WorldWideScience

Sample records for cedars

  1. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  2. CEDAR 88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriwether, John W., Jr.; Killeen, Timothy

    The third workshop session of the National Science Foundation's Coupling Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) initiative took place at the National Bureau of Standards and National Center for Atmospheric Research institutions in Boulder, Colo., June 6-10, and was attended by 155 participants, including about 40 graduate students.The CEDAR initiative represents the fruit of many years of efforts by the aeronomy community and NSF to modernize the techniques used to understand the many processes of the upper atmosphere both theoretically and experimentally. Since the beginning of this initiative (under the old name of Ground-Based Optical Aeronomy) with a summer meeting in Logan, Utah, in 1983, there has been a workshop meeting every summer. The 1988 CEDAR meeting, in particular, reflected the growing maturity of the CEDAR initiative. The meeting was well attended, and, in general, we found fewer participants drawn to the meeting just by curiosity and more who came because they expected the workshop activities would be time well spent.

  3. The first CEDAR counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The first differential Cerenkov counter with chromatic corrections (called CEDAR) successfully tested at the PS in July 75. These counters were used in the SPS hadronic beams for particle identification. Some of the eight photomultipliers can be seen: they receive the light reflected back through the annular diaphragm. René Maleyran stands on the left.

  4. Selected Water-Quality Data from the Cedar River and Cedar Rapids Well Fields, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1999-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River alluvial aquifer is the primary source of municipal water in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa area. Municipal wells are completed in the alluvial aquifer at approximately 40 to 80 feet deep. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have been conducting a cooperative study of the groundwater-flow system and water quality near the well fields since 1992. Previous cooperative studies between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have documented hydrologic and water-quality data, geochemistry, and groundwater models. Water-quality samples were collected for studies involving well field monitoring, trends, source-water protection, groundwater geochemistry, evaluation of surface and ground-water interaction, assessment of pesticides in groundwater and surface water, and to evaluate water quality near a wetland area in the Seminole well field. Typical water-quality analyses included major ions (boron, bromide, calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides including two degradates of the herbicide atrazine. In addition, two synoptic samplings included analyses of additional pesticide degradates in water samples. Physical field parameters (alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance and water temperature) were recorded with each water sample collected. This report presents the results of water quality data-collection activities from January 1999 through December 2005. Methods of data collection, quality-assurance samples, water-quality analyses, and statistical summaries are presented. Data include the results of water-quality analyses from quarterly and synoptic sampling from monitoring wells, municipal wells, and the Cedar River.

  5. Digital Preservation and the Cedars Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kelly

    1998-01-01

    Defines and discusses strategies for digital preservation. Describes the United Kingdom's CURL (Consortium of University Research Libraries) exemplars in digital archives project "Cedars" led by the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Leeds to address strategic, methodological, and practical issues, and to provide guidance in best…

  6. 33 CFR 110.83a - Cedar Point, Sandusky, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cedar Point, Sandusky, Ohio. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.83a Cedar Point, Sandusky, Ohio. The water area enclosed by the break wall beginning at latitude 41°28′13″ N., longitude 82°40′39″ W.;...

  7. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Japanese Cedar Pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Okubo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of pollinosis caused by cedar pollen has increased by 10% these ten years of 26.5% in the investigation of 2008 in Japan. The pharmacotherapy is a main treatment tool for pollinosis, and the surgical treatment is not acknowledged to the treatment of pollinosis internationally. Moreover, allergen immunotherapy enters a special treatment method, and is an important therapeutic procedure. The allergen immunotherapy is unique for having possibility of curing allergen specific allergic diseases. However the side effect of allergen subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT, such as anaphylaxis is kept at a distance in a medical situation in Japan. Then, a sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT that was safer than it, developed in Europe for pollinosis induced by grass or ragweed, but not in Japan. As a result, the effect of SLIT was proven in the cedar pollinosis in Japan as high level evidence. A whole body immunity induction is thought in the appearance of the effect, and, in addition, it is necessary to be going to be cleared the accurate mechanism of the effect in the future. Moreover, the development of a special SLIT and the import of an overseas product are needed in Japan.

  8. Final wilderness proposal : Cedar Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife announcing the completion of the wilderness study concerning the Cedar Island National...

  9. Parking Areas at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (prkareas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon dataset locates the parking areas within Cedar Breaks National Monument. The parking areas were digitized from the 2002 Color aerial photographs and the...

  10. Lower Suwannee & Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Cedar Keys NWR and Lower Suwannee NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  11. Inventory of Atlantic White Cedar Remnant Stands in North Carolina.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This inventory was commissioned by the U.S. Air Force to identify the location and condition of extant remnant Atlantic white cedar groves and stands in North...

  12. Utilities at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (utilpnt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents various types of utilities, including water- and power-related utilities, at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. The utilities were...

  13. Isotopes - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  14. Diet - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  15. Footprints of Buildings at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (footprints)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/INFO coverage consisting of 10 polygons representing the buildings' footprints at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. The footprints were collected...

  16. Transportation Signs at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (trspsign)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains the starting point for the collection of transportation signs at Cedar Breaks National Monument. There are over 400 signs (transportation and...

  17. Designated Overlook Areas at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (ovrareas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains three polygons that represent areas of designated overlooks at Cedar Breaks National Monument. Note: Point Supreme needs an FMSS number - it...

  18. Service Areas at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (srvcarea)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains service areas at Cedar Breaks National Monument. The service areas were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS unit and post processed for...

  19. Springs at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (allsprgs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 151 points representing spring locations in and surrounding Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. This data originates...

  20. Cedar Island National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Cedar Island NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  1. Letter to President [Cedar Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Cedar Island Wilderness area. The letter...

  2. Clinical aspects of Japanese cedar pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Okuda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis is a major national health problem in Japan. The present review provides an update on information on JCPsis based on clinical data from our research group, through the support of the Department of Health and Welfare (Japanese Government, during the period from 1988 to 1997, because this disease is infrequently documented internationally despite a large number of publications from Japan. The information on JCPsis presented here may be of use in the management of various kinds of pollinosis prevalent in other countries. The prevalence rates of JCPsis vary from district to district and also depend on the age of the subjects, the method of analysis and the year of examination in population. Yet, on an average, the incidence of JCPsis is presumed to be 10-20% in adults and 5-10% in children. The risk factors for sensitization and the onset of symptoms seem to be dependent on the amount of air-borne pollen, the age of school children, hereditary disposition, including human leukocyte antigen type and the high levels of specific IgE in childhood. Because pollen counts also vary depending on many factors, such as the type of pollen samplers used, yearly variations, the number of pollen count stations, the atmospheric temperature and solar radiation in the previous year of the season, accurate predictions of daily and seasonal pollen counts are rather difficult. Commercial crude extracts and purified allergenic substances Cry j I and II correlate well with the skin test and the radioallergosorbent test. Japanese cedar pollen has an allergenic component that is cross-reactive with Japanese cypress. In many patients, the onset of symptoms occurs on the day when the air-borne pollen count is 10/cm2 (the Durham method and, if severe symptoms occur due to intense exposure to pollen, the symptoms will last for a long time despite variations in the pollen count (priming effect. Eye glasses, face masks and keeping windows and

  3. Inventory of Atlantic White-Cedar Remnant Stands in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report addresses Atlantic white cedar swamp restoration in North Carolina refuges. The ecology, use, and historical distribution of Atlantic white-cedar (AWC)...

  4. 75 FR 68780 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Doc No: 2010-28232] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RC11-1-000] Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing November 2, 2010. Take notice that on October 27, 2010, Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC (Cedar Creek) filed an appeal with the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  5. The White Cedar of the Dismal Swamp 1923

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report that discusses the various uses, yields and properties of the White Cedar in the Great Dismal Swamp area in the early 1920s. It also discusses the...

  6. An integrated approach to salt cedar control and rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt cedar (Tamarix spp.), a small tree native to Central Asia has invaded more than 4.7 million acres in the western United States. Planted in the early 1800s as an ornamental and later for windbreaks and soil stabilization, it escaped cultivation, infesting riparian and adjacent communities. Thre...

  7. 78 FR 58470 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television....

  8. Characterization of Micronutrient Deficiency in Australian Red Cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Moretti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Red Cedar presents a great exploitation potential in Brazil, but works about the nutrient requirements and deficiency characterization in that species are still scarce. The objectives of this work were evaluating the effects of the omission of micronutrients and characterizing the nutrient deficiency symptoms in Australian Red Cedar saplings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse for a 90-day period. Australian Red Cedar cuttings were cultivated in pots with a nutrient solution under the missing element technique. The omission of the micronutrients B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn affect negatively the height, diameter, and dry matter yield of the Australian Red Cedar plants. The micronutrient which affected the relative growth of the plants the most was B. Australian Red Cedar plants deficient in micronutrients present several visual symptoms characteristic of the metabolism disorders. The perception of the deficiencies through the visual diagnosis can be useful in the nutrient management of the culture of the Australian Red Cedar.

  9. TREATMENTS TO MINIMIZE EXTRACTIVES STAIN IN WESTERN RED CEDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Stirling,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Under certain conditions involving uneven exposure to weather, stains related to the extractives can reduce the aesthetic appeal of western red cedar in exterior applications such as fence boards, siding, and sidewall shingles. Selected chemical treatments were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the formation of extractives stain. DDACarbonate, alkyl amine oxide, and combinations thereof delayed extractives stain formation in an accelerated field test, with higher loadings having greater effect.

  10. The ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) fauna of the cedar glades and xeric limestone prairies of the Central Basin of Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ants may be the most thoroughly documented group of insects inhabiting the cedar glades of the Central Basin of Tennessee with two studies conducted in the late 1930s reporting ants found in cedar glades of the region. To compare the ant fauna of modern cedar glades with the lists produced in earlie...

  11. Hanford Reach - Control of Salt Cedar Plants in an Isolated Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Target Invasive Species: salt cedar (Tamarix sp.; a Class “B” noxious weed in WA, “B” designated weed in OR) minimum of 32 acres within ~760 acres. Salt cedar...

  12. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of the Terpene "[beta]"-Thujone from Cedar Leaf Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Larry G.

    2011-01-01

    Western red cedar leaf affords an essential oil characterized by high thujone content. Students in an advanced organic chemistry lab course isolate a single thujone diastereoisomer from commercially available cedar leaf oil. Treatment of crude oil, containing roughly 70% thujone, predominately as [alpha]-thujone (6.5:1), with ethanolic sodium…

  13. Provenances and fertilizer on early growth cedar seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the initial development of different provenances and the influence of base fertilizer and coverage on growth of Cedrela fissilis seedlings. Provenances of seeds were collected in Lapa, PR, Fernandes Pinheiro, PR and Itaara, RS. After germination, the seedlings were transplanted to plastic bags of 500 cm³, filled with commercial substrate. Total height (h, stem diameter (sd, and ratio h/sd seedlings were measured after 150 days of transplanting. Seedlings of Fernandes Pinheiro received basic fertilization after transplantation (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g dm-3  Osmocote® and cover (3 and 6 g L-1, respectively, of Peter’s® and urea. The provenance and doses of controlled-release fertilizer influenced early development of Cedrela fissilis seedlings. Itaara provenance showed better seedlings growth. Cedar seedlings showed good growth when incorporated into the substrate 5 g dm-3 Osmocote® and, in addition, applied in topdressing 3 g L-1 of Peter’s®. Urea topdressing is rarely recommended for cedar seedlings.

  14. Increasing Drought Sensitivity and Decline of Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica in the Moroccan Middle Atlas Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Julio Camarero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the interactions between climate change and forest structure on tree growth are needed for decision making in forest conservation and management. In this paper, we investigated the relative contribution of tree features and stand structure on Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica radial growth in forests that have experienced heavy grazing and logging in the past. Dendrochronological methods were applied to quantify patterns in basal-area increment and drought sensitivity of Atlas cedar in the Middle Atlas, northern Morocco. We estimated the tree-to-tree competition intensity and quantified the structure in Atlas cedar stands with contrasting tree density, age, and decline symptoms. The relative contribution of tree age and size and stand structure to Atlas cedar growth decline was estimated by variance partitioning using partial-redundancy analyses. Recurrent drought events and temperature increases have been identified from local climate records since the 1970s. We detected consistent growth declines and increased drought sensitivity in Atlas cedar across all sites since the early 1980s. Specifically, we determined that previous growth rates and tree age were the strongest tree features, while Quercus rotundifolia basal area was the strongest stand structure measure related to Atlas cedar decline. As a result, we suggest that Atlas cedar forests that have experienced severe drought in combination with grazing and logging may be in the process of shifting dominance toward more drought-tolerant species such as Q. rotundifolia.

  15. Tamarisk (Salt Cedar) Infestations in Northwestern Nevada Mapped Using Landsat TM Imagery and GIS Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, D.; Geraci, C.; Kolkowitz, S.

    2004-12-01

    Tamarisk, also known as salt cedar (Tamarix sp.) is a prevalent invasive species that has infested many riparian areas in the southwestern United States. Mature salt cedar plants are resistant to high stress environments and fare well in drought conditions, mainly due to their extensive root systems that derive much of their sustenance from the water table rather than surface water and precipitation. The salt cedar root systems have altered hydrological patterns by tapping into underlying aquifers. This has decreased water available for recreational use, regional ecology and plant diversity. Many states have implemented salt cedar monitoring programs at the local level, but the problem of large-scale mapping of this invasive species has continued to be a challenge to land management agencies. Furthermore, inaccessible and unexplored areas continue to be absent in the mapping process. In August 2004, using field data consisting of large areas as training sets for classification of Landsat TM imagery, the DEVELOP student research team at NASA Ames Research Center generated a preliminary map of areas that that were susceptible to salt cedar growth for a region in northwestern Nevada. In addition to the remote sensing-based classification of satellite imagery, the team used the variables of elevation and estimated distance to the water table in conjunction with collected field data and knowledge of salt cedar growth habits to further refine the map. The team has further extended the mapping of key environmental factors of water availability for salt cedar, soil types and species distribution in regions infested by salt cedar. The investigation was carried out by 1) improving an existing GIS layer for water access using a suitable interpolation method, 2) including a GIS layer for soils associated with salt cedar growth and 3) completing field work to evaluate species distribution and regions of presence or absence of salt cedar. The outcome of this project served to

  16. Recovery of palladium using chemically modified cedar wood powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Durga; Hirota, Koichi

    2009-10-15

    Japanese cedar wood powder (CWP) was chemically modified to a tertiary-amine-type adsorbent and studied for the selective recovery of Pd(II) from various industrial waters. Batch adsorption tests performed from 0.1 M to 5 M HCl and HNO3 systems reveal stable performance with better results in HNO3 medium. The maximum loading capacity for Pd(II) was studied in HCl as well as in HNO3. A continuous-flow experiment taking a real industrial solution revealed the feasibility of using modified CWP for the selective uptake and preconcentration of traces of palladium contained in acidic effluents. In addition, stable adsorption performance even on long exposure to gamma-irradiation and selective recovery of palladium from simulated high-level liquid waste (HLW) are important outcomes of the study.

  17. Carbonization of Bamboo and Japanese Cedar under Soft Hydrothermal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogi, Kana; Yamamoto, Toshifumi; Inamaru, Hiroshi; Mori, Yuki; Li, Zhixia; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2010-11-01

    Carbons formed from biomass have many potential applications including as absorbents for environmental contaminants, catalysts, and constituents of various medicines. Bamboo and Japanese cedar leaves were used as the starting materials for carbonization at temperatures up to 200° C using dry steam below the saturated vapor pressure which has the ability to dehydrate hydrocarbons. These carbonization processes were studied using a continuous pipe line autoclave under non-equilibrium conditions. The effect of various reaction conditions on carbonization were examined by thermal analysis, extraction components, and surface observation. The bamboo carbonization product exhibited the ability to highly adsorb chlorinated organic compounds such as chloroform in aqueous solution compared with a commercial activated carbon.

  18. Fishing Plan : Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge : Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Fishing Plan for Ottawa and Cedar Point NWRs. The Plan provides an introduction and history of the refuges, information about program relation to refuge...

  19. Overhead Utility Lines at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (cebr_powerln)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains 49 arcs and 50 nodes representing power lines at Cedar Breaks National Monument. The power lines supply electricity and telephone services to...

  20. Proposing New Wilderness Areas: Okefenokee, Pelican Islands, Island Bay, Cedar Keys, Passage Key, and Wichita Mountains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — President Transmittal on the proposal of wilderness additions that include Okefenokee, Pelican Islands, Island Bay, Cedar Keys, Passage Key, and Wichita Mountains.

  1. Application of the Sea-Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM 6) to Cedar Keys NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) report presents a model for projecting the effects of sea-level rise on coastal marshes and related habitats on Cedar...

  2. Application of the Sea-Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM 6) to Cedar Island NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Sea-Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) report presents a model for projecting the effects of sea-level rise on coastal marshes and related habitats on Cedar...

  3. Endangered Species Consultation Request : Opening to Sports & Commercial Fishing Ottawa and Cedar Point NWR’s

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Endangered Species Consultation Request states that the Ottawa and Cedar Point NWRs Fishery Management Plan will not affect bald eagles on the Refuge.

  4. Cedar Breaks National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plot, Observation Points and Accuracy Assessment Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file contains 282 point locations of field plot and observation data used by, and collected for, the vegetation mapping project for Cedar Breaks National...

  5. Experimental streams - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  6. Environmental Action Memorandum : [Ottawa and Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuges Fishery Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Action memorandum for the Ottawa and Cedar Point NWRs Fishery Management Plan states that the Plan is found not to have significant environmental...

  7. Growth, movement and survival - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  8. Fish abundance, composition, distribution - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  9. Picnic Tables within the Designated Picnic Area at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (pcnctbl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains the individual picnic areas (as points where the picnic tables are generally located) within the only designated picnic area at Cedar Breaks...

  10. Atlantic White Cedar Swamp Restoration : Monitoring Ecosystem Services and Self-Maintenance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes an Atlantic white cedar swamp restoration project. This project will study the restoration of the once prevalent ecosystem. Three ecosystem...

  11. Cedar Studio: an IDE supporting adaptive model-driven user interfaces for enterprise applications

    OpenAIRE

    Akiki, Pierre; Bandara, Arosha; Yu, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Support tools are necessary for the adoption of model-driven engineering of adaptive user interfaces (UI). Enterprise applications in particular, require a tool that could be used by developers as well as I.T. personnel during all the development and post-development phases. An IDE that supports adaptive model-driven enterprise UIs could further promote the adoption of this approach. This paper describes Cedar Studio, our IDE for building adaptive model-driven UIs based on the CEDAR reference...

  12. Present situation of cedar pollinosis in Japan and its immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Yamamoto, Heizaburo; Yonekura, Syuji; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki

    2009-06-01

    Recent observations have suggested significant worldwide increase in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and cedar pollinosis. In Japan, Japanese cedar (Cryptometria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollens are considered to be the major unique allergens and their extent of dispersal is quite large, travelling more than 100km and thus causing serious pollinosis. Cedar pollinosis is a typical type 1 allergic disease by an adaptive immune response that occurs through the induction of allergen-specific effector T cells from naïve T cells. We examined the number of Japanese cedar pollen specific memory Th cells in the peripheral blood of the patients and found that the cedar pollen specific IL-4-producing Th2 memory cells increased during the pollen season and decreased during the off-season. However, more than 60% of the cedar-specific memory Th2 cells survived up to 8 months after the pollen season. Natural killer T(NKT) cells represent a unique lymphocyte subpopulation and their activity is not restricted to MHC antigens. NKT cells play an important role in innate immunity, however, the participation in development of allergic rhinitis could not be clarified.

  13. Present Situation of Cedar Pollinosis in Japan and its Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Okamoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations have suggested significant worldwide increase in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and cedar pollinosis. In Japan, Japanese cedar (Cryptometria japonica and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa pollens are considered to be the major unique allergens and their extent of dispersal is quite large, travelling more than 100 km and thus causing serious pollinosis. Cedar pollinosis is a typical type 1 allergic disease by an adaptive immune response that occurs through the induction of allergen-specific effector T cells from naive T cells. We examined the number of Japanese cedar pollen specific memory Th cells in the peripheral blood of the patients and found that the cedar pollen specific IL-4-producing Th2 memory cells increased during the pollen season and decreased during the off-season. However, more than 60% of the cedar-specific memory Th2 cells survived up to 8 months after the pollen season. Natural killer T(NKT cells represent a unique lymphocyte subpopulation and their activity is not restricted to MHC antigens. NKT cells play an important role in innate immunity, however, the participation in development of allergic rhinitis could not be clarified.

  14. Herpetofauna of the cedar glades and associated habitats of the Inner Central Basin of middle Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiller, M.L.; Graham, Reynolds R.; Glorioso, B.M.; Spiess, J.; Miller, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    The cedar glades and barrens of the Inner Central Basin (ICB) of middle Tennessee support a unique and diverse flora and fauna and represent some of the state's most valued natural areas. We conducted herpetofaunal inventories of the cedar glades, associated barrens, cedar-hardwood forest, and adjacent aquatic habitats of the Stones River drainage of Middle Tennessee, focusing our sampling effort primarily at seven state- or federally owned properties in Rutherford and Wilson counties. These properties included Stones River National Battlefield (SRNB), Flat Rock State Natural Area (FRSNA), Vesta Cedar Glade State Natural Area (VSNA), Fall Creek Recreation Area (FCRA) on J. Percy Priest Wildlife Management Area, Cedars of Lebanon State Forest (CLSF), Cedars of Lebanon State Forest Natural Area (CLSNA), and Cedars of Lebanon State Park (CLSP). We used a variety of inventory techniques in terrestrial, aquatic, and subterranean habitats to survey these properties periodically from 1989 to 2010. We documented 49 species (22 amphibian and 27 reptile) accounting for 75.4% of the 65 herpetofaunal species thought to occur in the ICB, including records for Cemophora coccinea, Aneides aeneus, Gyrinophilus palleucus, Ambystoma barbouri, and Pseudotriton montanus. We found differences in alpha and beta diversity between sites, with the CLSF complex containing a high of 41 herpetofaunal species and FRSNA containing a low of 23 species. Beta diversity comparisons indicated similarity in amphibian species composition between FRSNA and CLSF and between SRNB and CLSF (9 shared species), and in reptile species composition between VSNA and the CLSF complex (16 shared species). We compare the results of our inventory with two previous studies conducted in the area and discuss the relative abundance, conservation, and threats to the herpetofaunal community of these habitats.

  15. Radiocaesium partitioning in Japanese cedar forests following the “early” phase of Fukushima fallout redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Frederic; Hurtevent, Pierre; Loffredo, Nicolas; Simonucci, Caroline; Julien, Anthony; Gonze, Marc-Andre; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Thiry, Yves

    2016-11-01

    Our study focused on radiocaesium (137Cs) partitioning in forests, three vegetation periods after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. 137Cs distribution in forest components (organic and mineral soil layers as well as tree compartments: stem, bark, needles, branches and roots) was measured for two Japanese cedar stand ages (17 and 33 years old). The results showed that around 85% of the initial deposit was found in the forest floor and topsoil. For the youngest stand almost 70% of the deposit is present in the forest floor, whereas for the oldest stand 50% is present in the 0–3 cm mineral soil layer. For trees, old and perennial organs (including dead and living needles and branches, litter fall and outer bark) directly exposed to the fallout remained the most contaminated. The crown concentrated 61–69% of the total tree contamination. Surprisingly the dead organs concentrated 25 ± 9% (young cedars) to 36 ± 20% (mature cedar) of the trees’ residual activity, highlighting the importance of that specific compartment in the early post-accident phase for Japanese cedar forests. Although the stem (including bark) represents the highest biomass pool, it only concentrates 3.3% and 4.6% of the initial 137Cs deposit for mature and young cedars, respectively.

  16. 76 FR 78641 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of...'s (Commission) June 16, 2011 Order.\\1\\ \\1\\ Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC and Milford Wind...

  17. Cedar virus: a novel Henipavirus isolated from Australian bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn A Marsh

    Full Text Available The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV, which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin-B2 for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-β response than HeV.

  18. Cedar Pollen Aggravates Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood Monozygotic Twin Patients with Allergic Rhino Conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yukako Murakami; Saki Matsui; Akiko Kijima; Shun Kitaba; Hiroyuki Murota; Ichiro Katayama

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of 7-year-old monozygotic twin patients with atopic dermatitis. The HLA haplotypes were HLA A2, A11, B27, B61, DR1, and DR4. Both serum IgE levels and cedar pollen radioallergosorbent test (RAST) scores were high in the twins (elder/younger sister: IgE: 5170/3980 IU/ml and Japansese cedar pollen: >100/64.0) in contrast to low mite and food RAST scores (Dermatophagoides Pterygonium; 0.59/0.4 and egg white 9.24/4.6). The patients showed positive immediate (20 min in both sister...

  19. An increase in pectin methyl esterase activity accompanies dormancy breakage and germination of yellow cedar seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, C; Kermode, A R

    2000-09-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) (EC 3.1.1.11) catalyzes the hydrolysis of methylester groups of cell wall pectins. We investigated the role of this enzyme in dormancy termination and germination of yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis [D. Don] Spach) seeds. PME activity was not detected in dormant seeds of yellow cedar but was induced and gradually increased during moist chilling; high activity coincided with dormancy breakage and germination. PME activity was positively correlated to the degree of dormancy breakage of yellow cedar seeds. The enzyme produced in different seed parts and in seeds at different times during moist chilling, germination, and early post-germinative growth consisted of two isoforms, both basic with isoelectric points of 8.7 and 8.9 and the same molecular mass of 62 kD. The pH optimum for the enzyme was between 7.4 and 8.4. In intact yellow cedar seeds, activities of the two basic isoforms of PME that were induced in embryos and in megagametophytes following dormancy breakage were significantly suppressed by abscisic acid. Gibberellic acid had a stimulatory effect on the activities of these isoforms in embryos and megagametophytes of intact seeds at the germinative stage. We hypothesize that PME plays a role in weakening of the megagametophyte, allowing radicle emergence and the completion of germination.

  20. Cedar Pollen Aggravates Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood Monozygotic Twin Patients with Allergic Rhino Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Murakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 7-year-old monozygotic twin patients with atopic dermatitis. The HLA haplotypes were HLA A2, A11, B27, B61, DR1, and DR4. Both serum IgE levels and cedar pollen radioallergosorbent test (RAST scores were high in the twins (elder/younger sister: IgE: 5170/3980 IU/ml and Japansese cedar pollen: >100/64.0 in contrast to low mite and food RAST scores (Dermatophagoides Pterygonium; 0.59/0.4 and egg white 9.24/4.6. The patients showed positive immediate (20 min in both sisters and delayed (24 hours in elder sister, 24, 48, 72 hours in younger sister reactions to a scratch test with Japanese cedar pollen. Skin lesions on the face were aggravated and extended to the trunk and extremities during the Japanese cedar pollen season and gradually subsided in summer. Oral provocation with egg white or cow milk showed no exacerbations, and topical corticosteroid did not improve the eczema. In contrast, successful protection from severe scratching behaviors was achieved by use of topical anti-allergic eye drops and wearing nightgowns made by the mother.

  1. 75 FR 13668 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cedar Rapids, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ..., Cedar Rapids, IA (74 FR 67141) Docket No. FAA-2009-0916. Interested parties were invited to participate... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  2. Bioprospection of Eastern Red Cedar from Nine Physiographic Regions in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniperus virginiana (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called as Eastern Red Cedar, is a widely distributed species in the United States and parts of Canada. It produces two important chemical products, the anticancer compound podophyllotoxin and essential oil. The objective of this study was to evalu...

  3. New canker disease of Incense-cedar in Oregon caused by Phaeobotryon cupressi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incense-cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) is a native tree occurring in Oregon and California. Since the early 2000’s, a new canker disease has been observed with increasing frequency on ornamental and windbreak trees planted in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Symptoms appear as dead, flagging, small-di...

  4. Phytochemical Analysis of an Extract prepared from Eastern Red Cedar Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is one of the few conifer species native to the Midwest plains, and is one of the few tree species whose range and plant numbers have actually increased in the past century. Because of its encroachment onto open lands, it is now considered an invasive spe...

  5. Carbon, cesium and iodine isotopes in Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.; Cresswell, Alan J.;

    2016-01-01

    Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ14C values reflect ambient atmospheric 14C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year...

  6. Valencene oxidase CYP706M1 from Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cankar, K.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Goedbloed, M.A.; Renirie, R.; Jong, de R.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Bosch, H.J.; Sonke, Th.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    (+)-Nootkatone is a natural sesquiterpene ketone used in grapefruit and citrus flavour compositions. It occurs in small amounts in grapefruit and is a major component of Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis) heartwood essential oil. Upon co-expression of candidate cytochrome P450 enzymes from Ala

  7. Comparison of freshwater mussel communities from 1988 to 2015 in the Cedar Creek Watershed, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Out of the 300 genera of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) represented in North America, most species have shown declines in abundance and distribution largely due to human-mediated factors. This study compares current community composition, abundance and richness of mussels in Cedar Creek, Indiana wit...

  8. 78 FR 35787 - Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie... restrict vessel traffic during the swim portion of the Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, OH.... Basis and Purpose Each year, the Revolution 3 Triathlon occurs at Cedar Point near Sandusky, OH....

  9. Features of the rheological properties of dough with sunflower and cedar flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaysina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Promising directions of development of assortment of flour confectionery products are currently creating new combinations, more extraordinary and interesting, the reduction in calories, increase the nutritional value, development of formulations of functional products. As enriching additives in the manufacture of pastry products can be used flour sunflower flour and cedar. Sunflower meal – one of the possible sources of increase of food value. The only raw material component of this product are sunflower seeds that have passed the purification from impurities and shell of the particles, with the subsequent removal of oil from them and grinding. In this torment, to the maximum extent maintained all the valuable biological active substances and vitamins. Sunflower flour is a complex product: it is good recommendation system of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, including fiber, vitamins, phospholipids and mineral substances. Cedar flour is characterized by high protein content (up to 48 % is well balanced in amino acids resultant composition contains b vitamins, food fibers, micro - and macroelements, necessary for life of the human body. Cedar flour has a good functional and technological properties In this paper we study the effect of cedar flour and sunflower meal on the rheological characteristics of dough. Effect of formulation components on the rheological properties of the test is evaluated in terms of water absorption of the flour, the duration of doughing, degree of its dilution and stability when mixing. It was found that the addition of 17% sunflower meal increases the viscosity of the dough and has a strengthening effect on the structure of the dough. Adding cedar flour in the amount of 20% caused the decrease in viscosity and getting more flexible dough.

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the adhesion time of Penicillium spores to cedar wood surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soumya, Elabed [Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Microbienne, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Fès-Saïs (Morocco); Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Centre Universitaire Régional d' Interface-Fès (Morocco); Saad, Ibnsouda Koraichi, E-mail: ibnsouda@hotmail.com [Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Microbienne, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Fès-Saïs (Morocco); Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Centre Universitaire Régional d' Interface-Fès (Morocco); Abdellah, Houari [Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Microbienne, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Fès-Saïs (Morocco); Hassan, Latrache [Laboratoire de Valorisation et de Sécurité des Produits Agroalimentaires, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Beni Mellal (Morocco)

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the adhesion of 4 Penicillium strains (Penicillium granulatum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium commune and Penicillium chrysogenum) on cedar wood was examined qualitatively and quantitatively by using the extended DLVO (XDLVO) approach and the environmental scanning electronic microscopy (ESEM) technique. A comparison between the XDLVO theories and the ESEM technique was also investigated. The adhesion tests revealed that P. chrysogenum was not able to adhere on the cedar wood substrata, as predicted by the XDLVO approach. We have also found by ESEM that the three Penicillium strains (P. granulatum, P. crustosum, P. commune) adhered on wood, as not predicted theoretically. Moreover, the time of adhesion (3 h and 24 h) was used not only to compare the capacity of adhesion according to contact time but also to explain the discrepancies between the XDLVO approach prediction and the adhesion experiments. A positive relationship between the XDLVO approach and adhesion experiments has been observed after 3 h of adhesion. In contrast, a contradiction between the XDLVO predictions and the adhesion test results has been noted after 24 h of adhesion of Penicillium strains to the wood surface. Highlights: ► Calculation of free energy of adhesion to cedar wood of Penicillium by XDLVO approach ► Adhesion is not favorable for all Penicillium spores–cedar wood combinations. ► Adhesion tests demonstrated the ability of Penicillium spores to adhere to cedar wood. ► XDLVO approach correlated well with the results obtained after 3 h of adhesion. ► Discrepancy between XDLVO predictions and experimental observations at 24 h of adhesion.

  11. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, and West Sister Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report...

  12. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, West Sister Island NWR, Navarre Marsh, and Darby Marsh outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980...

  13. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, and West Sister Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report...

  14. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 2011 Water Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Book has been developed monitor water levels at all units in the Refuge Complex. Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby...

  15. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 2008 Water Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Book has been developed monitor water levels at all units in the Refuge Complex. Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby...

  16. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa, Cedar Point, and West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year....

  17. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, and West Sister Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report...

  18. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 1973 Annual Narrative Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge, West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge, Navarre Unit,...

  19. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, and West Sister Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report...

  20. Application of the Sea-Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM 6) to Cedar Keys NWR : Revised report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Sea-Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) report presents a model for projecting the effects of sea-level rise on coastal marshes and related habitats on Cedar...

  1. Effect of polystimulin growth regulators and scion clones on graft success and subsequent growth in Atlantic cedar (Cedrus atlantica Manetti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdar, Erol; Ertekin, Murat

    2007-04-01

    Atlantic cedar (Cedrus atlantica Manetti) was grown, grafting onto the rootstocks of 2 years old Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani L.). The mixture of polystimulin (PS) growth regulators was used to determine the effects on graft success and subsequent growth during three growing seasons. Scion clones had no effect on grafts success. PS increased the graft success by 20% in comparison to controls. PS-treated grafts burst their buds 18-20 days earlier than control grafts and increased shoot elongation. The PS-treated grafts had 4-5 cm longer shoots than controls at the end of three growing seasons. Thus, this research indicates the significance of PS-application on graft success and subsequent shoot growth on Atlantic cedar. It suggested that use of PS-treated grafts was more profitable than controls. Polystimulins which were used in small doses contributed significantly to the metabolism of Atlantic cedar seedlings after grafting.

  2. Road and Street Centerlines, Cedar Roads, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'Cedar Roads'. The extent of these data...

  3. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, West Sister Island NWR, Navarre Marsh, and Darby Marsh outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979...

  4. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 1992 Annual Water Management Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. Ottawa NWR, Cedar...

  5. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 1988 Annual Water Management Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. Ottawa NWR, Cedar...

  6. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 1987 Annual Water Management Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. Ottawa NWR, Cedar...

  7. Road and Street Centerlines, Cedar Area roads, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'Cedar Area roads'. The extent of these...

  8. Department of the Interior : Draft Environmental Statement : DES 74-19 : Proposed Mattamuskeet - Swanquarter - Cedar Island - Pea Island Wilderness Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a draft of an analysis of the environmental impact wilderness designation would pose for the Mattamuskeet - Swanquarter - Cedar Island - Pea Island...

  9. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, and West Sister Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report...

  10. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, and West Sister Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report...

  11. Produce of seedlings of cedar in function of types of container and fertilization sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique de Castro Pias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of cedar seedlings according to the size of containers and nutrient sources. It was tested three types of containers (Root trainers, plastic bag and plastic vase, three sources of fertilization (Conventional, Kimcoat® and Osmocote® in seven evaluations. The cedar seedlings in root trainers, fertilized with source Osmocote® presented the greatest increments in height and stem diameter when compared to another sources of fertilization. The plastic bag and plastic vase containers promoted similar seedlings height growth. However the seedlings grown in plastic vase presented greatest growth in stem diameter when compared with the ones in plastic bag.

  12. Relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomichi Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP is an important illness caused by the inhalation of airborne allergenic cedar pollens, which are dispersed in the early spring throughout the Japanese islands. However, associations between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of allergic symptoms are largely unknown, due to a lack of understanding regarding personal pollen exposures in relation to indoor and outdoor concentrations. This study aims to examine the relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts. We conducted a 4-year monitoring campaign to quantify indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne cedar pollen counts, where the personal passive settling sampler that has been previously validated against a volumetric sampler was used to count airborne pollen grains. A total of 256 sets of indoor, outdoor, and personal samples (768 samples were collected from 9 subjects. Medians of the seasonally-integrated indoor-to-outdoor, personal-to-outdoor, and personal-to-indoor ratios of airborne pollen counts measured for 9 subjects were 0.08, 0.10, and 1.19, respectively. A greater correlation was observed between the personal and indoor counts (r = 0.89 than between the personal and outdoor counts (r = 0.71, suggesting a potential inaccuracy in the use of outdoor counts as a basis for estimating personal exposures. The personal pollen counts differed substantially among the human subjects (49% geometric coefficient of variation, in part due to the variability in the indoor counts that have been found as major determinants of the personal pollen counts. The findings of this study highlight the need for pollen monitoring in proximity to human subjects to better understand the relationships between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of pollen allergy.

  13. Changes in the soil bacterial communities in a cedar plantation invaded by moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Te; Tang, Sen-Lin; Pai, Chuang-Wen; Whitman, William B; Coleman, David C; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2014-02-01

    Moso bamboo is fast-growing and negatively allelopathic to neighboring plants. However, there is little information on the effects of its establishment and expansion to adjacent forest soil communities. To better understand the impacts of bamboo invasion on soil communities, the phylogenetic structure and diversity of the soil bacterial communities in moso bamboo forest, adjacent Japanese cedar plantation, and bamboo-invaded transition zone were examined using a combination of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and bar-coded pyrosequencing techniques. Based on the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Shannon diversity index, Chao1 estimator, and rarefaction analysis of both techniques, the bamboo soil bacterial community was the most diverse, followed by the transition zone, with the cedar plantation possessing the lowest diversity. The results from both techniques revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria predominated in the three communities, though the relative abundance was different. The 250 most abundant OTUs represented about 70% of the total sequences found by pyrosequencing. Most of these OTUs were found in all three soil communities, demonstrating the overall similarity among the bacterial communities. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis showed further that the bamboo and transition soil communities were more similar with each other than the cedar soils. These results suggest that bamboo invasion to the adjacent cedar plantation gradually increased the bacterial diversity and changed the soil community. In addition, while the 10 most abundant OTUs were distributed worldwide, related sequences were not abundant in soils from outside the forest studied here. This result may be an indication of the uniqueness of this region.

  14. Osteology of the Basal Hadrosauroid Eolambia caroljonesa (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Andrew T.; John Bird; Kirkland, James I.; Peter Dodson

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eolambia caroljonesa is known from copious remains from the lower Cenomanian Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation in eastern Utah; however, the taxon has been only briefly described. Thus, we present herein a complete osteological description of Eolambia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The description of Eolambia presented here is based upon the holotype partial skeleton (CEUM 9758), paratype partial skull (CEUM 5212), and abundant disarticulated elements from two ...

  15. Cedar Grove: An Interdisciplinary Investigation of a Late Caddo Farmstead in the Red River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-31

    site would still include some nuts and acorns, especially Carya illinoensis (pecan) and C. ovata (shagbark hickory). Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana...samples, it is never abundant. Carya illinoensis (pecan), identified by its 203 / King Table 14-1. Plant remains from the Cedar Grove and Sentell sites...were both Nuts are represented by the carbonized shell debris of weighed and counted unless the fragments were tiny. six taxa. The most common is Carya

  16. Estimation of lead sources in a Japanese cedar ecosystem using stable isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Yuko [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Matsunosato 1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan)]. E-mail: yuko106@ffpri.affrc.go.jp; Noguchi, Kyotaro [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Matsunosato 1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Takahashi, Masamichi [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Matsunosato 1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Okamoto, Toru [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Matsunosato 1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Yoshinaga, Shuichiro [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Matsunosato 1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Anthropogenic Pb affects the environment worldwide. To understand its effect on forest ecosystem, Pb isotope ratios were determined in precipitation, various components of vegetation, the forest floor, soil and parent material in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) forest stand. The average {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio in bulk precipitation was 1.14 {+-} 0.01 (mean {+-} SD), whereas that in the subsoil (20-130 cm) was 1.18 {+-} 0.01. Intermediate ratios ranging from 1.15 to 1.16 were observed in the vegetation, the forest floor, and the surface soil (0-10 cm). Using the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios, the contribution of anthropogenic sources to Pb accumulated in the forest were estimated by the simple binary mixing model. Sixty-two percent of the Pb in the forest floor, 71% in the vegetation, and 55% in the surface soil (0-10 cm) originated from anthropogenic sources, but only 16% in the sub-surface soil (10-20 cm) was anthropogenic. These results suggest that internal Pb cycling occurs mainly between surface soil and vegetation in a Japanese cedar ecosystem, and that anthropogenic Pb strongly influences Pb cycling. Although the Japanese cedar ecosystem has a shallow forest floor, very little atmospherically derived Pb migrated downward over 10 cm in depth.

  17. Growth and mineral nutrition in seedlings of australian cedar (Toona ciliata subjected to nutrient deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Moretti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate nutritional requirements and the effect of nutrient deprivation on the development of seedlings of Australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis, a greenhouse experiment was conducted. The substrate used was a dystroferric red latosol with low nutrient availability, using 15 treatments and applying the missing element technique. The experiment included two complete treatments (one provided N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Zn with limestone while another provided N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu and Zn without limestone, besides deprivation of each nutrient (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S, -B, -Cu and -Zn, one treatment with combined deprivation of B, Cu and Zn, one treatment applying limestone only, one treatment applying N, P, K, S, B, Cu and Zn, without limestone, and one absolute control treatment (natural soil. The following characteristics were evaluated: height, diameter, shoot dry matter and root dry matter, and nutrient content in the shoot dry matter after 150 days. Australian cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, and nutrients P, N, S, Ca, K, Mg and Cu, in that order, were found to be limiting factors to plant development. B and Zn deprivation did not affect plant development. Limestone application was essential for the development of Australian cedar plants. Initial deficiency symptoms were found to be the result of S, limestone and N deprivation.

  18. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of Japanese cedar pollens and total suspended particulates: A case study at a kindergarten in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Naomichi [Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Tokai University, Bohseidai, Isehara-shi, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Ichiban-cho 8, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Nishikawa, Junko; Sakamoto, Miho; Shimizu, Tomomi; Matsuki, Hideaki [Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Tokai University, Bohseidai, Isehara-shi, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) caused by allergenic cedar and cypress pollens is one of major economic and health issues in Japan. The present study reported here aimed to provide basic data to understand the status of early life exposures to airborne cedar and cypress pollens in school settings. In particular, the study investigated relationships between indoor and outdoor concentrations of airborne cedar and cypress pollens and total suspended particulates (TSP) in a kindergarten in Japan. Overall, outdoor concentrations of the airborne pollens and TSP were higher than the indoor concentrations, i.e., indoor to outdoor (I/O) ratios of 0.043-0.055 and 0.545 for the airborne pollens and TSP, respectively. The smaller I/O ratios for the pollens were expected because the larger pollen grains (20-30 {mu}m in diameter) were less likely penetrated to indoor environment than for smaller airborne particulates. The present study also found increased TSP concentrations during the pollen season was likely attributed to increased airborne pollen concentrations. By understanding the status of indoor and outdoor concentrations of airborne cedar and cypress pollens in school settings, early life exposures to these allergenic pollens should be effectively minimized to prevent subsequent progression to JCP symptoms. (author)

  19. Biodeterioration of products made from australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Amarante Almeida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the natural resistance of composite and solid wood panels from Toona ciliata to fungal attack through accelerated laboratory testing, to characterize the anatomical components of the wood according to IAWA, to quantify the soluble and insoluble lignin contents by acid hydrolysis and to determine the colorimetric parameters before and after fungal attack by using the CIE-L*a*b*(1976 system. Solid wood was classified as moderately and highly resistant to white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor and to brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum. OSB panels were found to be resistant and moderately resistant to white-rot fungus and highly resistant to brown-rot fungus. Variation in species and particle type did not have a positive effect on the treatments. As regards the wood, both fungi were inhibited by the presence of phenolic resin. Particleboard panels were classified as moderately resistant to white-rot fungus. Treatments T2 (cedar and T4 (cedar-eucalyptus were resistant while treatment T3 (cedar-pine was not resistant to attack by brown-rot fungus. The urea-formaldehyde resin failed to inhibit attack in the same way the phenolic resin did. Anatomically, the species was found to have medium texture, straight vessel lines, pleasant smell after incision and poor luster on the radial surface. Its anatomical structure favored colonization by the threadlike filaments of the fungi. All treatments caused wood darkening after attack by the G. trabeum fungus, with total variation in color. It was observed that with weight loss an increase followed in insoluble lignin contents, in all treatments, indicating that this chemical property is a determining factor in wood resistance to the attack of the fungi being evaluated.

