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Sample records for cecum

  1. Characterization of the Mobilome and Microbiome of Rat Cecum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tue Sparholt

    . Extrachromosomal genetic elements are the vectors of this recombination and are thus pivotal in bacterial evolution, yet little research has focused on elements outside of laboratory culturing. The shapes of extrachromosomal elements are many, with both linear and circular variants, varying in size from few...... limiting its application. In Manuscript 1 “Hundreds of Circular Novel Plasmids and DNA Elements Identified in a Rat Cecum Metamobilome”, the main concepts and methods of the mobilome part of this thesis are developed, particularly the pipeline that allow identification of complete circular extrachromosomal...

  2. Microbes of the avian cecum: types present and substrates utilized.

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    Mead, G C

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the types and properties of microorganisms found in avian ceca, with special reference to the chicken. Microbial activity in the cecum is primarily fermentative, but there has been little evidence of cellulose fermentation, and the predominant bacterial types are relatively inactive against other high-molecular-weight compounds of dietary origin. In all avian species examined, the consistent presence of large populations of uric acid-degrading bacteria supports the view that microbial populations in the ceca permit reabsorption of water and possibly nonprotein nitrogen from the backflow of urine. These capabilities may be of particular importance to wild birds under conditions of water and food deprivation.

  3. Multiple Enhancers Regulate Hoxd Genes and the Hotdog LncRNA during Cecum Budding

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    Saskia Delpretti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hox genes are required for the development of the intestinal cecum, a major organ of plant-eating species. We have analyzed the transcriptional regulation of Hoxd genes in cecal buds and show that they are controlled by a series of enhancers located in a gene desert flanking the HoxD cluster. The start site of two opposite long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs, Hotdog and Twin of Hotdog, selectively contacts the expressed Hoxd genes in the framework of a topological domain, coinciding with robust transcription of these genes during cecum budding. Both lncRNAs are specifically transcribed in the cecum, albeit bearing no detectable function in trans. Hedgehogs have kept this regulatory potential despite the absence of the cecum, suggesting that these mechanisms are used in other developmental situations. In this context, we discuss the implementation of a common “budding toolkit” between the cecum and the limbs.

  4. Host Genetic and Environmental Effects on Mouse Cecum Microbiota

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    Campbell, James H [ORNL; Foster, Carmen M [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Campbell, Alisha G [ORNL; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Wymore, Ann [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gut harbors complex and variable microbial communities, across both host phylogenetic space and conspecific individuals. A synergy of host genetic and environmental factors shape these communities and account for their variability, but their individual contributions and the selective pressures involved are still not well understood. We employed barcoded pyrosequencing of V1-2 and V4 regions of bacterial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes to characterize the effects of host genetics and environment on cecum assemblages in 10 genetically distinct, inbred mouse strains. Eight of these strains are the foundation of the Collaborative Cross (CC), a panel of mice derived from a genetically diverse set of inbred founder strains, designed specifically for complex trait analysis. Diversity of gut microbiota was characterized by complementing phylogenetic and distance-based, sequence-clustering approaches. Significant correlations were found between the mouse strains and their gut microbiota, reflected by distinct bacterial communities. Cohabitation and litter had a reduced, although detectable effect, and the microbiota response to these factors varied by strain. We identified bacterial phylotypes that appear to be discriminative and strain-specific to each mouse line used. Cohabitation of different strains of mice revealed an interaction of host genetic and environmental factors in shaping gut bacterial consortia, in which bacterial communities became more similar but retained strain specificity. This study provides a baseline analysis of intestinal bacterial communities in the eight CC progenitor strains and will be linked to integrated host genotype, phenotype and microbiota research on the resulting CC panel.

  5. Localized pseudomembranous colitis in the cecum and ascending colon mimicking acute appendicitis.

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    Chyung, Ju Won; Shin, Dong Gue

    2013-05-27

    A 61-year-old male was admitted to our hospital due to right lower abdominal pain and watery diarrhea for 3 d. Beginning 3 wk before he arrived in our hospital, he took 3(rd)-generation cephalosporin (cefixime) for 2 wk due to chronic left ear otitis media. Colonoscopic examination revealed yellowish patches of ulcerations and swelling covered with thick serosanguineous exudate in the cecum and ascending colon. After 7 d of oral metronidazole treatment, his symptoms completely disappeared. We report a case of localized pseudomembranous colitis in the cecum and ascending colon mimicking acute appendicitis associated with cefixime.

  6. Campylobacter jejuni Gene Expression in the Chick Cecum: Evidence for Adaptation to a Low-Oxygen Environment

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    Woodall, C. A.; Jones, M. A.; Barrow, P. A.; Hinds, J.; Marsden, G. L.; Kelly, D. J.; Dorrell, N.; Wren, B. W.; Maskell, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of Campylobacter jejuni during colonization of the chick cecum identified 59 genes that were differentially expressed in vivo compared with the genes in vitro. The data suggest that C. jejuni regulates electron transport and central metabolic pathways to alter its physiological state during establishment in the chick cecum. PMID:16041056

  7. Preabsorptive Metabolism of Sodium Arsenate by Anaerobic Microbiota of Mouse Cecum Forms a Variety of Methylated and Thiolated Arsenicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conventional scheme for arsenic methylation accounts for methylated oxyarsenical production but not for thioarsenical formation. Here, we report that in vitro anaerobic microbiota of mouse cecum converts arsenate into oxy- and thio- arsenicals. Besides methylarsonic acid (MMA...

  8. Fecal loading in the cecum as a new radiological sign of acute appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andy Petroianu; Luiz Ronaldo Alberti; Renata Indelicato Zac

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Although the radiological features of acute appendicitis have been well documented, the value of plain radiography has not been fully appreciated. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the association of acute appendicitis with images of fecal loading in the cecum.METHODS: Plain abdominal radiographs of 400 patients operated upon for acute appendicitis (n = 100), acute cholecystitis (n = 100), right acute pelvic inflammatory disease (n = 100) and right nephrolithiasis (n = 100)were assessed. The presence of fecal loading was recorded and the sensitivity and specificity of this sign for acute appendicitis were calculated.RESULTS: The presence of fecal loading in the cecum occurred in 97 patients with acute appendicitis, 13 patients with acute cholecystitis, 12 patients with acute inflammatory pelvic disease and 19 patients with nephrolithiasis. The sensitivity of this sign for appendicitis was 97% and its specificity to this disease was 85.3%. Its positive predictive value for appendicitis was 68.7%; however, its negative predictive value for appendicitis was 98.8%.CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that the presence of radiological images of fecal loading in the cecum may be a useful sign of acute appendicitis, and the absence of this sign probably excludes this disease.This is the first description of fecal loading as a radiological sign for acute appendicitis.

  9. TH17, TH22 and Treg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum.

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    Martin J Wolff

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of CD4(+ T cell populations leads to intestinal inflammation, but the regional distribution of these populations throughout the intestinal tract in healthy individuals remains unclear. Here, we show that T(H17, T(H22 and T(Reg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum compared to the terminal ileum and sigmoid colon, whereas T(H1 and T(H2 cells do not significantly vary by location. Transcriptional profiling analysis of paired pinch biopsies from different regions of the intestine identified significant differences in the metabolic state of the terminal ileum, cecum, and sigmoid colon. An increased proportion of T(H17 cells was positively associated with expression of resistin (RETN and negatively associated with expression of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1. These results suggest that CD4(+ T helper cells that are important in maintaining mucosal barrier function may be enriched in the cecum as a result of metabolic differences of the surrounding microenvironment.

  10. Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis with Cecum Involvement in a 33-Year-Old Woman

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    Sharareh Gholamin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent forms ofextra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Various regions of gastrointestinaltract including cecum, terminal ileum, peritoneum, lymphaticsystem, and solid viscera can be affected by tuberculosis.Here we report a 33-year-old woman presented with fever,chills, and a history of abdominal discomfort. Lymphadenopathywas detected on physical examination. Contrast computedtomography of chest and abdomen showed patchy densitiesand thickening of the ileocecal wall respectively. Histologicalstudies of the biopsy samples documented the existence oftuberculosis.

  11. A Case Report of Stercoraceous Perforation of the Cecum due to Scybalum

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    HR Khorshidi

    2006-10-01

    Introduction & Objective: Non-traumatic colon perforations are usually caused by malignancy, diverticulum and colitis. Stercoraceous perforation of the colon has rarely been reported in the literature. This lesion is assumed to be produced by the pressure from a hard scybalum resulting in a perforated ulcer with necrotic edges. We report a case of stercoraceous perforation of the cecum due to scybalum. Case: We report a 50-year-old man who had a severe abdominal pain from 3 days ago and had peritonitis in physical exam. He was admitted in Mars, 2005 at Mobasher Kashani Hospital in Hamadan and he was parapelegic from 8 months ago due to trauma in his medical history and then he had severe and chronic constipation that necessitated the use of cathartic drugs. We operated him with diagnosis of peritonitis, and perforation of cecum due to scybalum was seen and right hemicolectomy and colostomy and ileostomy was done. Conclusion: The most common site of colon perforation due to scybalum is rectosigmoid area and cecal perforation is a rare area in the literature. It is presented with peritonitis in old patients that have chronic constipation. It is difficult to diagnose this lesion preoperatively. This lesion was only 11% correctly diagnosed before operation and should be always suspected when a patient with chronic constipation suffers from sudden abdominal pain. Resection and colostomy is the treatment of choice in most situations.

  12. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid-Tissue Lymphoma of the Cecum and Rectum: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Myung Jin; Park, Sung Chan; Hong, Chang Won; Han, Kyung Su; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Park, Weon Seo; Chang, Hee Jin; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2017-01-01

    A colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue (MALT) lymphoma is relatively rare compared to lymphomas of the stomach or small intestine. We present a case of a MALT lymphoma in the cecum and rectum found during screening colonoscopy. A 54-year-old female, who had undergone right-breast-conserving surgery with axillary dissection due to an invasive ductal carcinoma and a left-breast excisional biopsy due to microcalcification following adjuvant chemoradiation therapy 3 years earlier, was found to have 3-mm-sized smooth elevated lesions in both the cecum and rectum. No pathologic lesion or lymphadenopathy was found at any other site, but chronic gastritis negative for Helicobacter pylori infection was found. The polyps were removed by using an endoscopic biopsy and revealed an extra nodal marginal zone B-cell MALT lymphoma, showing positive for CD3 and CD20 by immunohistochemical staining. The patient underwent close observation without any additional treatment and has shown no evidence of recurrence as of her last visit. PMID:28289662

  13. Soft Tissue Myoepithelial Carcinoma Metastatic to the Cecum: Highlighting an Unusual Metastatic Pattern and the Need for Diagnostic Awareness.

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    Mourtzoukou, Despoina; Zaidi, Shane; Jones, Robin L; Fisher, Cyril; Thway, Khin

    2016-03-21

    Myoepithelial neoplasms of the soft tissues are a rare, heterogeneous group of tumors for which classification continues to evolve. While well defined within salivary glands, they can also arise in viscera and soft tissues, where diagnosis is challenging due to the lack of clinical and pathological familiarity. We present the case of a 36 year old man with myoepithelial carcinoma arising as a primary tumor within the soft tissues of the neck, which metastasized to the cecum, causing intussusception. This spindle cell neoplasm showed the classic S100 protein, smooth muscle actin and pancytokeratin-positive immunoprofile. Metastasis of myoepithelial carcinoma to the cecum has not been previously described, and coupled with the spindle cell morphology, may cause significant diagnostic difficulty in the absence of clinical familiarity, particularly as there is morphologic overlap with spindle cell neoplasms arising more commonly in gastrointestinal sites, including gastrointestinal stromal tumor, leiomyosarcoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma.

  14. Hundreds of circular novel plasmids and DNA elements identified in a rat cecum metamobilome.

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    Tue Sparholt Jørgensen

    Full Text Available Metagenomic approaches are widespread in microbiological research, but so far, the knowledge on extrachromosomal DNA diversity and composition has largely remained dependant on cultivating host organisms. Even with the emergence of metagenomics, complete circular sequences are rarely identified, and have required manual curation. We propose a robust in silico procedure for identifying complete small plasmids in metagenomic datasets from whole genome shotgun sequencing. From one very pure and exhaustively sequenced metamobilome from rat cecum, we identified a total of 616 circular sequences, 160 of which were carrying a gene with plasmid replication domain. Further homology analyses indicated that the majority of these plasmid sequences are novel. We confirmed the circularity of the complete plasmid candidates using an inverse-type PCR approach on a subset of sequences with 95% success, confirming the existence and length of discrete sequences. The implication of these findings is a broadened understanding of the traits of circular elements in nature and the possibility of massive data mining in existing metagenomic datasets to discover novel pools of complete plasmids thus vastly expanding the current plasmid database.

  15. Granular cell tumor of the cecum with extensive hyalinization and calcification: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Hong; Sung-Chul Lim

    2009-01-01

    A granular cell tumor (GCT) is a benign neoplasm of unclear histogenesis that is generally believed to be of nerve sheath origin. GCT is not common and most often affects the tongue, skin and soft tissue, although it may occur anywhere in the body. We experienced a case of GCT that arose in the cecum of a 55-yearold man. The GCT was removed by laparoscopic resection. In addition to the tumor, endoscopic examination revealed the presence of a 5-mm-polyp in the descending colon and multiple tiny polyps in the sigmoid colon and rectum. Histological examination with a hard consistency; in cut sections, mixed cells with yellowish and whitish portions were seen. The tumor was located between the mucosa and subserosa,and was composed of plump histiocyte-like tumor cells with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, which were immunoreactive for S-100 protein, vimentin,neuron-specific enolase, inhibin-a and calretinin.The tumor showed extensive hyalinization and focal dystrophic calcification. Immunohistochemical profiles did not confirm any particular cell type for the histogenetic origin of the GCT, including a nerve sheath origin. Extensive hyalinization and calcification showing involution of tumor cells suggest benign clinical behavior of GCT.

  16. Cecum lymph node dendritic cells harbor slow-growing bacteria phenotypically tolerant to antibiotic treatment.

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    Patrick Kaiser

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In vivo, antibiotics are often much less efficient than ex vivo and relapses can occur. The reasons for poor in vivo activity are still not completely understood. We have studied the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin in an animal model for complicated Salmonellosis. High-dose ciprofloxacin treatment efficiently reduced pathogen loads in feces and most organs. However, the cecum draining lymph node (cLN, the gut tissue, and the spleen retained surviving bacteria. In cLN, approximately 10%-20% of the bacteria remained viable. These phenotypically tolerant bacteria lodged mostly within CD103⁺CX₃CR1⁻CD11c⁺ dendritic cells, remained genetically susceptible to ciprofloxacin, were sufficient to reinitiate infection after the end of the therapy, and displayed an extremely slow growth rate, as shown by mathematical analysis of infections with mixed inocula and segregative plasmid experiments. The slow growth was sufficient to explain recalcitrance to antibiotics treatment. Therefore, slow-growing antibiotic-tolerant bacteria lodged within dendritic cells can explain poor in vivo antibiotic activity and relapse. Administration of LPS or CpG, known elicitors of innate immune defense, reduced the loads of tolerant bacteria. Thus, manipulating innate immunity may augment the in vivo activity of antibiotics.

  17. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on the myenteric neurons from the duodenum and cecum of diabetic rats

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    Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Peripheral neuropathy is one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus and is directly related to gastrointestinal consequences of the disease. Myenteric neurons are affected in some pathological conditions such as diabetic neuropathy. The imbalance between cellular antioxidants and free radicals, leading to an increase in oxidative stress, is considered one of the main factors responsible for neuronal damages in diabetes. Drugs that reduce the oxidative stress may play a significant role in the treatment of neurological complications of diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of L-glutamine supplementation on the myenteric neurons from the cecum and duodenum of Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The animals were divided in four groups (n = 5: non-treated normoglycemics, normoglycemics treated with L-glutamine, non-treated diabetics and diabetics treated with L-glutamine from the 4th day of diabetes induction on. The amino acid L-glutamine was added to their diet at 1%. Giemsa's technique was employed to stain the myenteric neurons. We determined the cell body area of 500 neurons in each group studied. The quantitative analysis was performed by sampling in an area of 16.6 mm² in the cecum and 3.6 mm² in the duodenum of each animal. RESULTS: After the supplementation with L-glutamine in the duodenum, we observed a preservation of neuronal density in groups normoglycemic and diabetic (P<0.05. We also observed a preservation of the cell bodies area in diabetic animals (group treated with L-glutamine (P<0.05. In the cecum, that preservation was not evident. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with L-glutamine (1% promoted a neuroprotective effect on the myenteric neurons from the duodenum of rats, both in terms of natural aging and of diabetes mellitus.

  18. A case of pericecal hernia with a hernial orifice located on the lateral side of the cecum.

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    Nishi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Yoichi; Kure, Tetsujin

    2011-09-20

    The patient was a female in her 70s without previous laparotomy who visited our hospital for right lower abdominal pain. Marked small intestinal gas was noted on plain abdominal X-ray radiography. The patient was diagnosed with ileus and admitted. On contrast imaging through an ileus tube inserted for decompression, the small intestine was obstructed in the right lower abdominal region, and emergency laparotomy was performed. A hernial orifice was present on the lateral side of the cecum, and the small intestine was partially incarcerated, based on which a pericecal hernia was diagnosed. Since no circulatory disorder was noted in the incarcerated intestine, only reduction was performed without enterectomy. The hernial orifice was left open, considering that there was no possibility of re-incarceration. The postoperative course was favorable, and the patient was discharged on the 7th hospital day. Since this was a rare pericecal hernia case of internal hernia, we searched for and reviewed cases reported in Japan. This was a very rare case with a hernial orifice located on the lateral side of the cecum, not included in the current classification of pericecal hernia.

  19. Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Engberg, R.M.; Leser, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    The microbial communities of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens from a conventional and an organic farm were investigated using conventional culture techniques as well as cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty-five percent of the 557 cloned sequences were ...% of the cecal clones belonged to this cluster in conventional and organic broiler chickens, respectively. We were, however, able to recover a number of these phylotypes by cultivation, and the isolates were shown to be butyric acid producers. The investigation was a descriptive rather than a comparative study...... of 2 different rearing systems; however, several differences were observed. For instance, Clostridium perfringens was found in significantly higher numbers in the birds from the organic farm compared with the conventional broilers, probably due to the addition of salinomycin to the conventional feed...

  20. Computed tomography (CT) of acute diverticulitis of the cecum and ascending colon; Computertomographie bei akuter rechtsseitiger Kolondivertikulitis

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    Ferstl, F.J.; Obert, R. [St. Theresienkrankenhaus Nuernberg (DE). Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinisches Zentrum (RNZ)

    2004-09-01

    Acute diverticulitis of the cecum and ascending colon, also called right-sided diverticulitis, represents a relatively rare disorder in the western hemisphere. Pseudodiverticula and, less frequently, solitary congenital diverticula are regarded as the underlying causes of acute diverticulitis. We report the helical CT findings in four patients with acute right-sided colonic diverticulitis. The CT was performed with a collimation of 8 mm, a pitch of 1.5 and an increment of 8 mm, and with variable administration of intravenous, oral and rectal contrast material. In two of the four patients, the acute diverticulitis was detected in the cecum and ascending colon, respectively. In two patients, the diagnosis could be confirmed during surgery and subsequent histologic examination of the resected specimen. On the initial CT studies, acute diverticulitis was correctly diagnosed in two patients and suspected in one patient without identifying and inflamed diverticulum. In one patient, the offending diverticulum in the ascending colon caused an inflammatory pseudotumor at the level of the ileocecal region. This process was initially mistaken as Crohn's disease. The CT diagnosis of a right-sided colonic diverticulitis is based on an inflamed diverticulum in the center of pericolic inflammatory changes and a preserved wall enhancement (target sign). Other CT findings, such as fatty pericolic infiltration and colon wall thickening, are rather non-specific and can also be found in a number of different ileocolic disorders, especially in colon cancer. In selected cases, the diagnosis can only be established by follow up CT after the pericolic infiltration has markedly subsided and an offending diverticulum has emerged. (orig.)

  1. Soluble Fiber Dextrin and Soluble Corn Fiber Supplementation Modify Indices of Health in Cecum and Colon of Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Maria R. C. de Godoy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate health outcomes resulting from dietary supplementation of novel, low-digestible carbohydrates in the cecum and colon of Sprague-Dawley rats randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups for 21 days: 5% cellulose (Control, Pectin, soluble fiber dextrin (SFD, or soluble corn fiber (SCF. Rats fed Pectin had a higher average daily food intake, but no differences in final body weights or rates of weight gain among treatments were observed. No differences were observed in total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA or branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA concentrations in the cecum and colon of rats fed either SFD or SCF. The SFD and SCF treatments increased cecal propionate and decreased butyrate concentrations compared to Control or Pectin. Pectin resulted in increased BCFA in the cecum and colon. Supplementation of SFD and SCF had no effect on cecal microbial populations compared to Control. Consumption of SFD and SCF increased total and empty cecal weight but not colon weight. Gut histomorphology was positively affected by SFD and SCF. Increased crypt depth, goblet cell numbers, and acidic mucin were observed in both the cecum and colon of rats supplemented with SFD, SCF, and Pectin. These novel, low-digestible carbohydrates appear to be beneficial in modulating indices of hindgut morphology when supplemented in the diet of the rat.

  2. Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns

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    Anderlise Borsoi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5ufc/mL each until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

  3. Behavior of salmonella heidelberg and salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns.

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    Borsoi, Anderlise; Ruschel do Santos, Luciana; Beatriz Rodrigues, Laura; Luiz de Souza Moraes, Hamilton; Tadeu Pippi Salle, Carlos; Pinheiro do Nascimento, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5)ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

  4. Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from cloaca and cecum content of chicken broilers bred in intensive systems in the Western part of Romani

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    Ada Cean

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp., belongs to the group of thermo-tolerant bacteria, and is the most frequent cause of gastrointestinal diseases in humans following consumption of poorly cooked chicken meat. The aim of our study was to test the common methodology for isolation of Campylobacter jejuni species from cloaca and cecum content of chicken broilers breed in intensive systems in Western part of Romania. The experiments were conducted during July –September 2013. As biological material we used chicken broilers from 6 intensive breeding facilities from the West part of Romania, from which cloaca swabs and cecum content were recovered as samples. Bacteria isolation was performed by inseminating Petri dish with Muller Hinton Agar media, after bacterial growth, they were subculture on Muller-Hinton Agar with Skirrow. The bacteria were tested by Gram staining and Oxidase test. Bacterial growth was detected from all samples when grown on Mueller-Hinton Agar, but when the bacteria was passed on Muller Hinton Agar with selective supplement (Skirrow 27 out of 36 samples remained positive (75,0%. With respect to the sample origin 13 (72.2% samples from cloaca swab and 14 (77.7% from cecum content grown on campylobacter selective media. All samples from Muller-Hinton supplemented with Skirrow tested negative for Gram staining and positive for oxidase test. We have successfully isolated Campylobacter spp., strains from farms and private producers in the western part of Romania.

  5. Expression of Chicken Toll-Like Receptors and Signal Adaptors in Spleen and Cecum of Young Chickens Infected with Eimeria tenella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zuo-yong; HU Shi-jun; WANG Zhi-ying; GUO Zhi-li; QIN Bo; NIE Kui

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of highly conserved molecules which initiate the innate immune response to pathogens by recognizing structural motifs of microbes. Understanding the changes in chicken Toll-like receptors (ChTLRs) and signal adaptors expression that occur with Eimeria tenella infection will help to elucidate the molecular basis of immune control of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria. The present study detected the dynamic changes in the expression of ChTLRs and associated signal adaptors in the spleen and cecum of E. tenella-infected chickens during the early stage of infection. The results showed that the expression peak for ChTLRs, MyD88 and TRIF occurred at 12 h post-infection (hpi), ChTLR3, ChTLR15 and MyD88 mRNA expression in the spleen of E. tenella infected chickens were signiifcantly higher (P<0.05) than that of negative control chickens, and there were similar tendencies of these molecules expression in the cecum and spleen of E. tenella-infected chickens. The expression of MyD88 was upregulated at four time points in the cecum of E. tenella-infected chickens. The results of this study indicate that ChTLR3, ChTLR15 and MyD88 play a role in young chickens infected with E. tenella.

  6. Rumen and Cecum Microbiomes in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus Are Changed in Response to a Lichen Diet and May Affect Enteric Methane Emissions.

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    Alejandro Salgado-Flores

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen and cecum microbiotas and how this may affect methanogenesis in reindeer. Here, we examined the effects of dietary lichens on the reindeer gut microbiota, especially methanogens. Samples from the rumen and cecum were collected from two groups of reindeer, fed either lichens (Ld: n = 4, or a standard pelleted feed (Pd: n = 3. Microbial densities (methanogens, bacteria and protozoa were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and methanogen and bacterial diversities were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In general, the density of methanogens were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by the intake of lichens. Methanobrevibacter constituted the main archaeal genus (>95% of reads, with Mbr. thaueri CW as the dominant species in both groups of reindeer. Bacteria belonging to the uncharacterized Ruminococcaceae and the genus Prevotella were the dominant phylotypes in the rumen and cecum, in both diets (ranging between 16-38% total sequences. Bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus (3.5% to 0.6%; p = 0.001 and uncharacterized phylotypes within the order Bacteroidales (8.4% to 1.3%; p = 0.027, were significantly decreased in the rumen of lichen-fed reindeer, but not in the cecum (p = 0.2 and p = 0.087, respectively. UniFrac-based analyses showed archaeal and bacterial libraries were significantly different between diets, in both the cecum and the rumen (vegan::Adonis: pseudo-F<0.05. Based upon previous literature, we suggest that the

  7. [Angiolipoma of the cecum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroglia, G; Coverlizza, S; Roatta, L; Leli, R; Fontana, D

    1996-01-01

    The paper reports a case of angiolipoma localised on the ileocecal valve. No cases of intestinal angiolipoma have been reported in the literature. The authors analyse the anatomopathological diagnostic criteria used, together with the clinical characteristics of a pathology which, even when examined macroscopically, resembles a malignant neoplasia of the colon. The authors conclude by underlining the importance of histological diagnosis for a correct surgical choice.

  8. Histological Study of the Caecal Tonsil in the Cecum of 4- 6 Months of Age White Leghorn Chicks

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    M. Rezaian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cecum, the largest part of chicken’s large intestine, has an important role in liquid absorption and cellulose digestion. It acts as a defensive organ as well due to the presence of large masses of diffuse and nodular lymphatic tissue in lamina propria and sub mucosa. The cecal tonsil activity has been proved to be depended on the activity of bursa of fabricious and thymus. As the bursa of fabricious and the thymus are exposed to involution through these ages, finding the changes (if any occur in the caecal tonsil has been our aims. Eighteen (18 healthy white leghorn chickens of 16, 20 and 24 weeks old were selected and fixed the samples of their caecal tonsils, thymuses and bursas of fabricious in 10% buffered formalin, immediately after slaughter. Routine histological laboratory methods were used and 6 µm sections were stained with hematoxylin- eosin staining method and studied under light microscope. The nodular units (ND width and height, ND fossulae’s lumen width, distribution areas of the lymphatic nodules and crypts of lieberkuhn /mm2 in the caecal tonsils, cortices and medullas diameters of the thymuses and the cortices and medullas diameters of lymphatic nodules, heights of plicas and No of nodules/ plica in the bursas of fabricious of all ages were measured and then analyzed with one way ANOVA test. In the cecal tonsils, the most important changes regarding with involution process was significant decline of lymphatic nodules/ mm2 of mucosal wall and nodular evacuation at 6 months ones, while thymuses decrease the cortical diameter at 5 months. No significant changes in regarding with involution process were shown in the bursas of fabricious through these ages and no changes in the sub epithelial lymphoid tissues of the cecal tonsils as well. By the results of this study, we come to know that the cecal tonsil growth can be depended on thymus and bursa of fabricious activity, since involution process is first begun in thymus at 5

  9. T-2 toxin induced Salmonella Typhimurium intoxication results in decreased Salmonella numbers in the cecum contents of pigs, despite marked effects on Salmonella-host cell interactions

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    Verbrugghe Elin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mycotoxin T-2 toxin and Salmonella Typhimurium infections pose a significant threat to human and animal health. Interactions between both agents may result in a different outcome of the infection. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to investigate the effects of low and relevant concentrations of T-2 toxin on the course of a Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pigs. We showed that the presence of 15 and 83 μg T-2 toxin per kg feed significantly decreased the amount of Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria present in the cecum contents, and a tendency to a reduced colonization of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and colon contents was noticed. In vitro, proteomic analysis of porcine enterocytes revealed that a very low concentration of T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL affects the protein expression of mitochondrial, endoplasmatic reticulum and cytoskeleton associated proteins, proteins involved in protein synthesis and folding, RNA synthesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and regulatory processes. Similarly low concentrations (1-100 ng/mL promoted the susceptibility of porcine macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells to Salmonella Typhimurium invasion, in a SPI-1 independent manner. Furthermore, T-2 toxin (1-5 ng/mL promoted the translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium over an intestinal porcine epithelial cell monolayer. Although these findings may seem in favour of Salmonella Typhimurium, microarray analysis showed that T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL causes an intoxication of Salmonella Typhimurium, represented by a reduced motility and a downregulation of metabolic and Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 genes. This study demonstrates marked interactions of T-2 toxin with Salmonella Typhimurium pathogenesis, resulting in bacterial intoxication.

  10. Behavior and inflammation of the rumen and cecum in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets with different concentrate presentation forms with or without straw supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devant, M; Penner, G B; Marti, S; Quintana, B; Fábregas, F; Bach, A; Arís, A

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-four individually housed Holstein bulls (395 ± 7.3 kg BW and 252 ± 3.1 d age) were exposed to a 2 × 2 factorial design (meal vs. pellets; with vs. without straw) to evaluate the effect of concentrate form and provision of straw in finishing diets on behavior and expression of rumen and cecum epithelium genes related to inflammation and behavior. Concentrate and straw consumption were recorded monthly and behavior (self-grooming, social, oral nonnutritive, tongue rolling, eating, drinking, ruminating, and lying) was recorded every two weeks. Bulls were slaughtered after 64 d of exposure to treatments, lesions on the rumen and liver were assessed, and samples of the rumen and cecum were collected. Straw supplementation tended ( = 0.08) to increase concentrate intake (8.0 vs. 7.4 ± 0.26 kg/d), increased ( straw. Provision of straw increased ruminal pH, but the magnitude of the change was greater when the concentrate was provided as meal compared with pellets (interaction, straw was not supplemented, all rumen samples had papillae fusion, whereas only 16.7% of bulls fed pellets and straw had papillae fusions (interaction, straw compared with bulls without straw. For the ruminal epithelium, straw provision tended to increase the relative expression ratio of (which stimulates peptide YY, PYY, and serotonin secretion; = 0.06) and α (which modulates immune reactions and behavior; = 0.09) and increased and (tight junction proteins; straw had increased ( straw supplementation in bulls fed high-concentrate diets modifies behavior and affects rumen macroscopic morphology and expression of epithelial genes that could be related to behavior and inflammation.

  11. The Effect of Lactobacillus casei 32G on the Mouse Cecum Microbiota and Innate Immune Response Is Dose and Time Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Busra; De Wolfe, Travis J; Tandee, Kanokwan; Safdar, Nasia; Darien, Benjamin J; Steele, James L

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with a variety of immunomodulatory effects and some of these effects have been related to changes in gastrointestinal microbiota. However, the relationship between probiotic dose, time since probiotic consumption, changes in the microbiota, and immune system requires further investigation. The objective of this study was to determine if the effect of Lactobacillus casei 32G on the murine gastrointestinal microbiota and immune function are dose and time dependent. Mice were fed L. casei 32G at doses of 106, 107, or 108 CFU/day/mouse for seven days and were sacrificed 0.5h, 3.5h, 12h, or 24h after the last administration. The ileum tissue and the cecal content were collected for immune profiling by qPCR and microbiota analysis, respectively. The time required for L. casei 32G to reach the cecum was monitored by qPCR and the 32G bolus reaches the cecum 3.5h after the last administration. L. casei 32G altered the cecal microbiota with the predominance of Lachnospiraceae IS, and Oscillospira decreasing significantly (p microbiota composition, regardless of 32G doses, was observed at the 12h time point. A likely explanation for this observation is the level of feed derived-nutrients resulting from the 12h light/dark cycle. 32G results in consistent increases in Clec2h expression and reductions in TLR-2, alpha-defensins, and lysozyme. Changes in expression of these components of the innate immune system are one possible explanation for the observed changes in the cecal microbiota. Additionally, 32G administration was observed to alter the expression of cytokines (IL-10rb and TNF-α) in a manner consistent with an anti-inflammatory response.

  12. The Salivary IgA Flow Rate Is Increased by High Concentrations of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Cecum of Rats Ingesting Fructooligosaccharides

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    Yuko Yamamoto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA serves as a major effector in mucosal immunity by preventing submucosal invasion of pathogens. However, the mechanism by which consumption of fermentable fibers increases IgA in saliva was not fully elucidated. This study investigated the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS intake and time after feeding on IgA levels in the saliva and cecal digesta and on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA in the cecum in rats. Five-week-old rats were fed a fiber-free diet or a diet with 50 g/kg FOS for zero, one, four, and eight weeks. Ingestion of FOS at one and eight weeks led to a higher IgA flow rate of saliva per weight of submandibular gland tissue (p < 0.05, which positively correlated with the concentration of SCFA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.86, p = 0.0006, n = 12, but showed no correlation with the concentration of IgA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.15, p = 0.3, n = 48. These results suggested that ingestion of FOS increased salivary IgA secretion through high levels of SCFA in the large intestine, which was produced by fermentation of FOS. Thus, continuously ingesting FOS for more than one week could increase secretion of salivary IgA.

  13. Divertículo solitário de peco perfurado: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Solitary viverticulum perforated of the cecum: report of case and review of literature

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    Mário Henrique Leite de Alencar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Divertículo solitário do intestino grosso é uma entidade relativamente rara, sendo mais frequentemente encontrado sob a forma de múltiplos divertículos. Tais divertículos são mais comuns no ceco e cólon ascendente, e geralmente são divertículos verdadeiros, ou seja, possuem todas as paredes do intestino. Quando o divertículo de ceco evolui para inflamação os pacientes geralmente se apresentam com sintomas sugestivos de apendicite aguda. Um caso de divertículo de ceco perfurado é relatado em uma mulher de 49 anos, cujo diagnóstico foi realizado somente após a cirurgia. Aspectos clínicos, propedêutica e terapia cirúrgica são discutidos.Solitary diverticulum of the large intestine is an entity relatively rare, being more frequently found under the form of multiple diverticulum. Such diverticulum's are more common in the cecum and ascending colon and they are usually true diverticulum, in other words, they possess all of the walls of the intestine. When the cecum diverticulum develops for inflammation the patients come usually with suggestive symptoms of acute appendicitis. A case of diverticulum perforated of the cecum is related in a 49 year-old woman, whose diagnosis was only accomplished after the surgery. Clinical aspects, propedeutic and surgical therapy are discussed.

  14. Avaliação morfológica do abomaso e ceco-cólon de bovinos Morphologic evaluation of the abomasum and cecum-colon of bovines

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    M.G. Cardoso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A morfofisiologia relacionada à absorção de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV ao longo do trato gastrintestinal de ruminantes não é totalmente caracterizada. Desse modo, os objetivos deste trabalho foram mensurar a extensão da superfície de absorção e determinar o índice mitótico (IM do abomaso, do ceco e da alça proximal do cólon ascendente (APCA. Dez bovinos mestiços adultos tiveram seu estômago e intestino grosso removidos imediatamente após o abate. A área total da superfície de absorção foi mensurada por meio de digitalização e análise de imagens. Cortes histológicos foram feitos para determinação do IM. A superfície absortiva do abomaso, 0,58m², foi menor (PThe morphology and physiology related to volatile fatty acid (VFA absorption throughout the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants is not totally characterized. The purpose of this work was to measure the abomasum and cecum-colon absorptive surface extension and determine the mitotic index (MI. Ten adult crossbred bovine had their stomach and large intestine removed after slaughter. The total area of the absorptive surface was measured through image capture and analysis. Histological sections were performed to measure the MI. The abomasum absorptive surface (0.58m² was lower (P<0.01 than that of the rumen (6.53m² and omasum (2.31m². The cecum-colon absorptive surface (0.23m² corresponded to 3.5% of the rumen and 10% of the omasum. The MI observed was 0.48%; 0.14%; 0.36% and 0.41% for the regions of spiral folds, pyloric, cecum and proximal loop of ascending colon, respectively. A positive correlation between abomasum tissue mass and the abomasum absorptive surface was observed. This phenomenon has also occurred in the cecum and colon. It was possible to establish regressions to facilitate measurements of the absorptive surface of the abomasum and cecum-colon.

  15. Angiodisplasia do ceco na terceira década de vida Angiodysplasia of the cecum in the third decade of life

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    Nelson Fontana Margarido

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As malformações vasculares representam uma das principais causa de hemorragia digestiva baixa em doentes idosos. O acometimento de indivíduos com menos de trinta anos é evento raramente descrito. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente relato é apresentar um caso de angiodisplasia, localizada na região cecal, em doente na terceira década de vida, diagnosticada por meio de arteriografia pré-operatória e confirmada pelo estudo anátomo-patológico. RELATO DO CASO: Homem, 29 anos, com queixa de anemia crônica de origem obscura há vários anos e refratária ao tratamento clínico e transfusional. Com o objetivo de investigar possível origem digestiva foi submetido à arteriografia seletiva abdominal que demonstrou a presença de malformação vascular, localizada na região cecal. Realizou-se colectomia direita onde foi possível confirmar a localização da enfermidade pela arteriografia pós-operatória do espécime extirpado e o diagnóstico definitivo de angiodisplasia pelo estudo anátomo-patológico. Após a intervenção cirúrgica apresentou evolução favorável, estando atualmente no 5º mês pós-operatório sem apresentar sinais de recidiva da anemia. CONCLUSÃO: Não obstante à raridade, a possibilidade de angiodisplasia deverá ser sempre considerada na investigação da anemia de causa obscura em doentes jovens.The vascular malformations represent one of the main causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding in elderly patients. The incidence of the disease in patients with less than thirty years is a rare described event. The objective of the present report is to show a case of angiodysplasia, located in the cecum region, in-patient on his third decade of life, revealed by preoperative selective angiography and confirmed by histopathological study. Men, 29th years old, presented complaining a chronic anemia of obscure origin for several years and refractory to the clinical and transfusion therapy. With the objective to investigate

  16. Temporal relationships exist between cecum, ileum and litter bacterial microbiomes in a commercial turkey flock, and subtherapeutic penicillin treatment impacts ileum bacterial community establishment

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    Jessica L Danzeisen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gut health is paramount for commercial poultry production, and improved methods to assess gut health are critically needed to better understand how the avian gastrointestinal tract matures over time. One important aspect of gut health is the totality of bacterial populations inhabiting different sites of the avian gastrointestinal tract, and associations of these populations with the poultry farm environment, since these bacteria are thought to drive metabolism and prime the developing host immune system. In this study, a single flock of commercial turkeys was followed over the course of twelve weeks to examine bacterial microbiome inhabiting the ceca, ileum, and corresponding poultry litter. Furthermore, the effects of low-dose, growth-promoting penicillin treatment (50 g/ton in feed on the ileum bacterial microbiome were also examined during the early brood period. The cecum and ileum bacterial communities of turkeys were distinct, yet shifted in parallel to one another over time during bird maturation. Corresponding poultry litter was also distinct yet more closely represented the ileal bacterial populations than cecal bacterial populations, and also changed parallel to ileum bacterial populations over time. Penicillin applied at low dose in feed significantly enhanced early weight gain in commercial poults, and this correlated with predictable shifts in the ileum bacterial populations in control versus treatment groups. Overall, this study identified the dynamics of the turkey gastrointestinal microbiome during development, correlations between bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal tract and the litter environment, and the impact of low-dose penicillin on modulation of bacterial communities in the ileum. Such modulations provide a target for alternatives to low-dose antibiotics.

  17. Long-term colonization levels of Helicobacter hepaticus in the cecum of hepatitis-prone A/JCr mice are significantly lower than those in hepatitis-resistant C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whary, M T; Cline, J; King, A; Ge, Z; Shen, Z; Sheppard, B; Fox, J G

    2001-10-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus infection causes hepatitis in A/JCr mice but mild or no disease in C57BL/6 mice. Colonization of H. hepaticus in the cecum of experimentally infected A/JCr and C57BL/6 mice was quantified by use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with primers for the H. hepaticus cdtB gene and mouse 18srRNA. Eight-week-old mice were experimentally (n = 48) or sham (n = 24) infected with H. hepaticus, then were necropsied 6 months after infection. Liver specimens from experimentally infected mice had negative results of PCR analysis for H. hepaticus; thus, real-time quantification was not attempted. Quantitative PCR analysis of H. hepaticus in cecal specimens indicated that C57BL/6 mice were colonized to a greater extent than were A/JCr mice (P JCr mice developed more severe parenchymal necrosis, portal inflammation, and phlebitis in the liver (P JCr mice caused by H. hepaticus infection is associated with significantly lower colonization levels of H. hepaticus in the cecum, compared with those of hepatitis-resistant C57BL/6 mice. Host responses of A/JCr mice that limit cecal colonization with H. hepaticus may have important roles in the pathogenesis of hepatic lesions.

  18. Effects of glutamine on microflora of cecum in broilers suffered from heat stress%谷氨酰胺对热应激肉鸡盲肠微生物区系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康磊; 李文立; 姜建阳; 李方正; 任慧英

    2013-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the effects of glutamine (Gln) on microflora of cecum in broilers suffered from heat stress. Two hundred and forty Kebao-500 broilers at the age of 1 d were randomly divided into six treatments with 4 replicates of 10 chicks each. Glutamine was supplemented at the level of 0% ,0.4% ,0. 8% , 1.2% , 1. 6% and 2. 0% in basal diets, respectively. The experiment lasted for four weeks. During the experiment period, the temperature maintained at (35±1)℃ from 9:00 AM to 17:00 PM and maintained at (30±1)℃ from 17:00 PM to 9:00 AM of the next day. The relative humidity of the chicken house was controlled from 70% to 80%. The effects of Gin on numbers of lactobacillus,bifidobacterium,clostridium perfringens, colibacillus of cecum in heat stressed broilers were studied. The results showed that,at the age of 28,35 and 42 d, supplemental Gin could enhance significantly the numbers of lactobacillus, bifidobacterium of cecum (P<0. 05) , reduce the numbers of clostridium perfringens ,colibacillus of cecum in heat stressed broilers (P<0.05). Adding a certain level of Gin in the basal diet can maintain the stabilization of microflora of cecum in heat stress broilers.%选用1日龄科宝-500肉鸡240只,随机分为6个处理组,每处理组4个重复,每个重复10只.Ⅰ组饲喂玉米-豆粕型基础日粮,Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ、Ⅵ组分别在基础日粮中添加0.4%、0.8%、1.2%、1.6%和2.0%谷氨酰胺,试验时间15~42日龄,共28 d.试验期间从每天早上9:00到下午17:00温度维持在(35±1)℃,下午17:00至次日上午9:00温度维持在(30±1)℃,鸡舍相对湿度控制在70%~80%.试验测定了热应激条件下28、35、42日龄肉鸡盲肠内乳酸杆菌、双歧杆菌、产气荚膜梭茵、大肠杆菌的数量.结果显示,日粮中添加谷氨酰胺显著提高了28、35、42日龄热应激肉鸡盲肠内乳酸杆菌、双歧杆菌的数量(P<0.05),显著降低产气荚膜梭

  19. 冷应激鹌鹑盲肠、直肠的超微组织学病理观察%Histopathology Observation of Cecum and Rectal in the Cold Stress Quail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖望; 付晶; 白秀娟

    2012-01-01

    本试验以鹌鹑为研究对象,进行急性(0h、30 min、3h和12h)、慢性(5d、10 d和20 d)冷应激(12±1℃)处理,通过对肠道超显微病理形态结构变化观察,以探讨冷应激对鹌鹑肠黏膜免疫的影响及机制,为冷应激对肠黏膜免疫影响的研究提供理论依据.研究结果表明,通过对盲肠、直肠的电镜观察,证实冷应激能够引起盲肠、直肠在形态学上的变化.%In this study, intestinal tissues were obtained from quail and were kept under the temperature of (12+1)°C for acute(0 h,30 min,3 h,12 h) and chronic(5,10,20 d) cold stress. Our aim is to explore the effects of cold stress on gut mucosal immune function of quail,through the observation of histopathology changes,in order to provide the scientific data for studying the mechanism of the effect of cold stress on gut mucosal immune system in quail. The results show that it is proved that the cold stress can cause morphological changes of the cecum and rectal in electron microscope levels.

  20. Fatores de risco no tratamento de lesões do ceco com sutura primária em ratos Risk factors on the treatment of cecum injuries with primary suture in rats

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    Gustavo Pereira Fraga

    2004-12-01

    ência de deiscência também foi maior nos ratos que apresentavam contaminação fecal mais intensa da cavidade peritoneal. A intensidade da peritonite no momento da sutura observada no exame histológico não teve associação com a ocorrência de complicações da sutura primária. Conclusão: A sutura primária é um procedimento de risco para tratar ratos, transcorrido intervalo superior a seis horas após o trauma, ou na vigência de contaminação intensa da cavidade por fezes.Purpose: Analyze the results of primary suture in the treatment of cecum traumatic injuries in rats, after the exposure to increasing time intervals between the trauma and the surgery and with different peritonitis degrees. Methods: In a randomized double-blinded study, 96 Wistar male rats, weight ranging between 200 and 250 grams, underwent laparotomy, in which a 5-milimiter-diameter-injury in the contramesenteric edge of the cecum was performed. In 12 animals of the control-group a prompt primary suture was executed, with total and separated stitches, with 7.0 polypropylene thread. In the other groups, with 12 animals each, a laparotomy for repair of the injury was executed after intervals of 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 hours. At the time of injury repair, one of its edges was ressected and sent for anatomopathological examination. A daily control after the surgery was done, observing the presence of complications, specially dehiscence of the suture, and the euthanasia of the animals were done in the 1st, 4th, 7th and 14th day after the surgery. Necropsy was executed in all animals, observing the macroscopic and microscopic findings in the area of suture. Results: There was no association between the delay for surgical treatment of the injury and peritonitis degrees. The mortality in the 14 animals with diffuse peritonitis was 100%. Global mortality was 25% (24 animals, and 6 animals (25% died before treatment. None of the animals treated that evolved to death had complications related

  1. 不同培养方法对成鸡盲肠内容物细菌生长的影响%Study on Cultured Cecal Microflora of Chickens:The Effects of Different Medium and Condition of Culture on Growth of Bacteria Flora from Content of Chicken Cecum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英珍; 黄金海; 白朋勋; 鄢明华; 张健; 李秀丽; 赵向华

    2001-01-01

    The bacteria flora of content from chicken cecum were multiplied with different medium and condition of culture. The results showed that the most types and contents of bacteria were gotten with VL broth containing 10% feces extract under the condition of anaerobe, and the cultured bacteria flora were identified preliminarily.%用不同培养基和培养条件进行鸡盲肠内容物菌群增殖,结果表明在厌氧条件下用10%鸡粪浸出液VL肉汤可获得最多的细菌种类和菌量,并对培养菌群作了初步鉴定。

  2. 16S rRNA基因的PCR-DGGE技术分析逍遥散干预抑郁模型大鼠盲肠菌群的变化%Changes of cecum flora of depressive rats after Xiaoyaosan intervention by PCR-DGGE and 16S rRNA gene library analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈小丽; 彭国茳; 孙海峰; 田俊生; 秦雪梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe and identify the flora changes in chronic unpredictable mild stress( CUMS) model after intervened by drugs. Methods All SD rats were randomized into four groups:healthy control group, model group,Xiaoyaosan group and fluoxer-tine hydrochloride group. The depressive rat model was coupled by chronic unpredictable mild stress( CUMS) . The rats in healthy con-trol group and model group were given volumetric saline,while the rats in the other groups were given Xiaoyaosan and fluoxetine hydro-chloride at 1 d,respectively. The cecum was taken at 28 d and the genomic DNAs were extracted from all of samples. Denaturing gradi-ent gel electrophoresis(DGGE)fingerprints were constructed by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA V3 variable region. The PCR amplifica-tion product was mixed with competent cells of Escherichia coli DH5α, and formed white colonies were selected and identified. Re-sults The results of body weight and behavior indicated the CUMS model was successfully established, and the index of cecum showed that Xiaoyaosan improved the impact of caecum stimulated by chronic unpredictable mild stress. Combined with DGGE fingerprint of the cecum flora and the measured sequence,the analysis of similarity by the BLAST program showed that four kinds of dominant bacteria were screened, including Lachnospiraceae bacterium, Lactobacillus animali, Burkholderiales bacterium and Lactobacillus reuteri. Com-pared with normal control group,the abundance of Lachnospiraceae bacterium,Lactobacillus animali and Burkholderiales bacterium was enhanced in CUMS group, and the abundance of Lactobacillus reuteri was weakened. After administration of Xiaoyaosan, the abun-dance of Lactobacillus animali was enhanced, the abundance of Lachnospiraceae bacterium showed no significant change and others were not found. Conclusion The cecum flora of depressive rats change markedly by the analysis of DGGE. Xiaoyaosan can regulate the probiotics in cecum flora of depressive rats to

  3. Contenido de alimento y metabolismo ceco-cólico en el tracto digestivo de poblaciones silvestres de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata en Morelos, México Cecum-colic content of food and metabolism in the digestive tract of wild population black lizard (Ctenosaura pectinata in Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Vélez-Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron cinco tractos digestivos de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata en estado silvestre en el estado de Morelos, México, para conocer la composición botánica de la dieta y el metabolismo ceco-cólico. Se observaron frotis realizados del contenido ceco-cólico para registrar la presencia de protozoarios, bacterias y parásitos intestinales existentes. Se obtuvo la media y desviación estándar de las características evaluadas. En el contenido ceco-cólico se identificaron las especies vegetales guamúchil (Phitecellobium dulce y huizache (Acacia farnesiana. Se estimó en base a materia seca la porción vegetal que conforma la dieta, la cual se distribuyó en frutos (62,9%, hojas (30,6%, rebrotes (2,9% y flores (3,5%. La región ceco-cólica se caracterizó por la concentración (mmol de los ácidos grasos acético (68,9 ± 10,6, butírico (11,98 ± 5,7, propiónico (9,04 ± 1,5 y total (89,9 ± 15, con pH de 7,45 y concentración de nitrógeno amoniacal (7,4 ± 2,8 mg/dl. La microbiota que se observó fue el protozoario Nyctotherus spp. Las bacterias totales oscilaron en concentraciones 7 x 10 a 9 x 10/g, siendo las celulolíticas de 9,2 x 10 hasta 3,5 x 10/g de contenido cecal. Los parásitos encontrados son nematodos identificados como miembros de la superfamilia Oxyuroidea con 655 ± 265/g huevos y 6,300 ± 329 adultos/iguana. Se concluye que la fermentación de la región ceco-cólica de la iguana negra en estado adulto se comporta de manera similar como en las especies herbívoras, en las cuales la fermentación se manifiesta de acuerdo con el alimento consumido. La concentración dietaria de proteína cruda fue de 14,5% y energía de 2,193 Mcal/kg y son animales parasitados con oxiuros.Five digestive tracts of black lizards (Ctenosaura pectinata from a wild population were collected in Morelos State, México, in order to identify the plant composition in the diet and the cecum-colic metabolism. Smears obtained from cecum

  4. Morphological and quantitative analysis of the neurons of the myenteric plexus of the cecum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats Análise morfológica e quatitativa dos neurônios do plexo mientérico do ceco de ratos diabéticos induzidos por estreptozootocina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the neurons of the myenteric plexus of the cecum of rats with chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetes. We used four experimental groups of animals. In groups D2 and D8 animals were killed two and eight months, respectively, after diabetes induction and groups C2 and C8 were used as controls. We carried out whole-mount preparations stanied with Giemsa and NADH-diaphorase. We verified that the diabetes did not alter the shape and disposition of the myenteric ganglia; it provoked decrease on the neuronal density and increase on the incidence of weakly basophilic neurons. The effects of streptozotocin caused dilatation of the cecum still evidenced two months after induction, but no more observed on the eight months after induction. The smaller incidence of neurons in group D8 relative to group C8 was due to the early loss related to the drug toxicity and later to the aging in diabetic condition.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os neurônios do plexo mientérico do ceco de ratos, com diabetes mellitus crônico, induzido por estreptozootocina. Utilizamos quatro grupos de animais. Nos grupos D2 e D8, os animais foram mortos, dois e oito meses, respectivamente, após à indução do diabetes e os grupos C2 e C8 foram controles dos grupos experimentais. Realizamos preparados de membrana corados pelo método de Giemsa e NADH-diaforase. Verificamos que o diabetes não alterava a forma e a disposição dos gânglios do plexo mientérico; provocou redução da densidade neuronal e aumento da freqüência de neurônios fracamente basofílicos. Os efeitos da estreptozootocina provocavam dilatação do ceco ainda evidenciada dois meses após a indução, porém não mais verificada no oitavo mês após indução. A menor freqüência de neurônios no grupo D8 em relação ao grupo C8 deve-se a perda inicial relacionada à toxicidade da droga e posteriormente ao envelhecimento em condição de diabetes.

  5. The number and profile of reactive NADH-d and NADPH-d neurons of myenteric plexus of six-month-old rats are different in the cecum portions O número de neurônios e a área do perfil neuronal NADH-d e NADPH-d reativos do plexo mioentérico de ratos com seis meses de idade são diferentes nas diferentes porções e regiões do ceco

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Whole-mount preparations were prepared and submitted to NADH-diaphorase and NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry techniques. The myenteric plexus arrangement and the number of neurons were comparatively evaluated among the different portions of the cecum. The neurons from the apical and basal regions were distributed in classes at intervals of 100µm², the means of the corresponding intervals being compared. The ganglia, in both techniques, were often connected by fine bundles, which became thicker...

  6. Regulation of Glucose Oxidase on Digestibility of Main Nutrients and Cecum Microorganism of Laying Hens%葡萄糖氧化酶对蛋鸡日粮主要营养物质表观消化率及肠道微生物的调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国先; 张晓云; 左晓磊; 计成; 马秋刚; 张振红

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of glucose oxidase (GOD) on digestibility of main nutrients and cecum microorganism in laying hens. One hundred and eighty 26-week-old Hyline layers were randomly divided into 5 groups. Laying hens in group Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ and Ⅴ were fed basal diets with addition of 0, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4% GOD. The results showed that the apparent digestibility of nutrients in laying hens fed with GOD increased. Compared with those of the control group, the apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) in experimental groups increased by 15.25% (P0.05), 4.71% (P>0.05), 8.01% (P0.05), 16.30% (P>0.05), 24.58% (P0.05)、4.71%(P>0.05)、8.01%(P0.05)、16.30%(P>0.05)、24.58%(P<0.01)和27.32%(P<0.01).蛋鸡日粮中添加0.2%~0.4%葡萄糖氧化酶可显著提高盲肠内容物中乳酸杆菌数量,降低大肠杆菌数量.由此可知,葡萄糖氧化酶可调控肠道内微生态平衡,维护鸡的肠道健康,促进日粮营养物质的利用.

  7. Cecum is the major degradation site of ingested inulin in young pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Two groups have reported > 90% of pre-caecal digestibility of inulin in pigs, and argued against pigs as a proper animal model for humans in this regard. Two experiments were conducted with weanling pigs to characterize the complete hydrolysis profile of inulin in various segments of the en...

  8. Chlorate Concentration in the Jejunum and Cecum in Growing Pigs when Supplemented in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research has demonstrated that oral administration of chlorate and nitrate results in reduced risk and / or concentration of Salmonella enterica fecal shedding of infected pigs, poultry and ruminants. The effect of chlorate is concentration dependent in vitro, but the concentrations of chlorat...

  9. Transient and Prolonged Response of Chicken Cecum Mucosa to Colonization with Different Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, Jiri; Polansky, Ondrej; Varmuzova, Karolina; Gerzova, Lenka; Sekelova, Zuzana; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Medvecky, Matej; Smith, Adrian L.; Kaspers, Bernd; Velge, Philippe; Rychlik, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    In this study we determined protein and gene expression in the caeca of newly hatched chickens inoculated with cecal contents sourced from hens of different ages. Over 250 proteins exhibited modified expression levels in response to microbiota inoculation. The most significant inductions were observed for ISG12-2, OASL, ES1, LYG2, DMBT1-L, CDD, ANGPTL6, B2M, CUZD1, IgM and Ig lambda chain. Of these, ISG12-2, ES1 and both immunoglobulins were expressed at lower levels in germ-free chickens compared to conventional chickens. In contrast, CELA2A, BRT-2, ALDH1A1, ADH1C, AKR1B1L, HEXB, ALDH2, ALDOB, CALB1 and TTR were expressed at lower levels following inoculation of microbiota. When chicks were given microbiota preparations from different age donors, the recipients mounted differential responses to the inoculation which also differed from the response profile in naturally colonised birds. For example, B2M, CUZD1 and CELA2A responded differently to the inoculation with microbiota of 4- or 40-week-old hens. The increased or decreased gene expression could be recorded 6 weeks after the inoculation of newly hatched chickens. To characterise the proteins that may directly interact with the microbiota we characterised chicken proteins that co-purified with the microbiota and identified a range of host proteins including CDD, ANGPTL6, DMBT1-L, MEP1A and Ig lambda. We propose that induction of ISG12-2 results in reduced apoptosis of host cells exposed to the colonizing commensal microbiota and that CDD, ANGPTL6, DMBT1-L, MEP1A and Ig lambda reduce contact of luminal microbiota with the gut epithelium thereby reducing the inflammatory response. PMID:27685470

  10. A Rare Case: Appendectomy After Connected Stump Appendicitis Perforation of the Cecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berke Manoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stump appendicitis is a rare complication after appendectomy . Stump appendicitis made of incomplete appendectomy after a rest appendix tissue develops as a result of the inflammation. Admitted to the emergency department with acute abdomen and a history of appendectomy in patients with a history of current pain in the right lower quadrant , especially that of the patient must be evaluated in terms of stump appendicitis. The fact that the earlier story appendectomy patients , causing a delay in diagnosis and increasing the morbidity Cecal perforation was offered an advanced case of delayed depending on the stump appendicitis in this article.

