over the LSU region. Inter-specific variation between U. andersenae n. sp. and the other three species for which genetic sequence data are now available ranged from 15-66 (3-6.5%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 103-120 (17.6-21.2%) nucleotides over the LSU region. The host distribution observed here for U. andersenae n. sp. (five fish species from five different fish families) represents the broadest specificity known for a single species of Unicapsula. U. pyramidata Naidjenova & Zaika 1970, whose spore morphology and presence of caudal appendages immediately distinguish it from other species, was recovered from the nemipterid, Scolopsis monogramma