  20. Threat to Cedar, Cedrela odorata, Plantations in Vietnam by the Weevil, Aclees sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Thu, Pham Quang; Quang, Dao Ngoc; Dell, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The recent decline and death of young cedar, Cedrela odorata L. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), plantations in Vietnam is caused by Aclees sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a wood-boring brown weevil. A field study was undertaken in three-year-old plantations in two districts in Thanh Hoa province in August 2008. Trees were heavily impacted by the weevil, Aclees; the infestation level (P) ranged from 80 to 100% and the average damage index (R) ranged from 1.8 to 2.8. Observations over one year enable...

  1. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased sig...

  2. Flood-inundation maps for Grand River, Red Cedar River, and Sycamore Creek near Lansing, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Matthew; Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2015-08-26

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a total of 19.7 miles of the Grand River, the Red Cedar River, and Sycamore Creek were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Lansing, Michigan, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, show estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at three USGS streamgages: Grand River at Lansing, MI (04113000), Red Cedar River at East Lansing, MI (04112500), and Sycamore Creek at Holt Road near Holt, MI (04112850). Near-real-time stages at these streamgages can be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at all of these sites.

  3. Recombinant pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases from western red cedar (Thuja plicata) catalyze opposite enantiospecific conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, M; Gang, D R; Davin, L B; Lewis, N G

    1999-01-01

    Although the heartwood of woody plants represents the main source of fiber and solid wood products, essentially nothing is known about how the biological processes leading to its formation are initiated and regulated. Accordingly, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-guided cloning strategy was employed to obtain genes encoding pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases from western red cedar (Thuja plicata) as a means to initiate the study of its heartwood formation. (+)-Pinoresinol-(+)-lariciresinol reductase from Forsythia intermedia was used as a template for primer construction for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplifications, which, when followed by homologous hybridization cloning, resulted in the isolation of two distinct classes of putative pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase cDNA clones from western red cedar. A representative of each class was expressed as a fusion protein with beta-galactosidase and assayed for enzymatic activity. Using both deuterated and radiolabeled (+/-)-pinoresinols as substrates, it was established that each class of cDNA encoded a pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase of different (opposite) enantiospecificity. Significantly, the protein from one class converted (+)-pinoresinol into (-)-secoisolariciresinol, whereas the other utilized the opposite (-)-enantiomer to give the corresponding (+)-form. This differential substrate specificity raises important questions about the role of each of these individual reductases in heartwood formation, such as whether they are expressed in different cells/tissues or at different stages during heartwood development.

  4. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Kojima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased significantly with increasing pyrolysis temperature, while it increased following analytical pyrolysis. The same results were obtained for 4-vinylguaiacol and E-isoeugenol, which were the major secondary products produced in the present study. Compared to the yields of these major products obtained via analytical pyrolysis, the yields from the auger reactor were very low, indicating that the auger reactor process had a longer vapor residence time than the analytical pyrolysis process, resulting in the acceleration of secondary reactions of the pyrolysates. The pH values and densities of the bio-oils produced in the auger reactor were similar to those reported by researchers using woody biomass, despite their lower viscosities. From these results, it was concluded that the pyrolysis temperature and residence time of the pyrolysates played a significant role in determining the characteristics of the cedar bio-oil.

  5. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the adhesion time of Penicillium spores to cedar wood surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, Elabed; Ibnsouda, Saad Koraichi; Abdellah, Houari; Hassan, Latrache

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the adhesion of 4 Penicillium strains (Penicillium granulatum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium commune and Penicillium chrysogenum) on cedar wood was examined qualitatively and quantitatively by using the extended DLVO (XDLVO) approach and the environmental scanning electronic microscopy (ESEM) technique. A comparison between the XDLVO theories and the ESEM technique was also investigated. The adhesion tests revealed that P. chrysogenum was not able to adhere on the cedar wood substrata, as predicted by the XDLVO approach. We have also found by ESEM that the three Penicillium strains (P. granulatum, P. crustosum, P. commune) adhered on wood, as not predicted theoretically. Moreover, the time of adhesion (3 h and 24 h) was used not only to compare the capacity of adhesion according to contact time but also to explain the discrepancies between the XDLVO approach prediction and the adhesion experiments. A positive relationship between the XDLVO approach and adhesion experiments has been observed after 3h of adhesion. In contrast, a contradiction between the XDLVO predictions and the adhesion test results has been noted after 24h of adhesion of Penicillium strains to the wood surface.

  6. Estimation of Carbon Balance in Young and Mature Stands of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria Japonica) Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Sode, N.; Koizumi, H.

    2006-12-01

    Two-thirds of Japan is covered by forests, and Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations occupy approximately 45% of the plantation areas or 20% of total forested area in Japan. Since the 1950s, cedar plantation has been encouraged and managed for timber production. Therefore, it is important to study quantitatively and synthetically the balance of carbon in cedar plantation ecosystems according to forest development. The ecological process-based approach provides a detailed assessment of belowground compartment as one of the major compartment of carbon balance. Carbon net balance (NEP: net ecosystem production) in ecosystems by this approach is determined by the balance between net primary production (NPP) of vegetation and heterotrophic respiration (HR) of soil (NEP= NPP-HR). HR is the difference between total soil respiration (SR) and root respiration (RR) (HR= SR-RR). To estimate the NPP, we used to biometric method by allometric relationships and litter traps. To estimate the SR, we used a chamber system with automatic open and closing for measuring continuous CO2 efflux from soil surface based on an open-flow method (AOCC) and a portable system for measuring leaf photosynthesis attached to a soil chamber (LI-6400). Our object is to examine balance of carbon in ca. 7 y old (young) and 45 y old (mature) stands of Japanese cedar. Our goal of this study is to investigate carbon cycling on a regional scale using ecological process, remote sensing, and climate observation and modeling analysis as part of the 21st COE program {Satellite Ecology}. This presents the initial results obtained by a process-based measurement since 2004. The study region refers to a cool temperate zone, Asia monsoon climate (36° 08'N, 137° 22'E). In the mature stand, Japanese cedar plantation located in about 10km east of Takayama city, central Japan. The ecological-process research plot was established on the middle of a slope (30m×50m) in November 2004. The slope

  7. Western red cedar dust exposure and lung function: a dose-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noertjojo, H K; Dimich-Ward, H; Peelen, S; Dittrick, M; Kennedy, S M; Chan-Yeung, M

    1996-10-01

    The relationship between levels of cumulative red cedar dust exposure and decline in lung function was explored in an 11-yr follow-up study of 243 sawmill workers who participated in at least two occasions. We also studied 140 office workers in a similar manner as control subjects. Workers with asthma were excluded from the analysis. During the period of the study, 916 personal and 216 area samples of dust were collected from the sawmill. Cumulative wood dust exposure was calculated for each sawmill worker according to the duration and exposure in each job, based on the geometric mean of all dust measurements for that job. Average daily dust exposure was calculated by dividing the total cumulative exposure by the number of days of work. Workers were divided into low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups with mean daily level of exposure of 0.4 mg/m3, respectively. Sawmill workers had significantly greater declines in FEV1 and FVC compared with office workers adjusted for age, smoking, and initial lung function. A dose-response relationship was observed between the level of exposure and the annual decline in FVC. We conclude that exposure to Western red cedar dust is associated with a greater decline in lung function which may lead to development of chronic airflow limitation.

  8. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of the Condensed Tannins from Alaska Cedar Inner Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Rosales-Castro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and antioxidant activity of condensed tannins isolated from Alaska Cedar inner bark have been investigated. Oligomers of flavan-3-ol were purified by column chromatography (Sephadex LH-20 and analyzed by 13CNMR and MALDI-TOF MS spectrometries. Their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS free radicals scavenging, ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system (β-CLAMS assays. Results showed that the condensed tannins consents of both homogeneous and heterogeneous oligomers of procyanidins (catechin/epicatechin and prodelphinidins (gallocatechin/ epigallocatechin flavan-3-ol units; and oligomers from trimmers to heptamers with dominant interflavan linkages B-type as it is most common in proanthocyanidins. Condensed tannins showed significant ntioxidant activity as the median inhibition capacity IC 50 is comparable to the catechin control response. Alaska Cedar inner bark oligomers show high antioxidant capacity, evaluated by both methods based on electron transfer mechanisms and hydrogen atom transfer reactions. This bark may be considered as a new source of natural antioxidants for nutraceutical ingredients.

  9. 75 FR 53321 - Prospective Grant of a Co-Exclusive License: Natural Plant Extracts From Incense Cedar as Pest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... scapularis; the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti; and the flea vector, Xenopsylla cheopsis. ADDRESSES: Requests... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Prospective Grant of a Co-Exclusive License: Natural Plant Extracts From Incense Cedar as Pest Control Agents and Methods for Their Use AGENCY:...

  10. Invasion of moso bamboo into a Japanese cedar plantation affects the chemical composition and humification of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Bamboo, which has dense culms and root rhizome systems, can alter soil properties when it invades adjacent forests. Therefore, this study investigated whether bamboo invasions can cause changes in soil organic matter (SOM) composition and soil humification. We combined solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis to examine the SOM in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and adjacent bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantation. Bamboo reduced soil organic C (SOC) content, compared to the cedar plantation. The value of ∆logK (ratio of absorbance of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) was cedar > transition zone > bamboo soils. Our results indicated that bamboo increased SOM humification, which could be due to the fast decomposition of bamboo litter with the high labile C. Furthermore, intensive management in the bamboo plantation could enhance the humification as well. Overall, litter type can control an ecosystem’s SOC nature, as reflected by the finding that higher labile C in bamboo litter contributed the higher ratios of labile C to SOC and lower ratios of recalcitrant C to SOC in bamboo soils compared with cedar soils. The invasion of bamboo into the Japanese cedar plantation accelerated the degradation of SOM.

  11. 77 FR 3840 - Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd.-Lease Exemption-Line of Cedar Rapids and Iowa City Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Surface Transportation Board Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd.--Lease Exemption--Line of Cedar Rapids and Iowa City Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of Exemption. SUMMARY.... 10902 for Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd. (IAIS), a Class II rail carrier, to lease and operate 8.4...

  12. CBM in 3-D: coalbed methane multicomponent 3-D reservoir characterisation study, Cedar Hill Field, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, T.; Shuck, E.; Benson, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Geophysics

    1995-10-01

    The article explains how 3-D multicomponent seismic surveys could substantially improve the production and development of fractured coalbed methane reservoirs. The technique has been used by Northern Geophysical for the detection of geological faults and zones of enhanced fracture permeability proximal to the fault in the western side of the Cedar Hill field in San Juan Basin, NM, USA. 3 figs.

  13. Oral Administration of Heat-Killed Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 Reduces Cedar Pollen Antigen-Induced Peritoneal Eosinophilia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Sashihara

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: We demonstrated that the oral administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 suppresses eosinophilia via the modulation of Th1/Th2 balance. These observations suggested that heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 might potentially ameliorate the increased number of eosinophils in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  14. Precipitation reconstruction using ring-width chronology of Himalayan cedar from western Himalaya: Preliminary results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram R Yadav; Won-Kyu Park

    2000-09-01

    Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (D. Don) G. Don) due to its long age and wide ecological amplitude in the Himalayan region has strong dendroclimatic potential. A well replicated ring-width chronology of it, derived from the ensemble of tree-ring samples of two adjacent homogeneous sites, has been used to reconstruct precipitation for the non-monsoon months (previous year October to concurrent May) back to AD 1171. This provides the first record of hydrological conditions for the western Himalayan region, India during the whole of the `Little Ice Age' and latter part of the `Medieval Warm Period'. The reconstruction revealed the wettest and the driest non-monsoon months during the fourteenth and the thirteenth centuries, respectively. The seventeenth century consistently recorded dry non-monsoon months in the western Himalayan region. Surplus precipitation, especially more pronounced since the 1950s, is recorded in the current century.

  15. Evaluate Habitat Use and Population Dynamics of Lampreys in Cedar Creek, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Jennifer; Pirtle, Jody; Barndt, Scott A.

    2002-03-31

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River Basin have declined to a remnant of their pre-1940s populations and the status of the western brook lamprey (L. richardsoni) is unknown. Identifying the biological and ecological factors limiting lamprey populations is critical to their recovery, but little research has been conducted on these species within the Columbia River Basin. This ongoing, multi-year study examines lamprey populations in Cedar Creek, Washington, a third-order tributary to the Lewis River. This annual report describes the activities and results of the second year of this project. Adult (n = 24), metamorphosed (n = 247), transforming (n = 4), and ammocoete (n = 387) stages from both species were examined in 2001. Lamprey were captured using adult fish ladders, lamprey pots, rotary screw traps, and lamprey electrofishers. Twenty-nine spawning ground surveys were conducted. Nine strategic point-specific habitat surveys were performed to assess habitat requirements of juvenile lamprey.

  16. Osteology of the basal hadrosauroid Eolambia caroljonesa (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T McDonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eolambia caroljonesa is known from copious remains from the lower Cenomanian Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation in eastern Utah; however, the taxon has been only briefly described. Thus, we present herein a complete osteological description of Eolambia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The description of Eolambia presented here is based upon the holotype partial skeleton (CEUM 9758, paratype partial skull (CEUM 5212, and abundant disarticulated elements from two bonebeds that contain juvenile individuals. These remains allow the skeletal anatomy of Eolambia to be documented almost fully and a revised diagnosis to be proposed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The description provided here facilitates comparisons between Eolambia and other iguanodontians and allows Eolambia to be coded for additional characters in phylogenetic analyses. The close affinity between Eolambia and Probactrosaurus gobiensis from the Early Cretaceous of China supports previous hypotheses of faunal interchange between Asia and North America in the early Late Cretaceous.

  17. Dinosaur tracks from the Cedar Mountain Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Arches National Park, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, M.G.; White, D.; Kirkland, J.; Santucci, V.

    2004-01-01

    The seventh and largest known dinosaur tracksite from the Cedar Mountain Formation is reported from two important stratigraphic levels in the Ruby Ranch Member within the boundaries of Arches National Park. Previous reports of sites with a few isolated tracks are of limited utility in indicating the fauna represented by track makers. The Arches site reveals evidence of several theropod morphotypes, including a possible match for the coelurosaur Nedcolbertia and an apparently didactyl Utahraptor-like dromeosaurid. Sauropod tracks indicate a wide-gauge morphotype (cf. Brontopodus). Ornithischian tracks suggest the presence of an iguandontid-like ornithopod and a large ankylosaur. Dinosaur track diversity is high in comparison with other early Cretaceous vertebrate ichnofaunas, and it correlates well with faunal lists derived from skeletal remains, thus providing a convincing census of the known fauna. ?? Taylor and Francis Inc.

  18. Quantitative remote sensing of ammonium minerals, Cedar Mountains, Esmeralda County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, William M.; Kruse, Fred A.

    1995-01-01

    Mineral-bound ammonium (NH4+) was discovered by the U.S. Geological Survey in the southern Cedar Mountains of Esmeralda County, Nevada in 1989. At 10 km in length, this site is 100 times larger than any previously known occurrence in volcanic rocks. The ammonium occurs in two hydrothermally altered, crystal-rich rhyolitic tuff units of Oligocene age, and is both structurally and stratigraphically controlled. This research uses Advanced Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data to quantitatively map the mineral-bound ammonium (buddingtonite) concentration in the altered volcanic rocks. Naturally occurring mineral-bound ammonium is fairly rare; however, it has been found to occur in gold-bearing hydrothermal deposits. Because of this association, it is thought that ammonium may be a useful too in exploration for gold and other metal deposits. Mineral-bound ammonium is produced when an ammonium ion (NH4+) replaces the alkali cation site (usually K+) in the crystal structure of silicate minerals such as feldspars, micas and clays. Buddingtonite is an ammonium feldspar. The ammonium originates in buried organic plant matter and is transported to the host rock by hydrothermal fluids. Ammonium alteration does not produce visible changes in the rock, and it is barely detectable with standard x-ray diffraction methods. It is clearly identified, however, by absorption features in short wave-infrared (SWIR) wavelengths (2.0 - 2.5 micrometers). The ammonium absorption features are believed to be caused by N-H vibrational modes and are analogous to hydroxyl (O-H) vibrational modes, only shifted slightly in wavelength. Buddingtonite absorption features in the near- and SWIR lie at 1.56, 2.02 and 2.12 micrometers. The feature at 2.12 micrometer is the strongest of the three and is the only one used in this study. The southern Cedar Mountains are sparsely vegetated and are an ideal site for a remote sensing study.

  19. The basis for fibrinogen Cedar Rapids ({gamma}R275C) fibrin network structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, J.P. [Baxter Healthcare Corp., Round Lake, IL (United States); Mosesson, M.W.; Siebenlist, K.R. [Univ. Wisconsin Medical School-Milwaukee Clinic Campus, WI (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Fibrinogen `Cedar Rapids` is a heterozygous dysfibrinogenemia characterized by delayed and abnormal fibrin polymerization. The specific molecular defect ({gamma}R275C) is relatively common, but in only one case, fibrinogen Tokyo II, has the ultrastructural basis for defective clot formation been determined. This report reflects similar structural studies on Cedar Rapids fibrinogen and fibrin. Crosslinked fibrinogen molecules and fibrils, were prepared at 1 mg/ml in the presence of factor XIIIa (100 u/ml). When {gamma} chains had become {approximately}10 to 20% crosslinked to {gamma} dimers, samples were diluted with Hepes buffered saline, pH 7, to a fibrinogen concentrated of 5 to 10 {mu}g/ml. Three {mu}l was then injected into 3 {mu}l buffer on a carbon-coated EM grid, the specimen allowed to attach for one minute, fluid-exchanged several times with 150 mM NH{sub 4} acetate solution, frozen in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried, and imaged at the Brookhaven STEM facility using a 40 kv probe focused at 0.25 nm. Fibrin for scanning EM (SEM) was formed directly on carbon-formvar coated gold grids. Clots that had formed overnight were fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M Hepes, pH 7 buffer containing 0.2% tannic acid, washed with buffer, dehydrated, CO{sub 2} critical point dried, coated with 7.5 nm platinum, and imaged in a JOEL Field Emission SEM operated at 5 kV.

  20. [Narrative report for Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge, West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge, Navarre Tract: Calendar year 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa, Cedar Point, and West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year....

  1. A Study of Factors involved in possible regeneration of Atlantic White Cedar in a recently burned area in the Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Historically white cedar has managed to regenerate without benefit of controlled burns and it seems that .most wild fires occur during the dry season. It was...

  2. [Narrative report for Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge, West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge, Navarre Tract: Calendar year 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa, Cedar Point, and West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year....

  3. [Narrative report for Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge, West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge, Navarre Tract: Calendar year 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa, Cedar Point, and West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year....

  4. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy characterization of the adhesion of conidia from Penicillium expansum to cedar wood substrata at different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abed, Soumya; Ibnsouda, Saad Koraichi; Latrache, Hassan; Meftah, Hasna; Tahri, Nezha Joutey; Hamadi, Fatima

    2012-04-01

    Initial microbial adhesion to surfaces is a complicated process that is affected by a number of factors. An important property of a solution that may influence adhesion is pH. The surface properties of the cedar wood were characterized by the sessile drop technique. Moreover, the interfacial free energy of surface adhesion to the cedar wood was determined under pH values (2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11). The results showed that cedar wood examined at different pH levels could be considered hydrophobic ranged from Giwi = -13.1 mJ/m(2) to Giwi = -75 mJ/m(2). We noted that the electron-donor character of cedar wood was important at both basic and limit acidic conditions (pH 11 and pH 3) and it decreased at intermediate pH (pH 5). The cedar wood substratum presents a weak electron acceptor under various pH's. In addition, the adhesion of conidia from Penicilllium expansum to the cedar wood surfaces at different pH values (2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11) was investigated using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy and image analysis was assessed with the Mathlab(®) program. The data analysis showed that the conidia from P. expansum were strongly influenced by the pH. The maximum adhesion occurs in the pH 11 and pH 3 and decreased to 24% at pH 5.

  5. Variation of radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen in the Okutama area since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, H; Inoue, K; Sakano, Y; Hamada, M; Shimizu, H; Fukushi, M

    2015-11-01

    Due to releases of radionuclides in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) has been incorporated into large varieties of plant species and soil types. There is a possibility that radiocesium taken into plants is being diffused by pollen. Radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen have been measured in Ome City, located in the Okutama area of metropolitan Tokyo, for the past 3 y. In this research, the variation of radiocesium concentrations was analysed by comparing data from 2011 to 2014. Air dose rates at 1 m above the ground surface in Ome City from 2011 to 2014 showed no significant difference. Concentration of (137)Cs contained in the cedar pollen in 2012 was about half that in 2011. Between 2012 and 2014, the concentration decreased by approximately one-fifth, which was similar to the result of a press release distributed by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.

  6. Geomorphic Framework to assess changes to aquatic habitat due to flow regulation and channel and floodplain alteration, Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Little, Rand

    2010-01-01

    Flow regulation, bank armoring, and floodplain alteration since the early 20th century have contributed to significant changes in the hydrologic regime and geomorphic processes of the Cedar River in Washington State. The Cedar River originates in the Cascade Range, provides drinking water to the Seattle metropolitan area, and supports several populations of anadromous salmonids. Flow regulation currently has limited influence on the magnitude, duration, and timing of high-flow events, which affect the incubation of salmonids as well as the production and maintenance of their habitat. Unlike structural changes to the channel and floodplain, flow regulation may be modified in the short-term to improve the viability of salmon populations. An understanding of the effects of flow regulation on those populations must be discerned over a range of scales from individual floods that affect the size of individual year classes to decadal high flow regime that influences the amount and quality of channel and off-channel habitat available for spawning and rearing. We present estimates of reach-scale sediment budgets and changes to channel morphology derived from historical orthoimagery, specific gage analyses at four long-term streamflow-gaging stations to quantify trends in aggradation, and hydrologic statistics of the magnitude and duration of peak streamflows. These data suggest a gradient of channel types from unconfined, sediment-rich segments to confined, sediment-poor segments that are likely to have distinct responses to high flows. Particle-size distribution data and longitudinal water surface and streambed profiles for the 56 km downstream of Chester Morse Lake measured in 2010 show the spatial extent of preferred salmonid habitat along the Cedar River. These historical and current data constitute a geomorphic framework to help assess different river management scenarios for salmonid habitat and population viability. PDF version of a presentation on changes to aquatic

  7. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in pollen of Atlas cedar: first steps towards a new palaeoecological proxy for Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Benjamin; Fletcher, William; Ryan, Peter; Grant, Helen; Ilmen, Rachid

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of stable carbon isotopes can provide information on climate and the environmental conditions at different growth stages of the plant, both past and present. Carbon isotope discrimination in plant tissue is already well understood, and can be used as a drought stress indicator for semi-arid regions. Stable carbon isotope ratios measured directly on pollen provides the potential for the development of long-term environmental proxies (spanning thousands of years), as pollen is well preserved in the environment. Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica Endl. Manetti ex Carrière), is an ideal test case to develop a pollen stable carbon isotope proxy. The tree grows across a wide altitudinal and climatic range and is extremely sensitive to moisture availability. The pollen is abundant, and easily identifiable to the species level in pollen analysis because different cedar species are geographically confined to different regions of the world. In 2015 we sampled 76 individual cedar trees across latitudinal, altitudinal and environmental gradients, highly focused on the Middle Atlas region of Morocco, with 25 additional samples from botanical gardens across Europe and the US to extend these gradients. Here, we report new stable carbon isotope data from pollen, leaf and stem wood from these samples with a view to assessing and quantifying species-specific fractionation effects associated with pollen production. The isotopic response of individual trees at local and wider geographical scales to altitude and climatic conditions is presented. This research forms part of an ongoing PhD project working to develop and calibrate a modern carbon isotope proxy in Atlas cedar pollen, which can ultimately be applied to fossil sequences and complement existing multi-proxy records (e.g. pollen analysis in lake sediments, tree-rings).

  8. Yellow-cedar in vitro clonal production and evaluation of propagules for reforestation. FRDA research memo No. 211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Technical note describing a project that was part of an ongoing effort to develop micropropagation techniques on an operation scale and to investigate their possible use in producing genetically improved stock for planting. The project developed a commercially viable process that uses organogenic micropropagation to produce yellow-cedar stock for operational reforestation; evaluated the techniques for developing genetically improved clones; and established demonstration plots of mircopropagules.

  9. Height-diameter model for black locust, Anatolian black pine and Taurus cedar tree species in Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    ÇATAL, Yılmaz

    2012-01-01

    The height of a tree is important for assessing tree volume and site index. Diameter of breast height-tree height releation equations are often used to predict the mean tree height for trees in case only diameter at breast height is measured. This study aim describes between the tree heights with diameter of breast height relationships for artificially grown black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) and Taurus cedar (C...

  10. Archeological Survey and Testing at Pomme de Terre and Stockton Lakes, Cedar, Dade, Hickory, and Polk Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    were rare in prior to Anglo-American settlement because red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is extremely susceptible to fire dam- age . Other frequently...common fish remains from Rodgers Shelter are catfish (Ictaluridae) and suckers ( Catostomidae ) (Parmalee et al. 1976:157). Gravels of the stream bottoms and...terrace, but this occupation was not investigated ade- quately for interpretation (Kay 1982c:736). Radiocarbon ages pertaining to this period are 3530 1

  11. Spectrum of allergens for Japanese cedar pollinosis and impact of component-resolved diagnosis on allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Takashi; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    The high prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan is associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of patients, as well as significant loss of productivity among the workforce in early spring, thus representing a serious social problem. Furthermore, the prevalence is increasing, and has risen by more than 10% in this decade. Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were identified as the major allergens in Japanese cedar pollen (JCP), and in 2004, the existence of other major and minor allergens were revealed by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis. Allergenome analysis identified a chitinase, a lipid transfer protein, a serine protease, and an aspartic protease as novel IgE-reactive allergens in patients with JCP allergy. Thaumatin-like protein (Cry j 3) was shown to be homologous to Jun a 3, a major allergen from mountain cedar pollen. Isoflavone reductase-like protein was also characterized in a study of a JCP cDNA library. The characterization of component allergens is required to clarify the sensitizer or cross-reactive elicitor allergens for component-resolved diagnosis (CRD). Increasing evidence from numerous clinical trials indicates that CRD can be used to design effective allergen-specific immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the eight characterized JCP allergens and discuss the impact of CRD and characterization of novel allergens on allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  12. Influences of floral composition and environment on plant biomarkers across a Cretaceous landscape (Big Cedar Ridge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, R. T.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Wing, S. L.; McInerney, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Late Cretaceous fossil site at Big Cedar Ridge (BCR; late Campanian, 72.7 Ma), located in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, contains a flora preserved in situ in a volcanic ash tuff over an organic-rich paleosol. The BCR flora is irregularly but extensively exposed along a ~4 km north-south transect and records a lowland flora that grew on a coastal delta on the western shore of the Cretaceous Interior Seaway (Meeteetse Formation). The transect spans a diverse landscape and a range of environmental gradients from very carbon-rich, swampy soils in the southern portion to less carbon-rich in the north; the landscape is also intersected by multiple inactive channel cuts that were filling with sediment and organic matter at the time of ash deposition. Recently Wing and others (2012, Ecological Monographs) described the composition of the local plant community at high resolution across the entire landscape, including identification and quantification of cover and richness for >122 taxonomic morphotypes, for each of 100 sites along the transect. Big Cedar Ridge captures an important time in the ecological development of plant communities: the site preserves ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms in 'fern thicket' floral assemblages, which are rare today, as well as disturbed habitats with abundant herbaceous 'dicot' angiosperms. During the Late Cretaceous angiosperms were globally increasing in abundance, displacing other plant groups as vegetational dominants. This setting allows for a novel analysis of plant biomarkers in the context of floral diversity, abundance, and landscape heterogeneity. We quantified leaf waxes (n-alkyl lipids), plant-derived terpenoids, bacterial hopanes, carbon isotope values (including bulk and compound-specific), and percent total organic carbon of the underlying paleosol for 36 sites along the transect in order to assess the influence of floral composition and soil environment on biomarker distributions and preservation. We compare lipid

  13. Uptake and translocation of radiocesium in cedar leaves following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Mirai, E-mail: watanabe.mirai@nies.go.jp [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Koshikawa, Masami K.; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Ishii, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Takenaka, Akio [Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Keiji [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115 (Japan); Hayashi, Seiji [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica trees in the area surrounding Fukushima, Japan, intercepted {sup 137}Cs present in atmospheric deposits soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. To study the uptake and translocation of {sup 137}Cs in C. japonica leaves, we analyzed activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and the concentration ratios of {sup 137}Cs to {sup 133}Cs ({sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs) in old and new leaves of C. japonica collected from a forest on Mount Tsukuba between 9 and 15 months after the accident. Both isotopes were also analyzed in throughfall, bulk precipitation and soil extracts. Water of atmospheric and soil origin were used as proxies for deciphering the absorption from leaf surfaces and root systems, respectively. Results indicate that 20–40% of foliar {sup 137}Cs existed inside the leaf, while 60–80% adhered to the leaf surface. The {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios inside leaves that had sprouted before the accident were considerably higher than that of the soil extract and lower than that of throughfall and bulk precipitation. Additionally, more than 80% of {sup 137}Cs in throughfall and bulk precipitation was present in the dissolved form, which is available for foliar uptake, indicating that a portion of the {sup 137}Cs inside old leaves was presumably absorbed from the leaf surface. New leaves that sprouted after the accident had similar {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios to that of the old leaves, suggesting that internal {sup 137}Cs was translocated from old to new leaves. For 17 species of woody plants other than C. japonica, new leaves that sprouted after the accident also contained {sup 137}Cs, and their {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios were equal to or higher than that of the soil extract. These results suggested that foliar uptake and further translocation of {sup 137}Cs is an important vector of contamination in various tree species during or just after radioactive fallout. - Highlights: • {sup 137}Cs was absorbed into cedar leaves

  14. Threat to cedar, Cedrela odorata, plantations in Vietnam by the weevil, Aclees sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Pham Quang; Quang, Dao Ngoc; Dell, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The recent decline and death of young cedar, Cedrela odorata L. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), plantations in Vietnam is caused by Aclees sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a wood-boring brown weevil. A field study was undertaken in three-year-old plantations in two districts in Thanh Hoa province in August 2008. Trees were heavily impacted by the weevil, Aclees; the infestation level (P) ranged from 80 to 100% and the average damage index (R) ranged from 1.8 to 2.8. Observations over one year enabled the life history to be determined. Eggs were laid (February to March, September to November) inside the bark from the base of the trunk up to 60 cm in height. Larvae formed extensive feeding tunnels in the inner bark and sap wood. Pupation occurred in feeding tunnels or pupal chambers in the sapwood. Adults emerged twice a year, February to March and August to October. It is concluded that Aclees is a threat to C. odorata plantations in tropical regions of the world, and quarantine measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of spread.

  15. Resistance of pine, australian red cedar woods and their derivate products to Cryptotermes brevis attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Xisto Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the resistance of Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata and pine (Pinus sp. woods and particleboards made from these species to dry-wood termite Cryptotermes brevis attack, as much as to quantify the mortality of the insects. 30 termite pseudo-workers were put in each 9,5 cm-diameter Petri dishes containing the samples (1,5 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm and cotton sheets positioned on the perforated covers, daily moisturized with 5 ml of water. The dishes were maintained in BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand at 24±5 ºC and 24 h of escotophase. A control sample without any feed source was included in the bioassay. The deterioration index (ID and mortality of the insects were evaluated after 60 days. Termites from the control sample presented higher termite mortality than the other treatments, which did not differ among each other. Toona ciliata wood was more resistant than Pinus sp. wood to Cryptotermes brevis attack. The average deterioration indexes were 1.74% and 6.62% respectively for those woods. The average deterioration index of the panels made with 100% Toona ciliata (ID=1.58% was similar to the deterioration index of particleboards made with this specie mixed with Pinus sp. (ID=1.87%.

  16. Impact of famous CEDAR, GEM and ISTP geomagnetic Storms on HF Radio Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchensky, D.; Sergeeva, M.

    The mighty geomagnetic storms due to the extraordinary Sun s activity cause as a rule some impacts in these areas radiation effects on human and satellites commercial airlines outages electric power and other geomagnetic effects navigation and communication GPS effects ionospheric disturbances HF communication effects Therefore our scientific understanding of this activity is very important Joint efforts for example within the framework of the CAWSES enable progress in our ability to i identify critical inputs to specify the geospace environment at a level needed to minimize impacts on technology human society and life and ii support the development of robust models that predict conditions in geospace based on understanding of the Sun-Earth system and all of its interacting components In this study influence of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR GEM and ISTP storms within 1997-99 on radio propagation conditions have been investigated These conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on each path from three high-latitude HF radio paths of North-west Russia before during and after a storm It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character Nevertheless the common character of the certain manifestations during storm-time was revealed For example the frequency range MOF - LOF is getting wider several hours before a storm then it is sharply narrow during a storm-time and further it is expanded again several

  17. Soil microbial community profiles and functional diversity in limestone cedar glades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Dzantor, E. Kudjo; Momen, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Rock outcrop ecosystems, such as limestone cedar glades (LCGs), are known for their rare and endemic plant species adapted to high levels of abiotic stress. Soils in LCGs are thin (functional diversity were characterized in LCGs using community level physiological profiling (CLPP) and plate-dilution frequency assays (PDFA). Most-probable number (MPN) estimates and microbial substrate-utilization diversity (H) were positively related to soil thickness, soil organic matter (OM), soil water content, and vegetation density, and were diminished in alkaline soil relative to circumneutral soil. Soil nitrate showed no relationship to SMCs, suggesting lack of N-limitation. Canonical correlation analysis indicated strong correlations between microbial CLPP patterns and several physical and chemical properties of soil, primarily temperature at the ground surface and at 4-cm depth, and secondarily soil-water content, enabling differentiation by season. Thus, it was demonstrated that several well-described abiotic determinants of plant community structure in this ecosystem are also reflected in SMC profiles.

  18. Growth response of Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani) plantations to thinning intensity in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carus, Serdar; Catal, Yilmaz

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the growth response of 25 yr old Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) plantation to thinnings of different intensities in Isparta in western Turkey. The thinning intensity was measured by using the residual basal area (%) as parameter. In spring of 2005, three treatments were tested; light, moderate and heavy thinning with respectively 10, 25 and 35% of basal area removed. The statistical design of the experiment was a randomized incomplete block with two blocks and three treatments. Variables such as diameter at breast height (diameter) and height were measured. Growth rate ratios of diameter in moderately thinned and heavily thinned stands were 1.02 and 1.03, respectively. Basal area growth rates in moderately thinned and heavily thinned plots were 0.93 and 1.05, respectively. The largest values for the mean tree were observed with the heaviest thinning treatment. Absolute diameter increment was positively correlated with initial diameter in all plots. Relative diameter growth was negatively correlated with initial diameter. Growth rate interpretations were supported by analysis of variance using Duncan's test of range multiple. The results obtained show significant differences between treatments for tree height growth, for the two inventories carried out (2005, 2008). However diameter basal area and volume were no found between treatments for tree.

  19. Impregnation of preservative and fire retardants into Japanese cedar lumber by passive impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nazrul Islam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper azole type B (CAz-B preservative and polyphosphatic carbamate (PPC fire retardants were impregnated in succession into green (97% MC and kiln-dried (18% MC Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica (L.f. D.Don lumber by the passive impregnation method to prolong the period of lumber use by increasing its resistance to fire and biological degradation. Lumber was dried with a kiln or by air-drying. Total chemical retention, penetration, leaching, decay resistance (JIS K 1571, and fire retardancy (ISO 834-1 standard, 20 minutes tests were performed according to the mentioned standards. Preservative retention was higher in the green lumber (4.97 kg/m3 compared with the kiln-dried (4.88 kg/m3 lumber. However, fire retardant retention was similar for both lumber types (107 and 111 kg/m3. Leaching was higher in kiln-dried lumber (21.8% compared to air-dried lumber (14.4%, although there were no significant differences in the decay resistance test between these two lumber types. The fire performance of both lumber types was similar in the fire resistance test. Therefore, the passive impregnation method can be used effectively for impregnation of both preservatives and fire retardants into wood.

  20. Growth Response of Northern White-Cedar (Thuja occidentalis to Natural Disturbances and Partial Cuts in Mixedwood Stands of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Ruel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis is a species of high commercial and ecological value, the abundance of which has been declining since the middle of the 19th century. Very little information regarding its silviculture in mixedwood stands is currently available, even though a significant portion of wood resources comes from these stands. The present study is a retrospective analysis of white-cedar growth in partially harvested mixedwood stands of western Quebec, Canada. Eight stands distributed across two regions were analyzed. Dendrochronological approaches examined long-term diameter growth for sample white-cedar trees and stems of associated species. These approaches were used to reconstruct stand characteristics at the time of harvesting, together with local harvesting intensity. The study demonstrated white-cedar’s capacity to maintain good growth for long periods of time and at large tree sizes. Accession to the upper canopy positions occurs through repeated episodes of suppression/release, most of which seem to be associated with spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana outbreaks. White-cedar response to partial harvesting varies with tree size, residual basal area and species composition. Growth response was generally stronger for small trees, even though large trees still maintained the best diameter growth. Growth of white-cedar was negatively affected by an increase in softwood proportion in basal area. Growth responses to harvesting could be sustained for a period of 20 years.

  1. Clinical Decision Making and Outcome in Routine Care for People with Severe Mental Illness (CEDAR: Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemes Zoltan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A considerable amount of research has been conducted on clinical decision making (CDM in short-term physical conditions. However, there is a lack of knowledge on CDM and its outcome in long-term illnesses, especially in care for people with severe mental illness. Methods/Design The study entitled "Clinical decision making and outcome in routine care for people with severe mental illness" (CEDAR is carried out in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland and UK. First, CEDAR establishes a methodology to assess CDM in people with severe mental illness. Specific instruments are developed (and psychometric properties established to measure CDM style, key elements of CDM in routine care, as well as CDM involvement and satisfaction from patient and therapist perspectives. Second, these instruments are being put to use in a multi-national prospective observational study (bimonthly assessments during a one-year observation period; N = 560. This study investigates the immediate, short- and long-term effect of CDM on crucial dimensions of clinical outcome (symptom level, quality of life, needs by taking into account significant variables moderating the relationship between CDM and outcome. Discussion The results of this study will make possible to delineate quality indicators of CDM, as well as to specify prime areas for further improvement. Ingredients of best practice in CDM in the routine care for people with severe mental illness will be extracted and recommendations formulated. With its explicit focus on the patient role in CDM, CEDAR will also contribute to strengthening the service user perspective. This project will substantially add to improving the practice of CDM in mental health care across Europe. Trial register ISRCTN75841675.

  2. Developing dynamic field theory architectures for embodied cognitive systems with cedar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lomp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Embodied artificial cognitive systems such as autonomous robots or intelligent observers connect cognitive processes to sensory and effector systems in real time. Prime candidates for such embodied intelligence are neurally inspired architectures. While components such as forward neural networks are well established, designing pervasively autonomous neural architectures remains a challenge. This includes the problem of tuning the parameters of such architectures so that they deliver specified functionality under variable environmental conditions and retain these functions as the architectures are expanded. The scaling and autonomy problems are solved, in part, by dynamic field theory (DFT, a theoretical framework for the neural grounding of sensorimotor and cognitive processes. In this paper, we address how to efficiently build DFT architectures that control embodied agents and how to tune their parameters so that the desired cognitive functions emerge while such agents are situated in real environments. In DFT architectures, dynamic neural fields or nodes are assigned dynamic regimes, that is, attractor states and their instabilities, from which cognitive function emerges. Tuning thus amounts to determining values of the dynamic parameters for which the components of a DFT architecture are in the specified dynamic regime under the appropriate environmental conditions. The process of tuning is facilitated by the software framework cedar, which provides a graphical interface to build and execute DFT architectures. It enables to change dynamic parameters online and visualize the activation states of any component while the agent is receiving sensory inputs in real-time. Using a simple example, we take the reader through the workflow of conceiving of DFT architectures, implementing them on embodied agents, tuning their parameters, and assessing performance while the system is coupled to real sensory inputs.

  3. Rainfall Runoff Modelling for Cedar Creek using HEC-HMS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, P.; Kalra, A.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall-runoff modelling studies are carried out for the purpose of basin and river management. Different models have been effectively used to examine relationships between rainfall and runoff. Cedar Creek Watershed Basin, the largest tributary of St. Josephs River, located in northeastern Indiana, was selected as a study area. The HEC-HMS model developed by US Army Corps of Engineers was used for the hydrological modelling. The national elevation and national hydrography data was obtained from United States Geological Survey National Map Viewer and the SSURGO soil data was obtained from United States Department of Agriculture. The watershed received hypothetical uniform rainfall for a duration of 13 hours. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number and Unit Hydrograph methods were used for simulating surface runoff. The simulation provided hydrological details about the quantity and variability of runoff in the watershed. The runoff for different curve numbers was computed for the same basin and rainfall, and it was found that outflow peaked at an earlier time with a higher value for higher curve numbers than for smaller curve numbers. It was also noticed that the impact on outflow values nearly doubled with an increase of curve number of 10 for each subbasin in the watershed. The results from the current analysis may aid water managers in effectively managing the water resources within the basin. 1 Graduate Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois, 62901-6603 2 Development Review Division, Clark County Public Works, 500 S. Grand Central Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89155, USA

  4. Space weather effects on radio propagation: study of the CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Blagoveshchensky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storms, that occurred during 1997–1999, on radio propagation conditions has been investigated. The propagation conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF (the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on three high-latitude HF radio paths in north-west Russia. Geophysical data of Dst, Bz, AE as well as some riometer data from Sodankyla observatory, Finland, were used for the analysis. It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character. Nevertheless, there are common patterns in variation of the propagation parameters for all storms. Thus, the frequency range Δ=MOF−LOF increases several hours before a storm, then it narrows sharply during the storm, and expands again several hours after the end of the storm. This regular behaviour should be useful for the HF radio propagation predictions and frequency management at high latitudes. On the trans-auroral radio path, the time interval when the signal is lost through a storm (tdes depends on the local time. For the day-time storms an average value tdes is 6 h, but for night storms tdes is only 2 h. The ionization increase in the F2 layer before storm onset is 3.5 h during the day-time and 2.4 h at night. Mechanisms to explain the observed variations are discussed including some novel possibilities involving energy input through the cusp.

  5. Multiple views of the October 2003 Cedar Fires captured by the High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, E.; Nayak, A.; Vernon, F.; Braun, H.; Matthews, J.

    2004-12-01

    Late October 2003 brought devastating fires to the entire Southern California region. The NSF-funded High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network (HPWREN - http://hpwren.ucsd.edu/) cameras captured the development and progress of the Cedar fire in San Diego County. Cameras on Mt. Laguna, Mt. Woodson, Ramona Airport, and North Peak, recording one frame every 12 seconds, allowed for a time-lapse composite showing the fire's formation and progress from its beginnings on October 26th, to October 30th. The time-lapse camera footage depicts gushing smoke formations during the day, and bright orange walls of fire at night. The final video includes time synchronized views from multiple cameras, and an animated map highlighting the progress of the fire over time, and a directional indicator for each of the displaying cameras. The video is narrated by the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection Fire Captain Ron Serabia (retd.) who was working then as a Air Tactical Group Supervisor with the aerial assault on the Cedar Fire Sunday October 26, 2004. The movie will be made available for download from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Visualization Center Visual Objects library (supported by the OptIPuter project) at http://www.siovizcenter.ucsd.edu.