  11. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the cecum: a case report and review of literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Gui-mei; HU Jin-chen; CAI Li; LANG Zhi-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are a group of rare mesenchymal neoplasms which composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells (PECs). In recent years, PEComas have been manily reported in liver, kidney, lung, uterus and adnexa,1 but rare in small or large intestine.2-6 Here, we describe a case of PEComa restricted in the cecal mucosa, which displayed histological characteristics of epithelioid clear cells.

  12. Solitary Plasmacytoma of the Cecum and the Ascending Colon: Surgical Resection as a Treatment Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgic, Tahsin; Bostanci, Erdal Birol; Cakir, Tebessum; Ozer, Ilter; Ulas, Murat; Aydog, Gulden; Akoglu, Musa

    2015-01-01

    Colonic solitary plasmacytoma is a rare disease, with few reports occurring in the literature. Solitary plasmacytoma is defined as a plasma cell tumour with no evidence of bone marrow infiltration. Plasmacytoma can present as a solitary tumour in bone or in other parts of the body. The gastrointestinal tract is rarely the site of the disease. We report on the case of a 51-year-old man presenting with a colonic symptomatic mass with unclear biopsy results. A resected specimen showed a solitary plasmacytoma. Surgical resection was an adequate treatment modality in this case. Endoscopic resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are also preferred treatments in selected gastrointestinal plasmacytoma cases. PMID:25954564

  13. Solitary Plasmacytoma of the Cecum and the Ascending Colon: Surgical Resection as a Treatment Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Dalgic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonic solitary plasmacytoma is a rare disease, with few reports occurring in the literature. Solitary plasmacytoma is defined as a plasma cell tumour with no evidence of bone marrow infiltration. Plasmacytoma can present as a solitary tumour in bone or in other parts of the body. The gastrointestinal tract is rarely the site of the disease. We report on the case of a 51-year-old man presenting with a colonic symptomatic mass with unclear biopsy results. A resected specimen showed a solitary plasmacytoma. Surgical resection was an adequate treatment modality in this case. Endoscopic resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are also preferred treatments in selected gastrointestinal plasmacytoma cases.

  14. Quantification of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii- and Subdoligranulum variabile-like bacteria in the cecum of chickens by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Pedersen, Karl

    2010-01-01

    , and in hatcher material. Quantification of this group of F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like bacteria has not been performed before by real-time PCR, but results confirm previous results obtained by cloning and sequencing showing that the F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like group of bacteria constitutes a major...

  15. Microbiome-metabolome responses in the cecum and colon of pig to a high resistant starch diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue eSun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, knowledge about the impact of long-term intake of high resistant starch diet on pig hindgut microbiota and metabolite profile is limited. In this study, a combination of the pyrosequencing and the mass spectrometry (MS-based metabolomics techniques were used to investigate the effects of a raw potato starch (RPS, high in resistant starch diet on microbial composition and microbial metabolites in the hindgut of pig. The results showed that Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, and Turicibacter increased significantly, while Sarcina and Clostridium decreased in relative abundances in the hindgut of pigs fed RPS. The metabolimic analysis revealed that RPS significantly affected starch and sucrose metabolites, amino acid turnover or protein biosynthesis, lipid metabolites, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, inositol phosphate metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. Furthermore, a Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that Ruminococcus and Coprococcus were positively correlated with glucose-6-phosphate, maltose, arachidonic acid, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, oleic acid, phosphate, but negatively correlated with α-aminobutyric acid. However, the correlation of Clostridium and Sarcina with these compounds was in the opposite direction. The results suggest that RPS not only alters the composition of the gut microbial community but also modulates the metabolic pathway of microbial metabolism, which may further affect the hindgut health of the host.

  16. Production of two bacteriocins in various growth conditions produced by gram-positive bacteria isolated from chicken cecum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuju; Cui, Yizhe; Wang, Wenmei; Xu, Jili; Xu, Li

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum CLP29 and Enterococcus faecium CLE34 isolated from the cecal contents of young broiler chicks were identified based on physiological and biochemical characteristics, and identification was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Both bacteria showed a broad range of inhibitory action against bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli and produced two peptides, plantaricin CLP29 and enterocin CLE34. Treatment with proteinase K, trypase, or benase resulted in the loss of activity of the two peptides, confirming their proteinaceous nature. The highest activity levels for both bacteria were recorded in de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe agar at pH 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0, at 37 °C. Carbon and nitrogen sources affected the antibacterial activities of the two bacteriocins in different combinations, which suggested that the antibacterial abilities of different bacteriocins produced in nutrient sources were various.

  17. High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Timothy J. [Ames Laboratory; Jones, Roger W. [Ames Laboratory; Ai, Yongfeng [Iowa State University; Houk, Robert S. [Ames Laboratory; Jane, Jay-lin [Iowa State University; Zhao, Yinsheng [Iowa State University; Birt, Diane F. [Iowa State University; McClelland, John F. [Ames Laboratory

    2013-12-04

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-week study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

  18. A search for synbiotics: effects of enzymatically modified arabinoxylan and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens on short-chain fatty acids in the cecum content and plasma of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Jensen, Bent Borg; Purup, Stig;

    2016-01-01

    Identification of dietary strategies to increase large intestinal production and absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate, is of great interest due to the possible health promoting effects. We explored the effect of an enzymatically modified arabinoxylan-rich diet (EAXD...

  19. Investigation of the Biotransformation of a DMA in Mouse Cecum Samples Using IC-ICP-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent arsenic metabolism studies have begun to indicate the presence of sulfur analogs of the more common arsenic oxides in biological systems. An emerging area of research is how and where these arsenic species are formed in the metabolic pathway. The authors have previously i...

  20. Chicken-specific kinome array reveals that Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis modulates host immune signaling pathways in the cecum to establish a persistence infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early, short-lived, pro-inflammatory response in chickens that is asymptomatic of clinical disease and results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that transmits infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The und...

  1. Divertículo único do ceco: experiência de um hospital geral brasileiro Solitary diverticulum of the cecum: experience of a Brazilian general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljamir Duarte Chedid

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A diverticulite cecal é uma condição rara, especialmente em populações ocidentais. Sua importância reside no fato de fazer parte do diagnóstico diferencial da apendicite aguda e do carcinoma ulcerado de ceco. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Apresenta-se a experiência de um hospital geral do sul do Brasil no tratamento da diverticulite cecal. Descrevem-se quatro casos de divertículo único inflamado de ceco. Um destes teve diagnóstico pré-operatório através de tomografia computadorizada de abdome, tendo o paciente tratado clinicamente com remissão do quadro de diverticulite. Os outros três pacientes foram submetidos a colectomia direita com íleo-transverso anastomose. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade foi nula e nos casos operados não houve complicações pós-operatórias. Quando se consegue obter diagnóstico pré-operatório, pode-se optar por manejo clínico. CONCLUSÃO: Recomendamos laparotomia exploradora quando não há certeza diagnóstica. Preconizamos manejo cirúrgico radical quando o diagnóstico é efetuado através de laparotomia.BACKGROUND: Cecal diverticulitis is a rare condition, specially in western people. Its importance concerns of being part of the differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and ulcerated cecal carcinoma. AIM: To present the experience of southern Brazilian general hospital in the treatment of cecal diverticulitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present four cases of single inflamed cecal diverticulum. One was diagnosed by pre-operatively computer tomography and was treated medically without complications. The other three cases were diagnosed during operation and treated by right hemicolectomy and ileotransverse anastomosis. RESULTS:There were no deaths or complications. When cecal diverticulitis is pre-operatively diagnosed it may be treated medically. We preclude laparotomy when the diagnosis is uncertain. CONCLUSION: We recommend radical surgical management when the diagnosis is made during operation.

  2. Testicular histology after intestinal pedicle flap (cecum apposition in rats Histologia testicular depois da aposição de um retalho intestinal (ceco em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Rodrigues Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Histological study of vascularization between a cecal pedicle flap and the testicle of Wistar rats. METHODS: Fifty-three rats were studied. G1: submitted to celiotomy (a, mobilization of the right testicle (RT to the abdomen (b, cecal flap suture to the RT (d and cavity closure. G1: procedures a, b and d and fixation of RT into abdomen. G3: procedures a, b and d, exposition of RT to air and reposition into scrotum. G4: not operated. Euthanasia and histology was done after 20 days. Histometry and lesions score classification was done. Testicular vascularization was studied with comparison between G1 and G3. A p OBJETIVOS: Estudar histologicamente a vascularização entre um retalho cecal e o testículo de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta e três ratos foram estudados. G1, submetidos a (a celiotomia, (b mobilização do testículo direito (TD para o abdome, (c sutura do retalho cecal ao TD, (d fechamento da cavidade. G2, procedimentos (a, b e d, com o TD fixado no abdome. G3, procedimentos (a, b e d, com exposição do TD ao ar e retorno ao escroto. G4 não operados. Após 20 dias, eutanásia e histologia. Realizou-se histometria e classificação segundo escore de lesão. Avaliou-se a vascularização testicular, comparando-se os grupos 1 e 3. Considerou-se significativo um p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Diâmetros dos TD no G1, iguais ao G2 e diferentes de G3 e G4. O escore de lesão nos TD foi de 5,83 pontos para o G1, de 3,3 pontos para o G2, não havendo diferença significativa, porém diferentes de G3 e G4 (sem lesão. A vascularização no G1 teve média de 16,9 vasos por campo de grande aumento no TD. No G3 a média foi de 0,96 no TD e 0,92 no TE, com diferença significativa. O peso médio do G1 foi igual ao G2 e diferente de G3 e G4. CONCLUSÃO: Houve aumento significativo da vascularização entre o retalho e o testículo do rato.

  3. Two new species of Nyctotherus (Heterotrichidae: Protozoa) from the cecum of the iguana Ctenosaura pectinata from Islas Marias, Nayarit, México

    OpenAIRE

    Tijerina Garza, María de la Paz, 1943-; Mercado Hernández, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Two new Heterotrichidae species from the caecum of the iguana Ctenosaura pectinata are reported. Nyctotherus earlensis n. sp. is smaller than N. hardwickii, its macronucleus is peripherical and presents cyclosis, the citostome is in the posterior third of the cell. N. jimenezis n. sp. presents a macronudeus that varies from oval to triangular, is in the anterior third of the cell and presents cariophore. It differs from N. sokoloffi in the form of the citopharinx. Se describe dos especies ...

  4. Computed tomography findings in closed obstruction of the small bowel associated with rupture of the cecum - a case report; Obstrucao em alca fechada com ruptura do ceco: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada - relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, Sheila Jandhyra Vianna; Mendes, Luis Fernando [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2001-06-01

    Closed loop obstruction of the bowel is an extremely grave condition that may lead to serious consequences and even be fatal. The authors describe a case of a patient with intestinal obstruction secondary to cancer of the sigmoid and highlight the importance of computed tomography in the analysis of the pathological changes in routine management of patients with acute abdomen. (author)

  5. Obstrução em alça fechada com ruptura do ceco: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada - relato de um caso Computed tomography findings in closed obstruction of the small bowel associated with rupture of the cecum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Jandhyra Vianna Crespo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A obstrução intestinal em alça fechada determina uma situação de extrema gravidade, com conseqüências sérias, podendo por vezes levar ao óbito. Os autores descrevem um caso de obstrução intestinal secundária a câncer no sigmóide, destacando a importância da tomografia computadorizada na análise das alterações patológicas na rotina de abdome agudo.Closed loop obstruction of the bowel is an extremely grave condition that may lead to serious consequences and even be fatal. The authors describe a case of a patient with intestinal obstruction secondary to cancer of the sigmoid and highlight the importance of computed tomography in the analysis of the pathological changes in routine management of patients with acute abdomen.

  6. Contenido de alimento y metabolismo ceco-cólico en el tracto digestivo de poblaciones silvestres de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata) en Morelos, México Cecum-colic content of food and metabolism in the digestive tract of wild population black lizard (Ctenosaura pectinata) in Morelos, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    L Vélez-Hernández; MA Cobos-Peralta; JL Arcos-García

    2012-01-01

    Se colectaron cinco tractos digestivos de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata) en estado silvestre en el estado de Morelos, México, para conocer la composición botánica de la dieta y el metabolismo ceco-cólico. Se observaron frotis realizados del contenido ceco-cólico para registrar la presencia de protozoarios, bacterias y parásitos intestinales existentes. Se obtuvo la media y desviación estándar de las características evaluadas. En el contenido ceco-cólico se identificaron las especies vege...

  7. Identification of probiotics strain Tu-569 from rabbit cecum and property analysis of its extracellular antibacterial product%兔源益生菌Tu-569菌株鉴定与其胞外产抑菌物性质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴玉龙; 尚伟; 姜军坡; 王世英; 朱宝成

    2012-01-01

    目的 对兔源益生菌Tu-569菌株进行菌落形态和菌体形态观察、生理生化特性测定及16S rDNA序列系统发育分析以确定其种属.方法 以大肠埃希菌为指示菌,通过琼脂打孔扩散法分析Tu-569菌株胞外产抑菌物性质,初步评价该抗菌物活性.结果 Tu-569菌株为Bacillus velezensis; Tu-569菌株胞外产抑菌物为分子量3.5~8.0kD的多肽,可被饱和度60%的硫酸铵盐析;该抗菌肽热稳定性较好,但可被蛋白酶降解;采用正丁醇萃取该抗菌肽不会降低其活性;其活性可被Mn2+离子增强,但在强酸(pH 3)强碱(pH11)环境中会大幅度降低;当存在表面活性剂和β-巯基乙醇时,抗菌肽抑菌活性完全丧失.每1mg粗蛋白中含有的抗菌肽抑制大肠埃希菌的能力相当于2μg硫酸庆大霉素、10μg硫酸链霉素或50μg土霉素.结论 该抗菌肽性质稳定,具有较高的抗菌活性,在畜牧业、养殖业、食品等领域中有一定的应用价值.%Objective Works were done to identify probiotic strain Tu-569 and to analyze properties of its extracellular antibacterial product. Methods Identification was carried out by observations for colony morphology and cell shape, determinations of physiological, biochemical characteristics and sequence analysis. Properties analysis for extracellular antibacterial product were done with various treatments, such as salting out with ammonium sulfate, extraction with different organic solvent, heating, different pH environment, proteases, ions, protein protective and denaturant agents. The activity of antibacterial product was evaluated by agar diffusion assay with Escherichia coli as indicator bacteria. Results Strain Tu-569 was identified as Bacillus velezensis. The extracellular antibacterial product was polypeptide with molecular weight between 3.5kD to 8.0kD. The majority antibacterial polypeptide was salted out by 60% ammonium sulfate. The antibacterial polypeptide showed a good stability with heat, but could be degraded by proteases. The antibacterial polypeptide could be concentrated from butanol extraction without loss of antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of antibacterial polypeptide could be enhanced by Mn2+, but would be reduced in lower pH (pH3) or higher pH (pHll) buffer solutions. When surfactants or β-mercaptoethanol was present in buffer solutions, antimicrobial peptides would show complete loss of the antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity against E. coli of antimicrobial peptides in lmg of crude protein was equivalent to 2μg of gentamicin sulfate, 10μg of streptomycin sulfate or 50μg of oxytetracycline. Conclusion Antimicrobial peptides of Tu-569 strain had a high and stable antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, which was useful in applications of animal husbandry, aquaculture, food and other fields.

  8. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... The bronchoalveolar lavage is designed to be a rapid screening test to provide an early indicator of...; stomach; duodenum; jejunum; ileum; cecum; colon; rectum; urinary bladder; representative lymph...

  9. Antibacterial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol on Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in chicken cecal contents in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are two major food-borne pathogens that are transmitted through poultry products. These pathogens colonize the chicken cecum leading, to contamination of carcasses during slaughter and subsequent processing operations. We investigated the antimicrobial...

  10. IN VITRO BIOTRANSFOMATION OF AN ARSENOSUGAR BY MOUSE ANAEROBIC CECAL MICROFLORA AND CECAL TISSUE EXAMINED USING IC-ICP-MS AND LC-ESI-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation examined chemical and microbiological transformations of an arsenosugar by mouse cecum. To mimic the low oxygen environment in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, reaction mixtures were incubated under anaerobic conditions. An arsenosugar extracted from ribbo...

  11. 40 CFR 799.1560 - Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bladder (if present); esophagus; stomach; duodenum; jejunum; ileum; cecum; colon; rectum; urinary bladder... and eosin screening does not provide such information, a battery of stains shall be used to assess...

  12. 40 CFR 79.62 - Subchronic toxicity study with specific health effect assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... will provide screening information on target organ toxicities and on concentration levels useful for... through concentration range-finding trials prior to starting this study. This health effects screening... (if present); esophagus; stomach; duodenum; jejunum; ileum; cecum; colon; rectum; urinary...

  13. Laparoscopic management of cecal injury from a misplaced percutaneous suprapubic cystostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Siong-Seng; Shabeer, Usman A

    2005-12-01

    Iatrogenic bowel injury is a recognized complication of percutaneous suprapubic cystostomy. In the present report, we describe a case of misplacement of suprapubic catheter into cecum, in which laparoscopic technique was used successfully to identify and treat this condition. A 72-year-old woman with severe multiple sclerosis underwent her fourth change of suprapubic catheter 3 months after initial insertion. At the time of catheter change, the urologist performed a cystoscopy via the suprapubic tract and found feculent material in the presumed bladder. A diagnosis of colovesical fistula was made, and patient was referred to the acute surgical service. Cystogram via suprapubic catheter showed passage of contrast straight into colon in the region of cecum with no evidence of a fistula. Computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis confirmed the position of the catheter in the cecum. At laparoscopy, the cecum was seen to move when tension was applied to the suprapubic catheter, confirming the catheter tip and balloon in the lower pole of cecum. Laparoscopic transection of the cecum above the point of entry of the catheter was performed using an Endo GIA linear stapler. Under laparoscopic visualization, a new suprapubic catheter was inserted into the bladder. Intraoperative bleeding was minimal and the postoperative course was uneventful.

  14. POTENCY OF LIGNOCELLULOSE DEGRADING BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BUFFALO AND HORSE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ELEPHANT DUNG FOR FEED FIBER DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wahyudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is limiting factor for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in rumen. Isolation andselection bacteria from buffalo and horse gastrointestinal tract and elephant dung could be foundbacteria that have superiority to degrade lignin, xylan, and cellulose. Those animals were chosenbecause they were herbivores that consume low quality crude fiber as their main energy sources.Lignocellulose degrading bacteria were isolated by Hungate selective media, by using lignin (tannicacid, xylan, and cellulose as selective substrates. The morphological identification used an enrichmentmedia by measuring color, colony size, diffusion zone, clear zone, and biochemical identification usingproduction of ligninase, xylanase, and cellulase enzymes. The best lignocellulose degrading bacteriathen was determined by the morphological and biochemical character. This study showed thatlignocellulose degrading bacteria could be found in gastrointestinal tract of buffalo and horse, andelephant dung. Highest number colony was found in samples from buffalo's colon (376, followed byhorse's cecum (203, elephant’s dung (46, buffalo’s cecum (23, buffalo's rumen (9 and horse’s colon(7. The highest isolates activity of lignolytic, xylanolytic, and cellulolytic were reached by buffalo’scecum (7.64, horse's cecum (6.27, and buffalo’s colon (2.48. Meanwhile the highest enzymesproductivities were: buffalo’s cecum (0.0400 µmol, horse’s cecum (1.3912 µmol and buffalo’s colon(0.1971 µmol. Based on morphologycal character and biochemical test, it could be concluded thatlignolytic from buffalo’s cecum, xylanolytic from horse’s cecum, and cellulolytic from buffalo’s colonwere the superior isolates and they were 99% analyzed as Enterococcus casseliflavus/gallinarumspecies.

  15. The effects of isomaltulose, isomalt, and isomaltulose-based oligomers on mineral absorption and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimura, J; Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y

    1996-09-01

    We carried out a balance study to examine the effects of isomaltulose, lactose, isomalt, and isomaltulose-based oligomers (IBOs) on mineral (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron) absorption and retention. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each and fed a basal diet or diet the containing either 5% isomaltulose, 5% lactose, 5% isomalts or isomaltulose-based oligomers (IBOs) ad libitum for 16 d. After 1 wk, the animals were subjected to a 5-d mineral (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron) balance study. The isomalt feeding, as well as the IBOs feeding, led to significantly elevated mineral absorption and retention. On the other hand, lactose feeding, widely known to enhance calcium absorption, increased only calcium absorption and isomaltulose feeding did not affect mineral absorption or retention. The organic acids in cecum contents were increased by IBOs or isomalt feeding. Succinic and acetic acids in cecum contents were significantly increased by IBOs feeding. Similarly, succinic, acetic, and i-valeric acids and total amount of organic acid in cecum content were significantly increased by isomalt feeding. Although the organic acids in cecum contents were increased by IBOs or isomalt feeding, the pH values and acidity in cecum contents were not changed by IBOs or isomalt feeding. The effect of addition of various organic acids to the mucosal fluid was examined with in vitro study using a hindgut segment. By the addition of acetic acid, and butyric acid, the mineral (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) uptake was increased.

  16. Anatomy of the Gross Intestine of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The anatomy of the gross intestine and its mesentery of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris have not been described completely. Approach: In the present study, eight adult capybaras were studied using gross dissection. Results: The cecum was the largest part of the intestine and was divided into base, body and apex. The cecocolic fold joined the cecum to the full extent of the proximal loop of ascending colon. The ascending colon was divided into two ansae, one proximal and one distal or spiral. The distal ansa had a spiral arrangement and was placed cranially to the right, covered ventrally by the apex of the cecum. This ansa had a centripetal gyrus to the left, a central flexure and a centrifugal gyrus turning to the right that was continuous with the transverse colon in the right colic flexure. Conclusion: The gross intestine of the capybara was different to other previously studied rodents.

  17. Helmintos oxiuridae parasitos de Iguana iguana (Squamata, Lacertilia, Iguanidae procedentes do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Breves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study on nematode fauna occurring in wild iguanas (Iguana iguana from Brazilian Northeast (Alagoas and Maranhão and Central-west (Goiás and Mato Grosso areas were presented. Six adult iguanas, three males and three females, were necropsied and the digestive system removed to examination. All the iguana specimens were heavily parasitized. The helminths diagnosed were: Ozolaimus cirratus in the cecum and colon of five iguanas; Ozolaimus megatyphlon in cecum, colon and rectum of three iguanas; and Alaeuris vogelsangi in the small intestine, cecum, colon and rectum of five animals. Two larvae of Ozolaimus sp. were recovered from the pyloric region of the stomach of one iguana. The three diagnosed species of nematodes were reported for the first time in the Brazilian Central-West region.

  18. Bacteria and methanogens differ along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Wright, André-Denis G; Li, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus). The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera). The phyla Firmicutes (51.2%) and Bacteroidetes (39.4%) were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (Pbacteria within the families Veillonellaceae and Paraprevotellaceae were more abundant in the rumen than in the other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae, Succinivibrio spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. were more predominant in the colon than in other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroides spp. were more prevalent in the ileum, cecum and fecal pellets. For methanogens in the rumen and cecum, a total of 375,647 high quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and assigned to 113 core OTUs. Methanobrevibacter millerae was the dominant species accounting for 77.3±7.4 (S.E) % and 68.9±4.4 (S.E) % of total sequences in the rumen and cecum of roe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004). These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum.

  19. Limited fat absorption in the large intestine of mice. A morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, R L

    1977-01-01

    A limited fat-absorbing ability of the epithelial cells in the cecum and colon of mice was demonstrated light- and electron-microscopically. After injection of predigested donor fat into ligated segments of the large intestine and after massive gastric intubation of fat, fat droplets, predominantly of extremely large diameter, were visible in the cecum and colon. Comparison with fat absorption in the proximal and distal small intestine was undertaken. The large intestine, similar to the distal small intestine, is capable of absorbing lipids; however, the subsequent processing of fat appears considerably less effcient than in the proximal segments of the small intestine.

  20. Cecal diverticulitis mimicking acute Appendicitis: a report of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtulus Idris

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diverticulum of the cecum is a rare, benign, generally asymptomatic lesion that manifests itself only following inflammatory or hemorrhagic complications. Most patients with inflammation of a solitary diverticulum of the cecum present with abdominal pain that is indistinguishable from acute appendicitis. The optimal management of this condition is still controversial, ranging from conservative antibiotic treatment to aggressive resection. We describe four cases that presented with symptoms suggestive of appendicitis, but were found at operation to have an inflamed solitary diverticulum.

  1. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Chase, B.J.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred.

  2. Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma of the Colon during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shoji

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cecum in a pregnant woman is described. A 32-year-old Korean woman was diagnosed as having an abdominal tumor immediately after giving birth. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a smooth mass measuring 10 cm in diameter on the right side of the abdomen. Acute abdomen developed 3 days after birth. At emergency surgery, volvulus of a polypoid tumor was detected at the cecum apart from the normal appendix. We successfully performed a tumorectomy; however, histopathological examination demonstrated mucinous adenocarcinoma with a massive blood clot.

  3. [Comparative characteristics of cellular composition of the lymphoid structure of various regions of the human intestine in early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminova, G G; Grigorenko, D E; Rusina, A K

    1997-01-01

    Using microscopic methods and statistic analysis lymphoid structures of large and small intestine walls and appendix were studied in 4-7 years children. The highest cell reproductive activity was detected in duodenal walls being slightly lower in appendix and group lymphoid vessels. The highest ratio of plasma cells was found in duodenum, ileal lymphoid patches and cecum, where the index was 7-fold higher than index of appendix and ileum. Lamina propria of intestinal mucosa is characterized by small fraction of mitotically dividing cells and undifferentiated cell forms, especially in cecum walls. However, the latter shows the greatest percentage of plasma cells.

  4. An exceptional cause of left lower quadrant abdominal pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassam Abboud; Ronald Daher

    2009-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is an exceptional cause of left lower quadrant abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan is the key to its diagnosis and helps to establish its early treatment. We present a case of a 35-year-old male patient who presented acute appendicitis with redundant and loosely attached cecum which was diagnosed based on his left lower quadrant abdominal pain.

  5. Meckel's Diverticulitis : Echographic and CT Findings; Diverticulitis de Meckel: hallazgos en ecografia y TC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, S.; Martinez, M. J.; Ripolles, T.; Delgado, F. [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset. Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    We present echographic CT findings in 4 cases of Meckel's diverticulitis. the image usually observed is that of an inflamed appendix, the differentiation being made chiefly through its more medial location and apparent unrelatedness to the cecum. In two cases, the obtaining of multiplanar reconstructions permitted preoperative diagnosing to be made. (Author) 15 refs.

  6. Effect of galactooligosaccharides on calcium absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Watanuki, M

    1995-02-01

    The effect of transgalactosylated oligosaccharides (TOS), which are oligosaccharides that are unhydrolyzed in the small intestine and are fermented by the intestinal bacteria, on calcium absorption was examined in male Wistar rats for 10 days. The apparent calcium absorption ratios and the apparent retention ratios were significantly higher in the rats fed TOS-containing diets (5 or 10 g/100 g of diet). In the second experiment, the cecum was ligated in situ and calcium absorption from the cecum was observed after injecting TOS into the cecal lumen. Four hours after the injection, the calcium concentration in the cecal vein of the rats given TOS was significantly higher than that of the control. The calcium content in the liquid phase of the cecal lumen and the liquid phase weight were also increased by the injection of TOS into the cecum. Although the extent of calcium absorption from the cecum of rats fed TOS is due to overall calcium absorption is not known, under the experimental conditions used in the present study the stimulatory effect of TOS on calcium absorption may be partly associated with increased solubility of calcium and the fluid content in the intestinal lumen.

  7. Gut microflora of vervet and samango monkeys in relation to diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruorton, M R; Davis, C L; Perrin, M R

    1991-02-01

    The microflora in the gastrointestinal tracts of wild vervet and samango monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops and C. mitis, respectively) were studied, using fermentation acid analysis, electron microscopy, and culturing methods. The diets of the two species of monkey differ considerably, with that of the samango including a greater proportion of cellulose-rich leaf material, and this is reflected in the microflora. Volatile fatty acid measurements along the gut of both species showed that these end products of bacterial metabolism were concentrated in the cecum and colon. Electron microscopy indicated that morphologically similar bacteria were present in the cecum and colon of both species, but the samango possessed a distinct stomach microflora. Bacteria in the lumina of the four main regions of the gut of the monkeys (stomach, small intestine, cecum, and colon) were plated on a number of anaerobic media (Mann, Rogosa, and Sharp; clostridial basal; and complex media). The cecum and colon were found to contain higher numbers of microbes per gram (wet weight) of gut content than the stomach and small intestine. Microbial isolates were able to catabolize carboxymethyl cellulose and other polymers. This may aid the monkeys, particularly samangos, in the digestion of fibrous dietary components such as leaves.

  8. Effects of Lactococcus lactis on composition of intestinal microbiota: Role of nisin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Licht, Tine Rask; Brogren, Carl-Henrik

    2006-01-01

    -producing and the non-nisin-producing L. lactis strains significantly increased the number of Bifidobacterium cells in fecal samples during the first 8 days but decreased the number of enterococci/streptococci in duodenum, ileum, cecum, and colon samples as detected by selective cultivation. No significant changes...

  9. Relationship between selection for feed efficiency and methane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric methane is a product of fermentation in the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants. A group of archaea bacteria collectively called “methanogens” are responsible for the synthesis of methane. In ruminants, the methanogens grow in the reticulum-rumen complex and in the cecum. Most of the met...

  10. Methane production and methanogen levels in steers that differ in residual gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane gas released by cattle is a product of fermentation in the digestive tract. The two primary sites of methane fermentation in ruminants are the reticulum-rumen complex, and the cecum. Methane release from cattle represents a 2 to 12% loss of the energy intake. Reducing the proportion of fe...

  11. Enzyme histochemistry of cecal lymphoid tissue during prenatal period of buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kritima; Singh, Opinder

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to elucidate the histoenzymic distribution of enzymes, i.e., phosphatases, oxidoreductases, dehydrogenases, and diaphorases in cecal lymphoid tissue during its development in the prenatal period. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on cecum of 15 buffalo fetuses ranging from 16 cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL) (100 days) to 100 cm CVRL (full term). The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL. Results: In Group I, the distribution of enzymes was uniformly weak in developing villi-like projections in cecum and completely absent from submucosa. In Group II, the enzymes showed a moderate to strong activity in epithelium lining tunica mucosa which progressively decreased as the fetus progresses toward late gestational age. However, the intense activity of enzymes was observed in developing lymphoid tissue in this group. In Group III, distribution of enzymes reduced in tunica mucosa of cecum with advancing age, whereas the intense activity was noticed in the developed lymphoid tissue complex. Conclusion: The distribution of enzymes was completely absent from submucosal region in cecum of Group I as there was no lymphoid tissue development at this age. In Group II, the enzymes showed a moderate to strong activity in epithelium lining tunica mucosa which progressively decreased toward late gestational age but an intense activity was observed in developing lymphoid tissue. In Group III, distribution of enzymes reduced in tunica mucosa with advancing age with intense activity noticed in the developed lymphoid tissue complex. PMID:27733804

  12. Effects of a Campylobacter jejuni infection on the development of the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, C. H.; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Finster, K.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a Campylobacter jejuni colonization on the development of the microflora of the cecum and the ileum of broiler chickens was studied using molecular methods. The infection did affect the development and complexity of the microbial Communities of the ceca, but we found no permanent...

  13. Effects of dietary fibre and protein on urea transport across the cecal mucosa of piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stumpff, F.; Lodemann, U.; Kessel, A.G. van; Pieper, R.; Klingspor, S.; Wolf, K. van der; Martens, H.; Zentek, J.; Aschenbach, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    In ruminants, gastrointestinal recycling of urea is acutely enhanced by fibre-rich diets that lead to high ruminal concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), while high ammonia has inhibitory effects. This study attempted to clarify if urea flux to the porcine cecum is similarly regulated. Thi

  14. Deconjugation and degradation of flavonol glycosides by pig cecal microbiota characterized by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Eva-Maria; Rose, Katrin; van't Slot, Gordon; Friedrich, Alexander W; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    As the bioavailability of flavonoids is influenced by intestinal metabolism, we have investigated the microbial deconjugation and degradation of several flavonols and flavonol glycosides using the pig cecum in vitro model system developed in our group. For this model system the microbiota was direct

  15. Risk factors for incomplete small-bowel capsule endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Jessie; Weersma, Rinse K.; Koornstra, Jan J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In 20% to 30% of capsule endoscopy (CE) procedures, the capsule does not reach the cecum within recording time, with incomplete imaging of the small bowel, which limits the value of CE. Objective: To identify possible risk factors for incomplete small-bowel CE examinations. Design: Data

  16. Cusp expression of protostylid in deciduous and permanent molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sandra; Reyes, María Paula; Moreno, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    The present article is a case report on the cusp expression of protostylid in the deciduous inferior molars and in the first permanent inferior molar, in which the correspondence and bilateral symmetry of the mentioned expression can be evidenced, as well as the their relation with the foramen cecum of the mesiobuccal furrows of the deciduous and of the permanent inferior molars. PMID:28123270

  17. Investigation into Host Selection of the Cecal Acetogen Population in Rabbits after Weaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Yang

    Full Text Available Homoacetogenic bacteria have received attention as a hydrogenotrophic population that offers a significant energetic advantage to the host animal. Reductive acetogenesis is likely an important hydrogen disposal mechanism in the cecum of rabbits. However, molecular ecology information about cecal acetogen candidates has rarely been reported. To better understand the effect of host selection in the rabbit cecal acetogen community with respect to growth, rabbits at four different age stages (30, 60, 120 and 180 days with the same diet were studied. Although the abundance of potential acetogens and methanogens was high in the cecum of rabbits undergoing growth, many novel potential acetogen populations were observed in the cecum of rabbits across all age groups. Young and adult rabbits had their own distinct acetogen community although they received the same diet, which suggests that as the rabbit ages, acetogens in the cecum undergo developmental changes because of host selection that are independent of diet, and perhaps the different acetogen communities result in different hydrogenotrophic characteristics. The within-group similarity increased with age, indicating that the acetogen community converges to a more homogeneous and stable arrangement with aging.

  18. 76 FR 25612 - National Organic Program; Proposed Amendments to the National List of Allowed and Prohibited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... digestive system is slowed by the rumen or cecum. \\1\\ The petition was submitted by Intervet Inc., and is... Dairy Cattle of Breeding Age. Retrieved from FDA's Animal and Veterinary area via NADA number (the FONSI is also available via the link to the Environmental Assessment):...

  19. Changes in the bacterial microbiota in gut, blood, and lungs following acute LPS instillation into mice lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A Sze

    Full Text Available Previous reports have shown that the gastrointestinal (GI bacterial microbiota can have profound effects on the lungs, which has been described as the "gut-lung axis". However, whether a "lung-gut" axis exists wherein acute lung inflammation perturbs the gut and blood microbiota is unknown.Adult C57/Bl6 mice were exposed to one dose of LPS or PBS instillation (n=3 for each group directly into lungs. Bacterial microbiota of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, and cecum were determined using 454 pyrotag sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR at 4 through 168 hours post-instillation. We then investigated the effects of oral neomycin and streptomycin (n=8 on the microbiota at 4 and 24 hours post LPS instillation versus control treatment (n=5 at baseline and 4 hours, n=7 at 24 hours.At 24 hours post LPS instillation, the total bacterial count was significantly increased in the cecum (P<0.05; whereas the total bacterial count in blood was increased at 4, 48, and 72 hours (P<0.05. Antibiotic treatment reduced the total bacteria in blood but not in the cecum. The increase in total bacteria in the blood correlated with Phyllobacteriaceae OTU 40 and was significantly reduced in the blood for both antibiotic groups (P<0.05.LPS instillation in lungs leads to acute changes in the bacterial microbiota in the blood and cecum, which can be modulated with antibiotics.

  20. Efficiency of bowel preparation for capsule endoscopy examination:A meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaron Niv

    2008-01-01

    Good preparation before endoscopic procedures is essential for successful visualization.The small bowel is difficult to evaluate because of its length and complex configuration.A meta-analysis was conducted of studies comparing small bowel visualization by capsule endoscopy with and without preparation.Medical data bases were searched for all studies investigating the preparation for capsule endoscopy of the small bowel up to July 31,2007.Studies that scored bowel cleanness and measured gastric and small bowel transit time and rate of cecum visualization were included.The primary endpoint was the quality of bowel visualization.The secondary endpoints were transit times and proportion of examinations that demonstrated the cecum,with and without preparation.Meta-analysis was performed with StatDirect Statistical software,version 2.6.1 (http://statsdirect.com).Eight studies met the inclusion criteria.Bowel visualization was scored as "good" in 78% of the examinations performed with preparation and 49% performed without (P<0.0001).There were no significant differences in transit times or in the proportion of examinations that demonstrated the cecum with and without preparation.Capsule endoscopy preparation improves the quality of small bowel visualization,but has no effect on transit times,or demonstration of the cecum.

  1. Gastrointestinal tract distribution of Salmonella enteritidis in orally infected mice with a species-specific fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To identify and understand the regular distribution pattern and primary penetration site for Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) in the gastrointestinal tract.METHODS: Based on the species-specific DNA sequence of S. enteritidis from GenBank, a species-specific real-time, fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) was developed for the detection of S.enteritidis. We used this assay to detect genomic DNA of S. enteritidis in the gastrointestinal tract, including duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum,esophagus and stomach, from mice after oral infection.RESULTS: S. enteritidis was consistently detected in all segments of the gastrointestinal tract. The jejunum and ileum were positive at 8 h post inoculation, and the final organ to show a positive result was the stomach at 18 h post inoculation. The copy number of S. enteritidis DNA in each tissue reached a peak at 24-36 h post inoculation,with the jejunum, ileum and cecum containing high concentrations of S. enteritidis, whereas the duodenum,colon, rectum, stomach and esophagus had low concentrations. S. enteritidis began to decrease and vanished at 2 d post inoculation, but it was still present up to 5 d post inoculation in the jejunum, ileum and cecum, without causing apparent symptoms. By 5 d post inoculation, the cecum had significantly higher numbers of S. enteritidis than any of the other areas (P < 0.01),and this appeared to reflect its function as a repository for S. enteritidis.CONCLUSION: The results provided significant data for clarifying the pathogenic mechanism of S. enteritidis in the gastrointestinal tract, and showed that the jejunum,ileum and cecum are the primary sites of invasion in normal mice after oral infection. This study will help to further understanding of the mechanisms of action of S.enteritidis.

  2. Presence of thermophilic Campylobacter species in Broilers and pigs at certain abattoirs in Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinations were carried out during the period from January 2006 until March 2007 on a total of 449 samples of the cecum of broilers and the cecum and the colon of pigs. These samples included 251 samples originating from broilers and 198 samples of pig cecums and colons. All the listed samples were obtained by scraping the surface of these parts of the digestive system of broilers and pigs. At the site of sampling, the diluted material was sown on a medium (Karmali agar, in order to get individual colonies. After sowing, the bases were placed in anaerobic jars in which microaerophilic conditions were achieved using Campy Pak, BBL bags. On arrival at the laboratory, the jars containing the sown bases were placed in a thermostat, at a temperature of 42oC for 48 hours for the purpose of incubation. Following incubation, the grown colonies were examined macroscopically, and then microscopic preparations were made from them, which were stained with 2% carbol fuchsin after drying and fixation. Those isolates which were in the form of a comma, the letter S, or gull's wings in the microscopic preparations were considered Campylobacter species (Figures 1 and 2. The isolated thermophilic campylobacteria were identified using conventional and commercial biochemical tests API Campy, manufactured by Bio Mérieux, France. With the application of these microbiological methods, thermophilic Campylobacter species were isolated from 203 (80.88% of the 251 samples of broiler cecums. Furthermore, thermophilic campylobacteria were isolated from 153 (77.27% of the 198 samples from the cecum and colon of pigs taken within these investigations. The obtained results indicate that there is a somewhat greater prevalence of these bacteria among the broilers. However, such a high percentage of both broilers and pigs colonized by thermophilic Campylobacter species could pose a serious problem, in particular when it is known that infections of humans caused by the

  3. Profil Saraf Nitrergik Sekum Ayam Pedaging yang Diinfeksi Eimeria tenella (THE PROFILE OF NEORAL NITRERGIC IN THE COECUM OF BROILER INFECTED WITH Emeria tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Hana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitter found in the enteric nervous system that plays an important role in a variety ofenteropathies, including inflammatory bowel disease. Alteration of nitrergic neurons has been reported to bedependent on the manner by which inflammation is caused. This study was performed to determine theprofile of neural nitrergic with Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-dstaining in the cecum of broiler infected by Eimeria tenella (E. tenella. Thirty six health free of coccidiosisbroiler one-day old chickens (DOC used in this study. All of broiler adapted for 7 days with food and drinkgiven ad libitum then divided into three groups, each group consisted of 12 broilers. The 1st group wascontrol only given orally 1.0 ml of distilled water/ heads , while 2nd group was infected with a single dose of5x103 oocysts/ head orally, and 3rd group was infected with a single dose of 2x104 oocysts/ head orally. Onday 7 post infection, all of chickens were fasted for 12 hours then were euthanized and cecum was taken.Lesion score of cecum was assessed. Furthermore, tissue of the coecum was prepared for hisochemicalusing NADPH-d staining to determine morphology, and morhometric of nitrergic neurons. The resultshown that cecum lesion score of group I is 0, group II is +2, group III is +3. Neuron density in the cecum ofgroup I is 2794.96+4.65 neuron/cm2, group II is 4930.36+63.73 neuron/cm2 and group III is 7892.31+44.97 neuron/cm2. Neuron density of group II and III increased signifcantly (p<001 than group I. Nitrergic neurondesity of group III increased significantly (p<0.05 than that of group II. It was concluded that the infectionof E.tenella led to increase the number of neutrl mienteric nitrergic of the cecum. The higher lesion score ofcecum led to increase the number of mienteric nitrergic neuron.

  4. Quantification and variability in colonic volume with a novel magnetic resonance imaging method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, M; Sandberg, Thomas Holm; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke;

    2015-01-01

    -individual and intra-individual variability of segmental colorectal volumes between two observations in healthy subjects and (ii) the change in segmental colorectal volume distribution before and after defecation. Methods: The inter-individual and intra-individual variability of four colorectal volumes (cecum...... observations were detected for any segments (All p > 0.05). Inter-individual variability varied across segments from low correlation in cecum/ascending colon (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.44) to moderate correlation in the descending colon (ICC = 0.61) and high correlation in the transverse...... (p = 0.02). Conclusions & Inferences: Imaging of segmental colorectal volume, morphology, and fecal accumulation is advantageous to conventional methods in its low variability, high spatial resolution, and its absence of contrast-enhancing agents and irradiation. Hence, the method is suitable...

  5. Simultaneous Occurrence of Early Gastric Carcinoma and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Omentum

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    Tomohiro Murakami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous association of gastric carcinoma with omental mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is a rare event that has not been reported previously. We focused on the hypothetic pathogenetic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition. A 55-year-old woman with Helicobacter pylori infection underwent distal gastrectomy in our hospital. Three independent early gastric cancers and a mass near the cecum were diagnosed preoperatively. Pathological review of the resected stomach showed three independent early signet ring cell gastric carcinomas, and the mass in the omentum near the cecum was shown to be omental MALT lymphoma. Due to the nature of the patient's disease, she was started on medical eradication of H. pylori. Synchronous gastric adenocarcinoma and omental MALT lymphoma is a rare event. Special attention given to H. pylori-associated gastric cancer patients can avoid misdiagnosis and lead to adequate treatment.

  6. Trichothecenes Mycotoxin Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    003 0.020 + .006 "(C) 0.008 + .003 0.010 ; .004 cecum 0.008 + .004 0.014 + .005 large intestine 0.009 ; .003 0.009 7 .003 lungs 0.008 + .002 0.014...the stress of treatment, as suggested by Sato et al (1978), because cortisone causes lymphopenia within 4 hours. The observed lymphocytosis may have

  7. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium infection causes metabolic changes in chicken muscle involving AMPK, fatty acid and insulin/mTOR signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenault, Ryan J.; Napper, Scott; Kogut, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) infection of chickens that are more than a few days old results in asymptomatic cecal colonization with persistent shedding of bacteria. We hypothesized that while the bacterium colonizes and persists locally in the cecum it has systemic effects, including changes to metabolic pathways of skeletal muscle, influencing the physiology of the avian host. Using species-specific peptide arrays to perform kinome analysis on metabolic s...

  8. Vaccination of High-Risk Breast Cancer Patients with Carbohydrate Mimicking Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Ultimobranchial cyst: Developmental remnant of the branchial arch found in or adjacent to thyroid or parathyroid gland . Generally mucus-filled cyst...8.4.1. Gross pathology performed on these organs Mesenteric lymph nodes Ovaries Brain and pituitary gland Pancreas Cecum Rectum Colon...Duodenum Salivary glands , left and right Parotid, Sublingual, Submaxillary Esophagus Skeletal muscle, quadriceps, left Eyes, left and right Skin, ventral

  9. Síndrome de obstrucción intestinal distal en pacientes adultos con fibrosis quística: Casos clínicos

    OpenAIRE

    HEINE T,CLAUDIO; PARADA C,MARÍA TERESA; Gil D,Rodrigo; LÓPEZ K,FRANCISCO; LIZANA S,CARLOS; FERNÁNDEZ A,MANUEL; Quera P,Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Distal Intestinal Obstruction Syndrome (DIOS) has a 16% incidence among patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). It is characterized by an intestinal obstruction secondary to fecal impaction in distal ileum or cecum. We report two adult patients with DIOS. A female with CF and subjected to lung transplantation at the age of 13 years old. Five years later, she consulted for an intestinal obstruction. She was treated conservatively with a good clinical evolution. She had a new episode of DIOS eight ...

  10. Microbial community mapping in intestinal tract of broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yingping; Xiang, Yun; Zhou, Weidong; Chen, Jinggang; Li, Kaifeng; Yang, Hua

    2016-10-06

    Domestic chickens are valuable sources of protein associated with producing meat and eggs for humans. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) houses a large microbial community, and these microbiota play an important role in growth and health of chickens, contributing to the enhancement of nutrient absorption and improvement of the birds' immune systems. To improve our understanding of the chicken intestinal microbial composition, microbiota inhabiting 5 different intestinal locations (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon) of 42-day-old broiler chickens were detected based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. As a result, 1,502,554 sequences were clustered into 796 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% sequence similarity value and identified into 15 phyla and 288 genera. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were the major microbial groups and Firmicutes was the dominant phylum in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon accounting for > 60% of sequences, while Bacteroidetes was the dominant phylum in cecum (>50% of sequences), but little in the other four gut sections. At the genus level, the major microbial genera across all gut sections were Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, and Corynebacterium. Lactobacillus was the predominant genus in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (>35%), but was rarely present in cecum, and Bacteroides was the most dominant group in cecum (about 40%), but rarely present in the other 4 intestinal sections. Differences of microbial composition between the 5 intestinal locations might be a cause and consequence of gut functional differences and may also reflect host selection mediated by innate or adaptive immune responses. All these results could offer some information for the future study on the relationship between intestinal microbiota and broiler chicken growth performance as well as health.

  11. Immediate expression of c-fos and c-jun mRNA in a model of intestinal autotransplantation and ischemia-reperfusion in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Mercês; Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun; Coelho, Maria Cecilia Mendonça; de Oliveira Gonçalves, Josiane; Serafini, Suellen; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Tannuri, Uenis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury occurs in several clinical conditions and after intestinal transplantation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenomena of apoptosis and cell proliferation in a previously described intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury autograft model using immunohistochemical markers. The molecular mechanisms involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury repair were also investigated by measuring the expression of the early activation genes c-fos and c-jun, which induce apoptosis and cell proliferation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar rats were subjected to surgery for a previously described ischemia-reperfusion model that preserved the small intestine, the cecum and the ascending colon. Following reperfusion, the cecum was harvested at different time points as a representative segment of the intestine. The rats were allocated to the following four subgroups according to the reperfusion time: subgroup 1: 5 min; subgroup 2: 15 min; subgroup 3: 30 min; and subgroup 4: 60 min. A control group of cecum samples was also collected. The expression of c-fos, c-jun and immunohistochemical markers of cell proliferation and apoptosis (Ki67 and TUNEL, respectively) was studied. RESULTS: The expression of both c-fos and c-jun in the cecum was increased beginning at 5 min after ischemia-reperfusion compared with the control. The expression of c-fos began to increase at 5 min, peaked at 30 min, and exhibited a declining tendency at 60 min after reperfusion. A progressive increase in c-jun expression was observed. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed these observations. CONCLUSION: The early activation of the c-fos and c-jun genes occurred after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, and these genes can act together to trigger cell proliferation and apoptosis. PMID:26039956

  12. Horseshoe Appendix: An Extremely Rare Appendiceal Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ch Gyan; Nyuwi, Kuotho T; Rangaswamy, Raju; Ezung, Yibenthung S; Singh, H Manihar

    2016-03-01

    Appendiceal anomalies are extremely rare malformations that are usually found incidentally. Agenesis and duplication of the appendix has been well documented however, the cases of horseshoe appendix reported is very limited, only four cases reported so far. Here, we report a four and half-year-old who underwent interval appendectomy. Intraoperatively both the ends of the appendix were found to be communicating with the cecum with two separate base or stump located at a sagital disposal- the so called "horseshoe appendix".

  13. Chicken innate immune response to oral infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulova, Marta; Varmuzova, Karolina; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Babak, Vladimir; Stejskal, Karel; Zdrahal, Zbynek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2013-05-20

    The characterization of the immune response of chickens to Salmonella infection is usually limited to the quantification of expression of genes coding for cytokines, chemokines or antimicrobial peptides. However, processes occurring in the cecum of infected chickens are likely to be much more diverse. In this study we have therefore characterized the transcriptome and proteome in the chicken cecum after infection with Salmonella Enteritidis. Using a combination of 454 pyrosequencing, protein mass spectrometry and quantitative real-time PCR, we identified 48 down- and 56 up-regulated chicken genes after Salmonella Enteritidis infection. The most inducible gene was that coding for MMP7, exhibiting a 5952 fold induction 9 days post-infection. An induction of greater than 100 fold was observed for IgG, IRG1, SAA, ExFABP, IL-22, TRAP6, MRP126, IFNγ, iNOS, ES1, IL-1β, LYG2, IFIT5, IL-17, AVD, AH221 and SERPIN B. Since prostaglandin D2 synthase was upregulated and degrading hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase was downregulated after the infection, prostaglandin must accumulate in the cecum of chickens infected with Salmonella Enteritidis. Finally, above mentioned signaling was dependent on the presence of a SPI1-encoded type III secretion system in Salmonella Enteritidis. The inflammation lasted for 2 weeks after which time the expression of the "inflammatory" genes returned back to basal levels and, instead, the expression of IgA and IgG increased. This points to an important role for immunoglobulins in the restoration of homeostasis in the cecum after infection.

  14. Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae from Rattus losea (Rodentia: Muridae in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaisiri K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae is described from the cecum of the lesser rice field rat (Rattus losea, from Loei Province in Thailand with a prevalence of 9.1% (eight of 88 rats infected. The new species differs from previously described Notocotylus species mainly by the extreme prebifurcal position of the genital pore and the number of ventral papillae. This is the first description at the species level of Notocotylus from mammals in Southeast Asia.

  15. Catheter associated mycobacteremia: Opening new fronts in infection control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Rathor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium fortuitum is a rapidly growing Mycobacterium ubiquitous in nature, known to form biofilms. This property increases its propensity to colonize the in situ central line and makes it a prospective threat for nosocomial infection. We report a case of 48-year-old female with carcinoma cecum who reported to us with clinical illness and neutropenia while on chemotherapy via totally implanted central venous device, postlaparoscopic-assisted right hemicolectomy.

  16. Macronodular hepatosplenic tuberculosis

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    Roberto Guidi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatosplenic involvement is a rare manifestation of abdominal tuberculosis in children. We describe the case of a 7-year-old girl with persistent fever, cough, and hepatosplenomegaly. Typical lesions were shown in the liver and spleen by ultrasound and computed tomography. Colonoscopy showed a nodular, ulcerated mass that partially obstructed the cecum. Microbiological and histopathological findings of intestinal and liver biopsy confirmed the clinical suspicion of tuberculosis.

  17. A Multidisciplinary Study of Ciguatoxin and Related Low Molecular Weight Toxins from Marine Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    atrial and taenia cecum assays. Results and Discussion Table 1 summarizes the results of several species of fishes obtained in 1986-87 from the DLNR and... taenia caecum and compared to those of cultured Gambierdiscus toxicus and "pure" ciguatoxin (CTX). With the exception of CTX, maitotoxin (MTX) and all...the taenia caecum and depression of perivascular nerve-mediated (PVS) inhibitory response, at low frequencies for C. strigosus and at all frequencies

  18. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckhed, Fredrik; Ding, Hao; Wang, Ting; Hooper, Lora V.; Koh, Gou Young; Nagy, Andras; Semenkovich, Clay F.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2004-01-01

    New therapeutic targets for noncognitive reductions in energy intake, absorption, or storage are crucial given the worldwide epidemic of obesity. The gut microbial community (microbiota) is essential for processing dietary polysaccharides. We found that conventionalization of adult germ-free (GF) C57BL/6 mice with a normal microbiota harvested from the distal intestine (cecum) of conventionally raised animals produces a 60% increase in body fat content and insulin resistance within 14 days de...

  19. "Cat scratch colon" in a patient with ischemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Eui Bae; Jeon, Seong Ran; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2015-03-01

    "Cat scratch colon" is a gross finding characterized by hemorrhagic mucosal scratches on colonoscopy. It is usually associated with a normal colon and is rarely associated with collagenous colitis. In a previous report, cat scratch colon was noted in the cecum and ascending colon, but has also been observed in the distal transverse colon. The patient in this study was also diagnosed with ischemic colitis that may have played a role in the development of cat scratch colon.

  20. Meralgia paresthetica after “all-in-one” appendectomy

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    Andrew M. Ng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive approaches have become standard for pediatric appendectomy. The laparoscopic assisted single port approach, also known as the “all-in-one” appendectomy, has gained recent popularity [1]. We describe a child who suffered meralgia paresthetica (a neuropathy in the distribution of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve after a laparoscopic assisted single port appendectomy, perhaps secondary to mobilization of the cecum.

  1. Interplay of host microbiota, genetic perturbations, and inflammation promotes local development of intestinal neoplasms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Gerold; Pacer, Michelle E; Geraldino, Thais H; Chen, Lili; He, Zhengxiang; Hashimoto, Daigo; Furtado, Glaucia C; Ochando, Jordi; Kelley, Kevin A; Clemente, Jose C; Merad, Miriam; van Bakel, Harm; Lira, Sergio A

    2014-03-10

    The preferential localization of some neoplasms, such as serrated polyps (SPs), in specific areas of the intestine suggests that nongenetic factors may be important for their development. To test this hypothesis, we took advantage of transgenic mice that expressed HB-EGF throughout the intestine but developed SPs only in the cecum. Here we show that a host-specific microbiome was associated with SPs and that alterations of the microbiota induced by antibiotic treatment or by embryo transfer rederivation markedly inhibited the formation of SPs in the cecum. Mechanistically, development of SPs was associated with a local decrease in epithelial barrier function, bacterial invasion, production of antimicrobials, and increased expression of several inflammatory factors such as IL-17, Cxcl2, Tnf-α, and IL-1. Increased numbers of neutrophils were found within the SPs, and their depletion significantly reduced polyp growth. Together these results indicate that nongenetic factors contribute to the development of SPs and suggest that the development of these intestinal neoplasms in the cecum is driven by the interplay between genetic changes in the host, an inflammatory response, and a host-specific microbiota.

  2. Ileoscopy in 39 hematochezia patients with normal colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SP Misra; M Dwivedi; V Misra

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role of retrograde terminal ileoscopy in hematochezia patients with normal colonoscopy.METHODS: Between January 1997 and March 2005,39 hematochezia patients (males 36, females 3, mean age 44.7 years) with a reported normal colonoscopy underwent a repeat colonoscopy. After reaching the cecum, attempt was made to localize the ileocecal valve and intubate the terminal ileum. Any abnormality in the mucosa of the terminal ileum was carefully recorded and biopsies were obtained from suspiciouslooking lesions.RESULTS: During the study period there were 39 patients admitted for hematochezia in whom colonoscopy till cecum did not reveal any abnormality. Fulllength colonoscopy till the cecum could be performed in all the patients. The terminal ileum could be intubated in 36 patients. No abnormality was noted in 31 patients. Ileal ulcers were noted in two patients.Nodularity along with ulceration of the ileal mucosa, a Dieulafoy's lesion, and an angiomatous malformation were noted in one patient each. Histological examination of the biopsies obtained from the ulcers revealed typical tuberculous lesion in the patient with nodularity and ulceration. One of the patients had typhoid ulcers and another had non-specific ulcers.CONCLUSION: Retrograde terminal ileoscopy gives limited but valuable information, in patients with hematochezia and should be attempted in all such patients.

  3. Tissue Distribution of [3H]—Nicotine in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ParimalChowdhury; RyuichiroDOI; 等

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted in adult male Sprageue-Dawley rats to determine the distribution of [3H]-nicotine in blood and tissues following a bolus injection and a constant infusion of pure nicotine.The animalw were anesthetized and injectd with either 0.5ml of nicotine solution or given a constant infusion of the same nicotine solution with indentical amounts of radioactive nicotine.After sacrifice.blood,brain,trachea,salivery gland, esophagus,lung,heart,liver,fundus,antrum,spleen,pancreas,duodenum,jejunum,ileum, cecum,colon,kidneys,adrenal gland,and testes were collected and measured for radioactivity by scintillation counting.The distribution of nicotine was found highest in kidneys by both routes of administration.Higher accumulations were also found in salivary and adrenal glands,fundus,antrum,duodenum,jejunum,ileum and colon.Retention of nicotine via constant infusion was significantly higher in esophagus,fundus antrum,spleen,cecum, pancreas,testes,heart and muscle when compared with bolus injection,Six-fold increase in retention of blood levels of nicotine were ofund with constant infusion.(P<0.05).The results indicate that longer retention of nicotine occurs in blood and other specific tissues such as esophagus,fundus,antrum,spleen,cecum,pancreas,testes,heart and muscle via constant exposure.These data may implicate the predisposition of these tissues to patologic manifestations.