  6. Application of nondestructive methods to evaluate mechanical properties of 32-year-old Taiwan incense cedar (Calocedrus formosana wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ming Chiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the physical and mechanical properties of standing Taiwan incense cedar (Calocedrus formosana using nondestructive techniques (NDT. In addition, the relationship between characteristics of standing trees and wood properties was established. Results indicated that the velocity values and bending properties decreased as tree height increased. In addition, velocity values of specimens were greater than those of logs and standing trees. After regressive analysis, the correlation coefficients (r were 0.79 for standing trees and logs and 0.70 for logs and specimens. Not only the velocities measured by ultrasonic wave (Vu, tap tone (Vf, and vibration (Vt methods, but dynamic MOE also correlated well with the static bending properties of specimens. In addition, the values of dynamic and static MOE showed the following trend: DMOEu > DMOEf > DMOEt > MOE. For all specimens, the r values were found to be 0.92 for MOE and DMOEt, and 0.75 for MOR and DMOEt. Therefore, it was assumed that the nondestructive testing methods can provide basic information about standing trees and specimens for future management practices and utilization of Taiwan incense cedar.

  7. The western red cedar (Thuja plicata) 8-8' DIRIGENT family displays diverse expression patterns and conserved monolignol coupling specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung K.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Fujita, Masayuki; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of a multigene family of the first class of dirigent proteins (namely that mainly involved in 8-8' coupling leading to (+)-pinoresinol in this case) is reported, this comprising of nine western red cedar (Thuja plicata) DIRIGENT genes (DIR1-9) of 72-99.5% identity to each other. Their corresponding cDNA clones had coding regions for 180-183 amino acids with each having a predicted molecular mass of ca. 20 kDa including the signal peptide. Real time-PCR established that the DIRIGENT isovariants were differentially expressed during growth and development of T. plicata (P < 0.05). The phylogenetic relationships and the rates and patterns of nucleotide substitution suggest that the DIRIGENT gene may have evolved via paralogous expansion at an early stage of vascular plant diversification. Thereafter, western red cedar paralogues have maintained an high homogeneity presumably via a concerted evolutionary mode. This, in turn, is assumed to be the driving force for the differential formation of 8-8'-linked pinoresinol derived (poly)lignans in the needles, stems, bark and branches, as well as for massive accumulation of 8-8'-linked plicatic acid-derived (poly)lignans in heartwood.

  8. Carbon-Isotope Chemostratigraphy of the Yellow Cat Member of the Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, C. A.; Hatzell, G.; Suarez, M. B.; Salazar-Verdin, J.; Al-Suwaidi, A. H.; Kirkland, J. I.

    2014-12-01

    Paleosols and lacustrine sediments of the Yellow Cat Member (YCM), Cedar Mountain Formation (CMF), Eastern Utah were collected at the "Lake Madsen" (a dominantly lacustrine section) and Doelling's Bowl (a mixed lacustrine/ palustrine/ paleosol section) and analyzed for bulk organic carbon isotopes (δ13Corg) . The YCM is thought to span the Barremian to Aptian based on dinosaur faunal assemblages. Correlation with distinct carbon isotope excursions (CIE) specifically those associated with the Selli Event or OAE 1a would allow insight into the response of terrestrial ecosystems to C-cycle perturbations during the Aptian, and may improve chronostratigraphy. Lake Madsen data ranges between a minimum of -28.5‰ and a maximum of -21.4‰ with an average of ~ -25‰ and shows a stepped negative isotope excursion of -3‰., with three distinct negative steps starting ~ 7.5 m above the Jurassic Morrison Formation and an intervening large positive excursion ~ 4.5 m from the base of the Poison Strip Sandstone (~119Ma) Member of the CMF. Doelling's Bowl data spans a longer vertical distance and ranges from a minimum of -29.0‰ to a maximum of -25.7‰, averages -27.7‰ and is somewhat cyclic in nature. δ13Corg chemostratigraphic profile for Doelling's Bowl poorly correlates to the Lake Madsen section, likely due to recycling of organic C and wet/dry cycles of the palustrine environment. Correlation of the Lake Madsen section to marine δ13CCO3 curve from Cismon Valley of the southern Alps indicates the lower Aptian C-isotope excursions C1 to C6, with the distinctive C3 negative CIE occur at the top of the Yellow Cat Member, therefore documenting a terrestrial manifestation of the CIE associated with OAE1a - Selli Event. This suggests the age of the majority of the Yellow Cat Member is Barremian to lower Aptian and the Barremian-Aptian boundary occurs at the top of the Member ~ 25cm below the base of the Poison Strip Sandstone. Further isotopic analysis of vertebrate

  9. Growing C-D-R (Cedar): Working the Intersections of Interest Convergence and Whiteness as Property in the Affirmative Action Legal Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson Dorsey, Dana N.; Venzant Chambers, Terah T.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we extend Bell's work on interest convergence by using Harris' work on whiteness as property to articulate a cycle of interest convergence, interest divergence, and imperialistic reclamation, or convergence-divergence-reclamation (C-D-R, pronounced "cedar"). We then apply the C-D-R cycle lens to the evolution of federal…

  10. A multidisciplinary study of the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation, Mussentuchit Wash, Utah: a determination of the paleoenvironment and paleoecology of the Eolambia caroljonesa dinosaur quarry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, J.R.; Brinkman, D.; Nichols, D.J.; Layer, P.; Burge, D.; Thayn, D.

    2007-01-01

    A quarry within the Cedar Mountain Formation in Mussentuchit Wash, Emery County, Utah, produced a fossil assemblage containing the remains of at least eight juvenile iguanodontid dinosaurs (Eolambia caroljonesa). The Cedar Mountain Formation lies stratigraphically between the Tithonian-Berriasian (Upper Jurassic) Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation and the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) Dakota Formation. Detailed stratigraphic, sedimentological, geochronological, palynological, and paleontological data have been collected along a measured section at the site of the Cifelli #2 Eolambia caroljonesa Quarry. These data provide a chronostratigraphic and a biostratigraphic framework for the Cedar Mountain Formation and allow a detailed reconstruction of the paleoenvironment and the paleoecology of the local paleogeographic area from which E. caroljonesa have been recovered. Three 40Ar/39Ar ages ranging from 96.7 to 98.5 Ma have been obtained three stratigraphically distinct altered volcanic ash layers within the Mussentuchit Member, one of which passes through the E. caroljonesa quarry, that indicate that the quarry is latest Albian in age and that the stratigraphic boundary between the Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation and the overlying Dakota Formation is at or near the Albian/Cenomanian boundary. Sedimentological and biostratigraphic data suggest that significant long-term and short-term climatic changes are recorded in the Cedar Mountain Formation. During deposition of the lower part of the formation, climatic conditions were warm and arid to semi-arid. During deposition of the upper part of the formation, conditions became more humid. The progressive change in climatic conditions was probably related to the transgression of the Mowry Sea from the north. Cyclic sedimentation in the Mussentuchit Member suggests high-frequency changes from wet to dry periods. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to quantify effects of peak-flow management on channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat in the Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River. PDF version of a presentation on hydrodynamic modelling in the Cedar River in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  12. Clinical decision making and outcome in the routine care of people with severe mental illness across Europe (CEDAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puschner, B; Becker, T; Mayer, B;

    2016-01-01

    and Satisfaction Scale (CDIS) measured involvement and satisfaction with a specific decision at all time points. Primary outcome was patient-rated unmet needs measured with the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule (CANSAS). Mixed-effects multinomial regression was used to examine differences......Aims. Shared decision making has been advocated as a means to improve patient-orientation and quality of health care. There is a lack of knowledge on clinical decision making and its relation to outcome in the routine treatment of people with severe mental illness. This study examined preferred...... and experienced clinical decision making from the perspectives of patients and staff, and how these affect treatment outcome. Methods. "Clinical Decision Making and Outcome in Routine Care for People with Severe Mental Illness" (CEDAR; ISRCTN75841675) is a naturalistic prospective observational study...

  13. New basal iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain formation of Utah and the evolution of thumb-spiked dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T McDonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Basal iguanodontian dinosaurs were extremely successful animals, found in great abundance and diversity almost worldwide during the Early Cretaceous. In contrast to Europe and Asia, the North American record of Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts has until recently been limited largely to skulls and skeletons of Tenontosaurus tilletti. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein we describe two new basal iguanodonts from the Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of eastern Utah, each known from a partial skull and skeleton. Iguanacolossus fortis gen. et sp. nov. and Hippodraco scutodens gen. et sp. nov. are each diagnosed by a single autapomorphy and a unique combination of characters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Iguanacolossus and Hippodraco add greatly to our knowledge of North American basal iguanodonts and prompt a new comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of basal iguanodont relationships. This analysis indicates that North American Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts are more basal than their contemporaries in Europe and Asia.

  14. Water-soluble low-molecular-weight -(1, 3–1, 6 D-Glucan inhibit cedar pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Jippo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, and food allergies has increased in several countries. Mast cells have critical roles in various biologic processes related to allergic diseases. Mast cells express the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin (Ig E on their surface. The interaction of multivalent antigens with surface-bound IgE causes the secretion of granule-stored mediators, as well as the de novosynthesis of cytokines. Those mediators and cytokines proceed the allergic diseases. We investigated the effects of water-soluble, low-molecular-weight -(1, 3–1, 6 D-glucan isolated from Aureobasidium pullulans 1A1 strain black yeast (LMW--glucan on mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions. We reported that LMW--glucan dose-dependently inhibited the degranulation of mast cells. Furthermore, we found that orally administered LMW--glucan inhibited the IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA reaction in mice. Here, we examined if LMW--glucan had effects on Japanese cedar pollinosis. Findings: In a clinical study, a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in 65 subjects (aged 2262 was performed. This study was undertaken 3 weeks before and until the end of the cedar pollen season. During the study, all subjects consumed one bottle of placebo or LMW--glucan daily and all subjects were required to record allergic symptoms in a diary. The LMW--glucan group had a significantly lower prevalence of sneezing, nose-blowing, tears, and hindrance to the activities of daily living than the placebo group. Conclusions: These results suggested that LMW--glucan could be an effective treatment for allergic diseases

  15. Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part II: effect of operational conditions on contaminant release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the evolution profile of tar in the product gas during cedar biomass gasification. We also discuss the evolution of other contaminants (H(2)S, COS, NH(3), HCN, and HCl). The cedar wood was gasified under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Tar levels in the product gas were significantly affected by the operating conditions used. At a gasification temperature of 923 K, there was no clear relation between the evolution of phenolic tar in the product gas as a function of residence time. The evolution of PAH tar at a low gasification temperature was lower than the evolution of phenolic tar. With increasing temperature, the proportion of PAH tar content became significant. At a gasification temperature of 1223 K, increasing the residence time reduced the content of PAH tar owing to a catalytic effect associated with ash generation at high temperatures. Increasing the steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratio under thermal conditions had a slight effect on PAH conversion. However, increasing the equivalence ratio (ER) effectively reduced the tar levels. The conversion of fuel-sulfur and fuel-nitrogen to volatile-sulfur and volatile-nitrogen, respectively, increased with increasing S/C ratio and ER. The evolutions of COS and HCN gases were much smaller than the evolution of H(2)S and NH(3). The evolution of HCl in the product gas decreased slightly with increasing ER. Increasing the S/C ratio decreased the HCl levels in the product gas. The effect of temperature on contaminant levels could not be fully understood due to limited availability of experimental data at various temperatures. We also compare our findings with data in the literature.

  16. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to quantify effects of peak-flow management on channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat in the Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnas, C. R.; Czuba, J. A.; Gendaszek, A. S.; Magirl, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River.

  17. IgE reactivity and cross-reactivity to Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollen allergens in dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, M; Masuda, K; Yasueda, H; Saito, S; DeBoer, D J; Tsujimoto, H

    2001-11-01

    The natural occurrence of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollinosis has been reported in dogs with atopic dermatitis. However, the reactivity to Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollen allergens in these dogs has not been reported. The present study was designed to investigate the reactivity to Japanese cypress pollen allergens in dogs sensitized to Japanese cedar pollen allergens. In 19 dogs with specific IgE to C. japonica pollen allergen, we measured the specific IgE to C. obtusa pollen allergen and examined the reactivity to the allergen by intradermal test. Of the 19 dogs, 18 had specific IgE to crude and purified major allergens (Cha o 1) of C. obtusa pollen. Most of the dogs showed a positive reaction to C. obtusa pollen allergens in the intradermal test. Allergenic cross-reactivity between Cha o 1 and Cry j 1 (a major allergen in C. japonica pollen) was observed by the ELISA inhibition method. Dogs sensitized to Japanese cedar pollen allergens demonstrate reactivity to Japanese cypress pollen allergens.

  18. Surface-Water Quantity and Quality of the Upper Milwaukee River, Cedar Creek, and Root River Basins, Wisconsin, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (SEWRPC), collected discharge and water-quality data at nine sites in previously monitored areas of the upper Milwaukee River, Cedar Creek, and Root River Basins, in Wisconsin from May 1 through November 15, 2004. The data were collected for calibration of hydrological models that will be used to simulate how various management strategies will affect the water quality of streams. The data also will support SEWRPC and Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) managers in development of the SEWRPC Regional Water Quality Management Plan and the MMSD 2020 Facilities Plan. These management plans will provide a scientific basis for future management decisions regarding development and maintenance of public and private waste-disposal systems. In May 2004, parts of the study area received over 13 inches of precipitation (3.06 inches is normal). In June 2004, most of the study area received between 7 and 11 inches of rainfall (3.56 inches is normal). This excessive rainfall caused flooding throughout the study area and resultant high discharges were measured at all nine monitoring sites. For example, the mean daily discharge recorded at the Cedar Creek site on May 27, 2004, was 2,120 cubic feet per second. This discharge ranked ninth of the largest 10 mean daily discharges in the 75-year record, and was the highest discharge recorded since March 30, 1960. Discharge records from continuous monitoring on the Root River Canal near Franklin since October 1, 1963, indicated that the discharge recorded on May 23, 2004, ranked second highest on record, and was the highest discharge recorded since March 4, 1974. Water-quality samples were taken during two base-flow events and six storm events at each of the nine sites. Analysis of water-quality data indicated that most concentrations of dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, fecal coliform bacteria, chloride, suspended

  19. Influence of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 intake on faecal microbiota in individuals with Japanese cedar pollinosis during the pollen season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odamaki, Toshitaka; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Noritoshi; Kondo, Shizuki; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Togashi, Hideo; Enomoto, Tadao; Benno, Yoshimi

    2007-10-01

    It has been reported that intake of yogurt or powder supplemented with the Bifidobacterium longum BB536 probiotic strain alleviated subjective symptoms and affected blood markers of allergy in individuals with Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis) during the pollen seasons of 2004 and 2005, based on randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Furthermore, the 2004 study found that intestinal bacteria such as the Bacteroides fragilis group significantly fluctuated during the pollen season in JCPsis individuals and intake of BB536 yogurt tended to suppress these fluctuations. The present study investigated faecal microbiota to examine whether any changes occurred during the pollen season and whether any influence was exerted by intake of BB536 powder in the 2005 pollen season, which happened to be a heavy season, to confirm the 2004 findings and to evaluate the relationship of microbiota with symptom development. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 44 JCPsis subjects received BB536 or a placebo for 13 weeks during the pollen season. Another 14 Japanese cedar pollen (JCP)-specific IgE negative healthy subjects received placebo for the same period. Faecal samples were collected before (week 0), during (weeks 4, 8 and 13) and after (week 17) intervention, and out of JCP season (week 28). Faecal microbiota were analysed using terminal-RFLP (T-RFLP) and real-time PCR methods. Principal component analysis based on T-RFLP indicated distinct patterns of microbiota between healthy subjects and JCPsis subjects in the placebo group, but an intermediate pattern in the BB536 group at week 13, the last stage of the pollen season. The coordinate of principal component 1 at week 13 correlated with composite scores of JCPsis symptoms recorded during the pollen season. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and the Bacteroides fragilis group were identified as the main contributors to microbiotal fluctuations. Real-time PCR indicated that BB536 intake suppressed

  20. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Madhav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m of that observed in the core populations (15 m. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82 than in the peripheral (Nb = 48 populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short

  1. AVO analysis and modeling applied to fracture detection in coalbed methane reservoirs, Cedar Hill Field, San Juan basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, A.C.B. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Davis, T.L.; Anderson, J.E.; Benson, R.D. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Cedar Hill Field in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, produces methane from fractured coalbed of the Fruitland Formation. The presence of fracturing is critical to methane production due to the absence of matrix permeability in the coals. To help characterize this coalbed reservoir a three-dimensional, multicomponent seismic survey was acquired in this field. Prestack P-wave amplitude data are used to delineate zones of larger Poisson`s ratio contrasts (or higher crack densities) in coalbed methane reservoir, while source-receiver azimuth sorting is used to detect preferential directions of azimuthal anisotropy. Two modeling techniques (using ray tracing and reflectivity methods) predict the effects of fractured coal-seam zones on non-normal P-wave reflectivity. Synthetic CMP gathers are generated for a horizontally layered earth model, which uses elastic parameters derived from sonic and density log measurements. Fracture density variations in the coalbeds are simulated by anisotropic modeling. The large acoustic impedance contrasts associated with the sandstone/coal interfaces dominate the P-wave reflectivity response. They far outweigh the effects of contrasts in anisotropy parameters, for the computed models. Seismic AVO analysis of nine macrobins obtained from the 3-D volume confirms model predictions. Areas with large AVO productions identify coal zones with large Poisson`s ratio contrast, therefore high fracture density.

  2. Effect of pollen exposure on serum IgE and IgG antibody responses in Japanese cedar pollinosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Imaoka

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the IgE and IgG antibody responses in Japanese cedar pollinosis patients before and after the pollination season for 2 years. The sera from 90 patients in 1990 and 87 in 1991, living in five regions in the Tokyo area, were obtained before and after the pollination season. In all patients, changes (increase then decrease in specific IgE levels were detected after natural pollen exposure. Total IgE and specific IgG concentrations also changed. However, the degree of change in specific IgE was greater than those in total IgE and specific IgG. Then, the geometric means of specific and total IgE levels were compared among the five regions. These levels were found to be highest in the region where the pollen count was the highest. These findings suggest that IgE antibody production is more stimulated after natural pollen exposure compared to IgG antibody production, and is dependent on the amount of allergens.

  3. Effects of drought preconditioning on thermotolerance of photosystem II and susceptibility of photosynthesis to heat stress in cedar seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjal, Mehdi; Epron, Daniel; Ducrey, Michel

    2000-12-01

    Changes in photosystem II (PSII) thermotolerance during drought and recovery were studied under controlled conditions in three Mediterranean cedar species (Cedrus brevifolia Henry, C. libani Loudon and C. atlantica Manetti). The temperature at which the quantum yield of PSII photochemistry was reduced by 15% of its value at 25 degrees C was 3 to 4 degrees C higher in drought-treated plants than in well-watered plants. The drought-induced increase in PSII thermotolerance was already evident 8 days after water had been withheld from the seedlings, when net CO(2) assimilation was still at 80% of its initial value, and was visible for up to 12 days after re-watering. When seedlings of the three species were exposed to temperatures above 45 degrees C for 5 h, both maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and net CO(2) assimilation rate were significantly reduced in unconditioned seedlings, whereas drought-preconditioned seedlings were almost unaffected by the heat treatment. Drought-preconditioned seedlings still exhibited a higher tolerance to heat stress than unconditioned seedlings 60 days after re-watering, although the transient, drought-induced osmotic adjustment had fully disappeared. Among species, C. atlantica was the most heat sensitive, whereas the heat treatment had no significant effect on the parameters measured in C. brevifolia.

  4. Phylogeography of North African Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica, Pinaceae): Combined molecular and fossil data reveal a complex Quaternary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrab, Anass; Hampe, Arndt; Lepais, Olivier; Talavera, Salvador; Vela, Errol; Stuessy, Tod F

    2008-10-01

    Northwest Africa is a major hotspot of plant biodiversity, but very little is known about the Quaternary range dynamics of plant species in this region. Here we investigate the range-wide population structure and phylogeography of Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica), an emblematic forest tree endemic to Morocco and Algeria. We genotyped 261 individuals from 11 populations using AFLP markers. Data were analyzed using both conventional F(ST)-based techniques and Bayesian clustering. Overall population differentiation was high (F(ST) = 0.25). Two major groups of populations were identified, one distributed through the Rif and Middle Atlas mountains in Morocco and the other through the Algerian Tell Atlas and Aurès mountains as well as the Middle Atlas. Combined molecular and fossil data indicate that C. atlantica survived the Last Glacial Maximum in at least three disjunct refugia along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, whereas the Middle Atlas, today the core of the species range, has been colonized relatively recently (<10000 yr BP). The colonization history of individual populations has left clear imprints in their present-day diversity, which may vary greatly even between nearby stands. Our study illustrates how integrating different data sources and analytical approaches can help elucidate complex range dynamics that would otherwise remain undeciphered.

  5. EVALUATION OF COLOR OF THE JUVENILE AND MATURE CEDAR WOOD BY MEANS OF CIEL*a*b* METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Avila Delucis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to characterize the radial profile of cedar wood (Cedrela fissilis by the colorimetric technique. Three different trees of approximately 100 years old were selected in Canguçu, Rio Grande do Sul. From each felled tree, discs were removed at breast height (1,3 m with a thickness of 20 cm and subsequently samples were segmented in centimeter lengths from pith to bark. The samples were conditioned at equilibrium moisture content of 12%, to carry out the colour evaluation with a portable colorimeter Konica Minolta brand in accordance with the CIEL*a*b* method. To determine the segregation of juvenile and mature woods position was employed the apparent specific gravity to 12% (ρa12% as a parameter. With colorimetric analysis, it was found that the lightness, the green-red coordinate and hue angle presented intimate relation with the transition from juvenile and adult logs. Has a result of blueyellow coordinate and chromaticity showed approximately a linear trend in pith-bark direction.

  6. The non-pathogenic Henipavirus Cedar paramyxovirus phosphoprotein has a compromised ability to target STAT1 and STAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Kim G; Marsh, Glenn A; Wang, Lin-Fa; Netter, Hans J

    2015-12-01

    Immune evasion by the lethal henipaviruses, Hendra (HeV) and Nipah virus, is mediated by its interferon (IFN) antagonist P gene products, phosphoprotein (P), and the related V and W proteins, which can target the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT2 proteins to inhibit IFN/STAT signaling. However, it is not clear if the recently identified non-pathogenic Henipavirus, Cedar paramyxovirus (CedPV), is also able to antagonize the STAT proteins. We performed comparative studies between the HeV P gene products (P/V/W) and CedPV-P (CedPV does not encode V or W) and demonstrate that differences exist in their ability to engage the STAT proteins using immunoprecipitation and quantitative confocal microscopic analysis. In contrast to HeV-P gene encoded proteins, the ability of CedPV-P to interact with and relocalize STAT1 or STAT2 is compromised, correlating with a reduced capacity to inhibit the mRNA synthesis of IFN-inducible gene MxA. Furthermore, infection studies with HeV and CedPV demonstrate that HeV is more potent than CedPV in inhibiting the IFN-α-mediated nuclear accumulation of STAT1. These results strongly suggest that the ability of CedPV to counteract the IFN/STAT response is compromised compared to HeV.

  7. Changes in plant-soil feedback regulate ecosystem nitrogen retention during stand development of Japanese cedar plantation after clear-cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, K.; Tateno, R.; Katsuyama, M.; Tokuchi, N.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have documented the impacts of forest clear-cutting on nitrogen (N) cycling and retention, and most of them reported a large loss of N (mainly NO3--N) after cutting. However, the recovery process of N dynamics after clear-cutting and subsequent afforestation has been unclear. It is well known that internal N cycling creates ecosystem feedback between plant productivity (i.e. N uptake rate and nitrogen use efficiency) and soil N availability (i.e. soil N transformation rate and microorganism activities). Therefore, we focused on the relationship between hydrological N loss and internal N cycling during development of monoculture Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation stands. In our study site, stand age of planted trees is even within a watershed, but is various among watersheds. The use of these watersheds as chronosequence can help to isolate the effects of stand development processes after clear-cutting. We aimed to elucidate the factors regulating ecosystem N retention during forest development after clear-cutting. Our study site is located in Nara Prefecture, central Japan, which received 2,900 mm precipitation in annual means and 13 - 14 kg N ha-1 year-1 as mean bulk N deposition (2004-2007). Stream NO3- concentration, annual N export, litterfall, plant N uptake, soil N availability and transformation rates, carbon (C) and N content in forest-floor, mineral soil, and soil microbial biomass were examined in 1-, 6-, 17-, 32-, 43,- and 90-year-old-stand watersheds. After clear-cutting, early growth of Japanese cedar seedlings can be supported by higher soil N availability, resulting from enhanced decomposition processes by canopy opening. Thereafter in the 32-year-old stand, we found that the crucial increase in newly supplied litterfall on the forest floor can enhance N immobilization by C-limited soil microbes and decrease soil N availability, which can trigger a decline in net primary production and the increase in nitrogen use

  8. Growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings in response to soil water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Junko; Shigenaga, Hidetoshi; Akama, Akio; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the effects of soil water content on growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold et Zucc.) Endl.), potted seedlings were grown in well-watered soil (wet treatment) or in drying soil (dry treatment) for 12 weeks. Seedlings in the wet treatment were watered once every 2 or 3 days, whereas seedlings in the dry treatment were watered when soil water content (Theta; m3 m(-3)) reached 0.30, equivalent to a soil matric potential of -0.06 MPa. From Weeks 7 to 12 after the onset of the treatments, seedling transpiration was measured by weighing the potted seedlings. After the last watering, changes in transpiration rate during soil drying were monitored intensely. The dry treatment restricted aboveground growth but increased biomass allocation to the roots in both species, resulting in no significant treatment difference in whole-plant biomass production. The species showed similar responses in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) and shoot mass ratio (SMR) to the dry treatment. Although NAR did not change significantly in either C. japonica or C. obtusa as the soil dried, the two species responded differently to the dry treatment in terms of mean transpiration rate (E) and water-use efficiency (WUE), which are parameters that relate to NAR. In the dry treatment, both E and WUE of C. japonica were stable, whereas in C. obtusa, E decreased and WUE increased (E and WUE counterbalanced to maintain a constant NAR). Transpiration rates were lower in C. obtusa seedlings than in C. japonica seedlings, even in well-watered conditions. During soil drying, the transpiration rate decreased after Theta reached about 0.38 (-0.003 MPa) in C. obtusa and 0.32 (-0.028 MPa) in C. japonica. We conclude that C. obtusa has more water-saving characteristics than C. japonica, particularly when water supply is limited.

  9. Drought effects on hydraulic conductivity and xylem vulnerability to embolism in diverse species and provenances of Mediterranean cedars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjal, Mehdi; Huc, Roland; Ducrey, Michel

    2005-09-01

    We studied hydraulic traits of young plants of the Mediterranean cedar species Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) G. Manetti ex Carrière (Luberon, France), C. brevifolia (Hook. f.) Henry (Cyprus), C. libani A. Rich (Hadeth El Jebbe, Lebanon) and C. libani (Armut Alani, Turkey). With an optimum water supply, no major differences were observed among species or provenances in either stem hydraulic conductivity (Ks) or leaf specific conductivity (Kl) measured on the main shoot. A moderate soil drought applied for 10 weeks induced marked acclimation through a reduction in Ks, particularly in the Lebanese provenance of C. libani, and a decrease in tracheid lumen size in all species. Cedrus atlantica, which had the smallest tracheids, was the species most vulnerable to embolism: a 50% loss in hydraulic conductivity (PsiPLC50) occurred at a water potential of -4.4 MPa in the well-watered treatment, and at -6.0 MPa in the moderate drought treatment. In the other species, PsiPLC50 was unaffected by moderate soil drought, and only declined sharply at water potentials between -6.4 and -7.5 MPa in both irrigation treatments. During severe drought, Ks of twigs and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were measured simultaneously as leaf water potential declined. For all species, lower vulnerability to embolism based on loss of Ks was recorded on current-year twigs. The threshold for stomatal closure (10% of maximum g(s)) was reached at a predawn water potential (Psi(pd)) of -2.5 MPa in C. atlantica (Luberon) and at -3.1 MPa in C. libani (Lebanon), whereas the other provenance and species had intermediate Psi(pd) values. Cedrus brevifolia, with a Psi(pd) (-3.0 MPa) close to that of C. libani (Lebanon), had the highest stomatal conductance of the study species. The importance of a margin of safety between water potential causing stomatal closure and that causing xylem embolism induction is discussed.

  10. Cedar Hill Tower Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A meteorological data system was designed, assembled, and installed to obtain, on a continuous basis, wind and temperature information at 12 levels on a television...

  11. TERRAIN, CEDAR COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. CEDAR counter (internal part)

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    Here on the mounting bench. The counter is a differential Cerenkov, corrected for chromaticity, able to differentiate pions from kaons up to 350 GeV. Counters of this type were used in all SPS hadron beams.

  13. Stockton Lake Survey and Assessment. National Register Assessment of Prehistoric Archeological Sites 23DA407 and 23DA408 and Historic Properties Survey in the Stockton Lake Project, Cedar and Dade Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    conducted at the Stockton, Truman and Pomme de Terre reservoirs, principal investigators generally agree that the culture history and chronology of the...1992 Archaeological Survey at Pomme de Terre and Stockton Lakes: Cedar, Dade, Hickory and Polk Counties, Missouri. Report of Investigations, No. 33...Conservation Program, Missouri Department of Natural Resources. Haynes, C. Vance 1976 Late Quaternary Geology of the Lower Pomme de Terre Valley. In

  14. Surface faulting and paleoseismic history of the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area, west-central Nevada, and implications for modern tectonics of the Walker Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.W.; DePolo, C.M.; Ramelli, A.R.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Meyer, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    The 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake (Ms 7.2) was one of the largest historical events in the Walker Lane region of western Nevada, and it produced a complicated strike-slip rupture pattern on multiple Quaternary faults distributed through three valleys. Primary, right-lateral surface ruptures occurred on north-striking faults in Monte Cristo Valley; small-scale lateral and normal offsets occurred in Stewart Valley; and secondary, normal faulting occurred on north-northeast-striking faults in the Gabbs Valley epicentral region. A reexamination of the surface ruptures provides new displacement and fault-zone data: maximum cumulative offset is estimated to be 2.7 m, and newly recognized faults extend the maximum width and end-to-end length of the rupture zone to 17 and 75 km, respectively. A detailed Quaternary allostratigraphic chronology based on regional alluvialgeomorphic relationships, tephrochronology, and radiocarbon dating provides a framework for interpreting the paleoseismic history of the fault zone. A late Wisconsinan alluvial-fan and piedmont unit containing a 32-36 ka tephra layer is a key stratigraphic datum for paleoseismic measurements. Exploratory trenching and radiocarbon dating of tectonic stratigraphy provide the first estimates for timing of late Quaternary faulting along the Cedar Mountain fault zone. Three trenches display evidence for six faulting events, including that in 1932, during the past 32-36 ka. Radiocarbon dating of organic soils interstratified with tectonically ponded silts establishes best-fit ages of the pre-1932 events at 4, 5,12,15, and 18 ka, each with ??2 ka uncertainties. On the basis of an estimated cumulative net slip of 6-12 m for the six faulting events, minimum and maximum late Quaternary slip rates are 0.2 and 0.7 mm/yr, respectively, and the preferred rate is 0.4-0.5 mm/yr. The average recurrence (interseismic) interval is 3600 yr. The relatively uniform thickness of the ponded deposits suggests that similar

  15. The Cedar Project: high incidence of HCV infections in a longitudinal study of young Aboriginal people who use drugs in two Canadian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spittal Patricia M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with HCV incidence among young Aboriginal people in Canada are still not well understood. We sought to estimate time to HCV infection and the relative hazard of risk factors associated HCV infection among young Aboriginal people who use injection drugs in two Canadian cities. Methods The Cedar Project is a prospective cohort study involving young Aboriginal people in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia, who use illicit drugs. Participants’ venous blood samples were drawn and tested for HCV antibodies. Analysis was restricted to participants who use used injection drugs at enrolment or any of follow up visit. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify independent predictors of time to HCV seroconversion. Results In total, 45 out of 148 participants seroconverted over the study period. Incidence of HCV infection was 26.3 per 100 person-years (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 16.3, 46.1 among participants who reported using injection drugs for two years or less, 14.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 7.7, 28.9 among participants who had been using injection drugs for between two and five years, and 5.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 2.6,10.9 among participants who had been using injection drugs for over five years. Independent associations with HCV seroconversion were involvement in sex work in the last six months (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.42 compared to no involvement, having been using injection drugs for less than two years (AHR: 4.14; 95% CI: 1.91, 8.94 and for between two and five years (AHR: 2.12; 95%CI: 0.94, 4.77 compared to over five years, daily cocaine injection in the last six months (AHR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.51, 4.05 compared to less than daily, and sharing intravenous needles in the last six months (AHR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.47, 4.49 compared to not sharing. Conclusions This study contributes to the limited body of research addressing HCV infection among

  16. Characterization of sulfur deposition over the period of industrialization in Japan using sulfur isotope ratio in Japanese cedar tree rings taken from stumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takuya; Tayasu, Ichiro; Takenaka, Chisato

    2015-07-01

    We characterized the sulfur deposition history over the period of industrialization in Japan based on the sulfur isotope ratio (δ(34)S) in tree rings of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) stumps. We analyzed and compared δ(34)S values in the rings from two types of disk samples from 170-year-old stumps that had been cut 5 years earlier (older forest stand) and from 40-year-old living trees (younger forest stand) in order to confirm the validity of using stump disks for δ(34)S analysis. No differences in δ(34)S values by age were found between the sample types, indicating that stump disks can be used for δ(34)S analysis. The δ(34)S profile in tree rings was significantly correlated with anthropogenic SO2 emissions in Japan (r = -0.76, p tree rings serve as a record of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. In addition, the values did not change largely from pre-industrialization to the 1940s (+4.2 to +6.1‰). The values before the 1940s are expected to reflect the background sulfur conditions in Japan and, thus, disks containing rings formed before the 1940s contain information about the natural environmental sulfur, which is useful for biogeochemical studies.

  17. Concentrated protein body product derived from rice endosperm as an oral tolerogen for allergen-specific immunotherapy--a new mucosal vaccine formulation against Japanese cedar pollen allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhya Wakasa

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure in natural populations of Moroccan Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica; Pinaceae) determined with cpSSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrab, Anass; Paun, Ovidiu; Talavera, Salvador; Tremetsberger, Karin; Arista, Montserrat; Stuessy, Tod F

    2006-09-01

    Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica) is an ecologically and economically important forest tree species of northern Africa and is considered one of the endangered conifer species in the region. Chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR) were used to study genetic variation within and among populations and geographical structure in natural populations of C. atlantica throughout its entire distribution range in Morocco. A total of 25 chloroplast haplotypes and 66 cpSSR alleles were found among 162 individuals. The cpSSRs indicate that C. atlantica appears to maintain a high level of genetic diversity (mean H(e) = 0.95), as observed in most coniferous species. Values of mean pairwise distance within a population (D(2)(SH)) were related to the size and location of the populations. AMOVA analysis showed that most of the variation in C. atlantica occurs within populations and confirmed the general tendency of gymnosperms to display lower values of population differentiation than angiosperms. The distance-based clustering method (PCoA and neighbor-joining analysis) and the geographical structure revealed a poor structure among the six populations of Cedrus atlantica. Also, a Mantel test indicated a weak correlation between geographic and genetic distances (P = 0.106, r = 0.363). These results are also interpreted in the context of postglacial history of the region plus human impacts.

  19. Impacts of Land Cover Changes on Runoff and Sediment in the Cedar Creek Watershed, St. Joseph River,Indiana, United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiaobo; Chi-hua Huang; Fushui Ruan

    2008-01-01

    The relation between runoff and sediment and land cover is investigated in the Cedar Creek Watershed (CCW), located in Northeastern Indiana, United States. The major land cover types in this watershed are cultivated land, woodland and pasture/Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), which account for approximate 90% of the total area in the region. Moreover, land use was changed tremendously from 2ooo to 2004, even without regarding the effect of the crop rotation system (corn & soybean). At least 49% of land cover types were changed into other types in this period. The land cover types, ranking by changing area from high to low series, are rye, soybean, corn, woodland and pasture/CRP. The CCW is divided into 21 sub-watersheds, and soil and water loss in each sub-watershed is computed by using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The results indicate that the variations in runoff and sediment have positive relation to the area of crops (especially corn and soybean); sediment is more sensitive to land cover changes than runoff; more heavy rainfall does not always mean more runoff because the combination of different land cover types always modify runoff coefficient; and rye, soybean and corn are the key land cover types, which affected the variation in runoff and sediment in the CCW.

  20. Development of clonal matrices of australian red cedar in different substrates under fertilizer doses Desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro Australiano em diferentes substratos sob doses de fertilizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Peres Benatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate fertilizers doses in different substrates for growth and development of clonal matrices of Australian Red Cedar [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], an experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Five substrates were evaluate, with proportions by volume, the first consisting of 100% of Multiplant florestal®, the second of 50% vermiculite, 20% carbonized rice hulls, 20% soil and 10% coconut fiber, the third with 50% soil and 50% sand, the fourth was composed by 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% soil and 40% coconut fiber and the fifth with 65% of Multiplant florestal®, 25% vermiculite and 10% carbonized rice hulls. The fertilizers doses applied were 0.0; 0.3; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4 of fertilization suggested by Malavolta (1980 for vases. The characteristics evaluated were: collar diameter of the matrices, production of dry mater by shoots, root system and total and accumulation of nutrients by shoot at the end of the experimental period of 150 days. The Australian Red Cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, as showed by the better development obtained with higher fertilizer doses than those suggested by Malavolta (1980. The substrate three provided the worst development to clonal matrices while the substrates 1, 4 and 5 provided the best environment for the development considering all the fertilizer doses and all variables.Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes substratos com taxas de fertilizantes para o crescimento e desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro australiano [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. Foram avaliados cinco substratos, com as proporções em volume, sendo o primeiro composto por 100% Multiplant florestal®, o segundo de 50% Vermiculita, 20% casca de arroz carbonizada, 20% terra e 10% fibra de coco, o terceiro com 50% terra e 50% areia, o quarto com proporção de 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% terra e 40% de fibra de coco e

  1. Azimuthal and radial variations in sap flux density and effects on stand-scale transpiration estimates in a Japanese cedar forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Yoshinori; Tsuruta, Kenji; Ogura, Akira; Noto, Fumikazu; Komatsu, Hikaru; Otsuki, Kyoichi; Maruyama, Toshisuke

    2013-05-01

    Understanding radial and azimuthal variation, and tree-to-tree variation, in sap flux density (Fd) as sources of uncertainty is important for estimating transpiration using sap flow techniques. In a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.) forest, Fd was measured at several depths and aspects for 18 trees, using heat dissipation (Granier-type) sensors. We observed considerable azimuthal variation in Fd. The coefficient of variation (CV) calculated from Fd at a depth of 0-20 mm (Fd1) and Fd at a depth of 20-40 mm (Fd2) ranged from 6.7 to 37.6% (mean = 28.3%) and from 19.6 to 62.5% (mean = 34.6%) for the -azimuthal directions. Fd at the north aspect averaged for nine trees, for which azimuthal measurements were made, was -obviously smaller than Fd at the other three aspects (i.e., west, south and east) averaged for the nine trees. Fd1 averaged for the nine trees was significantly larger than Fd2 averaged for the nine trees. The error for stand-scale transpiration (E) estimates caused by ignoring the azimuthal variation was larger than that caused by ignoring the radial variation. The error caused by ignoring tree-to-tree variation was larger than that caused by ignoring both radial and azimuthal variations. Thus, tree-to-tree variation in Fd would be more important than both radial and azimuthal variations in Fd for E estimation. However, Fd for each tree should not be measured at a consistent aspect but should be measured at various aspects to make accurate E estimates and to avoid a risk of error caused by the relationship of Fd to aspect.

  2. Exploring the Stable Isotope Record of Lake Carpenter: A Lacustrine Sequence in the Aptian-Albian Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, E.; Al-Suwaidi, A. H.; Suarez, M. B.; Kirkland, J. I.; Suarez, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Cedar Mountain Formation (CMF) represents the earliest deposition of terrestrial Cretaceous strata in the USA, recording significant changes in biota and climate. Understanding these transitions requires improved time constraints and high-resolution proxy records. Here we present new δ13C (organic carbon & carbonate) chemostratigraphic record of a lacustrine sequence in a locality named "Lake Carpenter", near Moab, Utah. Lake Carpenter (LC) comprises interbedded limestone and mudstone units of the Ruby Ranch Member of the CMF. Results of the chemostratigraphy are constrained by detrital zircons from the section allowing correlation of the chemostratigraphy to the carbon isotope segments C9 to C11 (Bralower et al., 1999) spanning the Late Aptian to Early Albian, and supported by previous litho- and chemostratigraphic work in the CMF. δ13Corg values show a pronounced negative stepped excursion, of -6‰ with values reaching -32.3 ‰ occurring in conjunction with an increase in TOC. This negative excursion is followed by a positive recovery, with values of ~-25‰ and relatively low TOC. δ13Ccarb records positive values, up to +8‰, in the lowermost part of the section (< ~7m) followed by a decrease to ~-7 ‰. δ18Ocarb over this interval records values between -2 and -4‰ followed by a decrease to ~-7‰. The lowermost portion of the LC section is indicative of relatively deep lacustrine environment in which organic carbon burial influenced the δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the lake. This lower δ13C of DIC may be due to increased upwelling and/or turnover and recycling of organic carbon in the lake. Variability of δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb values may reflect changes in water supply to the lake, or climatic variability resulting in the lake drying out. δ13Corg values may be affected by local lake dynamics, including variations in organic carbon storage and changes in algal productivity, perhaps also indicative of changes in nutrient

  3. Flood-inundation maps for the Peckman River in the Townships of Verona, Cedar Grove, and Little Falls, and the Borough of Woodland Park, New Jersey, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemoczynski, Michal J.; Watson, Kara M.

    2016-10-19

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximate 7.5-mile reach of the Peckman River in New Jersey, which extends from Verona Lake Dam in the Township of Verona downstream through the Township of Cedar Grove and the Township of Little Falls to the confluence with the Passaic River in the Borough of Woodland Park, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the probable areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Peckman River at Ozone Avenue at Verona, New Jersey (station number 01389534). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/.Flood profiles were simulated for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgages on the Peckman River at Ozone Avenue at Verona, New Jersey (station number 01389534) and the Peckman River at Little Falls, New Jersey (station number 01389550). The hydraulic model was then used to compute eight water-surface profiles for flood stages at 0.5-foot (ft) intervals ranging from 3.0 ft or near bankfull to 6.5 ft, which is approximately the highest recorded water level during the period of record (1979–2014) at USGS streamgage 01389534, Peckman River at Ozone Avenue at Verona, New Jersey. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) data to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps along with Internet information regarding current stage from the USGS

  4. Water utilization of the Cretaceous Mussentuchit Member local vertebrate fauna, Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA: Using oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, C.A.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Cifelli, R.L.; Tremain, E.