  4. Selected lactic acid-producing bacterial isolates with the capacity to reduce Salmonella translocation and virulence gene expression in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0 and high bile salt (0.3-1.5% and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (10(6-7 CFU/chick or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (10(4 CFU/chick next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1. These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10 in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in

  5. Ileocecal valve dysfunction in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Larry S Miller; Anil K Vegesna; Aiswerya Madanam Sampath; Shital Prabhu; Sesha Krishna Kotapati; Kian Makipour

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To explore whether patients with a defective ileocecal valve (ICV)/cecal distension reflex have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.METHODS:Using a colonoscope,under conscious sedation,the ICV was intubated and the colonoscope was placed within the terminal ileum (TI).A manometry catheter with 4 pressure channels,spaced 1 cm apart,was passed through the biopsy channel of the colonoscope into the TI.The colonoscope was slowly withdrawn from the TI while the manometry catheter was advanced.The catheter was placed across the ICV so that at least one pressure port was within the TI,ICV and the cecum respectively.Pressures were continuously measured during air insufflation into the cecum,under direct endoscopic visualization,in 19 volunteers.Air was insufflated to a maximum of 40 mmHg to prevent barotrauma.All subjects underwent lactulose breath testing one month after the colonoscopy.The results of the breath tests were compared with the results of the pressures within the ICV during air insufflation.RESULTS:Nineteen subjects underwent colonoscopy with measurements of the ICV pressures after intubation of the ICV with a colonoscope.Initial baseline readings showed no statistical difference in the pressures of the TI and ICV,between subjects with positive lactulose breath tests and normal lactulose breath tests.The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher than cecal pressures during air insufflation (49.33 ± 7.99 mmHg vs 16.40 ± 2.14 mmHg,P =0.0011).The average percentage difference of the area under the pressure curve of the ICV from the cecum during air insufflations in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher (280.72% ± 43.29% vs 100% ± 0%,P =0.0006).The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests was not significantly different than cecal pressures during

  6. Um marcador anatômico e a proposta de tratamento cirúrgico na síndrome do cólon irritável Anatomical marker and a surgical option in the irritable bowel syndrome treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César M. Santos Jr

    2006-09-01

    da SCM; 3. O ceco móvel pode ser usado como indicador anatômico da SCI.PURPOSE: Based on the observation that the mobile cecum syndrome (MCS includes symptoms which overlap symptoms of the IBS, our purposes were: to demonstrate the relationship of cause and effect between the mobile cecum and IBS; to evaluate the result of the cecopexia, as method of patients' treatment with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS or with abdominal discomfort of ignored etiology; and to show that the mobile cecum can be considered as the first anatomical marker for IBS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1994 to 2006, 123 patients (109 women and 14 men - median age, 37,7 - ranged 3 to 82 seen in private office had clinical diagnosis of mobile cecum; 103 patients (83,7% had been seen as having irritable bowel syndrome. All patients of this series were programmed for cecopexy. Thirty refused the surgical treatment and 29 are waiting for suitable surgery; both are on clinical follow-up in private office RESULTS: All operated patients (64/52% with fixed cecum followed from 1 to 139 months (median, 21 are well and asymptomatic Among the 58 operated women, 48 (82,7% answered the inquiry about dispareunia; 44(92% had dispareunia. After surgical treatment 89,7% have participated of the inquiry; 52 (96% were without symptoms. The non-operated patients (59/48% followed from 1 to 72 months (median, 16 are with the same complain. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, we conclude that: the topographical investigation of the cecum-ascendent should be made for all the patients with diagnosis of IBS or with functional obscure abdominal symptoms; the patients of that serie with IBS had mobile cecum and they were cured with cecopexy; there is a relationship of cause and effect between mobile cecum and IBS; the mobile cecum can be pointed as the first anatomical marker for SCI; the mobile cecum can be considered as cause of deep dispareunia.

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of right-side colonic diverticulitis: Correlation with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hoi Soo; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Joung Sook; Cho, Woo Ho; Lim, Sung Jig; Lee, Jin Ho; Kim, Young Duk [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Soon Joo [Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To evaluate ultrasonographic (US) findings of right-side colonic diverticulitis and to correlate them with pathologic findings. Twenty nine patients with surgically (n=7) and radiographically (n=8) proven diverticulitis in the cecum and ascending colon for the past five years were included in this study, and they all underwent US due to right lower quadrant abdominal pain. US findings were analyzed by two radiologists with a special emphasis on: (1) the presence, size, and internal echo of hypoechoic lesion bulging out from the colonic wall (thickened diverticulum), (2) changes in the adjacent cecum and ascending colon, (3) changes in the adjacent mesentery, (4) accompanying fluid collection, and (5) the presence of lymphadenopathy. US finding of 18 surgically proven patients were correlated with pathologic findings. On US, 25 of 29 patients (86.2%0 were found to have thicken diverticulum with the greater dimension of 8-20 mm (mean,, 12 mm). Wall thickening of the adjacent cecum and ascending colon was seen in 28 patients (96.5%), and 22 (75.9%) of them had eccentrically thickened wall. Comparing US findings with pathologic findings in 18 surgically proven patients, all revealed to have inflamed diverticulum on surgery, but only 15 showed thickened diverticulum on US. In 12 patients, fecalith, purulent exudates, and hemorrhage were found within diverticulum on surgery. In case of diverticulitis containing fecalith, all of their echogenecities were increased. All patients showed wall thickening of the adjacent colon and increased echogenecity of the adjacent mesentery on US. Pathologic findings of these thickened walls contained nonspecific inflammatory change and hemorrhage while the mesentery with an increased echogenecity contained purulent or hemorrhagic exudates. Ultrasonography can diagnose the right-side colonic diverticulitis when there is the presence of thickened diverticulum in the area with the thickened right side colonic wall in patients with right

  8. Analysis of Molecular Markers by Anatomic Tumor Site in Stage III Colon Carcinomas from Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial NCCTG N0147 (Alliance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicrope, Frank A.; Mahoney, Michelle R.; Yoon, Harry H.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Goldberg, Richard M.; Nelson, Garth D.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Alberts, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine the frequency and prognostic association of molecular markers by anatomic tumor site in patients with stage III colon carcinomas. Experimental Design In a randomized trial of adjuvant FOLFOX + cetuximab, BRAFV600E and KRAS (exon 2) mutations and DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins were analyzed in tumors (N=3,018) in relationship to tumor location including subsite. Cox models were used to assess clinical outcome including overall survival (OS). RESULTS KRAS codon 12 mutations were most frequent at the splenic flexure and cecum; codon 13 mutations were evenly distributed. BRAF mutation frequency sharply increased from transverse colon to cecum in parallel with deficient (d) MMR. Non-mutated BRAF or KRAS tumors progressively decreased from sigmoid to transverse (all p<0.0001). Significantly poorer OS was found for mutant KRAS in distal [HR, 1.98 (1.49–2.63); p<.0001] vs proximal [1.25 (0.97–1.60), p=.079] cancers. BRAF status and outcome were not significantly associated with tumor site. Proximal vs distal dMMR tumors had significantly better outcome. An interaction test was significant for tumor site by KRAS (padjusted=.043) and MMR (padjusted=.010) for OS. Significant prognostic differences for biomarkers by tumor site were maintained in the FOLFOX arm. Tumor site was independently prognostic with a stepwise improvement from cecum to sigmoid (OS: padjusted=0.001). CONCLUSIONS Mutations in BRAF or KRAS codon 12 were enriched in proximal cancers whereas non-mutated BRAF/KRAS were increased in distal tumors. Significant differences in outcome for KRAS mutations and dMMR were found by tumor site, indicating that their interpretation should occur in the context of tumor location. PMID:26187617

  9. High-protein diet modifies colonic microbiota and luminal environment but not colonocyte metabolism in the rat model: the increased luminal bulk connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Santacruz, Arlette; Lan, Annaïg; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Wilkanowicz, Sabina; Benetti, Pierre-Henri; Tomé, Daniel; Sanz, Yolanda; Blachier, François; Davila, Anne-Marie

    2014-08-15

    High-protein diets are used for body weight reduction, but consequences on the large intestine ecosystem are poorly known. Here, rats were fed for 15 days with either a normoproteic diet (NP, 14% protein) or a hyperproteic-hypoglucidic isocaloric diet (HP, 53% protein). Cecum and colon were recovered for analysis. Short- and branched-chain fatty acids, as well as lactate, succinate, formate, and ethanol contents, were markedly increased in the colonic luminal contents of HP rats (P < 0.05 or less) but to a lower extent in the cecal luminal content. This was associated with reduced concentrations of the Clostridium coccoides and C. leptum groups and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in both the cecum and colon (P < 0.05 or less). In addition, the microbiota diversity was found to be higher in the cecum of HP rats but was lower in the colon compared with NP rats. In HP rats, the colonic and cecal luminal content weights were markedly higher than in NP rats (P < 0.001), resulting in similar butyrate, acetate, and propionate concentrations. Accordingly, the expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 and sodium monocarboxylate transporter 1 (which is increased by higher butyrate concentration) as well as the colonocyte capacity for butyrate oxidation were not modified by the HP diet, whereas the amount of butyrate in feces was increased (P < 0.01). It is concluded that an increased bulk in the large intestine content following HP diet consumption allows maintenance in the luminal butyrate concentration and thus its metabolism in colonocytes despite modified microbiota composition and increased substrate availability.

  10. Alterations of intestinal immune function and regulatory effects of L-arginine in experimental severe acute pancreatitis rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Feng Qiao; Tian-Jing Lü; Jia-Bang Sun; Fei Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the changes of intestinal mucosal immune function in rats with experimental severe acute pancreatitis(SAP) and the regulatory effect of L-arginine.METHODS: Male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into pancreatitis group, sham-operation group, and L-arginine treatment group. Animals were killed at 24, 48, and 72 h after SAP models were developed and specimens were harvested. Endotoxin concentration in portal vein was determined by limulus endotoxin analysis kit. CD3+, CD4+,CD8+ T lymphocytes in intestinal mucosal lamina propria were examined by immunohistochemistry. Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in cecum feces was examined by radioimmunoassay.RESULTS: Compared to the control group, plasma endotoxin concentration in the portal vein increased, percentage of CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocyte subsets in the end of intestinal mucosal lamina propria reduced significantly,CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased, and SIgA concentrations in cecum feces reduced at 24, 48, and 72 h after SAP developed. Compared to SAP group, the L-arginine treatment group had a lower level of plasma endotoxin concentration in the portal vein, a higher CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocyte percentage in the end of intestinal mucosal lamina propria,an increased ratio of CD4+/CD8+ and a higher SIgA concentration in cecum feces.CONCLUSION: Intestinal immune suppression occurs in the early stage of SAP rats, which may be the main reason for bacterial and endotoxin translocation. L-arginine can improve the intestinal immunity and reduce bacterial and endotoxin translocation in SAP rats.

  11. Dietary inclusion of feathers affects intestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites in growing Leghorn-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B; Bessei, W; Bessei, A W; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2012-07-01

    Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem that is often associated with feather eating. The intake of feathers may influence the gut microbiota and its metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 different diets, with or without 5% ground feathers, on the gut microbiota and the resulting microbial fermentation products and to identify keratin-degrading bacteria in chicken digesta. One-day-old Lohmann-Selected Leghorn chicks were divided into 3 feeding groups: group A (control), B (5% ground feathers in the diet), and C, in which the control diet was fed until wk 12 and then switched to the 5% feather diet to study the effect of time of first feather ingestion. The gut microbiota was analyzed by cultivation and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of ileum and cecum digesta. Short-chain fatty acids, ammonia, and lactate concentrations were measured as microbial metabolites. The concentration of keratinolytic bacteria increased after feather ingestion in the ileum (P < 0.001) and cecum (P = 0.033). Bacterial species that hydrolyzed keratin were identified as Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus reuteri-like species (97% sequence homology), and Lactobacillus salivarius-like species (97% sequence homology). Molecular analysis of cecal DNA extracts showed that the feather diet lowered the bacterial diversity indicated by a reduced richness (P < 0.001) and shannon (P = 0.012) index. The pattern of microbial metabolites indicated some changes, especially in the cecum. This study showed that feather intake induced an adaptation of the intestinal microbiota in chickens. It remains unclear to what extent the changed metabolism of the microbiota reflects the feather intake and could have an effect on the behavior of the hens.

  12. Effects of dietary fibre and protein on urea transport across the cecal mucosa of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpff, F; Lodemann, U; Van Kessel, A G; Pieper, R; Klingspor, S; Wolf, K; Martens, H; Zentek, J; Aschenbach, J R

    2013-12-01

    In ruminants, gastrointestinal recycling of urea is acutely enhanced by fibre-rich diets that lead to high ruminal concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), while high ammonia has inhibitory effects. This study attempted to clarify if urea flux to the porcine cecum is similarly regulated. Thirty-two weaned piglets were fed diets containing protein (P) of poor prececal digestibility and fibre (F) at high (H) or low levels (L) in a 2 × 2 factorial design. After slaughter, cecal content was analyzed and the cecal mucosa incubated in Ussing chambers to measure the effect of pH, SCFA and NH4 (+) on the flux rates of urea, short-circuit current (I sc) and tissue conductance (G t). NH4 (+) significantly enhanced I sc (from 0.5 ± 0.2 to 1.2 ± 0.1 μEq cm(-2) h(-1)). No acute effects of SCFA or ammonia on urea flux were observed. Tissue conductance was significantly lower in the high dietary fibre groups irrespective of the protein content. Only the HP-LF group emerged as different from all others in terms of urea flux (74 ± 6 versus 53 ± 3 nmol cm(-2) h(-1)), associated with higher cecal ammonia concentration and reduced fecal consistency. The data suggest that as in the rumen, uptake of ammonia by the cecum may involve electrogenic transport of the ionic form (NH4 (+)). In contrast to findings in the rumen, neither a high fibre diet nor acute addition of SCFA enhanced urea transport across the pig cecum. Instead, a HP-LF diet had stimulatory effects. A potential role for urea recycling in stabilizing luminal pH is discussed.

  13. Effects of dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walugembe, M; Hsieh, J C F; Koszewski, N J; Lamont, S J; Persia, M E; Rothschild, M F

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks. The lower fiber diet was based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and the higher fiber diet was formulated using corn-SBM-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran to contain 60.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 1 to 12 d and 80.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 13 to 21 d. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements. Broiler and laying-hen chicks were randomly assigned to the high and low fiber diets with 11 replicates of 8 chicks for each of the 4 treatments. One cecum from 3 chicks was collected from each replicate: one cecum underwent SCFA concentration analysis, one underwent bacterial DNA isolation for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and the third cecum was used for metagenomics analyses. There were interactions between bird line and dietary fiber for acetic acid (P = 0.04) and total SCFA (P = 0.04) concentration. There was higher concentration of acetic acid (P = 0.02) and propionic acid (P laying-hen chicks. TRFLP analysis showed that cecal microbiota varied due to diet (P = 0.02) and chicken line (P = 0.03). Metagenomics analyses identified differences in the relative abundance of Helicobacter pullorum and Megamonas hypermegale and the genera Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Bacteroides in different treatment groups. These results provide insights into the effect of dietary fiber on SCFA concentration and modulation of cecal microbiota in broiler and laying-hen chicks.

  14. Characterization of intestinal microbiota and response to dietary virginiamycin supplementation in the broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumonceaux, Tim J; Hill, Janet E; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Van Kessel, Andrew G

    2006-04-01

    The inclusion of antibiotic growth promoters, such as virginiamycin, at subtherapeutic levels in poultry feeds has a positive effect on health and growth characteristics, possibly due to beneficial effects on the host gastrointestinal microbiota. To improve our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and the effect of virginiamycin on its composition, we characterized the bacteria found in five different gastrointestinal tract locations (duodenal loop, mid-jejunum, proximal ileum, ileocecal junction, and cecum) in 47-day-old chickens that were fed diets excluding or including virginiamycin throughout the production cycle. Ten libraries (five gastrointestinal tract locations from two groups of birds) of approximately 555-bp chaperonin 60 PCR products were prepared, and 10,932 cloned sequences were analyzed. A total of 370 distinct cpn60 sequences were identified, which ranged in frequency of recovery from 1 to 2,872. The small intestinal libraries were dominated by sequences from the Lactobacillales (90% of sequences), while the cecum libraries were more diverse and included members of the Clostridiales (68%), Lactobacillales (25%), and Bacteroidetes (6%). To assess the effects of virginiamycin on the gastrointestinal microbiota, 15 bacterial targets were enumerated using quantitative, real-time PCR. Virginiamycin was associated with increased abundance of many of the targets in the proximal gastrointestinal tract (duodenal loop to proximal ileum), with fewer targets affected in the distal regions (ileocecal junction and cecum). These findings provide improved profiling of the composition of the chicken intestinal microbiota and indicate that microbial responses to virginiamycin are most significant in the proximal small intestine.

  15. Prebiotic oligosaccharides change the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids and the microbial population of mouse bowel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong PAN; Fen-qin CHEN; Tian-xing WU; Hong-gang TANG; Zhan-yu ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify effects of selected oligosaccharides on concentrations of cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), total large bowel wet weight and wall weight, and cecal microbiota levels in mice. Mice were respectively given gavage of selected fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), and chitooligosaccharides (COS) [1000 mg/(kg body weight.d)]. Control group was given physiological saline solution. After 14 d treatment, SCFAs and lactate in mice cecum were significantly increased (P<0.05) by intake of oligosaccharides, especially FOS and GOS. Thus, providing these oligosaccharides as ingredients in nutritional formulas may benefit the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Asymptomatic early acute appendicitis initiated and diagnosed during colonoscopy: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michelle Petro; Anil Minocha

    2005-01-01

    Colonoscopic diagnosis of asymptomatic early acute appendicitis is exceedingly rare. Although obstruction of the lumen due to various causes is believed to be the most common physiologic mechanism of acute appendicitis, all of the previously documented cases in the literature have only shown a patent appendiceal lumen with pus flowing into the cecum. We present the case of a patient undergoing colonoscopy for colorectal cancer evaluation with no abdominal symptoms. An obstructed, swollen appendix was seen. The process was probably initiated during the colonoscopy, documenting perhaps the earliest stage of acute appendicitis for the first time. Endoscopic, CT and microscopic documentation of the case is also presented.

  17. [Acute Meckel's diverticulitis perforated by a foreign body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahomeanu, M; Anghelide, A; Mandache, F

    1976-01-01

    The authors present the case of a patient with acute, right iliac fossa abdominal syndrome, simulating acute apendicitis. In the course of the intervention it was noted that the syndrome was determined by an acute Meckel diverticulitis, perforated by a foreign body (fish bone). In view of making the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis, that cannot be assessed before surgery, the importance is stressed of the correlation of the clinical aspects with the apendicular lesions found in the course of the operation, and, when there is no satisfactory concordance, careful checking of the cecum becomes necessary, as well as of the right annexe and of the ileon over at least three feet.

  18. Ingestion of computer circuit boards causing esophageal impaction and small bowel obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is common in patients with psychiatric diagnoses. Ingested objects can become impacted in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, causing serious complications. We report a case of a schizophrenic who ingested large pieces of computer circuit boards, which impacted at the mid-esophagus, in the stomach, and in the cecum. Endoscopic removal of the esophageal object was unsuccessful, and the foreign objects were removed by esophagotomy and laparotomy. Expeditious removal through endoscopic or surgical means is extremely important, as complications can be life-threatening. This is the first report of ingestion of a computer printed circuit board. PMID:28127146

  19. Prevalence reduction of pathogens in poultry fed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The growth of new antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens represents a huge problem in poultry rearing. There is evidence that dietary yeast could be effective in the protection against a variety of pathogens that can affect poultry health and cause foodborne diseases in humans. Since still few or contradictory information are available for this topic. Objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of live yeast supplementation in broiler chickens on Salmonella enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni content in feces, cecum, and skin. Method. Supplemented yeast consisted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Levucell® SB20, type boulardii I-1079, Lallemand, France and was administered at a rate of 1 x 106 CFU·g-1 of feed. On day ten of life, birds were orally challenged with S. enteritidis (1 x 105 CFU/bird and C. jejuni (3 x 105 CFU/bird. Growth performance, and coliforms, yeasts and lactobacilli enumeration were evaluated on day 0, 10, 20 and 38. Ten and eighteen days post infection (PI, 10 animals per replicate were slaughtered and pooled ceca content were analyzed for yeast enumeration and Salmonella and Campylobacter frequency and enumeration. The presence and the enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter in neck and breast skin were performed on one subject per replicate. Results. Dietary S. cerevisiae increased yeast and lactobacilli (p = 0.01 count, while Salmonella enumeration and frequency significantly decreased in neck (p = 0.03 and tended to decrease in cecum (p = 0.06, feces (p = 0.06, and breast (p = 0.08. On 10d PI Campylobacter presence was decreased in cecum (p = 0.01, feces (p < 0.01, breast skin (p = 0.04 and neck skin (p < 0.01, while the enumeration was found to be lower in feces (p < 0.01 and neck skin (p = 0.05. At the end of the trial the frequency of this pathogen was decreased in feces (p < 0.01, and breast skin (p = 0.02, while the enumeration was diminished in cecum (p

  20. Computed tomographic findings of trichuriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naime Tokmak; Zafer Koc; Serife Ulusan; Ismail Soner Koltas; Nebil Bal

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we present computed tomographic findings of colonic trichuriasis. The patient was a 75-year-old man who complained of abdominal pain, and weight loss.Diagnosis was achieved by colonoscopic biopsy. Abdominal computed tomography showed irregular and nodular thickening of the wall of the cecum and ascending colon.Although these findings are nonspecific, they may be one of the findings of trichuriasis. These findings, confirmed by pathologic analysis of the biopsied tissue and KatoKatz parasitological stool flotation technique, revealed adult Trichuris. To our knowledge, this is the first report of colonic trichuriasis indicated by computed tomography.

  1. Thynnascaris rhacodes sp. n. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) in fishes from the Israeli Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, T L; Overstreet, R M

    1978-01-01

    Thynnascaris rhacodes sp. n. infects Pelates quadrilineatus, Solea vulgaris, Boops boops, Lithognathus mormyrus, Obleida melanura, Diplodus vulgaris, D. sargus, and Sparus auratus from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Unique in that the cuticle on the female tail is wrinkled, the ascaridoid is further characterized by possessing 27 to 35 precloacal papillae, a body length of 11 to 85 mm, similar spicules 3 to 6% of body length, a length-ratio of intestinal cecum to ventricular appendage of 1 : 1 to 5, and lips longer than wide.

  2. Dysphagia and dyspnea by lingual thyroid mass: An appropriate approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ghiasi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lingual thyroid is a rare embryological anomaly originated from the thyroid gland failure that descends from the foramen cecum to its normal eutopic pre-laryngeal site. The case in this study was a 39 year old female, presenting with the sensation of a foreign body, progressive dysphagia and dyspnea. Indirect laryngoscopy revealed a large well-defined mass in the tongue base. Imaging studies confirmed the diagnosis of large ectopic lingual thyroid. The surgery was performed via an external cervical approach due to the mass size. The decision on the best treatment looks into the mass position, size, symptoms, airway emergency and medical facilities.

  3. The prophylactic effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid and salazosulphapyridine on degraded-carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Experimental colitis was induced in guinea pigs by administration of 5% degraded carrageenan for 5 days. The prophylactic effect of a slow-release preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA; 13 mg/100 g/day) was compared with approximately equimolar amounts of salazosulphapyridine (SASP; 26 mg/100....... In the placebo group, all guinea pigs developed many small punctiform ulcerations in the cecum (median, 30/cm2). In the 5-ASA group no protective effect was demonstrated, since the number of ulcerations was 37/cm2. The difference is not statistically significant. However, the SASP group presented significantly...

  4. Diverticulosis of colon: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chang Yul [Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    The authors reports 2 cases of diverticulosis involving the sacending colon and cecum: one, 55 year old, 85 kg Korean male admitted to Paik Hospital because of abdominal palm, constipation and tenderness in the right lower abdomen. The other, 48 year old, 78 kg male visited to our hospital for the routine examination. According to late European and American statistics, the colonic diverticulosis was discovered in late middle life about 20%, however, the incidence of colonic diverticulosis is rare in Korea. This paper presents a brief review of literature on the etiology, incidence and symptom.

  5. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...... addition of PF (15 g pure fiber) reduced the area under the incremental blood glucose curve significantly (by 65%, p less than 0.05). None of the fibers affected the area under the insulin-response curve significantly although it was reduced by all fibers. Mouth-to-cecum transit time, assessed...

  6. Carcinogenicity of azo dyes: Acid Black 52 and Yellow 3 in hamsters and rats. Volume 2. Technical report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plankenhorn, L.J.

    1983-09-30

    This document is an appendix to a study concerning the carcinogenicity of the azo dyes acid-black-52 and yellow-3 in male and female hamsters and rats and contains individual histopathology studies of both dyes. Histopathological features were reported in tabular form for the skin, mammary gland, muscle, salivary gland, mandibular lymph node, sciatic nerve, thymus, larynx, thyroid, parathyroid, trachea, bronchus, esophagus, adrenal, stomach, duodenum, jejunem, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, mesenteric lymph node, lung, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidney, heart, urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, prostate, testis, cerebrum, cerebellum, pituitary, sternabrae, femur, bone marrow, and nasal cavity.

  7. Effects of the inclusion of sunflower hulls in the diet on growth performance and digestive tract traits of broilers and pullets fed a broiler diet from zero to 21 d of age. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiaeitalab, M V; Cámara, L; Mirzaie Goudarzi, S; Jiménez-Moreno, E; Mateos, G G

    2016-08-30

    The effects of including 3% sunflower hulls (SFH) in the diet on growth performance, nutrient retention (TTAR), and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits were studied in chicks from zero to 21 d of age. Four treatments that resulted from the combination of 2 chicken lines (female broilers vs. brown pullets) and 2 levels of SFH (zero vs. 3%) were used. The control diet contained 2,980 kcal AMEn/kg, 1.25% digestible Lys, and 8.7% neutral detergent fiber. The experimental diet included 3% SFH at the expense (wt:wt) of the whole diet. Growth performance, TTAR of nutrients, and the AMEn of the diet were greater (P = 0.097 to P absolute terms, all the organs of the GIT were heavier (P < 0.001) and the small intestine and cecum were longer (P < 0.001) in broilers than in pullets. At 21 d of age, however, the relative weight (% BW) of all the organs of the GIT (P < 0.001) and the relative length (cm/kg BW) of the small intestine and cecum (P < 0.01) were greater in pullets. Gizzard pH (P < 0.001), total short chain fatty acids concentration in the cecum (P = 0.098), and villus height (P < 0.001) and crypt depth (P < 0.05) of the ileum mucosa were higher in broilers. The inclusion of SFH increased (P < 0.05) the AMEn content of the diet but did not affect bird performance, moisture content of the excreta, or the concentration and profile of fatty acids in the cecum. Dietary SFH increased gizzard weight and reduced gizzard pH (P < 0.001) at both ages. In conclusion, broilers had better growth performance, nutrient retention, and ileum absorptive capacity than pullets. The inclusion of 3% SFH at the expense of the control diet did not have any negative effect on chick performance and, in fact, increased gizzard weight, reduced gizzard pH, and improved the energy content of the diet.

  8. Complete genome sequence of Bacteroides salanitronis type strain (BL78T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Lapidus, Alla L. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Nolan, Matt [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Tice, Hope [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Deshpande, Shweta [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Cheng, Jan-Fang [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Pitluck, Sam [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Liolios, Konstantinos [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Pagani, Ioanna [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chen, Amy [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Palaniappan, Krishna [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Woyke, Tanja [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Bristow, James [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Markowitz, Victor [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Eisen, Jonathan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California

    2011-01-01

    Bacteroides salanitronis Lan et al. 2006 is a species of the genus Bacteroides, which belongs to the family Bacteroidaceae. The species is of interest because it was isolated from the gut of a chicken and the growing awareness that the anaerobic microflora of the cecum is of benefit for the host and may impact poultry farming. The 4,308,663 bp long genome consists of a 4.24 Mbp chromosome and three plasmids (6 kbp, 19 kbp, 40 kbp) containing 3,737 protein-coding and 101 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  9. Retroperitoneal fibrosis: A rare cause of both ureteral and small bowel obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faisal Aziz; Srinivasulu Conjeevaram; Than Phan

    2006-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare condition of unclear etiology. It can cause ureteral obstruction. We present the unique case of a 54 years old female, who initially presented with spontaneous perforation of the cecum. Upon exploring the abdomen, the classical glistening white, unyielding retroperitoneal fibrosis was encountered. A right hemicolectomy was performed.Subsequently, the patient presented with bilateral ureteral obstruction, and later on with small bowel obstruction. Ureteral obstruction was treated with stents,and small bowel obstruction was treated with bypass.To our knowledge no case of idiopathic RPF presenting with features of both bilateral ureteral and small bowel obstruction has been reported in the literature.

  10. Colon-specific drug delivery systems based on cyclodextrin prodrugs: In vivo evaluation of 5-aminosalicylic acid from its cyclodextrin conjugates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Juan Zou; Gang Cheng; Hirokazu Okamoto; Xiu-Hua Hao; Feng An; Fu-De Cui; Kazumi Danjo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the release of cyclodextrin-5-amino salicylic acid (CyD-5-ASA) in cecum and colon.METHODS: An anti-inflammatory drug 5-ASA was conjugated onto the hydroxyl groups of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (CyDs) through an ester linkage, and the in vivo drug release behavior of these prodrugs in rat' s gastrointestinal tract after the oral administration was investigated.RESULTS: The 5-ASA concentration in the rat's stomach and small intestine after the oral administration of CyD5-ASA conjugate was much lower than that after the oral administration of 5-ASA alone. The lower concentration was attributable to the passage of the conjugate throughthe stomach and small intestine without significant degradation or absorption, followed by the degradation of the conjugate site-specific in the cecum and colon. The oral administration of CyD-5-ASA resulted in lower plasma and urine concentration of 5-ASA than that of 5-ASA alone.CONCLUSION: CyD-5-ASA conjugates may be used as prodrugs for colon-specific drug delivery system.

  11. Administration of defined microbiota is protective in a murine Salmonella infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Sarah-Lynn E; McDonald, Julie A K; Sun, Jun; Zhang, Yong-Guo; Gloor, Gregory B; Noordhof, Curtis; He, Shu-Mei; Gerbaba, Teklu K; Blennerhassett, Michael; Hurlbut, David J; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Claud, Erika C; Petrof, Elaine O

    2015-11-04

    Salmonella typhimurium is a major cause of diarrhea and causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and perturbations of the gut microbiota are known to increase susceptibility to enteric infections. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a Microbial Ecosystem Therapeutic (MET-1) consisting of 33 bacterial strains, isolated from human stool and previously used to cure patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, could also protect against S. typhimurium disease. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with streptomycin prior to receiving MET-1 or control, then gavaged with S. typhimurium. Weight loss, serum cytokine levels, and S. typhimurium splenic translocation were measured. NF-κB nuclear staining, neutrophil accumulation, and localization of tight junction proteins (claudin-1, ZO-1) were visualized by immunofluorescence. Infected mice receiving MET-1 lost less weight, had reduced serum cytokines, reduced NF-κB nuclear staining, and decreased neutrophil infiltration in the cecum. MET-1 also preserved cecum tight junction protein expression, and reduced S. typhimurium translocation to the spleen. Notably, MET-1 did not decrease CFUs of Salmonella in the intestine. MET-1 may attenuate systemic infection by preserving tight junctions, thereby inhibiting S. typhimurium from gaining access to the systemic circulation. We conclude that MET-1 may be protective against enteric infections besides C. difficile infection.

  12. Histomoniasis outbreak in free-range chickens in semiarid Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeann Leal Araújo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe an outbreak of histomoniasis in free-range chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus in the semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Juvenile chickens aged approximately 48 days showed disease over a 15-day period. Seven of 16 chickens showed yellow, watery stool, anorexia, lethargy, and death within 3-5 days of clinical illness. The mortality rate was 43.7%. The chickens were raised in a backyard with 12 adult birds that remained healthy. None of the chickens were vaccinated or dewormed. A necropsy on one deceased bird showed lesions confined to the cecum and liver. The left cecum was distended and had yellow, slightly elevated areas on the serosa. The liver was reddened with centrally depressed areas surrounded by a pale halo, which were distributed throughout the capsular surface and extended deep throughout the parenchyma. Microscopically, typhlitis and pyogranulomatous necrotizing hepatitis associated with numerous intralesional Histomonas trophozoites was observed. The birds were administered metronidazole and albendazole, which effectively controlled the histomoniasis. Although histomoniasis is rare in free-range poultry, it can occur and cause high mortality and significant economic losses.

  13. Messenger RNA expression of chicken CLOCK gene in the response to Campylobacter jejuni inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi; Liu, Liying; Zhang, Maozhi; Yang, Ning; Qi, Yukai; Sun, Yu; Li, Xianyao

    2015-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Previous research has shown that circadian rhythm plays a critical role in host response to C. jejuni colonization. The CLOCK gene is one of the core genes regulating circadian rhythms and shows significant expression on 7 d post-C. jejuni inoculation. The objective of this study was to investigate temporal and spatial expression of chicken CLOCK gene post-C. jejuni inoculation. Cecal and splenic RNA were isolated from 2 distinct chicken breeds and used to compare the mRNA expression of CLOCK gene between inoculated and noninoculated chickens within each breed and between breeds within each of inoculated and noninoculated groups. Our results showed that the CLOCK gene was significantly down-regulated at 20 h postinoculation (hpi) in cecum and spleen in Jiningbairi chicken. CLOCK gene was significantly down-regulated at 4 and 16 hpi and up-regulated at 8 hpi in cecum and spleen in specific pathogen free white leghorn noninoculated chicken. The findings suggested that expression of CLOCK gene was significantly changed post C. jejuin inoculation. This change was affected by genetic background, tissue, and time points postinoculation.

  14. Comparative gastrointestinal morphology of three small mammalian insectivores: Acomys spinosissimus (Rodentia), Crocidura cyanea (Eulipotyphla), and Amblysomus hottentotus (Afrosoricida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonzaier, Julia; Van der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Bennett, Nigel C; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2013-06-01

    The gastrointestinal morphology was investigated in three mammalian insectivorous species, namely Acomys spinosissimus, Crocidura cyanea, and Amblysomus hottentotus. The aim of the study was to provide a comprehensive morphological comparison between the different species and to explore whether anatomical gastrointestinal adaptations are associated with the insectivorous diet of these species. The shape, proportional length, and proportional surface areas of the different gastrointestinal regions were recorded and compared in the three insectivores. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and Alcian Blue/Periodic Acid Schiff (AB/PAS) were used for morphological assessment. In all three species, the stomach was simple and uncompartmentalized. The internal aspect of the stomach in A. spinosissimus was hemi-glandular, containing stratified squamous epithelium in the fundus, with glandular epithelium in the body and pyloric region. However, C. cyanea and A. hottentotus had wholly glandular stomachs. Paneth cells were not observed in the intestinal tracts of C. cyanea and A. hottentotus. Acomys spinosissimus was the only species studied that had a cecum. The proximal colonic region of A. spinosissimus had V-shaped mucosal folds. Histologically, C. cyanea had villi throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT), whereas for A. hottentotus villi were not present in the most distal gastrointestinal regions. In both C. cyanea and A. hottentotus, longitudinal mucosal folds were present in the distal part of the colon. The GITs of C. cyanea and A. hottentotus showed little morphological differentiation namely, a simple, glandular stomach and the lack of a cecum.

  15. Simultaneous Resection of Disseminated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Haga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old woman with abdominal pain and vomiting was admitted to our hospital. Colonoscopy showed an advanced colon cancer that encompassed the entire circumference of the descending colon’s lumen. The patient was diagnosed with occlusive ileus associated with the colon cancer. She had been watched for liver cirrhosis due to the hepatitis C virus and received radiofrequency ablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC 6 years previously. Although she exhibited a gradual increase in serum levels of α-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II starting 2 years before admission, no tumors were detected in the liver by abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography. On admission, contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed not only the colon cancer but also a tumor adjacent to the cecum. Both tumors were successfully removed by surgery and a pathological analysis revealed that the cecum tumor was poorly-differentiated HCC. The serum levels of α-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II declined markedly after the operation and no masses considered as peritoneal metastasis have been detected to date. This is the first report of the simultaneous resection of disseminated HCC and colon cancer.

  16. Sonographic Features of Colonic Diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yu Mee; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Yoon, Yup [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To evaluate sonographic features, location of diverticulum, and usefulness of sonography as a primary diagnostic tool. Sonographic findings of 28 patients with acute diverticulitis were reviewed. The diagnosis was made by surgery (11 patients), barium enema (20 patients), colonoscopy (3 patients), or CT (2 patients). There were 13 men and 15 women with ages ranging from 23 to 71 years old (mean, 33 years old). Sonographic abnormalities were seen in the cecum in 12 patients, both the cecum and ascending colon in seven, the ascending colon in six, the descending colon in two, and the transverse colon in one. On sonography, segmental thickening of the colonic wall was the most common finding, seen in 16 patients. The second most common finidngs were pericolic omental thickening and pericolic localized fluid collection (15 patients). Pericolic inflammatory mass of varying echogenicity (10 patients), out pouching hyper echoic foci beyond the lumen of the colon into or beyond the thickened wall (5 patients), contracture of the colon (5 patients), slightly thickened terminal ileum (1 patient), and local enlargement of ileocecal lymph node (1 patient) were also seen. Most diverticulitis occurred in the right colon. The useful sonographic findings in acute diverticulitis were echogenic foci of the diverticulum in the thickened colonic wall, focally and eccentrically thickened colonic wall, and localized omental thickening or fluid collection. In cases of pericecal fluid collection, appendicitis or colonic diverticulitis can be considered as a differential diagnosis

  17. Solitary caecum diverticulitis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot, Semih; Eğin, Seracettin; Gökçek, Berk; Yeşiltaş, Metin; Alemdar, Ali; Akan, Arzu; Karahan, Servet Rüştü

    2015-12-01

    Solitary cecum diverticulum is a benign formation, but it can be complicated with inflammation, perforation and bleeding. Cecum diverticulitis (CD) is the most common complication of caecal diverticulum and it has the highest incidence among Asians, but it is a rare condition in the western world. The incidence of colonic diverticular disease can vary according to national origin, cultural structure and nutritional habits. CD is not common in our country, but it is an important situation because of its clinical similarity with the commonly seen acute right side abdominal diseases like acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult, and hence, the actual frequency is not known. The treatment of CD can vary from medical therapy to right hemi colectomy. In this study, we presented ten CD cases on whom surgical resection was performed in our surgery unit during the last 8 years. Our purpose was to increase the awareness of surgeons about this situation, and so, make them pay attention for not having their first experience in the operating room.

  18. Effect of grinding intensity and feed physical form on in vitro adhesion of Salmonella Typhimurium and mannose residues in intestinal mucus receptors for salmonellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callies, A; Sander, S J; Verspohl, J; Beineke, A; Kamphues, J

    2012-12-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that feeding a fine, pelleted diet (FP) compared to a coarse meal diet (CM) results in a higher mannose content in the intestinal mucus of pigs and therefore an increased in vitro adhesion of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 L to the mucus. The 2 diets were fed to a total of 24 weaned pigs for 6 wk after which mannose content in the mucus was evaluated histochemically using the α1-3-d-mannose-specific lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin. The crypt width was determined as an indirect measure for the amount of secreted mucus. Ileal and cecal tissue samples were incubated with approximately 7.77 × 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium and numbers of salmonellae adhering to the mucus and/or mucosa were determined by culture techniques. There was no effect of feed physical form on the in vitro adhesion of S. Typhimurium either in the ileum (7.1 ± 0.19 log(10) cfu/g tissue) or in the cecum (6.8 ± 0.26 log(10) cfu/g). The mannose content of the mucus also did not differ between the treatment groups. The crypts of the duodenum, jejunum, and cecum were wider (P < 0.05) after feeding the CM diet. This might be an indication for a higher mucus production in these pigs.

  19. Identification and adhesion profile of Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ticiana Silva; Baptista, Ana Angelita Sampaio; Donato, Tais Cremasco; Milbradt, Elisane Lenita; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2014-01-01

    In the aviculture industry, the use of Lactobacillus spp. as a probiotic has been shown to be frequent and satisfactory, both in improving bird production indexes and in protecting intestine against colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Adhesion is an important characteristic in selecting Lactobacillus probiotic strains since it impedes its immediate elimination to enable its beneficial action in the host. This study aimed to isolate, identify and characterize the in vitro and in vivo adhesion of Lactobacillus strains isolated from birds. The Lactobacillus spp. was identified by PCR and sequencing and the strains and its adhesion evaluated in vitro via BMM cell matrix and in vivo by inoculation in one-day-old birds. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected one, four, 12 and 24 h after inoculation. The findings demonstrate greater adhesion of strains in the cecum and an important correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. It was concluded that BMM utilization represents an important technique for triage of Lactobacillus for subsequent in vivo evaluation, which was shown to be efficient in identifying bacterial adhesion to the enteric tract.

  20. Isolated intestinal neurofibromatous proliferations in the absence of associated systemic syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J Elliot Carter; Javier A Laurini

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract involvement by neurofibromatous lesions is rare and occurs most frequently as one of the systemic manifestations of generalized neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). In this setting, the lesions may manifest as focal scattered neurofibromas or as an extensive diffuse neural hyperplasia designated ganglioneuromatosis. Occasionally, such lesions may be the initial sign of NF1 in patients without any other clinical manifestations of the disease. Rarely, cases of isolated neurofibromatosis of the large bowel with no prior or subsequent evidence of generalized neurofibromatosis have been documented. We present the case of a 52 year-old female with abdominal pain and alternating bowel habits. Colonoscopic evaluation revealed multiple small polyps in the cecum and the presence of nodular mucosa in the colon and rectum. Pathologic evaluation of the biopsies from the cecum, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum revealed tangled fascicles of spindle cells expanding the lamina propia leading to separation of the intestinal crypts. Immunohistochemical stains helped confirm the diagnosis of diffuse intestinal neurofibromatosis. A thorough clinical evaluation failed to reveal any stigmata of generalized neurofibromatosis. This case represents a rare presentation of isolated intestinal neurofibromatosis in a patient without classic systemic manifestations of generalized neurofibromatosis and highlights the need in such cases for close clinical follow-up to exclude neurofibromatosis type Ⅰ or multiple endocrine neoplasia type Ⅱ.

  1. Spatial organization of bacterial flora in normal and inflamed intestine:A fluorescence in situ hybridization study in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander Swidsinski; Vera Loening-Baucke; Herbert Lochs; Laura P. Hale

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To studythe role of intestinal flora in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).METHODS: The spatial organization of intestinal flora was investigated in normal mice and in two models of murine colitis using fluorescence in situ hybridization.RESULTS: The murine small intestine was nearly bacteriafree. The normal colonic flora was organized in three distinct compartments (crypt, interlaced, and fecal), each with different bacterial compositions. Crypt bacteria were present in the cecum and proximal colon. The fecal compartment was composed of homogeneously mixed bacterial groups that directly contacted the colonic wall in the cecum but were separated from the proximal colonic wall by a dense interlaced layer. Beginning in the middle colon, a mucus gap of growing thickness physically separated all intestinal bacteria from contact with the epithelium. Colonic inflammation was accompanied with a depletion of bacteria within the fecal compartment, a reduced surface area in which feces had direct contact with the colonic wall, increased thickness and spread of the mucus gap, and massive increases of bacterial concentrations in the crypt and interlaced compartments. Adhesive and infiltrative bacteria were observed in inflamed colon only, with dominant Bacteroides species.CONCLUSION: The proximal and distal colons are functionally different organs with respect to the intestinal flora, representing a bioreactor and a Segregation device.The highly organized structure of the colonic flora, its specific arrangement in different colonic segments, and its specialized response to inflammatory stimuli indicate that the intestinal flora is an innate part of host immunity that is under complex control.

  2. Anthocyanins in Strawberry Polyphenolic Extract Enhance the Beneficial Effects of Diets with Fructooligosaccharides in the Rat Cecal Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Fotschki

    Full Text Available The administration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS beneficially modulates gastrointestinal functions and may enhance the metabolism of polyphenols. However, different polyphenolic components in the diet may have different influences on the activities of the digestive enzymes and microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, a 4-week study of forty-eight male Wistar rats was conducted to investigate the physiological response of the rat cecal environment to diets without and with FOS that contained two different strawberry polyphenolic extracts, specifically EP (polyphenolic profile 60, 35, 5, and 0% ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, anthocyanins, respectively and EPA (polyphenolic profile: 50, 35, 6, and 9%, respectively. When combined with FOS, both extracts beneficially enhanced the acidification of the cecal digesta (P≤0.05 vs the groups without extracts, but the dietary combination of EPA and FOS elicited the greatest reduction in putrefactive short-chain fatty acid production and the lowest fecal β-glucuronidase activity in the cecum (P≤0.05 vs group EP. Moreover, the addition of dietary FOS elevated the metabolism of the examined strawberry extracts in the cecum and thereby increased the concentrations of the metabolites in the cecal digesta and urine (P≤0.05 vs the group with cellulose. Overall, both strawberry extracts modulated the effects of FOS in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the combination with EPA extract that contained anthocyanins exhibited greater beneficial effects in the lower gut environment than the EP extract.

  3. Functional characterization of folic acid transport in the intestine of the laying hen using the everted intestinal sac model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Karmin, O; House, J D

    2011-01-01

    Absorption at the level of the intestine is likely a primary regulatory mechanism for the deposition of dietary supplemented folic acid into the chicken egg. Therefore, factors affecting the intestinal transport of folic acid in the laying hen may influence the level of egg folate concentrations. To this end, a series of experiments using intestinal everted sacs were conducted to characterize intestinal folic acid absorption processes in laying hens. Effects of naturally occurring folate derivatives (5-methyl and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate) as well as heme on folic acid absorption were also investigated. Folic acid absorption was measured based on the rate of uptake of (3)H-labeled folic acid in the everted sac from various segments of the small and large intestines. Folic acid concentration, incubation length, and pH condition were optimized before the performance of uptake experiments. The distribution profile of folic acid transport along the intestine was highest in the upper half of the small intestine. Maximum uptake rate (nmol·100 g tissue(-1)·min(-1)) was observed in the duodenum (20.6 ± 1.9) and jejunum (22.3 ± 2.0) and decreased significantly in the ileum (15.3 ± 1.1) and cecum (9.3 ± 0.9). Transport increased proportionately (P laying hen. Uptake of folic acid in the cecum raises the likelihood of absorption of bacterial-derived folate.

  4. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide and virginiamycin on the cecal microbial community and intestinal morphology of chickens raised under suboptimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Xu, Zhengxin; Baurhoo, Bushansingh; Chevaux, Eric; Zhao, Xin

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing movement against use of antibiotic growth promoters in animal feed. Prebiotic supplementation is a potential alternative to enhance the host's natural defense through modulation of gut microbiota. In the present study, the effect of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and virginiamycin (VIRG) on cecal microbial ecology and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens raised under suboptimal conditions was evaluated. MOS and VIRG induced different bacterial community structures, as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA. The antibiotic treatment reduced cecal microbial diversity while the community equitability increased. A higher bacterial diversity was observed in the cecum of MOS-supplemented birds. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results indicated that MOS changed the cecal microbiota in favor of the Firmicutes population but not the Bacteroidetes population. No difference was observed in total bacterial counts among treatments. MOS promoted the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. in the cecum and increased villus height and goblet cell numbers in the ileum and jejunum. These results provide a deeper insight into the microbial ecological changes after supplementation of MOS prebiotic in poultry diets.

  5. Synthesis of an enzyme-dependent prodrug and evaluation of its potential for colon targeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Nuo Pang; Yan Zhang; Zhi-Rong Zhang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To synthesize dexamethasone-succinate-dextran(DSD) conjugate and to evaluate the potentiality of DSD forthe treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.METHODS: Dexamethasone was attached to dextran(average molecular weight=70 400 Dalton) using succinateanhydride in an anhydrous environment catalyzed by 4-dimethylaminopyridine and 1, 1′-carbonyldiimidazole. Thechemical structure of DSD was identified by UV, IR and NMR,and the in vivo drug release behavior of this prodrug wasinvestigated after oral administration of DSD suspension.RESULTS: The DSD conjugate was obtained in two stepsand the content of dexamethasone in DSD was 11.28 %.The dextran prodrug was stable in rat stomach and smallintestine and negligibly absorbed from these tracts. Four tonine hours after the oral administration, most of the prodrug(>95 %) had moved to the cecum and colon, and was easilyhydrolyzed by an endodextranase. Recover ofdexamethasone from colon and cecum after administrationof DSD conjugate was 6-12 folds higher than the recoveryafter administration of unmodified dexamethasone(t=2.74,P<0.05). The preferential release of free dexamethasone incecum and colon over that in the small intestine wasstatistically significant (t=2.27, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate thatdextran conjugates may be useful in selectively deliveringglucocorticoids to the colon.

  6. Pulmonary exposure of mice to engineered pseudomonads influences intestinal microbiota populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, S.E.; Kohan, M.J.; Creason, J.P.; Claxton, L.D. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Health Effects Research Lab.)

    1993-09-01

    In this study, a mouse model was used to evaluate indirect effects of pulmonary exposure to representative biotechnology agents (Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain AC869 and Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100) selected for their ability to degrade hazardous chemicals. CD-1[reg sign] mice were challenged intranasally with approximately 10[sup 3] or 10[sup 7] colony-forming units (cfu) of strain AC869 or 10[sup 8] cfu of strain AC1100. At time intervals, clearance of the microorganisms and effects on resident microbiota were determined. When the low (10[sup 3] cfu) dose was administered, strain AC869 was not recovered from the small intestine but was detectable in the cecum and lungs 3 h after treatment and persisted in the nasal cavity intermittently for 14 d. Treatment of animals with 10[sup 7] cfu of strain AC869 resulted in detection 14 d following treatment. Strain AC869 challenge modified the small intestinal anaerobe count and cecal obligately anaerobic gram-negative rods (OAGNR) and lactobacilli. Following exposure, Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100 persisted in the lungs for 7 d and was recovered from the small intestine, cecum, and nasal cavity 2 d following treatment. Strain AC1100 treatment impacted the small intestinal anaerobe count, OAGNR counts, and reduced lactobacilli numbers. Strain AC1100 also altered the cecal OAGNR and lactobacilli. Therefore, pulmonary treatment of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or cepacia affects the balance of the protective intestinal microbiota, which may cause further negative health effects.

  7. Cationic liposomes containing antioxidants reduces pulmonary injury in experimental model of sepsis: Liposomes antioxidants reduces pulmonary damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Andre Martins; Galvão, Júlia Siqueira; Pereira, Marcela Araújo; Cadena, Pabyton Gonçalves; Magalhães, Nereide Stella Santos; Fink, James B; de Andrade, Armele Dornelas; Castro, Celia Maria Machado Barbosa de; de Sousa Maia, Maria Bernadete

    2016-09-01

    The intracellular redox state of alveolar cells is a determining factor for tolerance to oxidative and pro-inflammatory stresses. This study investigated the effects of intratracheal co-administration of antioxidants encapsulated in liposomes on the lungs of rats subjected to sepsis. For this, male rats subjected to sepsis induced by lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli or placebo operation were treated (intratracheally) with antibiotic, 0.9% saline and antioxidants encapsulated or non-encapsulated in liposomes. Experimental model of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was performed in order to expose the cecum. The cecum was then gently squeezed to extrude a small amount of feces from the perforation site. As an index of oxidative damage, superoxide anions, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, catalase activity, nitrates/nitrites, cell viability and mortality rate were measured. Infected animals treated with antibiotic plus antioxidants encapsulated in liposomes showed reduced levels of superoxide anion (54% or 7.650±1.263 nmol/min/mg protein), lipid peroxidation (33% or 0.117±0.041 nmol/mg protein), protein carbonyl (57% or 0.039 ± 0.022 nmol/mg protein) and mortality rate (3.3%), p value <0.001. This treatment also reduced the level of nitrite/nitrate and increased cell viability (90.7%) of alveolar macrophages. Taken togheter, theses results support that cationic liposomes containing antioxidants should be explored as coadjuvants in the treatment of pulmonary oxidative damage.

  8. To Investigate the Effect of Colchicine in Prevention of Adhesions Caused by Serosal Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Adhesion formation is a process which starts with an inflammation caused by a number of factors and eventually results in fibrosis. Colchicine prevents adhesion formation which is antifibrous process. The effectivity of colchicine in the prevention of adhesions was investigated. Materials and Methods. A total of 36 rats were equally divided into three groups: (I control group 1 (n=12, (II abrasion group 2 (n=12, and (III abrasion + colchicine group 3 (n=12. Group 1 underwent laparotomy and was orally given physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. In Group 2, injury was created in the cecum serosa following laparotomy and they were orally given physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. In Group 3, injury was created in the cecum serosa following laparotomy and the rats were orally given colchicine 50 mcg kg/day mixed with physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. Laparotomy was performed and adhesions were examined both macroscopically and microscopically. Both macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed using Zühlke’s score. Results. A significant difference was observed among the adhesion scores of the groups both macroscopically and microscopically. Macroscopic score was lower in group 3 than group 2. Microscopic score was lower in group 3 than group 2. Conclusion. Oral administration of colchicine is effective in the prevention of adhesions.

  9. Effects of dietary fiber on gastrointestinal transit time, fecal properties and fat absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, A; Iwane, S; Todate, M; Nakaji, S; Sugawara, K

    1995-08-01

    The gastrointestinal transit time of food was determined by x-ray fluoroscopy using barium sulfate in rats fed with diets of various dietary fiber contents, and the effects of dietary fiber on the transit time, properties of feces, and fat absorption were examined. In 4- and 16-month-old rats fed with the diet for 3 and 15 month, respectively, the transit time of the cecum and colon in those receiving 20 and 40% wheat bran diets was shortened compared with that in the 0% group. The fecal pellet number and volume increased as the wheat bran content of the diet increased. In another experiments, the daily total fat excretion was found to be the greatest in rats receiving 15% pectin diet, followed by rats receiving 15% cellulose and non-fiber diets, respectively. These results suggest that shortening of the transit time through the cecum and colon with increase of fecal volume and suppression of fat absorption all participate in the mechanism of the inhibitory action of wheat bran on carcinogenesis and on the development of diverticulum of the large intestine.

  10. Immunohistochemical observations of methionine-enkephalin and delta opioid receptor in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Ailong; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan

    2013-02-01

    The study was designed to determine whether methionine-enkephalin (met-Enk) or delta opioid receptor was present in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus. The results showed that they were both in the bulbus oris, esophagus, crop, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, posterior salivary glands of O. ocellatus, one of them, met-Enk in the rectum, anterior salivary glands, digestive gland. And the distributions were extensive in the digestive system. Strong or general met-Enk immunoreactivity was observed in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, anterior salivary glands and the adventitia of the intestine and rectum, and so was the delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, and crop, however, they were weak in other parts. Combining with delta opioid receptor, met-Enk may be involved in the regulations of food intake, absorption, movement of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and secretion of digestive gland. The different densities of met-Enk and delta opioid receptor may be related to the different functions in the digestive system of O. ocellatus.

  11. Investigations into an Outbreak of Botulism Caused by Clostridium botulinum Type C/D in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarin, Hanna; Lindgren, Ylva; Jansson, Désirée S

    2015-06-01

    This case report describes a recent botulism outbreak in commercial laying hens with a history of increased mortality and flaccid paralysis. Routine diagnostic gross examination and microscopy from seven hens were inconclusive, but botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in peripheral blood was neutralized with both type C and type D antitoxins in the mouse bioassay. During a farm visit, 10 additional hens from a 34-wk-old flock on the farm were selected for clinical examination and further sampling. Nine hens were observed in sternal recumbency, with flaccid paralysis of the neck, drooping wings and tail, inability to escape, and bilateral ptosis, and one hen showed nonspecific clinical signs. Samples from cecum and liver were collected, and the gene coding for BoNT was detected by PCR in all 10 cecal samples and in four of the liver samples. Clostridium botulinum mosaic type C/D was isolated from 5 out of 10 hens from either cecum or liver, and the isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. All five isolates produced the same banding pattern, which was identical or showed >90% similarity to isolates from three different outbreaks on broiler farms in Sweden and Denmark during the 2007-10 period. However, they were clearly distinguishable from the predominantly reported pulsotype associated with avian botulism outbreaks in Europe. The authors are unaware of any previous report of C. botulinum mosaic type C/D isolates from laying hens.

  12. Distribution of Lymphocytes in the Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues (MALT of Naturally Occurring Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD in Chicken

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    M. M. Uddin*, M. Z. I. Khan1, K. N. Islam, A. S. M. G. Kibria, G. N. Adhikary2, M. N. H. Parvez3, J. Basu, M. B. Uddin4 and M. M. Rahman5

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate changes in the number and distribution of lymphocytes in the mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT of digestive tract (proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and cecal tonsils and respiratory system (lungs of chicken infected by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV. Samples were divided into two groups; IBDV infected group (21, 24 and 30 days old and control group (non infected birds; 21 days old. Haematoxylin and eosin stained slides were prepared for microscopic studies to observe the distribution and the number of lymphocytes in the mucosa of the digestive tract and respiratory system. Lymphocytes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, cecal tonsils and lungs of IBDV infected chickens than the control. Moreover, the reduction in lymphocytes number was maximum in duodenum and cecal tonsils, while minimal in lungs. Depletion of lymphocyte was mainly in the lamina propria and the core of the villi and depletion increased with the advance of age of IBDV infected chicken. These results demonstrate that IBDV destroys the lymphocytes of the MALT and suppresses the immunity.

  13. Acute necrotizing colitis with pneumatosis intestinalis in an Amazonian manatee calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Neto, Guilherme; Galvão Bueno, Marina; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otavio; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos; Plácido Guimarães, Juliana; Bossart, Gregory D; Marmontel, Miriam

    2016-08-09

    On 25 January 2014, a 1 mo old female Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis calf weighing 12 kg was rescued by air transport in Guajará, Brazil, and transferred to Mamirauá Institute's Community-based Amazonian Manatee Rehabilitation Center. The calf presented piercing/cutting lesions on the back, neck, and head, in addition to dehydration and intermittent involuntary buoyancy. X-ray analysis revealed a large amount of gases in the gastrointestinal tract. Daily procedures included wound cleaning and dressing, clinical and laboratory monitoring, treatment for intestinal tympanism, and artificial feeding. Adaptation to the nursing formula included 2 kinds of whole milk. Up to 20 d post-rescue the calf presented appetite, was active, and gained weight progressively. Past this period the calf started losing weight and presented constant involuntary buoyancy and died after 41 d in rehabilitation. The major findings at necropsy were pneumatosis intestinalis in cecum and colon, pulmonary edema, and hepatomegaly. The microscopic examination revealed pyogranulomatous and necrohemohrragic colitis with multinucleated giant cells, acute multifocal lymphadenitis with lymphoid depletion in cortical and paramedullary regions of mesenteric lymph nodes, and diffuse severe acinar atrophy of the pancreas. Anaerobic cultures of fragments of cecum and colon revealed colonies genotyped as Clostridium perfringens type A. We speculate that compromised immunity, thermoregulatory failure, and intolerance to artificial diet may have been contributing factors to the infection, leading to enterotoxemia and death.

  14. Phylum Level Change in the Cecal and Fecal Gut Communities of Rats Fed Diets Containing Different Fermentable Substrates Supports a Role for Nitrogen as a Factor Contributing to Community Structure

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    Martin Kalmokoff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation differs between the proximal and distal gut but little is known regarding how the bacterial communities differ or how they are influenced by diet. In order to investigate this, we compared community diversity in the cecum and feces of rats by 16S rRNA gene content and DNA shot gun metagenomics after feeding purified diets containing different fermentable substrates. Gut community composition was dependent on the source of fermentable substrate included in the diet. Cecal communities were dominated by Firmicutes, and contained a higher abundance of Lachnospiraceae compared to feces. In feces, community structure was shifted by varying degrees depending on diet towards the Bacteroidetes, although this change was not always evident from 16S rRNA gene data. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis (PCoA comparing cecal and fecal metagenomes grouped by location within the gut rather than by diet, suggesting that factors in addition to substrate were important for community change in the distal gut. Differentially abundant genes in each environment supported this shift away from the Firmicutes in the cecum (e.g., motility towards the Bacteroidetes in feces (e.g., Bacteroidales transposons. We suggest that this phylum level change reflects a shift to ammonia as the primary source of nitrogen used to support continued microbial growth in the distal gut.

  15. Abdominal actinomycosis: barium enema and computed tomography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, N; Ishikawa, T; Miyakawa, K; Iinuma, G; Nakajima, H; Ushio, K; Yokota, T; Akasu, T; Shimoda, T

    1997-02-01

    A case of abdominal actinomycosis is described in a woman with recurrent right lower abdominal pain and low-grade fever without history of appendectomy. Past history included the use of an intrauterine device (IUD) until 10 years before manifestation of these symptoms. We followed up the patient, via diagnostic imaging, for 7 months. On initial barium enema, a polypoid lesion was visualized at the bottom of the cecum and there was constriction of the sigmoid colon; the appendix was not seen. Seven months later, poor extension at the cecum, severe constriction in the sigmoid colon, and narrowing of the terminal ileum were also visualized. On computed tomography (CT), the lesion was initially localized only in the ileocecal region adjacent to the sigmoid colon. After 7 months, the lesion had infiltrated adjacent anatomic components and showed direct infiltration of the pelvic space. Differential diagnosis was difficult, as it was not obvious whether this was a pelvic abscess due to inflammation or appendiceal carcinoma. Laparotomy was performed. Macroscopically, the lesion was not limited to the ileocecal region, but involved the right ureter, tubes the Fallopian and ovary, bladder, psoas muscle, and abdominal wall. Pathology findings showed, chronic inflammatory tissue with evidence of actinomycosis. Although previous reports have described a lack of specific findings in this disease. When actinomycosis is suspected, CT is recommended to define its extent.

  16. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urriola, P E; Stein, H H

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the digestibility of AA, energy, and fiber, on the fermentation of fiber, and on the first appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and in the feces of growing pigs fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Sixteen pigs (initial BW = 38.0 +/- 1.6 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and a T-cannula in the cecum and allotted to 2 treatments. In period 1, all pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet. In periods 2, 3, and 4, pigs were fed the control diet or a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS. First appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and over the entire intestinal tract was measured at the end of period 4. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients were measured, and the concentration of VFA was analyzed in ileal, cecal, and fecal samples. The AID of Lys (74.1%) in the DDGS diet was less (P dietary fiber (TDF) were not different between the 2 diets. The ATTD of GE (81.0%), NDF (57.2%), TDF (55.5%), and DM (81.7%) were less (P pigs fed the 2 diets. The pH of ileal and cecal digesta from pigs fed the DDGS diet (6.3 and 5.5) was greater (P pigs fed the control diet (5.8 and 5.3). The ATTD of DM, GE, ADF, NDF, and TDF did not change with collection period, but the AID of ADF, NDF, and TDF increased (P pigs fed the diet containing DDGS had less digestibility of Lys, GE, ADF, NDF, and TDF than pigs fed the control diet. The digestibility of DM and GE was not influenced by collection period, but the concentration of VFA in cecal digesta and feces increased with the length of time pigs received the diets.

  17. 基于DGGE分析的大鼠粪便及肠道细菌DNA提取方法研究%Genomic DNA Extraction from Rat Faecal and Intestinal Microflora Based on DGGE Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑刚; 陈己任; 胡博文; 陈彦斌; 赵国华

    2011-01-01

    In this study,SD rats were fed dietary fiber from tomato skin for understanding the effect of dietary fiber on intestinal flora.The feces and cecum of rats were collected and stored at-70 ℃.Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from feces and cecum using TIANamp bacterial DNA kit,proteinase K-CTAB(cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and muramidase protocol,respectively.The extracted DNA was assayed by agarose gel electrophoresis,bacterial universal primer PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE).Results showed that more and better DNA was extracted by using modified muramidase method with lower cost and shorter extraction time when compared with other methods.Therefore,the modified muramidase protocol is the best for DNA extraction from feces and cecum of rats.%为获得高质量肠道细菌总DNA用于研究膳食纤维对大鼠肠道菌群的影响,本实验以SD大鼠为实验动物,灌胃番茄皮膳食纤维,收集大鼠粪便及盲肠,-70℃冰箱保存。分别采用Tiangen细菌基因组试剂盒法、蛋白酶K-十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTAB)法和溶菌酶法提取粪便和肠道中的细菌总DNA,通过琼脂糖凝胶电泳、细菌通用引物PCR扩增和变性梯度凝胶电泳(DGGE)对提取效果进行观察比较,发现将溶菌酶法进行改进后,可以获得满意效果。改进后的溶菌酶法与另外两种方法比较,具有成本低、时间短、DNA得率高和多样性好等特点;该方法获得的DNA样品适合于用DGGE技术分析大鼠粪便及肠道菌群。

  18. The Impact of the Fusarium Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on the Health and Performance of Broiler Chickens

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    Jürgen Zentek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of jejunum and to follow the passage of deoxynivalenol (DON through subsequent segments of the digestive tract of broilers. A total of 45 1-d-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 males were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (15 birds/treatment: (1 control diet; (2 diet contaminated with 1 mg DON/kg feed; (3 diet contaminated with 5 mg DON/kg feed for five weeks. None of the zootechnical traits (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion responded to increased DON levels in the diet. However, DON at both dietary levels (1 mg and 5 mg DON/kg feed significantly altered the small intestinal morphology. In the jejunum, the villi were significantly (P < 0.01 shorter in both DON treated groups compared with the controls. Furthermore, the dietary inclusion of DON decreased (P < 0.05 the villus surface area in both DON treated groups. The absolute or relative organ weights (liver, heart, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, spleen, pancreas, colon, cecum, bursa of Fabricius and thymus were not altered (P > 0.05 in broilers fed the diet containing DON compared with controls. DON and de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1 were analyzed in serum, bile, liver, feces and digesta from consecutive segments of the digestive tract (gizzard, cecum, and rectum. Concentrations of DON and its metabolite DOM-1 in serum, bile, and liver were lower than the detection limits of the applied liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method. Only about 10 to 12% and 6% of the ingested DON was recovered in gizzard and feces, irrespective of the dietary DON-concentration. However, the DON recovery in the cecum as percentage of DON-intake varied between 18 to 22% and was not influenced by dietary DON-concentration. Interestingly, in the present trial, DOM-1 did not appear in the large

  19. Nutritional Models of Experimentally-Induced Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) Differ in Their Impact on Rumen and Hindgut Bacterial Communities in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaizier, Jan C.; Li, Shucong; Tun, Hein M.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenges on the bacteria in rumen fluid, cecal digesta, and feces of dairy cows were determined using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR. Six non-lactating Holstein cows with cannulas in the rumen and cecum were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square arrangement of treatments. During the first 3 wk of each experimental period, cows received a control diet containing 70% forages on a dry matter (DM) basis. In wk 4 of each period, cows received one of three diets: (1) the control diet; (2) a diet in which 34% of the dietary DM was replaced with pellets of ground wheat and barley (GBSC); or (3) a diet in which 37% of dietary DM was replaced with pellets of ground alfalfa (APSC). Rumen fluid, cecal digesta and feces were collected on d 5 of wk 4 of each period and the composition of the bacterial community was studied. Rumen fermentation responses were reported in a companion study. Both SARA-inducing challenges resulted in similar digesta pH depressions (as shown by the companion study), and reduced bacterial richness and diversity in rumen fluid, but GBSC had the larger effect. None of the challenges affected these measures in cecal digesta, and only GBSC reduced bacterial richness and diversity in feces. Only GBSC reduced the abundance of Bacteroidetes in rumen fluid. Abundances of limited number of bacterial genera identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in the rumen, cecum and feces were affected by the GBSC. The APSC did not affect any of these abundances. Both challenges increased the abundances of several starch, pectin, xylan, dextrin, lactate, succinate, and sugar fermenting bacterial species in the rumen, cecum, and feces as determined by qPCR. Only GBSC increased that of Megasphaera elsdenii in the rumen. Both challenges decreased the abundance of Streptococcus bovis, and increased that of Escherichia coli, in cecal digesta and feces, with GBSC having the larger effect. These results showed that

  20. Saccharomyces boulardii modifies Salmonella typhimurium traffic and host immune responses along the intestinal tract.

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    Rodolphe Pontier-Bres

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST is an enteropathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that causes infection following oral ingestion. ST spreads rapidly along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and invades the intestinal epithelium to ultimately reach internal body organs. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii BIOCODEX (S.b-B is prescribed for prophylaxis of diarrheal infectious diseases. We previously showed that S.b-B prevents weight loss in ST-infected mice and significantly decreases bacterial translocation to the spleen and liver. This study was designed to investigate the effect of S.b-B on ST migration along the GIT and the impact of the yeast on the host's early innate immune responses. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI was used to evaluate the effect of S.b-B on the progression of luminescent Salmonella Typhimurium (ST-lux in the GIT of mice pretreated with streptomycin. Photonic emission (PE was measured in GIT extracts (stomach, small intestine, cecum and colon at various time periods post-infection (PI. PE analysis revealed that, 45 min PI, ST-lux had migrated slightly faster in the mice treated with S.b-B than in the untreated infected animals. At 90 min PI, ST-lux had reached the cecum in both groups of mice. Adhesion of ST to S.b-B was visualized in the intestines of the mice and probably accounts for (1 the faster elimination of ST-lux in the feces, and (2 reduced translocation of ST to the spleen and liver. In the early phase of infection, S.b-B also modifies the host's immune responses by (1 increasing IFN-γ gene expression and decreasing IL-10 gene expression in the small intestine, and (2 elevating both IFN-γ, and IL-10 mRNA levels in the cecum. BLI revealed that S.b-B modifies ST migration and the host immune response along the GIT. Study findings shed new light on the protective mechanisms of S.b-B during the early phase of Salmonella pathogenesis.

  1. [Bladder augmentation in children: experience with 15 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortes, L; Zambudio, G A

    1996-07-01

    From 1993 to 1995 bladder augmentation was performed in 11 female and 4 male patients from 1 to 13 years old (average age 6.7 years). Indications included neurogenic bladder, extrophy and epispadias with small bladder. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt had been performed in 6 patients for hydrocephalus. We used 22 segments since 5 patients had 2 segments. Segments included sigmoid in 12 cases, stomach in 5, small bowel in 1, cecum and appendix in 2. We have used the AMS-800 artificial urinary sphincter in 7 patients. Upper tracts and renal function have remained stable in these patients. Continence was achieved in 7 of 9 cases with augmentation, and in 6 of those patients with artificial urinary sphincter. The most common complication was leaks and the hematuria-dysuria syndrome when stomach was used.

  2. Scanning electron microscopy of damage to the cecal mucosa of turkeys infected with Eimeria adenoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrick, W J; Hammer, R F

    1979-01-01

    White Wrolstad turkeys were each inoculated with 100,000 Eimeria adenoides oocysts and killed on days 4-14 postinoculation. Tissue samples, obtained from 4 areas of the ceca comparable to areas examined in chickens infected with E. tenella in previous studies, were processed by a modification of the osmium-thiocarbo-hydrazide-osmium technique and examined with a scanning electron microscope. The pathologic situation found in turkeys was slightly different from that in the ceca of chickens infected with E. tenella. The mucosal lesions are most severe at the proximal end of an infected cecum. Surface disruption was far less severe than with cecal coccidiosis in chickens of the same age exposed to an equal number of infective oocysts. Rupture of the epithelial cell often caused the mucosal surface to present a honeycomb appearance. Some specific stages of the life cycle were identified, including schizonts and oocysts.

  3. Descending colon endometriosis misdiagnosis as diverticulitis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Min Jeong; Ha, Hong Il; Lee, Kwan Seop; Min, Soo Kee [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterus. It is a common disease in menstruating females and intestinal involvement is not uncommon. Intestinal endometriosis most commonly involves the sigmoid colon, rectum, ileum, appendix, and cecum. However, the descending colon is a rare site of intestinal endometriosis. Although computed tomography (CT) findings of bowel endometriosis have been presented in several articles, there has been no report describing the CT findings of descending colon endometriosis above the pelvic cavity. Here, we report a rare case of descending colon endometriosis located in the retroperitoneal space, in which the initial impression was acute colonic diverticulitis with a small abscess on preoperative multidetector CT.

  4. Postharmostomiasis in wild turkeys in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, D B

    1994-04-01

    Postharmostomum gallinum (Trematoda: Digenea; Brachylaimidae) is reported for the second time from the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in North America. Seventy-six, 14 and three sexually mature specimens, respectively, were removed from the ceca of three of five wild turkeys collected in south-eastern New Mexico (USA). Local transmission of this infection was inferred since 10 immature specimens of P. gallinum also were collected from one host. In the turkey with the greatest intensity of mature trematodes, a concurrent hemorrhagic inflammation of the cecum apparently was associated with this infection. Specimens of P. gallinum from these wild turkeys were morphologically indistinguishable from, but their body and egg measurements were larger than, specimens described from the usual Eurasian galliform and columbiform hosts.

  5. First Report of Coccidiosis and Gizzard Erosion in a Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moini, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis and gizzard erosion are rare conditions in cage bird. A male zebra finch was presented with a history of watery diarrhea, anorexia, ruffled feathers, weight loss, and lethargy and died finally. Gross necropsy revealed small areas of erosions and hemorrhages on the gizzard wall. The intestine was oedematous. The spleen appeared pale and small. The testes were asymmetric.Histologically, necrosis of mucosal layer with infiltration of inflammatory cells observed in cecum. Eimeria stages were detected in the enterocytes. In Gizzard, hemorrhage and ulceration of mucosal layer with infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells in to the underlying mucosa were seen. In hepatic tissue, mild focal necrosis with mononuclear cells infiltration was seen. The disease was diagnosed as coccidiosis and gizzard erosion.

  6. Colonoscopic diagnosis of appendiceal intussusception in a patient with intermittent abdominal pain: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Tavakkoli; Sayed Mohammad Sadrkabir; Parvin Mahzouni

    2007-01-01

    Intussusception of the appendix is a rare condition.Most cases are diagnosed during operation of the patients suspected to have appendicitis. In this report we present a seventy one year-old man with a history of periumbilical intermittent abdominal pain for several months. None of the paraclinical tests were useful for determining the diagnosis. Colonoscopy performed during the last episode of abdominal pain revealed the prolapsed appendix in the cecum and the patient was sent to the operating room. Macroscopic appearance of the appendix was normal and microscopic examination revealed follicular hyperplasia and acute focal appendicitis. Appendiceal intussusception should be considered in differential diagnosis of intermittent abdominal pain and colonoscopic diagnosis could be very important to avoid dangerous or unnecessary decision making.

  7. [Appendiceal orifice inflammation in distal ulcerative colitis. Report of a case and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Martin; Scavino, Yolanda; Luna, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient with an 18 month diagnosis of distal ulcerative colitis (proctosigmoiditis) of 18 months, who presented initially with allergy to salicylates, for which the disease was managed with corticosteroids and azathioprine and subsequently with Infliximab infusions, entering in remission. When she was about to receive her fifth Infliximab infusion she presented an exacerbation of her underlying disease with frequent stools with mucus, blood and tenesmus. Given that her initial diagnosis was made with a sigmoidoscopy we scheduled a total colonoscopy showing marked inflammation, erythema and friability limited to the recto-sigmoid mucosa, like at the disease onset, and when we reached the cecum an erythematous area circumscribed to the appendiceal orifice was observed, with a mucosal aspect identical to the described for the recto-sigmoid mucosa. The biopsies taken from that area were compatible with ulcerative colitis. We herein describe the details of the case and review the literature.

  8. An Appendiceal Neoplastic Lesion: Case Report and Implications for Colonoscopic Screening and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man with a history of previously resected colonic adenomas had an apparent cecal lesion detected during colonoscopy. The polyp proved to be a tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia involving most of the body of the appendix along with the base of the cecum. The appendiceal mucosa is biologically similar to the colonic mucosa, yet remains relatively ‘hidden’ in screening and surveillance studies, which suggests important implications for evolving detection strategies in the follow-up of patients with a previous colon polyp or cancer resections. Although endoscopic removal of the appendix has been reported, treatment of these localized appendiceal lesions requires a wide surgical excision.

  9. Rifampin-induced Pseudomembranous Colitis with Rectosigmoid Sparing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Sun Young; Koo, Ja Seol; Kim, Ye Ji; Park, Sang Jung; Kim, Jin Nam; Jung, Sung Woo; Yim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Jai Hyun; Kim, Chang Duck

    2011-12-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) is known to be associated with antibiotic treatment, but is not commonly related to antitubercular (anti-TB) agent, rifampin. PMC is frequently localized to rectum and sigmoid colon, which can be diagnosed with sigmoidoscopy. We report a case of rifampin-induced PMC with rectosigmoid sparing in a pulmonary tuberculosis patient. An 81-year-old man using anti-TB agents was admitted with a 30-day history of severe diarrhea and general weakness. On colonoscopy, nonspecific findings such as mucosal edema and erosion were found in sigmoid colon, whereas multiple yellowish plaques were confined to cecal mucosa only. Biopsy specimen of the cecum was compatible with PMC. Metronidazole was started orally, and the anti-TB medications excluding rifampin were readministerred. His symptoms remarkably improved within a few days without recurrence. Awareness of rectosigmoid sparing PMC in patients who develop diarrhea during anti-TB treatment should encourage early total colonoscopy.

  10. Endoscopic findings in a patient with Henoch-Sch(o)nlein purpura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jen Chen; Tsang-En Wang; Wen-Hsiung Chang; Shu-Jung Tsai; Wen-Shen Liao

    2005-01-01

    Henoch-Sch(o)nlein purpura (HSP) is a systemic vasculitis of the small vessels of the skin, joints, GI tract, and kidney.It preferentially affects children but may also occur in adults. We report a 60-year-old man with HSP who presented with colicky abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, arthralgia, and skin rash. The gastrointestinal tract was viewed by upper endoscopy and colonoscopy. We found characteristic endoscopic findings in the stomach, cecum and sigmoid colon, the combination of which has rarely been demonstrated in one patient. Histologic examination of skin biopsy specimens revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis with positive staining for IgA in the capillaries. Endoscopy appears to have substantial diagnostic utility in patients suspected of having HSP, especially when abdominal symptoms precede the cutaneous lesions.

  11. Giant appendiceal mucocele: Report of a case and brief review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernardino Rampone; Franco Roviello; Daniele Marrelli; Enrico Pinto

    2005-01-01

    Mucocele of the appendix is a rare lesion, characterized by distension of the lumen due to accumulation of mucoid substance. This disease is often asymptomatic and pre-operative diagnosis is rare. If untreated, one type of mucocele may rupture producing a potentially fatal entity known as pseudomyxoma peritonei. The type of surgical treatment is related to the dimensions and to histology of the mucocele. Appendectomy is used for simple mucocele or for cystadenoma. Right hemi-colectomy is recommended for cystadenocarcinoma. In this paper, we report a case of a 51-year-old woman with a mobile, painless mass in the right lower quadrant of abdomen caused by a giant appendiceal mucocele. Imaging showed a large, tubular,cystic structure extending below from the inferior wall of the cecum. Surgery revealed a giant retro-cecal appendix measuring 17 cm in length and 4 cm in diameter. The final pathologic diagnosis was mucocele caused by mucinous cystadenoma.

  12. Invasive amebiasis and ameboma formation presenting as a rectal mass: An uncommon case of malignant masquerade at a western medical center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A 54-year-old man presented with rectal pain and bleeding secondary to ulcerated, necrotic rectal and cecal masses that resembled colorectal carcinoma upon colonoscopy. These masses were later determined to be benign amebomas caused by invasive Entamoeba histolytica, which regressed completely with medical therapy. In Western countries, the occurrence of invasive protozoan infection with formation of amebomas is very rare and can mistakenly masquerade as a neoplasm. Not surprisingly, there have been very few cases reported of this clinical entity within the United States. Moreover, we report a patient that had an extremely rare occurrence of two synchronous lesions, one involving the rectum and the other situated in the cecum. We review the current literature on the pathogenesis of invasive E. Histolytica infection and ameboma formation, as well as management of this rare disease entity at a western medical center.

  13. 薛荔籽果胶对去势雌性大鼠矿物质吸收的影响%Effect of Pectin from Ficus pumila L. Seeds on Mineral Absorption in Ovariectomized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 冯媛嫒; 刘雄; 陈宗道

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨薛荔籽果胶对去势雌性大鼠矿物质吸收的影响。方法:将30只SD成年雌鼠随机分为5组。4组大鼠做双侧卵巢切除手术,一周后分为空白组和薛荔籽果胶高、中、低剂量组;用伪切除同龄大鼠作对照(Sham组)。喂养4周后解剖,测定盲肠内容物pH值、短链脂肪酸、骨钙、骨磷含量及矿物质元素的表观吸收等指标。结果:去势雌性大鼠对钙、镁、磷、锌和铁元素的表观吸收率及骨钙和骨磷含量显著低于正常大鼠(P〈0.05)。薛荔籽果胶能显著增加去势雌性大鼠短链脂肪酸含量和盲肠面积(P〈0.05),降低盲肠pH值,并且在一定程度上抑制钙、镁、磷、锌和铁元素的表观吸收率。结论:薛荔籽果胶能降低去势雌性大鼠矿物质的表观吸收率。%Objective: To investigate the effect of pectin from Ficus pumila L. seeds on mineral absorption in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Thirty SD female rats were divided into five groups. The mice in four of them were double ovariectomized and one week later assigned as model control group and high, medium and low dose groups ofFicuspumila L. pectin. The mice in the fifth group were sham-ovariectomized as sham control. All rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks of feeding to assay pH values and short-chain fatty acids in cecum contents, calcium and phosphorus in bone, and apparent absorption rate of minerals. Results: Compared to the sham control group, the apparent absorption rates of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and iron, calcium and phosphorus in bone significantly decreased in OVX rats (P〈0.05). Pectin from Ficus pumila L. seeds drastically increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in cecum content and the area of cecum, decreased the pH of cecum contents, and inhibited the absorption of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and iron in ovariectomized rats. Conclusions: Ficus pumila L. seed

  14. Successful Non-Invasive treatment of stricturing fibrosing colonopathy in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terheggen G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Fibrosing colonopathy (FC is a rare entity associated with cystic fibrosis (CF. Until now, patients with stricturing FC have usually been treated surgically. In this instance, we aimed at avoiding surgery by applying a new conservative approach. Methods Case report on an adult with CF who developed persistent abdominal pain due to a non-passable stricture in the right transverse colon. Histology confirmed fibrosing colonopathy. Results Initially we treated the patient with prednisolone pulse therapy and additive antibiotic therapy. For maintenance therapy we administered budesonide. The patient underwent clinical, laboratory and endoscopic follow-up over a three-year period. The stricture healed and was easy to pass. A relapse in the cecum at the ileocecal valve again improved under steroid and antibiotic therapy. Conclusions We present a novel therapeutic approach for advanced stricturing FC in an adult patient which successfully avoided surgery (right hemicolectomy over a three year follow up.

  15. Gross morphology and anatomy of the large intestine of the paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Paes Bürger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the potential of using the paca as livestock involves understanding the morphophysiology of its digestive tract so its nutrition can be properly managed. The morphological and anatomical aspects of the large intestine of this species were investigated by inspecting material that was fresh and fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde. The material was provided by the Setor de Animais Selvagens do Departamento de Zootecnia da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal – UNESP (FCAV – UNESP. The large intestine of the paca is formed by cecum, colon and rectum, and is located in the abdominal and pelvic cavity near the third or fourth lumbar vertebrae. It was found, in the 10 samples analyzed, that there was no change in the pattern of this arrangement and that this pattern resembles that of mammals in general.

  16. LaPlace's law revisited: Cecal perforation as an unusual presentation of pancreatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cason Frederick D

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer is often locally and distally aggressive, but initial presentation as cecal perforation is uncommon. Case presentation We describe a patient presenting with pneumoperitoneum, found at initial exploration to have a cecal perforation believed to be secondary to a large cecal adenoma, after palpation of the remainder of the colon revealed hard stool but no distal obstruction. Postoperatively, however, the patient progressed to large bowel obstruction and upon reexploration, a mass could now be delineated, encompassing the splenic flexure, splenic hilum, and distal pancreas. Histological evaluation determined this was locally invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and therefore the true etiology of the original cecal perforation. Conclusion Any perforation localized to the cecum must be highly suspicious for a distal obstruction, as dictated by the law of LaPlace.

  17. Esophagogastric fistula: a complication of Crohn's disease--case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rholl, J C; Yavorski, R T; Cheney, C P; Wong, R K

    1998-08-01

    Esophagogastric fistula formation as a complication of esophageal Crohn's has been reported in only one case in the literature. In addition, only eight cases of esophageal fistulae of any type have been reported in the setting of Crohn's disease. Unlike the more often described superficial, aphthous disease of the esophagus, response of fistulae to medical therapy has been disappointing, and recurrence and progression are likely. Surgery remains the primary modality for refractory disease. The roles of salicylates, antibiotics, immunosuppressive agents, sealants, and intralesional steroid injections have not been well defined. We present a case of severe, refractory Crohn's disease with fistula formation between the esophagus and stomach, and concomitant involvement of the oropharynx, duodenum, terminal ileum, and cecum.

  18. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed...

  19. The utility of fistulography in the diagnosis of thyroglossal duct cyst with fistulous tract: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghua Zhu, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC is one of the most common congenital, midline, cervical lesions originating from an embryonic thyroglossal duct remnant. It is usually diagnosed clinically. Imaging is used to confirm the clinical diagnosis, and fistulography is very helpful in the diagnosis and surgical planning for thyroglossal fistulous tract. Fistulographs show the direction, length, and anatomy of the remnant tracts and the small tracts connecting a TGDC to the tongue base at the foramen cecum. This report presents a case of TGDC in a 12-year-old boy and demonstrates the utility of fistulography imaging in the diagnosis of TGDC with fistulous tract. In this case, fistulography was performed after cannulating the external opening of the fistula. The patient underwent a resection, including thyroglossal tract removal and further excision of the mid portion of the hyoid bone (the Sistrunk procedure. The postoperative pathology report indicated thyroglossal duct remnants with no evidence of malignancy.

  20. Morphologic aspects of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossums Didelphis marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiana Tasca

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Tetratrichomonas didelphidis (Hegner & Ratcliffe, 1927 Andersen & Reilly, 1965 is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine, cecum, and colon of Didelphis marsupialis. The parasitic protozoa used in this study was found and isolated in the intestine of opossums in Pavlova starch-containing medium in Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, from D. marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata. The strains were cultivated in Diamond medium without maltose and with starch solution, pH 7.5 at 28°C. The specimens were stained by the Giemsa method and Heidenhain's iron hematoxylin. The light microscopy study of the trophozoites revealed the same morphologic characteristics as specimens previously described.

  1. Potential use of caprylic acid in broiler chickens: effect on Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skřivanová, Eva; Hovorková, Petra; Čermák, Ladislav; Marounek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of dietary caprylic acid (CA) on Salmonella Enteritidis, as well as the surface treatment of chicken skin contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated. To evaluate the dietary effect of CA on Salmonella Enteritidis, the individually housed broiler chickens (n=48) were divided into 4 groups (positive control, negative control, 2.5 g/kg of CA in the feed, and 5 g/kg of CA in the feed). The feed of all groups, except the negative control, was artificially contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 (10(7) colony-forming units/100 g of feed). Both concentrations of dietary CA significantly decreased counts of Salmonella Enteritidis in the crop and cecum of experimental chickens (pSalmonella Enteritidis contamination of chicken skin (pSalmonella Enteritidis in chickens, whereas surface-treatment reduced or eliminated Salmonella Enteritidis contamination in the processed bird.

  2. Small intestinal strangulation due to a rare type of primary internal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Makoto; Ohnuki, Yoshinori; Uchiyama, Takashi; Kubota, Osamu; Ohishi, Kousuke

    2013-01-01

    Internal hernias in which the gate is located in the paracolic gutter are rare. A 75-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with severe epigastric pain without past history of laparotomy and/or trauma. He was diagnosed with strangulation of the ileum by the findings of computed tomography, and the operation was performed. During laparotomy, the small intestine was found to be strangulated and to enter the retroperitoneum from the right paracolic gutter near the hepatic flexure. The patient was diagnosed with an internal hernia, which differed from a pericecal hernia in that the hernia gate was located along the paracolic gutter near the hepatic flexure far from the cecum. Hence, it was considered to be a rare type of internal hernia. We report the clinical presentation and imaging findings of this rare internal hernia.

  3. Salmonella Typhimurium infection primes a nutriprive mechanism in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarelli, Maria; Drumo, Rosanna; Signorelli, Federica; Marchitelli, Cinzia; Pavone, Silvia; Pesciaroli, Michele; Ruggieri, Jessica; Chirullo, Barbara; Ammendola, Serena; Battistoni, Andrea; Alborali, Giovanni L; Manuali, Elisabetta; Pasquali, Paolo

    2016-04-15

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important cause of acute food- borne zoonoses worldwide, typically carried by pigs. It is well known that Salmonella has evolved a wide array of strategies enabling it to invade the host, but little information is available on the specific host responses to Salmonella infections. In the present study, we used an in vivo approach (involving piglets infected with a virulent or an attenuated S. Typhimurium strain) coupled to histological and proteomic analysis of the cecum mucosa, to highlight the host pathways activated during S. Typhimurium infection. We confirm the complex host-pathogen interaction. Our data showed that the metabolic and the cytoskeleton organization functions were the most significantly altered. In particular, the modifications of energy metabolic pathway could suggest a "nutriprive" mechanism, in which the host reduce its metabolic and energetic status to limit Salmonella infection. This study could represent a preliminary approach, providing information useful to better understand the host-Salmonella interaction.

  4. Subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin repress the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium and protect against Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai-Cheng, Wu; Ben-Dong, Fu; Xiu-Ling, Chu; Jian-Qing, Su; Yun-Xing, Fu; Zhen-Qiang, Cui; Dao-Xiu, Xu; Zong-Mei, Wu

    2016-11-01

    Phloretin, a natural component of many fruits, exhibits anti-virulence effects and provides a new alternative to counter bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin on the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium. At concentrations where growth of Salmonella was not inhibited, phloretin significantly inhibited bacteria biofilm formation and motility. Subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin repressed eight genes involved in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 3 genes involved in flagella production. Furthermore, subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin inhibited the adhesion and invasion of Salmonella in IEC-6 cells and reduced the LDH levels of S. typhimurium-infected IEC-6 cells. Additionally, phloretin significantly decreased the cecum bacterial loads of the mice infected with live S. typhimurium containing subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin by gavage. These results suggested that subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin attenuate the virulence of S. typhimurium and protect against S. typhimurium infection.

  5. [Primary colorectal lymphoma of diffuse large B-cells: an experience at a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran Gárate, Brady; Morales Luna, Domingo; Quiñones Avila, Pilar; Hurtado de Mendoza, Fernando; Riva Gonzales, Luis; Yabar, Alejandro; Portugal Meza, Karem

    2008-01-01

    Primary colorectal lymphoma is a very rare disease. Primary colorectal lymphoma of diffuse large B-cells is a more frequent subtype representing 1% of all colon diseases. In a retrospective study, the clinical characteristics and treatment course of primary colorectal lymphoma of diffuse large B-cells between 1997 and 2003 were reviewed. According to Dawson's criteria, fourteen cases were identified. The average age was 65 and the ratio of men to women was 1:3. The most frequent signs and symptoms were abdominal pain (78%), diarrhea (49%) and abdominal tumor (35%). The most frequently involved regions were the cecum (42%), ascending colon (21%) and rectum (21%). Six were in Stage I, four in Stage II and four in Stage III. The 5-year survival per stage was 26, 11 and 5 months, respectively. Primary colorectal lymphoma of diffuse large B-cells usually affects the right part of the colon in an aggressive manner.

  6. Absorption of wheat starch in patients resected for left-sided colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, I; Rumessen, J J; Nielsen, S A;

    1992-01-01

    a hyperabsorption of potato starch in the small intestine has been found. We have investigated the absorption of wheat starch in 15 patients radically resected for cancer in the descending or sigmoid colon, and the results were compared with those of 15 healthy controls. The starch malabsorption was quantified...... by the hydrogen breath test. The patients malabsorbed 2-14 g (median, 8 g) of 100 g wheat starch ingested, and the control group malabsorbed 3-11 g (median, 6 g) (P greater than 0.1). Mouth-to-cecum transit time for wheat starch and lactulose and the hydrogen production capacity after the lactulose standards were...... also similar in patients and controls. The results do not support the theory that hyperabsorption of starch is characteristic of patients with malignant disease in the large intestine....

  7. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera;

    (AMX), cefataxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10-11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and cecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general decrease in diversity...... in microbiota composition or function were observed following MTZ treatment. Permeability to 4 kDa FITC-dextran was decreased after CTX and VAN treatment and increased following MTZ treatment. Plasma haptoglobin levels were increased by both AMX and CTX but no changes in expression of host tight junction genes...... were found in any treatment group. Antibiotic induced changes in microbiota could be linked to intestinal permeability, although changes in permeability did not always result from major changes in microbiota and vice versa....

  8. Nondigestible carbohydrates and mineral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, J L

    1999-07-01

    Generally, fiber and compounds associated with fiber in cereal products (e.g., phytates) have been found to reduce the apparent absorption of minerals (such as calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese) in humans, livestock and animal models. The effects of "soluble" forms of fiber (specifically pectins, gums, resistant starches, lactulose, oligofructose and inulin) on mineral absorption are more difficult to characterize. The addition of these soluble forms of fiber has been found in various studies to add viscosity to the gut contents, promote fermentation and the production of volatile fatty acids in the cecum, have a trophic effect on the ceca of animals and increase serum enteroglucagon concentrations. Thus it is not surprising that the addition of soluble forms of fiber to diets often has been found to improve absorption of minerals. This may reflect absorption of electrolytes from the large intestine. Future work should address the mechanisms by which ingestion of nondigestible carbohydrates improves mineral absorption in humans.

  9. Clinical case and short review of extreme short bowel syndrome: an update 21 years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Mansueto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Short bowel syndrome refers to the malabsorptive state caused by loss of significant portions of the small intestine, whose clinical framework is characterized by malnutrition, diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, and low-weight-related symptoms/signs. These clinical conditions seem to be related to the length of resection. Twenty-one years ago we reported the clinical case of an infant, who underwent a massive resection of the loops of the small intestine, of the cecum and of part of the ascending colon, due to intestinal malrotation with volvulus. The residual small intestine measured just 11 cm and consisted of the duodenum and a small part of jejunum, in the absence of the ileocecal valve, configuring the case of a ultra-short bowel syndrome. In this report, we update the case, reporting the patient succeeded to obtain a good weight gain and to conduct a quite normal lifestyle, despite the long-term consequences of such resection.

  10. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed......-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, puree or pomace....

  11. Comparison of the effect of two types of whole mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Sakura; Araki, Takahiro; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko; Kamada, Takeo; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Han, Kyu-Ho; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-10-01

    The effects of two types of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus; white, WM; brown, BM) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats were investigated in terms of the physical characteristics of animals and by bacterial and HPLC analyses of cecal contents. Short-chain fatty acid levels were found to be significantly higher in the WM group than in the BM and the control (CN) groups; coliform bacteria levels in the BM group were significantly lower than those in the CN group, with the WM group inducing an apparent but insignificant decrease in coliforms. Anaerobe levels in the WM group were significantly higher than those in the CN group and, compared with the CN group, the BM and WM groups exhibited significantly increased feces weight and cecum weight, respectively. These results indicate that the mushroom powders, and in particular the WM powder, have beneficial effects on the intestinal environment in rats.

  12. Phytobezoar: a recurring abdominal problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, J R; Guerkink, R E; Gordon, R T; Weinermann, P

    1977-06-01

    Phytobezoars often follow gastric surgery for peptic ulcer disease. Billroth I resections have a high incidence of gastric bezoars, especially if accompanied by vagotomy. The larger opening of a Billroth II resection may result in intestinal bezoars with obstruction in the narrow terminal ileum. Gastric bezoars can be treated with enzymes or can be broken up by endoscopy; only rarely is operative removal required. Intestinal bezoars can be treated by long-tube and enzyme instillation but usually require laparotomy. If possible, the bolus should be milked into the cecum, but enterotomy or even resection may be required. Prevention is the best treatment and can be carried out by instructing patients who have had gastric surgery to avoid the fibrous portion of oranges and grapefruit and to avoid persimmons.

  13. [Chilaiditi's syndrome complicated by subdiaphragmatic perforated appendicitis: unusual manifestation of a rare condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, M; Kindler, M; Schilling, M; Pollack, T; Schwab, W; Becker, M

    2011-09-01

    We report on a case of an 80-year-old female patient who presented to the emergency room of with right upper quadrant abdominal pain since the day before. During the initial diagnostic an abdominal x-ray study revealed an air-filled colonic section of the bowel under the right hemidiaphragm corresponding to Chilaiditi's sign. The clinical symptoms and laboratory results were mild at this time. After 12 h the patient developed right upper quadrant peritonitis due to a perforated, subdiaphragmatic appendicitis based on Chilaiditi's syndrome. During surgical treatment the cecum and parts of the ascending colon were found to be interposed between the liver and right hemidiaphragm. A right hemicolectomy was performed which led to complete recovery of the patient. In addition to presenting this interesting case this article highlights the regime of the diagnostics and therapy of a complication of the very rare condition of Chilaiditi's syndrome.

  14. Extensive gastric varices demonstrated by technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; Loh, F.G.; Pulmano, C.

    1987-04-01

    An alcohol abuse patient complicated by chronic pancreatitis had splenic vein thrombosis leading to gastric varices and underwent abdominal Tc-99m red blood cell scintigraphy. First pass study, sequential images up to 1 hour, and a 2.5 hour image showed abnormal radioactivity in the left side of the abdomen and midabdomen. In 24 hour images, the high level of activity in the left side persisted; in addition, there was accumulation of radioactivity in the cecum, ascending, transverse colon, the splenic flexure, and descending colon. A splenectomy was performed and during the surgical procedure, a large dilated vein in the greater omentum was noted. It is reemphasized that delayed imaging up to 24 hours is important when the results of earlier images are equivocal or negative.

  15. Genetic identification of Entamoeba polecki subtype 3 from pigs in Japan and characterisation of its pathogenic role in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Murakoshi, Naoko; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Tokoro, Masaharu; Haritani, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2015-12-01

    To date, three Entamoeba spp. (E. suis, zoonotic E. polecki and E. histolytica) have been identified in pigs, but their pathogenicity and molecular classification have not been fully determined. Examination and pathological analysis of pigs (n=3) with diarrhoea was conducted and revealed the presence of Entamoeba organisms. We performed a genetic analysis of the isolate using the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene region to identify the species. A severe ulcerative colitis was observed histopathologically with inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, infiltrating the mucous membranes of the cecum and colon. Many Entamoeba trophozoites were found at the erosion site or at ulcerative lesions. Pathogenic viruses or bacteria were not detected. The SSU rRNA sequence of the Entamoeba isolate was found to be completely homologous to that of E. polecki subtype 3.

  16. Peritonitis Aguda por Diverticulo Apendicular Perforado / Acute perforated diverticulum appendiceal peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Villalba N

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Appendix diverticular disease is a casual finding after appendectomies or pathological studies of surgical samples. Most patients are male adults between the fourth and fifth decade of life. 16 years old male consults for a 48 hours stitch pain in right iliac fossa of moderate intensity radiating to lower abdomen with nausea and fever, without vomiting or diarrhea. Presents lower abdominal pain with muscle guarding and pain on physical examination. Bowel sounds negative. Laboratory routine study shows leukocytosis with neutrophilia. A perforated diverticulum of about 15cm diameter is found during surgery in the middle third of the cecum appendix with 200cc purulent fluid in and multiple adhesions to transverse colon, omentum and small intestine. A conventional appendectomy is performed. Acute appendix diverticulitis is a rare entity and its finding is by casualty. It is important to consider it a differential diagnosis especially in the intraoperative treatment which in most cases does not differ from conventional appendectomy.

  17. Expression patterns of Doppel in differential ovine PRNP genotypes: quantification using real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Zhao, C-L; Liu, L; Wu, R; Zhang, X-L

    2015-10-09

    Doppel is a homologue of cellular prion protein (PrP)-like protein (PrPC). Different tissue samples were collected from the central nervous system plus four regions of lymphoid system, eleven regions of digestive tract and two reproductive organs from four ARR/ARQ and four ARH/ARQ sheep, genotypes of the PrP gene. Total RNA was isolated from these samples, and Doppel mRNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR using SYBR Green. Doppel mRNA expression was higher in the ovary, hypothalamus and brain than in other tissues, and it significantly differed between the two genotypes in brain, ileum, cecum, rectum, colon, and uterus. This study demonstrated that Doppel mRNA expression in sheep with ARR/ARQ or ARH/ARQ genotypes was very different. These findings could be helpful in future studies of the relationship between PrP and Doppel.

  18. 限饲条件下甘蔗糖蜜对断奶幼兔生长性能及消化道的影响%Effect of cane molasses on growth performence and gastrointestinal of weaned rabbits under the condition of limited feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秋岩; 郭东新; 田河

    2016-01-01

    The selection of 72 weaned 10-day-old Ira rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed diets added molasses 4 levels (0%, 2%, 4%, 8%), pre-feeding of 4 days, the official feeding of 30 days. During the official feed fed daily lim⁃it of 100 g diet, morning and night 50 g. And re⁃cord weight gain and number of deaths. The 31st day were officially fed slaughter, and analyze thedevelopment of the digestive tract, trypsin and cellulase activity of the cecum and cecum microbial population. The results showed that: the diet in the proportion of 0%~8% range of molasses added, young rabbits differences in the overall level of weight gain and feed to gain ratio was significantly (P=0.034 9). Weight gain with a higher proportion of molasses and improved feed conversion ratio. At the same time, the introduction of molasses to the amount of 10-day-old Ira rabbit weaning weight gain, feed conversion ratio, the total length of the small intestine, cecum cellulase activity, the number of to⁃tal bacteria and lactic acid number of the cecum and other indicators are there is a significant correla⁃tion (P <0.05); and death Amoy rate highly significant correlation (P<0.01). Description molasses for the growth and production performance in the presence of a positive impact on young rabbits trend.%选用72只断奶10日龄的伊拉兔随机分成4组,分别饲喂4个水平的糖蜜添加日粮(0%、2%、4%、8%),预饲期4 d,正式饲喂期30 d。在正式饲喂期间每日限饲100 g日粮,早晚各50 g,并记录增重与死亡数。正式饲喂第31 d进行屠宰,并分析消化道发育、胰蛋白酶与盲肠纤维素酶酶活以及盲肠微生物数量。结果发现:日粮在0%~8%比例的糖蜜添加范围内,幼兔在增重与料重比的各水平总体差异显著(P=0.0349)。其增重随着糖蜜比例的提高而提高,料重比反之。因此在此范围内,8%为最适添加水平。同时,引入糖蜜的量与断奶10日龄伊拉

  19. Usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to detect metastatic mucinous adencarcinoma within an inguinal hernia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyo Jung; Min, Byung Wook; Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Sun Il; Kang, Sang Hee; Jung, Sung Yup; Oh, Sang Chul; Choe, Jae Gol [Korea University College of Medicine, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma in an inguinal hernia is a rare disease and the image findings of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) are little known. Here, we introduce a 57-year-old man with metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma in an inguinal hernia. On initial {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, hypermetabolism was observed in mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cecum, and adenocarcinomas of the transverse and ascending colon, respectively. Follow-up {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT revealed newly developed multiple hypermetabolism in peritoneal seeding masses and nodules in the pelvic cavity and scrotum. Peritoneal carcinomatosis in the right pelvic side wall was extended to the incarcerated peritoneum and mesentery in the right inguinoscrotal hernia. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was useful to reveal unexpected peritoneal seeding within the inguinal hernia. Also, this case demonstrated that metastatic mucinous adenocarcinomas had variably intense FDG uptake.

  20. Ectopic fascioliasis mimicking a colon tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozer Makay; Baris Gurcu; Cemil Caliskan; Deniz Nart; Muge Tuncyurek; Mustafa Korkut

    2007-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, a leaf shaped trematode that is common in cattle, sheep and goats, is acquired by eating raw water plants like watercress or drinking water infected with the encysted form of the parasite.The varied clinical presentations of fascioliasis still make a high index of suspicion mandatory. Besides having a wide spectrum of hepatobiliary symptoms like obstructive jaundice, cholangitis and liver cirrhosis, the parasitic infection also has extrabiliary manifestations.Until recently, extrahepatic fascioliasis has been reported in the subcutaneous tissue, brain, lungs, epididymis,inguinal lymph nodes, stomach and the cecum. In this report, a strange manifestation of the fasciola infection in a site other than the liver, a colonic fascioliasis, is presented.

  1. Is there a role for colon capsule endoscopy beyond colorectal cancer screening? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Beintaris, Iosif; Dimitriadis, George D

    2014-09-28

    Colon capsule endoscopy is recommended in Europe alternatively to colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening in average risk individuals. The procedure has also been proposed to complete colon examination in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or when colonoscopy is contraindicated or refused by the patient. As tissue samples cannot be obtained with the current capsule device, colon capsule endoscopy has no place in diagnosing ulcerative colitis or in dysplasia surveillance. Nevertheless, data are accumulating regarding its feasibility to examine ulcerative colitis disease extent and to monitor disease activity and mucosal healing, even though reported results on the capsule's performance in this field vary greatly. In this review we present the currently available evidence for the use of colon capsule endoscopy to complement colonoscopy failure to reach the cecum and its use to evaluate ulcerative colitis disease activity and extent. Moreover, we provide an outlook on issues requiring further investigation before the capsule becomes a mainstream alternative to colonoscopy in such cases.

  2. Review of colorectal cancer and its metastases in rodent models: comparative aspects with those in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobaek-Larsen, M; Thorup, I; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt;

    2000-01-01

    that human trials become more directed, with greater chances of success. The orthotopic transplantation of colon cancer cells into the cecum of syngeneic animals or intraportal inoculation appears to resemble the human metastatic disease most closely, providing a model for study of the treatment......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common cancer forms developing in industrialized countries, and its incidence appears to be rising. Studies of human population groups provide insufficient information about carcinogenesis, pathogenesis, and treatment of CRC...... models approximate many of the characteristics of human colonic carcinogenesis and metastasis. So far few comparative evaluations of the various animal models of CRC have been made. CONCLUSION: Animal studies cannot replace human clinical trials, but they can be used as a pre-screening tool, so...

  3. Mechanism for the increased defecation and jejunum mucosal protein content in rats by feeding germinated barley foodstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanauchi, O; Agata, K; Fushiki, T

    1997-03-01

    We investigated the effects of germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) on the fecal excretion and jejunum mucosal protein content in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed on various diets with the same protein and dietary fiber levels. Under these experimental conditions, GBF was confirmed to induce greater fecal output compared with commercial water-soluble or -insoluble dietary fibers. While the dietary fiber extracted from GBF increased the fecal output and mucosal protein content, the protein fraction of GBF degraded to the peptide form did not increase the fecal output or mucosal protein content. Increased mucosal protein and fecal output were thus found to require the presence of the dietary fiber fraction or possibly the protein fraction bound tightly to the dietary fiber of GBF. GBF feeding increased the volatile fatty acids concentration in the cecum, indicating that GBF may be efficiently fermented in the intestinal tract.

  4. Seronegative Adult Autoimmune Enteropathy in a Male Traveler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli-Akintade, Latifat; Stondell, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) is rare but damaging. The lack of consistent objective findings makes diagnosis a challenge. A 45-year-old male developed noninfectious diarrhea with significant weight loss and electrolyte abnormalities. Computed tomography delineated enteritis. Colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed villous atrophy, chronic inflammation, and ulceration of the terminal ileum and cecum. Pathology showed cryptitis with apoptosis and abscesses throughout the small and large bowel and absent goblet cells. Steroids rapidly improved symptoms. Anti-enterocyte antibody serologies were negative. Management can be challenging, and, in this case, the patient initially improved with budesonide and infliximab but required alternative anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy after relapsing. This is an unusual presentation of seronegative AIE, which should be considered in cases of persistent severe diarrhea. PMID:28184376

  5. Pathological changes in turkeys liver associated with Histomoniasis in Duhok City,Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Histomoniasis were detected and described among naturally affected of twenty three young Turkeys poult compared with the adults. Sample for study were collected from different areas of Duhok city in Kurdistan region/Iraq. Giemsa stain where used for identification of parasite from specimens of liver and cecum samples, then specimen, where fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for routine histopathological study. The affected birds showed clinical signs of lethargic, drooping of head and wings with progressive emaciation and a clear distinctive signs in live ones, and appearance of continuous yellowish diarrhea. Pathologically there is an enlargement and discoloration of the liver associated with appearance of white to yellow multifocal nodules in the surface of the liver. While the result of histolpathological changes showed severs inflammatory reaction around necrotic tissues with degenerative and necrotic changes of the liver cells.

  6. Symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an echinoderm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); De Ridder, C. [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Lab. de Biologie Marine

    1998-09-01

    Thiothrix-like bacteria have been reported as symbionts in invertebrates from sulfide-rich habitats. Isolation of these symbiotic Thiothrix-like bacteria has failed, and the organisms have not been previously identified with certainty. The genus Thiothrix was created for ensheathed filamentous bacteria that oxidize sulfide and deposit sulfur granules internally, attach to substrates, produce gliding gonidia, and form rosettes. Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates.

  7. Influences of enteral nutrition combined with probiotics on gut microflora and barrier function of rats with abdominal infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-Yi Shen; Huan-Long Qin; Zhi-Guang Gao; Xiao-Bing Fan; Xiao-Ming Hang; Yan-Qun Jiang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influences of enteral, parenteral nutrition and probiotics delivered by gut on intestinal microecology, epithelial tight junctions, immune and barrier function of rats with abdominal infection.METHODS: Rat abdominal infection models established with cecal ligation and perforation method, were divided into three groups: parenteral nutrition (PN group, n = 7), PN+enteral nutrition (EN group, n = 7) and PN EN + probiotics (probiotics group, n = 7) via the needle jejunostomy and neck vein for five days. The total nutritional supplement of the three groups was isonitrogenic and isocaloric. Probiotics was delivered by jejunostomy 10 mL/d (1 × 108 cfu/mL). The rats were killed on the sixth day. The feces in the cecum were cultured for anaerobic bacterial growth and analyzed with bacterial group DNA fingerprint profile with random amplified polymorphic DNA. The transmembrane binding proteins (occludin) and IgA level in plasma cells of intestine epithelium in colon and terminal ileum were measured by an immunohistochemistry method. The ultrastructure of intestinal epithelial tight junctions in colon and small intestine was observed by electronmicroscopy. Vena cava blood and the homogenated tissue of liver, lung and mesenteric lymph nodes were cultured to determine the bacterial translocations, and endotoxin in the blood from portal vein was detected.RESULTS: (1) The amount of bacteria of gut species in EN group and probiotic group was higher than that in PN group. The DNA-profiles in EN group and probiotic group were similar to that of normal rats. The number of DNAprofiles in probiotics group was much more than that in PN group and EN group. Moreover, there were strange stripes in PN group. (2) The expression of occludin and IgA in the small and large intestine in EN group (2.309± 0.336, 15.440 ± 2.383) and probiotic group (2.938 ±0.515, 16.230 ± 3.183) was improved as compared with PN group (1.207 ± 0.587, P < 0.05, 11.189 ± 2.108, P < 0

  8. Cecal duplication cyst: A rare case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Shyam Raj Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplication cysts of the alimentary tract are very rare congenital anomalies. Out of all these cases, two-thirds of them manifest before the age of 2 years. They are common in ileum, but very rare in cecum. Some of them may remain asymptomatic and present in the adulthood. The lesion may be tubular or cystic. Several theories have been postulated, but true etiology is not known. We hereby report a case of a 10-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain in the pediatric surgery outpatient department. Diagnosis of cecal duplication cyst was confirmed on histopathology. This report implies that although alimentary tract duplications are rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children who presents with acute abdominal pain.

  9. Eosinophilic venulitis of colon presenting as ileocecal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhar, Faripour; Rustagi, Tarun; Lamea, Leela

    2011-01-01

    Reports of eosinophilic infiltration of the colon causing obstruction are few. It is even less common to find associated extensive intestinal venulitis, which is similar to and lumped together with so called Mesenteric Inflammatory Veno-Occlusive Disease (MIVOD) or Self-Limited Intestinal Venulitis. Eosinophilic necrotizing lymphadenitis, such as what we report here, has never been reported in association with this disease. A 41-year-old female presented with cramping lower abdominal pain, hematochezia, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed the presence of the mass and thickening of the illeocecal wall. Endoscopy confirmed a cecal mass with surface ulceration suggestive of cecal adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent right hemicolectomy with the clinical and radiologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Microscopic examination of the resected bowel showed an ulcerated mass in the cecum composed of markedly edematous tissue showing transmural eosinophilic infiltration and extensive eosinophilic and lymphocytic venulitis with and without thrombosis. This was associated with a necrotizing lymphadenitis.

  10. Gastrointestinal transit times and motility in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedsund, Caroline; Gregersen, Tine; Jønsson, Iben;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) often suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction including obstructive symptoms, malabsorption and pain, but the underlying pathophysiology remains obscure. AIM: To compare GI motility and transit times in CF patients and healthy controls. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: Ten CF patients (five women, median age 23) with pancreatic insufficiency were studied. Total gastrointestinal transit time (GITT) and segmental colonic transit times (SCTT) were assessed by radiopaque markers. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were evaluated using the magnet......-based motility tracking system (MTS-1). With each method patients were compared with 16 healthy controls. RESULTS: Basic contraction frequencies of the stomach and small intestine were normal, but the pill reached the cecum after 7 h in only 20% of CF patients while in 88% of controls (p = 0.001). Paradoxically...

  11. Microbiota-Produced Succinate Improves Glucose Homeostasis via Intestinal Gluconeogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vadder, Filipe; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Zitoun, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Beneficial effects of dietary fiber on glucose and energy homeostasis have long been described, focusing mostly on the production of short-chain fatty acids by the gut commensal bacteria. However, bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber also produces large amounts of succinate and, to date......, no study has focused on the role of succinate on host metabolism. Here, we fed mice a fiber-rich diet and found that succinate was the most abundant carboxylic acid in the cecum. Dietary succinate was identified as a substrate for intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN), a process that improves glucose...... homeostasis. Accordingly, dietary succinate improved glucose and insulin tolerance in wild-type mice, but those effects were absent in mice deficient in IGN. Conventional mice colonized with the succinate producer Prevotella copri exhibited metabolic benefits, which could be related to succinate-activated IGN...

  12. [A rare case of primary ciliary dyskinesia with heterotaxy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela, Cátia; Meireles, Cláudia; Bettencourt, Maria João; Ribeirinho, Augusto; Bentes, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia is an autosomal recessive disease with a clinical history of upper and lowers respiratory infections, rhinosinusitis and bronquitis associated with complete or partial situs inversus. The authors present a 78 -year -old male caucasian patient with rhinosinusitis, lower respiratory tract infection and dyspnea, chronic otitis with hearing deficit and infertility followed in Gastroenterology for dyspepsia and constipation. The radiological studies revealed agenesis of right frontal sinus; bronchial wall thickening; bronchiectasis; cecum and ascending colon located on the left and small bowel occupies right side of abdomen. He had no immunodeficiency, allergies, cystic fibrosis and others. We concluded primary ciliary dyskinesia with heterotaxy. For the rarity of this case we decided to present it.