    2012-01-01

    While the oxygen isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonate has successfully been used to address the effects of global climate change on the hydrologic cycle, detailed regional paleohydrologic studies are lacking. Since the hydrologic cycle can vary extensively on local or regional scales due to events such as such as mountain building, and since pedogenic carbonates (calcite) form in a narrow moisture regime, other proxies, such as vertebrate remains, must be used to decipher local versus regional variations in paleohydrology. In this study, the oxygen isotopic composition (?? 18O p) of phosphatic remains from a diverse set of vertebrate fossils (fish, turtles, crocodiles, dinosaurs, and micro-mammals) from the Mussentuchit Member (MM) of the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA (Aptian to Cenomanian) are analyzed in order to determine differences among the available water reservoirs and water utilization of each taxon. Calculated changes in water reservoir ?? 18O w over time are then used to determine the effects of the incursion of the Western Interior Seaway (WIS) and the Sevier Mountains on paleohydrology during the MM time. Calculation of ?? 18O w from the results of isotopic analysis of phosphate oxygen suggests that turtles and crocodiles serve as another proxy for meteoric water ?? 18O that can be used as a measure of average local precipitation ?? 18O w similar to pedogenic calcite. Pedogenic calcites can be slightly biased toward higher values, however, due to their formation during evaporative conditions. Turtles and crocodiles can be used in place of pedogenic calcite in environments that are not conducive to pedogenic carbonate formation. Remains of fish with rounded tooth morphology have ?? 18O p values that predict temperatures consistent with other estimates of mean annual temperature for this latitude and time. The ?? 18O p of ganoid scales and teeth with pointed morphology, however, indicates that these skeletal materials were precipitated from

  5. Common antigenicity between Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollen, I. H-2 complex affects cross responsiveness to Cry j 1 and Cha o 1 at the T- and B-cell level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingetsu, I; Ohno, N; Hayashi, N; Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S; Saito, S

    2000-04-01

    Common antigenicity among two purified Japanese cedar pollen allergens (Cry j 1 and Cry j 2) and one Japanese cypress pollen allergen (Cha o 1) was explored at the T-cell and B-cell level in mice of different H-2 haplotypes. Cry j 2 did not show any common antigenicity with Cry j 1 or Cha o 1. B10.S (H-2S) mice immunized with Cry j 1 or Cha o 1 generated T cells and antibodies reactive to both antigens, indicating the common antigenicity of these antigens. C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice were non-responders to Cry j 1. BALB/c (H-2d) mice immunized with Cry j 1 or Cha o 1 and C57BL/6 mice immunized with Cha o 1 generated T cells that were only reactive with the respective immunogen, but produced antibody reactive to both Cry j 1 and Cha o 1, indicating that Cry j 1 and Cha o 1 share their B-cell epitope but not their T-cell epitope. This finding may provide a clue for the clarification of the T-cell and B-cell epitopes of Cry j 1 and Cha o 1, even though the data are influenced by H-2 complex restriction in mice. Considering that H-2 complex restriction affects cross responsiveness to Cry j 1 and Cha o 1 at the T- and B-cell level in mice, we assessed the possible situation in humans exposed sequentially to Japanese cedar pollen and Japanese cypress pollen.

  6. Inferring the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring {sup 137}Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu, E-mail: kanasashi.tsutomu@g.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Takenaka, Chisato [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Sugiura, Yuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 765-1 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    fallout of FDNPP. • Japanese cedar leaves and male cones were good indicators for this evaluation. • A higher proportion of ionic {sup 137}Cs was found distributed along eastern Fukushima. • Variations in the ionic ratio of {sup 137}Cs affect its translocation in Japanese cedar. • High uncertainties were found in the calculated values in some sampling sites.

  7. BIOECOLOGICAL BASIS OF SELECTION AND EUROPEAN CEDAR VARIETY TESTING Биоэкологические основы селекции и сортоиспытания кедра европейского

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titov E. V.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines bio ecological properties of the European cedar, important for the selection of the total seed production, principles of selection varieties of clones. A description of the first grade-clone “Carpathian” is given

  8. Common antigenicity between Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollen, II. Determination of the cross-reacting T-cell epitope of cry j 1 and cha o 1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, N; Ide, T; Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S; Saito, S

    2000-04-01

    We have previously detected common antigenicity between Cry j 1 and Cha o 1 in B10.S mice. B10.S mice immunized with Cry j 1- or Cha o 1-generated T cells and antibodies reactive to both allergens. In the present study, we investigated the cross-reacting and Cry j 1-specific T-cell epitopes in B10.S mice. Lymph node cells from B10. S mice immunized with Cry j 1 recognized Cry j 1 p111-130, p211-230, and p310-330 as well as Cha o 1 p209-228. The existence of the cross-reacting T-cell epitope in Cry j 1 and Cha o 1 was confirmed by the response of newly established p211-230-specific and Cha o 1 p209-228-specific T-cell lines. The minimum peptide sequence (p213-224) of the cross-reacting T-cell epitope was identical in Cry j 1 and Cha o 1. These findings clearly demonstrate that common antigenicity at the T-cell level between Japanese cedar and cypress pollen allergens was caused by the existence of an identitical-cell epitope in Cry j 1 and Cha o 1.

  9. Effect of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 [corrected] in relieving clinical symptoms and modulating plasma cytokine levels of Japanese cedar pollinosis during the pollen season. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J Z; Kondo, S; Yanagisawa, N; Takahashi, N; Odamaki, T; Iwabuchi, N; Iwatsuki, K; Kokubo, S; Togashi, H; Enomoto, K; Enomoto, T

    2006-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms have been shown to be effective in the treatment of allergic inflammation and food allergy, but their efficacy remains controversial. This study tested the effect of a yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum BB536 in the treatment of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis). Forty subjects with a clinical history of JCPsis were given yoghurt either containing BB536 (BB536 yoghurt) or without BB536 (placebo yoghurt) at 2 X 100 g per day for 14 weeks, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective symptoms and self-care measures were recorded daily and blood samples were taken before and during the intervention (at weeks 4, 9, and 14) to measure the blood parameter levels related to JCPsis. Yoghurt supplemented with BB536 significantly alleviated eye symptoms compared with placebo yoghurt (odds ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.97; p = 0.044). Although no statistically significant differences were detected, nasal symptoms such as itching, rhinorrhea, and blockage, as well as throat symptoms tended to be relieved with the BB536 yoghurt. BB536 tended to suppress the decreasing blood levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-y) and the increasing blood eosinophil rates; a significantly higher IFN-gamma level was observed for the difference from baseline at week 4. A decreased trend in the difference from baseline levels of JCP-specific IgE levels was also observed at week 4 in the BB536 group compared with the placebo group. In conclusion, these results suggest that intake of BB536-supplemented yoghurt may relieve JCPsis symptoms, probably through a modulating effect on Th balance.

  10. DCS Hydraulics Submission for Cedar County, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  11. Terrain, CEDAR RAPIDS, LINN COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. Floodplain Mapping for Redelineation Submission for Cedar County, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  13. Roads In and Surrounding Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (roads)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains those transportation routes from the Dixie's d2_travel_rte coverage that were calculated road = 'Road'. The Dixie National Forest Road...

  14. Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness Character Monitoring Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The table and the report that follow are part of a national initiative to establish a baseline wilderness character assessment for all of the National Wildlife...

  15. Cedar Grove Historic Cemetry: A Study in Bio-History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-31

    recording: caries, dental attrition, abscessing, calculus deposits, agenesis , and antemortem exfoliation. The procedures for observation and recording...lung inflamation. Although this lesion has been associated with chronic pulmonary tuberculosis (Kelly and Micozzi 1983) other chro- nic lung...the case of Burial 10, pulmonary tuberculosis is a possible diagnosis although other diseases cannot be ruled out. Degenerative: The seventh thoracic

  16. CEDAR RIVER DETAILED HYDRAULICS, LINN COUNTY,IA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  17. Cedar Breaks National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. The Road Inventory of Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To determine the relative needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) was asked to inventory all public access and...

  19. 78 FR 44090 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... freeze on the acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions... INFORMATION: This is a synopsis of the Commission's Notice of Proposed Rule Making, MB Docket No....

  20. OrthoImagery Submission for Cedar County, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — NAIP imagery is available for distribution within 60 days of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current information of agricultural conditions in...

  1. Cedar Project---Original goals and progress to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cybenko, G.; Kuck, D.; Padua, D.; Sameh, A.

    1990-11-28

    This work encompasses a broad attack on high speed parallel processing. Hardware, software, applications development, and performance evaluation and visualization as well as research topics are proposed. Our goal is to develop practical parallel processing for the 1990's.

  2. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, CEDAR COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  3. The Ecology of Atlantic White Cedar Wetlands: A Community Profile.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the profile is to describe the extent, components, functioning, history, and treatment of these wetlands. It is intended to provide a useful reference...

  4. Factors influencing axillary shoot proliferation and adventitious budding in cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau-Morata, Begoña; Ollero, Javier; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2005-04-01

    We developed procedures for in vitro cloning of Cedrus atlantica Manetti and C. libani A. Rich explants from juvenile and mature plants. Explant size was one determinant of the frequency of axillary bud break in both species. Shoot tips and nodal explants mainly developed calli, whereas bud sprouting occurred in defoliated microcuttings cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium without growth regulators. Isolation and continuous subculture of sprouted buds on the same medium allowed cloning of microcuttings from C. atlantica and C. libani seedlings and bicentennial C. libani trees, thus providing a desirable alternative for multiplying mature trees that have demonstrated superior characteristics. We also report adventitious bud differentiation from isolated embryos of C. atlantica. Neither auxin treatments nor other methods tested, including infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, were effective in inducing root initiation.

  5. 15 CFR 754.4 - Unprocessed western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... harvest or produce the timber, the records or statement must identify the harvester or producer and must be accompanied by an identical statement from the harvester or producer. If any intermediate party or... States Forest Service, that: (A) Specifies the quantity in cubic meters or board feet, scribner rule,...

  6. Meteorological, biological, and hydrographic data collected from Cedar Point Fishing Pier, Cedar Point, Alabama from 04/04/2008 - 12/31/2013 (NODC Accession 0117373)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Mobile County to provide...

  7. Environmental Assessment: Lake Yankton Fish Population Renovation Project Yankton County, South Dakota and Cedar County, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    negative impacts from non-native species such as common carp. Long-term benefits to native vegetation at Lake due to the reduction of carp and...Samples for chlorophyll a exceeded the criteria for eastern impounded waters in 80% of the samples collected. Lake Yankton Fish Population Renovation...amphibians, fish, and other wildlife. A potential added benefit to rotenone treatments is the impacts to and elimination of bullfrog tadpoles, reducing

  8. Coastal Mapping Program Project FL1305: CEDAR KEY TO CLEARWATER, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also supports...

  9. Suwannee river basin and estuary integrated science workshop: September 22-24, 2004 Cedar Key, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian; Raabe, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    In response to the growing number of environmental concerns in the mostly pristine Suwannee River Basin and the Suwannee River Estuary system, the States of Florida and Georgia, the Federal government, and other local organizations have identified the Suwannee River as an ecosystem in need of protection because of its unique biota and important water resources. Organizations with vested interests in the region formed a coalition, the Suwannee Basin Interagency Alliance (SBIA), whose goals are to promote coordination in the identification, management, and scientific knowledge of the natural resources in the basin and estuary. To date, an integrated assessment of the physical, biological, and water resources has not been completed. A holistic, multi-disciplinary approach is being pursued to address the research needs in the basin and estuary and to provide supportive data for meeting management objectives of the entire ecosystem. The USGS is well situated to focus on the larger concerns of the basin and estuary by addressing specific research questions linking water supply and quality to ecosystem function and health across county and state boundaries. A strategic plan is being prepared in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies to identify and implement studies to address the most compelling research issues and management questions, and to conduct fundamental environmental monitoring studies. The USGS, Suwannee River Water Management District and the Florida Marine Research Institute are co-sponsoring this scientific workshop on the Suwannee River Basin and Estuary to: Discuss current and past research findings, Identify information gaps and research priorities, and Develop an action plan for coordinated and relevant research activities in the future. This workshop builds on the highly successful basin-wide conference sponsored by the Suwannee Basin Interagency Alliance that was held three years ago in Live Oak, Florida. This years workshop will focus on identifying information needs and priorities and developing partnerships. The USGS is seeking to define the role of the USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) in conducting integrated research in the Suwannee River Basin, and to establish a cooperative program with other agencies. Participants interested in river, floodplain, springs, estuary, or basin-wide issues are encouraged to attend. Topics for this years workshop include: Water quality and geochemistry: nutrient enrichment, reduction of nutrient loading to ground water, contaminants, and land use, Hydrogeology: interactions among ground water, surface water and ecosystem, modeling, and baseline mapping, Ecosystem dynamics: structure, process, species, and habitats (estuarine, riverine, floodplain, and wetland), and Information management: data sharing, database development, geographic information system (GIS), and basin-wide models.

  10. Mining the Midden: A Facility for Dynamic Waste Harvesting at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Aaron

    Mining the Midden intends to re-frame the sanitary landfill as a new typology of public land containing an embodied energy of cultural and material value. By reconnecting the public with the landfill and seriously exposing its layers of history and then digesting both mined and new waste within an industrial facility of materials recovery and plasma gasification technology waste-to-energy plant. The sequence of experience for a public visitor begins where the waste is transformed to energy and flows in the opposite direction of the trash through the facility and then into the active landfill mining operation which is the large site component of the project. The mine is flanked by the visitor path, which is suspended from the soldier piles of the excavation system and allows the visitor to interpret along the 1/3 mile path their personal connection to the waste stream and the consumption patterns which drive our waste. Interpretation results from multi-sensory experience of the open mine and its connection to the processing structure as one hovers above, through moments of seeing through structural glass lagging directly into the sectional cut of the landfill, and through cultural artifacts harvested by landfill archaeologists which are displayed in rhythm with the structure and lagging. The culmination of the prescribed path is a narrow cut which frames the view of Mt. Rainier in the distance and opens up a visual connection with the remaining majority of the landfill which have up to this point been blocked by the small mountain of trash which they just walked up and through. This thesis intends that by confronting people with the juxtapositions of 2 potentially destructive mounds or mountains, and how we as a culture value and protect land while we simultaneously dump our rubbish on other lands, this experience will make the visitor more conscious of ones personal contribution to our culture of disposable commodities.

  11. Two Thirds of Forest Walkers with Japanese Cedar Pollinosis Visit Forests even During the Pollen Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Morita

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: These results revealed that two thirds of forest walkers who had experienced JCP visited forests even during the pollen season. This indicates the further need for public service announcements informing people with JCP that the risk of pollen exposure and subsequent JCP reaction is increased by visiting forested areas during the pollen season.

  12. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, CEDAR COUNTY AND INCORPORATED AREAS, MO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  13. Cedar Breaks National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project - True Color Aerial Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Color aerial photography was collected, in stereo with 60 percent forward overlap and 40 percent side overlap on 6-27-02. The flight height was 20,000 feet above...

  14. Cedar Creek Belle Grove National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. The Relationship between Pollen Count Levels and Prevalence of Japanese Cedar Pollinosis in Northeast Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Honda

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that pollen count levels may correlate with the rate of sensitization for JC pollinosis, but may not affect the rate of onset among sensitized children in northeast Japan.

  16. PRODUCTIVITY OF AUSTRALIAN CEDAR MINISTUMPS AND NUTRIENTS REMOVAL BY SUCCESSIVE COLLECTION OF MINICUTTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sobreira de Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813324The management of ministumps to produce minicuttings results in the continuous removal of nutrients andit is necessary replacement to avoid depletion and decline in production. Thus, it is necessary to determinethe amount of nutrients removed over time, in different management models, to enable commercial mulproduction.The objective of this study was to evaluate two minigarden multiclonal systems of Toonaciliata, in plastic tubes and bed, for productivity and nutrients removal over time by ministumps, producedby seeds, submitted to successive collections of minicuttings. One hundred and eighty-six seedlings wereused in each management system. In this paper, it was determined the nutrient content in shoots issued by20 ministumps randomly selected in each system. Five shoots were collected at intervals of 32 days in bedsystem, while in the plastic tubes system three shoots were collected at intervals of 31 days. The data wereanalyzed by a sample simple random considering an infinite population of minicuttings. The qualitativetreatment average was compared by confidence interval using the Student t test, 5% probability, and thequantitative treatment (productivity and nutrients removed in time by ministumps by regression. It hasbeen found that the productivity and nutrient contents removed by ministumps in bed were higher than inthe plastic tubes. Nitrogen and potassium are the nutrients most removed by ministumps in both systems.Here, it was presented the curves corresponding to the nutrients exported, to estimate the replacement thatwill be made in each system over time.

  17. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis sp. nov., a Dark Septate Endophytic Fungus from a Cedar Forest in Ibaraki, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Diene, Ousmane; Wang, Wei; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    A dark septate fungus of Pseudosigmoidea, Hyphomycetes, was recovered from forest soil in Ibaraki prefecture, Japan. The isolate is characterized by pale to brown conidia with up to 8 septa measuring 68–132 × 4–7.9 μm. It is also unique in producing conidia borne by long conidogenious cells in agar medium with or without water, compared to P. cranei, which must be immersed in water to sporulate. Morphological analysis indicated that the isolate is distinct from P. cranei and is described as a...

  18. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis sp. nov., a dark septate endophytic fungus from a cedar forest in Ibaraki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diene, Ousmane; Wang, Wei; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    A dark septate fungus of Pseudosigmoidea, Hyphomycetes, was recovered from forest soil in Ibaraki prefecture, Japan. The isolate is characterized by pale to brown conidia with up to 8 septa measuring 68-132 × 4-7.9 mm. It is also unique in producing conidia borne by long conidogenious cells in agar medium with or without water, compared to P. cranei, which must be immersed in water to sporulate. Morphological analysis indicated that the isolate is distinct from P. cranei and is described as a new species, P. ibarakiensis sp. nov. Pathogenicity tests of Chinese cabbage and cucumber seedlings indicated that the fungus grows as an endophyte and colonizes, inter and intracellularly, the root epidermal and cortical layers without causing apparent disease symptoms in the host. This endophyte showed the ability to support cucumber plant growth under conditions where NaNO3 was replaced by organic nitrogen but also conferred to Chinese cabbage the ability to grow at low pH. It also became successfully established in six other plants, including the Brassicae, Solanaceae, Poaceae, and Liliacea families, suggesting its adaptability to a broad range of host plants.

  19. Japanese cedar pollen in floating indoor house dust after a pollinating season

    OpenAIRE

    Tadao Enomoto; Shigeo Onishi; Hideyo Sogo; Yoshihiro Dake; Hiroki Ikeda; Hiroko Funakoshi; Akira Shibano; Takema Sakoda

    2004-01-01

    Background: Approximately 16.2% of the Japanese population suffers from pollinosis. One of the forms of management is self-care (preventive care), which can be categorized as 'indoor' and 'outdoor'. Outdoor self-care is usually emphasized, but indoor self-care is also important. Considerable pollen is found in indoor dust and this is thought to be one of the factors that worsens pollinosis and enables it to persistent for a long time, even after the pollinating period has finished. Taking thi...

  20. Patterns of Drug Prescription for Japanese Cedar Pollinosis Using a Clinical Vignette Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goro Takahashi

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: Our investigation suggested that, compared to ENTs, GPs and IMs have a lower tendency to concomitantly prescribe drugs for localized treatment such as nasal corticosteroids and eye drops with oral medication. There may be differences in prescription patterns of drugs for pollinosis between ENTs and non-specialist physicians.

  1. In vitro storage of cedar shoot cultures under minimal growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau-Morata, Begoña; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2006-07-01

    We developed procedures for slow-growth storage of Cedrus atlantica and Cedrus libani microcuttings of juvenile and adult origin, noting factors favouring the extension of subculture intervals. Microcuttings could be stored effectively up to 6 months at 4 degrees C and reduced light intensity, provided that they were grown on a diluted modified MS medium. The addition of 6% mannitol to the storage media affected negatively survival and multiplication capacity of the cultures. The slow-growth storage conditions used in our experiments did not induce remarkable effects on both RAPD variability and average DNA methylation in the species.

  2. Atlantic White Cedar Wetland Restoration Project : Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes activities and findings for a pollution reduction by restoring wetland hydrology and vegetation in Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge. A...

  3. The CEDAR Project: Harmonizing the Dutch Historical censuses in the Semantic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashkpour, Ashkan; Meroño-Peñuela, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Historical censuses are on the most consulted, reliable and large scale statistical data sources available which give an insight in the population characteristics of a nation: they provide a wealth of data on many issues in the course of time at the demographic, social and economic level. In the Net

  4. Uptake and translocation of radiocesium in cedar leaves following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro; Watanabe, Mirai; Koshikawa, Masami K; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Ishii, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko; Takenaka, Akio; Watanabe, Keiji; Hayashi, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica trees in the area surrounding Fukushima, Japan, intercepted (137)Cs present in atmospheric deposits soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. To study the uptake and translocation of (137)Cs in C. japonica leaves, we analyzed activity concentrations of (137)Cs and the concentration ratios of (137)Cs to (133)Cs ((137)Cs/(133)Cs) in old and new leaves of C. japonica collected from a forest on Mount Tsukuba between 9 and 15 months after the accident. Both isotopes were also analyzed in throughfall, bulk precipitation and soil extracts. Water of atmospheric and soil origin were used as proxies for deciphering the absorption from leaf surfaces and root systems, respectively. Results indicate that 20-40% of foliar (137)Cs existed inside the leaf, while 60-80% adhered to the leaf surface. The (137)Cs/(133)Cs ratios inside leaves that had sprouted before the accident were considerably higher than that of the soil extract and lower than that of throughfall and bulk precipitation. Additionally, more than 80% of (137)Cs in throughfall and bulk precipitation was present in the dissolved form, which is available for foliar uptake, indicating that a portion of the (137)Cs inside old leaves was presumably absorbed from the leaf surface. New leaves that sprouted after the accident had similar (137)Cs/(133)Cs ratios to that of the old leaves, suggesting that internal (137)Cs was translocated from old to new leaves. For 17 species of woody plants other than C. japonica, new leaves that sprouted after the accident also contained (137)Cs, and their (137)Cs/(133)Cs ratios were equal to or higher than that of the soil extract. These results suggested that foliar uptake and further translocation of (137)Cs is an important vector of contamination in various tree species during or just after radioactive fallout.

  5. Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the back-end data file for the Ceder Keys Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use (see...

  6. 77 FR 49401 - Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie... restrict vessel traffic during the swim portion of the Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, OH... later notice in the Federal Register. B. Basis and Purpose Each year, the Revolution 3 Triathlon...

  7. 76 FR 55564 - Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Revolution 3 Triathlon. This temporary... a triathlon event. DATES: This rule is effective from 6 to 11 a.m. on September 11, 2011....

  8. 75 FR 55477 - Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie & Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie... Point Triathlon. The temporary safety zone is necessary to protect participants of the swim portion of the triathlon race from potential hazards from vessels operating in the area. DATES: This rule...

  9. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  10. 75 FR 55344 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Cedar City Field Office, Utah, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    .... The issues include: Renewable energy development for geothermal, wind, and solar power; management of rights-of-way for renewable energy and other uses; visual resource management; evaluation of potential... climate change. 4. Areas potentially suitable for ACECs and other special management designations will...

  11. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, West Sister Island NWR) : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for the Ottawa NWR Complex provides a description of the Complex, FWS inventory policies, FWS objectives, and Refuge objectives. A list...

  12. FWS National Wildlife Refuge System : Wilderness Fellows Report on Wilderness Character Monitoring : Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the completed effort of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wilderness Fellows program to develop a monitoring strategy and evaluate the status of...

  13. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki, E-mail: ebitani@jaist.ac.jp [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Miyazato, Akio [Nanotechnology Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: <0.1 wt%, O: 46.8 wt% and H{sub 2}O: 18.4 wt%, and served a good calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg. The spectroscopic and mass analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, {sup 13}C-NMR and FT-ICR MS supported that the bio-oil was composed by the fine mixtures of methoxy phenols and variety of alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously.

  14. Forest canopy interception loss exceeds wet canopy evaporation in Japanese cypress (Hinoki) and Japanese cedar (Sugi) plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takami; Matsuda, Hiroki; Komatsu, Misako; Xiang, Yang; Takahashi, Atsuhiro; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2013-12-01

    Physical process of canopy interception loss remains to be explained.Rainfall partitioning to interception was similar between the stands.The rate of interception increased with rainfall intensity.Observed amount of interception was greater than estimated amount of evaporation.We suggest that splash droplets transport by canopy ventilation is the primary process of interception loss.

  15. Proposed additions to the National Wilderness Preservation System : Part 18 : Mattamuskeet Wilderness - Swanquarter Wilderness - Cedar Island Wilderness - Pea Island Wilderness

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is one of the Presidential Transmittals proposing additions to the National Wilderness Preservation System. This particular transmittal focuses on the...

  16. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): 1995 Annual Water Management Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Water Management Plan provides guidelines for water levels during impoundment rehabilitation, moist soil plant production, and spring and fall migrations...

  17. Comprehensive survey of 3,000 acres of Atlantic white cedar clearcut tracts on the Dare County Peninsula, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to perform extensive regeneration surveys on 3,000 acres of land held by the U.S. Air Force Dare County Bombing Range and Alligator...

  18. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, West Sister Island NWR) : Marsh, Water, Moist Soil Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Marsh, Water, and Moist Soil Management Plan for the Ottawa NWR Complex provides an introduction to the Complex and provides background information on Annual...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Cedar west parcels, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as...

  20. Long-term biomonitoring of a produced water discharge from the Cedar Cove degasification field, Alabama. January 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, P.E.; Harris, S.C.; Mettee, M.F.; McGregor, S.W.; Shepard, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Development of coalbed methane has become a major industry for the state of Alabama. In excess of 1,300 wells were producing methane by the end of July 1990. A byproduct of methane production is produced water containing elevated concentrations of chloride, sodium, iron and bicarbonate. These waters are currently permitted for discharge into streams or as a land application. The purpose of the study was to examine the long-term impacts of produced waters to streams relative to water-quality changes and aquatic biological effects. Distinct water-quality changes in the receiving stream were documented and consisted primarily of increased dissolved solids, changes in the pH regime and changes in the carbonate buffering system. In contrast, no significant or consistent detrimental change in the structure or function of the stream biological community could be detected. Subtle changes in biological community structure and composition were noted and most likely due to effects associated with algal productivity in settling lagoons. These changes, however, were within the boundaries of variation typically observed for the communities. Based on the results of this and earlier studies, it was concluded that the national water-quality criterion for chloride was protective of stream life as examined in the study.

  1. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 1991 Annual Water Management Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Water Management Plan provides guidelines for water levels during rehabilitation of moist soil units after major dike renovation and continued warm...

  2. Investigation of Nano Particles Efficiency Prepared from Cedar Fly Ash (Zizyphus Spinachristi for Lead (Pb+2 Removal from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Divband

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Existence of Heavy metals in water resources is one of the most important environmental problems in many countries. These metals have dangerous effects on human health. The purpose of this study is  to investigate and compare lead removal by nanometer and millimeter absorbents of Zizyphus Spinachristi fly ash.Materials and Methods: This study was non-continuous experiment which was implemented under laboratory conditions with and by changing effective factors such as pH (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, contact time (5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 minutes and adsorbent concentration (1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg/ L. The data was fitted based on four models including Ho et al, Lagergern, Lungmuir and Freundlich which the first two models used for absorption kinetic and the latter two considered as absorption isotherm.Results: The Result of this study showed that as the pH increases from 3 to 5 adsorption efficiency increased as well. Furthermore, when pH was over 5, the metal ions settled down. With increasing contact time, adsorption efficiency increased as well. With increasing the amount of nanometer as an adsorbent, removal efficiency increased and then decreased. Also the adsorption process followed precisely Ho et al kinetic and Langmuir isotherm, for both absorbents. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, specific area of the nano particles was more than millimeter particles (29.56 m2/g & 17.80 m2/g, therefore adsorption capacity of nano absorbent was four times more than adsorption capacity of millimeter (19.93 mg/g & 17.80 mgr/g. Furthermore, the findings concluded high capability of nano particles towards Sorption of lead ions (Pb from aqueous solutions. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. Test Excavations at the Cedar Grove Site (3LA97): A Late Caddo Farmstead on the Red River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    data will be recovered by the excavation and recovery techniques discussed above. The following topics (geomorphology, lithic analysis , ceramic...significant bearing on any assessment of the subsistence and settlement ecology of the site’s inhabitants. 101 Lithic analysis Stone artifacts, debitage, and

  4. Environmental Assessment for Atlantic White Cedar Restoration Project at Dare County Range, Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    occur in marshes, slow-moving streams and manmade canals . They prefer areas where the water turbidity is low and the water quality is high, with the...activities, to include construction of roads, canals , administrative facilities and impact areas, totals approximately 5,400 acres, or roughly 11.77 percent...h::dcral Dredge and Fil ! Permit Application must be subrniucd and permi’t received p1ior h) construction and operation ol’tbe source. lfa permit is

  5. Meteorological and hydrographic data collected from Cedar Point Station near Dauphin Island, Alabama from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0140929)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Mobile County to provide real-time...

  6. Functional Expression. Ephrin Receptor Tropism, and Heterotypic Functionality of the Attachment and Fusion Glycoproteins of Cedar Virus, a Newly Discovered Henipavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    C and 5% CO2 in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) with 10% cosmic calf serum (CCS) (Hyclone, Logan, UT), 1000 units/ml penicillin ...Bangladesh in 2001 and 2003. A retrospective study showed that risk factors included exposure to sick cows, and close contact with an infected person...found in the serum of three Pteropus fruit bat species and one H. larvatus insectivorous bat. Additionally, NiV RNA was found in the saliva of P

  7. Developing a Long-Term Forest Gap Model to Predict the Behavior of California Pines, Oaks, and Cedars Under Climate Change and Other Disturbance Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. L.; Moran, E.

    2015-12-01

    Many predictions about how trees will respond to climate change have been made, but these often rely on extrapolating into the future one of two extremes: purely correlative factors like climate, or purely physiological factors unique to a particular species or plant functional group. We are working towards a model that combines both phenotypic and genotypic traits to better predict responses of trees to climate change. We have worked to parameterize a neighborhood dynamics, individual tree forest-gap model called SORTIE-ND, using open data from both the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory & Analysis (FIA) datasets in California and 30-yr old permanent plots established by the USGS. We generated individual species factors including stage-specific mortality and growth rates, and species-specific allometric equations for ten species, including Abies concolor, A. magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus contorta, P. jeffreyi, P. lambertiana, P. monticola, P. ponderosa, and the two hardwoods Quercus chrysolepis and Q. kelloggii. During this process, we also developed two R packages to aid in parameter development for SORTIE-ND in other ecological systems. MakeMyForests is an R package that parses FIA datasets and calculates parameters based on the state averages of growth, light, and allometric parameters. disperseR is an R package that uses extensive plot data, with individual tree, sapling, and seedling measurements, to calculate finely tuned mortality and growth parameters for SORTIE-ND. Both are freely available on GitHub, and future updates will be available on CRAN. To validate the model, we withheld several plots from the 30-yr USGS data while calculating parameters. We tested for differences between the actual withheld data and the simulated forest data, in basal area, seedling density, seed dispersal, and species composition. The similarity of our model to the real system suggests that the model parameters we generated with our R packages accurately represent the system, and that our model can be extended to include changes in precipitation, temperature, and disturbance with very little manipulaton. We hope that our examples, R package development, and SORTIE-ND module development will enable other ecologists to utilize SORTIE-ND to predict changes in local and important ecoystems around the world.

  8. The Cedar Project: resilience in the face of HIV vulnerability within a cohort study involving young Indigenous people who use drugs in three Canadian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Margo E.; Jongbloed, Kate A.; Richardson, Chris G.; Henderson, Earl W.; Pooyak, Sherri D.; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Christian, Wunuxtsin M.; Schechter, Martin T.; Spittal, Patricia M.; ,

    2015-01-01

    Background Indigenous scholars have long argued that it is critical for researchers to identify factors related to cultural connectedness that may protect against HIV and hepatitis C infection and buffer the effects of historical and lifetime trauma among young Indigenous peoples. To our knowledge, no previous epidemiological studies have explored the effect of historical and lifetime traumas, cultural connectedness, and risk factors on resilience among young, urban Indigenous people who use ...

  9. Master Plan for Cedar Rapids Riverfront, Iowa%爱荷华州锡达拉皮兹市滨河总体规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasaki设计事务所; 刘姝

    2014-01-01

    爱荷华州锡达拉皮兹市在2008年遭遇一场大洪水侵袭,灾后Sasaki设计事务所为该市制定的滨河总体规划成为城市与区域复兴的载体成干上万的参与者对城市公园和休闲需求提出反馈意见,并最终形成综合整体规划,该规划描绘了一幅引领锡达河沿岸未来数年投资决策的蓝图.

  10. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge, and West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (ONWRC) describes current hydrologic information,...

  11. Simultaneous measurements from the Millstone Hill radar and the Active satellite during the SAID/SAR arc event of the March 1990 CEDAR storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Förster

    Full Text Available During a nearby passage of the Active satellite above the Millstone Hill radar on 21 March 1990 at local sunset, the satellite and the radar performed simultaneous measurements of upper ionospheric parameters in nearly the same spatial volume. For this purpose the radar carried out a special azimuth-elevation scan to track the satellite. Direct comparisons of radar data and in situ satellite measurements have been carried out quite rarely. In this case, the coincidence of co-ordinated measurements and active ionospheric-magnetospheric processes during an extended storm recovery phase presents a unique occasion resulting in a very valuable data set. The measurements show generally good agreement both during quiet prestorm and storm conditions and the combination of radar and satellite observations gives a more comprehensive picture of the physical processes involved. We find a close relationship between the rapid westward ion drift peak at subauroral latitudes (SAID event and the occurrence of a stable auroral red (SAR arc observed after sunset by an all-sky imager and reported in an earlier study of this event. The SAID electric field is caused by the penetration of energetic ions with energies between about 1 keV and 100 keV into the outer plasmasphere to a latitude equatorward of the extent of the plasmasheet electrons. Charge separation results in the observed polarisation field and the SAID. Unusually high molecular ion densities measured by the satellite at altitudes of 700-870 km at subauroral and auroral latitudes point on strong upward-directed ion acceleration processes and an intense neutral gas upwelling. These structures are collocated with a narrow trough in electron density and an electron temperature peak as observed simultaneously by the radar and the satellite probes.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; plasma temperature and density; Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere.

  12. Effects of exposure to agricultural drainage ditch water on survivorship, distribution, and abundnance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) in headwater streams of the Cedar Creek watershed, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffle Beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) require very good water quality, mature streams with riffle habitat, and high dissolved oxygen content. As such, they prove to be good indicators of ecological health in agricultural headwater streams. We conducted static renewal aquatic bioassays using water fro...

  13. Japanese Cedar (Chamaecyparis obtusa) Grown in China%日本扁柏生物学及其引种研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江泽平; 王豁然

    2000-01-01

    日本扁柏是优良用材、荒山绿化和园林观赏树种,世界各国广为引种栽培,已成为我国长江中下游地区中、高山地带的重要造林树种.对其地理分布、生物生态学特性、栽培技术等进行了研究总结.结果表明,日本扁柏是一个喜温暖湿润的浅根性树种,生长快,适应性强,繁殖容易,病虫害少.适合中性至微酸性土壤,可耐-25 ℃低温.较喜光,幼时稍耐庇荫.春季日均温大于10℃时开始萌动,超过15℃时开始生长;生长具明显的坡向和坡位效应;树高速生期为10~20 a,>50 cm.a-1;胸径速生期20~30 a,>0.6 cm.a-1;材积速生期30~40 a.可进行种子或扦插繁殖,结实有丰歉年,种子发芽率30%~40%.造林密度为2 500~4 500株.hm-2,以不超过3 000株.hm-2为好.目前我国引种栽培日本扁柏的主要问题是:(1)遗传基础狭窄,需引进更多的种源和家系;(2)大多为纯林,易导致地力衰退.

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Cedar City Parcel Lines, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as...

  15. 'Benifuuki' Green Tea Containing O-Methylated Catechin Reduces Symptoms of Japanese Cedar Pollinosis: A Randomized, Double- Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawako Masuda

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: 'Benifuuki' green tea containing a large amount of O-methylated EGCG reduced the symptoms of JCP and has potential as a complementary/alternative medicine for treating seasonal allergic rhinitis.

  16. NITROGEN INTERACTIONS AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC RESPONSES TO CO{sub 2}: WORK PLAN FOR BIOCON EXPERIMENT/PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS AT CEDAR CREEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLSWORTH,D.

    1998-12-31

    Nitrogen plays a critical role in photosynthetic function, which in turn can affect many ecosystem processes through its effects on plant growth and ecosystem carbon cycles. As a result of its central role in photosynthetic enzymes, leaf N status can affect the magnitude of photosynthetic enhancement by elevated CO{sub 2}. It is now well-recognized that species responses to elevated CO{sub 2} may be different when species are grown in isolation vs. in a mixed community. Part of this effect may result from effects on leaf N itself as a result of species competition for N in N-limited ecosystems, and pad of the effect is simply a function of dilution of leaf nutrients in leaves with greater carbohydrates as a result of elevated CO{sub 2}, However, photosynthetic efficiency itself may be affected if N-limited plants reallocate N within leaves away from carboxylation functions under elevated CO{sub 2} compared to ambient plants (Drake et al. 1997). Thus while there is cause to believe that there are interactive effects of N and CO{sub 2} on species photosynthetic physiology, there is little experimental data to support or reject this idea, particularly in realistic ecosystems under field conditions. Biotic interactions, most notably the presence of N-fixing plants, can affect ecosystem N stocks and carbon cycling via effects of N on photosynthetic function (Chapin et al. 1997, Hooper and Vitousek 1997). If photosynthetic responses of leaves and ecosystems are largely mediated through canopy N, then biotic as well as inorganic N sources will affect the magnitude of these responses. Under elevated CO{sub 2} there is evidence from the Swiss FACE experiment that growth and photosynthetic function are most responsive to CO{sub 2} in species mixtures including N-fixers (Hebeisin et al. 1997, Liischer et al. 1998, S.P. Long, pers. comm.). However, in that experiment there were confounding management factors and species diversity effects per se could not be tested. Still, photosynthetic studies showed that CO{sub 2}-induced photosynthetic adjustments in the Swiss FACE experiment were greater under low N and in monocultures than in the mixture of grasses and the N-fixing species clover (S.P. Long, pers. comm.). Effects of species diversity and N-fixers in specific on plant CO{sub 2} responses in interaction with N have important implications for predicting ecosystem responses to elevated CO{sub 2} under a variety of site conditions, and may also temper management for mitigation of ecosystem CO{sub 2} responses.

  17. Nitrogen Interactions and Photosynthetic Responses to CO{sub 2}: Work Plan for Biocon Experiment/Physiological Measurements at Cedar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth, D.

    1998-12-31

    Nitrogen plays a critical role in photosynthetic function, which in turn can affect many ecosystem processes through its effects on plant growth and ecosystem carbon cycles. As a result of its central role in photosynthetic enzymes, leaf N status can affect the magnitude of photosynthetic enhancement by elevated CO{sub 2}. It is now well-recognized that species responses to elevated CO{sub 2} may be different when species are grown in isolation vs. in a mixed community. Part of this effect may result from effects on leaf N itself as a result of species competition for N in N-limited ecosystems, and part of the effect is simply a function of dilution of leaf nutrients in leaves with greater carbohydrates as a result of elevated CO{sub 2}. However, photosynthetic efficiency itself may be affected if N-limited plants reallocate N within leaves away from carboxylation functions under elevated CO{sub 2} compared to ambient plants (Drake et al. 1997). Thus while there is cause to believe that there are interactive effects of N and CO{sub 2} on species photosynthetic physiology, there is little experimental data to support or reject this idea, particularity in realistic ecosystems under field conditions.

  18. Stockton Lake Wimmer Collections. Analysis of Prehistoric Artifacts Collected by Howard R. Wimmer from Archeological Sites in the Stockton Lake Project, Cedar and Dade Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Part 4, Mississippian System. Missouri Geological Survey Report of Investigations No. 70. Rolla. Tringham, Ruth, Glenn Cooper, Barbara Votek and Anne...proximal (Stone Squre 1 5.5 Stemmed var.) Bifacial knife proximal (Mantall-Pke) 1 7.6 Broken horizontaly and vertically. Bif.cial end • carper 1 7.3 A

  19. 33 CFR 334.200 - Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degrees 09 minutes 26 seconds identified as Hannibal Target. (3) The regulations. Nonexplosive projectiles and bombs will be dropped at frequent intervals in the target areas. Hooper and Hannibal target...

  20. 76 FR 9359 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal and Opportunity for Public Meeting; Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Panhandle National Forest from mining to protect the Settler's Grove of Ancient Cedars Recreation Area near... Settler's Grove of Ancient Cedars Roadless Recreation Area. This proposed withdrawal covers the same...

  1. 25 CFR 309.12 - What are examples of basketry that are Indian products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to, birchbark, black ash, brown ash, red cedar, yellow cedar, alder, vine maple, willow, palmetto..., willow burden baskets, honeysuckle sewing baskets, black ash picnic baskets, cedar capes and dresses... hats, fiber basket hats, yucca wicker basketry plaques, and spruce root tobacco pouches....

  2. 78 FR 12084 - Public Land Order No. 7809; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Settler's Grove of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Settler's Grove of Ancient Cedars Botanical and Recreation Area; ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... one of the few remaining stands of old- growth western red cedar trees in the Settler's Grove of... protection of the Settler's Grove of Ancient Cedars Botanical and Recreation Area. ] Order By virtue of...

  3. Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island: Integrated Natural Resources Program Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    chinaberry, Chinese tallow , salt cedar, and cogon grass • 70 acres of salt cedar killed at DDA to limit the potential to spread to adjacent areas...rrycodominant: Chinese Tallow oodominant D anna~rry codominant: Chinese Tallow scatle£ed CJ Olmese Tallow scattered - Cogan Gmss - Salt Cedar scatte<ed

  4. Effects of antihistamine on up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled cedar pollen challenge in an environmental exposure unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Hideyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Sakoda, Takema; Enomoto, Tadao; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of antihistamine on the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled exposure to pollen using an environmental exposure unit. Out of 20 patients, we designated 14 responders, whose levels of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa were increased after the first pollen exposure and excluded 6 non-responders. Accordingly, the first exposure to pollen without treatment significantly induced both nasal symptoms and the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of the responders. Subsequently, prophylactic administration of antihistamine prior to the second pollen exposure significantly inhibited both of the above effects in the responders. Moreover, the nasal expression of H1R mRNA before the second pollen exposure in the responders pretreated with antihistamine was significantly decreased, as compared with that before the first pollen exposure without treatment. These findings suggest that antihistamines suppressed histamine-induced transcriptional activation of H1R gene in the nasal mucosa, in addition to their blocking effect against histamine on H1R, resulting in a decrease of nasal symptoms. These findings further suggest that by their inverse agonistic activity, antihistamines suppress the basal transcription of nasal H1R in the absence of histamine in responders.

  5. Impact of High Temperature Treatment on Cedar Volatile Organic Compounds of Cedrus deodara%高温热处理对香柏木挥发性有机物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕欢; 关健; 赵紫剑; 伊松林

    2015-01-01

    采用动态顶空进样-气相色谱-质谱联用法(DHS -GS -MS)分析不同处理温度(140、160、180、200℃)、不同处理时间(2 h 和3 h)条件下,香柏木挥发性有机物成分及其相对含量的变化。结果表明:对香柏木素材50种目标成分进行分析,萜烯类化合物含量最多,占57.03%;其他成分依次为芳香族类化合物31.67%,醇类化合物5.93%,醛类化合物1.08%,酯类化合物1.01%,酮类化合物0.91%。随着处理温度的升高,芳香族类化合物和醇类化合物相对含量呈下降趋势,萜烯类化合物相对含量呈上升趋势;随着处理时间的增长,芳香族类化合物和萜烯类化合物相对含量呈先增加后减小的趋势,醇类化合物相对含量呈先减小后增加的趋势。%Dynamic Headspace Sampling combined with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (DHS-GC-MS)was applied to analyze the changes of the components and relative content of volatile organic com-pounds of Cedrus deodara with high temperature treatment.The treatment was conducted at different tempera-tures (140 ℃,160 ℃,180 ℃ and 200 ℃),with different processing time (2 h and 3 h).The results showed that 50 kinds of main components in untreated Cedrus deodara were identified,and terpenoids,aro-matic compounds,alcohols,aldehydes,esters compounds,and ketones accounted for 57.03%,3 1.67%, 5.93%,1.08%,1.01 % and 0.9 1 %,respectively.The relative contents of aromatic compounds and alco-hols decreased along with the increase of the temperature,while terpenoids increased with the increase of the temperature.The relative contents of aromatic compounds and terpenoids decreased along with the increase of time,which was contrary to that of alcohols.