  13. Endovascular repair of traumatic external iliac vessel pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Marin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male patient presenting with an abdominal gunshot wound and severe hypovolemic shock was initially operated and presented several injuries to the small bowel and cecum associated with severe hemorrhage. The patient had to be operated twice due to hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy. In the late postoperative period, murmur and fremitus were observed. Angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm associated with arteriovenous fistulae at the left external iliac vessels. Lesions were repaired with a stent graft placed in the external iliac artery, with a satisfactory outcome. Control computed tomography performed 6 months later evidenced artery integrity with closure of the fistulae. Endovascular therapy should be the preferred method in this type of vascular trauma complications.

  14. Single incision laparoscopic total abdominal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis for synchronous colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakcioglu, O; Ahmed, S

    2010-09-01

    Single incision laparoscopy is currently performed mostly for basic laparoscopic procedures involving single abdominal quadrants. The aim of this case report is to show that single incision laparoscopic techniques can be utilized for complex abdominal laparoscopic procedures with a large target organ and a working space involving all quadrants of the abdominal cavity. A single incision laparoscopic total abdominal colectomy with an ileorectal anastomosis and intraoperative CO(2) colonoscopy was performed for a patient with synchronous adenocarcinoma of the cecum and the sigmoid colon. The patient was discharged home on postoperative day 4 and had no immediate postoperative complications. Single incision laparoscopy is feasible for complex colorectal procedures. Some of the techniques used may be adapted further to achieve colonic resection via a natural orifice in the future.

  15. Subepithelial basement membrane thickness in patients with normal colonic mucosal appearance in colonoscopy:Results from southern Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fazilet Kayaselcuk; Ender Serin; Yǖksel Gumurdulu; Birol Ozer; Ilhan Tuncer; Sedat Boyacioglu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Our aims were to determine the normal limits of subepithelial basement membrane (SEBM) thickness in order to more accurately diagnose collagenous colitis in the population from southern Turkey and to investigate into links between SEBM thickness and age, and sex.METHODS: The study included 100 patients (mean age 50.0±13.3 years; male, 34; female, 66) with miscellaneous gastrointestinal symptoms, and normal colonic mucosal appearance in colonoscopic evaluation. Biopsies were taken from five different regions of the colon. SEBM was measured with a calibrated eyepiece on specimens prepared with specific stains for collagen. Intensity of inflammatory cells was graded semiquantitatively. Differences in SEBM thickness among the different colon regions, and relationships between SEBM thickness and age, sex, and density of inflammatory cells were statistically evaluated.RESULTS: The cecum and rectum showed the largest amounts of infiltrate. None of the specimens showed histologic findings of collagenous colitis. The SEBM thicknesses measured for each case ranged from 3-20 μm. The biggest thickness was observed in rectal mucosa (median value: 10 μm).Cecum and ascending colon showed similar SEBM thickness (median value: 5 μm). SEBM thickness was not correlated with patient age or sex, but was positively correlated with the intensity of inflammatory cells in each colon segment.CONCLUSION: In this patient group from southern Turkey,SEBM was thickest in the rectum. Our results indicate that,in this population, SEBM thickness is not correlated with age or sex, but is positively correlated with severity of inflammation. The findings also support the concept that measuring SEBM thickness at one segment in the colon is inadequate and may be misleading.

  16. Multi drug resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to tested antibiotics in strains originating from humans, poultry and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran Ž.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter are among the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans. Food animals are considered one of the most important sources of Campylobacter causing infections in man. Campylobacter infection is clinically mild and resolves spontaneously. In severe or long-lasting cases, treatment with antibiotics is necessary. Resistance of Campylobacter spp. to drugs used in treatment of infection is a matter of concern. The aim of this paper is to determine presence of multi drug resistant strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from animals and man. Material for testing was obtained by scraping the cecum surface from boilers, pig cecum and colon, and human feces. For isolation Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli microaerophilic conditions, temperature of 42°C and antibiotic supplement were required to inhibit the growth of other intestinal bacteria. In this research, for sensitivity testing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli three different methods were used: disc diffusion test, E-test, and dilution agar method. A total of 55 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Out of the total, 24 strains originated from man, 16 from broilers were isolated, and 15 from pigs. Multidrug resistance was determined in cases when the strains were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Applying E-test, we detected that the largest number of Campylobacter jejuni were multi drug resistant to two antibiotics (41.2%, and three antibiotics (11.8%. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 5.9% of Campylobacter jejuni from man was resistant to four tested antibiotics. Applying all three methods, it was detected that the largest number of Campylobacter strains was resistant to two antibiotics and three antibiotics. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 50% of Campylobacter coli strains from pigs were resistant to three tested antibiotics.

  17. Pathological and parasitological aspects of the peacock (Pavo cristatus infection by Tanaisia(Paratanaisiabragai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C. Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Trematodes belonging to the family Eucotylidae, including Tanaisia(ParatanaisiabragaiSantos, 1934are parasites of the kidney and ureter that affect several species of domestic and wild birds. Tanaisia bragaiis considered a low pathogenic parasite, but high worm burdens may determine clinical complications, including signs of apathy, weight loss, diarrhea and death. This paper describes the first report of infection by T. bragai in peacocks (Pavo cristatus, which constitutes a new host record and offers data on the lesions associated to this parasitism, although the degree of pathogenicity and parasite load may be considered mild. These birds did not exhibit clinical signs of parasitism. The macroscopic exam revealed discreet yellow spots on the liver. In the histological sections of the kidney, specimens of T. bragai were found in the collecting ducts, which were markedly dilated, with a thickened wall. Other findings included a mild inflammatory reaction in the wall of the ducts (but sometimes absent, flattening of lining epithelial cells and small, multifocal points of calcification around the collecting ducts. The microscopic examination of the parasites revealed trematodes with an elongated body, well-developed sub terminal oral sucker, pharynx present, short esophagus, cecum somewhat undulating or not, with blind end, testes symmetrical, equatorial, irregular in shape or slightly lobed, vitelline fields extending in both pre-ovarian and post ovarian fields, uterus very long, intercecal or sometimes overlapping the cecum and containing large quantities of eggs. The present findings suggest the need for further diagnostic studies on the prevalence of this trematode in peacocks as well as pathologic studies for the determination of the potential pathogenicity of this parasite in this species of bird. Moreover, infected peacocks could serve as carriers of T. bragai to be transferred to other bird species, thereby contributing to the

  18. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  19. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Wen Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg-1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  20. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Feng Mei

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg–1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  1. Assessment of the safety of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin: reverse mutation assay, acute and 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity in rats, and acute no-effect level for diarrhea in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yuko; Kishimoto, Yuka; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kanahori, Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    A series of safety assessments were performed on hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin prepared by converting the reducing terminal glucose of resistant maltodextrin into sorbitol. The reverse mutation assay did not show mutagenicity. Acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats showed no death was observed in any groups, including the group receiving the highest single dose of 10 g/kg body weight or the highest dose of 5 g/kg body weight per day for 90 days. Mucous or watery stools were observed in the hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin treatment group on the acute study, which were transient and were associated with the osmotic pressure caused by intake of the high concentrations. Subchronic study showed dose-dependent increases in the weights of cecum alone, cecal contents alone, and cecum with cecal contents as well as hypertrophy of the cecal mucosal epithelium, which are considered to be common physiological responses after intake of indigestible carbohydrates. These results indicated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin was 10 g/kg body weight or more on the acute oral toxicity study and 5.0 g/kg body weight/day or more on the 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity study in rats. Further study performed in healthy adult humans showed that the acute no-effect level of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin for diarrhea was 0.8 g/kg body weight for men and more than 1.0 g/kg body weight for women. The results of the current safety assessment studies suggest that hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin is safe for human consumption.

  2. Fecal-tagging CT colonography with structure-analysis electronic cleansing for detection of colorectal flat lesions

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    Xu, Yonghua, E-mail: howardyonghua@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuhui Central Hospital of Shanghai and China Academy of Sciences Shanghai Medical Center, 966 Huai Hai Central Road, Shanghai 200031 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Cai, Wenli; Nappi, Janne; Yoshida, Hiro [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 25 New Chardon Street 400C, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and sensitivity of the 3D-reading of fecal-tagging CT colonography (CTC) with a novel structure-analysis electronic cleansing (SAEC) in detecting colorectal flat lesions in comparison with a cleansed 3D reading with Viatronix V3D Colon system (V3D) and primary uncleansed 2D reading (2D). Materials and methods: Forty CTC cases with flat lesions were retrospectively observed. The Subjects from a multicenter clinical trial underwent cathartic bowel preparation with orally administrated barium-based fecal-tagging. Sixty-nine flat lesions were confirmed using colonoscopy and histopathology as a reference standard. The results from SAEC reading were compared with those of prospective V3D and 2D readings. Results: Overall detection sensitivity with SAEC was 52% (36/69), which was statistically higher than that of 32% (22/69) and 29% (20/69) with V3D and 2D readings, respectively (p < 0.05). The sensitivities in detecting not-on-fold flat lesions were 63% (24/38), 45% (17/38), and 42% (16/38) with SAEC, V3D, and 2D readings, respectively; whereas those of on-fold flat lesions were 39% (12/31), 16% (5/31), and 13% (4/31), respectively. None of the eight flat lesions (2-9 mm) at cecum was detected by any of the three reading methods. Excluding the flat lesions at cecum, the sensitivity with SAEC for detecting flat lesion {>=}4 mm increased to 84% (31/37). Conclusions: The fecal-tagging CTC with structure-analysis electronic cleansing could yield a high sensitivity for detecting flat lesions {>=}4 mm. The not-on-fold flat lesions were detected with higher sensitivity than on-fold flat lesions.

  3. Virulence Associated Genes-Deleted Salmonella Montevideo Is Attenuated, Highly Immunogenic and Confers Protection against Virulent Challenge in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalsiamthara, Jonathan; Lee, John H.

    2016-01-01

    To construct a novel live vaccine against Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo (SM) infection in chickens, two important bacterial regulatory genes, lon and cpxR, which are associated with invasion and virulence, were deleted from the wild type SM genome. Attenuated strains, JOL1625 (Δlon), JOL1597 (ΔcpxR), and JOL1599 (ΔlonΔcpxR) were thereby generated. Observations with scanning electron microscopy suggested that JOL1625 and JOL1599 cells showed increased ruffled surface which may be related to abundant extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. JOL1597 depicted milder ruffled surface but showed increased surface corrugation. ConA affinity-based fluorometric quantification and fluorescence microscopy revealed significant increases in EPS production in JOL1625 and JOL1599. Four weeks old chickens were used for safety and immunological studies. The mutants were not observed in feces beyond day 3 nor in spleen and cecum beyond day 7, whereas wild type SM was detected for at least 2 weeks in spleen and cecum. JOL1599 was further evaluated as a vaccine candidate. Chickens immunized with JOL1599 showed strong humoral responses, as indicated by systemic IgG and secretory IgA levels, as well as strong cell-mediated immune response, as indicated by increased lymphocyte proliferation. JOL1599-immunized groups also showed significant degree of protection against wild type challenge. Our results indicate that Δlon- and/or ΔcpxR-deleted SM exhibited EPS-enhanced immunogenicity and attenuation via reduced bacterial cell intracellular replication, conferred increased protection, and possess safety qualities favorable for effective vaccine development against virulent SM infections. PMID:27785128

  4. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

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    Bogomolnaya Lydia M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.

  5. The effects of polymorphisms in 7 candidate genes on resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in native chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, R; Idris, I B; Malar Panandam, J; Hair Bejo, M

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection is a common concern in poultry production for its negative effects on growth as well as food safety for humans. Identification of molecular markers that are linked to resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis may lead to appropriate solutions to control Salmonella infection in chickens. This study investigated the association of candidate genes with resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in young chickens. Two native breeds of Malaysian chickens, namely, Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl, were evaluated for bacterial colonization after Salmonella Enteritidis inoculation. Seven candidate genes were selected on the basis of their physiological role in immune response, as determined by prior studies in other genetic lines: natural resistance-associated protein 1 (NRAMP1), transforming growth factor β3 (TGFβ3), transforming growth factor β4 (TGFβ4), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (IAP1), caspase 1 (CASP1), lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α factor (LITAF), and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Polymerase chain reaction-RFLP was used to identify polymorphisms in the candidate genes; all genes exhibited polymorphisms in at least one breed. The NRAMP1-SacI polymorphism correlated with the differences in Salmonella Enteritidis load in the cecum (P = 0.002) and spleen (P = 0.01) of Village Chickens. Polymorphisms in the restriction sites of TGFβ3-BsrI, TGFβ4-MboII, and TRAIL-StyI were associated with Salmonella Enteritidis burden in the cecum, spleen, and liver of Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl (P Salmonella Enteritidis in native Malaysian chickens.

  6. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels in feed on microbial composition and activity in gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Vahjen, W; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Villodre, C; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-06-01

    Thermal treatments of feed and organic acids are known to affect the gastrointestinal microbiota in chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of different thermal processes including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), expanding at 110°C (E110), and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) as well as organic acid (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) inclusion levels (0, 0.75, and 1.5%) on gastrointestinal microbiota in broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. At d 35, bacterial cell numbers in the crop, ileum, and cecum, and bacterial metabolites in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were determined. The inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased cell numbers of all clostridial clusters in the crop. The organic acid supplementation increased the propionic acid concentration in the crop and gizzard and there was a decrease in lactic acid concentration. In the ileum, the 0% organic acid group had the highest numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and enterobacteria. Inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased ileal acetate concentration. Increasing the feed processing temperature led to an increase of lactobacilli in the crop and ileum, whereas clostridia and enterobacteria seemed unaffected. Similarly, lactate concentrations increased in the ileum, but short-chain fatty acids remained identical. In the crop, an increase for acetate was found for the E130 group compared with all other thermal treatments. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that thermal treatments and organic acid supplementation to broiler diets more markedly influenced the bacterial status of the crop compared with the downstream segments and their effects decreased along the length of gastrointestinal tract. Whereas organic acids markedly modified bacterial composition and activity in the crop, expansion increased lactobacilli and lactate in the crop and ileum.

  7. The biogenic amine tyramine modulates the adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, Mark

    2004-05-01

    The environmental factors that influence the ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to attach to the intestinal mucosa are incompletely understood. In the present study, the ability of one of the most common biogenic amines present in food, tyramine, to influence the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to adhere to murine cecal mucosa was examined. Ex vivo full-thickness sheets of murine cecum were mounted in Ussing chambers, which preserved the enteric nervous system innervation of the luminal epithelia and thereby allowed us to achieve a closer approximation of bacterial adherence than would be encountered in vivo. After exposure of the luminal aspect of the cecum to tyramine, E. coli O157:H7 was added for 90 min. The cecal tissue was then removed and washed, and adhered E. coli O157:H7 was enumerated using a selective medium. Tyramine significantly increased E. coli O157:H7 adherence to cecal mucosa when compared to that of controls. The 50% effective concentration of tyramine was 92.6 microM. Specific adrenergic antagonists were then employed to examine whether the effect of tyramine was mediated through alpha- or beta-adrenergic receptors on the intestinal tissue. Pretreatment of tissues with either the alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist phentolamine or the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol prevented the action of tyramine. Measurement of active transepithelial ion transport and ionic permeability in the cecal sheets before and after the addition of tyramine and E. coli O157:H7 did not show any impairment of tissue viability or transepithelial conductance. Further, tyramine did not influence either the growth of E. coli O157:H7 or the expression of the intimin attachment factor. The present findings suggest that biogenic amines, such as tyramine, present within the food matrix influence host susceptibility to E. coli O157:H7 infection.

  8. Chronic Consptipation and Diet

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    Mehmet Ince

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Constipation presented a lof of sign-symptoms is not a single disease and a disorder that affect colonic and anorectal function. Constipation is defined as decreased of defecation number by physicians and all of problems relation with defecation by patients. But a accurate and correct defitinition giving base on patophyslogically by Rome III criteria. As patophyslogically, constipation is improved by decreased material that will be reached cecum, decreased motility of colon and multiple results improving defecation disorders. Constipation can be divided irratable bowel syndrome with constipation (normal transit, slow transit constipation and defecation disorders but there is no accurate border in this classification. Neurotransmitters, stress, medical therapies, sleep and meals are association with etiology of constipation. A high fiber diet can reach easily to cecum and prevent constipation. Therefore aim of this review is to stress effect of fiber diet in the first and second type of constipation. Slow transit constipation in 13-15% patients and irratable bowel sendrom with constipation (normal transit in 59% patients has being diagnosed. Seconder causes of constipation can be found with a good history taking from patients. Accurate diagnosis can be find with colon transit time followed by abdominal and pelvic examinitian. Treatment should be begin after correction of seconder causes. It should be recommendation to patients a high fiber diet, exercise, appropriate fluid with medical therapy. Lubiprostone and Tegaserod are used to begin for treatment of slow transit constipation. Laparoscopic surgery is recommened to patients not recoveried by medical therapy. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 71-76

  9. Diagnostic yield of endomicroscopy for dysplasia in primary sclerosing cholangitis associated inflammatory bowel disease: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugosz, Aldona; Barakat, Ammar Mohkles; Björkström, Niklas K.; Öst, Åke; Bergquist, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Primary sclerosing cholangitis associated inflammatory bowel disease (PSC-IBD) is characterized by a high risk of colorectal dysplasia. Surveillance colonoscopies with random biopsies have doubtful power for dysplasia detection. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the feasibility and efficacy of pCLE in surveillance colonoscopies in patients with PSC-IBD. Patients and methods: Sixty-nine patients with PSC-IBD underwent colonoscopy in 2 steps. On the way from rectum to cecum, the mucosa was inspected with high definition endoscopy (HDE) and random biopsies were taken according to the standard routine. On the way from cecum to rectum, fluorescein-enhanced pCLE and chromoendoscopy were performed. Regions where random biopsies had been taken, as well as visible lesions, were examined with pCLE and targeted biopsies were taken of lesions suspicious for dysplasia. Two investigators, blinded to histology and endoscopy results, analyzed all pCLE videos off-line. Results: Nineteen biopsies obtained in 13 patients (17 targeted biopsies, 2 random biopsies) revealed the presence of low-grade dysplasia. Thirteen lesions with dysplasia were endoscopically visible but by using pCLE-targeted biopsies, additional endoscopically invisible dysplasias in 4 biopsies obtained from 3 patients were detected. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of pCLE in predicting dysplasia were respectively 89 % (95 % CI: 65 – 98), 96 % (95 % CI: 94 – 97), and 96 % (95 % CI: 94 – 97). pCLE showed a good performance for differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic mucosa with negative predictive value of 99 %. Conclusions: pCLE in PSC-IBD surveillance is feasible and may be a good complement to HDE. Future research should aim at elucidating whether real-time pCLE is applicable in PSC-IBD surveillance. PMID:27540581

  10. Performance of different categories of operators in simulated diagnostic colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Renato; Pertile, Riccardo; Seligman, Sonia; de Pretis, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The possible involvement, although limited to the diagnostic phase of the procedure, of nonmedical staff (particularly endoscopy nurses) in lower digestive endoscopy has recently been suggested. Computer-based simulators have demonstrated objective evaluation of technical skills in digestive endoscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate basic colonoscopy skills of endoscopy nurses (naive operators), as compared with junior physician staff and senior endoscopists, through a virtual reality colonoscopy simulator. In this single-center, prospective, nonrandomized study, 3 groups of digestive endoscopy operators (endoscopy nurses, junior doctors [500 previous colonoscopies and >200/year]) completed six diagnostic cases generated by an endoscopic simulator (AccuTouch, Immersion Medical, Gaithersburg, MD). The performance parameters, collected by the simulator, were compared between groups. Five parameters have been considered for statistical analysis: time spent to reach the cecum; pain of any degree; severe/extreme pain; amount of insufflated air; percentage of visualized mucosa. Statistical analysis to compare the three groups has been performed by means of Wilcoxon test for two independent samples and by means of Kruskal-Wallis test for three independent samples (p < .05). Sixteen operators have been studied (six endoscopy nurses, five junior doctors, and five senior doctors); 96 colonoscopic procedures have been evaluated. Statistically significant differences between experts and naive operators were observed regarding time to reach the cecum and induction of severe/extreme pain, with both Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon test (p < .05); all other comparisons did not reach statistical significance. Although, as expected, expert doctors exceeded both junior doctors and naive operators in some relevant quality parameters of simulated diagnostic colonoscopies, the results obtained by less expert performers--and particularly by nursing staff--appear satisfactory as in

  11. Immune response of broiler chickens immunized orally with the recombinant proteins flagellin and the subunit B of cholera toxin associated with Lactobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, A A S; Donato, T C; Garcia, K C O D; Gonçalves, G A M; Coppola, M P; Okamoto, A S; Sequeira, J L; Andreatti Filho, R L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the immune response of broiler chickens with oral treatment of a Lactobacillus spp. pool (PL) associated with microencapsulated recombinant proteins flagellin (FliC) and the subunit B of cholera toxin (CTB). Immune responses were evaluated by measuring IgA from intestinal fluid, serum IgY, and immunostaining of CD8(+) T lymphocytes present in the cecum. The evaluations were performed on d 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 posttreatment. A significant increase (P < 0.05) was observed in IgA levels in all immunized groups, especially 3 wk after immunization. Treatments 2 (recombinant CTB) and 3 (recombinant FliC+CTB) showed the highest concentrations. Similarly, serum concentrations IgY (μg/mL) increased along the experiment, and the means for treatments 2 and 3 showed significant differences (P < 0.05) compared with controls, reaching concentrations of 533 and 540 μg/mL, respectively. The number of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in all treatments greatly differed (P < 0.05) compared with the negative control at 21 d posttreatment. However, only treatment 2 (recombinant CTB), 4 (PL), and 5 (recombinant FliC+ recombinant CTB + PL) remained significantly (P < 0.05) different from the control at 28 d posttreatment. Thus, it is concluded that the microencapsulated recombinant proteins administered orally to broiler chickens are capable of stimulating humoral and cellular immune response, and the combinations of these antigens with Lactobacillus spp. can influence the population of CD8(+) T cells residing in the cecum.

  12. Atypical presentation of acute idiopathic megacolon in a 14-year-old patient

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    B. Barakat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice the term “megacolon” is used to indicate a marked dilatation of the cecum and the sigmoid colon (>12 and 6.5 cm, respectively (1. From a clinical standpoint, a megacolon can be classified as chronic or acute depending on its clinical presentation. Chronic megacolon typically refers to a congenital disorder in which the enteric nervous system (ENS supplying the colon does not develop properly, thereby leaving the distal segments of the viscus without myenteric and submucosal ganglia (i.e. Hirschsprung’s disease (2. Other cases of non-aganglionic chronic megacolon can be secondary to variety of conditions such as Chagas’ disease and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, leading to or associated with ENS abnormalities (3. The acute form of megacolon, also referred to as Ogilvie’s syndrome, is characterized by a predominant involvement of the cecum and right colon usually affecting elderly patients undergoing surgery (e.g. orthopedic procedures or taking medications altering gut motility (e.g. opioids or antidepressants (4. Some forms of acute megacolon, however, can be idiopathic in origin since no underlying etiology can be identified. Patients with acute idiopathic megacolon usually have a longstanding history of constipation, often accompanied by laxative abuse, and their clinical presentation is characterized by abdominal distension and severe pain with radiological evidence of stool impacted in the colon and rectum (1, 4. The case herein reported represents an unusual form of acute idiopathic megacolon characterized by massive descending and sigmoid colon distension complicated with a volvulus in a 14-year-old boy with no Hirschsprung’s disease. In addition, just to increase the peculiarity of this case report, the patient had an unremarkable clinical record, and never suffered from chronic constipation in the past.

  13. The scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

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    Marano, A.R.; Caride, V.J.; Shah, R.V.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.J.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Diffuse disturbance in gastrointestinal motility may be present in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To further investigate small intestinal motility in IBS patients small intestinal transit time (SITT) was determined and related to the symptom status. 11 female patients with IBS (mean age 29 years) were divided into those whose predominate symptom was diarrhea (N=6), and those with only constipation (N=5). All subjects ingested an isosmotic solution of lactulose (10 gm in 150cc of water) labeled with 99m-Tc-DTPA (Sn). The patient was studied supine under a 25 inch gamma camera with data collected at 1 frame per minute for 180 minutes or until activity appeared in the ascending colon. Regions of interest were selected over the cecum and ascending colon. The time of first appearance of radioactivity in the region of the cecum was taken as the small intestinal transit time. SITT in the 5 normal females was 98.7 +- 13 min (mean +- SEM). SITT in the IBS patients with diarrhea, 67.3 +- 7 min was significantly faster (p< 0.08). SITT in the constipated IBS patients, 126 +- 12 min, was slower than normals and significantly different from diarrhea patients (p< 0.001). These studies show that IBS patients with diarrhea have significantly faster SITT than normals while constipated IBS patients have significantly slower SITT than the diarrhea subgroup. Further, this study emphasizes the need to study the various symptomatic subgroups of IBs patients independently and indicates a possible role for abnormal SITT in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  14. Soy protein diet, but not Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, decreases mucin-1, trefoil factor-3, and tumor necrosis factor-α in colon of dextran sodium sulfate-treated C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huanyi; Przybyszewski, Joseph; Mitra, Debjani; Becker, Chad; Brehm-Stecher, Byron; Tentinger, Amy; MacDonald, Ruth S

    2011-07-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases has increased during recent decades. Within the colon, the families of mucins (MUC) and trefoil factors (TFF) facilitate mucosal protection. Probiotic administration influences the intestinal MUC layer. Additionally, food components may affect gut microflora or have direct effects on the MUC barrier. Our objective was to determine whether diet and/or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) would mediate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis by altering expression of the MUC and TFF genes. C57BL/6 mice were fed diets containing 20% (wt:wt) casein, soy, or whey proteins with or without LGG for 12 d. Seven days after starting LGG diets, the mice were given 2% DSS in drinking water for 4 d. Two additional casein groups with or without LGG were given tap water, for a total of 8 groups. One day after the DSS treatment, the mice were killed and the colon and cecum tissues and cecum contents were collected and analyzed by qRT-PCR. Whey protein significantly increased cecal LGG content compared with the other diets. In the casein diet groups, MUC1 and TFF-3 expression in colon was significantly induced by DSS independent of LGG. Compared with other DSS-treated groups, soy protein decreased MUC-1 and TFF-3 in the colon. Similarly, soy protein decreased the impact of DSS on inflammatory scores, TNFα gene expression, and colon shortening. There was no overall effect of LGG on these measurements. In conclusion, soy protein suppressed the DSS-induced inflammatory stimulation of MUC, TFF, and TNFα gene expression independently of LGG.

  15. Resposta terapêutica e inflamatória de ratos com peritonite secundária submetidos ao uso tópico de ampicilina/sulbactam Therapeutical and inflammatory response in rats with secondary peritonitis and topical use of ampicilin/sulbactam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Kreimer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A peritonite aguda representa uma importante causa de sepsis e óbito nas unidades de terapia intensiva e cirurgia. Classicamente o seu tratamento deve incluir: a administração sistêmica de antibióticos, a remoção mecânica dos contaminantes e a restauração da integridade gastrintestinal. A utilização de antibióticos diretamente na cavidade peritoneal é controversa. Estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o uso terapêutico, intraperitoneal da ampicilina associada ao sulbactam. MÉTODOS: foram mensurados os níveis plasmáticos do óxido nítrico, bem como a contagem de eosinófilos, linfócitos, monócitos e neutrófilos no sangue e no lavado peritoneal, utilizando-se modelo de peritonite em ratos (ligadura-transfixação cecal. Vinte quatro ratos Wistar, machos, foram divididos em quatro grupos de seis animais, assim distribuídos: grupo A: método de indução de peritonite - soltura da ligadura + tratamento com soro fisiológico; grupo B: método de indução de peritonite + soltura da ligadura + tratamento com soro fisiológico acrescido de ampicilina / sulbactam; grupo C: método de indução de peritonite + soltura da ligadura-transfixação cecal; e grupo D: laparatomia para realização de lavado peritoneal mais coleta de sangue. A ligadura-transfixação do cecum permaneceu por 24 horas, antes do tratamento instaurado. Foi realizada uma relaparotomia nos 18 ratos com coleta de líquido de lavado peritoneal e sangue. Foram dosados os níveis plasmáticos de óxido nítrico e determinado o número de eosinófilos, linfócitos, monócitos e neutrófilos no sangue e no lavado peritoneal. RESULTADOS: Não ocorreu diferença estatisticamente significante (p > 0,05 nos níveis de óxido nítrico, bem como no número de eosinófilos, linfócitos, monócitos e neutrófilos no sangue e no lavado peritoneal, entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo, concluiu-se que: a utilização de ampicilina associada a sulbactam por via

  16. Quantos exames são necessários para adquirir aptidão em colonoscopia? How many procedures are necessary to achieve competency in colonoscopy?

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    Fernanda Prata Borges Martins Thuler

    2004-12-01

    o número de exames realizados. Dependendo, porém, de aptidões individuais, talvez mais de 100 exames sejam necessários no treinamento.BACKGROUND: Competency for colonoscopy implies technical and cognitive skills. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy has suggested 100 supervised procedures might be necessary. There are no specific recommendations in Brazil. AIM: To evaluate technical progress of trainees during a regular colonoscopy training program. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Two gastrointestinal fellows at Federal University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, were prospectively evaluated during first year training. The frequency and time of reaching the cecum, total procedure duration, ability to identify lesions and patient discomfort were recorded. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy one colonoscopies were preformed by both fellows (fellow A: 186 and B: 85. Twenty-seven cases were excluded of obstructive lesions or previous surgery, leading 171 and 72 exams, respectively. The mean success rate of reaching the cecum was 82.5% and 56.9%, respectively. For the first 72 exams it was 72.2% and 56.9%. Fellow A reached the cecum in 76% of first 100 colonoscopies, improving to 91.5% after the 101st. Mean time for trainees to complete the procedure was 17.7 and 23.5 minutes to fellows A and B. Trainee A took 19.8 and 14.7 minutes before and after the 100th colonoscopy. DISCUSSION: Success rate and time taken to reach the cecum progressively improved over the number of procedures with statistical significance. However, because of individual differences, 100 colonoscopies may be insufficient to acquisition of technical skills. CONCLUSION: Although analyzing the learning curve of two fellows only, we could notice a statistically significant improve in reaching the cecum with experience over time. However, depending on individual skills more than 100 procedures may be necessary during training.

  17. Clinical and histological responses to laparoscopically-induced peritonitis in rats Resposta clínica e histológica à indução de peritonite via laparoscopia em ratos

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    Paulo Roberto Rodrigues Bicalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of inducing peritonitis in rats through laparoscopic cecal ligation (CL, by means of an elastic band. METHODS: Twelve Wistar rats were subjected to cecal ligated with an elastic band applied using a specially constructed applicator. In six of the animals (the CL group the cecal sac was preserved intact whilst in the remaining animals (the CLP group the sac was perforated with scissors. Clinical parameters, characteristics of the peritoneal cavity and cecum, and histological features of the cecal tissue were observed in all experimental animals 8 and 24 h after surgery. RESULTS: CLP animals exhibited at least one clinical sign of sepsis within the first 8 h of observation. The peritoneal liquid was observed to be clear in almost all members of the CLP. Polymorphonucleated cells were detected in the tunica serosa of the cecum of CLP animals. In contrast, all members of the CL group were alive after 24h, and of polymorphonucleated cells in the muscle layer of the cecal wall were observed. The presence of peritoneal liquid was not detected in CL animals. CONCLUSION: Although elastic ligation of the cecum was reproducible, puncture of the cecal sac was essential for induction of sepsis.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia de induzir peritonite em ratos através da ligadura cecal laparoscópica (CL, por meio de banda elástica. MÉTODOS: Doze ratos Wistar foram submetidos a ligadura cecal com banda elástica aplicada com dispositivo especialmente construído para este fim. Em seis animais (grupo CL, a bolsa cecal foi mantida intacta, enquanto nos outros animais (grupo CLP, a bolsa foi perfurada com tesoura. Parâmetros clínicos, características da cavidade peritonial e ceco, e histologia do tecido cecal foram examinados em todos os animais 8 e 24 horas após a cirurgia. RESULTADOS: Os animais do grupo CLP apresentaram pelo menos um sinal clínico de sepses nas primeiras 8 h de observação. Líquido peritonial claro foi

  18. The impact of procedural sequence on the quality of bowel preparation in patients with propofol sedation for same-day bidirectional endoscopy%静脉麻醉下联合胃肠镜检查顺序对肠道清洁度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋青伟; 李晓青; 吴晰; 舒慧君; 郭涛; 徐建青; 杨爱明

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨静脉麻醉下联合胃肠镜检查中,先做胃镜对肠道清洁度有无不利影响,为合理检查顺序提供参考.方法 单中心随机盲法观察性研究.65例患者随机分成A组(先做胃镜后做结肠镜)和B组(先做肠镜后做胃镜组),根据改良波士顿肠道准备评分标准评估2组肠道清洁度,并比较2组丙泊酚用量、肠镜达盲时间、在操作室总时间、麻醉诱导和恢复时间以及不良事件发生情况.结果 2组全结肠清洁度差异无统计学意义(6.72±1.34比6.89±1.50;t=-0.473,P=0.638),而回盲部清洁度差异有统计学意义(1.21±0.54比1.55±0.73;t=-2.158,P=0.035).2组间操作时间、丙泊酚用量和不良事件发生率等差异无统计学意义.结论 静脉麻醉下联合胃肠镜检查时先肠镜后胃镜组回盲部清洁度优于先胃镜后肠镜组,而全结肠清洁度组间差异无统计学意义.对怀疑回盲部病变的患者,若行联合胃肠镜检查,可考虑优先行肠镜检查.%Objective To evaluate the impact of sequence on the quality of bowel preparation in patients with anesthesia for same-day sequential bidirectional endoscopy and propose the optimal procedural sequence.Methods Single center blinded randomized observational study.Sixty-five patients were randomized to either the gastroscopy-first group or the colonoscopy-first group.Bowel cleanliness according to Boston bowel preparation scale (BBPS) scores were evaluated,also done the propofol dosage,caecal intubation time,procedure duration and complications.Results The BBPS score of entire colon showed no difference (6.72 ± 1.34 vs.6.89 ± 1.50,P =0.638),but the BBPS of ileal-cecum portion was higher in the colonoscopy-first group (1.21 ±0.54 vs.1.55 ±0.73,P =0.035).The total procedure time,propofol dosage and complications were similar between the two groups.Conclusion The bowel cleanliness of ileal-cecum portion in colonoscopy-first group is better than that of gastroscopy-first group

  19. Infecção natural por Listeria monocytogenes em cobaios Cavia porcellus Natural infection by Listeria monocytogenes in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus

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    Hugo Henrique Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeriose foi identificada em quatro porcos-da-índia (Cavia porcellus enviados para diagnóstico postmortem. Dois cobaios (1 e 2, apresentaram especialmente nódulos esbranquiçados multifocais no fígado e ceco, alterações que corresponderam microscopicamente a múltiplos focos necróticos associados com estruturas bacterianas basofílicas, degeneração gordurosa difusa e infiltrado linfocitário periportal. Lesões similares estavam presentes no intestino delgado, ceco e baço desses dois cobaios. Os outros cobaios (3 e 4 apresentavam exclusivamente alterações pulmonares caracterizadas por coloração avermelhada difusa e áreas esbranquiçadas multifocais na superfície pleural associadas histologicamente com infiltrado neutrofílico multifocal acentuado nos lúmens alveolar e bronquiolar, além de edema interseptal e alveolar, trombos vasculares e numerosos macrófagos alveolares (pneumonia supurativa. Em seções histológicas coradas pelo Brown-Hopps, foram identificadas estruturas bacilares Gram-positivas. A avaliação imuno-histoquímica para anticorpos antiListeria monocytogenes revelou marcação fortemente positiva nos focos necróticos do fígado, ceco, baço, útero, estômago e linfonodos mesentéricos dos dois cobaios com listeriose sistêmica. Nos cobaios com pneumonia supurativa, observou-se intensa marcação nos lúmens alveolares. L. monocytogenes foi isolada de amostras de fígado e de casca de arroz utilizada como cama dos cobaios. Sugere-se que as lesões pulmonares foram consequentes à aspiração de partículas da cama de casca de arroz contaminada com L. monocytogenes.Listeriosis was identified in four guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus received for post mortem evaluation. Two animals showed multifocal white nodules in the liver and cecum. These changes corresponded microscopically to multiple necrotic foci associated with basophilic bacterial structures, diffuse lipid vacuolation, and periportal lymphocytic

  20. 日粮中不同稻壳替代水平对19~28日龄仔鹅肠道微生物区系的影响

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    蔡中梅; 王志跃; 杨海明

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在利用PCR-DGGE(变性梯度凝胶电泳)技术研究日粮中不同稻壳替代水平对19~28日龄扬州鹅肠道微生物区系的影响。选用19日龄扬州公鹅260只,随机分成4组,每组5个重复,每个重复13只。A组饲喂基础日粮,B、C、D组分别饲喂7%、14%、21%稻壳替代的基础日粮。在28日龄时采集各肠段内容物进行总DNA的提取,对细菌16S rRNA V3区用细菌通用引物进行PCR扩增,利用DGGE电泳技术分析肠道微生物区系。结果显示:不同稻壳替代水平对十二指肠、空肠、盲肠菌群条带总数量影响不明显,但共有条带存在一定差异;十二指肠、空肠各组间菌群相似性程度均较低,盲肠组间相似性程度最高。由此可见,不同程度的稻壳替代能够影响肠道菌群分布,其中对十二指肠、空肠影响较大,对盲肠影响较小。%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of different proportions of rice husk replaced diets on intestinal microflora of geese from 19~28 days by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.Two hundred and sixty 19-day-old healthy Yangzhou geese were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 5 replicates of 13 geese each.The control group (A) were fed with basic diet (A);groups B,C,D were fed with 7%,14%,21% rice husk replaced diets,respectively.The genomic DNA was extracted from the content of various intestinal segments at the age of 28 days.The V3 variable region of bacterial 16S rRNA was amplified with universal primer.Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the amplicons were analyzed.The results showed that different proportions of rice husk replaced diets had no significant effects on the band quantity of microflora in duodenum jejunun,and cecum of geese,the common bands were different.And different pro-portions of rice husk replaced diets had no significant effects on the microflora similarity degree in duodenum and je-junum,the similarity index in

  1. 免疫应激对肉鸡肠道微生物区系的影响%Effects of Different Immune Status on the Variation of Intestinal Microflora Community in Broiler Chickens(Gallus gallus)

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    冯焱; 杨小军; 胡雄兵; 刘烨; 尹瑞卿; 覃定奎; 姚军虎

    2012-01-01

    微生物区系的平衡是确保肠道健康的重点,本研究对不同免疫状态下肉仔鸡消化道内微生物变化规律进行了研究.选用180只AA肉公鸡随机分4个处理,每个处理5个重复,每个重复9只肉公鸡.实验分为无免疫组、常规免疫组、免疫亢进和免疫抑制4个处理组.于21、28、35和42日龄肠段的内容物,提取总DNA,并以此为模板获得反映肠道微生物群落结构特征的肠杆菌基因间重复序列-PCR(ERIC-PCR)指纹图谱,比较各DNA样品指纹图谱的相似性指数.ERIC-PCR扩增产物大部分为200~2 000 bp的基因片段,聚类分析显示,各日龄阶段,处理组间十二指肠细菌种群结构的相似性最高(75%),其次是盲肠(40%),回肠(39%)和空肠(38%)的相似性较低.图谱的条带数目为十二指肠>回肠>盲肠>空肠.28和35日龄,十二指肠和空肠脂多糖(LPS)组条带都低于21日龄,而回肠和盲肠的未见显著变化.21日龄,回肠环磷酰胺(CYP)组的条带低于其他处理组.不同免疫状态影响回肠、空肠和盲肠道微生物区系,42日龄,不同免疫状态对微生物数量和种群的影响不明显.%It focuses on the intestinal health that balances in microbial flora. The objective of this study was to examine the variation of gastrointestinal tract microflora in broilers raised under different immune status. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) was conducted to evaluate this effect in broilers. Treatments consisted of a negative control, general vaccination, lipopolysaccharide(LPS) + general vaccination and cyclophosphamide (CYP )+ general vaccination. On the age of 21, 28, 35 and 42 d, digesta of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected to assay for gut microflora. The results showed that the DNA fingerprinting of ERIC-PCR had high stability and repetition. The molecular weights of gene fragment were almost from 200 to 2 000 bp after ERIC-PCR amplification. Different

  2. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

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    Xiangbing Mao

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05 in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05 reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05 in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05, and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05 in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier

  3. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiangbing; Gu, Changsong; Hu, Haiyan; Tang, Jun; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Luo, Junqiu; Tian, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05), and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier function

  4. Chinese medicine compound Changtong oral liquid on postoperative intestinal adhesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Xiao Yang; Han-Ping Shi; Lian-Bing Hou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of a Chinese medicine compound Changtong oral liquid (CT) on tissue plasminogen activity (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), TGF-β1 and hydroxyproline (OHP).METHODS: Two sets of animal experiments were performed in the present study. Forty New Zealand rabbits and 48 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned randomly to one of the five groups: sham adhesion, adhesion with saline, adhesion with low dosage of the CT, adhesion with middle dosage of the CT and adhesion with high dosage of the CT. t-PA and PAI activity in plasma, OHP and TGF-β1 expression in adhesion were investigated. Analysis of variance was used to test differences among groups.RESULTS: CT treatment increased plasma t-PA activity in rabbits but decreased TGF-β1 activity in rats. The data were expressed from low to high dose respectively as follows: t-PA, 46.1±8.6 μkat/L, 59.6±10.1 μkat/L, 64.0±11.5 μkat/L; TGF-β1 28±7.23%, 31±3.05%, 30±4.04%. There were significant differences compared with saline-treated animals (t-PA 26.4±5.1 μkat/L, TGF-β1 54±5.51%). OHP content in cecum of rabbits from middle and high but not low dose of CT lowered significantly as compared with saline-treated rabbits, 0.3641±0.1373, 0.3348±0.0321, 0.2757±0.0497 mg/g vs0.4183±0.0883 mg/g of protein, P>0.05, P<0.05, P<0.05 respectively. The rabbit plasma PAI activity and OHP content in abdominal wall had no difference in all groups.CONCLUSION: CT treatment significantly enhanced t-PA activity in rabbits, but decreased TGF-β1 content in rats, OHP content in cecum of rabbits, and failed to affect the activity of PAI and OHP content in abdominal wall in rabbits,compared with saline group. The result suggests that CT could effectively prevent adhesions without interfering wound healing.

  5. Role of intravenously administered hyoscine butyl bromide in retrograde terminal ileoscopy: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SP Misra; M Dwivedi

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To evaluated the role of hyoscine butyl bromide in facilitating retrograde ileoscopy.METHODS:Retrograde terminal ileoscopy was attempted in 200 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy. After intubation of the cecum and visualization of the ileocecal valve,butyl bromide injection or normal saline was given intravenously to the patients in a double blind random fashion. The pulse rate and oxygen saturation were measured continuously. After completion of the procedure,endoscopists were then asked to score the ease of intubation and the ease of visualization of the terminal ileum on a visual scale of 1 to 10. The patients were also asked to score the pain after receiving hyoscine butyl bromide injection on a score of 1 to 10.RESULTS:Terminal ileoscopy could be performed in 188 patients. The mean (SD) visual analogue score for the ease of intubation of the cecum was 7.4 (0.65) in the injection group and 5.9 (0.8) in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean (SD) length of ileum visualized in the injection group was 14.4 (3.3) cm and 10.4 (2.7) cm in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean (SD) visual analogue score for ease of visualization of the terminal ileum was 7.5 (0.69) in the injection group and 5.9 (0.7) in the placebo group (P<0.001). The pain score experienced by the patients was 6.5 (0.7) in the injection group and 6.7 (0.69) in the placebo group (P<0.008). Although the pulse rate increased significantly in patients receiving the drug,no statistically significant difference was noted in the oxygen saturation between the two groups either before or after administration of the drug. No complications were observed in either of the groups.CONCLUSION:Hyoscine butyl bromide injection is a useful adjunct in helping the intubation and visualizationof terminal ileum during colonoscopy.

  6. Prebiotic Properties of Galursan HF 7K on Mouse Gut Microbiota

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    Melinda A. Engevik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the rise of antibiotic resistance, new alternatives are being sought to effectively modulate the characteristics of gut microbiota to obtain pathogen resistance without the use of antibiotics. In the past, an oligosaccharide derivative of carrots, galursan HF 7K (GHF7K, has been used clinically in Austria and recently in the fowl-industry to promote health. This study examined the potential role of GHF7K as a prebiotic to alter the gut microbiota in mice. Methods: Mice were fed either a control diet (CT or a diet containing 2% GHF7K in the water and chow for 2 weeks, and weight, food and water consumption, gut microbiota and ion composition of the intestinal fluid were examined. Results: Dietary supplement of GHF7K did not alter mouse weight or daily food consumption. Additionally, no changes were observed in the total number of luminal or mucosa-associated bacteria populations in GHF7K-fed mice. GHF7K supplementation significantly altered the composition of luminal, and to a less extent, mucosa-associated bacterial populations at the level of the phyla, with region-specific differences. Similar to antibiotic use, Proteobacteria number was increased in the ileum and colon of GHF7K-fed mice, with no changes in the number of beneficial Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera of phylum Firmicutes. Corresponding with the altered gut microbiota, changes in the ion composition of the intestinal fluid were observed. An increased Cl- concentration was observed in the duodenum and jejunum, while the Na+ concentration was increased in the cecum of GHF7K-fed mice. Decreases were observed in the K+ concentration in the cecum and distal colon. Conclusions: Dietary supplement of GHF7K is capable of altering the gut microbiota, which correlates to changes in the intestinal environment. These data suggest that GHF7K dietary supplement can purposefully be used to alter the gut microbiota, and thus could potentially represent an alternative

  7. Alcohol-related changes in the intestinal microbiome influence neutrophil infiltration, inflammation and steatosis in early alcoholic hepatitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satishchandran, Abhishek; Iracheta-Vellve, Arvin; Ambade, Aditya; Kodys, Karen; Catalano, Donna; Ward, Doyle V.; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2017-01-01

    Background Alcohol-induced intestinal dysbiosis disrupts homeostatic gut-liver axis function and is essential in the development of alcoholic liver disease. Here, we investigate changes in enteric microbiome composition in a model of early alcoholic steatohepatitis and dissect the pathogenic role of intestinal microbes in alcohol-induced liver pathology. Materials and methods Wild type mice received a 10-day diet that was either 5% alcohol-containing or an isocaloric control diet plus a single binge. 16S rDNA sequencing defined the bacterial communities in the cecum of alcohol- and pair-fed animals. Some mice were treated with an antibiotic cocktail prior to and throughout alcohol feeding. Liver neutrophils, cytokines and steatosis were evaluated. Results Acute-on-chronic alcohol administration induced shifts in various bacterial phyla in the cecum, including increased Actinobacteria and a reduction in Verrucomicrobia driven entirely by a reduction in the genus Akkermansia. Antibiotic treatment reduced the gut bacterial load and circulating bacterial wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that bacterial load suppression prevented alcohol-related increases in the number of myeloperoxidase- (MPO) positive infiltrating neutrophils in the liver. Expression of liver mRNA tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfα), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (Cxcl1) and circulating protein monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were also reduced in antibiotic-treated alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis measured by Oil-Red O staining was significantly reduced in antibiotic treated mice. Genes regulating lipid production and storage were also altered by alcohol and antibiotic treatment. Interestingly, antibiotic treatment did not protect from alcohol-induced increases in serum aminotransferases (ALT/AST). Conclusions Our data indicate that acute-on-chronic alcohol feeding alters the microflora at multiple taxonomic levels and identifies loss of Akkermansia as an

  8. High concentrate diet induced mucosal injuries by enhancing epithelial apoptosis and inflammatory response in the hindgut of goats.

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    Shiyu Tao

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that lipopolysaccharide and volatile fatty acids (VFA accumulate in the digestive tract of ruminants fed diets containing high portions of grain. Compared to the ruminal epithelium, the hindgut epithelium is composed of a monolayer structure that is more "leaky" for lipopolysaccharide and susceptible to organic acid-induced damage. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in epithelial structure, apoptosis and inflammatory response in the hindgut of goats fed a high-concentrate diet for 6 weeks.Eight local Chinese goats with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to two groups: one group was fed a high-concentrate diet (65% concentrate of dry matter, HC and the other group was fed a low-concentrate diet (35% concentrate of dry matter, LC for 6 wks. Ruminal fluid, plasma, and hindgut mucosa tissues were collected. Histological techniques, real-time PCR and western blotting were used to evaluate the tissues structure, cell apoptosis and local inflammation in the hindguts.Feeding HC diet for 6 wks resulted in a significant decrease of ruminal pH (p<0.01, and ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentrations were significantly increased in HC goats (p<0.05. Obvious damage was observed to mucosal epithelium of the hindgut and the intercellular tight junctions in HC, but not in LC, goats. The expression of MyD88 and caspase-8 mRNA was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats compared to LC (p<0.05, and the expression of TLR-4 and caspase-3 showed a tendency to increase. In the cecum, interleukin-1β mRNA expression was decreased (p<0.05, and caspase-3 showed a potential increase (p = 0.07 in HC goats. The level of NF-κB protein was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats. Caspase-3 activity was elevated in both colon and cecum, whereas caspase-8 activity was statistically increased only in colon.Feeding a high-concentrate diet to goats for 6 wks led to hindgut mucosal injuries via activating epithelial cells apoptosis

  9. Técnica do aproveitamento da papila íleo-cecal naileostomia definitiva e na anastomose íleo-retal Technique of preserving the ileum-caecal papilla in the definitive ileostomy and ileum-rectal anastomose

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    Alcino Lázaro da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Quando se faz ileostomia com a papila, a perda líquida é bem menor e a irritação local às vezes é nula, podendo o paciente viver sem o uso da bolsa. OBJETIVO: Mostrar uma técnica operatória em que se preserva a papila na ileostomia ou na anastomose íleo-retal. Ela consta da preservação da vasculatura do ceco e íleo terminal e secção do ceco deixando-se 1 cm de orla na papila ileal que é fixada na pele por contra-abertura para ileostomia definitiva. Quando se resseca o cólon, a papila é anastomosada ao reto (íleo-papilo-retostomia. RESULTADOS: São bons, pois há diminuição do número de evacuações, da perda de líquidos nas fezes e da irritação epidérmica. CONCLUSÃO: O procedimento é exequível e traz resultados que melhoram a qualidade de vida do paciente.INTRODUCTION: When ileostomy is done with the ileum-caecal papilla, the liquid is decreased and happens much less local irritation and its possible that the patient can live without the use of the bag. OBJECTIVE: To show a surgical technique that preserves the papilla in ileostomy or ileo-rectal cancer. METHOD: It is done with the preservation of the vasculature of the cecum and terminal ileum; cecum section is made leaving 1 cm border, coronal, on the ileal papilla, which is fixed on the skin for a counter-opening for permanent ileostomy. When a colectomy is needed, the anastomosis can be made with the rectal stump (papilla-ileum-retostomy. RESULTS: They are good because there is a decrease in the number of bowel movements, loss of fluid in the stool and less epidermal irritation. CONCLUSION: The procedure is feasible and brings results that improve the quality of life of patients.

  10. 中草药复合微生态制剂对肉鸡肠道菌群和肝脏功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于佳民; 谢全喜; 徐辉; 亓秀晔; 陈振; 徐海燕; 谷巍

    2016-01-01

    为研究中草药复合微生态制剂(CHCP)对肉鸡肠道菌群和肝脏的保护作用,试验选用120只1日龄健康白羽肉雏鸡,随机分为4组,每组3个重复,每个重复10只鸡,对照组饲喂基础日粮,试验Ⅰ组、Ⅱ组饲喂基础日粮的同时分别饮水添加1‰CHCP、2‰CHCP。结果表明:在28、42日龄,Ⅰ组肉鸡盲肠乳杆菌数量在一定程度上高于阴性对照组3.15%、3.52%(P>0.05),直肠乳酸杆菌数量高于阴性对照组8.6%、6.78%(P 0.05)。28、42日龄,1‰CHCP组血清谷丙转氨酶水平低于阴性对照组41.05%(P0.05)、27%(P0.05);35日龄时,1‰CHCP组内毒素水平比阴性对照组低45.1%(P0.05);the num-ber of rectal Lactobacilli were 8.6%,6.78% higher than that of the negative control group significantly (P 0.05).The Alanine aminotransferase levels in 1‰CHCP group were 41.05%(P 0.05) lower than that of the negative control group respectively.The serum endotoxin levels in 1‰ CHCP group were 45.1%(P < 0.01) lower than that of the negative control group.The re-sults suggested that 1‰ CHCP were fed by water could promote the Lactic acid bacteria in broilers cecum,rectum con-tens,reduce the number of E.coli in broilers cecum,rectum contens,modulate the intestinal flora,maintain intestinal health,and 1‰CHCP fed by water could reduce serum transaminase activity,total bilirubin and endotoxin levels,thus had a protective effect on broiler liver.

  11. Anticoccidial effects of coumestans from Eclipta alba for sustainable control of Eimeria tenella parasitosis in poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, M G; Bertolini, L C T; Esteves, A F; Moreira, P; Franca, S C

    2011-04-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of a product containing coumestans from Eclipta alba. Experimental conditions were set up as to reproduce the environment conditions for husbandry adopted in commercial broiler farms. Broilers were raised in broiler chicken shed provided with feeders, drinkers, illumination and temperature control systems and floor covering to afford an adequate nourishing environment. Male Cobb broilers (240) were assigned to four experimental groups being each experimental group set apart in rice straw-covered shed isolated with wire mesh. One-day-old broilers were reared in a coccidian-free environment with ad libitum supply of filtered water and freely available standard feed, from the 1st to the 35th day of life. The T1 group received standard feed (negative control); T2 was treated with standard feed supplemented with 66 ppm of salinomycin (positive control); groups T3 and T4 had standard feed supplemented with the ethyl acetate fraction from methanolic extract of E. alba aerial parts, which contains the coumestans WL and DWL (120 and 180 ppm, respectively). The chicken broilers were individually infected with 2 × 104 oocysts of Eimeria tenella when they were 14 days old and were monitored weekly to evaluate zootechnical parameters such as weight gain and food conversion ratio. Counting of coccidial oocyst in chicken feces was assessed from random samples, from the 21st to 28th days of life, which corresponded to 7-14 days after the infection. Five chickens selected at random from each experimental group were subsequently euthanized at 21, 28 or 35 days of life to determine the lesion score in the cecal region and to excise a cecum portion for histopathological evaluation. The group treated with coumestans from E. alba presented an average weight gain and food conversion ratio higher than the negative control group and similar to the mean value of the positive control group. Coumestan-treated groups showed a

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation with glutamine and a combination of glutamine-arginine on intestinal health in twenty-five-day-old weaned rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, S; de Blas, C; Grant, G; Badiola, I; Menoyo, D; Carabaño, R

    2010-01-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with 1% l-glutamine and a combination of 1% l-glutamine and 0.5% l-arginine on intestinal health was examined in weaned rabbits. A basal diet was formulated to meet nutrient recommendations. Another 2 diets were formulated by adding 1% (as-fed basis) Gln or a mixture of 1% (as-fed basis) Gln + 0.5% (as-fed basis) Arg (Gln-Arg) to the basal diet. In Exp. 1, a total of 357 rabbits were blocked by litter and assigned at random to the experimental diet to determine mortality (119 per diet) and growth performance (35 per diet; from weaning at 25 to 56 d of age). Rabbits were fed the experimental diets for a 2-wk period and thereafter received a commercial diet. Rabbits weaned at 25 d (blocked by litter and assigned at random to diets) were slaughtered at 35 d and used to determine apparent ileal digestibility of DM, CP, and AA (Exp. 2, a total of 60 rabbits), intestinal morphology, N-aminopeptidase and myeloperoxidase intestinal activity, the expression of PPARgamma at the ileum and kidney, serum immunoglobulin in healthy and sick rabbits (Exp. 3, a total of 24 rabbits), and ileal and cecal microbial composition by PCR-RFLP (Exp. 4, a total of 45 rabbits). Dietary treatment did not affect ADG, ADFI, or G:F, during the entire fattening period. Supplementation with Gln reduced mortality during the first 2 wk and the whole fattening period from 18.5 to 8.4% (P = 0.023) and from 31.9 to 20.2% (P = 0.039), respectively, whereas no effect was detected for Arg supplementation. Among all the variables studied, the reduction on mortality due to Gln was related to a reduced intestinal colonization (Eimeria lesions) and changes on microbial ecosystem in the ileum and cecum, reducing the frequency of detection of Clostridium spp. (from 86.7 to 33.3%, P = 0.003) at the ileum, and Helicobacter spp. at the ileum (from 86.7 to 46.7%, P = 0.003) and at the cecum (from 86.7 to 46.7, P = 0.028), whereas no effect was detected for Arg supplementation

  13. Differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Beatrice; Zentek, Jürgen; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2013-02-17

    Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem and is often associated with feather eating. There is some evidence that ingested feathers affect gut function. The aim of the present study was to explore whether differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior exist. Sixty high feather-pecking birds (H) and sixty low feather-pecking birds (L) of the White Leghorn breed were used for behavioral recordings of feather pecking. Feather pecking activity was observed for 5 weeks, after which 22 H birds with the highest and 22 L birds with the lowest feather pecking activity were chosen. The number of whole feathers and feather parts in the gizzard and intestinal microbial metabolites in the ileum and ceca of these laying hens was examined. Biogenic amines, short-chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate were measured as microbial metabolites. A higher number of feather parts and particles were found in H than in L birds. Putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were higher in the ileum of the hens with low pecking activity (P<0.001 and P=0.012). In the cecum the amounts of l-lactate, d-lactate and total lactate and SCFA were higher in H birds (P=0.007, P=0.005, P=0.006, and P<0.001). Acetate, i-butyrate, i-valeriate and n-valeriate all displayed significantly higher molar ratios in the cecal contents of L birds (P=0.001, P=0.003, P=0.001, and P<0.001). Propionate and n-butyrate showed higher molar ratios in H birds (P<0.001 and P=0.034). Ammonia was higher in the ileum and cecum of the L birds (P<0.001 and P=0.004). For the first time, this study shows that birds with high and low numbers of repetitive pecking movements to the plumage of other birds differ in their intestinal microbial metabolism. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate whether these differences alter behavior in H and L feather pecking birds. The present results, however, open new avenues of research

  14. The Impact of the Fusarium Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on the Health and Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha A.; Hess, Michael; Twarużek, Magdalena; Grajewski, Jan; Kosicki, Robert; Böhm, Josef; Zentek, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of jejunum and to follow the passage of deoxynivalenol (DON) through subsequent segments of the digestive tract of broilers. A total of 45 1-d-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 males) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (15 birds/treatment): (1) control diet; (2) diet contaminated with 1 mg DON/kg feed; (3) diet contaminated with 5 mg DON/kg feed for five weeks. None of the zootechnical traits (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion) responded to increased DON levels in the diet. However, DON at both dietary levels (1 mg and 5 mg DON/kg feed) significantly altered the small intestinal morphology. In the jejunum, the villi were significantly (P 0.05) in broilers fed the diet containing DON compared with controls. DON and de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1) were analyzed in serum, bile, liver, feces and digesta from consecutive segments of the digestive tract (gizzard, cecum, and rectum). Concentrations of DON and its metabolite DOM-1 in serum, bile, and liver were lower than the detection limits of the applied liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Only about 10 to 12% and 6% of the ingested DON was recovered in gizzard and feces, irrespective of the dietary DON-concentration. However, the DON recovery in the cecum as percentage of DON-intake varied between 18 to 22% and was not influenced by dietary DON-concentration. Interestingly, in the present trial, DOM-1 did not appear in the large intestine and in feces. The results indicate that deepoxydation in the present study hardly occurred in the distal segments of the digestive tract, assuming that the complete de-epoxydation occurs in the proximal small intestine where the majority of the parent toxin is absorbed. In conclusion, diets with DON contamination below levels that induce a negative impact on

  15. Expression of mRNA transcription of Toll-like receptors 3,7 and 21 in different tissues of chicken by Real-time quantitative PCR%雏鸡不同组织TLR3、TLR7和TLR21 mRNA转录水平研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周作勇; 聂奎; 胡世君; 周荣琼

    2011-01-01

    According to the sequences of chicken Toll-like receptors(ChTLR), the real-time PCR primers were designed and synthesized to establish a met,hod for the detection of mRNA transcription of ChTLRs by real-time quantitative PCR and analyze the transcription of ChTLR3 ,ChTLR7 and ChTLR21 in different tissues of Luo-man chicken. The result showed that the ChTLRs mRNA was transcripted in spleen, bursa, thymus and intestinal tract. The ChTLR3 was transcripted at high level in kidney, thymus,cecum,jejunum, liver and duodenum, and not detected in skin. ChTLR7 was transcripted at high level in spleen,kidney,cecum , thymus and duodenum,and very low in liver and skin. ChTLR21 was transcripted in all selected tissues , and at high level in spleen, bursa, thymus and duodenum. These results indicated that there was comparatively large difference on the transcription level of ChTLRs mRNA in different tissues,which may be asscociated with the ability to recognize pathogens in chiken.%参考GenBank登录的ChTLRs基因序列设计实时定量PCR特异性引物,建立检测鸡T011样受体(ChTLR)mRNA相对转录水平的实时定量PCR方法,分析ChTLR3、ChTLR7和ChTLR21在雏鸡不同器官组织中的转录水平。3种ChTLRs在脾脏、法氏囊、胸腺和各段肠道组织中均有转录。其中,ChTLR3 mRNA在肾脏、胸腺、盲肠、空肠、肝脏和十二指肠转录水平较高,在皮肤中未检测到转录;chTLR7 mRNA在脾脏、肾脏、盲肠、胸腺和十二指肠转录水平较高,在肝脏和皮肤中转录水平很低;ChTLR21

  16. Increased wall thickness using ultrasonography is associated with inflammation in an animal model of experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lied GA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gülen Arslan Lied,1 Anne Marita Milde,2 Kim Nylund,1,3 Maja Mujic,1 Tore Grimstad,1,4 Trygve Hausken,1,3 Odd Helge Gilja1,31Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway; 2Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway; 3National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 4Division of Gastroenterology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: Experimentally induced colitis is used in animals to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease. When following disease course and treatment effects, it should be possible to perform repeated measurements without harming the animals. This pilot study was performed to investigate whether transabdominal ultrasound using a clinical scanner could be used on rats to demonstrate bowel inflammation in an experimental colitis model. Colitis was induced by either 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS in drinking water for 7 days or a single dose of intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. Using ultrasonography, wall thickness of distal colon, cecum, and small bowel was recorded prior to and after DSS, and prior to, 2, and 7 days after TNBS. Blood (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha and fecal samples (HemoFEC occult blood were taken from each group on the same days as sonography. Thereafter, rats were killed and specimens for histology were taken. Wall thickness of distal colon, not of cecum or small bowel, increased significantly after 7 days of DSS, and wall thickness of both distal colon and small bowel increased on day 2 and 7 after TNBS. TNF-alpha increased after 7 days in the latter group only. There was a significant correlation between ultrasonographic measurements and combined histology score of distal colon in the DSS group. HemoFEC was also positive in accordance with sonographic and histological features. Increased intestinal wall thickness in response to both DSS- and TNBS

  17. Novel Combination of Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Inulin-Inhibited Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation and Biomarkers of Colon Cancer in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Tahir Rasool; Syed, Fatima; Nasir, Muhammad; Rehman, Habib; Zahid, Muhammad Nauman; Liu, Rui Hai; Iqbal, Sanaullah

    2016-08-01

    The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin in cancer prevention. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of novel GOS and inulin against various biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rodent model. Prebiotic treatments of combined GOS and inulin (57 mg each), as well as individual doses (GOS: 76-151 mg; inulin 114 mg), were given to DMH-treated animals for 16 weeks. Our data reveal the significant preventive effect of the GOS and inulin combination against the development of CRC. It was observed that inhibition of ACF formation (55.8%) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher using the GOS and inulin combination than GOS (41.4%) and inulin (51.2%) treatments alone. This combination also rendered better results on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bacterial enzymatic activities. Dose-dependent effects of prebiotic treatments were also observed on cecum and fecal bacterial enzymes and on SCFA. Thus, this study demonstrated that novel combination of GOS and inulin exhibited stronger preventive activity than their individual treatments alone, and can be a promising strategy for CRC chemoprevention.

  18. Disseminated Histoplasmosis: A Challenging Differential Diagnostic Consideration for Suspected Malignant Lesions in the Digestive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleschal, Bernhard; Rödhammer, Therese; Tsybrovskyy, Oleksiy; Aichberger, Karl J.; Lang, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is well characterized as an endemic fungal disease restricted to certain areas of the USA. In Middle Europe, most patients present with acute pulmonary symptoms after travelling to endemic areas. Here, we want to illustrate the case of a 67-year-old man who presented with persistent oral ulcers, hoarseness, dysphagia, diarrhea, and weight loss to our Department of Otorhinolaryngology in December 2014. He was a retired construction worker and had a history of soil-disruptive activities in Africa and Middle and South America during employment. A positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan revealed prominent hypermetabolic lesions in the cecum and the lung, pointing towards a malignant disease. Surprisingly, histological examination of colonic and oral biopsies revealed abundant intracellular fungal elements, highly suspicious of Histoplasma capsulatum. Diagnosis was finally confirmed by panfungal polymerase chain reaction. Upon treatment with liposomal amphotericin followed by itraconazole, the severely ill patient showed an impressive clinical response. This case describes a disseminated manifestation of H. capsulatum years after the first exposure in an otherwise immunocompetent patient descending from a nonendemic area. PMID:27920657

  19. Localization of motilin-immunopositive cells in the rat intestine by light microscopic immunocytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T; Satoh, M; Koyama, H; Iesaki, K; Umahara, M; Fujikura, K; Itoh, Z

    1994-01-01

    Motilin-immunopositive cells (Mo cells) are known to exist in the upper small intestine of many species including man. However, the possible presence of Mo cells in the rat gastrointestine has remained obscure because antiserum against it raised in rabbit was found not to cross-react with motilin in the rat gastrointestine. The present study was designed to investigate the distribution of Mo cells in the rat gastrointestine by the peroxidase-conjugated second antibody method using newly raised chicken anti-motilin serum (CPV3). This antiserum was suggested to recognize the N-terminal region of the motilin molecule by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunocytochemical absorption test. Mo cells detected in the rat gastrointestine by immunocytochemistry were found to be distributed in the duodenum (1.5 cells/mm2), jejunum (2.2 cells/mm2), and ileum (0.028 cells/mm2), and no positive cells were found in the gastric body, gastric antrum, cecum, colon, or pancreas. The immunopositive cells in the rat intestine were spindle shaped or polygonal, scattered throughout the epithelium of the villi and crypts, and similar to those commonly observed in the upper small intestine of other species. These results indicate for the first time that motilin-immunopositive cells do exist in the rat intestine.

  20. "Melanosis" in the small and large intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of pigment in the intestinal mucosa is commonly observed by the endoscopist, especially within the colon, and particularly during investigations for constipation. Pigment may also be detected in the small intestine. Although labeled as melanosis, electron microscopy and X-ray analytical methods have provided evidence that this pigment is not melanin at all, but lipofuscin. Often, herbal remedies or anthracene containing laxatives are often historically implicated, and experimental studies in both humans and animal models have also confirmed the intimate relationship with these pharmacological or pseudo-pharmacological remedies. The appearance of melanosis coil during colonoscopy is largely due to pigment granule deposition in macrophages located in the colonic mucosa. The pigment intensity is not uniform, being more intense in the cecum and proximal colon compared to the distal colon. Possibly, this reflects higher luminal concentrations of an offending agent in the proximal compared to distal colon, differential absorption along the length of the colon, or finally, differences in macrophage distribution within the colon. Mucosal lymphoid aggregates normally display a distinct absence of pigment producing a "starry sky" appearance, especially in the rectosigmoid region. Interestingly, some focal, usually sessile, colonic mucosal neoplastic lesions, rather than submucosal lesions, may be better appreciated as pigment deposition may be absent or limited. If detected, removal and further histopathologic analysis of the polyp may be facilitated.

  1. Conditional knockout of the Slc5a6 gene in mouse intestine impairs biotin absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Lambrecht, Nils; Subramanya, Sandeep B; Kapadia, Rubina; Said, Hamid M

    2013-01-01

    The Slc5a6 gene expresses a plasma membrane protein involved in the transport of the water-soluble vitamin biotin; the transporter is commonly referred to as the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) because it also transports pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. The relative contribution of the SMVT system toward carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the native intestine in vivo has not been established. We used a Cre/lox technology to generate an intestine-specific (conditional) SMVT knockout (KO) mouse model to address this issue. The KO mice exhibited absence of expression of SMVT in the intestine compared with sex-matched littermates as well as the expected normal SMVT expression in other tissues. About two-thirds of the KO mice died prematurely between the age of 6 and 10 wk. Growth retardation, decreased bone density, decreased bone length, and decreased biotin status were observed in the KO mice. Microscopic analysis showed histological abnormalities in the small bowel (shortened villi, dysplasia) and cecum (chronic active inflammation, dysplasia) of the KO mice. In vivo (and in vitro) transport studies showed complete inhibition in carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the intestine of the KO mice compared with their control littermates. These studies provide the first in vivo confirmation in native intestine that SMVT is solely responsible for intestinal biotin uptake. These studies also provide evidence for a casual association between SMVT function and normal intestinal health.

  2. Effects of sorghum on broilers gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCA Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of whole and ground sorghum, compared with ground corn, on the live weight, feed conversion ratio, organs weight and intestinal biometrics and histomorphometrics. In total, 960 Hubbard Flex broilers were reared until 42-day-old and distributed into 24 pens, according to the three treatments: ground corn, whole-grain sorghum, and ground sorghum. On day 42, five male birds per treatment were selected by similar body weight and sacrificed. Gizzard absolute weight, and proventriculus, liver, pancreas and heart relative weights, and duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and colon length and relative weight were determined. Villus characteristics and intestinal mucosa absorption surface area were evaluated. Broilers fed sorghum, independently of physical form, were heavier and had greater feed conversion ratio than those fed ground corn. Gizzard showed the highest relative weight in broilers fed whole sorghum compared to corn. Liver and jejunum relative weight was higher in broilers fed ground corn, compared to ground sorghum. Whole small intestine, cecum and colon relative lengths showed no difference among treatments. Deeper crypts were found in the duodenum of broilers fed whole grain sorghum, compared to ground sorghum, as well as in jejunum compared to ground corn; however, intestinal absorption surface area was not different among treatments. Whole or ground grain sorghum may replace corn in the feed of 1- to 42-d-old broilers, since they improve body weight and feed conversion ratio, and not adversely affect intestinal morphometry and organs weight.

  3. Pan-colonic pharmacokinetics of catechins and procyanidins in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Katheryn M; Smithson, Andrew T; Ickes, Anne K; Neilson, Andrew P

    2015-10-01

    Poor absorption and bioavailability of procyanidins from the upper gastrointestinal tract result in the majority of the dose reaching the colon. During colonic transit, progressive microbial metabolism likely produces gradients of procyanidins and microbial metabolites along the length of the colon, suggesting that proximal and distal regions are exposed to different profiles of procyanidins and metabolites. However, previous studies have largely treated the colon as a single organ or looked at fecal profiles, and differences in the profiles of native and metabolite compounds between regions have not been observed. The metabolism kinetics of procyanidins larger than trimers and formation of metabolites in the colon have not been well characterized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of delivery and microbial metabolism of monomeric, dimeric and oligomeric procyanidins in the cecum and proximal, mid and distal colon. Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged grape seed extract and sacrificed over 18 h. Analysis of luminal contents showed distinct native and metabolite profiles for each region. Procyanidins had maximum concentrations at approximately 3h postgavage for all sections. Metabolites reached maximum concentrations from 3 to 18 h postgavage. The appearance of metabolites was highly dependent on species: larger metabolites were found at earlier times in the more proximal segments, and smaller metabolites were found at later times in more distal regions. This study allowed for the observation of regions in the lower gastrointestinal tract, giving insight into the distribution and delivery of procyanidins and their microbial metabolites throughout the colon.

  4. Effect of in ovo administration of an adult-derived microbiota on establishment of the intestinal microbiome in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Adriana A; Batal, Amy B; Lee, Margie D

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of in ovo administration of a probiotic on development of the intestinal microbiota of 2 genetic lineages (modern and heritage) of chickens. SAMPLE 10 newly hatched chicks and 40 fertile eggs to determine intestinal microbiota at hatch, 900 fertile eggs to determine effects of probiotic on hatchability, and 1,560 chicks from treated or control eggs. PROCEDURES A probiotic competitive-exclusion product derived from adult microbiota was administered in ovo to fertile eggs of both genetic lineages. Cecal contents and tissues were collected from embryos, newly hatched chicks, and chicks. A PCR assay was used to detect bacteria present within the cecum of newly hatched chicks. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and vitality staining were used to detect viable bacteria within intestines of embryos. The intestinal microbiota was assessed by use of 16S pyrosequencing. RESULTS Microscopic evaluation of embryonic cecal contents and tissues subjected to differential staining techniques revealed viable bacteria in low numbers. Development of the intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks of both genetic lineages was enhanced by in ovo administration of adult microbiota. Although the treatment increased diversity and affected composition of the microbiota of chicks, most bacterial species present in the probiotic were transient colonizers. However, the treatment decreased the abundance of undesirable bacterial species within heritage lineage chicks. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In ovo inoculation of a probiotic competitive-exclusion product derived from adult microbiota may be a viable method of managing development of the microbiota and reducing the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in chickens.

  5. Effect of human isolated probiotic bacteria on preventing Campylobacter jejuni colonization of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cean, Ada; Stef, Lavinia; Simiz, Eliza; Julean, Calin; Dumitrescu, Gabi; Vasile, Aida; Pet, Elena; Drinceanu, Dan; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    This study was performed in order to determine whether human isolated probiotic bacteria can be effective in reducing Campylobacter jejuni infection of chicken intestinal cells, in vitro, and in decreasing its colonization abilities within the chicken gut. Our results show that the probiotic strains Lactobacillus paracasei J. R, L. rhamnosus 15b, L. lactis Y, and L. lactis FOa had a significant effect on C. jejuni invasion of chicken primary cells, with the strongest inhibitory effect detected when a combination of four was administered. In regard to the in vivo effect, using all four strains in one combination prevented mucus colonization in the duodenum and cecum. Moreover, the pathogen load in the lumen of these two compartments was significantly reduced. When probiotics were introduced during the early growth period, the presence of the pathogen in feces was increased (p>0.05), but when they were given during the last week of growth, there was no significant effect. In conclusion, our data indicate that these four new probiotic strains are able to cause modifications in the chicken intestinal mucosa and can reduce the ability of C. jejuni to invade, in vitro, and to colonize, in vivo. These probiotics are now proven to be effective even when introduced in broiler's feed 7 days before slaughter, which makes them cost-effective for the producers.

  6. Cholesterol granuloma in thyroglossal cysts: a clinicopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvili, Itzhak; Hadar, Tuvia; Sadov, Rima; Koren, Rumelia; Shvero, Jacob

    2009-11-01

    Thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC) is a congenital anomaly caused by retention of epithelial remnants from the descent of the thyroid gland during embryological development. Cholesterol granuloma represents a granulomatous reaction to precipitates of cholesterol crystals in tissue, usually related to middle-ear disease. The association of TDC with cholesterol granuloma has hardly been reported. This study describes five patients with TDC and cholesterol granuloma over a 16-year-period. The treatment consisted of excision of the TDC and the mid-portion of the hyoid bone and excision of a core of tissue between the hyoid bone and the foramen cecum (Sistrunk procedure). We speculate that the pathogenesis of cholesterol granuloma in TDC resembles that in the paranasal sinuses, as both sites provide a closed, poorly ventilated hollow structure with slow drainage. Our five patients accounted for 13% of all patients with TDC treated in our center during the same period, indicating that cholesterol granuloma in TDC may not be as rare as previously thought.

  7. Practical approaches to effective management of intestinal radiation injury: Benefit of resectional surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolaos Perrakis; Evangelos Athanassiou; Dimitra Vamvakopoulou; Maria Kyriazi; Haris Kappos; Nikolaos C Vamvakopoulos; Iakovos Nomikos

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the outcome of patients undergoing surgical resection of the bowel for sustained radiation-induced damage intractable to conservative management.METHODS: During a 7-year period we operated on 17 cases (5 male, 12 female) admitted to our surgical department with intestinal radiation injury (IRI). They were originally treated for a pelvic malignancy by surgical resection followed by postoperative radiotherapy. During follow-up, they developed radiation enteritis requiring surgical treatment due to failure of conservative management.RESULTS: IRI was located in the terminal ileum in 12 patients, in the rectum in 2 patients, in the descending colon in 2 patients, and in the cecum in one patient. All patients had resection of the affected region(s). There were no postoperative deaths, while 3 cases presented with postoperative complications (17.7%). All patients remained free of symptoms without evidence of recurrence of IRI for a median follow-up period of 42 mo (range, 6-96 mo).CONCLUSION: We report a favorable outcome without IRI recurrence of 17 patients treated by resection of the diseased bowel segment.

  8. Intestinal colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Bai; Xian-Hua Liu; Qing-Ying Tong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between intestinal lumen colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA).METHODS: A total of 82 specific-pathogen-free mice were divided randomly into control and colonization groups. After Candida albicans were inoculated into specific-pathogenfree mice, the number of Candida albicans adhering to cecum and mucosal membrane was counted. The lymphocyte proliferation in Peyer's patch and in lamina propria was shown by BrdU incorporation, while mucosal sIgA (surface membrane) isotype switch in Peyer's patch was investigated. IgA plasma cells in lamina propria were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Specific IgA antibodies to Candida albicans were measured with ELISA.RESULTS: From d 3 to d 14 after Candida albicans gavaging to mice, the number of Candida albicans colonizing in lumen and adhering to mucosal membrane was sharply reduced.Candida albicans translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred at early time points following gavage administration and disappeared at later time points. Meanwhile, the content of specific IgA was increased obviously. Proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes in lamina propria were also increased.CONCLUSION: Lymphocytes in lamina propria play an important role in intestinal mucosal immunity of specificpathogen-free mice when they are first inoculated with Candida albicans. The decreasing number of Candida albicans in intestine is related to the increased level of specific IgA antibodies in the intestinal mucus.

  9. Oral tolerance induction with altered forms of ovalbumin

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    Stransky B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As a T cell-dependent phenomenon, oral tolerance is not expected to depend necessarily on native configuration of antigens. We investigated the induction of oral tolerance with modified ovalbumin (Ova. Oral administration of heat-denatured (HD-Ova and cyanogen bromide-degraded ovalbumin was less effective than native Ova in inducing oral tolerance in B6D2F1 mice. HD-Ova was effective in suppressing delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reactions but did not suppress specific antibody formation. Injection of Ova directly into the stomach, but not into the ileum or cecum, suppressed subsequent immunization to DTH reactions. Gavage with protease inhibitors (aprotinin or ovomucoid before gavage with Ova was ineffective in blocking tolerance induction. Treatment with hydroxyurea to destroy cycling cells 24 h before gavage with Ova blocked oral tolerance induction and also the possibility to passively transfer tolerance to naive recipients with the serum of mice gavaged with Ova 1 h before. The implications of these findings about oral tolerance induction are discussed

  10. Presence of Selected Methanogens, Fibrolytic Bacteria, and Proteobacteria in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Neonatal Dairy Calves from Birth to 72 Hours.

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    Cesar E Guzman

    Full Text Available The microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract of a young calf are essential for the anatomical and physiological development that permits a transition from milk to solid feed. Selected methanogens, fibrolytic bacteria, and proteobacteria were quantified in the rumen fluid and tissue, abomasum fluid, cecum fluid and tissue, and feces of Holstein bull calves on day 0 (0-20 mins after birth, day 1 (24 ± 1 h after birth, day 2 (48 ± 1 h after birth, and day 3 (72 ± 1 h after birth. Methanogens, fibrolytic bacteria, and Geobacter spp. were found to be already present from birth, indicating that microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract occurred before or during delivery. The abundance of methanogens and Geobacter spp. differed between the days tested and between compartments of the digestive tract and feces, but such difference was not observed for fibrolytic bacteria. Our findings suggests that methanogens might have an alternative hydrogen provider such as Geobacter spp. during these early stages of postnatal development. In addition, fibrolytic bacteria were present in the rumen well before the availability of fibrous substrates, suggesting that they might use nutrients other than cellulose and hemicellose.

  11. Potato powders prepared by successive cooking-process depending on resistant starch content affect the intestinal fermentation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Sakura; Han, Kyu-Ho; Araki, Takahiro; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Wakabayashi, Tatsuya; Shimada, Kenichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2017-02-01

    The effects of resistant starch (RS) in dry potato powders prepared by various processes on intestinal fermentation in rats were assessed. Rats were fed raw potato powder (RP), blanched potato powder (BP), steamed potato powder (SP), or drum-dried potato powder (DP) for 4 weeks. The cecal RS content was significantly higher in the RP group than in the control diet (CN) group and other dry potato powder groups. Cecum pH was significantly lower in the RP group compared to the CN group, and was also significantly lower than that in the SP, BP, and DP groups. Lactic acid bacteria levels in the RP group were significantly higher than those in the CN group, and levels in the SP group also increased relative to the control group. Lactobacillus levels in the RP group were higher than in the CN and other dry potato powder groups. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the RP group followed by the SP group exhibited significantly higher levels relative to the control levels. Dry potato powders containing RS produced during the cooking process may represent a useful food material that increases intestinal concentrations of SCFA and enhances the growth of certain lactic acid bacteria.

  12. Gastro intestinal tracking and gastric emptying of solid dosage forms in rats using X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saphier, Sigal; Rosner, Amir; Brandeis, Rachel; Karton, Yishai

    2010-03-30

    The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal transit and gastric emptying of non-disintegrating solid dosage forms in rats using X-ray imaging. Commercial gelatin minicapsules were filled with barium sulfate and enterically coated using Eudragit S100. The capsules were administered orally to rats followed by a solution of iodine based contrast agent iopromide. Images were obtained using a standard X-ray camera and digital film processing. Capsules were followed through the GI tract from the stomach to the small intestine, cecum and large intestine and the capsule location could be easily identified. Gastric emptying of different sized capsules was studied. The effect of fasting and time of administration on gastric retention was also studied. It was found that shortened capsules of 3.5 and 4.8mm length were emptied from the stomach whereas the commercial length 7.18mm capsules were retained. Surprisingly, 2.5h post administration more rats retained the capsules in the stomach in the fasted state than in the fed state. We found that X-ray imaging can be used for simple visualization and localization of solid dosage forms in rats in the fed state using shortened commercial minicapsules on rats.

  13. Prevalence and pathology of the nematode Heterakis gallinarum, the trematode Paratanaisia bragai, and the protozoan Histomonas meleagridis in the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Beatriz; Tortelly, Rogério; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C; Pinto, Roberto Magalhães

    2006-09-01

    The prevalence of infection and associated pathology induced by two helminth and one protozoan species infecting Brazilian turkeys are reported. The intestinal nematode Heterakis gallinarum appeared with a prevalence of 70% in the infected birds, without gross lesions when not associated to the protozoan Histomonas meleagridis. Histological findings in the ceca were represented by the presence of H. gallinarum worms, intense chronic diffuse inflammatory processes with mononuclear and polymorphonuclear (heterophils) leucocyte infiltrations. The prevalence of the protozoan H. meleagridis associated to H. gallinarum was of 2.5% and microscopic examination revealed a severe inflammatory process in the liver and cecum with the presence of small clear areas with round eosinophilic parasites. Gross lesions were absent in turkeys infected with the renal digenetic trematode Paratanaisia bragai; the parasite was prevalent in 20% of the cases and cross-sections of the kidneys showed a remarkable distension of the collecting ducts with several worms in the lumen. The walls of the ducts presented a discrete heterophilic infiltrate among mononuclear cells.

  14. Prevalence and pathology of the nematode Heterakis gallinarum, the trematode Paratanaisia bragai, and the protozoan Histomonas meleagridis in the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Brener

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of infection and associated pathology induced by two helminth and one protozoan species infecting Brazilian turkeys are reported. The intestinal nematode Heterakis gallinarum appeared with a prevalence of 70% in the infected birds, without gross lesions when not associated to the protozoan Histomonas meleagridis. Histological findings in the ceca were represented by the presence of H. gallinarum worms, intense chronic diffuse inflammatory processes with mononuclear and polymorphonuclear (heterophils leucocyte infiltrations. The prevalence of the protozoan H. meleagridis associated to H. gallinarum was of 2.5% and microscopic examination revealed a severe inflammatory process in the liver and cecum with the presence of small clear areas with round eosinophilic parasites. Gross lesions were absent in turkeys infected with the renal digenetic trematode Paratanaisia bragai; the parasite was prevalent in 20% of the cases and cross-sections of the kidneys showed a remarkable distension of the collecting ducts with several worms in the lumen. The walls of the ducts presented a discrete heterophilic infiltrate among mononuclear cells.

  15. Local chemerin levels are positively associated with DSS-induced colitis but constitutive loss of CMKLR1 does not protect against development of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranse, Helen J; Rourke, Jillian L; Stadnyk, Andrew W; Sinal, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a family of disorders including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease that are characterized by chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammation. Increased production of proinflammatory mediators, possibly combined with low expression of anti-inflammatory mediators, is thought to promote the development and progression of IBD. In the current study, we demonstrate that expression, secretion, and processing of chemerin, a potent chemoattractant for cells expressing chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), increased in the cecum and colon along a gradient positively associated with the severity of inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. We also show that levels of circulating bioactive chemerin increased following DSS treatment. At both 6-8 and 14-16 weeks of age, CMKLR1 knockout mice developed signs of clinical illness more slowly than wild type and had changes in circulating cytokine levels, increased spleen weight, and increased local chemerin secretion following DSS treatment. However, knockout mice ultimately developed similar levels of clinical illness and local inflammation as wild type. Finally, contrary to previous reports, intraperitoneal injection of bioactive chemerin had no effect on the severity of DSS-induced colitis. This suggests that local chemerin levels have a greater impact than circulating levels in the pathogenesis of colitis. Considered altogether, bioactive chemerin represents a novel biomarker for IBD severity, although strategies to modulate endogenous chemerin signaling other than chronic CMKLR1 loss are necessary in order to exploit chemerin as a therapeutic target for the treatment of IBD.

  16. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects vitamin E acetate metabolism and intestinal bile acid signature in monocolonized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roager, Henrik M; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper; Frandsen, Henrik L; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Wilcks, Andrea; Skov, Thomas H; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Licht, Tine R

    2014-01-01

    Monocolonization of germ-free (GF) mice enables the study of specific bacterial species in vivo. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(TM) (NCFM) is a probiotic strain; however, many of the mechanisms behind its health-promoting effect remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of NCFM on the metabolome of jejunum, cecum, and colon of NCFM monocolonized (MC) and GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice, in particular by deconjugation. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine as especially the digestion of oligosaccharides (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Additionally, levels of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E acetate) were higher in the intestine of GF mice than in MC mice, suggesting that NCFM affects the vitamin E acetate metabolism. NCFM did not digest vitamin E acetate in vitro, suggesting that direct bacterial metabolism was not the cause of the altered metabolome in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that NCFM affects intestinal carbohydrate metabolism, bile acid metabolism and vitamin E metabolism, although it remains to be investigated whether this effect is unique to NCFM.

  17. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

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    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  18. Assessment of epigenetic alterations in early colorectal lesions containing BRAF mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Masanori; Harada, Taku; Maruyama, Reo; Ashida, Masami; Aoki, Hironori; Matsushita, Hiro-o; Yoshikawa, Kenjiro; Harada, Eiji; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Wakita, Shigenori; Niinuma, Takeshi; Kai, Masahiro; Eizuka, Makoto; Sugai, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the molecular and clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal serrated lesions, we assessed the DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes in a cohort of BRAF-mutant precancerous lesions from 94 individuals. We then compared those results with the lesions' clinicopathological features, especially colorectal subsites. The lesions included hyperplastic polyps (n = 16), traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) (n = 15), TSAs with sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) (n = 6), SSAs (n = 49) and SSAs with dysplasia (n = 16). The prevalence of lesions exhibiting the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was lower in the sigmoid colon and rectum than in other bowel subsites, including the cecum, ascending, transverse and descending colon. In addition, several cancer-associated genes showed higher methylation levels within lesions in the proximal to sigmoid colon than in the sigmoid colon and rectum. These results indicate that the methylation status of lesions with BRAF mutation is strongly associated with their location, histological findings and neoplastic pathways. By contrast, no difference in aberrant DNA methylation was observed in normal-appearing background colonic mucosa along the bowel subsites, which may indicate the absence of an epigenetic field defect. PMID:27145369

  19. Immunohistochemical study on the ontogenetic development of the regional distribution of peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide 1 endocrine cells in bovine gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyarokhil, Asadullah Hamid; Ishihara, Miyuki; Sasaki, Motoki; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2012-04-10

    The regional distribution and relative frequency of peptide YY (PYY)-, pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-immunoreactive (IR) cells were determined immunohistochemically in the gastrointestinal tract at seven ontogenetic stages in pre- and postnatal cattle. Different frequencies of PYY-, PP-, and GLP-1-IR cells were found in the intestines at all stages; they were not found in the esophagus and stomach. The frequencies varied depending on the intestinal segment and the developmental stage. The frequencies of PYY- and PP-IR cells were lower in the small intestine and increased from ileum to rectum, whereas GLP-1-IR cells were more numerous in duodenum and jejunum, decreased in ileum and cecum, and increased again in colon and rectum. The frequencies also varied according to pre- and postnatal stages. All three cell types were most numerous in fetus, and decreased in calf and adult groups, indicating that the frequencies of these three types of endocrine cells decrease with postnatal development. The results suggest that these changes vary depending on feeding habits and adaptation of growth, secretion, and motility of intestine at different ontogenetic stages of cattle.

  20. A case of a horseshoe appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Kazuya; Ikeda, Jun; Furuke, Hirotaka; Kato, Chikage; Kishimoto, Takuya; Kumano, Tatsuya; Imura, Kenichiro; Shimomura, Katsumi; Kubota, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Fumihiro; Shioaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-12-01

    Anomalies of the appendix are extremely rare, and a horseshoe appendix is even rarer. A literature search has revealed only five reported cases. In this report, we present a case of a horseshoe appendix.A 78-year-old man was referred for further examination following a positive fecal occult blood test. A mass in his ascending colon was detected on colonoscopy, while computed tomography showed that it was connected to the appendix. Tumor invasion derived from the ascending colon or appendix was suspected. We diagnosed ascending colon cancer prior to laparoscopic ileocecal resection. Macroscopic findings showed that the appendix connected to the back side of the mass, while microscopic findings showed that the mucosa and submucosa were continuous from the appendiceal orifice in the cecum to the other orifice in the ascending colon, where a type 1 tumor was observed on the orifice. We eventually diagnosed the patient with tubulovillous adenoma and a horseshoe appendix.A horseshoe appendix communicates with the colon at both ends and is supplied by a single fan-shaped mesentery. Cases are classified by the disposal of the mesentery and the location of the orifice. Anatomical anomalies should be considered despite the rarity of horseshoe appendices.

  1. Systemic Mastocytosis Presenting as Acute Appendicitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Syed A. Akbar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by abnormal growth and accumulation of mast cells in various organs. Gastrointestinal (GI symptoms are common disease manifestations in this disease and can significantly impair the quality of life. Signs of GI systemic mastocytosis include steatorrhea, malabsorption, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, portal hypertension, and ascites. Acute appendicitis as a presenting feature in systemic mastocytosis has not been reported in the literature previously. In this report, we discuss the case of a female patient with systemic mastocytosis (c-KIT D816V (+ who was admitted for right-sided acute abdominal pain. Laboratory study revealed an normal white blood cell count with eosinophilia and an elevated serum tryptase level of 23 μg/l. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed an enlarged appendix of 12 mm in diameter, with minimal wall enhancement. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. The appendix was found to be hyperemic and firm, and it was densely adherent to the posterior cecum, the surrounding peritoneal wall, and the overlying mesenteric fat. Pathology revealed acute appendicitis with greater than 30 mast cells per high-power field by immunoperoxidase studies with mast cell tryptase and CD117. The patient subsequently improved and was discharged home. This case is the first reported case with a histological diagnosis of acute appendicitis resulting from mast cell infiltration. Physicians should be aware of acute appendicitis as a manifestation of systemic mastocytosis. Prompt diagnosis and management may prevent potentially fatal complications of appendiceal perforation and peritonitis.

  2. Acute appendicitis following endoscopic mucosal resection of cecal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Yukako; Tokuhisa, Junya; Shimada, Nagasato; Gomi, Tatsuya; Maetani, Iruru

    2015-07-21

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) allows the removal of flat or sessile lesions, laterally spreading tumors, and carcinoma of the colon or the rectum limited to the mucosa or the superficial submucosa. Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal emergency requiring emergency surgery, and it is also a rare complication of diagnostic colonoscopy and therapeutic endoscopy, including EMR. In the case presented here, a 53-year-old female underwent colonoscopy due to a positive fecal occult blood test and was diagnosed with cecal adenoma. She was referred to our hospital and admitted for treatment. The patient had no other symptoms. EMR was performed, and 7 h after the surgery, the patient experienced right -lower abdominal pain. Laboratory tests performed the following day revealed a WBC count of 16000/mm(3), a neutrophil count of 14144/mm(3), and a C-reactive protein level of 2.20 mg/dL, indicating an inflammatory response. Computed tomography also revealed appendiceal wall thickening and swelling, so acute appendicitis following EMR was diagnosed. Antibiotics were initiated leading to total resolution of the symptoms, and the patient was discharged on the sixth post-operative day. Pathological analysis revealed a high-grade cecal tubular adenoma. Such acute appendicitis following EMR is extremely rare, and EMR of the cecum may be a rare cause of acute appendicitis.

  3. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 IIIc as a therapeutic target for colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoko; Hagio, Masahito; Seya, Tomoko; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki

    2012-09-01

    A high percentage of colorectal carcinomas overexpress a lot of growth factors and their receptors, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor (FGFR). We previously reported that FGFR2 overexpression was associated with distant metastasis and that FGFR2 inhibition suppressed cell growth, migration, and invasion. The FGFR2 splicing isoform FGFR2IIIb is associated with well-differentiated histologic type, tumor angiogenesis, and adhesion to extracellular matrices. Another isoform, FGFR2IIIc, correlates with the aggressiveness of various types of cancer. In the present study, we examined the expression and roles of FGFR2IIIc in colorectal carcinoma to determine the effectiveness of FGFR2IIIc-targeting therapy. In normal colorectal tissues, FGFR2IIIc expression was weakly detected in superficial colorectal epithelial cells and was not detected in proliferative zone cells. FGFR2IIIc-positive cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in the following lesions, listed in the order of increasing percentage: hyperplastic polyps growth, soft agar colony formation, migration, and invasion, as well as decreased adhesion to extracellular matrices. Furthermore, FGFR2IIIc-transfected colorectal carcinoma cells formed larger tumors in subcutaneous tissues and the cecum of nude mice. Fully human anti-FGFR2IIIc monoclonal antibody inhibited the growth and migration of colorectal carcinoma cells through alterations in cell migration, cell death, and development-related genes. In conclusion, FGFR2IIIc plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Monoclonal antibody against FGFR2IIIc has promising potential in colorectal carcinoma therapy.

  4. Development of a colonoscopy add-on device for improvement of the intubation process

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    Litten JD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan D Litten1, JungHun Choi2, David Drozek31Department of Mechanical Engineering; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering Program; 3College of Osteopathic Medicine, Department of Specialty Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USAAbstract: A colonoscopy add-on device has been developed to reduce intubation time without modification of the current colonoscope and peripheral devices. One of the main purposes of the system is to minimize trauma caused by the distal tip of the colonoscope. The detachable sensory fixture at the end of the distal tip measures the distance between the distal tip and the colon wall in three directions, and the actuation system attached at the base of the colonoscope controls the distal tip by rotating two dial knobs. The device controls the distal tip to minimize contact between the distal tip and the colon wall, and the distal tip ideally points out the next possible lumen. A compatibility test of the infrared sensory system was carried out, and the design of the actuation system was accomplished. The system is integrated and controlled by a microprocessor. The device was tested in a silicon colon and porcine intestine. The results showed that a colonoscopist successfully reached the cecum with the aid of the colonoscopy add-on device without significant contact between the colon wall and the distal tip. The colonoscopy aid device was very helpful for the novice colonoscopist.Keywords: colonoscope, infrared sensors, intubation, trauma, colonoscopy training model

  5. Pseudomembranous colitis complicating ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaratani, Hideto; Tsujimoto, Tatsuhiro; Toyohara, Masahisa; Kin, Kenichi; Taniguchi, Tomoyasu; Shirai, Yasuyo; Ikenaka, Yasuhide; Nakayama, Masaki; Fujii, Hisao; Fukui, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    Clostridium difficile toxin (CD toxin) causes antibiotic-associated colitis, or pseudomembranous colitis (PMC). Although CD toxin is sometimes found in the stools of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), UC is rarely complicated by PMC. We report herein a case of PMC complicating UC, and present a review of the literature. A 71-year-old woman was diagnosed as having UC of the left colon, and treated with prednisolone and mesalazine. Later, however, lumbar spinal stenosis was also detected. After surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis, she suffered postoperative infection of the lumbar region. After 3-week treatment with antibiotics, she developed diarrhea, bloody stools, and abdominal pain. Colonoscopy revealed PMC of the cecum, ascending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. Stools were positive for CD toxin. As cefotiam hydrochloride, levofloxacin hydrate (LVFX), and prednisolone were suspected as the causative agents, she was treated with 1.5 g vancomycin (VCM) daily for 2 weeks without ceasing LVFX. Her symptoms improved, and colonoscopy confirmed resolution of PMC. The possibility of PMC should be considered in UC patients treated with antibiotics, immunosuppressive agents or corticosteroids who complain of gastrointestinal symptoms. These patients should be thoroughly investigated by several modalities, including colonoscopy and CD toxin testing.

  6. Fecal water genotoxicity is predictive of tumor-preventive activities by inulin-like oligofructoses, probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis), and their synbiotic combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinder, Annett; Förster, Antje; Caderni, Giovanna; Femia, Angelo Pietro; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of fecal water genotoxicity in human colon cells could be a useful biomarker to study effects of diet in the colon. Here we assessed aqueous fecal extracts of samples from a chronic study with rats fed prebiotics, probiotics, and their combination. Treatments were maltodextrins (controls), inulin/oligofructoses (prebiotic), Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Bifidobacterium lactis (probiotics) or both (synbiotic). Azoxymethane (AOM) was administered to initiate tumors. Rat feces were collected at 0 and 10 days and 2, 4, and 8 mo, and cecal contents were collected at 8 mo. Aqueous phases were prepared and tested for genotoxicity in HT29 colon cells using the comet assay. The studied types of intervention reduced fecal and cecal genotoxicity. DNA damage by samples from AOM-treated, tumor-free rats was significantly lower than from tumor-bearing animals, especially after 4 mo of synbiotic and prebiotic interventions. Inulin-based diets reduced exposure to genotoxins in the feces, directly reflecting the reported reduction of tumor incidence in these animals. Evidence is provided for the validity of this measurement as a biomarker of chemoprevention because 1) fecal water genotoxicity reflected genotoxic exposure in the cecum, 2) tumor incidence and fecal genotoxicity were directly related, and 3) these interventions reduced tumor risks by reducing exposure to genotoxins in the gut.

  7. Acute Pancreatitis and Ileus Postcolonoscopy

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    Hin Hin Ko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpolypectomy bleeding and perforation are the most common complications of colonoscopy. A case of acute pancreatitis and ileus after colonoscopy is described. A 60-year-old woman underwent a gastroscopy and colonoscopy for investigation of iron deficiency anemia. Gastroscopy was normal; however, the colonoscope could not be advanced beyond the splenic flexure due to a tight angulation. Two polypectomies were performed in the descending colon. After the procedure, the patient developed a distended, tender abdomen. Bloodwork was remarkable for an elevated amylase level. An abdominal x-ray and computed tomography scan showed pancreatitis (particularly of the tail, a dilated cecum and a few air-fluid levels. The patient improved within 24 h of a repeat colonoscopy and decompression tube placement. The patient had no risk factors for pancreatitis. The causal mechanism of pancreatitis was uncertain but likely involved trauma to the tail of the pancreas during the procedure. Our patient developed ileus, likely secondary to pancreatitis. The present case is the first report of clinical pancreatitis and ileus associated with colonoscopy.

  8. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium infection causes metabolic changes in chicken muscle involving AMPK, fatty acid and insulin/mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Ryan J; Napper, Scott; Kogut, Michael H

    2013-05-17

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) infection of chickens that are more than a few days old results in asymptomatic cecal colonization with persistent shedding of bacteria. We hypothesized that while the bacterium colonizes and persists locally in the cecum it has systemic effects, including changes to metabolic pathways of skeletal muscle, influencing the physiology of the avian host. Using species-specific peptide arrays to perform kinome analysis on metabolic signaling pathways in skeletal muscle of Salmonella Typhimurium infected chickens, we have observed key metabolic changes that affected fatty acid and glucose metabolism through the 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the insulin/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Over a three week time course of infection, we observed changes in the phosphorylation state of the AMPK protein, and proteins up and down the pathway. In addition, changes to a large subset of the protein intermediates of the insulin/mTOR pathway in the skeletal muscle were altered by infection. These changes occur in pathways with direct effects on fatty acid and glucose metabolism. This is the first report of significant cellular metabolic changes occurring systemically in chicken due to a Salmonella infection. These results have implications not only for animal production and health but also for the understanding of how Salmonella infection in the intestine can have widespread, systemic effects on the metabolism of chickens without disease-like symptoms.

  9. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Gastrointestinal Tract Tissues Induced by Arsenic Toxicity in Cocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Guangyang; Hu, Zhibo; Tian, Li; Zhang, Kexin; Zhang, Wen; Xing, Mingwei

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widely distributed trace element which is known to be associated with numerous adverse effects on human beings and animals. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is an inorganic arsenical-containing toxic compound. The effect of excessive amounts of As2O3 exposure on gastrointestinal tract tissue damage in cocks is still unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of As2O3 exposure on gastrointestinal tract tissue damage in cocks. In total, 72 1-day-old male Hyline cocks were randomly divided into four groups and fed either a commercial diet or an As2O3 supplement diet containing 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days and gastrointestinal tract tissue samples (gizzard, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum) were collected at 30, 60, and 90 days. Catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities; malondialdehyde (MDA) contents; and hydroxyl radical (OH·)-mediated inhibition were examined. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that MDA content in the gastrointestinal tract was increased, while the activities of CAT, GSH, and GSH-Px and the ability to resist OH· was decreased in the As2O3 treatment groups. Extensive damage was observed in the gastrointestinal tract. These findings indicated that As2O3 exposure caused oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal tract of cocks due to alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities and elevation of free radicals.

  10. Long-term survival of diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the trigeminal region extending to the Meckel's cave treated by CHASER therapy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshihide; Kato, Naoki; Itoh, Kuniaki; Hasegawa, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old man with a history of malignant lymphoma of the cecum presented with lancinating facial pain in the left. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tumor in the Meckel's cave extending along the trigeminal nerve. The tumor was partially removed via left retrosigmoid lateral suboccipital craniotomy. Histological examination showed findings consistent with diffuse large B cell lymphoma, which was later confirmed to be metastatic lesion from the cecal lesion. Postoperative chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, high dose, cytarabine, steroid (dexamethasone), etoposide, and rituximab (CHASER) followed by whole brain irradiation (30 Gy) resulted in complete remission. Although facial pain persisted, the patient's general condition remained favorable and he did not experience recurrence over the 51-month follow-up period. Histological confirmation and awareness of malignant lymphoma are very important to determine the therapeutic strategy and to avoid misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. Long-term survival of patients with metastatic malignant lymphoma in the Meckel's cave extending along the trigeminal nerve was very rare. In addition, metastatic malignant lymphoma in the extra-axial and peripheral nervous tissue might be different from primary central nervous system lymphoma in the white matter, since the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents against malignant lymphomas in the extra-axial regions is not attenuated by the blood brain barrier.

  11. Application of an object-oriented programming paradigm in three-dimensional computer modeling of mechanically active gastrointestinal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashev, P Z; Mintchev, M P; Bowes, K L

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel three-dimensional (3-D) object-oriented modeling approach incorporating knowledge of the anatomy, electrophysiology, and mechanics of externally stimulated excitable gastrointestinal (GI) tissues and emphasizing the "stimulus-response" principle of extracting the modeling parameters. The modeling method used clusters of class hierarchies representing GI tissues from three perspectives: 1) anatomical; 2) electrophysiological; and 3) mechanical. We elaborated on the first four phases of the object-oriented system development life-cycle: 1) analysis; 2) design; 3) implementation; and 4) testing. Generalized cylinders were used for the implementation of 3-D tissue objects modeling the cecum, the descending colon, and the colonic circular smooth muscle tissue. The model was tested using external neural electrical tissue excitation of the descending colon with virtual implanted electrodes and the stimulating current density distributions over the modeled surfaces were calculated. Finally, the tissue deformations invoked by electrical stimulation were estimated and represented by a mesh-surface visualization technique.

  12. Urban-rural difference in the trend of colo-rectal cancer mortality with special reference to the subsites of colon cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, K; Hirose, K; Nakagawa, N; Kuroishi, T; Tominaga, S

    1985-08-01

    In order to study the effect of urbanization on the epidemiological features of colo-rectal cancer in Japan, the age-adjusted death rates (AADRs) for right-sided (cecum, ascending and transverse) colon, left-sided (descending and sigmoid) colon and rectum cancers during three periods, 1969-71, 1974-76 and 1979-81, were compared among five areas with different population sizes; ten metropolitan cities (greater than 1,000,000), large cities (1,000,000-150,000), medium-sized cities (150,000-50,000), small cities (less than 50,000) and counties. The AADR for left-sided colon cancer has been increasing in recent years, especially in males, and was higher in urban areas than in rural areas, which may imply that the recent increase in the incidence of left-sided colon cancer is associated with an urbanization of the life styles of Japanese people. In Japan, the daily consumption of carbohydrate has been decreasing, but that of total fat has been increasing in recent years, and the ratio of fat/carbohydrate consumption as an energy source was strongly correlated with the AADRs for left-sided colon cancer among the five areas in the three periods. From this correlation analysis, it was suggested that urbanization of life style, namely, the recent westernization of eating habits of Japanese people might be associated with the recent increase of the AADRs for colon cancer, especially of left-sided colon cancer, in Japan.

  13. Gastrointestinal transit is not impaired by regional loss of myenteric neurons in rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, M S; White, J C; Bass, P

    1993-10-01

    Chronic absence of myenteric neurons from a 5-cm segment of rat jejunum causes alterations in myoelectric activity. Spike potentials characteristic of phase III activity of the migrating motor complex (MMC) are present; however, the number of propagating spike potentials through the myenterically denervated region is reduced. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the regional loss of myenteric neurons on gastrointestinal transit of a solid marker in the fasted rat. The rate of gastric emptying was not affected by the absence of the myenteric plexus in a 5-cm segment of the jejunum. However, 15 days after either myenteric denervation or vehicle treatment of a segment of jejunum, a more cephalad distribution and decreased rate of intestinal propulsion of the solid marker was observed in the small intestine. This delay in small intestinal transit observed at 15 days was not seen at 48 and 120 days. The decrease in transit at 15 days can be attributed to the handling of the bowel during the surgical procedure. The mouth-to-cecum transit time (MCT) was also not affected by chronic absence of the myenteric plexus. Furthermore, the MCT indicated that bacterial overgrowth, a common manifestation when gut motility is disrupted, did not occur in the small intestine after the experimental destruction of the myenteric plexus. The results of this study indicate that the regional loss of the myenteric plexus does not impair gastrointestinal transit in the fasted rat.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Effect of gluconic acid on piglet growth performance, intestinal microflora, and intestinal wall morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, G; Piva, A; Moschini, M; Vezzali, E; Roth, F X

    2006-02-01

    Gluconic acid (GA) derives from the incomplete oxidation of glucose by some Gluconobacter strains. When fed to nonruminant animals, GA is only poorly absorbed in the small intestine and is primarly fermented to butyric acid in the lower gut. This study investigated the effect of GA on in vitro growth response and metabolism of swine cecal microflora and on animal growth performance, intestinal wall morphology, and intestinal microflora. During a 24-h in vitro cecal fermentation, total gas production and maximum rate of gas production were increased by GA (linear, P acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, acetic to propionic acid ratio, and acetic + butyric to propionic acid ratio were linearly increased by GA (P acid bacteria were not affected by GA. Gluconic acid tended to increase total short-chain fatty acids in the jejunum (+174, +87, and +74% for GA at 3,000, 6,000, and 12,000 ppm, respectively; P of the model = 0.07; quadratic, P = 0.07). Morphological evaluation of intestinal mucosa from jejunum, ileum, and cecum did not show any significant differences among treatments. This study showed that feeding GA influences the composition and activity of the intestinal microflora and may improve growth performance of piglets after weaning.

  15. Streptococcus danieliae sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from the caecum of a mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Thomas; Charrier, Cédric; Haller, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We report the characterization of one novel bacterium, strain ERD01G(T), isolated from the cecum of a TNF(deltaARE) mouse. The strain was found to belong to the genus Streptococcus based on phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. The bacterial species with standing name in nomenclature that was most closely related to our isolate was Streptococcus alactolyticus (97 %). The two bacteria were characterized by a DNA-DNA hybridization similarity value of 35 %, demonstrating that they belong to different species. The new isolate was negative for acetoin production, esculin hydrolysis, urease, α-galactosidase and β-glucosidase, was able to produce acid from starch and trehalose, grew as beta-hemolytic coccobacilli on blood agar, did not grow at >40 °C, did not survive heat treatment at 60 °C for 20 min and showed negative agglutination in Lancefield tests. On the basis of these characteristics, strain ERD01G(T) differed from the most closely related species S. alactolyticus, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus sanguinis. Thus, based on genotypic and phenotypic evidence, we propose that the isolate belongs to a novel bacterial taxon within the genus Streptococcus, for which the name Streptococcus danieliae is proposed. The type strain is ERD01G(T) (= DSM 22233(T) = CCUG 57647(T)).

  16. DERMOID CYST OF EXTERNAL NOSE : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dermoid cysts or Dermoid sinus tracts are congenital inclusion cysts or sinuses lined by stratified squamous epithelium with normal dermal appendages. They occur due to sequestration of skin along the lines of embryonal clefts or fissures. They may arise f rom vestigial epithelial lined structures. There is a gradual accumulation of epithelial debris sebaceous and sweat secretions and hairs. Commonly dermoid cyst occurs in face, neck and scalp . [1] They can also occur in the soft palate, the tongue, the nasop harynx and the paranasal sinuses. Before the replacement of the nasofrontal fontanel by the nasal process of the frontal bone the dura and the skin are in contact without intervention of any bony structure. If any part of the ectoderm fails to separate fro m the dura and is carried to the prenasal space a dermoid cyst will be formed usually behind the nasal or frontal bone . [2 ,3 ] If it retains its connection with the skin, a sinus will result. Commonly the sinus will discharge cheesy offensive material or glo w abnormal hairs. Both cysts and sinuses may have a connection with an intracranial component through an abnormal foramen cecum in the anterior cranial fossa.

  17. Effects of species, age and feeding method on the intestinal flora of broilers%不同品种、日龄和饲养方式对肉鸡肠道菌群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小娟; 张日俊; 郭宝林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of species, age and feeding on intestinal flora of broilers. Method 120 Beijing Fatty chickens and 120 AA broilers were randomly allocated to two feeding groups, being raised in cages or on ground, respectively. For each feeding style, there were five replicates consisting 12 chickens each. At the days7, 14, 21 and 42, contents of the duodenum, ileum and cecum were collected sterilely to analyse the changes of intestinal flora. Result (1) Microbial species became increasingly diverse from the duodenum to cecum. Microbial species increased in the same segment of the intestine as the birds aged. Dominant microbes in duodenum and ileum were Lactobacillus planetarium and Bifidobacterium, and the main bacteria in cecum were Bacteroides and Clostridium. Moreover, Bacteroides in AA broilers were more than Beijing Fatty chickens. (2) Breed of chickens had no significant effects on the number of bands of duodenum and ileum , and the number of Beijing Fatty was bigger than AA broilers. Age of birds had significant effects on the number of bands of ileum. The interactions between breed, age, and feeding style had significant effect on the number of bands of ileum. (3) The similarity of the intestinal flora in the duodenum among treatments became stable at Day 42, and for ileum, at the Day 21. There were no marked changes in the similarity of the intestinal flora in the cecum among treatments from 7 to 42 day. Conclusion There are different species of microbials in different intestinal segments of broilers, and species, ages and feeding patterns have different effects on the intestinal microflora of broilers, however, the intestinal microflora tend to be stable with the aging of broilers.%目的 研究品种、日龄和饲养方式对肉鸡肠道菌群的影响.方法 选择北京油鸡和AA肉鸡各120只,分笼养和地面平养两种饲养方式,每种饲养方式60只鸡(5个重复,每个重复12只),于7、14、21和42日龄无菌收

  18. New Aspidoderidae species parasite of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae): a light and scanning electron microscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Sant'anna, V; Oliveira-Menezes, A; De Souza, W

    2014-02-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, are widely distributed in the Americas. The family Aspidoderidae includes the subfamilies Aspidoderinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, and Lauroiinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1951. These two subfamilies are delineated by the presence or absence of cephalic cordons at the anterior region. The nematodes in the subfamily Aspidoderinae, which includes the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are represented by nematodes with anterior cephalic cordons at the anterior end. The nematodes of the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are found in the cecum and large intestine of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia and Rodentia. Species within this genus have many morphological similarities. The use of scanning electron microscopy allows the specific characterization of the species within this genus. In the present work, we describe a new species of Aspidodera parasite of the large intestine of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae) Wied-Neuwied, 1826, collected from Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro. The combination of light and scanning electron microscopy allowed us a detailed analysis of this nematode.

  19. Value of CT scan in the diagnosis of primary large bowel lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵修义; 张雪林; 王劲; 郑卫权; 文戈

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the CT imaging of primary large bowel lymphoma and evaluate the value of CT scan.Methods:CT reports of 8 patients with proven primary large bowel lymphoma were retrospectively reviewed.Plain CT scans were done on all patients,enhanced CT scans simultaneously with 5 - 10 mm section thickness,and 5 - 10 mm table increments in 6 cases.Results:Primary involved sites were on the cecum(n = 3),the ascending colon(n = 2),and the rectum(n = 1).The tumor was found in multiple areas of the large bowel in 2 cases.CT appearance fell into 3 typical patterns in our study.The first was focal mass type in 2 cases,with one combined with intussusception and retroperitoneal adenopathy; the second was segmental annular involvement type in 3 cases,with one of them combined with mesenteric adenopathy; the last was diffuse involvement type in 2 cases.Multiple nodules were seen in the rectum in 1 case.Conclusion:CT was found to be accurate in detecting the primary sites and complications of lymphoma,and evaluating invasion of adjacent structures; Focal mass type,segmental annular involvement type and diffuse involvement type are the main patterns of CT features in the primary large bowel lymphoma; The features revealed by CT scan are suggestive of primary large bowel lymphoma in some cases.