  6. Cross-reactivity between major IgE core epitopes on Cry j 2 allergen of Japanese cedar pollen and relevant sequences on Cha o 2 allergen of Japanese cypress pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Miyaji

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: We demonstrated the importance of 169KVVNGRTV176 in Cha o 2 for cross-reactivity with the Cry j 2 epitope 169KWVNGREI176, which plays an important role in allergenicity in CJ pollinosis. Our results are useful for the development of safer and more efficient therapeutic strategies for the treatment of CJ and CO pollen allergies.

  7. A preliminary study of growth model fitting of individual standing tree of Chinese cedar%柳杉单立木生长模型拟合的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓云

    2004-01-01

    采用Richards、Logistci、Mitschdrlich、Gompertz、Modifide-Weibull等5种生长函数对柳杉的直径、树高、材积三个因子生长过程进行拟合以确定其适宜的生长模型.得出:Richards和Gompertz生长函数较适宜柳杉单木生长过程的拟合,而Richards生长函数则在生长过程的拟合和预测两方面都佳.

  8. Quality cedar seedlings in function of the use of fertilizers and containers with different sizes = Qualidade de mudas de cedro em função da utilização de fertilizantes e recipientes de diferentes tamanhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique de Castro Pias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of quality seedlings, together with low costs, is critical to the success of forestry projects. Accordingly, choosing the correct source of fertilizer and type of container is essential. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate the quality of seedlings of Cedrela fissilis, known locally as cedro-rosa, resulting from the use of fertilizers and containers of different sizes. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme (containers of different sizes x sources of fertilizer, with three replications. The containers being tested were plastic pots (3,000 cm 3, plastic bags (1,000 cm 3 and tubes (175 cm 3. The sources of fertilizer were Osmocote® , Kimcoat® and conventional. The following evaluations of the seedlings were carried out 90 days after transplanting: height, stem diameter, leaf area, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and total dry weight. These variables were used to calculate the Dickson quality index. Seedlings grown in plastic pots or in plastic bags displayed the best quality, although the former presented higher values. The highest levels of quality for the seedlings of cedro-rosa were provided by the Osmocote® fertilizer, however values did not differ from the conventional source of fertilizer. With a view to reducing production costs for seedlings of cedro-rosa, the use of plastic bags with conventional fertilizer is recommended = A produção de mudas de qualidade, aliada a um baixo custo, é fundamental para o sucesso dos projetos florestais. Neste sentido, a escolha correta da fonte de fertilizante e do tipo de recipiente é essencial. Diante disso, objetivou-se com esse estudo avaliar a qualidade de mudas de Cedro-rosa em função do uso de fertilizantes e recipientes com diferentes tamanhos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 (recipientes com diferentes tamanhos x fontes de fertilizante, com três repetições. Os recipientes testados foram: vasos plástico (3.000 cm 3, sacos plásticos (1.000 cm 3 e tubetes (175 cm 3. As fontes de fertilizante foram: Osmocote® , Kimcoat® e convencional. Aos 90 dias pós o transplantio foram realizadas as seguintes avaliações nas mudas: altura, diâmetro de colo, área foliar, comprimento radicular, massa seca da parte aérea, massa seca das raízes e massa seca total. Essas variáveis foram utilizadas para o cálculo do índice de qualidade de Dickson. As mudas produzidas em vasos plásticos e sacos plásticos foram as que apresentaram a melhor qualidade, embora as primeiras tenham apresentado maiores valores numéricos. O fertilizante Osmocote® foi os melhores níveis de qualidade das mudas de Cedro-rosa, contudo, seus valores não diferiram da fonte de fertilizante convencional. Visando a redução dos custos na produção de mudas de Cedro-rosa, pode-se recomendar a utilização do recipiente saco plástico e fertilizante convencional.

  9. Inferring the chemical form of 137Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring (137)Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato; Sugiura, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium.

  10. Towering Totems Tell a Story%图腾的告白

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine Maxa

    2003-01-01

    @@ Inside the Alaska Indian Arts center in Haines, Alaska, the smell of cedar hangs heavy in the air. Clunks1, whacks2,and scraping noises punctuate the redolence3. Cedar chips litter the floor. Here, in the rain-forest environment of the Tongass National Forest, where more than 140inches of precipitation fall each year, choice red cedar trees grow. They make the best totem4 poles.

  11. 77 FR 29617 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tarmac King Road...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... address below under Further Contact Information and must be received no later than 5 p.m. Central Standard... libraries: Bronson Public Library--612 E Hathaway Ave., Bronson, Florida 32621. Cedar Key Public Library--460 Second Street, Cedar Key, Florida 32625. Luther Callaway Public Library--104 NE Third...

  12. The Hospice Concept of Care: A Family Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Marilyn

    This description of the Cedar Valley Hospice program emphasizes palliative and supportive care for terminally ill patients and their families. The history of the hospice movement is outlined along with a description of the Cedar Valley program and the results of a 1980 program evaluation. The appendices contain a statement of the hospice goals and…

  13. Antifungal activity of extracts and select compounds in heartwood of seven western conifers toward Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual compounds and ethyl acetate extracts from heartwood of seven conifer species were tested for fungicidal activity against Phytophthora ramorum. Extracts from incense and western red cedar exhibited the strongest activity (EC50 589 and 646 ppm, respectively), yellow-cedar, western juniper,...

  14. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cedar and live horses before you submit a notification under this license exception. See § 748.3 of the... the EAR. If your commodity is fertilizer, western red cedar or live horses, you must confirm that BIS... fact that you have been advised that no agency has objected to the transaction does not exempt you...

  15. Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 2. Effect on odorous volatile organic compounds, odor activity value, , and nutrient concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Jaderborg, Jeffrey P; DiCostanzo, Alfred

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of three types of wood-based bedding materials (kiln-dried pine wood chips, dry cedar chips, and green cedar chips) and corn stover on the concentration of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total in bedded pack material. Four bedded packs of each bedding material were maintained for two 42-d periods ( = 32; eight replicates/bedding material). Straight- and branched-chained fatty acids, aromatic compounds, and sulfide compounds were measured from the headspace above each bedded pack. Green cedar bedding had the highest concentration of odorous VOCs, and pine chip bedding had the lowest ( dry cedar, corn stover, and pine chip bedding. As the bedded packs aged, the concentration of odorous VOCs increased, particularly in the bedded packs containing green cedar chips and dry cedar chips. Total concentrations increased from Days 0 to 21 and then began to decline and were similar among all bedding materials ( < 0.10). Results of this study indicate that producers using a long-term bedded pack management in their facility may benefit from using pine chips because they do not appear to increase odor over time. Cedar-based bedding materials may be better suited for a scrape-and-haul system, where the bedded pack is removed after 1 or 2 wk. Total concentrations did not differ between any of the four bedding materials over time.

  16. Seasonal variations of nasal resistance in allergic rhinitis and environmental pollen counts. II: Efficacy of preseasonal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, K; Ishihara, M; Senoh, Y; Takeda, N; Yokoyama, N; Iwata, S

    1993-01-01

    We gave Mao-bushi-saishin-to, a Chinese blended medicine, and azelastine to an adult patient with hay fever due to Japanese cedar pollen and measured nasal resistance and ambient floating pollen counts throughout the time of Japanese cedar pollination in separated years. In the patient Mao-bushi-saishin-to was effective against preseasonal increases in nasal airway resistance but could not control severe episodes of allergic rhinitis caused by high dose exposure to Japanese cedar pollen and also perhaps caused by a priming effect. Azelastine inhibited both pre- and post-seasonal increases in nasal airway resistance but not only on high pollen counts days.

  17. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Little Cedar Point by University of Toledo and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2016-05-05 to 2016-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0155545)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155545 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  18. The biological characteristics and control of Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura, damaged himalayan cedar [Cedrus deo-dara (Roxb.) Loud.]%为害雪松的思茅松毛虫生物学特性及其防治的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周传良; 刘雄兰; 董丽云; 练飞; 叶绍芹

    2004-01-01

    雪松Cedrus deodara(Roxb.)Loud.是重要的园林绿化树种,树姿优美,终年常绿,有很高的观赏价值,在浙江省的各地公园、庭院广为栽培。近年在云和县林业局大院内,发现该树受食叶害虫思茅松毛虫Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura严重危害,毁损针叶,影响园林绿化和观

  19. 78 FR 44149 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Division Ave., Poplar, Front, Ash & 4th Sts., Sterling, 13000592 ] INDIANA Porter County Good Fellow Club Youth Camp, 700 Howe Rd., Porter, 13000593 IOWA Cedar County Herbert Hoover National Historic...

  20. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, West Sister Island NWR, Navarre Marsh, and Darby Marsh outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978...

  1. Compilation of the research performed through the department of defense legacy resource management program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains five separate documents covering the work on Atlantic white-cedar between Alligator River NWR and the United States Air Force Dare County...

  2. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1985 Fishing Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Fishing Plan for Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex. Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, the Darby Division, and the Navarre Division are included. The...

  3. Studies of FAUNA at Eglin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    virginianus GHOW Hairy woodpecker* Picoides villosus HAWO Indigo bunting Passerina cyanea INBU Loggerhead shrike Lanius ludovicianus LOSH...Migrants American goldfinch Carduelis tristis AMGO Cedar waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum CEDW Chipping sparrow Spizella passerina CHSP 43

  4. 25 CFR 309.17 - What are examples of woodwork that are Indian products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... doors, chairs, relief panels, bentwood boxes, snow goggles, red and yellow cedar seagoing canoe paddles, hunting hats, spirit masks, bows and arrows, atlatls, redwood dug out canoes, war clubs, flutes,...

  5. Regulation and Function of Cytokines that Predict Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Professor, Medicine Uro -Oncology Research Program Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute Cedars-Sinai Medical Center 8750 Beverly Blvd...Department of Medicine Uro -Oncology Research Program Leland Chung, Director Neil A. Bhowmick, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Medicine

  6. Community-wide model validation studies for systematic assessment of ionosphere-thermosphere models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria; Rastätter, Lutz

    2016-07-01

    As an unbiased agent, the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has been leading community-wide model validation efforts; GEM, CEDAR and GEM-CEDAR Modeling Challenges since 2009. The CEDAR ETI (Electrodynamics Thermosphere Ionosphere) Challenge focused on the ability of ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) models to reproduce basic IT system parameters, such as electron and neutral densities, NmF2, hmF2, and Total Electron Content (TEC). Model-data time series comparisons were performed for a set of selected events with different levels of geomagnetic activity (quiet, moderate, storms). The follow-on CEDAR-GEM Challenge aims to quantify geomagnetic storm impacts on the IT system. On-going studies include quantifying the storm energy input, such as increase in auroral precipitation and Joule heating, and quantifying the storm-time variations of neutral density and TEC. In this paper, we will present lessons learned from the Modeling Challenges led by the CCMC.

  7. 78 FR 22291 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Moore, House, 1353 Cedar Rock Rd., Thomason, 13000241 IOWA Linn County Oak Hill Cemetery Historic... (Boundary Increase), Roughly bounded by 4th, 6th, 7th & Liberty Aves., former PRR tracks, Grant & Wood...

  8. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Caribbean Islands Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Service (NRCS), Washington, DC; Karl Hipple, NRCS National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE; Dan Martel, USAE District, San Francisco , CA; Jennifer...fustic or tachuelo (Pictetia aculeata), black wattle or bejuco prieto (Capparis cynophallophora), fiddlewood, bastard cedar or guacima (Guazuma

  9. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative Report : 1991 Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge, West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge, Navarre Unit,...

  10. Statement of Ronald E. Lambertson, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, before the House Subcommittee on Public Lands and National Parks concerning National Wildlife Refuge additions to the National Wilderness Preservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a statement on the Mattamuskeet, Cedar Island, and Pea Island Wildlife Refuges. Given by Ronald E. Lambertson, it says that there are almost no...

  11. Final Environmental Assessment for the Beddown and Flight Operations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    from wind, cold and snow. Shelterbelt species include American elm (Ulmus americana), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), Russian olive ( Elaeagnus ... angustifolia ) and cottonwood (Populus deltoides). Other woody species present on GFAFB include Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana), Norway

  12. 76 FR 18289 - Missouri Disaster #MO-00047

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ..., Carroll, Cass, Cedar, Chariton, Clark, Clinton, Cole, Cooper, Dade, Dallas, Dekalb, Grundy, Henry, Hickory, Howard, Johnson, Knox, Laclede, Lafayette, Lewis, Linn, Livingston, Macon, Madison, Maries, Marion, Mcdonald, Miller, Moniteau, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Newton, Osage, Pettis, Platte, Polk,...

  13. 2014 Land Cover Land Use Horseshoe Bend

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This collection of conservation areas consists of the floodplain of the combined streams of the Iowa River and the Cedar River. The study area begins just southeast...

  14. 75 FR 57019 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... leaf spot, leaf spot, powdery mildew, and soybean rust, and on apples to control cedar apple rust, powdery mildew, quince rust, and scab. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Chemicals, Pests...

  15. 75 FR 51033 - BE Louisiana, LLC; Notice of Institution of Section 206 Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... USC 824e, to determine whether the J.P. Morgan Sellers' \\1\\ market-based rate authority in the Cleco... (2010). \\1\\ For purposes of this notice, the J.P. Morgan Sellers are BE Louisiana, LLC, Cedar Brakes...

  16. Ability of natural extracts to limit mold growth on Douglas-fir sapwood

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Maoz; Joseph J. Karchesy; Jeffrey J. Morrell

    2012-01-01

    The ability of selected plant extracts from wood and foliage to inhibit mold regrowth on fungal colonized wood was evaluated on Douglas-fir sapwood. Most foliage extracts produced some inhibition of Graphium or Trichoderma species, but isolations of other fungi increased following treatment. Five out of eight wood extracts produced 50% reductions in isolations, and those from Alaska cedar, western juniper, and incense cedar produced at least 80% reductions. The results indicate that wood ext...

  17. A Novel Anti-Beta2-Microglobulin Antibody Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Expression, Survival, and Progression in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Chung‡§2 From the ‡ Uro -Oncology Research Program, Department of Medicine, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center...at http://www.jbc.org) contains supplemental text and Fig. S1. 1 To whom correspondence may be addressed: Uro -Oncology Research Pro- gram, Dept. of...chin.huang@cshs.org. 2 To whom correspondence may be addressed: Uro -Oncology Research Pro- gram, Dept. of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8750 Beverly

  18. Radiocesium Contamination of Quercus Serrata From Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident During 2011 and 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hideki [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112, Japan (Japan); Hirano, Yurika; Igei, Shigemitsu; Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Yoshida, Hirohisa [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Itou, Hirohisa; Murakami, Kaori; Kumata, Atsushi [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112, Japan (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate time dependence of contamination by radioactive cesium in the ecosystems at Yamakiya, Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture from 2011 to 2013. The depth contamination profile of soil and the three dimensional contamination profile of cedar tree were evaluated in the cedar forest at Yamakiya, the evacuation area, 30 km northwest from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.The soil contamination proceeded in the depth direction within 4 7 months after the foul out, the depth concentration profiles was described linearly in logarithmic scale. The radiocesium in soil approached the depth of cedar roots within two years after the foul out. The contamination of outside of cedar tree, leaves twigs and bark in this area was in the range from 10,000 to 200,000 Bq/kgDW in August 2011. The inside contamination of cedar tree was in the rage from 500 to 10,000 Bq/kgDW, and the inside concentration of radiocesium depended on the direction and the height. The first stage of inside contamination of cedar tree was caused by the foliar and bark absorptions in 2011. The radiocesium existed particularly in heartwood and the phloem or the water vessel (sap wood) in cedar. The radiocesium concentration in heartwood depended on the height, however that in the phloem depended slightly on the height. The inside concentration of radiocesium in heartwood and sap wood closely related to the water content or distribution in wood. In this study, the relationship between transportation of water and radiocesium was discussed. (authors)

  19. Comparison of sap flux, moisture flux tower and MODIS enhanced vegetation index methods for estimating riparian evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.; Morino, Kiyomi; Neale, Christopher M.U; Cosh, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Riparian evapotranspiration (ET) was measured on a salt cedar (Tamarix spp.) dominated river terrace on the Lower Colorado River from 2007 to 2009 using tissue-heat-balance sap flux sensors at six sites representing very dense, medium dense, and sparse stands of plants. Salt cedar ET varied markedly across sites, and sap flux sensors showed that plants were subject to various degrees of stress, detected as mid-day depression of transpiration and stomatal conductance. Sap flux results were scaled from the leaf level of measurement to the stand level by measuring plant-specific leaf area index and fractional ground cover at each site. Results were compared to Bowen ratio moisture tower data available for three of the sites. Sap flux sensors and flux tower results ranked the sites the same and had similar estimates of ET. A regression equation, relating measured ET of salt cedar and other riparian plants and crops on the Lower Colorado River to the Enhanced Vegetation Index from the MODIS sensor on the Terra satellite and reference crop ET measured at meteorological stations, was able to predict actual ET with an accuracy or uncertainty of about 20%, despite between-site differences for salt cedar. Peak summer salt cedar ET averaged about 6 mm d-1 across sites and methods of measurement.

  20. Characteristics of element composition of aerosols adsorbed on leaves by radioactivation analysis and their effects on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Takejiro; Koshikawa, Masami [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sase, Hiroyuki; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Kawashima, Munetsugu; Takada, Jitsuya; Matsushita, Rokuji

    1999-01-01

    Aerosol deposits on leaves of various trees, especially cedar in different regions of Japan were collected to characterize the elemental composition using neutron activation analysis, ICP-AES, etc. and also investigate the effects of deposit aerosols on plants and the efficacy as an indicator for air pollution. Compared with the elemental composition of the soil, Se, Cr, Au, Br, As, Sb, Ag, etc. were more abundant in aerosols on cedar leaves. Especially, Sb is thought to be mostly derived from combustion of fossil fuels (exhaust gas from cars, etc.). Since Sb was accumulated on leaves at high levels and the analytical precision for Sb by neutron radioactivation was very high, the element was thought useful as an indicator for air pollution. If the amounts of Sb on the leaves of cedar and pine trees, which are widely distributed in Japan are determined, the degrees of pollution in all regions of Japan would be determined. In cedar trees of Saitama Prefecture where the deposit amounts of aerosols were comparatively larger, 42% of stoma was covered with the deposits, resulting that the rate of cuticular transpiration was increased and the amounts of basic elements leached from the leave surface was also increased. Thus, it was suggested that these changes might be the cause of recent declining of cedars in Japanese urban regions. (M.N.)

  1. Study of microbial adhesion on some wood species: theoretical prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, El abed; Mohamed, Mostakim; Fatimazahra, Berguadi; Hassan, Latrache; Abdellah, Houari; Fatima, Hamadi; Saad, Ibnsouda koraichi

    2011-01-01

    The initial interaction between microorganisms and substrata is mediated by physicochemical forces, which in turn originate from the physicochemical surface properties of both interacting phases. In this context, we have determined the physicochemical proprieties of all microorganisms isolated from cedar wood decay in an old monument at the Medina of Fez-Morocco. The cedar wood was also assayed in terms of hydrophobicity and electron dono-r-electron acceptor (acid-base) properties. Investigations of these two aspects were performed by contact angles measurements via sessile drop technique. Except Bacillus subtilis strain (deltaGiwi 0) and can therefore be considered as hydrophilic while cedar wood revealed a hydrophobic character (deltaGiwi = -58.81 mi m(-2)). All microbial strains were predominantly electron donor. The results show also that all strains were weak electron acceptors. Cedar wood exhibits a weak electron donor/acceptor character. Based on the thermodynamic approach, the Lifshitz-van der Waals interaction free energy, the acid-basic interactions free energy, the total interaction free energy between the microbial cells and six different wood species (cedar, oak, beech, ash, pine and teak) in aqueous media was calculated and used to predict which microbial strains have a higher ability to adhere to wooden surfaces. Except of weak wood, for all the situations studied, generalizations concerning the adhesion of the microbiata on wood species cannot be made and the microbial adhesion on wooden substrata was dependent on wood species and microorganismstested.

  2. Flexible session management in a distributed environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Zach; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Bradley, Dan; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Tannenbaum, Todd; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Sfiligoi, Igor; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of system-wide security policies. Additionally, secure channels based upon UDP datagrams are often overlooked by existing libraries; we show how CEDAR's structure accommodates this as well. As an example of the utility of this work, we show how the use of delegated security sessions and other techniques inherent in CEDAR's architecture enables US CMS to meet their scalability requirements in deploying Condor over large-scale, wide-area grid systems.

  3. Fundamental study on production of 'hyper wood pellet' - (4) characterization of torrefied products obtained using various methods of heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Takahiro; Sano, Tetsuya; Ohara, Seiji [Forestry and Forest Products Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan)], e-mail: tyoshid@ffpri.affrc.go.jp; Nomura, Takashi; Watada, Hiroki [Fukui Prefectural Green Center, Sakai, Fukui (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Improved wood pellets (hyper wood pellets) were produced from the torrefaction of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and oak (Konara, Quercus serrata). Five types of ovens were used under dry and wet conditions for the torrefaction of wood chips and the subsequent pellet samples. As a result, calorific values were improved in both Japanese cedar and oak species, and a 30% higher HHV was obtained in Japanese cedar by heat treatment at 240 deg C using an inert gas torrefaction oven. We also investigated the characteristics of torrefied products obtained using four other types of heat treatment under reduced pressure, with superheated steam, and using conventional charcoal ovens in view of larger-scale production. By using a flow-type oven with superheated steam, hyper wood pellets having a calorific value of 21.4MJ/kg were produced by heat treatment at 240 deg C. Elemental analyses showed that dehydration mainly occurred during the torrefaction conducted in this study.

  4. 2nd Progress Report of the engineering Data Management System Task Force

    CERN Document Server

    Faber, G; CERN. Geneva; Kuipers, J; Nicquevert, B; Onnela, A; Price, M; Witzeling, W; Delamare, Christophe; Hameri, A P; Mottier, M; Nikkola, J; Pettersson, Thomas Sven; Schinzel, Josi; Tarrant, M; Farthouat, Philippe; Palazzi, P; Rousseau, B; Ferran, M; Høimyr, Nils-Joar; Osborne, A; Santiago, S; De Jonge, J; Strubin, Pierre M; Oliger, S

    1997-01-01

    CERN will very soon be in a position to go ahead with the CEDAR program (CEDAR [4] is the name chosen for the implementation - CERN EDMS for Detectors and AcceleratoRs). What must be decided soon is which commercial package we should use, Matrix or CADIM. The Pilot Projects will continue and serve as growth points in their respective areas. Plans must now be laid for the gradual generalization of EDMS use. Templates, based on present achievements, will help newcomers and serve to accumulate knowhow. Data modelling tools, underpinning those templates, will be set up to ensure the overall coherence of CERN's engineering data. Manpower must be allocated to develop CEDAR in a coordinated way.

  5. Flexible Session Management in a Distributed Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Zach; Tannenbaum, Todd; Sfiligoi, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of syst...

  6. SAFETY NOTES

    CERN Document Server

    TIS Secretariat

    2001-01-01

    Please note that the revisions of safety notes no 3 (NS 3 Rev. 2) and no 24 (NS 24 REV.) entitled respectively 'FIRE PREVENTION FOR ENCLOSED SPACES IN LARGE HALLS' and 'REMOVING UNBURIED ELV AND LVA ELECTRIC CONDUITS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322811&version=1&filename=version_francaise.pdf http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322861&version=2&filename=version_francaise.pdf Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email tis.secretariat@cern.ch

  7. Mercury in vegetation of the Mount Amiata area (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargagli, R.; Barghigiani, C.; Maserti, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the mercury mining area of Mount Amiata metal contents were determined in plant parts of Pinus nigra, Cedrus atlantica and Cytisus scoparius, in lichens and in soil. Mercury concentrations were higher in vegetation growing on spoil banks of abandoned roasted cinnabar than near geothermal power plants. Green plant parts accumulated mercury to a greater extent than branch and root wood, and a mercury concentration increase was found in ageing pine and cedar needles. Moreover, in the most contaminated location, mercury contents in cedar needles decreased with the distance from the ground. Considerations and hypothesis were made on mercury uptake by plants in this area.

  8. Quarternary tectonics, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.W.

    1993-09-30

    Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.

  9. MANET中基于蚁群的网络核心提取分布路由协议%Ant Based Core-extraction Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何炎祥; 文卫东; 金辉; 刘浩文

    2006-01-01

    提出了一个用于移动Ad Hoc网络(MANET)的基于蚁群的核心提取分布路由协议--Ant-CEDAR,该协议使用类似蚁群的移动代理获得高效的路由,从而可加强核心提取分布Ad Hoc路由算法(CEDAR).对Ant-CEDAR协议进行了模拟实验,实验数据表明该协议具有高效性和低耗性.

  10. Automated Procedure for Evaluating Sites for Suitability as Helicopter Landing Zones. Volume 1. Descriptions and Instructions for Use of Computer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    Cedar. Spanish; Ced-ott Puerto Rico »- .. 0.»5 83 0.8? St Cedar, White; Roble Blanco Puerto Rico — -. 0.58 63 0.95 4 + Oeiba; fysut; SI U...l*Al62121AT31, " Research for Lines of Communications Facilities in Theaters of Operations," Task 02, "Airline of Communication Facilities," Work...Plant Research Branch. Ms. M. H. Smith, ESB, and Mr. T. Ü. Hutto, ESB, assisted in writing the computer programs. Mr. M. P. Keown, ESB, provided

  11. Contributions to an integrated control programme of Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpma, P.

    1974-01-01

    The shootborer Hypsipylagrandella (Zeller) (Lep., Pyralidae) is the main obstacle to the artificial regeneration of valuable meliaceous tree species such as mahogany ( Swietenia spp.) and Spanish cedar ( Cedrela spp.) in Latin America. On the other hand, the natural regen

  12. 76 FR 22704 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License AGENCY: Federal... the community of license: CEDAR COVE BROADCASTING, INC., Station KAVI, Facility ID 173643, BMPED..., BMPED-20110302ABD, From DANBURY, NC, To MADISON, NC; COX RADIO, INC., Station WHIO-FM, Facility ID...

  13. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Recommends many books for summer reading enjoyment, concentrating on historical and contemporary fiction. Different cultures clash in William T. Vollman's "Fathers and Crows" and John Demos's adventuresome "Unredeemed Captive." Other suggestions: "Snow Falling on Cedar Mountain" (David Gutterman) and "Foxfire" (Joyce Carol Oates). For professional…

  14. Report on Federal Individual Training Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Task Force on Federal Training Technology, Washington, DC.

    To explore options to establish Federal Individual Training Accounts (ITAs), a study reviewed Pennsylvania's Individual Learning Accounts, Cedar Company's Individual Learning Accounts, ITAs under the Workforce Investment Act, and the United Kingdom's Individual Learning Accounts. ITAs were defined as a base amount of resources--dollars or…

  15. Periodicity of growth rings in Juniperus procera from Ethiopia inferred from crossdating and radiocarbon dating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher 1847) is a tropical, irregularly growing species that can produce annual growth rings in response to an annual cycle of wet and dry seasons. In this paper, we assess the periodicity of growth-ring formation for 13 stem discs from a site in

  16. Observations on flowering plants in north central Florida that might serve as nectar sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observations were made on the seasonal phenology of flowering plants along SR24 between Gainesville and Cedar Key, FL, for a period of 1 yr. The objective was to document the seasonality, species composition and relative abundance of flowering plants that might be available as nectar sites for mosq...

  17. Measuring local immunoglobulin E in the inferior turbinate nasal mucosa in patients with allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Ota

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Our results evaluating the correlations between nasal mucosal and serum levels of antigen-specific IgE indicate that IgE produced in the nasal mucosa affects the IgE levels in the serum, especially the cedar pollen-specific IgE.

  18. Catalytic graphitization of wood-based carbons with alumina by pulse current heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hata, T; Ishimaru, K; Fujisawa, M; Bronsveld, P; Vystavel, T; De Hosson, J; Kikuchi, H; Nishizawa, T; Imamura, Y

    2005-01-01

    Japanese cedar was preheated at 500 degrees C and subsequently mixed with 40 mu m Al2O3 particles. A pulse current heating method was used for a 5-min carbonization step under a pressure of 50MPa in order to promote the graphitization at temperatures between 2000 and 2200 degrees C. The samples were

  19. Science-Related Telecommunication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norm

    1993-01-01

    A physics teacher at rural Cedar Falls High School (Iowa) describes how teacher telecommunication networks provided ongoing support following summer teacher workshops, his inability to get fellow teachers engaged in telecommunication, and the benefits of a telecommunication network to rural teachers. (SV)

  20. We Brought Teachers Up to Snuff, And So Can You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, William C.

    1984-01-01

    The Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Plan for Instructional Improvement requires principals to take part in several workshops and activities to learn how to analyze what goes on in the classroom. Principals then direct teacher inservice training by conducting staff meetings, small seminars, and classroom observation followed by teacher conferences. (MLF)

  1. NA62 Level 0 trigger: TELDES and InterTEL boards testing and integration scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    TELDES is a TEL62 daughter-board used in the generation of the Liquid Krypton Calorimeter primitive for the Level 0 Trigger of the NA62 Experiment. InterTEL is a daughter-board used to interconnect the TEL62s used in the CEDAR, LAV and RICH detectors.

  2. Using DNA Technology to Explore Marine Bacterial Diversity in a Coastal Georgia Salt Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yihe; Guerrero, Stella; Moran, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    An important aspect of teaching biology is to expose students to the concept of biodiversity. For this purpose, bacteria are excellent examples. The advanced placement (AP) biology class at Cedar Shoals High School in Athens, Georgia, learned how to explore bacterial biodiversity using molecular fingerprinting. They collected marine water samples,…

  3. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 2--Origins and Ministry of Protestant Seminaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main Protestant theological seminaries in Cuba: Western Cuba Baptist Seminary, Cedars of Lebanon Seminary, The New Pines Evangelical Seminary, Evangelical Theological Seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Center, Nazarene Theological Seminary and International School of Theology. The history and…

  4. Spectroscopic analysis of carbonization behavior of wood, cellulose and lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishimaru, Kengo; Hata, Toshimitsu; Bronsveld, Paul; Meier, Dietrich; Imamura, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    The surface and bulk chemistry of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria Japonica), cotton cellulose and lignin samples carbonized at 500-1,000 degrees C was investigated by elemental analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectrometry.

  5. Production of Rice Seed-Based Allergy Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hidenori; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant hypoallergenic derivative is the next generation of tolerogen replacing the natural allergen extract to increase safety and efficacy. Japanese cedar pollinosis is the predominant seasonal allergy disease in Japan. A rice seed-based oral vaccine containing the recombinant hypoallergens derived from these allergens was developed. Efficacy of this rice-based allergy vaccine was evaluated by oral administration in animal models.

  6. Environ: E00656 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of Cupressaceae (cypress family) White Cedar Obtained by steam distillation Major component: alpha-Thujone ...[CPD:C09906] Essential oils [BR:br08321] Naked-seed plants Cupressaceae (cypress family) E00656 Cedarleaf oil CAS: 8007-20-3 ...

  7. Everyone Knew the Board's Policy. How One District Breezed Through the Holidays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T. Susan

    1982-01-01

    When problems arose among parents and religious groups over the observance of religious holidays in schools, the Cedar Rapids (Iowa) school board appointed an ad hoc study committee to investigate the issue and make recommendations. The committee represented parents and local businesses and government as well as many local churches and religious…

  8. 77 FR 42325 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Issuance of Recovery Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... was applied for in good faith; that granting the permit would not be to the disadvantage of the listed... Detroit Zoo Dakota Zoological Society 051815 01/01/2012 06/30/2015 Kleinfelder 056165 01/01/2012 03/31/2016 Cedar Creek Associates 050704 01/01/2012 09/30/2016 Toronto Zoo 051841 01/01/2012...

  9. Quantitative perfusion parameters in a cohort of patients with no known ischemic heart disease and normal myocardial perfusion imaging studied by 82Rb-PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Camilla; Balche, Abdallah; Majgaard, J

    commercially available software (QPET, Cedars Sinai). Parameters included were regional and global rest and stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) values, ejection fraction (EF) and total perfusion deficit (TPD). Results Mean global MBF at stress was 2.92 mL/g/min (±SD 0.49), lower limit (LL) 1.94 m...

  10. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the North Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Spatterdock) e EIecicharis obtusa (Blunt Spikesedge) k Nyr?7phaea odorata (Waterlily) fTypha 3pp. (Cattails) Nf a* * Water levels within this wetland...include: Calamagros tie canadensis (Bluejoint reedgrass) Cyperus app. (Umbrella sedge) Eleocharis obtusa (Blunt spikesedge) Glhceria spp...Leatherleaf) Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar) Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Green ash) Larix laricina (Tamarack) Osmunda spp. (Cinnamon fern

  11. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the South Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    occidentalis (Buttonbush) Cladium jamaicense (Sawgrass) Cyperus strigosus (Redroot cyperus) Echinochloa walteri (Walter’s millet) Eleocharis obtusa (Spikerush...4 C-,L 27 Echinochica walteri (Walter’s millet) Eleocharis obtusa (Spikerush) Eleocharis quadrangulata (Spikerush) Leersis spp. (Cutgrass) Panicum...c) Atlantic White Cedar Bog (dominated by Chamaecyparis ), and (d) Pocosin-Bay Forest (upland bogs in pine Savannahs). These plant communities are

  12. Highly Efficient Synthesis of the Natural Spiro-Terpenoid ( ± )-Andirolactone via RCM Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao; YANG Li-Ting; LIU Hua-Wei; LI Yu-Lin

    2003-01-01

    @@ Andirolactone 1 as the dextro enantiomer is a sesquiterpenoid with structure of spirocyclic butenolide, isolated from the wood of cedar ( Cedrus libanotica ), which is a needle-leaf tree that grows in southern Turkey and Libanon.The tar, which is obtained from its wood, is used to cure various diseases. [1

  13. 1,6-Diacetyl-2-isopropyl-4,7-dimethylnaphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Benharref

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C19H22O2, was synthesized in three steps from a mixture of α-, β- and γ-himachalene, which was isolated from an essential oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains running parallel to the b axis.

  14. 2-Acetyl-3,5,5,9-tetra-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetra-hydro-5H-benzocyclo-hepten-7-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benharref, Ahmed; Mazoir, Noureddine; Lassaba, Essediya; Daran, Jean-Claude; Berraho, Moha

    2010-12-08

    The title compound, C(17)H(22)O(2), was semi-synthesized from a mixture of α-atlantone (Z) and α-atlantone (E), which were isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (cedrus atlantica). The mol-ecule consists of fused six- and seven-membered rings. The seven-membered ring is in a screw-boat conformation.

  15. Stone-boiling maize with limestone: experimental results and implications for nutrition among SE Utah preceramic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of limestone among midden scatters associated with Grand Gulch phase (A.D. 200 to 400) Basketmaker II period habitation sites (Matson et al. 1988) on Cedar Mesa, southeastern Utah has suggested that these fragments are remnants of stone boiling activities that may have altered nutrition...

  16. Characterization of sp(2)- and sp(3)-bonded carbon in wood charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishimaru, Kengo; Hata, Toshimitsu; Bronsveld, Paul; Nishizawa, Takashi; Imamura, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) preheated at 700 degrees C was subsequently heated to 1800 degrees C and characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The degree of disorder of carbon crystallites and the amount of amorphous phase decreased considerably

  17. Linking the B ring hydroxylation pattern of condensed tannins to C, N and P mineralization. A case study using four tannins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop, K.G.J.; Preston, C.M.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Condensed tannins are a major component of litter inputs, but little is known about the effects of tannin structural variations on soil biological processes and organic matter development. Four different condensed tannins (CTs) extracted from balsam fir, western red cedar, kalmia and black spruce we

  18. 78 FR 20714 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Dunn County, WI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon a 0.58-mile line of railroad on its Menomonie Industrial Lead from milepost 0.32 near Cedar Falls Road to the end of the line at milepost 0.90 near Oak Avenue, in Menomonie, Dunn County, Wis. (the Line). The Line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 54751. UP...

  19. Montane conifer fuel dynamics, Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Moore, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    Litter and woody fuel accumulation rates over 7 years for 7 montane Sierra Nevada conifer species, including giant sequoia, ponderosa pine, sugar pine, Jeffrey pine, incense-cedar and white fir. Data are from four sites per size class per species with four size classes each. Nonspatial, georeferenced.

  20. First report of Phaeobotryon cupressi causing canker of Calocedrus decurrens in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the early 2000’s a canker disease has been noticed with increasing frequency on landscape specimens of native incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) planted throughout the Willamette Valley (from Portland south to Eugene) in western Oregon. Symptoms initially appear as dead and flagging small-di...

  1. Extended late Holocene relative sea-level histories for North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew C.; Kegel, Jessica J.; Culver, Stephen J.; Barber, Donald C.; Mallinson, David J.; Leorri, Eduardo; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Cahill, Niamh; Riggs, Stanley R.; Woodson, Anna L.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2017-03-01

    We produced ∼3000-year long relative sea-level (RSL) histories for two sites in North Carolina (USA) using foraminifera preserved in new and existing cores of dated salt-marsh sediment. At Cedar Island, RSL rose by ∼2.4 m during the past ∼3000 years compared to ∼3.3 m at Roanoke Island. This spatial difference arises primarily from differential GIA that caused late Holocene RSL rise to be 0.1-0.2 mm/yr faster at Roanoke Island than at Cedar Island. However, a non-linear difference in RSL between the two study regions (particularly from ∼0 CE to ∼1250 CE) indicates that additional local- to regional-scale processes drove centennial-scale RSL change in North Carolina. Therefore, the Cedar Island and Roanoke Island records should be considered as independent of one another. Between-site differences on sub-millennial timescales cannot be adequately explained by non-stationary tides, sediment compaction, or local sediment dynamics. We propose that a period of accelerating RSL rise from ∼600 CE to 1100 CE that is present at Roanoke Island (and other sites north of Cape Hatteras at least as far as Connecticut), but absent at Cedar Island (and other sites south of Cape Hatteras at least as far as northeastern Florida) is a local-to regional-scale effect of dynamic ocean and/or atmospheric circulation.

  2. Berlinalel hõrku kinokunsti maitsmas / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2007-01-01

    57. Berliini filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest. Peaauhind Kuldkaru - hiina režissööri Wang Quanani film "Tuya abielu" ("Tuya de hun shi"), parima režissööri Hõbekaru - iisraellane Joseph Cedar ("Beafort"), parim meesnäitleja - Julio Chavez (Ariel Rotteri "Teine"), parim naisnäitleja - Nina Hossa (Christian Petzoldi "Yella")

  3. 76 FR 31171 - Importation of Plants for Planting; Establishing a Category of Plants for Planting Not Authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Arnold Tschanz, Senior Plant Pathologist, Plants for Planting Policy, Risk Management... described in the risk management section of the PRA or, if the risk associated with the importation of the... anthracnose, Port Orford cedar root disease, white pine blister rust, and sudden oak death...

  4. 75 FR 14091 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) showing BFEs and modified BFEs for each community. This date may be obtained by...-1035 Big Creek South Ely Street......... + 713 City of Bertram. Big Creek Road + 719 Cedar Lake...

  5. 76 FR 19117 - Missouri; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ..., Cedar, Chariton, Clark, Clinton, Cole, Cooper, Dade, Dallas, DeKalb, Grundy, Henry, Hickory, Howard, Johnson, Knox, Laclede, Lafayette, Lewis, Linn, Livingston, Macon, Madison, Maries, Marion, McDonald, Miller, Moniteau, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Newton, Osage, Pettis, Platte, Polk, Pulaski, Putnam,...

  6. 76 FR 58241 - Opportunity for Designation in the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... & Grain, McPaul, Fremont County, Iowa; and Haveman Grain, Murray, Cass County, Nebraska. Midsouth Pursuant..., Pipestone, Murray, Cottonwood, Rock, Nobles, Jackson, and Martin Counties. In Nebraska: Cedar, Dakota, Dixon... areas, in the States of Minnesota and North Dakota, are assigned to this official agency. In...

  7. The Practicing Librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Marcia Pollack; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes three literacy organization and public library programs: Project LEARN (Cleveland, Ohio), which encourages higher-level beginning adult readers to want to read on their own; Greenville County (South Carolina) Library's Latchkey Kids Program; and policies on unattended and disruptive children developed by Iowa City and Cedar Rapids (Iowa)…

  8. 77 FR 76979 - Pesticides; Revisions to Minimum Risk Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ..., Office of Management and Budget, ATTN: Desk Officer for EPA, 725 17th St. NW., Washington, DC 20503. Hand... exempt under the more ] general terminology used in 40 CFR 152.25(f), which lists only ``cedar oil.'' EPA... from regulation, since the terminology describing the ingredients is difficult to...

  9. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  10. Growdon Gate/Road Relocation and Property Acquisition Environmental Assessment. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    black walnut (Juglans nigra), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), blackberry (Rubus sp.), greenbriar (Smilax sp.), poison ivy (Rhus radicans), giant...Riparian Cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), black willow (Salix nigra), hackberry (Celtis laevigata), chinaberry (Melia azedarach), pecan ( Carya ... illinoensis ), Canada wildrye (Elymus candensis), poison ivy (Rhus radicans), greenbrier (Smilax spp.), and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) Urban

  11. The Senior Military Logistician: An Empirical Study of United States Air Force Colonels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    I ’MAJCOM courtry/F’rogram manager’I MAA ~or I - Assi’rtment to MAAG or ir-country orgar:zation’ / Nortl I ’No ;rterrational logistics e::perience...Technology. She is married to Captain Sam E. Pennartz, USAF. They have two children, Noah and Sarah . Permanent Address: 505 Cedar Street Exeter PA 18643 207

  12. Student Attitudes toward Bibliographic Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damko, Ellen E.

    This study was designed to determine what value, if any, college students place upon library use instruction. A survey conducted on a random sample of college and university students working at Cedar Point Amusement Park in Sandusky, Ohio, during the summer of 1990 was designed to determine the type and amount of library instruction each student…

  13. Modeling of leachable {sup 137}Cs in throughfall and stemflow for Japanese forest canopies after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loffredo, Nicolas, E-mail: wataiso@free.fr [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Onda, Yuichi [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Kawamori, Ayumi [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kato, Hiroaki [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    The Fukushima accident dispersed significant amounts of radioactive cesium (Cs) in the landscape. Our research investigated, from June 2011 to November 2013, the mobility of leachable Cs in forests canopies. In particular, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs activity concentrations were measured in rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow in broad-leaf and cedar forests in an area located 40 km from the power plant. Leachable {sup 137}Cs loss was modeled by a double exponential (DE) model. This model could not reproduce the variation in activity concentration observed. In order to refine the DE model, the main physical measurable parameters (rainfall intensity, wind velocity, and snowfall occurrence) were assessed, and rainfall was identified as the dominant factor controlling observed variation. A corrective factor was then developed to incorporate rainfall intensity in an improved DE model. With the original DE model, we estimated total {sup 137}Cs loss by leaching from canopies to be 72 ± 4%, 67 ± 4%, and 48 ± 2% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. In contrast, with the improved DE model, the total {sup 137}Cs loss by leaching was estimated to be 34 ± 2%, 34 ± 2%, and 16 ± 1% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. The improved DE model corresponds better to observed data in literature. Understanding {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs forest dynamics is important for forecasting future contamination of forest soils around the FDNPP. It also provides a basis for understanding forest transfers in future potential nuclear disasters. - Highlights: • A double exponential model was used to model leachable cesium loss from canopies. • The model could not reproduce variation observed. • Rainfall was identified as the dominant factor controlling the variation. • A rainfall parameter was used to develop an improved double exponential model. • The

  14. Modeling of leachable 137Cs in throughfall and stemflow for Japanese forest canopies after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Nicolas; Onda, Yuichi; Kawamori, Ayumi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2014-09-15

    The Fukushima accident dispersed significant amounts of radioactive cesium (Cs) in the landscape. Our research investigated, from June 2011 to November 2013, the mobility of leachable Cs in forests canopies. In particular, (137)Cs and (134)Cs activity concentrations were measured in rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow in broad-leaf and cedar forests in an area located 40 km from the power plant. Leachable (137)Cs loss was modeled by a double exponential (DE) model. This model could not reproduce the variation in activity concentration observed. In order to refine the DE model, the main physical measurable parameters (rainfall intensity, wind velocity, and snowfall occurrence) were assessed, and rainfall was identified as the dominant factor controlling observed variation. A corrective factor was then developed to incorporate rainfall intensity in an improved DE model. With the original DE model, we estimated total (137)Cs loss by leaching from canopies to be 72 ± 4%, 67 ± 4%, and 48 ± 2% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. In contrast, with the improved DE model, the total (137)Cs loss by leaching was estimated to be 34 ± 2%, 34 ± 2%, and 16 ± 1% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. The improved DE model corresponds better to observed data in literature. Understanding (137)Cs and (134)Cs forest dynamics is important for forecasting future contamination of forest soils around the FDNPP. It also provides a basis for understanding forest transfers in future potential nuclear disasters.