  20. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Guo, Jiang; Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1-21 days and 61.0% during 22-42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers.

  1. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lu

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage with 10 cages (replicates for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1-21 days and 61.0% during 22-42 days or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers.

  2. Effects of Fructooligosaccharides,compared with Direct-Fed Microbial Bacteria,and Zinc Bacitracin on Cecal Microbial Populations and Performance of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructooligosaccharides(FOS),compared with direct-fed microbial bacteria (DFM),and zinc bacitracin ,on cecal microbial populations and performance of broiler Chickens. One hundred and ninety-two broilers (Avian) were randomly assigned to four groups,with four replicates of 12 birds each. The control group was fed with the basal diet,without any drug additive. FOS,DFM and zine bacitracin was respectively added to the basal diet at the level of 1.5% ,800 mg@kg-1 and 300 mg@ kg-1 to form the experimental diets. Body weight ,feed intake and feed efficiency were measured weekly. The feeding trial started at 1 d and ended at 21 d. At day 14 and day 21 ,four broilers per group were killed and cecum waa taken to determined microflors and pH. The results showed that dietary FOS increased bifidobactrial concentration by 1. 75-fold( P <0. 05) at 14 d of age and 1.45-fold( P <0. 05) at 21 d of age compared with control. FOS had no effect on concnetrations of E. coli and pH. There were no dietary effects of FOS,DFM,and zinc bacitracin on weight gain,feed intake,feed conversion( P >0. 05).

  3. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Carum copticum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falaki M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of dietary Carum copticum essential oil (CCEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics and intestinal microflora of broiler chickens. A total of 240 Cobb broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments, each with four replicates of 12 birds. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of CCEO at 150, 250, 350 mg/kg or antibiotic Virginiamycin at 200 mg/kg. Treatments were fed from 0 to 42 d of age. Body weight gain decreased linearly (P=0.035 with increasing CCEO while Virginiamycin increased body weight gain at 1 to 10 d compared to the control treatment (P 0.05. There were no differences in carcass characteristics among broiler chickens fed the control, CCEO and Virginiamycin diets (P > 0.05. Lactic acid bacteria in the cecum and ileum at 42 d of age were not influenced by the treatments (P > 0.05 but there was a linear increase of the log numbers of E. coli in the ileum (P=0.02 with increasing CCEO (P < 0.05. In conclusion, supplementing CCEO to diet at 150 mg/kg improve the growth performance, decrease undesirable intestinal bacteria in broiler chickens and is an adequate alternative to antibiotics.

  4. Curcuma and Scutellaria plant extracts protect chickens against inflammation and Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Gerzova, Lenka; Cejkova, Darina; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Panhéleux, Marina; Robert, Fabrice; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    After a ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in farm animals in the European Union in 2006, an interest in alternative products with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory properties has increased. In this study, we therefore tested the effects of extracts from Curcuma longa and Scutellaria baicalensis used as feed additives against cecal inflammation induced by heat stress or Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection in chickens. Curcuma extract alone was not enough to decrease gut inflammation induced by heat stress. However, a mixture of Curcuma and Scutellaria extracts used as feed additives decreased gut inflammation induced by heat or S. Enteritidis, decreased S. Enteritidis counts in the cecum but was of no negative effect on BW or humoral immune response. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA we found out that supplementation of feed with the 2 plant extracts had no effect on microbiota diversity. However, if the plant extract supplementation was provided to the chickens infected with S. Enteritidis, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus, both bacterial genera with known positive effects on gut health were positively selected. The supplementation of chicken feed with extracts from Curcuma and Scutelleria thus may be used in poultry production to effectively decrease gut inflammation and increase chicken performance.

  5. 某养殖场鸡源粪肠球菌分离鉴定及耐药性研究%IIdentification and drug resistance of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from chicken in a farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏崴艺; 李欣南; 韩镌竹

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, 24 strains of Enterococcus faecalis were isolated from 100 cecum swabs of broilers in a farm, Liaoning Provence and identified as Enterococcus faecalis through the ATB bacterial identification instrument. Their drug sensitivity was tested against 14 antibiotics. The results showed they were sensitive to Penicillin, Vancomycin, ampicillin and Teicoplanin, resis-tant against Toerythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, levofloxacin and Dalfo-pristin, the resistance rate reached 100%. According to the results, the bacteria from the broil-ers in the farm were resistant to antimicrobial drugs seriously.%本文从辽宁某鸡场100份肉鸡盲肠拭子中分离获得粪肠球菌24株,通过ATB细菌鉴定仪进行鉴定确认为粪肠球菌,并对这24株粪肠球菌进行了14种抗生素的药敏试验。结果显示,粪肠球菌对青霉素、万古霉素、氨苄西林和替拉考宁敏感;对红霉素、氯霉素、环丙沙星、四环素、左氧氟沙星和奎奴普汀/达福普汀耐药,耐药率均达到100.0%,养殖场抗菌药物耐药严重。

  6. Modulation of antimicrobial host defense peptide gene expression by free fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi T Sunkara

    Full Text Available Routine use of antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels in animal feed drives the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Development of antibiotic-alternative approaches to disease control and prevention for food animals is imperatively needed. Previously, we showed that butyrate, a major species of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs fermented from undigested fiber by intestinal microflora, is a potent inducer of endogenous antimicrobial host defense peptide (HDP genes in the chicken (PLoS One 2011, 6: e27225. In the present study, we further revealed that, in chicken HD11 macrophages and primary monocytes, induction of HDPs is largely in an inverse correlation with the aliphatic hydrocarbon chain length of free fatty acids, with SCFAs being the most potent, medium-chain fatty acids moderate and long-chain fatty acids marginal. Additionally, three SCFAs, namely acetate, propionate, and butyrate, exerted a strong synergy in augmenting HDP gene expression in chicken cells. Consistently, supplementation of chickens with a combination of three SCFAs in water resulted in a further reduction of Salmonella enteritidis in the cecum as compared to feeding of individual SCFAs. More importantly, free fatty acids enhanced HDP gene expression without triggering proinflammatory interleukin-1β production. Taken together, oral supplementation of SCFAs is capable of boosting host immunity and disease resistance, with potential for infectious disease control and prevention in animal agriculture without relying on antibiotics.

  7. Effects of focal cooling of the ventral medullary surface on breathing pattern and blood pressure in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T; Hida, W; Okabe, S; Izumiyama, T; Sakurai, M; Takishima, T

    1991-01-01

    We assessed the effect of focal graded cooling of the ventral medullary surface (VMS) on breathing pattern and blood pressure in 15 anesthetized, vagotomized and artificially ventilated dogs. Diaphragmatic electromyogram or phrenic neurogram, referred to as Ec, and blood pressure (BP) were obtained during localized (2 x 2 mm2) cooling of the VMS. Greatest depression of both Ec and BP was obtained by cooling in the areas located 4-9 mm caudal to the foramen cecum (Fc) and lateral to the pyramids. Mild cooling in these intermediate areas decreased both inspiratory duration (Ti) and the rate of rise of Ec (Ec/Ti), but respiratory rate was unchanged. Cooling of the rostral areas (0-3 mm from Fc) induced mild depression of Ec amplitude due to reduction in Ec/Ti without changing Ti, and prolonged expiratory duration (Te) significantly. Cooling of the caudal areas (12-18 mm from Fc) reduced Ec amplitude mildly due to reduction in Ti without affecting Ec/Ti, and shortened Te greatly. Cooling of the rostral areas produced mild fall in BP, but cooling of the caudal areas did not affect BP significantly. It is suggested that rostral and intermediate parts of the VMS participate in the shaping of inspiratory drive, whereas wide areas of the VMS including caudal part are involved in the determination of respiratory timing. It is also suggested that the rostral and intermediate parts, and not the caudal part, of the VMS are important in the regulation of vasomotor tone.

  8. Horizontal gene transfer of a ColV plasmid has resulted in a dominant avian clonal type of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Johnson

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica continues to be a significant cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness in humans. A wide variety of Salmonella serovars have been isolated from production birds and from retail poultry meat. Recently, though, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky has emerged as one of the prominent Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler chickens. Recent work suggests that its emergence apparently coincides with its acquisition of a ColV virulence plasmid. In the present study, we examined 902 Salmonella isolates belonging to 59 different serovars for the presence of this plasmid. Of the serovars examined, the ColV plasmid was found only among isolates belonging to the serovars Kentucky (72.9%, Typhimurium (15.0% and Heidelberg (1.7%. We demonstrated that a single PFGE clonal type of S. Kentucky harbors this plasmid, and acquisition of this plasmid by S. Kentucky significantly increased its ability to colonize the chicken cecum and cause extraintestinal disease. Comparison of the completed sequences of three ColV plasmids from S. Kentucky isolated from different geographical locales, timepoints and sources revealed a nearly identical genetic structure with few single nucleotide changes or insertions/deletions. Overall, it appears that the ColV plasmid was recently acquired by a single clonal type S. Kentucky and confers to its host enhanced colonization and fitness capabilities. Thus, the potential for horizontal gene transfer of virulence and fitness factors to Salmonella from other enteric bacteria exists in poultry, representing a potential human health hazard.

  9. Effect of administration with the extract of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br leaves on lipid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, N; Asano, R; Shimosaka, M; Okazaki, M

    2001-06-01

    Extract of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br leaves (GE) was orally administered once a day to rats fed a high fat diet or normal fat diet for 3 weeks to investigate its influence on lipid metabolism. As a result, GE did not influence body weight gain or feed intake in both diet groups during the experimental period. The apparent fat digestibility was significantly decreased by GE in both diet groups for the last 2 weeks of the experimental period, though not the apparent protein digestibility. In addition, the excretion of neutral sterols and acid steroids into feces was increased by GE in both diet groups. Furthermore, GE decreased the total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum. On the other hand, blood lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity was increased by GE. Moreover, it was suggested that GE influenced cecal fermentation and that propionic acid and acetic acid contents in cecum were significantly increased by GE. Consequently, it was suggested that GE improved serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels through influence over a wide range of lipid metabolism in rats.

  10. Routine use of modified CT Enterography in patients with acute abdominal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourtsoyianni, Sofia [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, 71110 Stavrakia, Heraklion/Crete (Greece)], E-mail: sgty76@gmail.com; Zamboni, Giulia A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital GB Rossi, Verona (Italy); Romero, Janneth Y.; Raptopoulos, Vassilios D. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate routine use of CT Enterography (CTE) in patients presenting with non-traumatic acute abdominal pain with respect to patient tolerance, imaging of intestinal detail along with conventional abdominal evaluation. Materials and methods: Modified CTE was performed in 165 consecutive patients with acute abdominal pain: ingestion, as tolerated, of 900-1200 ml of 2% barium suspension + 5 ml of Gastrografin over 45 min; 150 ml of iv contrast given in two boluses (50 and 100 ml) 3 min apart (split bolus injection protocol). Axial, coronal and sagittal reformats were reviewed by two radiologists and graded on a 5-point scale (5 best) in regard to GI tract luminal opacification and distension and abdominal organ and vascular enhancement. Results: In 81 patients the cause of abdominal pain was identified (intestinal in 54 and extraintestinal in 27). Oral contrast reached cecum in 76% of the patients and the small bowel was well distended and opacified (medians = 4). Mucosa detail was good (median = 3) and there was significant (p < 0.0001) correlation between bowel opacification and distension for both jejunum and ileum. A combined nephrographic and excretory phase was achieved (medians 4 and 5, respectively), while the great vessels were well opacified, allowing for vascular evaluation (median = 5). The rest of the abdominal structures were well visualized. Conclusion: Modified CTE is well tolerated by patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain, and can be used routinely as a non-invasive examination informative of bowel, vessel and organ pathology in Emergency Department patients.

  11. Nitrogen digestion and urea recycling in Hokkaido native horses fed hay-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obitsu, Taketo; Hata, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) digestion and urea-N metabolism in Hokkaido native horses fed roughage-based diets containing different types and levels of protein sources were studied. Horses (173 ± 4.8 kg) fitted with an ileum cannula were fed four diets consisting of 100% timothy hay (TH), 88% TH and 12% soybean meal (SBM), 79% TH and 21% SBM, and 51% TH and 49% alfalfa hay at 2.2% of body weight. Dietary protein content varied from 5% to 15% of dry matter. Apparent N digestibilities in the pre-cecum and total tract for the TH diet were lower than those for other diets. However, the proportion of post-ileum N digestion to N intake was not affected by the diets. Urea-N production was linearly related to N intake, but gut urea-N entry was not affected by the diets. The proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be higher for the TH diet (57%) than the two SBM diets (39%). Anabolic use of urea-N entering the gut was not affected by the diets (20-36% of gut urea-N entry). These results indicate that urea-N recycling provides additional N sources for microbial fermentation in the hindgut of Hokkaido native horses fed low-quality roughages.

  12. Sonography in Colonic Diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Mi Yun; Choi, Byung Hun; Kim, Keum Won; Kwon, Kwi Ryun; Lim, Myung Ah; Kim, Sung Soo; Choi, Chang Ho [Sunlin Presbyterian Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To evaluate the sonographic findings and the diagnostic value of colonic diverticulitis. We evaluated the sonograms of 26 patients with colonic diverticulitis retrospectively. The final diagnosis was based on the pathologic interpretation of a surgical specimen (5 cases), clinical course (21 cases), on barium enema (12 cases) and colonoscopy (1 case). Twenty-five patients had acute diverticulitis in the cecum and 1 patient in the descending colon. On sonography, an oval or short tubular focus which protruded from the colonic wall was seen in 23 patients (88%) and the longest diameter were from 0.5 cm to 3 cm (mean 1.4cm). The lesions were echogenic in 8 cases and hypoechoic in 17 cases. Segmental thickening of the colonic wall was seen in 13 patients (50%), of these, protruding focus was seen in 92%. Pericolic abscess located inposterolateral and medial portion to the colon was seen in 11 patients (42%). Infiltration in pericolic fat(50%), enlargement of pericolic lymph nodes (27%) and small pericolic fluid (8%) were also seen. Our results show that ultrasonography is useful technique in the diagnosis of colonic diverticulitis and in the differentiation from acute appendicitis

  13. An in vitro assessment of bioaccessibility of arsenicals in rice and the use of this estimate within a probabilistic exposure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenary, Heather R; Creed, Patricia A; Young, Andrea R; Mantha, Madhavi; Schwegel, Carol A; Xue, Jianping; Kohan, Michael J; Herbin-Davis, Karen; Thomas, David J; Caruso, Joseph A; Creed, John T

    2012-07-01

    In this study, an in vitro synthetic gastrointestinal extraction protocol was used to estimate bioaccessibility of different arsenicals present in 17 rice samples of various grain types that were collected across the United States. The across matrix average for total arsenic was 209 ng/g±153 (\\[xmacr]±2σ). The bioaccessibility estimate produced an across matrix average of 61%±19 (\\[xmacr]±2σ). The across matrix average concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were 81 ng/g±67.7 and 41 ng/g±58.1 (\\[xmacr]±2σ), respectively. This distribution of iAs concentrations in rice was combined with the distribution of consumption patterns (from WWEIA) in a Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulator model to estimate population-based exposures. The mean consumption rate for the population as a whole was 15.7 g per day resulting in a 0.98 μg iAs per day exposure. The mean consumption rate for children 1-2 years old was 7 g per day resulting in a 0.48 μg iAs per day exposure. Presystemic biotransformation of DMA in rice was examined using an in vitro assay containing the anaerobic microbiota of mouse cecum. This assay indicated that DMA extracted from the rice was converted to dimethylthioarsinic acid, although a second oxygen-sulfur exchange to produce DMDTA was not observed.

  14. Laparoscopic Splenectomy for Traumatic Splenic Injury after Screening Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Abunnaja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Colonoscopy is a widespread diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. The most common complications include bleeding and perforation. Splenic rupture following colonoscopy is rarely encountered and is most likely secondary to traction on the splenocolic ligament. Exploratory laparotomy and splenectomy is the most commonly employed therapeutic intervention for this injury reported in the literature. We present the case of a patient with this potentially fatal complication who was treated successfully at our institution. To our knowledge it is the first report in the literature of laparoscopic splenectomy as a successful minimally invasive treatment of splenic rupture following colonoscopy. The patient was a 62-year-old female who underwent screening colonoscopy with polypectomies at the cecum, descending colon and rectum. Immediately following the procedure she developed abdominal pain and had a syncopal episode. Clinical, laboratory and imaging findings were suggestive of hemoperitoneum and a ruptured spleen. A diagnostic laparoscopy was emergently performed and revealed a grade IV splenic laceration and hemoperitoneum. Laparoscopic splenectomy was completed safely and effectively. The patient’s postoperative recovery was uneventful. We conclude that splenic rupture after colonoscopy is a rare but dangerous complication. A high index of suspicion is required to recognize it early. Awareness of this potential complication can lead to optimal patient outcome. Laparoscopic splenectomy may be a feasible treatment option.

  15. Feasibility study of computed tomography colonography using limited bowel preparation at normal and low-dose levels study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florie, Jasper; Gelder, Rogier E. van; Schutter, Michiel P.; Randen, Adrienne van; Jager, Steven de; Prent, Anna; Bipat, Shandra [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, G1-230, P.O. Box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Venema, Henk W. [Academic Medical Center, Department of MedicaPhysics, L0-106, P.O. Box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulst, Victor P.M. van der [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, P.O. BOX 95500, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bossuyt, Patrick M.M. [Academic Medical Center, Department Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, J1b-212, P.O. BOX 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baak, Lubbertus C. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department Gastroenterology, P.O. BOX 95500, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, G1-211, P.O. BOX 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    The purpose was to evaluate low-dose CT colonography without cathartic cleansing in terms of image quality, polyp visualization and patient acceptance. Sixty-one patients scheduled for colonoscopy started a low-fiber diet, lactulose and amidotrizoic-acid for fecal tagging 2 days prior to the CT scan (standard dose, 5.8-8.2 mSv). The original raw data of 51 patients were modified and reconstructed at simulated 2.3 and 0.7 mSv levels. Two observers evaluated the standard dose scan regarding image quality and polyps. A third evaluated the presence of polyps at all three mSv levels in a blinded prospective way. All observers were blinded to the reference standard: colonoscopy. At three times patients were given questionnaires relating to their experiences and preference. Image quality was sufficient in all patients, but significantly lower in the cecum, sigmoid and rectum. The two observers correctly identified respectively 10/15 (67%) and 9/15 (60%) polyps {>=}10 mm, with 5 and 8 false-positive lesions (standard dose scan). Dose reduction down to 0.7 mSv was not associated with significant changes in diagnostic value (polyps {>=}10 mm). Eighty percent of patients preferred CT colonography and 13% preferred colonoscopy (P<0.001). CT colonography without cleansing is preferred to colonoscopy and shows sufficient image quality and moderate sensitivity, without impaired diagnostic value at dose-levels as low as 0.7 mSv. (orig.)

  16. The Effects of Agave fourcroydes Powder as a Dietary Supplement on Growth Performance, Gut Morphology, Concentration of IgG, and Hematology Parameters in Broiler Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Maidelys; Martínez, Yordan; Ni, Hengjia; Jiang, Hongmei; Valdivié Navarro, Manuel; Wu, Xiaosong; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Rosales, Manuel; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Fang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Agave fourcroydes powder as a dietary supplement on the growth performance, gut morphology, serum concentration of IgG, and the hematology parameters of broiler rabbits. A total of 32 rabbits [New Zealand × Californian] were weaned at 35 days. They were randomly selected for two dietary treatments (eight repetitions per treatment), which consisted of a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% dried-stem powder of A. fourcroydes. On day 60 from the initiation of treatment, gut histomorphology (duodenum and cecum), serum concentration of IgG, and hematology parameters were all measured. The results showed that A. fourcroydes powder supplementation improved (P < 0.05) the ADFI, ADG, and final BW. Correspondingly, this treatment increased (P < 0.05) the muscle and mucosa thickness and height and width of villi. However, duodenum crypts depth was lower (P < 0.05) when rabbits were fed with this natural product, compared with the basal diet treatment. Results also indicated that the A. fourcroydes powder increased (P < 0.05) the serum concentration of IgG but did not change the hematology parameters. This data indicates that A. fourcroydes powder, as a supplement, had beneficial effects on increasing the growth performance and serum concentration of IgG, as well as improving the gut morphology without affecting the hematology parameters in broiler rabbits.

  17. The Effects of Agave fourcroydes Powder as a Dietary Supplement on Growth Performance, Gut Morphology, Concentration of IgG, and Hematology Parameters in Broiler Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidelys Iser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of Agave fourcroydes powder as a dietary supplement on the growth performance, gut morphology, serum concentration of IgG, and the hematology parameters of broiler rabbits. A total of 32 rabbits [New Zealand × Californian] were weaned at 35 days. They were randomly selected for two dietary treatments (eight repetitions per treatment, which consisted of a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% dried-stem powder of A. fourcroydes. On day 60 from the initiation of treatment, gut histomorphology (duodenum and cecum, serum concentration of IgG, and hematology parameters were all measured. The results showed that A. fourcroydes powder supplementation improved (P<0.05 the ADFI, ADG, and final BW. Correspondingly, this treatment increased (P<0.05 the muscle and mucosa thickness and height and width of villi. However, duodenum crypts depth was lower (P<0.05 when rabbits were fed with this natural product, compared with the basal diet treatment. Results also indicated that the A. fourcroydes powder increased (P<0.05 the serum concentration of IgG but did not change the hematology parameters. This data indicates that A. fourcroydes powder, as a supplement, had beneficial effects on increasing the growth performance and serum concentration of IgG, as well as improving the gut morphology without affecting the hematology parameters in broiler rabbits.

  18. Butyrate enhances disease resistance of chickens by inducing antimicrobial host defense peptide gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi T Sunkara

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs constitute a large group of natural broad-spectrum antimicrobials and an important first line of immunity in virtually all forms of life. Specific augmentation of synthesis of endogenous HDPs may represent a promising antibiotic-alternative approach to disease control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous administration of butyrate, a major type of short-chain fatty acids derived from bacterial fermentation of undigested dietary fiber, is capable of inducing HDPs and enhancing disease resistance in chickens. We have found that butyrate is a potent inducer of several, but not all, chicken HDPs in HD11 macrophages as well as in primary monocytes, bone marrow cells, and jejuna and cecal explants. In addition, butyrate treatment enhanced the antibacterial activity of chicken monocytes against Salmonella enteritidis, with a minimum impact on inflammatory cytokine production, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst capacities of the cells. Furthermore, feed supplementation with 0.1% butyrate led to a significant increase in HDP gene expression in the intestinal tract of chickens. More importantly, such a feeding strategy resulted in a nearly 10-fold reduction in the bacterial titer in the cecum following experimental infections with S. enteritidis. Collectively, the results indicated that butyrate-induced synthesis of endogenous HDPs is a phylogenetically conserved mechanism of innate host defense shared by mammals and aves, and that dietary supplementation of butyrate has potential for further development as a convenient antibiotic-alternative strategy to enhance host innate immunity and disease resistance.

  19. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Total Colectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwatosin J.; Carne, David; Guyton, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To present our experience with a single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy, along with a literature review of all published cases on single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy. Methods: A total of 22 cases were published between 2010 and 2011, with our patient being case 23. These procedures were performed in the United States and United Kingdom. Surgical procedures included total colectomy with end ileostomy, proctocolectomy with ileorectal anastomosis, and total proctocolectomy with ileopouch-anal anastomosis. Intraoperative and postoperative data are analyzed. Results: Twenty-two of the 23 cases were performed for benign cases including Crohns, ulcerative colitis, and familial adenomatous polyposis. One case was performed for adenocarcinoma of the cecum. The mean age was 35.3 years (range, 13 to 64), the mean body mass index was 20.1 (range, 19 to 25), mean operative time was 175.9 minutes (range, 139 to 216), mean blood loss was 95.3mL (range, 59 to 200), mean incision length was 2.61cm (range, 2 to 3). Average follow-up was 4.6 months with 2 reported complications. Conclusions: Single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy is feasible and safe in the hands of an experienced surgeon. It has been performed for both benign and malignant cases. It is comparable to the conventional multi-port laparoscopic total colectomy. PMID:22906326

  20. A role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography in a strategy for abdominal wall metastasis of colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma developed after laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneko Hironori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastasis to the abdominal wall including port sites after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is rare. Resection of metastatic lesions may lead to greater survival benefit if the abdominal wall metastasis is the only manifestation of recurrent disease. A 57-year-old man, who underwent laparoscopic surgery for advanced mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cecum 6 years prior, developed a nodule in the surgical wound at the lower right abdomen. Although tumor markers were within normal limits, the metastasis to the abdominal wall and abdominal cavity from the previous cecal cancer was suspected. An abdominal computed tomography scan did not provide detective evidence of metastasis. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT was therefore performed, which demonstrated increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (maximum standardized uptake value: 3.1 in the small abdominal wall nodule alone. Histopathological examination of the resected nodule confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma. Prognosis of intestinal mucinous adenocarcinoma is reported to be poorer than that of non-mucinous adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, this case suggests an important role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in early diagnosis and decision-making regarding therapy for recurrent disease in cases where a firm diagnosis of recurrent colorectal cancer is difficult to make.

  1. Sonographic assessment of splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C.F. [Medical Department II, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: Christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de; Jedrzejczyk, M.; Ignee, A. [Medical Department II, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The intestinal wall can be visualized using high resolution transabdominal ultrasound. The normal intestinal wall thickness in the terminal ileum, cecum, and right and left colon is <2 mm when examined with graded compression. It is important to appreciate that a contracted intestinal segment can be misinterpreted as a thickened wall. Vascularisation can be mainly displayed in the second hyperechoic layer (submucosal layer) as well as vessels penetrating the muscularis propria. Imaging of the gastrointestinal wall is dependent on the experience of the examiner as well dependent on the equipment used. Acute or chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall is accompanied by increased perfusion of the mesentery, which can be displayed non-quantitatively with colour duplex. In contrast, ischemia is characterised by hypoperfusion of the mesenteric arteries and the bowel wall. The most promising sonographic approach in assessing splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall is combining the analysis of superior and inferior mesenteric inflow by pulsed Doppler scanning (systolic and diastolic velocities, resistance index) with the end-organ vascularity by colour Doppler imaging diminishing the influence of examination technique only displaying bowel wall vascularity. Colour Doppler imaging has been described as helpful in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly in patients with Crohn's disease, celiac disease, mesenteric artery stenosis and other ischemic gastrointestinal diseases, graft versus host disease and hemorrhagic segmental colitis.

  2. An unusual white blood cell scan in a child with inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; O'Loughlin, E; Uren, R; Chaitow, J

    2000-10-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled leukocyte (WBC) imaging is a valuable screening method for inflammatory bowel disease, especially in children, because of its high rate of sensitivity, low cost, and ease of preparation. A 14-year-old girl is described who had juvenile arthritis and iritis complicated by inflammatory bowel disease. She was examined for recurrent abdominal pain. A Tc-99m stannous colloid WBC scan was performed, and tracer accumulation was seen in the small bowel in the region of the distal ileum on the initial 1-hour image. Delayed imaging at 3 hours also revealed tracer accumulation in the cecum and ascending colon, which was not seen on the early image. A biopsy of the colon during endoscopy showed no evidence of active inflammation in the colon. The small bowel was not seen. Computed tomography revealed changes suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease in the distal ileum. The appearance on the WBC study was most likely a result of inflammatory bowel disease involving the distal ileum, with transit of luminal activity into the large bowel.

  3. Effect of intravenous Buscopan on colonic distention during computed tomography colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, C. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Stevenson, G. [Dept. of Radiology, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)], E-mail: gilse@shaw.ca; Eddy, R. [Royal Jublilee Hospital, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Mathieson, J. [Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This study was designed to assess whether spasmolytic drugs are helpful in computed tomography colonography (CTC), as there is conflict in the literature. We assessed retrospectively in a blinded fashion colonic distention in 149 individuals, one-half of whom had intravenous (IV) Buscopan during CTC. Colonic segments (n = 1788) were analyzed by 2 observers, and allocated to one of 4 grades of the distention. We also recorded the presence and severity of diverticular disease. Buscopan increased the likelihood of optimal distention by an OR of 5 when considering individual colonic segments from ascending colon to sigmoid, with little effect on rectum or cecum. Considering the colon as a whole, the OR of optimal distention occurring throughout the entire colon was 7.9 times greater with Buscopan than without. In the sigmoid colon, Buscopan had a significantly greater impact on obtaining optimal distention in those with diverticulosis than in those without. Buscopan increases the probability of obtaining optimal distention during CTC, especially in the sigmoid colon in diverticular disease. Buscopan is likely to improve polyp conspicuity and patient comfort, and to reduce both the examination time during and the interpretation time We recommend routine use of Buscopan during CTC. (author)

  4. CO_2 insufflation for potentially difficult colonoscopies:Efficacy when used by less experienced colonoscopists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshio Uraoka; Jun Kato; Motoaki Kuriyama; Keisuke Hori; Shin Ishikawa; Keita Harada; Koji Takemoto; Sakiko Hiraoka; Hideyuki Fujita; Joichiro Horii; Yutaka Saito; Kazuhide Yamamoto

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the effectiveness of CO_2 insufflation in potentially difficult colonoscopy cases, particularly in relation to the experience level of colonoscopists. METHODS: One hundred twenty potentially difficult cases were included in this study, which involved females with a low body mass index and patients with earlier abdominal and/or pelvic open surgery or previously diagnosed left-side colon diverticulosis. Patients receiving colonoscopy examinations without sedation using a pediatric variable-stiffness colonoscope were divided into two groups based on either CO_2 or standard air insufflation. Both insufflation procedures were also evaluated according to the experience level of the respective colonoscopists who were divided into an experienced colonoscopist (EC) group and a less experienced colonoscopist (LEC) group. Study measurements included a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) for patient pain during and after colonoscopy examinations, in addition to insertion to the cecum and withdrawal times. RESULTS: Examination times did not differ, however, VAS scores in the CO_2 group were significantly better than in the air group (P < 0.001, two-way ANOVA) from immediately after the procedure and up to 2 h later. There were no significant differences between either insufflation method in the EC group (P = 0.29), however, VAS scores for CO_2 insufflation were significantly better than air insufflation in the LEC group (P = 0.023) immediately after colonoscopies and up to 4 h afterwards. CONCLUSION: CO_2 insufflation reduced patient pain after colonoscopy in potentially difficult cases when performed by LECs.

  5. Evaluation of co-stimulatory effects of Tamarindus indica L. on MNU-induced colonic cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivshankar, Pooja; Shyamala Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu

    2004-08-01

    Colonic cell proliferation is the prerequisite for the genesis of cancer. Experimental and epidemiologic evidence indicate dietary factors to be one of the commonest predisposing factors in the development of several types of cancers including large intestine. Here we have investigated the role of the fruit pulp of Tamarindus indica L. (TI), a tropical plant-derived food material, on the proliferating colonic mucosa using Swiss albino mice. Crypt cell proliferation rate (CCPR), on histological basis and [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay were chosen to evaluate the modulating potential of TI per se and in response to a subacute dose of N-nitroso N'-methyl urea (MNU). Descending colonic segment showed greater rate of cell proliferation than the ascending colon and cecum tissues isolated from the group 2 (TI-per se) when compared with group 1 (negative controls). It also revealed a positive correlation with the incorporation studies. Significant increase in the CCPR and radiolabeled precursor incorporation (p <0.001) was observed in MNU-induced+TI fed group of animals (group 4) in all the three segments when compared with control diet fed normal (group 1) as well as MNU-induced (group 3) animals. This study therefore indicates a co-stimulatory effect of TI on MNU-induced colonic cell kinetics.

  6. Appendiceal Diverticulitis Clinically Masquerading as an Appendiceal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Terada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appendiceal diverticulosis is a rare condition. Herein reported is a case of appendiceal diverticulosis and diverticulitis clinically masquerading as appendiceal carcinoma. A 62-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain. US and CT showed a tumor measuring 5 × 4 × 4 cm in vermiform appendix. Colon endoscopy showed mucosal elevation and irregularity in the orifice of vermiform appendix. A biopsy of the appendiceal mucosa showed no significant changes. Clinical diagnosis was appendiceal carcinoma and wide excision of terminal ileum, appendix, cecum, and ascending colon was performed. Grossly, the appendix showed a tumor measuring 5 × 3 × 4 cm. The appendiceal lumen was opened, and the appendiceal mucosa was elevated and irregular. The periappendiceal tissue showed thickening. Microscopically, the lesion was multiple appendiceal diverticula. The diverticula were penetrating the muscle layer. The mucosa showed erosions in places. Much fibrosis, abscess formations, and lymphocytic infiltration were seen in the subserosa. Abscesses were also seen in the diverticular lumens. Some diverticula penetrated into the subserosa. The pathologic diagnosis was appendiceal diverticulitis. When they encounter an appendiceal mass, clinicians should consider appendiceal diverticulitis as a differential diagnosis.

  7. Nanoscale and customary non-esterified sitosterols are equally enriched in different body compartments of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sylvia; Helbig, Dorit; Härtl, Albert; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2007-12-01

    The impact of sitosterol formulation particle size on the intestinal sterol absorption and the sterol status in various tissues in Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs was investigated. Three groups of animals (six each) were fed a basal diet ("control") or a basal diet containing either customary sitosterol ("customary", particle size: 10 000-90 000 nm) or nanoscale sitosterol ("nanoscale", particle size: 200-300 nm). The average daily sitosterol intake was 21 +/- 7 mg (control), 154 +/- 8 mg (customary), and 127 +/- 18 mg (nanoscale) for 2 weeks. Sitosterol and cholesterol were analyzed in samples of plasma, blood cells, bile, liver, kidney, jejunal mucosa/serosa, cecum, colon and feces. Concentrations of sitosterol in all analyzed matrices increased significantly in the supplemented groups when compared to control group. No differences in the sitosterol concentrations in analyzed matrices occurred between nanoscale and customary group. The cholesterol concentrations in tissues remained unchanged. Fecal fatty acid and sterol distributions were modified during sitosterol intervention. Both particle sizes equally increased sitosterol levels in cholesterol-metabolizing compartments in the guinea pig. No differences in body compartment accumulation and intestinal absorption of the different sitosterol particle sizes were observed.

  8. Evaluation of a protective effect of in ovo delivered Campylobacter jejuni OMVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Renata; Kuczkowski, Maciej; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Klim, Joanna; Derlatka, Katarzyna; Woźniak-Biel, Anna; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K

    2016-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of a food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world, with poultry being the main source of infection. Campylobacter jejuni, like other Gram-negative bacteria, constitutively releases outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). OMVs are highly immunogenic, can be taken up by mammalian cells, and are easily modifiable by recombinant engineering. We have tested their usefulness for an oral (in ovo) vaccination of chickens. Four groups of 18-day-old chicken embryos (164 animals) underwent injection of wt C. jejuni OMVs or modified OMVs or PBS into the amniotic fluid. The OMVs modifications relied on overexpression of either a complete wt cjaA gene or the C20A mutant that relocates to the periplasm. Fourteen days post-hatch chicks were orally challenged with live C. jejuni strain. Cecum colonization parameters were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test. The wtOMVs and OMVs with wtCjaA overexpression were found to confer significant protection of chicken against C. jejuni (p = 0.03 and p = 0.013, respectively) in comparison to PBS controls and are promising candidates for further in ovo vaccine development.

  9. Novel Combination of Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Inulin-Inhibited Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation and Biomarkers of Colon Cancer in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Tahir Rasool; Syed, Fatima; Nasir, Muhammad; Rehman, Habib; Zahid, Muhammad Nauman; Liu, Rui Hai; Iqbal, Sanaullah

    2016-01-01

    The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin in cancer prevention. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of novel GOS and inulin against various biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rodent model. Prebiotic treatments of combined GOS and inulin (57 mg each), as well as individual doses (GOS: 76–151 mg; inulin 114 mg), were given to DMH-treated animals for 16 weeks. Our data reveal the significant preventive effect of the GOS and inulin combination against the development of CRC. It was observed that inhibition of ACF formation (55.8%) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher using the GOS and inulin combination than GOS (41.4%) and inulin (51.2%) treatments alone. This combination also rendered better results on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bacterial enzymatic activities. Dose-dependent effects of prebiotic treatments were also observed on cecum and fecal bacterial enzymes and on SCFA. Thus, this study demonstrated that novel combination of GOS and inulin exhibited stronger preventive activity than their individual treatments alone, and can be a promising strategy for CRC chemoprevention. PMID:27490566

  10. A scintigraphic study of colostomy irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Shinji; Fujii, Hisao; Nakano, Hiroshige (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    Colostomy irrigation was investigated by colonoscintigraphy. Twelve rectal cancer and one sigmoid colon cancer patients were examined. The tepid water whose volume was determined by barium enema was mixed with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA. Dynamic scanning was started on commencement of colostomy irrigation. The sampling time was 3 seconds and scanning was performed for 30 minutes. The mean volume of remnant colon as measured by barium enema was 650 ml. The mean number of mass movements was 4.3. The mean evacuation time was 11 minutes 56 seconds and the mean half emptying time was calculated to be 9.5 minutes. The evacuation time in the patients who underwent colostomy irrigation for more than 2 years was greater than that in the patients who underwent irrigation for less than 2 years. Colonic motility was thought to have weakened. The half emptying time and the number of mass movements in the patients whose irrigation water went into the terminal ileum was more than that in the patients whose irrigation water was within the colon and cecum. Irrigation water which went into the terminal ileum was caused evacuation after the contents of the remnant colon were washed out. In conclusion, patients should have their colostomy irrigated with the tepid water, volume is determined by barium enema. Furthermore single infusion of the water is recommended. (author).

  11. Intranasal Immunization with Chitosan/pCAGGS-flaA Nanoparticles Inhibits Campylobacter jejuni in a White Leghorn Model

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    Jin-lin Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common zoonotic bacterium associated with human diarrhea, and chickens are considered to be one of the most important sources for human infection, with no effective prophylactic treatment available. We describe here a prophylactic strategy using chitosan-DNA intranasal immunization to induce specific immune responses. The chitosan used for intranasal administration is a natural mucus absorption enhancer, which results in transgenic DNA expression in chicken nasopharynx. Chickens immunized with chitosan-DNA nanoparticles, which carried a gene for the major structural protein FlaA, produced significantly increased levels of serum anti-Campylobacter jejuni IgG and intestinal mucosal antibody (IgA, compared to those treated with chitosan-DNA (pCAGGS. Chitosan-pCAGGS-flaA intranasal immunization induced reductions of bacterial expellation by 2-3 log10 and 2 log10 in large intestine and cecum of chickens, respectively, when administered with the isolated C. jejuni strain. This study demonstrated that intranasal delivery of chitosan-DNA vaccine successfully induced effective immune response and might be a promising vaccine candidate against C. jejuni infection.

  12. Characteristics of invasion-reduced hilA gene mutant of Salmonella Enteritidis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shuang; Si, Wei; Yu, Shenye; Li, Zhaoli; Wang, Xiumei; Chen, Liping; Zhang, Wanjiang; Liu, Siguo

    2015-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes huge losses in poultry industry and also food poisoning in humans due to its being a food-borne pathogen. Functions of Invasion-related genes need to be explored, as invasion is a key step for Salmonella infection. In this study, a transposon mutant library of Salmonella Enteritidis isolate SM6 was constructed and screened for the invasion-related genes via incubation with Caco-2 cells. Three stably attenuated mutants were identified for significantly reduced invasion with insertions all in hilA (hyperinvasive locus A) gene. We constructed and evaluated the hilA deletion mutant in vivo and in vitro. SM6△hilA showed significantly reduced ability to invade Caco-2 cells and decreased pathogenicity in chicks. However, the bacterial load and pathological damage in the cecum were significantly higher than those in the SM6 in vivo. Present results provide new evidences for pathogenicity research on Salmonella Enteritidis.

  13. Saccharomyces boulardii prevention of the hepatic injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daichao; Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Dai, Changsong; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is the predominant cause of serovar-associated food-borne outbreaks in many countries and causes significant clinical symptoms of liver injury, enteritis, and diarrheal diseases. Saccharomyces boulardii is used in clinical application for prophylaxis and the treatment of a variety of diseases caused by bacterial infection. We used a mouse model of Salmonella Enteritidis infection, which included pretreatment with S. boulardii, to reveal the protection mechanisms of S. boulardii against Salmonella Enteritidis infection, including the translocation of Salmonella Enteritidis to the liver 10 days after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge, and the colonisation of Salmonella Enteritidis and the formation of hepatic tissue lesions in mice after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge on the 10th day. Compared with Salmonella Enteritidis infection in mice, S. boulardii decreased Salmonella Enteritidis translocation to the liver by 96%, and 99% of Salmonella Enteritidis colonised the cecum on the 10th day. Saccharomyces boulardii also abated hepatic tissue injury caused by the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, lymphocytes, and plasmocytes by decreasing the translocation of Salmonella to the liver. These findings demonstrated that S. boulardii is an effective agent in the prevention of the hepatic injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection in a mouse model.

  14. Salmonella Typhi shdA: pseudogene or allelic variant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, I M; Fuentes, J A; Valenzuela, L M; Ortega, A P; Hidalgo, A A; Mora, G C

    2014-08-01

    ShdA from Salmonella Typhimurium (ShdASTm) is a large outer membrane protein that specifically recognizes and binds to fibronectin. ShdASTm is involved in the colonization of the cecum and the Peyer's patches of terminal ileum in mice. On the other hand, shdA gene from Salmonella Typhi (shdASTy) has been considered a pseudogene (i.e. a nonfunctional sequence of genomic DNA) due to the presence of deletions and mutations that gave rise to premature stop codons. In this work we show that, despite the deletions and mutations, shdASTy is fully functional. S. Typhi ΔshdA mutants presented an impaired adherence and invasion of HEp-2 pre-treated with TGF-β1, an inducer of fibronectin production. Moreover, shdA from S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium seem to be equivalent since shdASTm restored the adherence and invasion of S. Typhi ΔshdA mutant to wild type levels. In addition, anti-FLAG mAbs interfered with the adherence and invasion of the S. Typhi shdA-3xFLAG strain. Finally, shdASTy encodes a detectable protein when heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α. The data presented here show that shdASTy is not a pseudogene, but a different functional allele compared with shdASTm.

  15. Detecção de Salmonella Anatum em ema (Rhea americana Detection of Salmonella Anatum in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana

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    Rosecler Alves Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para pesquisa de Salmonella spp. foram coletadas amostras de fígado e conteúdo cecal de 70 emas (Rhea americana abatidas no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil. Uma colônia morfológica e bioquimicamente compatível com Salmonella spp., isolada de uma amostra de fígado, foi sorotipada como Salmonella Anatum. Considerando-se o alto potencial zoonótico deste microrganismo, destaca-se a relevância do controle microbiológico efetivo em frigoríficos que abatem espécies silvestres, assim como no produto final.In aiming to investigate the Salmonella spp. presence in one slaughterhouse in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil, liver and cecum samples from 70 Greater Rhea (Rhea americana were collected. One Salmonella-like colonie was serologically typed and identified as Salmonella Anatum. Considering the high zoonotical potential of this microorganism, an effective microbiological control of wild animal slaughterhouses and the final product is needed.

  16. Effects of aging on the architecture of the ileocecal junction in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Cícera de Brito; Renato Paulo Chopard; Diego Pulzatto Cury; Ii Sei Watanabe; Cristina Eusébio Mendes; Patricia Castelucci

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the structural organization of the elastic and collagen fibers in the region of the ileocecal transition in 30 young and old male Wistar rats. METHODS: Histology, immunohistochemistry(IHC), transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed in this study. The results demonstrated that there was a demarcation of the ileocecal region between the ileum and the cecum in both groups. RESULTS: The connective tissue fibers had different distribution patterns in the two groups. IHC revealed the presence of nitric oxide synthase, enteric neurons and smooth muscle fibers in the ileocecal junctions(ICJs) of both groups. Compared to the young group, the elderly group exhibited an increase in collagen type Ⅰ?fibers, a decrease in collagen type Ⅲ fibers, a decreased linear density of oxytalan elastic fibers, and a greater linear density of elaunin and mature elastic fibers. CONCLUSION: The results revealed changes in the patterns of distribution of collagen and elastic fibers that may lead to a possible decrease in ICJ functionality.

  17. Congenital Intestinal Malrotation beyond Neonatal Period%非新生儿期肠旋转不良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚慧筠; 王燕霞

    1992-01-01

    The diagnosis of malrotation is more difficult in parients beyond neonatal period.The clinical manifestation is vague,including reccurent vomiting,diarrhea, intermittent abdominal pain,malnutrition and general under development.Abnormal position of the upper jejunum and/or cecum may be shown in contrast radiogram.The Ladd procedure was performed on all cases.The common complication was adhesive intestinal obstruction.Awareness of the persistent vague GI symptoms in patients beyond neonatal period may help us reduce the misdiagnosis of malrotation.%非新生儿期肠旋转不良临床上诊断困难.本组41例平均延误诊断3.7年.临床特点是:①复发性呕吐,②间歇性腹痛,③营养发育障碍,④腹泻,⑤钡餐检查显示空肠起始部及盲肠位置异常.全部采用Ladd手术治疗.术后主要并发症是粘连性肠梗阻.对非新生儿期患儿顽固而不典型的消化道症状应考虑到肠旋转不良.

  18. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-11-03

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area.

  19. Characterization and comparison of the bacterial microbiota in different gastrointestinal tract compartments in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M C; Silva, G; Ramos, R V; Staempfli, H R; Arroyo, L G; Kim, P; Weese, J S

    2015-07-01

    The advance of new sequencing technologies has allowed more comprehensive characterization of complex microbial communities, including the ones inhabiting the intestinal tract. The presence of extreme environmental filters, such as low pH, digestive enzymes and anaerobic conditions along the tract, acts on the selection of unique bacteria in each compartment. The intestinal microbiota has an enormous impact on the maintenance of health. However, data about the bacteria present in the different intestinal compartments of horses are sparse. In this study, high throughput sequencing was used to characterize and compare bacterial profiles from different intestinal compartments of 11 horses scheduled for euthanasia for reasons other than gastrointestinal problems. Marked differences among compartments even at high taxonomic levels were found, with Firmicutes comprising the main bacterial phylum in all compartments. Lactobacillus spp. and Sarcina spp. predominated in the stomach and a marked increase of Streptococcus spp. occurred in the duodenum. Actinobacillus and Clostridium sensu stricto were the most abundant genera in the ileum and '5 genus incertae sedis', a genus from the Subdivision 5 class of the Verrucomicrobia, was the most abundant from the large colon through feces. There was a significant increase in diversity towards the distal gut with similar profiles observed from the cecum through feces at the class level. The bacterial population comprising the equine intestinal tract varies greatly among compartments and fecal samples may be useful as representative of changes occurring in the distal compartments.

  20. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Heijning, Bert J M; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-07-08

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%-75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  1. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert J. M. van de Heijning

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control. A 50%–75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  2. Host genetic and environmental effects on mouse intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James H; Foster, Carmen M; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Campbell, Alisha G; Yang, Zamin K; Wymore, Ann; Palumbo, Anthony V; Chesler, Elissa J; Podar, Mircea

    2012-11-01

    The mammalian gut harbors complex and variable microbial communities, across both host phylogenetic space and conspecific individuals. A synergy of host genetic and environmental factors shape these communities and account for their variability, but their individual contributions and the selective pressures involved are still not well understood. We employed barcoded pyrosequencing of V1-2 and V4 regions of bacterial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes to characterize the effects of host genetics and environment on cecum assemblages in 10 genetically distinct, inbred mouse strains. Eight of these strains are the foundation of the Collaborative Cross (CC), a panel of mice derived from a genetically diverse set of inbred founder strains, designed specifically for complex trait analysis. Diversity of gut microbiota was characterized by complementing phylogenetic and distance-based, sequence-clustering approaches. Significant correlations were found between the mouse strains and their gut microbiota, reflected by distinct bacterial communities. Cohabitation and litter had a reduced, although detectable effect, and the microbiota response to these factors varied by strain. We identified bacterial phylotypes that appear to be discriminative and strain-specific to each mouse line used. Cohabitation of different strains of mice revealed an interaction of host genetic and environmental factors in shaping gut bacterial consortia, in which bacterial communities became more similar but retained strain specificity. This study provides a baseline analysis of intestinal bacterial communities in the eight CC progenitor strains and will be linked to integrated host genotype, phenotype and microbiota research on the resulting CC panel.

  3. Effect of music on patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew L Bechtold; Rodney A Perez; Srinivas R Puli; John B Marshall

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of relaxing music during colonoscopy under low-dose conscious sedation, on patient satisfaction, scope insertion time and procedure duration, medication doses, and the perceived adequacy of sedation and scope insertion difficulty on the part of the endoscopist.SETHODS: One hundred and sixty-seven consecutive adult outpatients presenting for routine colonoscopy under low-dose conscious sedation were randomized to undergo their procedures either with music played during the procedure or no music played.RESULTS: There were no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of meperidine dose, midazolam dose, time to reach the cecum, total procedure time,endoscopist assessment of scope insertion difficulty,endoscopist assessment of adequacy of sedation, or the pain experience of the patients during their procedure.The music group did report significantly better overall procedure satisfaction as compared to the non music group on two of our three different scales.CONCLUSION: While music does not result in shortened procedure times, lower doses of sedative medications or perceived patient pain, the patients who have music playing during their procedures report modestly greater satisfaction with their procedures.

  4. In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Bo Li; Xiao-Si Zhou; Jing-Sen Shi; Jin-Guang Wu; Zhi Xu; Neng-Wei Zhang; Li Zhang; Fan Wang; Li-Min Yang; Jian-Sheng Wang; Su Zhou; Yuan-Fu Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Real-time and rapid identification of the malignant tissue can be performed during or before surgical operation.Here we aimed to detect in vivo and in situ colorectal cancer by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and fiber-optic technology.METHODS: A total of five patients with large intestine cancer were detected in vivo and in situ. Of them, three cases of colon cancer and one case of cecum cancer were detected intraoperatively and in vivo by using a FTIR spectrometer during surgical operation, and one case of rectum cancer was explored non-invasively and in vivo before the surgical operation. Normal and malignant colorectal tissues were detected in vivo and in situ using FTIR spectroscopy on the basis of fundamental studies.RESULTS: There were significant differences between FTIR spectra of normal and malignant colorectal tissues detected in vivo and in situ. Experimental results revealed that the spectral characteristics of normal and malignant tissues found in vivo and in situ were similar to those obtained from in vitro measurement in our previous fundamental research.CONCLUSION: FTIR fiber-optic attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy can identify in situ and in vivo colorectal cancer. FTIR spectroscopic method with fiber optics is a non-invasive, rapid, accurate and in vivo cancer detection technique in clinical diagnosis.

  5. Models of Human Metastatic Colon Cancer in Nude Mice Orthotopically Constructed by Using Histologically Intact Patient Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xinyu; Besterman, Jeffrey M.; Monosov, Ann; Hoffman, Robert M.

    1991-10-01

    There is an important need for clinically relevant animal models for human cancers. Toward this goal, histologically intact human colon-cancer specimens derived surgically from patients were implanted orthotopically to the colon or cecum of nude mice. We have observed extensive orthotopic growth in 13 of 20 cases of implanted patient colon tumors. These showed various growth patterns with subsequent regional, lymph-node, and liver metastasis, as well as general abdominal carcinomatosis. Thus, models for human colon cancer have been developed that show (i) local growth, (ii) abdominal metastasis, (iii) general abdominal carcinomatosis with extensive peritoneal seeding, (iv) lymph-node metastasis, (v) liver metastasis, and (vi) colonic obstruction. These models permit the passage of the tumors to form large cohorts. They will facilitate research into the biology of colon cancer metastatic capability and the development of new drugs active against metastatic cancer. These models may also predict the clinical course and the in vivo response to drugs of the cancer of individual patients.

  6. Ogilvie′s syndrome following posterior spinal arthrodesis for scoliosis

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    Athanasios I Tsirikos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report Ogilvie′s syndrome following posterior spinal arthrodesis on a patient with thoracic and lumbar scoliosis associated with intraspinal anomalies. Postoperative paralytic ileus can commonly complicate scoliosis surgery. Ogilvie′s syndrome as a cause of abdominal distension and pain has not been reported following spinal deformity correction and can mimic post-surgical ileus. 12 year old female patient with double thoracic and lumbar scoliosis associated with Arnold-Chiari 1 malformation and syringomyelia. The patient underwent posterior spinal fusion from T 4 to L 3 with segmental pedicle screw instrumentation and autogenous iliac crest grafting. She developed abdominal distension and pain postoperatively and this deteriorated despite conservative management. Repeat ultrasounds and abdominal computer tomography scans ruled out mechanical obstruction. The clinical presentation and blood parameters excluded toxic megacolon and cecal volvulus. As the symptoms persisted, a laparotomy was performed on postoperative day 16, which demonstrated ragged tears of the colon and cecum. A right hemi-colectomy followed by ileocecal anastomosis was required. The pathological examination of surgical specimens excluded inflammatory bowel disease and vascular abnormalities. The patient made a good recovery following bowel surgery and at latest followup 3.2 years later she had no abdominal complaints and an excellent scoliosis correction. Ogilvie′s syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of postoperative ileus in patients developing prolonged unexplained abdominal distension and pain after scoliosis correction. Early diagnosis and instigation of conservative management can prevent major morbidity and mortality due to bowel ischemia and perforation.

  7. Evaluation of the potential anti-adhesion effect of the PVA/Gelatin membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang-Ho; Son, So-Ra; Kumar Sakar, Swapan; Nguyen, Thi-Hiep; Kim, Shin-Woo; Min, Young-Ki; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2014-05-01

    A common and prevailing complication for patients with abdominal surgery is the peritoneal adhesion that follows during the post-operative recovery period. Biodegradable polymers have been suggested as a barrier to prevent the peritoneal adhesion. In this work, as a preventive method, PVA/Gelatin hydrogel-based membrane was investigated with various combinations of PVA and gelatin (50/50, 30/70/, and 10/90). Membranes were made by casting method using hot PVA-gelatin solution and the gelatin was cross-linked by exposing UV irradiation for 5 days to render stability of the produced sheathed form in the physiological environment. Physical crosslinking was chosen to avoid the problems of potential cytotoxic effect of chemical crosslinking. Their materials characterization and mechanical properties were evaluated by SEM surface characterization, hydrophilicity, biodegradation rate, and so forth. Cytocompatibility was observed by in vitro experiments with cell proliferation using confocal laser scanning microscopy and the MTT assay by L-929 mouse fibroblast cells. The fabricated PVA/Gel membranes were implanted between artificially defected cecum and peritoneal wall in rats and were sacrificed after 1 and 2 weeks post-operative to compare their tissue adhesion extents with that of control group where the defected surface was not separated by PVA/Gel membrane. The PVA/Gel membrane (10/90) significantly reduced the adhesion extent and showed to be a potential candidate for the anti-adhesion application.

  8. Comparative analysis of intestinal microbial community diversity between healthy and orally infected ducklings with Salmonella enteritidis by ERIC-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Yan Cao; De-Kang Zhu; Qi-Hui Luo; Xiao-Yue Chen; Ming-Shu Wang; An-Chun Cheng; Xue-Feng Qi; Xiao-Yan Yang; Shu-Xuan Deng; Nian-Chun Yin; Zhen-Hua Zhang; Deng-Chun Zhou

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the difference of intestinal microbial community diversity between healthy and (S.enteritidis)orally infected ducklings.METHODS:Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR was applied to analyze the intestinal microbial community diversity and dynamic change including duodenum,jejunum,ileum,cecum and rectum from healthy ducklings and 7-dayoold ducklings after oral infection with S.enteritidis at different time points.RESULTS:The intestinal microbial community of the control healthy ducklings was steady and the ERIC-PCR band numbers of the control healthy ducklings were the least with rectum and were the most with caecum.ER[C-PCR bands of orally inoculated ducklings did not obviously change until 24 h after inoculation (p.i.).The numbers of the ERIC-PCR bands gradually decreased from 24 h to 72 h p.i.,and then,with the development of disease,the band numbers gradually increased until 6 d p.i.The prominent bacteria changed because of S.enteritidis infection and the DNAstar of staple of ERIC-PCR showed that aerobe and facultative aerobe (Escherichia coli,Shigella,Salmonella) became preponderant bacilli in the intestine of orally infected ducklings with SE.CONCLUSION:This study has provided significant data to clarify the intestinal microbial community diversity and dynamic change of healthy and S.enterltidis orally infected ducklings,and valuable insight into the pathogenesis of S.enteritidis infection in both human and animals.

  9. Efficacy of gallium maltolate against Lawsonia intracellularis infection in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, F; Allen, A L; Alcorn, J; Clark, C R; Vannucci, F A; Pusterla, N; Mapes, S M; Ball, K R; Dowling, P M; Thompson, J; Bernstein, L R; Gebhart, C J; Hamilton, D L

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial efficacy against Lawsonia intracellularis is difficult to evaluate in vitro, thus, the effects of gallium maltolate's (GaM) were investigated in a rabbit model for equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). Juvenile (5-6-week-old) does were infected with 3.0 × 10(8) L. intracellularis/rabbit and allocated into three groups (n = 8). One week postinfection, one group was treated with GaM, 50 mg/kg; one, with doxycycline, 5 mg/kg; and one with a sham-treatment (control). Feces and blood were collected daily and weekly, respectively, to verify presence of L. intracellularis fecal shedding using qPCR, and seroconversion using immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. Rabbits were sacrificed after 1 week of treatment to collect intestinal tissues focusing on EPE-affected sections. Intestinal lesions were confirmed via immunohistochemistry. No difference was noted between treatments regarding EPE-lesions in jejunum (P = 0.51), ileum (P = 0.74), and cecum (P = 0.35), or in L. intracellularis fecal shedding (P = 0.64). GaM and doxycycline appear to have similar efficacy against EPE in infected rabbits.