  15. Optimal Concentrations and Synergistic Effects of Some Herbal Extracts on Viability of Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Many studies examine the antibacterial effects of medicinal plants; however, little research is done to evaluate their effects on different cell types, especially dermal fibroblasts. Objectives The current study aimed to study the effect of different concentrations of Aloe Vera, henna, chamomile, myrtle, mint, licorice, cinnamon, ginger and cedar extracts and their synergistic effects on the viability of dermal fibroblasts. Methods To evaluate the performance of herbal extracts on dermal fibroblasts, in the first experiment different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 µg/mL of the extracts were evaluated by the MTT cell proliferation assay. In the second experiment, the minimum effective concentrations of the plant extracts in triple combination were evaluated in the cells under study. Results The minimum effective concentrations of henna, chamomile, myrtle, mint, cinnamon, ginger and cedar were 12.5, 6.25, 6.25, 6.25, 6.25, 12.5 and 12.5µg/mL, respectively. Results showed that, by comparing the minimum effective concentration of herbal extracts, the viability of dermal fibroblasts significantly increased by cedar extract (P < 0.05. Combination of Aloe Vera, licorice and mint extracts significantly increased the viability of dermal fibroblasts (P < 0.05. Conclusions Based on the results of the current study, it was concluded that Aloe vera, licorice and mint extracts had synergistic effects on the viability of dermal fibroblasts; in addition, the combination of Aloe vera and licorice with either henna or myrtle, and Aloe vera and mint with either cedar or ginger resulted in synergistic effects on viability of dermal fibroblasts. The third category of triple combinations of herbal extracts with synergistic effects on the cells under study was the combination of Aloe Vera and mint with either chamomile or cinnamon and also Aloe vera and licorice with either myrtle or cedar.

  16. Enhanced concentrations of citric acid in spring aerosols collected at the Gosan background site in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jinsang; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2011-09-01

    In order to investigate water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in the aerosol samples under the Asian continent outflow, total suspended particle (TSP) samples ( n = 32) were collected at the Gosan site in Jeju Island over 2-5 days integration during 23 March-1 June 2007 and 16-24 April 2008. The samples were analyzed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls using a capillary gas chromatography technique. We found elevated concentrations of atmospheric citric acid (range: 20-320 ng m -3) in the TSP samples during mid- to late April of 2007 and 2008. To specify the sources of citric acid, dicarboxylic acids and related compounds were measured in the pollen sample collected at the Gosan site (Pollen_Gosan), authentic pollen samples from Japanese cedar ( Cryptomeria) (Pollen_cedar) and Japanese cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa) (Pollen_cypress), and tangerine fruit produced from Jeju Island. Citric acid (2790 ng in unit mg of pollen mass) was found as most abundant species in the Pollen_Gosan, followed by oxalic acid (2390 ng mg -1). Although citric acid was not detected in the Pollen_cedar and Pollen_cypress as major species, it was found as a dominant species in the tangerine juice while malic acid was detected as major species in the tangerine peel, followed by oxalic and citric acids. Since Japanese cedar trees are planted around tangerine farms to prevent strong winds from the Pacific Ocean, citric acid that may be directly emitted from tangerine is likely adsorbed on pollens emitted from Japanese cedar and then transported to the Gosan site. Much lower malic/citric acid ratios obtained under cloudy condition than clear condition suggest that malic acid may rapidly decompose to lower molecular weight compounds such as oxalic and malonic acids (

  17. Pastoral and woodcutting activities drive Cedrus atlantica Mediterranean forest structure in the Moroccan Middle Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudel, Marc; Aubert, Pierre-Marie; Aderghal, Mohammed; Hély, Christelle

    2016-03-01

    Human activities are historical ecological drivers, and we need to better understand their effects on ecosystems. In particular, they have been very important in the shaping of the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. Researchers and managers nonetheless lack knowledge concerning the impacts of their combinations and their current intensity on the structure of forest ecosystems of the southern part of the Mediterranean basin. In this study, we have develped a new methodology in order to understand the impacts of combined pastoral and woodcutting activities on the forest structure of the still ill-described but ecologically and economically important Moroccan Middle Atlas cedar forests. In a 40 000 ha forest, we chose 103 sites and sampled human activities through proxies and forest structures through circumference and vertical structures. A typology of sites yielded four human activity types: dominant pastoral activities, dominant oak cutting or cedar cutting activities, and an intermediate mid-disturbance type. This typology did not depend on altitude or substrate, confirming that the ecosystem structures linked to the different types depend more on human activities than on main environmental parameters. Pastoral activities modified forests the most, converting them to parklands with reduced canopies and low dynamics but high tree maturation. Woodcutting activities induced gap dynamics, favoring Cedrus atlantica in favorable environmental conditions and Quercus ilex otherwise, while they affected vertical structure depending on the local environment and competition for light and soil resources. Moderately disturbed stands showed forest maturation with low competition for light. Unlike previous studies, we found no evidence of a general degradation of cedar forests due to local human activities. However, cedar logging has reduced standing basal area regionally and one third of the sites may have vulnerable cedar populations due to pastoral activities and to

  18. Ecological response of Cedrus atlantica to climate variability in the Massif of Guetiane (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Slimani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The study analyzes the long-term response of Atlas cedar, Cedrus atlantica (Manneti, to climate variability. Area of study: Atlas cedar forest of Guetiane (Batna, Algeria.Material and methods: The dendrochronological approach was adopted. An Atlas cedar tree-ring chronology was established from twenty trees. The response of the species to climate variability was assessed through the pointer years (PYs, the common climate signal among the individual chronologies, expressed by the first component (PC1, the mean sensitivity (msx, and response function and correlations analysis involving the tree-ring index and climate data (monthly mean temperature and total precipitation.Results: The highest growth variability was registered from the second half of the 20th century. The lower than the mean PYs, the PC1, and the msx increased markedly during the studied period. Dramatic increases in the PC1 and msx were detected at the end of the 1970s, reflecting a shift towards drier conditions enhancing an increasing trend towards more synchronous response of trees to climate conditions. The response function and correlations analysis showed that tree growth was mainly influenced by precipitation variability.Research highlights: Our findings provide baseline knowledge concerning the ecological response of Atlas cedar to climate variability in in its southern distribution limit, where a high level of tree mortality has been observed during recent decades, coinciding with the driest period Algeria has ever experienced. This information is vital to support ongoing ecosystem management efforts in the region. Keywords: Atlas cedar; annual growth variability; dieback; dendrochronology. 

  19. Surface-water-quality conditions and relation to taste-and-odor occurrences in the Lake Olathe Watershed, Northeast Kansas, 2000-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, David P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Porter, Stephen D.; Pope, Larry M.

    2004-01-01

    Surface water in the Lake Olathe watershed, located in northeast Kansas, was sampled from June 2000 through December 2002 to characterize water-quality conditions in relation to physical properties, major ions, sediment, nutrients, selected trace elements, selected pesticides, fecal indicator bacteria, phytoplankton, and taste-and-odor compounds. In addition, two continuous real-time water-quality monitors were operated?one in Cedar Creek at Highway 56, the main tributary to Lake Olathe, and one in Lake Olathe, a supplemental domestic water supply and recreational resource for the city of Olathe. Median concentrations of dissolved and total forms of nitrogen and phosphorus in samples from Cedar Creek were larger than in samples from Lake Olathe, indicating that nutrients in the watershed were transported to Lake Olathe by Cedar Creek from June 2000 through December 2002. Increased concentrations of total phosphorus in samples from the hypolimnion of Lake Olathe compared to the epilimnion indicated that release of total phosphorus from bottom sediments occurred in the lake. Of the 50 pesticides analyzed in water samples from Cedar Creek and Lake Olathe, 10 pesticides were detected at concentrations greater than 0.01 microgram per liter in samples from Cedar Creek, and 9 pesticides were detected at concentrations greater than 0.01 microgram per liter in Lake Olathe, including four herbicides with concentrations exceeding 1.0 microgram per liter. Atrazine was detected at larger concentrations than any other pesticide in samples from both Cedar Creek and Lake Olathe during 2001 and 2002. Concentrations did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water annual average criterion of 3.0 micrograms per liter; however, concentrations in single samples were larger than 3.0 micrograms per liter. Regression analysis was used to assist in the estimation of sediment and chemical loads and yields. The estimated mean orthophosphate load for 2001 and 2002

  20. Characterization of pollen dispersion in the neighborhood of Tokyo, Japan in the spring of 2005 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Ohno, Hideki; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Kizaki, Takako; Yoshizumi, Kunio

    2008-03-01

    The behavior of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollens in an urban area was examined through the measurements of the dispersion characteristics at the various sampling locations in both outdoor and indoor environments. Airborne pollens were counted continuously for three months during the Japanese cedar pollen and Japanese cypress seasons in 2005 and 2006 by the use of Durham's pollen trap method in and around Tokyo, Japan. The dispersion of pollens at the rooftop of Kyoritsu Women's University was observed to be at extremely high levels in 2005 compared with previously reported results during the past two decades. As for Japanese cedar pollen, the maximum level was observed as 440 counts cm(-2) day(-1) on 18 March 2005. Japanese cypress pollen dispersed in that area in the latter period was compared with the Japanese cedar pollen dispersions. The maximum dispersion level was observed to be 351 counts cm(-2) day(-1) on 7 April 2005. Total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 5,552 and 1,552 counts cm(-2) for the three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2005, respectively. However, the dispersion of both pollens in 2006 was very low. The total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 421 and 98 counts cm(-2) for three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2006, respectively. Moreover, the pollen deposition on a walking person in an urban area showed that the pollen counts on feet were observed to be extremely high compared with the ones on the shoulder, back and legs. These findings suggested that pollen fell on the surface of the paved road at first, rebounded to the ambient air and was deposited on the residents again. Furthermore, the regional distribution of the total pollen dispersion in the South Kanto area was characterized on 15-16 March 2005 and on 14-15 March 2006. Although the pollen levels in 2005 were much higher than in 2006, it was

  1. Application of matching liquid on the refractive index measurement of biotissue: A theoretical and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Ye, Qing; Deng, Zhichao; Zhou, Wenyuan; Mei, Jianchun; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2014-05-01

    The application of matching liquid on the measurement of the refractive index (RI) of biotissue using total internal reflection (TIR) method is investigated in detail. A theoretical model describing samples with different absorbing and scattering ability is given based on Fresnel formula. The theoretical calculation is verified by experimental results of three simulation samples (transparent plexiglass, white plexiglass and ZB3 glass) and cedar wood oil as the matching liquid. Reflectance curves of porcine tissue samples were recorded and systematically studied using two kinds of matching liquid (cedar wood oil and adipose oil) at the incident of TE and TM wave, respectively. Method for proper selection of matching liquid under different conditions is discussed.

  2. Progress Report of the Engineering Data Management System Task Force

    CERN Document Server

    Faber, G; CERN. Geneva; Hervé, A; Hauviller, Claude; Klempt, W; Kuipers, J; Loos, R; Nicquevert, B; Onnela, A; Price, M; Rollinger, G; Witzeling, W; Hameri, A P; Mottier, M; Nikkola, J; Pettersson, Thomas Sven; Schinzel, Josi; Tarrant, M; Vuoskoski, J; Farthouat, Philippe; Palazzi, P; Rousseau, B; Ferran, M; Høimyr, Nils-Joar; De Jonghe, J; Strubin, Pierre M; Oliger, S

    1996-01-01

    An Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) is a collection of tools and rules, which enables, as a minimum, a body of vetted information to be built up in a safe place and be easily accessible to the users. The Task Force worked through 1995 - to elucidate CERN's needs for an EDMS in the construction and lifetime of LHC and its experiments - to discover the state of the art of EDMS and find a product on the market which fulfilled CERN's needs. A Call for Tenders was issued in December 1995 and the replies are being evaluated. The name CEDAR has been chosen for the activity of implementing an EDMS at CERN. (CERN EDMS for Detectors and AcceleratoRs). see http://cadd.cern.ch/cedar/.

  3. [Clinical characterization of allergic patients sensitized to Chamaecyparis obtusa--using AlaSTAT system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, M; Nishioka, K; Nagano, T; Ohta, N; Masuda, Y

    1994-09-01

    Clinical characterization of patients with allergy to Chamaecyparis obtusa (Cypress) pollen and their specific IgE antibody was investigated by using AlaSTAT assay, a new method for measurement of antigen-specific IgE antibody. Positive rate of antigen-specific antibody in patients with allergic pollinosis was 83.5% for Japanese cedar pollen and 80.0% for Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen. 76.4% of patients were sensitized both to Japanese cedar and Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen, however, 7.9% were sensitized only to the latter. As for clinical symptoms, duration of attack was short and severity was mild or moderate in the patients sensitized only to Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen. Patients who visited hospital in April, in that Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen disseminated in the air predominantly, showed significant elevation in AlaSTAT scores compared with patients who visited in February and March (p < 0.05).

  4. Modelling the impact of an invasive insect via reaction-diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Lionel; Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne; Roques, Alain

    2008-11-01

    An exotic, specialist seed chalcid, Megastigmus schimitscheki, has been introduced along with its cedar host seeds from Turkey to southeastern France during the early 1990s. It is now expanding in plantations of Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica). We propose a model to predict the expansion and impact of this insect. This model couples a time-discrete equation for the ovo-larval stage with a two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation for the adult stage, through a formula linking the solution of the reaction-diffusion equation to a seed attack rate. Two main diffusion operators, of Fokker-Planck and Fickian types, are tested. We show that taking account of the dependence of the insect mobility with respect to spatial heterogeneity, and choosing the appropriate diffusion operator, are critical factors for obtaining good predictions.

  5. Integrated Field Testing of Fuel Cells and Micro-Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerome R. Temchin; Stephen J. Steffel

    2005-11-01

    A technical and economic evaluation of the prospects for the deployment of distributed generation on Long Beach Island, New Jersey concluded that properly sited DG would defer upgrading of the electric power grid for 10 years. This included the deployment of fuel cells or microturbines as well as reciprocating engines. The implementation phase of this project focused on the installation of a 120 kW CHP microturbine system at the Harvey Cedars Bible Conference in Harvey Cedars, NJ. A 1.1 MW generator powered by a gas-fired reciprocating engine for additional grid support was also installed at a local substation. This report contains installation and operation issues as well as the utility perspective on DG deployment.

  6. Ability of natural extracts to limit mold growth on Douglas-fir sapwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Maoz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of selected plant extracts from wood and foliage to inhibit mold regrowth on fungal colonized wood was evaluated on Douglas-fir sapwood. Most foliage extracts produced some inhibition of Graphium or Trichoderma species, but isolations of other fungi increased following treatment. Five out of eight wood extracts produced 50% reductions in isolations, and those from Alaska cedar, western juniper, and incense cedar produced at least 80% reductions. The results indicate that wood extracts may be useful for reducing the incidence of mold on wood products, but none of the materials evaluated completely inhibited the test fungi. These extracts may provide a useful value-added application for by-products of lumber production from these species.

  7. An Example of Concurrent Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sidney; Whitten, David; Cloyd, Richard; Coppens, Chris; Rodriguez, Pedro

    1998-01-01

    The Collaborative Engineering Design and Analysis Room (CEDAR) facility allows on-the- spot design review capability for any project during all phases of development. The required disciplines assemble in this facility to work on any problems (analysis, manufacturing, inspection, etc.) associated with a particular design. A small highly focused team of specialists can meet in this room to better expedite the process of developing a solution to an engineering task within the framework of the constraints that are unique to each discipline. This facility provides the engineering tools and translators to develop a concept within the confines of the room or with remote team members that could access the team's data from other locations. The CEDAR area is envisioned as excellent for failure investigation meetings to be conducted where the computer capabilities can be utilized in conjunction with the Smart Board display to develop failure trees, brainstorm failure modes, and evaluate possible solutions.

  8. Paleogene Vertebrate Paleontology, Geology and Remote Sensing in the Wind River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, R. K.; Krishtalka, L.

    1985-01-01

    Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic studies were used to correlate different events in the geologic evolution of the northeastern part of the Wind River Basin and have suggested several conclusions. Laterally equivalent exposures of the Lysite member from Cedar Ridge to Bridger Creek show a gradation in lithology from interbedded boulder conglomerates and sandstones to interbedded lenticular sandstones and mudstones to interbedded carbonaceous shales, coals and tabular sandstones. This gradation suggests a shift from alluvial fan to braided stream to paludal or lacustrine sedimentary environments during the late early Eocene. The Lysite and Lost Cabin members of the Wind River Formation are in fault contact in the Bridger Creek area and may intertongue to the east along Cedar Ridge. Ways in which remote sensing could be used in these studies are discussed.

  9. Effet du stress hydrique osmotique sur la germination des graines chez les provenances de Cèdre du Liban (Cedrus Libani A. Rich.) d'origine Turque

    OpenAIRE

    Dirik, Hüseyin

    2000-01-01

    International audience; Effect of osmotic water stress on germination of Lebanon Cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) seeds from the provenances of Turkey. Seeds from ten provenances of Cedrus libani were subjected to germination test on filter paper saturated with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) solutions made up to provide osmotic potentials of 0, $-2$, $-4$ and $-6$ bars. Mean germination percent for all provenances decreased about 48% in $-2$ bars, 61% in $-4$ bars and 75% in $-6$ bars treatment...

  10. JPRS Report, Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Roy Ferguson said Taiwan and Japan had about 20 vessels from which driftnets were set in the South Pacific this season. The previous season (1988-89...rich cedar and mahogany trees that made it internationally famous, it is increasingly overgrown with sprouting morron and jalapeno chile pepper plants...a seasonal agricul- tural economy, mainly based on corn for their subsis- tence, chile peppers , a product of substantial value, beans, which are

  11. Exposure to positively- and negatively-charged plasma cluster ions impairs IgE-binding capacity of indoor cat and fungal allergens

    OpenAIRE

    NISHIKAWA, Kazuo; Fujimura, Takashi; Ota, Yasuhiro; Abe, Takuya; ElRamlawy, Kareem Gamal; Nakano, Miyako; Takado, Tomoaki; Uenishi, Akira; Kawazoe, Hidechika; Sekoguchi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Akihiko; Ono, Kazuhisa; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental control to reduce the amount of allergens in a living place is thought to be important to avoid sensitization to airborne allergens. However, efficacy of environmental control on inactivation of airborne allergens is not fully investigated. We have previously reported that positively- and negatively-charged plasma cluster ions (PC-ions) reduce the IgE-binding capacity of crude allergens from Japanese cedar pollen as important seasonal airborne allergens. Cat (Felis do...

  12. バイオマス燃焼炉内の燃焼ガス流動の数値シミュレーション

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The combustion furnace is the central part of the combustion system for unutilized biomass such as high-water swine excrement and low-grade wood (Japanese cedar) charcoal. In the furnace, distributions of flow velocity and temperature of combustion gas are numerically simulated with the FLUENT software (ANSYS Inc.) based on the Finite Volume Method. From this CFD results including thermal radiation effect from the surface wall of the furnace, velocity distributions of magnitude and direction ...

  13. In Memory of Our Beloved Dr.E.G.Dimond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu; Zhang

    2014-01-01

    <正>People in America hardly know who Edgar Snow is any more;however,in China no one talks about the United States or China-U.S.friendship without mentioning him and Helen Snow.Edgar from Kansas City,Missouri,died in 1971and Helen,from Cedar City,Utah passed away in 1997.They had come to China in the 1930s,and both spent time in northern Shaanxi to interview Chairman

  14. Office of the Secretary of Defense Research, Development Test and Evaluation, Development and Test Evaluation, Defense, Director of Operational Test and Evaluation Defense, FY 1994 Budget Estimates, Justification of Estimates Submitted to Congress April 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Plessey Electronic Systems Corp (Class 2 terminal lead developer)), Wayne , NJ; Rockwell-Collins (Class 2 terminal follower), Cedar Rapids, IA; McDonnell... Wayne , NJ; and MITRE Corporation (systems engineering support), Bedford, MA. E. (U) COMPARISON WITH PREVIOUS DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY: NARRATIVE DESCRIPTION...Allied Signal, Towson , MD; and Rockwell International, Duluth, GA. E. (U) RELATED ACTIVITIES: LCV development is being supported by the Army in PE

  15. Phytobiocidal management of bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi

    OpenAIRE

    Naseerud Din; Musharaf Ahmad; Muhammad Siddique; Asad Ali; Ishrat Naz; Najeeb Ullah; Fayaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Phytobiocides are a good alternative to chemicals in managing bacterial diseases including bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. In the present research study, finely ground dried powders of seven widely available medicinal plants/weeds species viz., Peganum harmala (esfand or wild rue), Calotropis procera (sodom apple), Melia azedarach (white cedar), Allium sativum (garlic), Adhatoda vasica (malabar nut), Tagetes patula (marigold) and Nerium oleander (oleander) were asse...

  16. Solar hot water space heating system. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, T

    1979-08-13

    A retrofit solar heating system was installed on Madison Hall at Jordan College, Cedar Springs, Michigan. The system provides heating and domestic water preheating for a campus dormitory. Freeze protection is provided by a draindown system. The building and solar system, construction progress, and design changes are described. Included in appendices are: condensate trap design, structural analysis, pictures of installation, operating instructions, maintenance instructions, and as-built drawings. (MHR)

  17. Final Environmental Assessment: Conversion of Forest Land to Road Right-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    grasses characteristic of tallgrass prairies in the midwestern United States, and also include many wildflower and bird species associated with that...bluffs above streams. The Barrens of the EHR is linked to the karst topography and was once an area of tallgrass prairies . 3.4.2 Wildlife...Association. Oak-hickory forest, cedar glades, and a mosaic of bluestem prairie and oak- hickory forest dominate this association. The predominant

  18. Final Environmental Assessment, Conversion of Forest Land to Road Right-of-Way, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    grasses characteristic of tallgrass prairies in the midwestern United States, and also include many wildflower and bird species associated with that...bluffs above streams. The Barrens of the EHR is linked to the karst topography and was once an area of tallgrass prairies . 3.4.2 Wildlife...Association. Oak-hickory forest, cedar glades, and a mosaic of bluestem prairie and oak- hickory forest dominate this association. The predominant

  19. Fyn: A Key Regulator of Metastasis in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    reviewed manuscript entitled “SRC family kinase FYN promotes the neuroendocrine phenotype and visceral metastasis in advanced prostate cancer ”. This...Genitourinary Malignancies. Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy- Society of Immunologic Therapy for Cancer . June 19, 2015 26. Circulating tumor cell...Medical Center (2011-2014) • Cancer Quality Committee Member- Cedars Sinai Medical Center (2011-2014) • Protocol Review and Monitoring Committee

  20. RNA extraction from various recalcitrant plant tissues with a cethyltrimethylammonium bromide-containing buffer followed by an acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuji; Mae, Tadahiko; Makino, Amane

    2008-07-01

    High-quality total RNA was extracted using a cethyltrimethylammonium bromide-containing buffer followed by an acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform treatment from recalcitrant plant tissues such as tree leaves (pine, Norway spruce, ginkgo, Japanese cedar, rose), flowers (rose, Lotus japonicus) and storage tissues (seeds of Lotus japonicus and rice, sweet potato tuber, banana fruit). This protocol greatly reduced the time required for RNA extraction.

  1. Downstream Stockton Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    under Contract No. 14-10-0232-1163. Girard, Jeffrey S. and M. D. Freeman 1984 Archaeological Survey at Pomme de Terre and Stockton Lakes: Cedar, Dade...investigated to establish their cultural affiliation or function. Even after all the work that has been conducted at the Stockton, Truman and Pormnme de Terre ...Pomnme de Terre Valley. In Prehistoric Man and His Environments: A Case Study in the Ozark Highland, edited by W. Raymond Wood and R. Bruce McMillan

  2. In vitro organogenesis in Albizia guachapele, Cedrella odorata and Swietenia macrophylla (Fabaceae, Meliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Cerdas, Lisette; Dufour, Magali; Villalobos, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of adventitious buds was achieved from hypocotyl explanls of Albizia guachapele (Guayaquil) and Cedrella odorata (Spanish cedar), and from epicotyl explants from Swietenia macrophylla (Honduran Mahogany). Seeds were obtained from CATIB's Latin American Fores! Seed Bank and genninated under aseptic conditions .. Four explants were cultured in each Petri dish on half strength modified Murashige and Skoog basal medium, and five concentrations of BA (benzyladenine) were studied; A. g...

  3. 2-Acetyl-3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocyclohepten-7-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moha Berraho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H22O2, was semi-synthesized from a mixture of α-atlantone (Z and α-atlantone (E, which were isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (cedrus atlantica. The molecule consists of fused six- and seven-membered rings. The seven-membered ring is in a screw-boat conformation.

  4. 2-Acetyl-3,5,5,9-tetra­methyl-6,7,8,9-tetra­hydro-5H-benzocyclo­hepten-7-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benharref, Ahmed; Mazoir, Noureddine; Lassaba, Essediya; Daran, Jean-Claude; Berraho, Moha

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C17H22O2, was semi-synthesized from a mixture of α-atlantone (Z) and α-atlantone (E), which were isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (cedrus atlantica). The mol­ecule consists of fused six- and seven-membered rings. The seven-membered ring is in a screw-boat conformation. PMID:21522768

  5. University Curricula in the Marine Sciences and Related Fields. Academic Years 1969-70 and 1970-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Zoogeography 4 148 Animal Phylogeny and Evolution 5 160 Invertebrate Neurophysiology 5 197 Senior Colloquium in Zoology 2 199 Special Study for Advance...Seahorse Key, an island about two miles from Cedar Key, consists of a laboratory with fresh and sea water and a ten-room building used as a dor...science. 2. M.S. in Aquatic Biology (salt and fresh water ), Aquatic Weed Control, Environmental Radio- activity, Marine and Estuarine Ecology, Marine

  6. Final Environmental Assessment of Military Service Station Privatization at Five AETC Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    agricultural and silvicultural practices. Slash (Pinus elliottii) and sand (P. clausa) pine plantations have replaced much of the native longleaf pine (P...on Tyndall AFB include Mesic/Wet Slash Flatwoods, Natural Longleaf Pine , Estuarine Tidal Salt Marsh, Coastal Upland, Freshwater Wetlands (Wet Prairie...cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica). Predominant varieties of turf grasses observed within the developed areas of Laughlin

  7. Effect of Increasing Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Microbial Communities

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Increasing nitrogen deposition, increasing atmospheric CO2, and decreasing biodiversity are three main environmental changes occurring on a global scale. The BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2, and Nitrogen) ecological experiment site at the University of Minnesota's Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve started in 1997, to better understand how these changes would affect soil systems. To understand how increasing nitrogen deposition affects the microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functi...

  8. Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor System (JLENS) Land-Based Testing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    halophytic (plants adapted to living in a saline environment) habitat type with red swampfire, a native annual forb and iodine bush, a native perennial...sedges, iodine bush, red swampfire, Gard- ner saltbush, rabbitbrush, and greasewood. Non-native plants include salt cedar, Russian olive, kochia, and...issues, federal agencies must identify and address disproportionately high and adverse effects of federal projects on the health or environment of

  9. Hiina naise lugu võitis Kuldkaru / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2007-01-01

    57. Berliini filmifestivali peaauhind Kuldkaru - hiina režissööri Wang Quanani film "Tuya abielu" ("Tuya de hun shi"), parima režissööri Hõbekaru - iisraellane Joseph Cedar ("Beafort"), parim meesnäitleja - Julio Chavez (Ariel Rotteri "Teine"), parim naisnäitleja - Nina Hossa (Christian Petzoldi "Yella"), väljapaistev kunstiline saavutus - Robert De Niro lavastajatöö ("Hea karjane")

  10. Proposed Continental Operations Range. United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    Fallon, Battle Motutain, Francis Peak, and Cedar City. Other COR non-participating ertities to be linked to COR Central to promote cooperation in...qualities worth retain’ng: friendliness, and toleration of privacy. "So it is a valid fear that some of thebe valued traditions will be lost with the...by sheep during the winter months from November 1 to April 30. (;razing units In the Battle Mountain Grazing district of the BL, in the northern part

  11. Update on GPS Modernization Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    Involvement • Update GPS.gov Webpage • Load Operational Software on over 970,000 SAASM Receivers • Distribute PRNs for the World - 120 for US and...features • Currently in design , delivery expected 2019 - OCX Block 2: adds advanced NAVWAR and Civil Signal Performance Monitoring capabilities...program’s 2366b certification is pending • Successful Preliminary Design Reviews (PDRs) for all 3 MGUE Inc 1 contractors - Rockwell Collins (Cedar

  12. The F. L. Brinkley Midden (22Ts729): Archaeological Investigations in the Yellow Creek Watershed, Tishomingo County, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Cultural Resource Management Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway Structures Prehistoric Archaeology Lithic Analysis Archaic Period Paleoethnobo tany .. COTI...1976 Cedar Creek Archaeological Project, 1976 Season Lithic Analysis . Manuscript on file at University of Alabama, Office of Archae- ological Research...in the Formation of Edge Damage: A New Approach to Lithic Analysis . Journal of Field Archaeology 1(1-2): 171- 196. Watson, Patty Jo 1976 In Pursuit of

  13. Effect of Radiocesium Transfer on Ambient Dose Rate in Forest Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Loffredo, Nicolas; Hisadome, Keigo; Kawamori, Ayumi

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (beech with red pine). We also measured an ambient dose rate at different height in the forest by using a survey meter (TCS-172B, Hitachi-Aloka Medical, LTD.) and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector (Detective-DX-100T, Ortec, Ametek, Inc.). In decreasing order of total Cs-137 deposition from the canopy to forest floor were the mature cedar stand, the young cedar stand, and the broad-leaved forest. The ambient dose rate in forest exhibited height dependency and its vertical distribution varied by forest type and stand age. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the height of dose measurement and forest type. The ambient dose rates at the canopy (approx. 10 m-) decreased earlier than physical attenuation of radiocesium, whereas those at the forest floor varied among three forest stands. These data suggested that an ambient dose rate in forest environment can be variable in spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor.

  14. Disparate radiocesium leaching from two woody species by acceleration of litter decomposition using microbial inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashida, Shin-Nosuke; Yoshihara, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    Studies focusing on the migration of radionuclides in the forest floor have demonstrated that the ecological half-life of radiocesium on organic layer containing the debris of plant litter with various fungi and microorganisms is shorter than that in the deeper soil zone, suggesting that the litter decomposition affects radiocesium mobilization. Here, we showed the involvement of lignin, one of the major cell wall components of plant litter, in the fate of contaminated radiocesium during the process of fungal litter decomposition. In this study, litter decomposition of two different woody species, broadleaf deciduous Japanese cherry consisted of hardwood lignin and coniferous evergreen Japanese cedar with softwood lignin, were accelerated by in vitro fungal inoculation. In vitro inoculation exhibited 1.93- to 2.59-times faster decomposition than field experiment. Then, the cherry litter lost approximately 25% of initially contaminated radiocesium within 1 month of in vitro decomposition, whereas the cedar litter kept initial level at least for 6 month. The retention of radiocesium correlated with thioglycolate lignin content in cedar litter but not in cherry litter. Consequently, the behavior of radiocesium contaminated in litter fall may vary depending on the contamination pathway or the manner of nutrient mobilization at the stage of abscission between evergreen and deciduous trees.

  15. Horizontal high-pressure air injection well construction and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, J. [Continental Resources Inc., ND (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed the design and operational challenges of a horizontal high-pressure air injection well currently in use at the Cedar Hill Red River B field in North Dakota. The field was developed in 1994, using horizontal wells oriented from the northeast to the southwest corners of each section on 640 acre spacing. In March of 2001, the field was unitized resulting in a horizontal waterflood project and a 320 acre horizontal high pressure air injection project. Extreme temperatures and pressures occurring in the reservoir from the combustion processes associated with high pressure air injection have resulted in several challenges. Reservoir and fluid properties of the field were presented, as well as a type log. Details of the Buffalo and Cedar Hills field were also provided, with a comparison of horizontal and vertical patterns. A light oil displacement process was reviewed, with details of tubing leak corrosion, packer seal and detonation failures. Burn front exposure to casing was discussed, and a wellbore diagram was provided. Various horizontal conversions were discussed. A description of the Cedar Hills Compressor Station and compression trains was provided. It was concluded that knowledge gained from 25 years of vertical high pressure air injection experience has been successfully incorporated to create a safe and durable design. 1 tab., 16 figs.

  16. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the Cedrus atlantica (Endl. Manettiex Carrière seeds essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Rhafouri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Atlas cedar is an endemic species of the African North Mountains. The goal for which this work was conducted is to determine the chemical composition and to study the antibacterial and the antifungal activity of the hydrodistilized essential oil from both the winged and wingless seeds of the High Atlas Cedrus atlantica (Morocco. The essential oil is analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The essential oil yields of winged as well as wingless seeds were respectively 2.6% and 3.6%.The main constituents of the cedar wingless seeds are the α-pinene, the manool, and the bornyl acetate; whereas, the major constituents of the cedar winged seeds are the manool and the α-pinene. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oils were tested on four bacteria, three molds and four fungi of wood rot. The fungal strains tested were revealed more sensitive to the essential oil studied than the bacterial strains.

  17. Identification of novel glycosyl hydrolases with cellulolytic activity against crystalline cellulose from metagenomic libraries constructed from bacterial enrichment cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Toshio; Kamei, Ichiro; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2014-01-01

    To obtain cellulases that are capable of degrading crystalline cellulose and cedar wood, metagenomic libraries were constructed from raw soil sample which was covered to pile of cedar wood sawdust or from its enrichment cultures. The efficiency of screening of metagenomic library was improved more than 3 times by repeating enrichment cultivation using crystalline cellulose as a carbon source, compared with the library constructed from raw soil. Four cellulase genes were obtained from the metagenomic libraries that were constructed from the total genome extracted from an enrichment culture that used crystalline cellulose as a carbon source. A cellulase gene and a xylanase gene were obtained from the enrichment culture that used unbleached kraft pulp as a carbon source. The culture supernatants of Escherichia coli expressing three clones that were derived from the enrichment culture that used crystalline cellulose showed activity against crystalline cellulose. In addition, these three enzyme solutions generated a reducing sugar from cedar wood powder. From these results, the construction of a metagenomic library from cultures that were repetition enriched using crystalline cellulose demonstrated that this technique is a powerful tool for obtaining cellulases that have activity toward crystalline cellulose.

  18. Dry deposition of sulfur to forests in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akira; Sato, Kazuo; Fujita, Shin-ichi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Dry deposition is an important input process of acidifying compounds to forest ecosystem. However, dry deposition to forest was largely unstudied in Japan, despite the fact that about 70% of the land is covered with forest. To assess the contribution of dry deposition to the total (wet + dry) input of sulfur to forest, we estimated dry deposition velocities and fluxes of sulfur to three different forest stands (cedar [Cryptomeria japonica], pine [Pinus densiflora], and oak [Quercus serrata]) located at Mt. Akagi in Gumma Prefecture, Japan. Micro meteorology above canopies, atmospheric concentrations, and throughfall fluxes were measured from October 1994 to September 1995. Deposition velocities of sulfur dioxide and particulate sulfate were determined by using the inferential method, based on the result of meteorological measurements. Dry deposition fluxes were calculated from the estimated deposition velocities and the result of concentration measurements. Dry deposition fluxes of sulfate for cedar, pine, and oak were estimated at 164 eq/ha/y, 143 eq/ha/y, and 131 eq/ha/y, respectively. The relative contribution of dry deposition ranged from 20% to 22% of the total sulfur deposition. However, these results might be underestimated because estimated fluxes were about 30% lower than observed net throughfall fluxes ([throughfall + stemflow] - precipitation) in cedar and pine forest stands.

  19. The emergence of oral tadalafil as a once-daily treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A Falk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Jeremy A Falk, Kiran J Philip, Ernst R SchwarzCedars Sinai Women’s Guild Lung Institute, Cedars Sinai Heart Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Pulmonary hypertension (PH is found in a vast array of diseases, with a minority representing pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Idiopathic PAH or PAH in association with other disorders has been associated with poor survival, poor exercise tolerance, progressive symptoms of dyspnea, and decreased quality of life. Left untreated, patients with PAH typically have a progressive decline in function with high morbidity ultimately leading to death. Advances in medical therapy for PAH over the past decade have made significant inroads into improved function, quality of life, and even survival in this patient population. Three classes of pulmonary artery-specific vasodilators are currently available in the United States. They include prostanoids, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5 inhibitors. In May 2009, the FDA approved tadalafil, the first once-daily PDE5 inhibitor for PAH. This review will outline the currently available data on tadalafil and its effects in patients with PAH.Keywords: PDE-5 inhibition, pulmonary hypertension, tadalafil

  20. Recent surveys and researches on pollinosis in Japan; Kafunsho ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shido, T. [The Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-31

    In this paper, recent investigations and researches on pollinosis are summarized as centering on the investigation entrusted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and executed since 1992, and especially the surveys on Japanese cedar pollinosis during 1995 to 1996. The quantity of pollen surveyed in 1995 is the greatest in the survey history of nationwide flying pollen. Particularly, the quantity of cedar and hinoki pollen is 10 to 40 times as many as that in the year before. Consequently, since the sensitization and onset due to the cedar pollen increased greatly, the objects of the surveys and the researches were mainly in respect to the analysis of onset factors of pollinosis, clarification of its natural process, evaluation on the effectiveness of desensitization therapy, the clinical subjects including the confirmation of pharynx symptom and asthma symptom, and the discovery of naturally sensitizing dog. A fact that the quantity of flying pollen concerns the occurrence and degree of the clinical symptom has already been indicated by a clinical observation carried out for a long period of time. In respect to specific prophylaxis and therapy, for the first time the pollen masks and glasses sold on the market are investigated, and the necessity of the verification thereof is described. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Comparison of natural adsorbents for metal removal from acidic effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, J F; Shen, S; Meunier, N; Tyagi, R D

    2003-02-01

    Adsorption tests were carried out in acidic synthetic solutions (pH 2.0) using 20 g l(-1) of various natural adsorbents and 0.25 mM of 11 different metals. In decreasing order, the most efficient adsorbents tested were: oyster shells, cedar bark, vermiculite, cocoa shells and peanut shells. In contrast, weak metal adsorption was demonstrated by: red cedar wood, peat moss, pine wood, corn cobs and perlite. Metal adsorption capacities in acidic synthetic solution followed the order: Pb2+> Cr3+> Cu2+> Fe2+> Al3+> Ni2+> Cd2+ > Mn2+ > Zn2+ > Ca2+, Mg2+. Alkaline treatment (0.75 M NaOH) increased the effectiveness of metal removal for the majority of adsorbents. In contrast, acid treatment (0.75 M H2SO4) either reduced or did not affect the adsorption capacity of the materials tested. Finally, oyster shells, red cedar wood, vermiculite, cocoa shells and peanut shells, were effective natural adsorbents for the selective recovery of lead and trivalent chromium from acidic effluent.

  2. Host heterogeneity influences the impact of a non-native disease invasion on populations of a foundation tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Erik S.; Carroll, Allyson L.; Garcia, Andrea M.; Steenbock, Christopher M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive pathogens are becoming increasingly important in forested ecosystems, yet they are often difficult to study because of their rapid transmission. The rate and extent of pathogen spread are thought to be partially controlled by variation in host characteristics, such as when host size and location influence susceptibility. Few host-pathogen systems, however, have been used to test this prediction. We used Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), a foundation tree species in riparian areas of California and Oregon (USA), and the invasive oomycete Phytophthora lateralis to assess pathogen impacts and the role of host characteristics on invasion. Across three streams that had been infected for 13–18 years by P. lateralis, we mapped 2241 trees and determined whether they had been infected using dendrochronology. The infection probability of trees was governed by host size (diameter at breast height [DBH]) and geomorphic position (e.g., active channel, stream bank, floodplain, etc.) similarly across streams. For instance, only 23% of trees DBH were infected, while 69% of trees ≥20 cm DBH were infected. Presumably, because spores of P. lateralis are transported downstream in water, they are more likely to encounter well-developed root systems of larger trees. Also because of this water-transport of spores, differences in infection probability were found across the geomorphic positions: 59% of cedar in the active channel and the stream bank (combined) were infected, while 23% of trees found on higher geomorphic types were infected. Overall, 32% of cedar had been infected across the three streams. However, 63% of the total cedar basal area had been killed, because the greatest number of trees, and the largest trees, were found in the most susceptible positions. In the active channel and stream bank, 91% of the basal area was infected, while 46% was infected across higher geomorphic positions. The invasion of Port Orford cedar populations by

  3. Background and introduction: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2010-01-01

    The Salt Cedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; hereafter the Act) directs the Department of the Interior to submit a report to Congress1 that includes an assessment of several issues surrounding these two nonnative trees, now dominant components of the vegetation along many rivers in the Western United States. Specifically, the Act calls for “…an assessment of the extent of salt cedar and Russian olive infestation on public and private land in the western United States,” which shall“A) consider existing research on methods to control salt cedar and Russian olive trees; B) consider the feasibility of reducing water consumption by salt cedar and Russian olive trees; C) consider methods of and challenges associated with the revegetation or restoration of infested land; and D) estimate the costs of destruction of salt cedar and Russian olive trees, related biomass removal, and revegetation or restoration and maintenance of the infested land.”Finally, the Act calls for discussion of“(i) long-term management and funding strategies…that could be implemented by Federal, State, tribal, and private land managers and owners to address the infestation by salt cedar and Russian olive; (ii) any deficiencies in the assessment or areas for additional study; and (iii) any field demonstrations that would be useful in the effort to control salt cedar and Russian olive.”The primary intent of this report is to provide the science assessment called for under the Act. A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. In addition to relying on the direction provided under Section C of the Act, the authors of this report also drew upon the detailed list of considerations presented in Section E of the Act to guide development of more expansive discussions of topics relevant to saltcedar and Russian olive control

  4. Characterization of Pollen Dispersion in the Neighborhood of Tokyo, Japan in the Spring of 2005 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshizumi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa pollens in an urban area was examined through the measurements of the dispersion characteristics at the various sampling locations in both outdoor and indoor environments. Airborne pollens were counted continuously for three months during the Japanese cedar pollen and Japanese cypress seasons in 2005 and 2006 by the use of Durham’s pollen trap method in and around Tokyo, Japan. The dispersion of pollens at the rooftop of Kyoritsu Women’s University was observed to be at extremely high levels in 2005 compared with previously reported results during the past two decades. As for Japanese cedar pollen, the maximum level was observed as 440 counts cm-2 day-1 on 18 March 2005. Japanese cypress pollen dispersed in that area in the latter period was compared with the Japanese cedar pollen dispersions. The maximum dispersion level was observed to be 351 counts cm-2 day-1 on 7 April 2005. Total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 5,552 and 1,552 counts cm-2 for the three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr. in 2005, respectively. However, the dispersion of both pollens in 2006 was very low. The total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 421 and 98 counts cm-2 for three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr. in 2006, respectively. Moreover, the pollen deposition on a walking person in an urban area showed that the pollen counts on feet were observed to be extremely high compared with the ones on the shoulder, back and legs. These findings suggested that pollen fell on the surface of the paved road at first, rebounded to the ambient air and was deposited on the residents again. Furthermore, the regional distribution of the total pollen dispersion in the South Kanto area was characterized on 15-16 March 2005 and on 14-15 March 2006. Although the pollen levels in 2005 were much

  5. Vertical Distribution of Termites on Trees in Two Forest Landscapes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hou-Feng; Yeh, Hsin-Ting; Chiu, Chun-I; Kuo, Chih-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Jer

    2016-03-25

    Termites are a key functional group in the forest ecosystem, but they damage trees. To investigate the termite infestation pattern on the whole tree, we cut 108 blackboard trees,Alstonia scholaris(L.) R. Br., and 50 Japanese cedars,Cryptomeria japonica (L. f.) D. Don, into sections. The bark surface and cross sections of the tree trunk were examined along the axes. A high percentage of blackboard trees (92.6%) was infested by fungus-growing termites,Odontotermes formosanus(Shiraki), but damage was limited to the bark surface at a 2-m height. The infestation rate of dampwood termites,Neotermes koshunensis(Shiraki), was only 4.6% (5/108), and all infestations were associated with trunk wounds.N. koshunensiswas found at significantly higher portion of a tree thanO. formosanus Among 50 Japanese cedars, 20 living trees were not infested by any termites, but 26 of the 30 dead trees were infested by subterranean termites,Reticulitermes flaviceps(Oshima), which excavated tunnels in the trunk. The infestation rate at basal sections was higher than that at distal sections. Only one Japanese cedar tree was infested by another dampwood termite,Glyptotermes satsumensis(Matsumura). The two dominant termite species,O. formosanusandR. flaviceps, had subterranean nests and infested trees from bottom up. The two primitive termitesN. koshunensis andG. satsumensishad low infestation rates and are most likely to infest trees by alates from top down. The niche segregation in trees of three termite families, Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, and Termitidae, was distinct.

  6. Effect of radiocesium transfer on ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents in throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured the ambient dose rate (ADR) at different heights in the forest using a survey meter and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 166 kBq/m2, 174 kBq/m2, and 60 kBq/m2, respectively. These values correspond to 38%, 40% and 13% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate in forest exhibited height dependency and its vertical distribution varied with forest type and stand age. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the height of dose measurement and forest type. The ambient dose rate at the canopy (approx. 10 m-height) decreased faster than that expected from physical decay of the two radiocesium isotopes, whereas those at the forest floor varied between the three forest stands. The radiocesium deposition via throughfall seemed to increase ambient dose rate during the first 200 days after the accident, however there was no clear relationship between litterfall and ambient dose rate since 400 days after the accident. These data suggested that the ambient dose rate in forest environment varied both spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. However, further monitoring investigation and analysis are required to determine the effect of litterfall on long-term trend of ambient dose rate in forest environments.

  7. Dynamic and Spatio-temporal variability of leachable 137Cs by throughfall and stemflow in Japanese forest canopies after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Nicolas; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Kawamori, Ayumi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    In the context of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (FDNPPA), this study focuses on the mobility of leachable Caesium by throughfall and stemflow mechanisms in forests canopies, for the period going from June 2011 (four months after the accident), and until April 2013. In this period, 137Cs and 134Cs activity has been periodically measured, in an area located at 40 km from the power plant, in rainfall, throughfall and stemflow for broad-leaf and cedar forests. Specifically, our study deals with the seasonal effect, the dynamic and the spatio-temporal variability on leachable Cs in these forests. Except for rainfall intensity, no weather impact (wind velocity and snow fall episodes) was observed for the Cs loss. Concerning the seasonal effect, two periods for which Cs significantly increased could be identify: autumn and spring. During the period of investigation, compared to stemflow, the main flux of Cs was induced by throughfall mechanisms, whereas for rainfall, no Cs was detected. By using a double exponential model, the Cs loss by throughfall and stemflow was estimated from the initial deposition to 2 years after the accident. Since the accident, the total Cs loss by leaching was estimated to 35-70%, 31-62% and 49-99% of the total deposition for respectively mature cedar, young cedar and broad-leaf forests. In term of qualitative spatial variability no variation was observed in throughfall collectors with time. However, a high quantitative variability can be observed, due to the difference of leaf density above each throughfall collectors.

  8. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  9. Litter dynamics in two Sierran mixed conifer forests. II. Nutrient release in decomposing leaf litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    The factors influencing leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release patterns were investigated for 3.6 years in two mixed conifer forests in the southern Sierra Nevada of California. The giant sequoia–fir forest was dominated by giant sequoia (Sequoiadendrongiganteum (Lindl.) Buchh.), white fir (Abiesconcolor Lindl. & Gord.), and sugar pine (Pinuslambertiana Dougl.). The fir–pine forest was dominated by white fir, sugar pine, and incense cedar (Calocedrusdecurrens (Torr.) Florin). Initial concentrations of nutrients and percent lignin, cellulose, and acid detergent fiber vary considerably in freshly abscised leaf litter of the studied species. Giant sequoia had the highest concentration of lignin (20.3%) and the lowest concentration of nitrogen (0.52%), while incense cedar had the lowest concentration of lignin (9.6%) and second lowest concentration of nitrogen (0.63%). Long-term (3.6 years) foliage decomposition rates were best correlated with initial lignin/N (r2 = 0.94, p r2 = 0.92, p r2 = 0.80, p incense cedar immobilized N and to a lesser extent P, while sugar pine immobilized Ca. Strong linear or negative exponential relationships existed between initial concentrations of N, P, K, and Ca and percent original mass remaining of those nutrients after 3.6 years. This suggests efficient retention of these nutrients in the litter layer of these ecosystems. Nitrogen concentrations steadily increase in decomposing leaf litter, effectively reducing the C/N ratios from an initial range of 68–96 to 27–45 after 3.6 years.

  10. Dry deposition of acidic air pollutants to tree leaves, determined by a modified leaf-washing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Mirai; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Koshikawa, Masami K.; Yamamura, Shigeki; Inubushi, Kazuyuki

    Dry deposition fluxes ( FL) of NO 3- and SO 42- to leaf surfaces were measured for Japanese red pine ( Pinus densiflora), Japanese cedar ( Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa), and Japanese white oak ( Quercus myrsinaefolia), together with atmospheric concentrations ( CL) of NO x (NO + NO 2), T-NO 3 (gaseous HNO 3 + particulate NO 3-) and SO x (gaseous SO 2 + particulate SO 42-) around the leaves in a suburban area of Japan, using a modified leaf-washing technique. FL of NO 3- and SO 42- decreased as follows: pine >> cedar > cypress ≥ oak and pine >> cedar > oak ≥ cypress, respectively. FL of NO 3- for all tree species fluctuated synchronously with CL of T-NO 3. FL of SO 42- fluctuated with CL of SO x, but the dominant pollutant deposited (SO 2 or SO 42-) appeared to differ for different tree species. Dry deposition conductance ( KL) of T-NO 3 and SO x was derived as an FL/ CL ratio. Seasonal variations of KL likely reflect the gas/particle ratios of T-NO 3 and SO x, which were affected by meteorological conditions such as temperature. Dry deposition velocities ( Vd) of T-NO 3 and SO x were obtained as the mathematical product of annual mean KL and the total leaf surface areas in the forests. The comparison of Vd among tree species indicated that the loads of acidic air pollutants were higher to coniferous forests than broad-leaved forest because of the higher KL and/or larger leaf surface areas.

  11. 改善管理流程 助力企业发展 亚太区企业首选Oracle HCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>2008年11月13日,美国著名人力资源咨询公司CedarCrestone对亚太区人力资本管理市场所做的调查显示,Oracle人力资本管理软件(Oracle HCM)为亚太企业首选。Oracle HCM软件套件包括Oracle PeopleSoft企业人力资本管理软件和Oracle电子商务套件(EBS)已成为领先公司首选。这些领先的公司用Oracle HCM软件实

  12. Renewal: New Aspects of Acceleration and Transport of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) from the Sun to the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-31

    invention that may relate to them. This report was cleared for public release by the 377 ABW Public Affairs Office and is available to the general...suggested a new SEP environmental factor worthy of further exploration. We used timing parameters and peak intensities of 20 MeV SEP from the event list of...4.6. The Cosmogenic Nuclide Event of 775 AD From high-time-resolution (1–2 yr) measurements of 14C in Japanese cedar trees from 750–820 AD

  13. A comparison of screening batteries in the detection of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected Spanish speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Andrew; Palomo,, L Valencia; Lopez,; Singer, MR; Valdes-Sueiras,; Hinkin, Charles; Mathisen,; S. Donovan

    2011-01-01

    Andrew J Levine1, Manuel Palomo1, Charles H Hinkin2,3, Miguel Valdes-Sueiras1,5, Enrique Lopez3,4, Glenn Mathisen1,5, Suzanne Donovan1,5, Elyse J Singer11National Neurological AIDS Bank, Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 2Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles...

  14. Distribution of radioactive Cesium in trees and effect of decontamination of forest contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, K.; Funaki, H.; Tokizawa, T.; Nakayama, S. [Fukushima Environmental Safety Center, Headquarters of Fukushima Partnership Operations, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Fukushima (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    In decontamination pilot projects conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), many different techniques were tested to determine their applicability to remediate areas evacuated after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident following the Great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011. In addition to buildings, roads and farmland, the forest adjacent to living areas was one of the main decontamination targets. The projects evaluated the radioactive contamination of trees and the effectiveness of decontaminating a highly contaminated evergreen forest. This forest was located 1.3 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and is dominated by Japanese cedar trees and fir trees. As the first step, three Japanese cedar trees and three fir trees were cut down and the distributions of radioactive cesium (Cs) were measured in each. The total concentrations of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in the leaves and branches were about 1 MBq/kg for both cedar and fir trees, and were appreciably higher than in the bark for cedar. The concentrations in the outer part of the trunks (under the bark) were lower, on the order of 10 kBq/kg, and those in the core of the trunks were lower than 1 kBq/kg for both kinds of trees. The observation that the Cs concentrations are higher in the outer part of trees, is compatible with the assumption that radio-Cs was mostly adsorbed on the surface of trees and partly penetrated into the trunks through the bark. Evolution of air dose rates in a 100 x 60 m pasture adjacent to the forest was monitored during decontamination of the forest and of the pasture itself. The dose rates in the pasture decreased drastically after stripping contaminated topsoil from the pasture and decreased slightly more after stripping contaminated topsoil of the forest floor and pruning the trees. Cutting down and removing 84 trees in the outermost area (10- m width) of the forest also slightly decreased these dose rates. After decontamination, the

  15. Content and implementation of clinical decisions in the routine care of people with severe mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Benjamin; Vecchio, Valeria Del; Puschner, Bernd;

    2015-01-01

    with severe mental illness across Europe over a measurement period of one year. METHODS: Self-ratings of the HA by 588 people with severe mental illness who participated in a multicentre European study (CEDAR; ISRCTN75841675) were examined using latent class analysis. RESULTS: Four main patterns of alliance...... were identified: (1) high and stable (HS, 45.6 %), (2) high and increasing (HI, 36.9 %), (3) high and decreasing (HD, 11.3 %) and (4) low and increasing (LI, 6.1 %). Predictors of class membership were duration of illness, ethnicity, and education, receipt of state benefits, recovery, and quality...

  16. Erratum to: Courses of helping alliance in the treatment of people with severe mental illness in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vecchio, Valeria Del; Puschner, Bernd; Arnold, Katrin;

    2015-01-01

    with severe mental illness across Europe over a measurement period of one year. METHODS: Self-ratings of the HA by 588 people with severe mental illness who participated in a multicentre European study (CEDAR; ISRCTN75841675) were examined using latent class analysis. RESULTS: Four main patterns of alliance...... were identified: (1) high and stable (HS, 45.6 %), (2) high and increasing (HI, 36.9 %), (3) high and decreasing (HD, 11.3 %) and (4) low and increasing (LI, 6.1 %). Predictors of class membership were duration of illness, ethnicity, and education, receipt of state benefits, recovery, and quality...

  17. Investigation of radioactive cesium transportation from forest canopy to floor by litterfall, stemflow and throughfall in northern Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, I.; Ohte, N.; Iseda, K.; Tanoi, K.; Hirose, A.; Kobayashi, N. I.; Murakami, M.; Tokuchi, N.; Ohashi, M.

    2015-12-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident due to Great East Japan Earthquake in March 11th 2011, large areas of forest have been highly contaminated by the radioactive nuclides. Most of the deposited radioactive material to the canopy is then washed out with rainfall or leaf fall due to the tree phenology. There have been studies showing that the amount of 137Cs transportation differs among litter components and water pathways, and was affected by seasonal variations. Thus, to evaluate the amount of 137Cs flux from canopy to forest floor, continuous monitoring of each component (litterfall, throughfall and stemflow) is required. We investigated the annual transfer of 137Cs from the forest canopy to the floor by litterfall, throughfall and stemflow at two different forest types in northern Fukushima after two years from the accident. Seasonal variations in 137Cs transportation and differences between forests types were also determined. Forest sites were set in the upstream part of Kami-Oguni River catchment at Date city, which locates approximately 50km northwest from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The study sites consisted of two deciduous (Mixed deciduous-1, Mixed deciduous-2) and one cedar (Cedar plantation) stands. The cumulative 137Cs transportation from the forest canopy to the floor was 6.6 kBq m-2 year-1 for the Mixed deciduous-1, 3.9 kBq m-2 year-1 for the Mixed deciduous-2 and 11.0 kBq m-2 year-1 for the Cedar plantation. 137Cs transportation with litterfall increased in the defoliation period which correlated with the increased amount of litterfall. 137Cs transportation with throughfall and stemflow increased in the rainy season. 137Cs flux by litterfall was higher in Cedar plantation compared with that of mixed deciduous forests, while the opposite result was obtained for stemflow. The ratio of annual 137Cs flux and the estimated 137Cs amount deposited in the forests will be discussed.

  18. Cultural Resources Survey, Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir Project, Missouri. Volume 2. Historical Resources: Historical Gazetteer and Mitigation Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    their natural setting (36%) than from Biblical or nominally reliCjious sources (24"). The important businesses that were also important site referents...Transferred from town. SSR Agricola School (Henry) NE Big Creek T. Named for Masonic Lodge in Carrsville. 9 WHD; SSR Akard (Cedar) Later Owen’s Mill A...first business there in 1868. Dale named the place for the cane produced here. (Most descriptive place names with 1cane" or "caney" modifiers are found

  19. Houston-Galveston Navigation Channel Shoaling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products . All product names and trademarks cited are the property of...Draft (m) 7–13 Speed (m/s) 4.9–7.5 Blockage ratio 0.01–0.18 Blockage is a common parameter used for vessel transport analysis and is the product ...Inflows BUFFALO OYSTER CEDAR DICKINSON CLEAR_CRK CHOCOLATE LIVE_OAK ERDC/CHL TR-14-14 70 Wind Wind data used in the 1990 and 2000 efforts were

  20. Tree planters` notes, Volume 45, Number 3, Summer 1994. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, R.; Nisley, R.

    1995-07-01

    ;Tables of Contents: Comments: Let`s Hear From You; Technical Tips: The Effect of Containerless Transportation on Desert Shrubs; Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Infests Longleaf Pine Seedlings in a North Carolina Nursery; Insects and Diseases of Oak Seedlings Grown in Tree Shelters; Peer-Reviewed and Refereed Articles: An Evaluation of Dazomet and Metam-Sodium Soil Fumigants for Control of Macrophomina phaseolina in a Florida Nursery; Sprouting and Growth of Paulownia tomentosa Root Cuttings; Fungicide Treatment Increases Sprouting Percent and Sprout Growth for Paulownia tomentosa Root Cuttings; Atlantic White-Cedar Propagation by Seed and Cuttings in New Jersey.

  1. (1S,3R,8S,9R,10S-2,2-Dichloro-3,7,7,10-tetramethyl-9,10-epoxytricyclo[6.4.0.01,3]dodecane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moha Berraho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H24Cl2O, was synthesized from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-benzocycloheptene, which was isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (cedrus atlantica. The molecule forms an extended sheet of two fused rings which exhibit different conformations. The six-membered ring has a half-chair conformation, while the seven-membered ring displays a chair conformation; the dihedral angle between the two rings is 38.2 (1°.

  2. (1S,3R,8R,11S-2,2,11-Tribromo-10-bromomethyl-3,7,7-trimethyltricyclo[6.4.0.01,3]dodec-9-ene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoullah Bimoussa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H22Br4, was synthesized in two steps from β-himachalene, which was isolated from essential oil of the Atlas cedar (cedrus atlantica. It is built up from three fused rings, a seven-membered heptane ring, a six-membered cyclohexyl ring bearing both a bromine and a bromomethyl substituent, and a three-membered propane ring bearing two Br atoms. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [001]. The absolute configuration was deduced from the chemical pathway and confirmed by resonant scattering [Flack parameter = 0.012 (10].

  3. (1S,3R,8R,9S,11R-2,2,10,10-Tetrachloro-3,7,7,11-tetramethyltetracyclo[6.5.0.01,3.09,11]tridecane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najia Ourhriss

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H24Cl4, was synthesized from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-benzocycloheptene, which was isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus Atlantica. The molecule is built up from fused six- and seven-membered rings and two three-membered rings from the reaction of β-himachalene with dichlorocarbene. The six-membered ring shows a chair conformation, whereas the seven-membered ring displays a boat conformation.

  4. (1S,2R,3S,6S,7R)-3,7,11,11-Tetra-methyl-6,7-epoxybi-cyclo-[5.4.0]undecane-2-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubidi, Mohamed; Benharref, Ahmed; El Ammari, Lahcen; Saadi, Mohamed; Berraho, Moha

    2014-05-01

    The title compound, C15H26O2, was synthesized from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetra-methyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexa-hydro-1H-benzo-cyclo-heptene), which was isolated from the Atlas cedar (cedrus atlantica). The mol-ecule is built up from a seven-membered ring to which a six- and a three-membered ring are fused. The seven- and six-membered rings each have a twist-boat conformation. In the crystal, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into zigzag chains running along the b-axis direction.

  5. (1S,2R,8R)-2,2-Dichloro-3,7,7,10-tetra­methyltricyclo­[6.4.0.01,3]dodec-10-en-9-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benharref, Ahmed; El Ammari, Lahcen; Berraho, Moha

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C16H22Cl2O, was synthesized from β-himachalene, which was isolated from essential oil of the Atlas cedar (cedrus atlantica). The asymmetric unit contains two independent mol­ecules, in each of which the six-membered ring shows a half-chair conformation, whereas the seven-membered ring displays a boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the two rings is slightly different in the two mol­ecules [63.22 (13) and 61.81 (14)°]. PMID:21589085

  6. Effet de la bactérisation des graines sur la croissance des plants de Cedrus atlantica Manetti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrani B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterization effect of seeds on the growth of Cedrus atlantica Manetti plants. The beneficial effect of five rhizobacterial strains on the growth of Cedrus atlantica plants was evaluated at forest nursery before out-planting. The obtained results showed a significant effect of bacterial strains on cedar seedlings growth and only Pseudomonas fluorescens A6RI and TGI252 significantly increased stem length, neck diameter, root dry weight and number of root tips. It will allow us to adapt this technology for the production of quality plants.

  7. (1R,4R,6S,7R)-5,5-Di-bromo-1,4,8,8-tetra-methyl-tri-cyclo-[5.4.1.0(4,6)]dodecan-12-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Mohamed; Benharref, Ahmed; Daran, Jean-Claude; Berraho, Moha

    2014-05-01

    The title compound, C16H24Br2O, was synthesized from the reaction of β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetra-methyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexa-hydro-1H-benzo-cyclo-heptene), which was isolated from Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica). The asymmetric unit contains two independent mol-ecules with similar conformations. Each mol-ecule is built up from two fused seven-membered rings and an additional three-membered ring. In both mol-ecules, one of the seven-membered rings has a chair conformation, whereas the other displays a screw-boat conformation.

  8. (1S,2R,3S,6S,7R-3,7,11,11-Tetramethyl-6,7-epoxybicyclo[5.4.0]undecane-2-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Loubidi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H26O2, was synthesized from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-benzocycloheptene, which was isolated from the Atlas cedar (cedrus atlantica. The molecule is built up from a seven-membered ring to which a six- and a three-membered ring are fused. The seven- and six-membered rings each have a twist-boat conformation. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into zigzag chains running along the b-axis direction.

  9. (1S,3R,8R,9S,11R)-2,2,10,10-Tetra­chloro-3,7,7,11-tetra­methyl­tetra­cyclo­[6.5.0.01,3.09,11]trideca­ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourhriss, Najia; Benharref, Ahmed; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen; Berraho, Moha

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C17H24Cl4, was synthesized from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetra­methyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexa­hydro-1H-benzocyclo­heptene), which was isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus Atlantica). The mol­ecule is built up from fused six- and seven-membered rings and two three-membered rings from the reaction of β-himachalene with dichloro­carbene. The six-membered ring shows a chair conformation, whereas the seven-membered ring displays a boat conformation. PMID:23424548

  10. (1S,3R,8S,9R,10S)-2,2-Dichloro-3,7,7,10-tetra-methyl-9,10-ep-oxy-tricyclo-[6.4.0.0]dodeca-ne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benharref, Ahmed; El Ammari, Lahcen; Avignant, Daniel; Oudahmane, Abdelghani; Berraho, Moha

    2010-11-10

    The title compound, C(16)H(24)Cl(2)O, was synthesized from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetra-methyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexa-hydro-1H-benzocyclo-heptene), which was isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (cedrus atlantica). The mol-ecule forms an extended sheet of two fused rings which exhibit different conformations. The six-membered ring has a half-chair conformation, while the seven-membered ring displays a chair conformation; the dihedral angle between the two rings is 38.2 (1)°.

  11. (1S,3R,8S,9R,10S)-2,2-Dichloro-3,7,7,10-tetra­methyl-9,10-ep­oxy­tricyclo­[6.4.0.01,3]dodeca­ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benharref, Ahmed; El Ammari, Lahcen; Avignant, Daniel; Oudahmane, Abdelghani; Berraho, Moha

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C16H24Cl2O, was synthesized from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetra­methyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexa­hydro-1H-benzocyclo­heptene), which was isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (cedrus atlantica). The mol­ecule forms an extended sheet of two fused rings which exhibit different conformations. The six-membered ring has a half-chair conformation, while the seven-membered ring displays a chair conformation; the dihedral angle between the two rings is 38.2 (1)°. PMID:21589429

  12. Crystal structure of (1S,3R,8R,9S,10R-10-bromomethyl-2,2-dichloro-9,10-epoxy-3,7,7-trimethyltricyclo[6.4.0.01,3]dodecane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Benharref

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H23BrCl2O, was synthesized in three steps from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-benzocycloheptene, which was isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (cedrus atlantica. The molecule is built up from two fused six- and seven-membered rings, each linked to a three-membered ring. The six-membered ring has a screw-boat conformation, whereas the seven-membered ring displays a twist-boat conformation. The absolute structure was established unambiguously from anomalous dispersion effects.

  13. (1S,3R,8R,9S,10R-2,2-Dichloro-3,7,7,10-tetramethyltricyclo[6.4.0.01,3]dodecan-9-yl 4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Benharref

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C23H31Cl2O3S, was synthesized in three steps from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-benzocycloheptene, which was isolated from essential oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica. The fused six- and seven-membered rings have boat conformations: the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the rings is 88.03 (12%. The absolute structure was established unambiguously from anomalous dispersion effects. There are no directional interactions in the crystal.

  14. (1S,3R,8R,9S,11R)-2,2-Di-bromo-10,10-di-chloro-3,7,7,11-tetra-methyl-tetra-cyclo-[6.5.0.0(1,3).0(9,11)]trideca-ne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourhriss, Najia; Benharref, Ahmed; Saadi, Mohamed; Berraho, Moha; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2013-05-01

    The title compound, C17H24Br2Cl2, was synthesized from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetra-methyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexa-hydro-1H-benzo-cyclo-heptene), which was isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus Atlantica). The mol-ecule contains fused six-, seven- and two three-membered rings. The six-membered ring has a half-chair conformation, while the seven-membered ring displays a boat conformation. The absolute structure was unambiguously established from anomalous dispersion effects. The crystal packing exhibits no short inter-molecular contacts.

  15. (1S,3R,8R,9S,11R)-2,2,10,10-Tetra-chloro-3,7,7,11-tetra-methyl-tetra-cyclo-[6.5.0.0(1,3).0(9,11)]trideca-ne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourhriss, Najia; Benharref, Ahmed; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen; Berraho, Moha

    2013-02-01

    The title compound, C(17)H(24)Cl(4), was synthesized from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetra-methyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexa-hydro-1H-benzocyclo-heptene), which was isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus Atlantica). The mol-ecule is built up from fused six- and seven-membered rings and two three-membered rings from the reaction of β-himachalene with dichloro-carbene. The six-membered ring shows a chair conformation, whereas the seven-membered ring displays a boat conformation.

  16. (1S,2R,8R-2,2-Dichloro-3,7,7,10-tetramethyltricyclo[6.4.0.01,3]dodec-10-en-9-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Benharref

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H22Cl2O, was synthesized from β-himachalene, which was isolated from essential oil of the Atlas cedar (cedrus atlantica. The asymmetric unit contains two independent molecules, in each of which the six-membered ring shows a half-chair conformation, whereas the seven-membered ring displays a boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the two rings is slightly different in the two molecules [63.22 (13 and 61.81 (14°].

  17. (1S,2R,8R)-2,2-Dichloro-3,7,7,10-tetra-methyltricyclo-[6.4.0.0]dodec-10-en-9-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benharref, Ahmed; El Ammari, Lahcen; Berraho, Moha

    2010-10-23

    The title compound, C(16)H(22)Cl(2)O, was synthesized from β-himachalene, which was isolated from essential oil of the Atlas cedar (cedrus atlantica). The asymmetric unit contains two independent mol-ecules, in each of which the six-membered ring shows a half-chair conformation, whereas the seven-membered ring displays a boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the two rings is slightly different in the two mol-ecules [63.22 (13) and 61.81 (14)°].

  18. Mercury speciation in coastal sediments from the central east coast of India by modified BCR method.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Babu, P.V.R.; Vudamala, K.; Ramteke, D.; Chennuri, K.

    Coastal zone Belgian Coastal zone 4-703 Leermakers et al 2001 Florida,USA Apalachicola Bay 22-61 Apeti et al2012 Florida,USA Choctawhatchee Bay 31-88 Apeti et al2012 Florida,USA Cedar Key 17 Apeti et al2012 Florida,USA Everglades 22 Apeti et al2012... Florida,USA Florida Bay 18-25 Apeti et al2012 Florida,USA Napes Bay 19 Apeti et al2012 Florida,USA Pensacola Bay 53 Apeti et al2012 Florida,USA Tampa Bay 12-187 Apeti et al2012 Louisiana, USA Atchafalaya Bay 33 Apeti et al2012 Louisiana, USA Barataria...

  19. (1R,4R,6S,7R-5,5-Dibromo-1,4,8,8-tetramethyltricyclo[5.4.1.04,6]dodecan-12-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H24Br2O, was synthesized from the reaction of β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-benzocycloheptene, which was isolated from Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica. The asymmetric unit contains two independent molecules with similar conformations. Each molecule is built up from two fused seven-membered rings and an additional three-membered ring. In both molecules, one of the seven-membered rings has a chair conformation, whereas the other displays a screw-boat conformation.

  20. Properties of gasification-derived char and its utilization for catalytic tar reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kezhen

    Char is a low-value byproduct of biomass gasification and pyrolysis with many potential applications, such as soil amendment and the synthesis of activated carbon. The overall goal of the proposed research was to develop novel methods to use char derived from gasification for high-value applications in syngas conditioning. The first objective was to investigate effects of gasification condition and feedstock on properties of char derived from fluidized bed gasification. Results show that the surface areas of most of the char were 1--10 m 2/g and increased as the equivalence ratio increased. Char moisture and fixed carbon contents decreased while ash content increased as equivalence ratio increased. The next objective was to study the properties of sorghum and red cedar char derived from downdraft gasifier. Red cedar char contained more aliphatic carbon and o-alkyl carbon than sorghum char. Char derived from downdraft gasification had higher heating values and lower ash contents than char derived from fluidized bed gasification. The gasification reactivity of red cedar char was higher than that of sorghum char. Then, red cedar char based catalysts were developed with different preparation method to reform toluene and naphthalene as model tars. The catalyst prepared with nickel nitrate was found to be better than that with nickel acetate. The nickel particle size of catalyst impregnated with nickel nitrate was smaller than that of catalyst impregnated with nickel acetate. The particle size of catalyst impregnated with nickel acetate decreased by hydrazine reduction. The catalyst impregnated with nickel nitrate had the highest toluene removal efficiency, which was 70%--100% at 600--800 °C. The presence of naphthalene in tar reduced the catalyst efficiency. The toluene conversion was 36--99% and the naphthalene conversion was 37%--93% at 700--900 °C. Finally, effects of atmosphere and pressure on catalytic reforming of lignin-derived tars over the developed catalyst

  1. Developing the Navy’s NC Flying Boats: Transforming Aeronautical Engineering for the First Transatlantic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ft. Max Gross Weight 28,0001b Cruising Speed 84kts Range 1,278 nm Crew 6 Engines (4) 400 hp Liberty L-12 Figure 7. The NC flying boat. In...of the hull. The keel of the hull is built up from spruce while the bottom planking is laid up from two plies of cedar separated by a waterproofing...pilots could remain below decks and out of the weather if desired. The aircraft commander even had enough space to lie down on the planking that made up

  2. Discriminant analysis of some east Tennessee forest herb niches. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 752

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, L.K.; Shugart, H.H.; Kitchings, J.T.

    1978-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using discriminant analysis in assessing plant niches. As a component of research by the Environmental Research Park Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, five sites were inventoried for herbaceous species. From this inventory, four sympatric species of Galium and seventeen co-occurring herbaceous species were selected for discriminant analysis. The four species of Galium were treated as two data sets: one was composed of information collected at one site (a mesic hardwood area) and the other contained data from two cedar sites of shallow soil over limestone bedrock. The seventeen herbaceous species all occurred in the mesic hardwood area.

  3. Development of a Lightweight, Portable, Minimally-Invasive Sensor for the Multi-Site Determination and Quantitation of Physiologic Lactate. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    mediators and that do not require oxygen for their operation. Enzyme based biosensors originated in the work of Updike and Hicks 14 (based on the results...hypotensive and cardiac arrest patients: A prospective study. Abstract sent from Johns Hopkins to Cedar Sinai Hospital, 1993. Not published. ’Henning...Heller, A. Accounts of Chemical Research 1990, 23, 128-134. 14 Updike , S.J. and Hicks, G.P. Nature (London) 1967, 214, 986-988. ’" Clark, L.C. Jr. and

  4. Forest sleuths stalk a killer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, F.A.

    This article describes the impact of air pollution on the San Bernardino National Forest near Los Angeles. Ponderosa and Jeffry pines, damaged as a result of ozone have been replaced by increasing numbers of white fir and incense cedar. Ozone-damaged trees have been less able to recover during years favorable for growth and have been attacked aggressively by dendroctonus beetles. It is not yet known what the change in species composition will mean to wildlife such as squirrels; if squirrels and other rodents are affected, hawks and other predators will also be affected. Researchers are considering these questions and, further, the problem of combinations of ozone and acid rain.

  5. Tibetan Students in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE campus of the Shanghai Middle School for Hui Nationality is very beautiful. In the middle of the campus is a round lawn and in the center of the lawn is a tall cedar. Around the lawn are the classroom buildings, students’ laboratory building, the cinema and an office building. Shades of green and bright flowers are seen everywhere. Just after a spring rain, the campus appears especially fresh and pleasing to the eye. More than 400 Tibetan students are studying and living at this beautiful school. They are mostly the children of ordinary Tibetan families from the Tibet Autonomous Region; all are top students

  6. Surreal aroma's. (Reconstructing the volatile heritage of Marcel Duchamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caro Verbeek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available No ‘visual’ artist addressed the sense of smell as often as Marcel Duchamp did. Whereas his solid objects can still be studied visually and textually, the scents he used have by now evaporated, and a vocabulary to describe them is lacking until today. What we have left are nose witness reports and the possibility to smell olfactory reconstructions. Rereading canonical text with a more sensory gaze and inhaling these historical fragrances, such as cedar, erotic perfumes and coffee,  will enable us to reconstruct the olfactory dimension of our highly ocularcentric history of art.

  7. Measurements of $\\pi\\pm$, K$\\pm$, p$\\pm$ Yields in 400 GeV Proton Beryllium and Copper Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The intention of this experiment is to measure the production rates of @p, K, p at some 2 x 35 points in the p-p^t plane, i.e. at secondary momenta of 60, 90, 120, 160, 200, 250 and 300 GeV at p^t values of 0., 0.167, 0.333, 0.50, 0.667 GeV. The measurements will be done with 400 GeV protons impinging on 50 cm of Be. The beam composition will be measured with two CEDAR counters existing in the H2 beam line.

  8. Conference on Stochastic Processes and their Applications (16th) Held in Stanford, California on August 17-21, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    in •4 "Random Scenery 2:45-3:05 C. Kluppelberg Random Walks and Convolution Equivalent Distributions 3:10-3:30 L. A. K. Haneveld * Random Walk on the...by L. A. Klein Haneveld University of Amsterdam ABSTRACT Consider discrete time random walk on the two-dimensional lattice Z 2 . The walk is assumed to...Department of Mathematics . Cedar Falls, IA 50614 Duke University USA Durham, NC 27706 USA * L. A. Klein Haneveld University of Amsterdam Hui-Ling Le

  9. Human clinical studies of tea polyphenols in allergy or life style-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Many previous epidemiological studies have revealed that green tea or green tea catechins contributed to the preveintion of lifestyle-related diseases. Several cohort studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk/type 2 diabetes mellitus risk have been conducted. The results showed that green tea consumption (5 or more cups/day) was inversely associated with mortality from CVD and all causes. Within CVD mortality, the strongest inverse association was observed for stroke mortality. Furthermore, consumption of green tea, coffee, and total caffeine was associated with a reduced risk for type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, the analysis of randomized clinical trial (RCT) studies showed that the administration of green tea beverages or extracts resulted in significant reductions in serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but had no apparent effect on HDL-cholesterol. Green tea reduced fasting blood glucose levels in a small intervention trial, although no improvements in HbA1c levels were seen. Continuous intake of green tea containing catechins and caffeine (5 or more cups per day) may be beneficial for body weight management, vascular disease risk reduction via LDL-cholesterol improvement, and type 2 diabetes risk reduction through the lowering of fasting blood glucose levels. Epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3"Me) isolated from cv. "Benifuuki" green tea has been shown to strongly inhibit mast cell activation and histamine release after FcepsilonRI cross-linking through the suppression of tyrosine phosphorylation (Lyn) of cellular protein kinase, and the suppression of myosin light chain phosphorylation and high-affinity IgE receptor expression via the binding to 67 kDa laminin receptors. A double-blind clinical study on subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis was carried out. At the eleventh week after starting intake, which was coincident with the most severe period of cedar pollen

  10. Summer spatial patterning of chukars in relation to free water in Western Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R.T.; Bissonette, J.A.; Flinders, J.T.; Hooten, M.B.; Wilson, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Free water is considered important to wildlife in arid regions. In the western United States, thousands of water developments have been built to benefit wildlife in arid landscapes. Agencies and researchers have yet to clearly demonstrate their effectiveness. We combined a spatial analysis of summer chukar (Alectoris chukar) covey locations with dietary composition analysis in western Utah. Our specific objectives were to determine if chukars showed a spatial pattern that suggested association with free water in four study areas and to document summer dietary moisture content in relation to average distance from water. The observed data for the Cedar Mountains study area fell within the middle of the random mean distance to water distribution suggesting no association with free water. The observed mean distance to water for the other three areas was much closer than expected compared to a random spatial process, suggesting the importance of free water to these populations. Dietary moisture content of chukar food items from the Cedar Mountains (59%) was significantly greater (P Business Media B.V. 2009.

  11. Suppressive effects of Bifidobacterium longum on the production of Th2-attracting chemokines induced with T cell-antigen-presenting cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Noritoshi; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Yonezawa, Sumiko; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2009-04-01

    In human trials, Bifidobacterium longum BB536 alleviates subjective symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis, an IgE-mediated type I allergy caused by exposure to Japanese cedar, and significantly suppresses the increase of plasma thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) associated with pollen dispersion. In the present study, we investigated the suppressive effects of BB536 on the production of T helper type 2 (Th2)-attracting chemokines, such as TARC and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), together with the mechanisms of their production. Murine splenocytes were cultured with heat-killed BB536, and the levels of Th2-attracting chemokines in the supernatants were measured. TARC and MDC were produced in cultures without stimulation, and the production was significantly suppressed by BB536. These chemokines were produced by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of splenocytes stimulated with an anti-CD40 antibody. Furthermore, TARC production was induced with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor that was produced by T cells and dendritic cells. BB536 suppressed MDC production induced with the anti-CD40 antibody by APCs from the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and Peyer's patches, and it suppressed TARC production by APCs from the spleen and MLNs. These results indicate that BB536 suppresses the production of Th2-attracting chemokines induced by the T cell-APC interaction, suggesting a novel mechanism for alleviating symptoms of allergic disorders by probiotics.

  12. Estimation of radioactive 137-cesium transportation by litterfall, stemflow and throughfall in the forests of Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Izuki; Ohte, Nobuhito; Iseda, Kohei; Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Murakami, Masashi; Tokuchi, Naoko; Ohashi, Mizue

    2015-11-01

    Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, large areas of the forests around Fukushima have become highly contaminated by radioactive nuclides. To predict the future dynamics of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) in the forest catchment, it is important to measure each component of its movement within the forest. Two years after the accident, we estimated the annual transportation of (137)Cs from the forest canopy to the floor by litterfall, throughfall and stemflow. Seasonal variations in (137)Cs transportation and differences between forests types were also determined. The total amount of (137)Cs transported from the canopy to the floor in two deciduous and cedar plantation forests ranged between 3.9 and 11.0 kBq m(-2) year(-1). We also observed that (137)Cs transportation with litterfall increased in the defoliation period, simply because of the increased amount of litterfall. (137)Cs transportation with throughfall and stemflow increased in the rainy season, and (137)Cs flux by litterfall was higher in cedar plantation compared with that of mixed deciduous forest, while the opposite result was obtained for stemflow.

  13. Involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor in nasal obstruction in patients with nasal allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Yamashita

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF enhances vascular permeability and that mast cells produce VEGF, suggesting the involvement of VEGF in allergic diseases. In the present study we quantitatively analyzed VEGF in the nasal lavage fluid of patients with nasal allergy. We performed nasal antigen challenge with Japanese cedar pollen antigen in 10 healthy adult volunteers and in 10 cedar pollen IgE-positive patients with nasal allergy. In all patients with nasal allergy, VEGF and histamine levels in the nasal lavage fluid reached a peak 30 min after antigen challenge, then returned to prechallenge values 2 h after antigen challenge. In these patients, the histamine level increased three-fold, while the VEGF level increased 10-fold. However, in all healthy adult volunteers, VEGF and histamine levels did not increase. A stronger correlation was noted between the ratio of decreased nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased VEGF levels (R = 0.823; P < 0.001 than between the ratio of nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased histamine levels (R = 0.660; P < 0.01. These results suggest that VEGF may contribute to the pathogenesis of nasal obstruction in the early phase of nasal allergy as a new factor involved in increasing vascular permeability.

  14. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcü, Süleyman; Bilir, Nebi

    2017-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p > 0.05) for the characters, while there were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA). Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  15. Exacerbation of daily cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough by Asian dust: A hospital-based study in Kanazawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Nakanishi, Sayaka; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    The health effects associated with Asian dust have attracted attention due to the rapid increase in the number of Asian dust events in East Asia in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between Asian dust and daily cough, as well as allergic symptoms, in adult patients who suffer from chronic cough. We enrolled 86 adult patients from Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan, who were diagnosed with asthma, cough variant asthma, atopic cough or a combination of these conditions. From January to June 2011, subjects recorded their symptoms in a diary every day. Asian dust and non-Asian dust periods were defined according to the dust extinction coefficient, measured using the light detection and ranging (LIDAR). The daily levels of total suspended particulates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and coexisting factors related to allergies, such as the Japanese cedar pollen count, were measured. McNemar's test showed that there were significantly more cough-positive patients during Asian dust periods than during the non-Asian dust period (p = 0.022). In addition, during Asian dust periods when the daily levels of Japanese cedar pollen, Japanese cypress pollen and PAHs were elevated, there were significantly more patients who experienced itchy eyes than during the non-Asian dust period (p cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough.

  16. The Efficiency of Biofilters at Mitigating Airborne MRSA from a Swine Nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D D; Smith, T C; Donham, K J; Hoff, S J

    2015-10-01

    Our prior studies have been in agreement with other researchers in detecting airborne methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) inside and downwind of a swine housing facility. MRSA emitted in the exhaust air of swine facilities creates a potential risk of transmission of these organisms to people in the general area of these facilities as well as to other animals. This study investigated a possible means of reducing those risks. We investigated the efficiency of biofilters to remove MRSA from the exhaust air of a swine building. Two types of biofilter media (hardwood chips and western red cedar shredded bark) were evaluated. Efficiency was measured by assessing both viable MRSA (viable cascade impactor) and dust particles (optical particle courter) in the pre-filtered and post-filtered air of a functioning swine production facility. Our study revealed that hardwood chips were respectively 92% and 88% efficient in removing viable MRSA and total dust particles. Western red cedar was 95% efficient in removing viable MRSA and 86% efficient in removing dust particles. Our findings suggest that biofilters can be used as effective engineering controls to mitigate the transmission of aerosolized MRSA in the exhaust air of enclosed swine housing facilities.

  17. A new troodontid theropod dinosaur from the lower Cretaceous of Utah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Senter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The theropod dinosaur family Troodontidae is known from the Upper Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Upper Cretaceous of Asia and from the Upper Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous of North America. Before now no undisputed troodontids from North America have been reported from the Early Cretaceous. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein we describe a theropod maxilla from the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah and perform a phylogenetic analysis to determine its phylogenetic position. The specimen is distinctive enough to assign to a new genus and species, Geminiraptor suarezarum. Phylogenetic analysis places G. suarezarum within Troodontidae in an unresolved polytomy with Mei, Byronosaurus, Sinornithoides, Sinusonasus, and Troodon+(Saurornithoides+Zanabazar. Geminiraptor suarezarum uniquely exhibits extreme pneumatic inflation of the maxilla internal to the antorbital fossa such that the anterior maxilla has a triangular cross-section. Unlike troodontids more closely related to Troodon, G. suarezarum exhibits bony septa between the dental alveoli and a promaxillary foramen that is visible in lateral view. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of a North American troodontid from the Lower Cretaceous. It therefore contributes to a fuller understanding of troodontid biogeography through time. It also adds to the known dinosaurian fauna of the Cedar Mountain Formation.

  18. EFEITO RESIDUAL DE INSETICIDAS NATURAIS NO CONTROLE DE SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS MOTS. EM MILHO ARMAZENADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Leandro Braga de Castro Coitinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The residual effect of natural insecticides was evaluated on adults of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on stored corn grains. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L., white pepper (Piper nigrum L., neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and silica dioxide powders were tested as well as neem, eucalyptus (Eucaliptus globulus Labill and Eucaliptus citriodora Hook., eugenol, andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl., rosemary (Lippia gracillis HBK., cedar (Cedrela fissilis Vell. and pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oils. Powders were tested at concentration of 1kg/t in 50g-corn-plot and the oils at dosage of 50¿L in 20g-corn-plot. The plots infestation was accomplished using 20 and 8 adults (males and females of S. zeamais being 0 to 15 days old, respectively, in the experiments with powders and oils. Silica dioxide caused 46.7, 38.3 and 37.5% of mortality, respectively, in the initial (soon after the treatment with the powders or oils and at 60 and 120 days of storage periods, but the mortality induced by the other powders was inexpressive. In the three studied storage periods, silica dioxide was the more efficient in reducing adults emergency. At the initial storage period, all the oils caused mortality above 79%, however, after 60 and 120 days, mortality was lower than 2.5%. The adult emergency increased as stored period increased, although at 120 days the best performance was obtained using neem, followed by andiroba, cedar, rosemary and E. globulus oils.

  19. Morfogénesis in vitro de Toona ciliata a partir de raquis de hojas jóvenes con tidiazuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daquinta Marcos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Meliacea are of great importance in construction and furniture-making. Toona ciliata is a Meliacea originally from the Himalayan region; it is known as Himalayan Cedar in Cuba. Natural regeneration occurs in this specie by seed diffusion and grafting; such propagation is limited. The object of this paper was to promote callus formation and plant regeneration in Toona ciliata from in vitro propagation. Two to three year old mature trees (Toona ciliata were used. Rachis were taken from young branches from these plants. They were disinfected in 0.25% (w/v mercuric chloride solution for 10 min followed by three rinses in autoclaved distilled-water. They were then established in MS supplemented with 0-1 mg/L thidiazuron culture medium. Nodular calluses were obtained having good morphogenic characteristics. Shoots sprouted from six-month-old calluses in the dark and plant regeneration was done in the light. AIB shoots were rooted in MS medium supplement with 1 mg/L IBA. Key words: callus, Himalayan Cedar, Meliacea, growth regulators, plant regeneration. Abbreviations: IBA- indolebutyric acid, thidiazuron-N-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl-N-phenylurea.

  20. Uptake of deuterium by dead leaves exposed to deuterated water vapor in a greenhouse at daytime and nighttime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momoshima, N. [Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, 2-39 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: momoenv@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Matsushita, R. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Nagao, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Okai, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-10 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    Dead leaves were exposed to deuterated water vapor (D{sub 2}O) as a substitute of tritiated water (HTO) in a greenhouse at daytime and nighttime to examine uptake and release of tritium by dead leaves because they cover a wide area of the forest floor and are therefore a major target material to be exposed when HTO is atmospherically derived to the forest. The dead cedar needles showed faster uptake and faster release rates during and after the exposure than the fresh ones, and the equilibrium concentration of the dead cedar needles was about two times higher than the fresh ones, indicating a quick response and a high buffering potential of dead leaves. The relation between uptake of D{sub 2}O and number of stoma was examined for dead deciduous leaves; the species with larger number of stoma accumulated more D{sub 2}O at the daytime and nighttime exposures. However, drying of the dead leaves suppressed D{sub 2}O uptake greatly at daytime, suggesting stomata's opening and closing controls the D{sub 2}O uptake of dead leaves.

  1. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae) wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Francisco; Hilje, Luko; Mora, Gerardo A; Carballo, Manuel

    2011-03-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp.) and cedars (Cedrela spp.) are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae) had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether) of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length) caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata). Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics.

  2. GIS-based spatial regression and prediction of water quality in river networks: A case study in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Jin, W.

    2010-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution is the leading cause of the U.S.'s water quality problems. One important component of nonpoint source pollution control is an understanding of what and how watershed-scale conditions influence ambient water quality. This paper investigated the use of spatial regression to evaluate the impacts of watershed characteristics on stream NO3NO2-N concentration in the Cedar River Watershed, Iowa. An Arc Hydro geodatabase was constructed to organize various datasets on the watershed. Spatial regression models were developed to evaluate the impacts of watershed characteristics on stream NO3NO2-N concentration and predict NO3NO2-N concentration at unmonitored locations. Unlike the traditional ordinary least square (OLS) method, the spatial regression method incorporates the potential spatial correlation among the observations in its coefficient estimation. Study results show that NO3NO2-N observations in the Cedar River Watershed are spatially correlated, and by ignoring the spatial correlation, the OLS method tends to over-estimate the impacts of watershed characteristics on stream NO3NO2-N concentration. In conjunction with kriging, the spatial regression method not only makes better stream NO3NO2-N concentration predictions than the OLS method, but also gives estimates of the uncertainty of the predictions, which provides useful information for optimizing the design of stream monitoring network. It is a promising tool for better managing and controlling nonpoint source pollution. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Groundwater dynamics and water budget analysis at a wetland-dominated forested floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S.; Callahan, T. J.; Senn, L.; Shelley, D.

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the preliminary relationships between groundwater behavior, vegetation communities, and soil characteristics in a mature, protected forested floodplain at Congaree National Park, South Carolina. Time series analysis of groundwater level data were collected hourly at ten different piezometers from 2009 to 2013. Piezometers were screened 4-7 m deep in the surficial aquifer and arrayed from the floodplain bluff along a 3-km, valley-perpendicular transect to Cedar Creek, a local tributary of the Congaree River. Eight of the ten sites were in an unconfined portion of the floodplain aquifer, and the other two sites closer to Cedar Creek were locally confined due to a 1.5 - 3-m thick clay layer above the piezometer screen. Time series analysis, including depth below ground surface, response to storm events, and diurnal evapotranspiration (ET) signals was used to functionally group piezometer sites with similar characteristics. Lithologic logs collected during piezometer installation and forest community structure at each site were inspected to look for relationships to explain groundwater behavior. A separate analysis of ET signals helped assess potential feedbacks between vegetation and groundwater in this wetland-dominated setting. This project stemmed from hydrology class trips to Congaree National Park sponsored by the park's education and outreach program. Students learned field methods and data collection, management, and analysis techniques to reinforce hydrology concepts and principles.

  4. Epoxy resin synthesis using low molecular weight lignin separated from various lignocellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Chikako; Basnet, Sunita; Otsuka, Masaya; Sasaki, Chizuru; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2015-03-01

    A low molecular weight lignin from various lignocellulosic materials was used for the synthesis of bio-based epoxy resins. The lignin extracted with methanol from steam-exploded samples (steaming time of 5 min at steam pressure of 3.5 MPa) from different biomasses (i.e., cedar, eucalyptus, and bamboo) were functionalized by the reaction with epichlorohydrin, catalyzed by a water-soluble phase transfer catalyst tetramethylammonium chloride, which was further reacted with 30 wt% aqueous NaOH for ring closure using methyl ethyl ketone as a solvent. The glycidylated products of the lignin with good yields were cured to epoxy polymer networks with bio-based curing agents i.e., lignin itself and a commercial curing agent TD2131. Relatively good thermal properties of the bio-based epoxy network was obtained and thermal decomposition temperature at 5% weight loss (Td5) of cedar-derived epoxy resin was higher than that derived from eucalyptus and bamboo. The bio-based resin satisfies the stability requirement of epoxy resin applicable for electric circuit boards. The methanol-insoluble residues were enzymatically hydrolyzed to produce glucose. This study indicated that the biomass-derived methanol-soluble lignin may be a promising candidate to be used as a substitute for petroleum-based epoxy resin derived from bisphenol A, while insoluble residues may be processed to give a bioethanol precursor i.e., glucose.

  5. Novolak PF resins prepared from phenol liquefied Cryptomeria japonica and used in manufacturing moldings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Jau; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2008-10-01

    The wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) was liquefied in phenol with H2SO4 and HCl as catalysts. The liquefied wood was reacted with formalin to prepare the novolak PF resin. The results showed that the reaction of liquefied Japanese cedar with formalin was an exothermic reaction, and formed a solid-like resin without extra heating. Two novolak PF resins were prepared from the liquefied wood which were identified as SF and CF that using the liquefied wood with H2SO4 and HCl as catalyst respectively. The novolak PF powder displayed thermo-melting characteristic. The resins of SF and CF had weight average molecular weight of 3638 and 3941 respectively and melting temperature of 149.4 degrees C and 127.5 degrees C respectively. Both of the novolak resins could be used to make moldings with good performance by mixing the novolak resin with wood powder, hardener and zinc stearate at the weight ratio of 60:30:10:1 and hot-pressed under 200 degrees C for 10min.

  6. Structural features of N-glycans linked to glycoproteins expressed in three kinds of water plants: Predominant occurrence of the plant complex type N-glycans bearing Lewis a epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Megumi; Tani, Misato; Yoshiie, Takeo; Vavricka, Christopher J; Kimura, Yoshinobu

    2016-11-29

    The Japanese cedar pollen allergen (Cry j1) and the mountain cedar pollen allergen (Jun a1) are glycosylated with plant complex type N-glycans bearing Lewis a epitope(s) (Galβ1-3[Fucα1-4]GlcNAc-). The biological significance of Lewis a type plant N-glycans and their effects on the human immune system remain to be elucidated. Since a substantial amount of such plant specific N-glycans are required to evaluate immunological activity, we have searched for good plant-glycan sources to characterize Lewis a epitope-containing plant N-glycans. In this study, we have found that three water plants, Elodea nuttallii, Egeria densa, and Ceratophyllum demersum, produce glycoproteins bearing Lewis a units. Structural analysis of the N-glycans revealed that almost all glycoproteins expressed in these three water plants predominantly carry plant complex type N-glycans including the Lewis a type, suggesting that these water plants are good sources for preparation of Lewis a type plant N-glycans in substantial amounts.

  7. GIS-based spatial regression and prediction of water quality in river networks: a case study in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoying; Jin, Wei

    2010-10-01

    Nonpoint source pollution is the leading cause of the U.S.'s water quality problems. One important component of nonpoint source pollution control is an understanding of what and how watershed-scale conditions influence ambient water quality. This paper investigated the use of spatial regression to evaluate the impacts of watershed characteristics on stream NO(3)NO(2)-N concentration in the Cedar River Watershed, Iowa. An Arc Hydro geodatabase was constructed to organize various datasets on the watershed. Spatial regression models were developed to evaluate the impacts of watershed characteristics on stream NO(3)NO(2)-N concentration and predict NO(3)NO(2)-N concentration at unmonitored locations. Unlike the traditional ordinary least square (OLS) method, the spatial regression method incorporates the potential spatial correlation among the observations in its coefficient estimation. Study results show that NO(3)NO(2)-N observations in the Cedar River Watershed are spatially correlated, and by ignoring the spatial correlation, the OLS method tends to over-estimate the impacts of watershed characteristics on stream NO(3)NO(2)-N concentration. In conjunction with kriging, the spatial regression method not only makes better stream NO(3)NO(2)-N concentration predictions than the OLS method, but also gives estimates of the uncertainty of the predictions, which provides useful information for optimizing the design of stream monitoring network. It is a promising tool for better managing and controlling nonpoint source pollution.

  8. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species.

  9. Effect of odors from coniferous woods on contingent negative variation (CNV); Shinyojuzai no nioi ga zuihansei insei hendo (CNV) ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terauchi, F. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kubo, M.; Aoki, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ogama, T. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1996-04-15

    In order to clarify the effect of odors of seven coniferous woods on human, contingent negative variation (CNV) and electroencephalogram (EEG) were measured. Four of the species used, hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtuse), sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), akamatsu (Pinus densiflora), and hiba (Thujopsis dolabrata var.hondai), were grown in Japan, and three of them, Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and western red cedar (Thuja plicata), were grown in the United States. The concentrations of their wood odors were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography. The total concentration of monoterpene hydrocarbon in the wood odors was held to less than 3ppb. The amplitudes of early components of CNV and the {alpha}/{beta} wave ratio of EEG at the frontal (Fz) and central (Cz) regions between in the presence and absence of wood odors were compared. 5 male and 5 female volunteers ranging in age from 20 to 26 were examined. The result obtained are summarized as follows: (1) In the presence of wood odors, the early CNV amplitudes at Fz decreased at a statistical level of significance of 5% or better. (2) The {alpha}/{beta} wave ratio of EEG increased significantly at Cz with bibs wood odor (p<0.01). (3) The decrease of the early CNV amplitude at Fz is related to the concentration of {alpha}-pinene in the wood odors. 19 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid isolated terrace aquifer covers approximately 82 square miles and supplies water for irrigation, domestic, municipal, and industrial use for the City of Enid and western Garfield County. The Quaternary-age Enid isolated terrace aquifer is composed of terrace deposits that consist of discontinuous layers of clay, sandy clay, sand, and gravel. The aquifer is unconfined and is bounded by the underlying Permian-age Hennessey Group on the east and the Cedar Hills Sandstone Formation of the Permian-age El Reno Group on the west. The Cedar Hills Sandstone Formation fills a channel beneath the thickest section of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in the midwestern part of the aquifer. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:62,500. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  11. Isolation and functional analysis of the CjNdly gene, a homolog in Cryptomeria japonica of FLORICAULA/LEAFY genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Takahiro; Yamada, Shinya; Futamura, Norihiro; Osanai, Kosuke; Murasugi, Daisuke; Shinohara, Kenji; Kawai, Shinya; Morohoshi, Noriyuki; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Kajita, Shinya

    2008-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of CjNdly, a homolog in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) of the FLORICAULA/LEAFY (FLO/LFY) genes. We determined the entire nucleotide sequence of CjNdly, including short 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions. The deduced amino acid sequence was similar to those of the products of the FLO/LFY genes from other species. The nucleotide sequence showed the closest homology to that of the NEEDLY gene in Pinus radiata D. Don. Although no proline-rich region has been reported previously in homologous gene products from gymnosperms, we found such a region at the amino-terminal end of the deduced amino acid sequence encoded by CjNdly. We detected the expression of CjNdly in both reproductive and vegetative tissues and organs of C. japonica. Heterologous expression of CjNdly in transgenic tobacco plants induced precocious flowering of regenerating shoots on agar-solidified medium and flowers with an abnormal phenotype, namely, petal-like stamens. Our findings suggest that the CjNdly gene may have important roles in flower development in Japanese cedar, resembling those of its angiosperm homologs.

  12. Oral immunotherapy for pollen allergy using T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from genetically manipulated chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Kawabe

    Full Text Available Peptide immunotherapy using T-cell epitopes is expected to be an effective treatment for allergic diseases such as Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica; Cj pollinosis. To develop a treatment for pollen allergy by inducing oral tolerance, we generated genetically manipulated (GM chickens by retroviral gene transduction, to produce a fusion protein of chicken egg white lysozyme and a peptide derived from seven dominant human T-cell epitopes of Japanese cedar pollen allergens (cLys-7crp. The transgene sequence was detected in all chickens transduced with the retroviral vector. Transduction efficiency in blood cells correlated to transgene expression. Western blot analysis revealed that cLys-7crp was expressed in the egg white of GM hens. Mice induced to develop allergic rhinitis by Cj pollinosis were fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white produced by GM chickens. Total and Cj allergen (Cry j 1-specific IgE levels were significantly decreased in allergic mice fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white compared with allergic mice fed with normal egg white. These results suggest that oral administration of T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from GM chickens is effective for the induction of immune tolerance as an allergy therapy.

  13. SENSITIZATION AND EXACERBATION OF ALLERGIC DISEASES BY DIESEL ENGINE PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2000-08-20

    Most studies of the health effects of diesel exhaust have focused on the controversial issue of its role in cancer. However, recently the role of combustion products such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in modulating the immune response has garnered much attention. In particular the effect of DEP on allergic and asthmatic diseases has been the focus of many studies. A link between industrialization and allergic disease has long been presumed. Indeed, only 50 years after the first recorded reported case of allergy in 1819, Charles Blackely wrote that the ''hay-fever epidemic'' was associated with the movement of people from the country into the cities. Ishizaki et al. (1987) found that people in Japan living on busy roads lined with cedar trees have more allergies to cedar than residents living on similar streets with much less traffic. Since that time other epidemiological studies have reported similar findings. Kramer, et al., showed that hay fever is greater in residential areas with heavy truck traffic, while Weiland, et al., reported that allergic symptoms correlate with the distance of residences to roads with heavy traffic.

  14. Science Outreach for the Thousands: Coe College's Playground of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D. E.; Franke, M.; Affatigato, M.; Feller, S.

    2011-12-01

    Coe College is a private liberal arts college nestled in the northeast quadrant of Cedar Rapids, IA. Coe takes pride in the outreach it does in the local community. The sciences at Coe find enjoyment in educating the children and families of this community through a diverse set of venues; from performing science demonstrations for children at Cedar Rapids' Fourth of July Freedom Festival to hosting summer forums and talks to invigorate the minds of its more mature audiences. Among these events, the signature event of the year is the Coe Playground of Science. On the last Thursday of October, before Halloween, the science departments at Coe invite nearly two thousand children from pre elementary to high school ages, along with their parents to participate in a night filled with science demos, haunted halls, and trick-or-treating for more than just candy. The demonstrations are performed by professors and students alike from a raft of cooperative departments including physics, chemistry, biology, math, computer science, nursing, ROTC, and psychology. This event greatly strengthens the relationships between institution members and community members. The sciences at Coe understand the importance of imparting the thrill and hunger for exploration and discovery into the future generations. More importantly they recognize that this cannot start and end at the collegiate level, but the American public must be reached at younger ages and continue to be encouraged beyond the college experience. The Playground of Science unites these two groups under the common goal of elevating scientific interest in the American people.

  15. Analysis of classical guitars' vibrational behavior based on scanning laser vibrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska, Marzena

    2012-06-01

    One of the main goals in musical acoustics research is to link measurable, physical properties of a musical instrument with subjective assessments of its tone quality. The aim of the research discussed in this paper was to observe the structural vibrations of different class classical guitars in relation to their quality. This work focuses on mid-low-and low-class classical (nylon-stringed) guitars. The main source of guitar body vibrations come from top and back plate vibrations therefore these were the objects of structural mode measurements and analysis. Sixteen classical guitars have been investigated, nine with cedar and seven with spruce top plate. Structural modes of top and back plates have been measured with the aid of a scanning laser vibrometer and the instruments were excited with a chirp signal transferred by bone vibrator. The issues related to excitor selection have been discussed. Correlation and descriptive statistics of top and back plates measurement results have been investigated in relation to guitar quality. The frequency range of 300 Hz to 5 kHz as well as selected narrowed frequency bands have been analyzed for cedar and spruce guitars. Furthermore, the influence of top plate wood type on vibration characteristics have been observed on three pairs of guitars. The instruments were of the same model but different top plate material. Determination and visualization of both guitar plates' modal patterns in relation to frequency are a significant attainment of the research. Scanning laser vibrometer measurements allow particular mode observation and therefore mode identification, as opposed to sound pressure response measurements. When correlating vibration characteristics of top and back plates it appears that Pearson productmoment correlation coefficient is not a parameter that associates with guitar quality. However, for best instruments with cedar top, top-back correlation coefficient has relatively greater value in 1-2 kHz band and lower in

  16. Seasonal variations of soil respiration in three different urban plantations in Nanjing%城市3种类型人工林土壤的呼吸动态特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸽香; 徐娇; 王国兵; 侯飞飞; 阮宏华

    2011-01-01

    利用Licor-6400-09土壤呼吸测定系统对南京林业大学树木园内3种人工林(马褂木林、栓皮栎+雪松+刺槐混交林、柳杉林)土壤呼吸速率的季节变化及其影响因子进行分析.结果表明:(1)3种人工林的土壤呼吸速率具有明显的季节变化,夏季(7月)较高,马褂木林、栓皮栎+雪松+刺槐混交林和柳杉林的土壤呼吸速率最高值分别为4.74、4.09和4.14μmol/(m2·s);冬季(12月)最低,分别为1.48、1.21和0.85 μmol/(m2·s);(2)3种人工林的年均土壤呼吸速率有显著差异(P<0.05),年均土壤呼吸速率大小排序为马褂木林、栓皮栎+雪松+刺槐混交林、柳杉林;(3)3种人工林的土壤呼吸速率与土壤温度呈显著性指数相关,与土壤含水率呈显著线性相关;(4)3种人工林的Q10值存在一定程度的差异,柳杉林的Q10值大于栓皮栎+雪松+刺槐混交林和马褂木林的Q10值.%Soil respiration was measured using Licor- 6400 -09 system in the three different urban plantations in Nanjing Forestry University, and its main regulating factors were also measured at the same time during October, 2007 to September, 2008. The three plantation types were Chinese tulip-tree, Chinese cedar and mixed plantation of cork oak, deodar cedar and black locust. The results showed that ( 1 ) The seasonal fluctuations of soil respiration rates were significant in Chinese tulip-tree, Chinese cedar and mixed plantation, and with maximum of 4. 74, 4. 09 and 4. 14 μmol/(m2·s) in summer, respectively, and minimum of 1.48,1.21 and 0. 85 μmol/( m2· s) in winter, respectively. (2) The annual mean of soil respiration rate was significantly different among three different plantations (p<0.05). The order of the annual mean of soil respiration rate was: Chinese tulip-tree,mixed plantation, and Chinese cedar. (3) Soil respiration was significantly correlated to soil temperature and soil moisture. (4) The Q10 value was different between three plantations, and the

  17. Characteristics of initial deposition and behavior of radiocesium in forest ecosystems of different locations and species affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masabumi; Kaneko, Shinji; Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Shigeto; Saito, Satoshi; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Tonosaki, Mario; Miura, Satoru; Akama, Akio; Kajimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, information about stand-level spatial patterns of radiocesium initially deposited in the surrounding forests was essential for predicting the future dynamics of radiocesium and suggesting a management plan for contaminated forests. In the first summer (approximately 6 months after the accident), we separately estimated the amounts of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs; Bq m(-2)) in the major components (trees, organic layers, and soils) in forests of three sites with different contamination levels. For a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest studied at each of the three sites, the radiocesium concentration greatly differed among the components, with the needle and organic layer having the highest concentrations. For these cedar forests, the proportion of the (137)Cs stock in the aboveground tree biomass varied from 22% to 44% of the total (137)Cs stock; it was 44% in highly contaminated sites (7.0 × 10(5) Bq m(-2)) but reduced to 22% in less contaminated sites (1.1 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)). In the intermediate contaminated site (5.0-5.8 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)), 34% of radiocesium was observed in the aboveground tree biomass of the Japanese cedar stand. However, this proportion was considerably smaller (18-19%) in the nearby mixed forests of the Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Non-negligible amounts of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in both the sapwood and heartwood of all the studied tree species. This finding suggested that the uptake or translocation of radiocesium had already started within 6 months after the accident. The belowground compartments were mostly present in the organic layer and the uppermost (0-5 cm deep) mineral soil layer at all the study sites. We discussed the initial transfer process of radiocesium deposited in the forest and inferred that the type of initial deposition (i.e., dry versus wet radiocesium deposition), the amount of

  18. Sediment Transport Processes in a West-central Florida Open Marine Marsh Tidal Creek; the Role of Tides and Extra-tropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Lynn A.; Hine, Albert C.; Luther, Mark E.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Wright, Eric E.

    1995-08-01

    The extensive open marine marshes on Florida's Gulf of Mexico coast constitute one of the largest continuous coastal marsh systems in the U.S.A. and are characterized by (1) the absence of an apparent modern or relict sediment supply, (2) a thin 1-2 m sediment veneer overlying highly karstified bedrock and (3) both low wave and low tidal energy regimes. More importantly, the Florida open marine marsh system appears to be keeping pace with current rates of sea-level rise in spite of a limited inorganic sediment supply and low tidal energies. Although the magnitudes and directions of suspended solid transport and the processes controlling these transports have been rigorously documented for other U.S.A. marsh systems, they have not been documented in the Florida marsh system. Total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations, current speeds and water levels were monitored in Cedar Creek, Florida, so that the TSS loads could be calculated and the processes exerting control over material exchange could be determined. Both TSS concentration and load are modulated by spring/neap variations and time-velocity asymmetries in the tidal currents. Concentrations at the creek mouth increase by as much as two orders of magnitude during strong wind events due to the presence of waves; however, large net sediment loads appear to be related to the coupled effects of waves and large tidal prisms. Waves initially mobilize sediments in the adjacent embayment but increased tidal prisms, and the associated higher velocities, are requisite for transport of this material further into the creek. Large tidal prisms may be the result of astronomically high tides or meteorologically forced tides. In Cedar Creek, the most important meteorological events affecting sedimentary processes are extra-tropical storms. This is because they occur at much higher frequencies than tropical storms and hurricanes, even though the latter are more potent and potentially could transport greater amounts of material

  19. The Origin of 87Sr/86Sr in Cold Springs and Travertines of the Franciscan Complex near Cazadero, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, N.; Schiffman, P.; Yin, Q.; Zierenberg, R.

    2005-12-01

    Ultrabasic springs within the Franciscan Complex of the California Coast Range have been intensely investigated by geochemists and geobiologists. Springs located in Sonoma County in an area historically known as The Cedars are of particular interest to scientists exploring Martian analogues (Johnson et al. 2004) or investigating serpentinization processes (Barnes and O'Neil, 1969; Barnes et al. 1972). Laser ablation and solution phase multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) were used to obtain 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios in fluid, travertine and serpentinite samples collected at the Cedars. 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios in the serpentinizing springs range from 0.70926 to 0.70955; the Mg2+-HCO3- type stream water has an isotopic ratio of 0.70848. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the travertines ranges from 0.70931 to 0.70966. The mean 87Sr/86Sr ratio of the travertine (0.7094) is far more radiogenic than typical mantle values of 0.703 to 0.705, indicating that the peridotite is an unlikely source of the radiogenic Sr. Similarly, the measured ratio is much higher than the expected Sr isotope ratio of seawater that might be trapped in Jurassic Franciscan Sediments or oceanic crust. Strontium leached from Franciscan sediments themselves should reflect a Sierran or Klamath source with expected values in the range of 0.705 to 0.706. Indeed the measured isotope ratios even exceed modern seawater values. The observed radiogenic values suggest the presence of older, potassium (and rubidium)-rich rocks within the fluid flow path. Alternatively, the presence of clay minerals that readily substitute Sr for Ca may well account for the radiogenic strontium signal. It is possible that the serpentinization observed at The Cedars initiated along a ridge flank and the Sr isotopic chemistry reflects the site of initiation. The radiogenic strontium in these springs may result from fluid interaction with seafloor sediments deposited along the flank of a slow spreading

  20. The diagenetic behavior of cutin acids in buried conifer needles and sediments from a coastal marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Hedges, John I.

    1990-11-01

    Whole green, litter, and sedimentary fir, hemlock, and cedar needles and bulk sediments collected from the Dabob Bay region in Washington state were analyzed for their cutin-derived CuO reaction products. All samples yielded dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid isomers (x,ω-C 16), 16-hydroxyhexa-decanoic acid (ω-C 16), 14-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (ω-C 14), and 18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (ω-C 18: 1) as the major cutin acids. Fir/hemlock needle mixtures were characterized by a high abundance of the 9,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid positional isomer, while cedar needles produced primarily the 10,16-dihydroxy counterpart. Cutin acids accounted for ~3% of tissue C in green needles, ~4% in needle litter, 0.5-1.5% in sedimentary needles, and about 0.1% of the organic carbon (OC) in bulk sediments. Approximately 80% of the original cutin acids in fresh green needles were lost from the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary tissues. Cutin was more reactive than lignin and polysaccharides, but more stable than the cyclitol components of the same needles. Comparative diagenetic losses of the individual cutin acids were not uniform and suggest that additional hydroxy groups and the presence of C double bonds both increase overall reactivity. The relative stability series derived for all the molecular constituents measured is: total vanillyl phenols > total P- hydroxy phenols, ferulic acid, most aldoses, bulk organic matter > mannose, ω-C 14, ω-C 16 ⩾ ω-C 18:1 > glucose, p- coumaric acid, x, ω-C 16 > all cyclitols. Diagenetically induced changes in the various cutin parameters used to characterize nonwoody vascular plant tissues were not large enough to confuse degraded conifer tissues with other cutin sources. Based on these trends, the finely disseminated cutin-bearing tissues in Dabob Bay sediments appear to be comprised approximately of equal amounts of highly degraded fir/hemlock and cedar needle fragments. According to this estimate, nonwoody vascular plant debris

  1. Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

    1989-10-01

    Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio

  2. Forest litter stocks in Korean pine-broad-leaved forests of the southern Sikhote Alin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data on the forest litter of the Korean pine-broad-leaved forests of the South of Primorsky krai. The focus of the research is plantations dominated by Korean pine; areas of the main tree species with ages of 50, 80, 130 and 200 years were selected. The dynamics of the forest litter stock in the pine and broadleaved forests of different ages according to the measurement results for the season in 2014 is stated. In the studied plantation, the forest litter stock varies between 9.7–20.3 t ha-1. The greatest value of the forest litter stock is recorded in old-growth cedar forest (200 years. Relatively high power and the stock of litter are typical for young Korean pine forest that can explain the lower speed of the litter properties change against the dynamics of taxation indicators of the forest stand. The difference between the amount of the litter in the 200-year-old and remaining pine trees are statistically significant at p = 0.05. The dependence of the litter power on the age is not revealed. The coefficient of the forest litter decomposition ranges from 2.55–10.60 that characterizes the high speed of its rotting. The highest coefficient of the litter decomposition has an old-growing pine forest. The schedule of seasonal humidity fluctuations of the forest litter on the chosen plot is made; with increasing cedar forest age, the volumetric moisture content of the forest litter increases; volumetric moisture content on the plots remain relatively unchanged during the season. The area of the Korean pine forests of Primorsky State Academy of Agriculture is 6835 ha. The amount of carbon stock in the forest litter is 38.7 thousand tons C. in this area, while the system of regional assessment of the forest carbon balance estimates this index as 24.3 tons С. The data obtained can be used to adjust the coefficients of regional assessment of the forest carbon balance for cedar forests of Primorsky krai.

  3. Cardiac allograft immune activation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available David Chang, Jon Kobashigawa Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Heart transplant remains the most durable option for end-stage heart disease. Cardiac allograft immune activation and heart transplant rejection remain among the main complications limiting graft and recipient survival. Mediators of the immune system can cause different forms of rejection post-heart transplant. Types of heart transplant rejection include hyperacute rejection, cellular rejection, antibody-mediated rejection, and chronic rejection. In this review, we will summarize the innate and adaptive immune responses which influence the post-heart transplant recipient. Different forms of rejection and their clinical presentation, detection, and immune monitoring will be discussed. Treatment of heart transplant rejection will be examined. We will discuss potential treatment strategies for preventing rejection post-transplant in immunologically high-risk patients with antibody sensitization. Keywords: heart transplant, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, rejection, immunosuppression

  4. Angular Distribution of Element Contents in Tree Rings and the Environmental Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KESHANZHE; QIANJUNLONG; 等

    1999-01-01

    Element contents of tree rings and soils near tree roots collected from Deodar cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G.Don) and Masson pine(Pinus massoniana lamb).were determined to study the relationship between the angular distribution of element contents in tree rings and the environmental information.The chemical composition and properties of soil are very much cmoplicated,which leads to the non-uniform distribution of the element contents in tree rings.The statistical multi-varialbe regression method was used to get the information of the tree-centered distribution of element contents in the environment(soil),(C'),C'(Z,θj),from the distribtuion of element contents in tree rings(C),C(Z,θi),which depends on the plane azimuth angle(θi),i.e.,C=C(Z,θi),where Z is the atomic number of the element,with a satisfactory result though this study is only a primary one.

  5. Canonical correlations between chemical and energetic characteristics of lignocellulosic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Canonical correlation analysis is a statistical multivariate procedure that allows analyzing linear correlation that may exist between two groups or sets of variables (X and Y. This paper aimed to provide canonical correlation analysis between a group comprised of lignin and total extractives contents and higher heating value (HHV with a group of elemental components (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur for lignocellulosic wastes. The following wastes were used: eucalyptus shavings; pine shavings; red cedar shavings; sugar cane bagasse; residual bamboo cellulose pulp; coffee husk and parchment; maize harvesting wastes; and rice husk. Only the first canonical function was significant, but it presented a low canonical R². High carbon, hydrogen and sulfur contents and low nitrogen contents seem to be related to high total extractives contents of the lignocellulosic wastes. The preliminary results found in this paper indicate that the canonical correlations were not efficient to explain the correlations between the chemical elemental components and lignin contents and higher heating values.

  6. Optimal control applied to native-invasive species competition via a PDE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandi Ding

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider an optimal control problem of a system of parabolic partial differential equations modelling the competition between an invasive and a native species. The motivating example is cottonwood-salt cedar competition, where the effect of disturbance in the system (such as flooding is taken to be a control variable. Flooding being detrimental at low and high levels, and advantageous at medium levels led us to consider the quadratic growth function of the control. The objective is to maximize the native species and minimize the invasive species while minimizing the cost of implementing the control. An existence result for an optimal control is given. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the results.

  7. Dendroclimatic Reconstruction of April-May Temperature Fluctuations in the Western Himalaya of India Since A.D. 1698

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram R.; Park, Won-Kyu; Bhattacharyya, Amalava

    1997-09-01

    Ring-width chronologies of Himalayan cedar ( Cedrus deodara(D. Don.) G. Don.), Himalayan pine ( Pinus wallichianaA. B. Jackson), and Himalayan spruce ( Picea smithiana(Wall.) Boiss.) from the western Himalayan region, India, have been used to reconstruct mean April-May temperature back to A.D. 1698. The reconstruction correlates significantly with the average April-May instrumental temperature record ( r= +0.62, 1876-1988) and is characterized by annual to multiyear fluctuations. The most striking feature of the present reconstruction is the absence of any warming trend in the 20th century. Relationships between the mean April-May temperature for the western Himalayan region, Indian summer monsoon rainfall, and Southern Oscillation Index indicate that the tree-ring chronologies, as surrogate temperature records, will provide valuable data for climate change studies with regional and global perspectives.

  8. Refurbishment and extension of the terrace of Restaurant No.1

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Work to refurbish and extend part of the terrace of Restaurant No.1 started in the first week of October and should last about two months. This is just a small part of the wide-ranging site infrastructure consolidation programme that began in April 2009. The new terrace, covering a surface area of 1770 m2 (compared with 1650 m2 today), is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010 and will run all the way around the Restaurant No.1 extension. Work on the latter will affect part of Building 501 during the period from April to October 2010. The new dining room will seat some 275 additional customers (see picture). Part of the Cedars car-park will remain closed until some time in December to provide site access for trucks transporting construction materials, plant, etc. CERN Bulletin

  9. Report of the Energy Field Institute V on western energy opportunities, problems, and policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepworth, J.C.; Foss, M.M.

    1982-12-01

    The fifth Energy and Minerals Field Institute program for Washington, D.C. Congressional and Executive Aides was held during August 15-21, 1982. The five-and-one-half day program was conducted through Wyoming, Colorado and Utah and consisted of visits to: an R and D tertiary petroleum production facility; an historic oil field entering secondary production; a surface uranium mine; a petroleum exploration drilling rig; a surface coal mine; an air cooled, coal-fired power plant; an oil shale site; a geothermal-electrical generating facility; and open pit copper mine and associated smelter and refinery; a petroleum refinery and an oil shale semi-works retort. During the field program, participants had opportunities to view communities affected by these activities, such as Wright City and Gillette, Wyoming, Parachute, Colorado and Milford and Cedar City, Utah. Throughout the program, aides met with local, state and industry officials and citizen leaders during bus rides, meals and site visits.

  10. An Electrostatic-Barrier-Forming Window that Captures Airborne Pollen Grains to Prevent Pollinosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Nonomura, Teruo; Kakutani, Koji; Kusakari, Shin-Ichi; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2017-01-01

    An electrostatic-barrier-forming window (EBW) was devised to capture airborne pollen, which can cause allergic pollinosis. The EBW consisted of three layers of insulated conductor wires (ICWs) and two voltage generators that supplied negative charges to the two outer ICW layers and a positive charge to the middle ICW layer. The ICWs generated an attractive force that captured pollen of the Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica, from air blown through the EBW. The attractive force was directly proportional to the applied voltage. At ≥3.5 kV, the EBW exerted sufficient force to capture all pollen carried at an air flow of 3 m/s, and pollen-free air passed through the EBW. The findings demonstrated that the electrostatic barrier that formed inside the EBW was very effective at capturing airborne pollen; thus, it could allow a home to remain pollen-free and healthy despite continuous pollen exposure.

  11. Progress report of the Engineering Data Management System Task Force CERN-CN-96-002

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalley, J L; Faber, G; Farthouat, Philippe; Ferran, M; Flegel, Wilfried; Hameri, A P; Hauviller, Claude; Hervé, A; Høimyr, Nils-Joar; Klempt, W; Kuipers, J P M; Loos, R; Mottier, M; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nikkola, J; Oliger, S; Onnela, A; Palazzi, P; Pettersson, Thomas Sven; Price, M; Rollinger, G; Rousseau, B; Schinzel, Josi; Strubin, Pierre M; Tarrant, M; Vuoskoski, J; Witzeling, W

    1996-01-01

    An Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) is a collection of tools and rules, which enables, as a minimum, a body of vetted information to be built up in a safe pla and be easily accessible to the users. The Task Force worked through 1995 to elucidate CERN's needs for an EDMS in the construction and lifetime of LHC and its experiments, to discover the state of the art of EDMS and find a product on the market which fulfilled CERN's needs. A Call for Tenders was issued in December 1995 and the replies are being evaluated. The name DAR has been chosen for the activity of implenting an EDMS at CERN (CERN EDMS for Detectors and Accelerators) see http://cadd.cern.ch/cedar

  12. Impact of essential oils on mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Grgić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 22 essential oils (anise, thyme, cumin, peppermint, lavender, sage, lemon balm, rosemary, myrtle, cinnamon leaf, basil, white pine, eucalyptus, cedar, bergamot, mandarin, cypress, patchouli, ginger, bitter orange, sandalwood, camphor on the growth of gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. The experiment was performed in vitro on PDA medium in 2 repetitions. Oils were applied in three amounts (3, 5 and 7 μl, and the mycelial growth was measured after three and nine days of incubation. All oils, except oils of bitter orange, sandalwood and camphor, have shown a certain antifungal activity. Compared to the water control, thyme and anise oil have shown the best antifungal activity, while for oils of bitter orange, sandalwood and camphor a stimulating effect on a growth of fungus B. cinerea was determined.

  13. Reduction of 13 kD prolamins increases recombinant protein yield and recovery rate in rice endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Taiji; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2012-11-01

    RNA silencing inducible sequence (RSIS) causes post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of 5' or 3' flanking sequence-containing genes by inhibiting proper transcriptional termination. Exploiting this nature, 13 kD Pro-less, in which major seed storage protein (SSP) 13 kD prolamins are reduced, has been generated. In 13 kD Pro-less, other SSPs, such as glutelins, are increased as a compensation effect to maintain amino acid pool. 7Crp is the seven-linked epitope peptide derived from major cedar pollen allergens Cry j 1 and Cry j 2. When 7Crp is expressed in 13 kD Pro-less endosperm, accumulation level of 7Crp increased. Furthermore, recovery rate of 7Crp without reducing reagent increased. These findings indicate that 13 kD Pro-less endosperm provides a good production platform for recombinant proteins.

  14. Radiocarbon Releases from the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.; Cresswell, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Radiocarbon activities were measured in annual tree rings for the years 2009 to 2015 from Japanese cedar trees (Cryptomeria japonica) collected at six sites ranging from 2.5-38 km northwest and north of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The 14C specific activity varied from 280.4 Bq kg-1...... C in 2010 to 226.0 Bq kg-1 C in 2015. The elevated 14C activities in the 2009 and 2010 rings confirmed 14C discharges during routine reactor operations, whereas those activities that were indistinguishable from background in 2012-2015 coincided with the permanent shutdown of the reactors after...... the excess 14C activities is negligible compared to the dose from natural/nuclear weapons sources....

  15. 14C levels in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant prior to the 2011 accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.; Cresswell, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) from Okuma, ∼1 km southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, was cored and each annual ring was analysed for 14C. The 14C specific activity values varied from 330.4 Bq kg−1 C in the tree ring formed in 1971 to 231.2 Bq kg−1 C...... discharges from the reactors during their normal operations. In addition, the specific activities are positively correlated with the annual electricity generation values. The excess 14C specific activities were ... and consequently no significant radiological impact of atmospheric 14C discharges from the FDNPP during the entire period of normal operations. Additionally, no 14C pulse in activity can be observed in the year 2011 ring. This might be caused by a limited 14C release from the damaged reactors during the accident...

  16. Work flow with manual re-registration of cardiac 18F-FDG PET and attenuation correction CT to compensate for respiratory motion: Effects and inter-operator variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Christian; Christensen, Nana Louise; Møller, Lone W.;

    observed in 15 % (6/40) of the scans, and, as expected, mainly in lateral segments. It was estimated that 80% (5/6) of these artefacts could be reduced using manual re-registration procedure. This is in agreement with previous reports1-3. The inter-operator variability was generally low, except in a few......-registration is currently the most feasible. In this study, we examine both the effect on misalignment artefacts and the inter-operator variability of manual re-registration performed by the technologist in a step before the final image reconstruction and verified by a second technologist before image analysis. Method: 40...... 18F-FDG viability scans were examined. After the patient scan, a fast image reconstruction of low quality was made and used for manual re-registration of PET and AC CT, before starting the high quality reconstruction used for analysis. The left ventricle was reoriented and segmented in QPS (Cedar...

  17. Water dynamics of vegetable using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Neutral ray is specifically adsorbed and scattered by hydrogen, which is construction element of water. We applied nondestructive visualization of water dynamics in vegetable using neutral ray. The neutron ray was produced by JRR-3M of JAERI. Water dynamics of epigeal part of vegetable, tree, seed, root and soil near root were observed. The distribution and behavior of water were seen by image. For examples, the dry process of cedar, water adsorption process of seed of broad beam, corn, morning glory, rice and wheat. The growing process of root in the soil was analyzed by CT images that constructed three-dimensional image. Water image of root-soil system made clear water dynamics of the optional site near root. The distribution of water in the cut carnation was observed before and after dry treatment. The change of distribution of water was observed. (S.Y.)

  18. Chemical characteristics and enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass treated using high-temperature saturated steam: comparison of softwood and hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Chikako; Sasaki, Chizuru; Hirano, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of high-temperature saturated steam treatments on the chemical characteristics and enzymatic saccharification of softwood and hardwood. The weight loss and chemical modification of cedar and beech wood pieces treated at 25, 35, and 45 atm for 5 min were determined. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that solubilization and removal of hemicellulose and lignin occurred by the steam treatment. The milling treatment of steam-treated wood enhanced its enzymatic saccharification. Maximum enzymatic saccharification (i.e., 94% saccharification rate of cellulose) was obtained using steam-treated beech at 35 atm for 5 min followed by milling treatment for 1 min. However, the necessity of the milling treatment for efficient enzymatic saccharification is dependent on the wood species.

  19. Sixth NACW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Brown et al. (iss. eds.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sixth North American Caribou workshop was attended by over 200 people from across North America, as well as four special guests from Russia. Participants were very surprised to see and hear about caribou living in large cedar forests and on mountain-tops where snow depths exceeded several meters, and the only available forage was the lichens growing on trees. We believe that the workshop was a major success with many excellent presentations and posters, as well as opportunities for the participants to meet and discuss caribou research, ecology, and management with their counterparts from across North America. These proceedings include a wide range of excellent papers that provide a permanent record of the workshop. The editors thank the authors and reviewers for their efforts to produce and review these papers.

  20. Potentiometric-surface map of water in the Fox Hills-Lower Hell Creek aquifer in the Northern Great Plains area of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Gary W.

    1982-01-01

    The potentiometric surface of water in the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer is shown on a base map at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The map is one of a series produced as part of regional study of aquifers of Cenozoic and Mesozoic age in the northern Great Plains of Montana. The contour interval is 100 feet. The map shows that the direction of regional ground-water movement is toward the northeast. Recharge occurs on the flanks of the Black Hills uplift, the Cedar Creek anticline, the southwest part of the Bull Mountains basin, and on the out-crop areas. Discharge from the aquifer occurs along a short reach of the Yellowstone River. The average discharge from 335 wells is about 16 gallons per minute and the specific capacity of 185 wells averages 0.49 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown. (USGS)