  10. Trichurid nematodes in ring-necked pheasants from backyard flocks of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: frequency and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is related to the frequency of infection and to the gross and microscopic lesions associated to the presence of trichurid worms in 50 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus from backyard flocks in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In the investigated birds, the overall infection rate was of 74%, with the presence of Eucoleus perforans with 72% of prevalence and 21.2 of mean intensity, in the esophageal and crop mucosa and rarely in the junction of the proventriculus and esophagus, E. annulatus with 2% and 3 in the crop mucosa, Capillaria phasianina, with 12% and 4.3 in the cecum and small intestine and Baruscapillaria obsignata, for the first time referred in this host, with 2% and 1 in the small intestine. Clinical signs were absent. The gross lesions observed in the crop and esophagus of 14 (38.9% pheasants parasitized with E. perforans were thickening, small nodules, congestion, and petechial haemorrhages in the mucosa. These birds presented a mean infection of 37.5 and a range of infection of 10-82. The microscopic lesions revealed chronic esophagitis with diffuse inflammatory process in the lamina propria characterized mostly by a mononuclear cell infiltrate and also with the presence of granulocytes. In the case of the parasitism of pheasants with C. phasianina, the gross lesions were absent; microscopic lesions were characterized by chronic typhlitis with mononuclear infiltrate. Gross and microscopic lesions were absent in the pheasants parasitized with E. annulatus and B. obsignata.

  11. Effects of immunosuppressive drugs on gastrointestinal transit of rats: effects of tacrolimus, cyclosporine, and prednisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, D J R; Hauschildt, A T; Lima, M B; Corá, L A; Teixeira, M C B; Américo, M F

    2014-01-01

    Triple immunosuppressive therapy after organ transplantation may cause several gastrointestinal disturbances. It is difficult to identify which drug causes more complications, requiring an appropriate animal model. The aim was to compare the gastrointestinal transit in immunosuppressed rats under triple immunosuppressive therapy. Male rats were immunosuppressed by gavage during 14 days with tacrolimus (n = 10), cyclosporine (n = 12), and prednisone (n = 9). Animals received a magnetic pellet before (control) and after treatment that was monitored at predetermined intervals by AC biosusceptometry, a noninvasive and radiation-free technique. The following parameters were measured: creatinine serum, mean time of gastric emptying (MGET), mean time to reach cecum (MCAT), and mean transit time through small bowel (MSBTT). The differences were analyzed by ANOVA (Tukey). Our results showed that MGET of animals treated with prednisone, cyclosporine, and tacrolimus were reduced compared with control subjects (P prednisone compared with control subjects (P prednisone and tacrolimus presented a reduced MGET (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively) compared with cyclosporine. Our data showed a low serum creatinine level and no difference among groups regarding renal function. In summary, cyclosporine has less effect on the gastrointestinal transit; however, all of these drugs should be carefully prescribed to prevent gastrointestinal symptoms and improve quality of life after transplantation.

  12. Enterococcal surface protein Esp is not essential for cell adhesion and intestinal colonization of Enterococcus faecium in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Luit-Asbroek Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterococcus faecium has globally emerged as a cause of hospital-acquired infections with high colonization rates in hospitalized patients. The enterococcal surface protein Esp, identified as a potential virulence factor, is specifically linked to nosocomial clonal lineages that are genetically distinct from indigenous E. faecium strains. To investigate whether Esp facilitates bacterial adherence and intestinal colonization of E. faecium, we used human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2 cells and an experimental colonization model in mice. Results No differences in adherence to Caco-2 cells were found between an Esp expressing strain of E. faecium (E1162 and its isogenic Esp-deficient mutant (E1162Δesp. Mice, kept under ceftriaxone treatment, were inoculated orally with either E1162, E1162Δesp or both strains simultaneously. Both E1162 and E1162Δesp were able to colonize the murine intestines with high and comparable numbers. No differences were found in the contents of cecum and colon. Both E1162 and E1162Δesp were able to translocate to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Conclusion These results suggest that Esp is not essential for Caco-2 cell adherence and intestinal colonization or translocation of E. faecium in mice.

  13. Targeted adsorption of molecules in the colon with the novel adsorbent-based medicinal product, DAV132: A proof of concept study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gunzburg, Jean; Ducher, Annie; Modess, Christiane; Wegner, Danilo; Oswald, Stefan; Dressman, Jennifer; Augustin, Violaine; Feger, Céline; Andremont, Antoine; Weitschies, Werner; Siegmund, Werner

    2015-01-01

    During antibiotic treatments, active residuals reaching the colon profoundly affect the bacterial flora resulting in the emergence of resistance. To prevent these effects, we developed an enteric-coated formulated activated-charcoal based product, DAV132, meant to deliver its adsorbent to the ileum and neutralize antibiotic residues in the proximal colon. In a randomized, control, crossover study, the plasma pharmacokinetics of the probe drugs amoxicillin (500 mg) absorbed in the proximal intestine, and sulfapyridine (25 mg) metabolized from sulfasalazine in the cecum and rapidly absorbed, were compared after a single administration in 18 healthy subjects who had received DAV132, uncoated formulated activated charcoal (FAC) or water 16 and 8 hours before, concomitantly with the probe drugs, and 8 hours thereafter. The AUC0-96 h of amoxicillin was reduced by more than 70% when it was taken with FAC, but bioequivalent when it was taken with water or DAV132. By contrast, the AUC0-96 h of sulfapyridine was reduced by more than 90% when administered with either FAC or DAV132 in comparison with water. The results show that DAV132 can selectively adsorb drug compounds in the proximal colon, without interfering with drug absorption in the proximal small intestine, thereby constituting a proof of concept that DAV132 actually functions in humans.

  14. Protozoa and digestive tract parameters in blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), with description of Entodinium taurinus n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booyse, Dirk G; Dehority, Burk A

    2012-11-01

    Rumen contents from four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and six black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou) were collected from two locations during two winter culling seasons. A total of 16 species of protozoa were found in blue wildebeest with Dasytricha ruminantium, Opisthotrichum janus and Ostracodinium gracile occurring in all four animals. In black wildebeest, 23 species of protozoa were observed with only Diplodinium bubalidis (caudal spine morphotype) and Ostracodinium damaliscus being present in all animals. In the blue wildebeest, the total number of species in an individual animal varied from 9 to 11 and in the black wildebeest, the number ranged from 4 to 14. Concentrations of cells per ml ranged from 1110 to 5880 in the blue wildebeest and 3120 to 6240 in the black wildebeest. This study is the first report on protozoa species in the blue and black wildebeest. A new species of Entodinium is described, Entodinium taurinus n. sp., observed in the rumen contents of three blue wildebeest. Several physical parameters of the digestive tract were also measured, including distribution, pH and density of gastrointestinal contents in different sections of the total tract. In vitro gas production was estimated for rumen, cecum and colon contents.

  15. Postprandial hemodynamics in the conscious rat

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    Anzueto Hernandez, L.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-07-01

    The postprandial intestinal hyperemia was studied in conscious and anesthetized rats using the radioactive microsphere technique. Carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and mixed meals, and the vehicle (Tyrode's solution), were placed in the stomach via a gastrostomy tube. In conscious rats, blood flow increased by 40-80% in the duodenum and jejunum 1 h after either a carbohydrate, lipid, protein, or mixed meal. Tyrode's solution produced a comparable hyperemia. Blood flow in the distal bowel segments (ileum, cecum, and colon) was significantly increased only by Tyrode's solution and the carbohydrate meal. The proximal intestinal hyperemia produced by the mixed meal in conscious animals was significantly attenuated by vagotomy yet unaltered by atropine pretreatment. In contrast to the results obtained from conscious rats, the mixed meal did not significantly alter intestinal blood flow in anesthetized animals. The results of this study indicate that the postprandial intestinal hyperemia is much greater in conscious than anesthetized animals. This difference may result from the higher resting blood flows in the latter group. The hyperemic response in conscious animals may be mediated by the vagus nerve.

  16. Morphological study of adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 by confocal laser scanning microscopy

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    Machado-Silva José Roberto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to detail data obtained through brightfield microscopy (BM on reproductive, excretory and digestive system, specimens of Schistosoma mansoni eight weeks old, were recovered from SW mice, stained with Langeron's carmine and analyzed under a confocal laser scanning microscope CLSM 410 (Carl Zeiss. The reproductive system presented a single and lobate testis, with intercommunications between the lobes without efferent duct. Supernumerary testicular lobe was amorphous and isolated from the normal ones. Collecting tubules (excretory ducts, followed by the excretory bladder, opening to the external media through the excretory pore, were observed at the posterior extremity of the body. In the digestive tract, a cecal swelling was noted at the junction that originates the single cecum. It was concluded that through confocal laser scanning microscopy, new interpretations of morphological structures of S. mansoni worms could be achieved, modifying adopted and current descriptions. The gonad consists of a single lobed testis, similar to that observed in some trematode species. Moreover, the same specimens can be observed either by BM or CLSM, considering that the latter causes only focal and limited damage in tissue structures.

  17. 不同品系小鼠肝螺杆菌感染实验模型的建立及病理特征分析%To establish Helicobacter hepaticus infected models in different mice strains and to analyze pathological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红艳; 季尚玮; 王颂; 张永贵; 斯庆图娜拉; 王静; 杨吉利; 张曼华; 王江滨

    2011-01-01

    Objective To obtain stable animal models and observe Helicobacter hepaticas (Hh)colonization and pathological claracteristics,through infecting different mice strains with Hh.Methods SPF-class male BABL/c Cr,SCID/Cr and C57BL/6 Cr mice were inoculated 0.2 ml Hh standard strain ATCC51450 bacterial suspension (1 × 108CUF/ml),inoculated for 3 times with 48 hours intervals,the control group was fed with the same volume of PBS.Mice were executed at 4 weeks,8weeks and 16 weeks since last Hh inoculation,and mice esophagus,stomach,jejunum,ileum,cecum,colon,liver and pancreas tissue were taken for histopathology examination,Micro-aerobic bacteria isolation,culture and identification and Hh specific 16S rRNA gene amplification.Results The colonization rates of Hh in cecum after inoculated in BALB/c Cr mice and SCID/Cr mice at 4 weeks,8 weeks and 16 weeks were all 8/8,colonization rates in colon at 4 weeks,8 weeks and 16 weeks were 4/8,5/8,5/8 and 3/8,6/8,5/8 respectively,colonization rates in ileum and jejunum at 16 weeks were 1/8,colonization rates in liver at 8 weeks and 16 weeks were 2/8,3/8 and 2/8,2/8respectively.The colonization rates of Hh in cecum after inoculated in C57BL/6 Cr mice at 4 weeks,8weeks and 16 weeks were 1/8,2/8 and 2/8 respectively,colonization rates in colon at 8 weeks and 16weeks were 1/8,2/8 respectively.Compared with C57BL/6 Cr mice,the inflammatory changes in liver,cecum and colon were more significant in Hh infected BALB/c Cr and SCID/Cr mice (P<0.01),and histological scores gradually increased as infection time extended (P<0.05,P< 0.01 ).The histological scores were significantly higher in those with colon and liver Hh bacterial colonization than those without Hh bacterial colonization (P<0.05).The histopathological score of cecal tissue was positively correlated with the density of Hh colonization.Conclusion Different mice strains are with different susceptibility to Hh,and better Hh infection model can be obtained in Hh inoculated

  18. Fermentation and growth response of a primary poultry isolate of Salmonella typhimurium grown under strict anaerobic conditions in continuous culture and amino acid-limited batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciorowski, K G; Nisbet, D J; Ha, S D; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R; Ricke, S C

    1997-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium is a significant hazard to consumer health that is carried asymptomatically in poultry gastrointestinal tracts. Nurmi cultures may prevent Salmonella colonization in young chicks, but the mechanism of competitive exclusion is unclear. Modeling Salmonella's metabolism in pure culture may allow for greater definition in choosing strains for Nurmi cultures. The growth rates and affinity constants of S. typhimurium growing in amino acid-limited conditions were determined in batch culture and compared to primary poultry isolates of cecal strains. Serine and NH4Cl were the best N sources for growth of all organisms tested in this study. The fermentation response of S. typhimurium was also monitored in continuous culture at a slow dilution rate of 0.021 h-1. S. typhimurium was found to adapt to VL media, with trends in protein disappearance, Yglucose, and Yprotein. This may show that amino acid or protein concentrations may be an integral component of the initial establishment of S. typhimurium in the cecum.

  19. [Changes of Intestinal Mucosal Barrier and Intestinal Flora in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wu, Hao; Deng, Yiyun; Liao, Ruyi; Xi, Lili; Yao, Ping

    2015-04-01

    This paper is to explore changes of intestinal mucosal barrier, intestinal flora, and bacterial translocation in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Twenty four male SD rats were randomly divided into the control group (n = 10) and the experimental group (n = 14). The model of severe acute pancreatitis of rats was induced by the method of injecting adversely 5% sodium taurocholate into the common biliary-pancreatic duct. All of the rats were killed after 24 hours and the level of the serum amylase and the plasma endotoxin was determined after that. The pathological changes of pancreas and small intestine were observed through hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE staining) and the abdominal viscera bacterial translocation rates were tested. With the method of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) the quantity of the intestinal flora was analyzed. In the control group, the level of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were 2.08 ± 1.29, 11.04 ± 7.55 and 12.21 ± 4.95, respectively. On the contrast, the level of Escherichia coli in the cecum contents was much higher (9.72 ± 3.58, P intestines were also significantly higher (P intestinal mucosal barrier was severely damaged and the dysbacteriosis occurs in the intestinal canal. And these might relate to the occurrence and development of multiple organ infection.

  20. Helmintos parasitos das espécies Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill do litoral cearense: Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea

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    Vera Lucia M. Klein

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available De nematódeos encontrados parasitando estômago, intestinos delgado e grosso de Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuv. e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitch. o autor propões para o gênero Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912 uma nova espécie, C. fortalezae sp. n., que mais se aproxima de C. clavatum (Rud., 1809 Baylis, 1920 dela se diferenciando por possuir espículos desiguais, um curto ovejetor, útero opistodelfo, ovos menores e por apresentar em todos exemplares estudados ceco intestinal curto e ceco esofagiano longo.In this paper the author proposes a new species of the genus Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912. Of the species under Contracaecum, Contracaecum clavatum (Rudolphi, 1809 Baylis, 1920 is the nearest to Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. differing from the latter by the following aspects: The males have unequal spicules. The females have a short ovijector and parallel uteri directed backward and the eggs are smaller. In both sexes the intestinal cecum is always short and the ventricular posterior appendix is always long, while Contracaecum clavatum presents these structures in an inverse way, considering the lenght of them. Besides, the thorn-like formations at the posterior end of the body are different.

  1. Magnetic study on biodistribution and biodegradation of oral magnetic nanostructures in the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Miguel; Rodríguez-Nogales, Alba; Garcés, Víctor; Gálvez, Natividad; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Gálvez, Julio; Rondón, Deyanira; Olivares, Mónica; Dominguez-Vera, Jose M

    2016-08-11

    We have undertaken a magnetic study on the oral biodistribution and biodegradation of nude maghemite nanoparticles of 10 nm average size (MNP) and probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum, containing thousands of these same nanoparticles (MNP-bacteria). Using AC magnetic susceptibility measurements of the stomach, small intestine, cecum and large intestine obtained after rat sacrifice, and iron content determination by ICP-OES, we have monitored the biodistribution and biodegradation of the maghemite nanoparticles along the gastrointestinal tract, after oral administration of both MNP and MNP-bacteria. The results revealed that the amount of magnetic nanoparticles accumulated in intestines is sensibly higher when MNP-bacteria were administered, in comparison with MNP. This confirms our initial hypothesis that the use of probiotic bacteria is a suitable strategy to assist the magnetic nanoparticles to overcome the stomach medium, and to achieve their accumulation in intestines. This finding opens doors to different applications. Since iron absorption in humans takes place precisely in the intestines, the use of MNP-bacteria as an iron supplement is a definite possibility. We have actually illustrated how the administration of MNP-bacteria to iron-deficient rats corrects the iron levels after two weeks of treatment.

  2. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species.

  3. Prevention of postoperative adhesions by a novel honeycomb-patterned poly(lactide) film in a rat experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhira, Yukako; Ito, Masaya; Kaneko, Hiroaki; Sumi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Masaru; Yamamoto, Sadaaki; Shimomura, Masatsugu

    2008-08-01

    Intraperitoneal adhesion is a serious problem concerning abdominal surgery. This study evaluated the performance of a honeycomb-patterned poly(lactide) (HCPLA) film as a physical barrier for preventing postoperative adhesion. HCPLA films were prepared using dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) or a copolymer of dodecylacrylamide and omega-carboxyhexylacrylamide (CAP) as a surfactant (HCPLA-DOPE and HCPLA-CAP, respectively). In an in vivo adhesion prevention experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent standard cecum abrasion before midline laparotomy. We placed 2 cm x 2 cm HCPLA and flat films on the gliding interfaces; untreated rats formed the control group. After 1 week, adhesion was scored from 0 to 4. No significant difference was observed in the scores among groups, but macroscopic differences in adhesion prevention were observed. The adhesive strength of HCPLA-DOPE (18.1 +/- 1.2 g) to skinless chicken breast was significantly higher than that of the flat film (15.2 +/- 0.8 g, p score after 1 week for the HCPLA-DOPE group (1.6 +/- 0.2) was significantly lower than that for the control group (3.0 +/- 0.3, p < 0.05) but comparable to that for the Seprafilm group (1.4 +/- 0.3). These results demonstrated the potential of HCPLA-DOPE as a physical barrier for preventing postoperative adhesion.

  4. Topographical and biometrical anatomy of the digestive tract of White New Zealand Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

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    Sabuj Kanti Nath

    2016-06-01

    Materials and methods: Five rabbits of both sexes were used in this study. After dissection of the rabbits, the exact positions of different parts of the digestive tract (i.e., esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine were measured using Metric rule, thread, electronic and normal balance. Results: The mean lengths of the small intestine and large intestine were 169.53+/-21.65 and 132.3+/-17.42 cm, respectively, and weight of the whole digestive tract was 263.60+/-56.80 gm. The mean lengths and mean diameter of esophagus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum were 9.62+/-1.64, 41.26+/-4.06, 106.60+/-14.64, 21.64+/-46.32, 41.14+/-2.82, 83.16+/-13.74 and 8.0+/-1.08 cm and 1.16+/-0.12, 1.71+/-0.11, 1.70+/-0.09, 1.73+/-0.05, 5.47+/-0.15, 3.36+/-0.16 and 2.81+/-0.24 cm, respectively. Conclusion: These results can be considered as a baseline study that may assist in disease diagnosis and clinical works with rabbits. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 145-151

  5. Gastrointestinal morphological alterations in obese rats kept under hypercaloric diets

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    Nascimento RC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Raphael Castiglioni Nascimento, Haryanne Mabel, Bruna Nunes Queiroz, Roberta ParesqueDepartamento de Ciências da Saúde, Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo, São Mateus, ES, BrazilAbstract: Hypercaloric diets have been successfully used as experimental models of obesity. This work compared morphological characteristics of inferior gastrointestinal organs. The experiment lasted 10 weeks, during which the rats' food consumption, body weight, distance between the mouth and neck, distance between mouth and neck, distance between neck and tail, and abdominal circumference were evaluated weekly. After the sacrifice of the rats, 20 variables referring to inferior gastrointestinal morphology were assessed. The results comprised descriptive statistics of the data, analysis of main components, linear correlation, and t-tests. Significant differences were found between the two groups for the variables of abdominal circumference, retroperitoneal fat, ratio between retroperitoneal fat/animal weight, stomach weight, ratio between animal weight/intestine weight and mesentery/animal weight, length of small intestine, length of large intestine, and lateral line of the cecum. The data allow us to state that a hypercaloric diet can be responsible an increase in fat in the abdominal cavity as well as gastrointestinal morphological alterations, principally in stomach development. Keywords: gastrointestinal morphology; hypercaloric diet; diet-induced obesity

  6. Gut Function-Enhancing Properties and Metabolic Effects of Dietary Indigestible Sugars in Rodents and Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-09-28

    Indigestible sugars (iS) have received particular interest in food and nutrition research due to their prebiotic properties and other health benefits in humans and animals. The main aim of this review article is to summarize the current knowledge regarding digestive and health-enhancing properties of iS such as sugar alcohols, oligosacharides, and polysaccharides, in rodents and rabbits. Besides ameliorating gut health, iS ingestion also elicits laxative effects and stimulate intestinal permeability and fluid secretions, thereby shortening digesta transit time and increasing stool mass and quality. In rodents and rabbits, as hindgut fermenters, consumption of iS leads to an improved nutrient digestibility, too. Cecal fermentation of iS reduces luminal pH and extends wall tissue facilitating absorption of key dietary minerals across hindgut. The microbial fermentation of iS also enhances excessive blood nitrogen (N) flowing into the cecum to be used as N source for bacterial growth, enhancing N retention in cecotrophic animals. This review also highlights the impact of iS on improving lipid metabolism, mainly by lowering cholesterol and triglycerides levels in the blood. The paper serves as an index of the current knowledge of iS effects in rodents and rabbits and also identifies gaps of knowledge that need to be addressed by future research.

  7. Gut Function-Enhancing Properties and Metabolic Effects of Dietary Indigestible Sugars in Rodents and Rabbits

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    Jin Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigestible sugars (iS have received particular interest in food and nutrition research due to their prebiotic properties and other health benefits in humans and animals. The main aim of this review article is to summarize the current knowledge regarding digestive and health-enhancing properties of iS such as sugar alcohols, oligosacharides, and polysaccharides, in rodents and rabbits. Besides ameliorating gut health, iS ingestion also elicits laxative effects and stimulate intestinal permeability and fluid secretions, thereby shortening digesta transit time and increasing stool mass and quality. In rodents and rabbits, as hindgut fermenters, consumption of iS leads to an improved nutrient digestibility, too. Cecal fermentation of iS reduces luminal pH and extends wall tissue facilitating absorption of key dietary minerals across hindgut. The microbial fermentation of iS also enhances excessive blood nitrogen (N flowing into the cecum to be used as N source for bacterial growth, enhancing N retention in cecotrophic animals. This review also highlights the impact of iS on improving lipid metabolism, mainly by lowering cholesterol and triglycerides levels in the blood. The paper serves as an index of the current knowledge of iS effects in rodents and rabbits and also identifies gaps of knowledge that need to be addressed by future research.

  8. The Effect of Postoperative Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment on Intra-Abdominal Adhesions in Rats

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    Yi-Chiang Hsu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal adhesions, whether caused by peritoneal trauma, radiation, infection, or a congenital condition, are associated with a wide range of complications. These complications include chronic abdominal or pelvic pain, infertility, and adhesive small bowel obstruction. Such adhesions render re-operation difficult, with attendant risks of inadvertent enterostomy and increased operation time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy in the prevention of abdominal adhesions in an experimental animal study. A laparotomy was performed on Wistar rats to induce the formation of adhesions on the cecum and the intra-abdominal area (1 ´ 2 cm. A superficial layer of the underlying muscle from the right abdominal wall was also shaved and prepared for aseptic surgery. The rats were divided into four groups according to the duration of HBO therapy; five additional groups were designated according to the conditions of HBO therapy. When the rats were evaluated according to adhesion area and grade, a statistically significant difference was observed between the control and HBO treatment groups (p < 0.005. Results from this study suggest that HBO treatment could reduce adhesion formation; and further suggest that HBO therapy may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of postoperative peritoneal adhesion.

  9. Intestinal mucosal changes and upregulated calcium transporter and FGF-23 expression during lactation: Contribution of lactogenic hormone prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Sripong, Chanakarn; Longkunan, Asma; Chankamngoen, Wasutorn; Keadsai, Chutiya; Kraidith, Kamonshanok; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2016-01-15

    As the principal lactogenic hormone, prolactin (PRL) not only induces lactogenesis but also enhances intestinal calcium absorption to supply calcium for milk production. How the intestinal epithelium res-ponses to PRL is poorly understood, but it is hypothesized to increase mucosal absorptive surface area and calcium transporter expression. Herein, lactating rats were found to have greater duodenal, jejunal and ileal villous heights as well as cecal crypt depths than age-matched nulliparous rats. Morphometric analyses in the duodenum and cecum showed that their mucosal adaptations were diminished by bromocriptine, an inhibitor of pituitary PRL release. PRL also upregulated calcium transporter expression (e.g., TRPV6 and PMCA1b) in the duodenum of lactating rats. Since excessive calcium absorption could be detrimental to lactating rats, local negative regulator of calcium absorption, e.g., fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, should be increased. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the upregulation of FGF-23 protein expression in the duodenal and cecal mucosae of lactating rats, consistent with the enhanced FGF-23 mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells. Bromocriptine abolished this lactation-induced FGF-23 expression. Additionally, FGF-23 could negate PRL-stimulated calcium transport across Caco-2 monolayer. In conclusion, PRL was responsible for the lactation-induced mucosal adaptations, which were associated with compensatory increase in FGF-23 expression probably to prevent calcium hyperabsorption.

  10. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckhed, Fredrik; Ding, Hao; Wang, Ting; Hooper, Lora V; Koh, Gou Young; Nagy, Andras; Semenkovich, Clay F; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2004-11-02

    New therapeutic targets for noncognitive reductions in energy intake, absorption, or storage are crucial given the worldwide epidemic of obesity. The gut microbial community (microbiota) is essential for processing dietary polysaccharides. We found that conventionalization of adult germ-free (GF) C57BL/6 mice with a normal microbiota harvested from the distal intestine (cecum) of conventionally raised animals produces a 60% increase in body fat content and insulin resistance within 14 days despite reduced food intake. Studies of GF and conventionalized mice revealed that the microbiota promotes absorption of monosaccharides from the gut lumen, with resulting induction of de novo hepatic lipogenesis. Fasting-induced adipocyte factor (Fiaf), a member of the angiopoietin-like family of proteins, is selectively suppressed in the intestinal epithelium of normal mice by conventionalization. Analysis of GF and conventionalized, normal and Fiaf knockout mice established that Fiaf is a circulating lipoprotein lipase inhibitor and that its suppression is essential for the microbiota-induced deposition of triglycerides in adipocytes. Studies of Rag1-/- animals indicate that these host responses do not require mature lymphocytes. Our findings suggest that the gut microbiota is an important environmental factor that affects energy harvest from the diet and energy storage in the host. Data deposition: The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank database (accession nos. AY 667702--AY 668946).

  11. Role of the flagellar basal-body protein, FlgC, in the binding of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis to host cells.

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    Shippy, Daniel C; Eakley, Nicholas M; Mikheil, Dareen M; Fadl, Amin A

    2014-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) infection in humans is often associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Binding of the bacterium to the intestinal mucosa is a major pathogenic mechanism of Salmonella in poultry. Transposon mutagenesis identified flgC as a potential binding mutant of SE. Therefore, we hypothesize FlgC which plays a significant role in the binding ability of SE to the intestinal mucosa of poultry. To test our hypothesis, we created a mutant of SE in which flgC was deleted. We then tested the in vitro and in vivo binding ability of ∆flgC when compared to the wild-type SE strain. Our data showed a significant decrease in the binding ability of ∆flgC to intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the small intestine and cecum of poultry. Furthermore, the decrease in binding correlated to a defect in invasion as shown by a cell culture model using intestinal epithelial cells and bacterial recovery from the livers and spleens of chickens. Overall, these studies indicate FlgC is a major factor in the binding ability of Salmonella to the intestinal mucosa of poultry.

  12. Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SV4089 as a potential carrier of oral DNA vaccine in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Ideris, Aini; Zakaria, Zunita; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2%) and MCF-10A (0.5%) human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 10(9) colony-forming unit (CFU) of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  13. In vivo characterization of neutrophil extracellular traps in various organs of a murine sepsis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Tanaka

    Full Text Available Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs represent extracellular microbial trapping and killing. Recently, it has been implicated in thrombogenesis, autoimmune disease, and cancer progression. The aim of this study was to characterize NETs in various organs of a murine sepsis model in vivo and to investigate their associations with platelets, leukocytes, or vascular endothelium. NETs were classified as two distinct forms; cell-free NETs that were released away from neutrophils and anchored NETs that were anchored to neutrophils. Circulating cell-free NETs were characterized as fragmented or cotton-like structures, while anchored NETs were characterized as linear, reticular, membranous, or spot-like structures. In septic mice, both anchored and cell-free NETs were significantly increased in postcapillary venules of the cecum and hepatic sinusoids with increased leukocyte-endothelial interactions. NETs were also observed in both alveolar space and pulmonary capillaries of the lung. The interactions of NETs with platelet aggregates, leukocyte-platelet aggregates or vascular endothelium of arterioles and venules were observed in the microcirculation of septic mice. Microvessel occlusions which may be caused by platelet aggregates or leukocyte-platelet aggregates and heterogeneously decreased blood flow were also observed in septic mice. NETs appeared to be associated with the formation of platelet aggregates or leukocyte-platelet aggregates. These observational findings may suggest the adverse effect of intravascular NETs on the host during a sepsis.

  14. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in colon confounded by prior history of colorectal cancer: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanling; Chen, Zhilu; Su, Chuanyong; Tong, Hongyan; Qian, Wenbin

    2016-02-01

    A 66-year-old male underwent left hemicolectomy for rectal adenocarcinoma in 2008. Five years later he was admitted to hospital with abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan revealed notable thickening of the middle of the ascending colon wall, and colonoscopy revealed an ulcerofungating mass of 3×3 cm in the cecum and extending to the ascending colon. Under the consideration of cancer recurrence, laparoscopic right hemicolectomy was performed directly. Surgical specimens revealed sheets of large pleomorphic lymphoid cells with nuclei of different sizes, nucleoli and mitotic phases visible in most cells. These tested positive for CD45, CD20 and CD79a diffusely, but negative for CD3, CD5, Bcl-2, Bcl-6 and ALK. The Ki-67 proliferation index was 40%. Epstein-Barr virus in situ hybridization did not reveal any positive signals in any of the tumor cells. Based on these findings, the recurrent tumor was diagnosed as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient could have avoided surgery and received chemotherapy only; however, the case was confounded by the patient's prior history of colorectal cancer due to the rarity of colon lymphoma following rectal cancer in the same patient. It is therefore essential to investigate carefully and differentiate between potential lesions during routine postoperative colonoscopy following colorectal cancer surgery, as patients may present with rare colon lymphoma, which may be confused with a recurrence of colorectal cancer.

  15. 肝移植术后门静脉狭窄-肠系膜上静脉血栓的影像诊断%Imaging diagnosis of portal vein stricture complicated with superior mesenteric venous thrombosis after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜英丽; 陈虹; 李朝阳; 叶道斌; 张庆; 范铁艳; 沈中阳

    2010-01-01

    @@ 肠系膜上静脉血栓(superior mesenteric venous thrombosis,SMVT)发病率较低,多与肝移植行脾切除后门静脉高压及红细胞黏度增高等有关,其临床表现无特异性,易误诊、漏诊.本研究回顾性分析2009年12月26日我所收治的肝移植术后门静脉狭窄伴SMVT患者的临床资料,总结该病的影像学诊断要点.%Portal vein stricture complicated with superior mesenteric venous thrombosis is rarely seen in clinical practice. On December 26, 2009, a 51-year-old male patient who had a liver transplantation history was admitted to The General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces with the chief complaint of intermittent abdominal pain and diarrhea.A plain and enhanced CT scan showed that the portal vein was constrictive and thrombosis had formed in the main trunk of the superior mesenteric vein, and varicose veins were seen in surrounding tissues of the esophagus. Edema was observed at the end of the ileum and cecum. The results of colonoscopy showed inflammatory changes and varicose veins of the colon. The patient received medical treatment. The thrombosis was dissolved 9 days later, and all symptoms disappeared 12 days later.

  16. Enterite granulomatosa associada a larvas de ciatostomíneos em eqüinos no Rio Grande do Sul Granulomatous enteritis associated with larval cyathostomiasis in horses in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Felipe Pierezan

    2009-05-01

    occurred from January 1999 to December 2007. The clinical course in two cases in which clinical follow-up was available was 10-14 days. Clinical signs presented by two horses were similar and included diarrhea (3/3, weight loss (2/3, pyrexia (1/3, tachycardia (1/3, and tachypnea (1/3. Gross changes consisted of thickening of the wall of large colon and cecum by edema and the occurrence of numerous 1-4mm, dark-tan, slightly raised multifocal pinpoints disseminated throughout the mucosa. Up on the incision of these pinpoints, brown-reddish, small (1-2mm nematode larvae emerged. Large numbers of parasites with morphology compatible with small strongyles were observed in the lumina of large colon and cecum or adhered to the mucosae of these organs. Histologically, multiple granulomas were seen in the mucosa and submucosa of large colon and cecum. These granulomas consisted of moderate to severe inflammatory infiltrate of macrophages, epithelioid macrophages, and eosinophils surrounded by fewer lymphocytes and plasma cells. In the center of these granulomas, transversal cut sections of parasites with morphology compatible with cyathostomes larvae were observed. Additionally, there was edema and moderate to marked lymphohistioplasmacytic and eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate throughout the mucosa and submucosa of the large colon and cecum; necrosis and lymphohistiocytic proliferation in the submucosal lymphoid follicles, with hyperplasia of goblet cells in the epithelial lining of these organs were also observed. The diagnosis of granulomatous enteritis associated with larval cyathostomiasis was made based on epidemiological, clinical, and gross findings which were confirmed by histopathology.

  17. Multiplane spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging of small animals in vivo.

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    Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    We have successfully developed a multiscale acoustic-resolution photoacoustic tomography system in a single imaging platform. By switching between ultrasound transducers (center frequencies 5 and 40 MHz) and optical condensers, we have photoacoustically imaged microvasculatures of small animals in vivo at different scales. Further, we have extended the field of view of our imaging system to entire bodies of small animals. At different imaging planes, we have noninvasively imaged the major blood vessels (e.g., descending aorta, intercostal vessels, cephalic vessels, brachial vessels, femoral vessels, popliteal vessels, lateral marginal vessels, cranial mesenteric vessels, mammalian vessels, carotid artery, jugular vein, subclavian vessels, iliac vessels, and caudal vessels) as well as intact internal organs (e.g., spleen, liver, kidney, intestine, cecum, and spinal cord) of the animals in vivo. The spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging clearly reveals the spectral responses of the internal structures. Similar to other existing preclinical whole-body imaging systems, this whole-body photoacoustic tomography can be a useful tool for small-animal research.

  18. Effects of Single-Dose Prucalopride on Intestinal Hypomotility in Horses: Preliminary Observations

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    Laus, Fulvio; Fratini, Margherita; Paggi, Emanuele; Faillace, Vanessa; Spaterna, Andrea; Tesei, Beniamino; Fettucciari, Katia; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2017-01-01

    Abnormalities of gastrointestinal motility are often a challenge in horses; however, the use of prokinetic drugs in such conditions must be firmly established yet. For this reason we carried out a preliminary study on the effects of prucalopride on intestinal motor activity of horses with gut hypomotility. The effect of prucalopride per os by oral dose syringe (2 mg/100 kg body weight) was assessed by abdominal ultrasound (evaluating duodenal, cecal, and colonic motor activity) in six horses with gut hypomotility. After administration of prucalopride, a significant increase of contractile activity was found in the duodenum at 30 minutes (p = 0.0005), 60 minutes (p = 0.01) and 90 minutes (p = 0.01), whereas in the cecum and in the left colon the increase was only present at 60 minutes (p = 0.03, and p = 0.02, respectively). No changes from baseline heart and respiratory rate or behavior side effects were observed after administration of the drug and throughout the observation period. Prucalopride may be a useful adjunct to the therapeutic armamentary for treating hypomotile upper gut conditions of horses. Dosing information is however needed to establish its actual clinical efficacy and its proper effects on the large bowel in these animals. PMID:28128322

  19. Effects of epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone oral liquid on mucosal immunity in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolan; Chen, Xingying; Qiu, Shulei; Hu, Yuanliang; Jiang, Chunmao; Wang, Deyun; Fan, Qiang; Zhang, Cunshuai; Huang, Yee; Yu, Yun; Yang, Haifeng; Liu, Cui; Gao, Zhenzhen; Hou, Ranran; Li, Xiuping

    2014-03-01

    A previous study found that epimedium polysaccharide (EP)-propolis flavonoid (PF) injection (EPI) produced reliable immunoenhancement. In this study, we investigate the effects of EP-PF oral liquid (EFO) on mucosal immunity in the chicken small intestine while using EPI, EP and PF as controls. Groups of fourteen-day-old chickens were given EFO orally at one of the three doses when they were vaccinated with ND vaccine. On days 7, 21 and 35 after the first vaccination, six chickens were selected randomly from each group for measurements of the sIgA and IL-17 contents of the washing liquors of the duodenum and jejunum, counts of the lymphocytes in the duodenal endothelium and counts of the IgA(+) cells in the jejunal endothelium and cecum tonsil. The results indicated that EFO significantly promoted the secretion of sIgA and IL-17 and increased the numbers of lymphocyte and IgA(+) cells. Furthermore, EFO was more efficient than EPI at the high and medium doses. These findings indicate that EPO may enhance intestinal mucosal immunity and may be exploited as an oral immunopotentiator.

  20. Inhibition of Aloperine on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-induced Chronic Colitis in C57BL/6 Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li-jun; ZHAO Wen-chang; DENG Hong-zhu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of aloperine (ALO) on a model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis in C57BL/6 mice.Methods Repeated colitis was induced by administration of four cycles of 4% DSS.The severity of colitis was assessed on the basis of clinical signs,ratio of colon weight and colon length,and histological grading scores.Moreover,secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) and plasma haptoglobin (HP) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,and the changes of mRNA expression of ICAM-1and MIF gene in colorectal tissue were detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction using SYBR Green Ⅰ.Results ALO administration significantly attenuated the colon damage,caused substantial reductions of the rise in HP,and maintained the level of cecum S-IgA.ALO inhibited the ICAM-1mRNA expression and had no effect on MIF mRNA expression.Conclusion The effect of ALO on DSS-induced chronic colitis in mice is investigated for the first time,which suggests that ALO could be an attractive therapeutic candidate in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Fermentation Characterization of Chinese Yam Polysaccharide and Its Effects on the Gut Microbiota of Rats

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    X. F. Kong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat was used to characterize Chinese Yam polysaccharides (CYPs. In Exp. 1, maximum volume and rate of gas production in CYP 3-supplemented group were higher than other CYP-supplemented groups and control group, while pH values and NH3 contents in CYP 2-, CYP 3-, and CYP 4-supplemented groups were lower than control group. Contents of acetate, propionate and butyrate increased by supplementing CYP 3 or CYP 4 compared to other groups, except for glucose-supplemented group. Contents of isobutyrate for CYPs groups decreased compared to control group. CYP 3 enhanced beneficial gut microbiota, but suppressed bacterial pathogens. In Exp. 2, contents of acetate and butyrate in cecal digesta of rats fed 0.25 or 0.5 g/kg CYP 3 were higher than other groups on day 7. pH values in 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg groups were lower than 1.0 g/kg group. Contents of acetate in 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg groups were greater than other 2 groups on day 21. Gut microflora in CYP 3-supplemented rats had greater diversity than non-supplemented rats. CYP 3 enriched beneficial gut microbiota, but suppressed bacterial pathogens in rat cecum. These findings suggested that CYP 3 is a good source of carbon and energy, and may improve bacterial community diversity and modulate short-chain fatty acid production in hindgut of rats.

  2. An unusual presentation of perforated appendicitis in epigastric region☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Abuoglu, Hasan; Gunay, Emre; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Ozkan, Erkan; Aktekin, Ali; Muftuoglu, M.A. Tolga

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Atypical presentations of appendix have been reported including backache, left lower quadrant pain and groin pain from a strangulated femoral hernia containing the appendix. We report a case presenting an epigastric pain that was diagnosed after computed tomography as a perforated appendicitis on intestinal malrotation. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 27-year-old man was admitted with a three-day history of epigastric pain. Physical examination revealed tenderness and defense on palpation of epigastric region. There was a left subcostal incision with the history of diaphragmatic hernia repair when the patient was 3 days old. He had an intestinal malrotation with the cecum fixed at the epigastric region and the inflamed appendix extending beside the left lobe of liver. DISCUSSION While appendicitis is the most common abdominal disease requiring surgical intervention seen in the emergency room setting, intestinal malrotation is relatively uncommon. When patients with asymptomatic undiagnosed gastrointestinal malrotation clinically present with abdominal pain, accurate diagnosis and definitive therapy may be delayed, possibly increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSION Atypical presentations of acute appendicitis should be kept in mind in patients with abdominal pain in emergency room especially in patients with previous childhood operation for diaphragmatic hernia. PMID:24441442

  3. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in the Prediction of Microscopic Colitis

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    Feyzullah Ucmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR in predicting microscopic colitis (MC in patients with diarrhea-dominant type irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D. Material and Method: Between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012, 49 patients who fulfilled the Roma III criteria for IBS-D were included in the study. All patients had underwent colonoscopy and colonoscopic biopsy (cecum, ascending, transverse, descending and rectosigmoid sections to diagnose MC (25 patients with MC. Complete blood count parameters were evaluated in the two groups (IBS-D and MC using standard methodology. Results: The patients were evaluated in two groups: MC and IBS-D. The groups were similar with respect to age, gender and presence of hypertension. The NLO was significantly higher in the MC group compared to the IBS-D group (2.48±0.99, 1.92±0.84; p=0.041, respectively. A cut-off value of 1.86 had a sensitivity of 76% and spesificity of 55% in predicting MC in patients with symptoms of IBS-D. Discussion: A significant association was found between the presence of MC in patients with IBS-D and increased NLR. The NLR may be a useful marker in predicting MC in patients with symptoms of IBS-D.

  4. Macroscopic study of the digestive tract of Gracilinanus microtarsus (Wagner, 1842 (Mammalia: Didelphidae

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    Luis Miguel Lobo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gracilinanus microtarsus is a small marsupial species belonging to the Didelphidae family. It has an omnivorous/frugivorous feeding habit and, therefore, it has a great ecological importance, because it is a seed-dispersing species. This article aims to describe the macroscopic morphology of the digestive tract in G. microtarsus. We used 4 animals fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The organs were dissected, measured, and photographed. The animals under study had the dental formula 2x I 5/4 C 1/1 P 3/3 M 4/4. This is the dental formula of the whole Didelphidae family. The dorsum of the tongue had vallate, fungiform, and filiform papillae. Tubular esophagus evidenced the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal portions. The unicavitary stomach consisted of glandular and aglandular region and gastric folds. Small intestine had 3 portions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Large intestine consisted of: cecum, colon, and rectum. Parotid salivary gland was the largest and it had a flattened shape. The sublingual salivary gland, whi h was the smallest, had a flattened and elongated shape. Mandibular salivary gland had an oval shape. Pancreas had a dispersed shape and lobulated aspect. Liver had a dome shape and it consisted of the lobes right medial, square, right side, left medial, left side, and caudate. The digestive tract of the animals under study is similar to the marsupial species described in the literature.

  5. Assessment of Acute Oral and Dermal Toxicity of 2 Ethyl-Carbamates with Activity against Rhipicephalus microplus in Rats

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    María Guadalupe Prado-Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute oral and dermal toxicity of two new ethyl-carbamates (ethyl-4-bromophenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorophenyl-carbamate with ixodicide activity was determined in rats. The oral LD50 of each carbamate was 300 to 2000 mg/kg, and the dermal LD50 of each carbamate was >5000 mg/kg. Clinically, the surviving rats that had received oral doses of each carbamate showed decreased weight gain (P<0.05 and had slight nervous system manifestations. These clinical signs were evident from the 300 mg/kg dose and were reversible, whereas the 2000 mg/kg dose caused severe damage and either caused their death or was motive for euthanasia. At necropsy, these rats had dilated stomachs and cecums with diffuse congestion, as well as moderate congestion of the liver. Histologically, the liver showed slight degenerative lesions, binucleated hepatocytes, focal coagulative necrosis, and congestion areas; the severity of the lesions increased with dosage. Furthermore, an slight increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine was observed in the plasma. The dermal application of the maximum dose (5000 mg/kg of each carbamate did not cause clinical manifestations or liver and skin alterations. This finding demonstrates that the carbamates under study have a low oral hazard and low acute dermal toxicity.

  6. Alteration of bile acid metabolism in the rat induced by chronic ethanol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoxiang; Zhong, Wei; Li, Houkai; Li, Qiong; Qiu, Yunping; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Chen, Huiyuan; Zhao, Xueqing; Zhang, Shucha; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Zeisel, Steven H.; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the bile acid metabolism is limited by the fact that previous analyses have primarily focused on a selected few circulating bile acids; the bile acid profiles of the liver and gastrointestinal tract pools are rarely investigated. Here, we determined how chronic ethanol consumption altered the bile acids in multiple body compartments (liver, gastrointestinal tract, and serum) of rats. Rats were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet with 38% of calories as ethanol (the amount equivalent of 4–5 drinks in humans). While conjugated bile acids predominated in the liver (98.3%), duodenum (97.8%), and ileum (89.7%), unconjugated bile acids comprised the largest proportion of measured bile acids in serum (81.2%), the cecum (97.7%), and the rectum (97.5%). In particular, taurine-conjugated bile acids were significantly decreased in the liver and gastrointestinal tract of ethanol-treated rats, while unconjugated and glycine-conjugated species increased. Ethanol consumption caused increased expression of genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis, efflux transport, and reduced expression of genes regulating bile acid influx transport in the liver. These results provide an improved understanding of the systemic modulations of bile acid metabolism in mammals through the gut-liver axis.—Xie, G., Zhong, W., Li, H., Li, Q., Qiu, Y., Zheng, X., Chen, H., Zhao, X., Zhang, S., Zhou, Z., Zeisel, S. H., Jia, W. Alteration of bile acid metabolism in the rat induced by chronic ethanol consumption. PMID:23709616

  7. Peritoneal wash contents used to predict mortality in a murine sepsis model

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    Kuethe, Joshua W.; Midura, Emily F.; Rice, Teresa C.; Caldwell, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) is considered the gold standard for inducing abdominal sepsis in mice. However, the model lacks source control, a component of sepsis management in humans. Using a CLP-excision model, we characterized peritoneal cytokines and cells and hypothesized these analyses would allow us to predict survival. Methods Fifty-eight mice were first subjected to CLP. Twenty hours later, the necrotic cecums were debrided, abdominal cavity lavaged, and intraperitoneal antibiotics administered. Peritoneal cytokines and leukocytes collected from the peritoneal lavage were analyzed. These immune parameters were used to generate receiver operator characteristic curves. In separate experiments, the accuracy of the model was verified with a survival cohort. Finally, we collected the peritoneal lavage and analyzed both serum and peritoneal cytokines, bacterial load, and leukocyte functionality. Results Peritoneal interleukin (IL)-6 levels and neutrophil CD11b intensity were observed to be significantly different in mice that lived versus those who died. In separate experiments, mice predicted to live (P-LIVE) had decreased bacterial loads, systemic IL-10, and neutrophil oxidative burst and increased peritoneal inflammatory monocyte numbers and phagocytosis. Conclusions This study couples a clinically relevant sepsis model with methodology to limit pathogen spread. Using surgical waste, stratification of the mice into groups P-LIVE and predicted to die was possible with a high degree of accuracy and specificity. In mice P-LIVE, increased inflammatory monocyte recruitment and phagocytosis were associated with decreased systemic IL-10 and bacterial loads. PMID:26049288

  8. Effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts on growth performance and microbial populations in ceca of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X H; He, X; Yang, X F; Zhong, X H

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Portulaca oleracea extracts on growth performance and microbial populations in the ceca of broilers. A total of 120 one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 3 groups. Portulaca oleracea extracts were added to diets at 0.2 and 0.4% (wt/wt; POL-0.2, POL-0.4), respectively. The control (CON) group was administered with no P. oleracea extract supplementation. Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded every 2 wk. On d 28 and 42, the cecal contents were collected and assayed for Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium populations. Additionally, the pH of the ileum and cecum was measured. The results showed that both on d 28 and 42 BW gain of P. oleracea extract supplementation groups was significantly higher, whereas the feed conversion ratio was lower (P < 0.05) compared with CON. On d 28 and 42, significantly (P < 0.05) fewer E. coli were recovered from ceca of broilers provided with the POL-0.2 diet than from broilers provided with the control diet. The quantities of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium of POL-0.2 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than CON. Results showed P. oleracea extracts have no distinct influence on intestinal pH. These data suggest that P. oleracea extract supplementation significantly altered the cecal bacterial community without affecting the intestinal pH.

  9. Mucocele of the appendix: An unusual cause of lower abdominal pain in a patient with ulcerative colitis-. A case report and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Laszlo Lakatos; Gabriella Gyori; Judit Halasz; Peter Fuszek; Janos Papp; Balazs Jaray; Peter Lukovich; Laszlo Lakatos

    2005-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 60-year-old male patient.In November 2001 he developed intestinal symptoms of bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain. Colononoscopy and biopsy established the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (proctosigmoiditis). The disease activity was moderate at the beginning.No significant laboratory alterations were found (including CEA, CA19-9),and mesalazine was started orally.He was in remission until November 2003, when he was admitted to our Outpatient Clinic for upper and right lower abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. Colonoscopy found proctosigmoiditis with a moderate activity, gastroscopy revealed chronic gastritis,laboratory data was normal. Treatment was amended with mesalazine clysma and methylprednisolone (16 mg) orally. Symptoms ameliorated;however, right lower abdominal pain persisted. US and CT examination demonstrated a pericecal cystic mass (11 cmx3.5 cm). At first pericecal abscess was suspected, as the previous US examination (6 mo earlier) had revealed normal findings. Fine needle aspiration was performed. Cytology confirmed the diagnosis of mucocele.The patient underwent partial cecum resection and extirpation of the mucocele. He recovered well and the final histology revealed a cystadenoma of the appendix. Follow up was started. The patient is now free of symptoms.Although primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix is uncommon, the authors emphasize that preoperative diagnosis of an underlying malignancy in a mucocele is important for patient management; however, it is difficult on imaging studies.

  10. Abdominal-Pelvic Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Neoplasm

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    Teresa Pusiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis is often mistaken for other conditions, presenting a preoperative diagnostic challenge. In a 46-year-old female, computed tomography showed an abdominal-pelvic retroperitoneal mass extending from the lower pole of the right kidney to the lower pelvis. The patient had a 3-year history of intrauterine device. The mass appeared to involve the ascending colon, cecum, distal ileum, right Fallopian tube and ovary, and ureter anteriorly and the psoas muscle posteriorly. The resection of retroperitoneal mass, distal ileum appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. The retroperitoneal mass measured 4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm, surrounded adjacent organs and histologically showed inflammatory granulomatous tissue, agglomeration of filaments, and sulfur granules of Actinomyces, with positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff. Right tubo-ovarian abscess was present. Abdominalpelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intrauterine device.

  11. Unique and shared responses of the gut microbiota to prolonged fasting: a comparative study across five classes of vertebrate hosts.

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    Kohl, Kevin D; Amaya, James; Passement, Celeste A; Dearing, M Denise; McCue, Marshall D

    2014-12-01

    Many animals face unpredictable food sources and periods of prolonged fasting, which likely present significant challenges to gut microorganisms. While several studies have demonstrated that fasting impacts the gut microbiota, experiments have not been carried out in a comparative context. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to document changes in colonic and cecal microbiomes of animals representing five classes of vertebrates at four time points through prolonged fasting: tilapia, toads, geckos, quail, and mice. We found differences in the starvation-induced changes in the microbiome across host species and across gut regions. Microbial phylogenetic diversity increased as a result of fasting in the colons of fish, toads, and mice, while quail exhibited a decrease in diversity; geckos exhibited no change. Microbial diversity in the cecum decreased in fish and exhibited no change in mice. Alterations in relative abundances of microbial taxa varied across hosts. Fish exhibited the most significant changes due to fasting, while geckos maintained a stable community over 28 days of fasting. We uncovered several shared responses of the microbiota across hosts. For example, all tetrapods exhibited decreases in the abundances of Coprobacillus and Ruminococcus in response to fasting. We also discuss host-mediated physiological mechanisms that may underlie these community changes.

  12. Ileocecal masses in patients with amebic liver abscess: Etiology and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sri Prakash Misra; Vatsala Misra; Manisha Dwivedi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the causes of ileocecal mass in patients with amebic liver abscess.METHODS: Patients with amebic liver abscess and ileocecal mass were carefully examined and investigated by contrast-enhanced CT scan followed by colonoscopy and histological examination of biopsy materials from lesions during colonoscopy.RESULTS: Ileocecal masses were found in seventeen patients with amebic liver abscess. The cause of the mass was ameboma in 14 patients, cecal tuberculosis in 2 patients and adenocarcinoma of the cecum in 1 patient. Colonic ulcers were noted in five of the six (83%) patients with active diarrhea at presentation. The ileocecal mass in all these patients was ameboma. Ulcers were seen in only one of the 11 (9%) patients without diarrhea. The difference was statistically significant from the group with diarrhea (P< 0.005).CONCLUSION: Ileocecal mass is not an uncommon finding in patients with amebic liver abscess. Although,the ileocecal mass is due to ameboma formation in most cases, it should not be assumed that this is the case in all patients. Colonoscopy and histological examination of the target biopsies are mandatory to avoid missing a more sinister lesion.

  13. Fermented wheat in liquid diets: effects on gastrointestinal characteristics in weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, R H J; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; den Hartog, L A; Balk, M; Schrama, J W; Verstegen, M W A

    2002-05-01

    Effects of adding fermented wheat to liquid diets on gastrointestinal characteristics in weanling piglets were studied. Gastrointestinal characteristics of 40 28-d-old weanling piglets were measured at the day of weaning (d 0) and at d 4 and 8 after weaning. Piglets were group-housed and fed twice daily. Feeding level was based on the average metabolic BW of piglets per group. Groups were fed a liquid diet with either 45% unfermented wheat (FERM_0) or 45% fermented wheat (FERM_45). The other 55% of the diet was identical. To ferment wheat, water at 30 degrees C was added to milled wheat in a 1:2.2 ratio. The pH and contents of lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were measured in the digesta of the stomach, three parts of the small intestine, cecum, and large intestine. In addition, changes in microbial populations in the digesta were studied during the period after weaning. Moreover, villus height, crypt depth, and villus shape were studied in the small intestine. Piglets fed FERM_45 showed lower gastric pH (P feeding a partly fermented liquid diet to weanling piglets may be a concept to prevent undesirable changes in mucosal architecture after weaning.

  14. Reprogramming of Yersinia from virulent to persistent mode revealed by complex in vivo RNA-seq analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Avican

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently found that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can be used as a model of persistent bacterial infections. We performed in vivo RNA-seq of bacteria in small cecal tissue biopsies at early and persistent stages of infection to determine strategies associated with persistence. Comprehensive analysis of mixed RNA populations from infected tissues revealed that Y. pseudotuberculosis undergoes transcriptional reprogramming with drastic down-regulation of T3SS virulence genes during persistence when the pathogen resides within the cecum. At the persistent stage, the expression pattern in many respects resembles the pattern seen in vitro at 26oC, with for example, up-regulation of flagellar genes and invA. These findings are expected to have impact on future rationales to identify suitable bacterial targets for new antibiotics. Other genes that are up-regulated during persistence are genes involved in anaerobiosis, chemotaxis, and protection against oxidative and acidic stress, which indicates the influence of different environmental cues. We found that the Crp/CsrA/RovA regulatory cascades influence the pattern of bacterial gene expression during persistence. Furthermore, arcA, fnr, frdA, and wrbA play critical roles in persistence. Our findings suggest a model for the life cycle of this enteropathogen with reprogramming from a virulent to an adapted phenotype capable of persisting and spreading by fecal shedding.

  15. The Effects of Agave fourcroydes Powder as a Dietary Supplement on Growth Performance, Gut Morphology, Concentration of IgG, and Hematology Parameters in Broiler Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Maidelys; Martínez, Yordan; Jiang, Hongmei; Valdivié Navarro, Manuel; Wu, Xiaosong; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Rosales, Manuel; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Agave fourcroydes powder as a dietary supplement on the growth performance, gut morphology, serum concentration of IgG, and the hematology parameters of broiler rabbits. A total of 32 rabbits [New Zealand × Californian] were weaned at 35 days. They were randomly selected for two dietary treatments (eight repetitions per treatment), which consisted of a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% dried-stem powder of A. fourcroydes. On day 60 from the initiation of treatment, gut histomorphology (duodenum and cecum), serum concentration of IgG, and hematology parameters were all measured. The results showed that A. fourcroydes powder supplementation improved (P < 0.05) the ADFI, ADG, and final BW. Correspondingly, this treatment increased (P < 0.05) the muscle and mucosa thickness and height and width of villi. However, duodenum crypts depth was lower (P < 0.05) when rabbits were fed with this natural product, compared with the basal diet treatment. Results also indicated that the A. fourcroydes powder increased (P < 0.05) the serum concentration of IgG but did not change the hematology parameters. This data indicates that A. fourcroydes powder, as a supplement, had beneficial effects on increasing the growth performance and serum concentration of IgG, as well as improving the gut morphology without affecting the hematology parameters in broiler rabbits. PMID:27777945

  16. CT appearance of the duodenum and mesenteric vessels in children with normal and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, George A. [Harvard Medical School and Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Demonstration of the third duodenal segment (D3) in retroperitoneal location has been recently proposed as a method for excluding malrotation. This study was performed to determine whether a retroperitoneal third duodenal segment can reliably exclude malrotation. CTs of 38 patients with proven malrotation and 100 patients without malrotation were evaluated for the location of the duodenum/proximal small bowel, and the relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) to superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The D3 segment was in normal retroperitoneal location in 100% of control patients, compared to 2.5% or (1 of 38) of patients with malrotation. Nine of 11 patients (91%) with malrotation imaged prior to surgery had the proximal bowel in an abnormal location, while all 100 control patients had it in a normal location. The SMV was in normal relationship to the SMA in 11/38 patients (29%) with malrotation, compared to 79% of normal controls. In 10 controls, a branch of the SMV was partially wrapped around the SMA, potentially mimicking partial mesenteric volvulus. A retroperitoneal location of the D3 segment makes the diagnosis of malrotation unlikely but not impossible. Additional imaging of the duodenojejunal junction or cecum may be necessary to reliably exclude intestinal malrotation. (orig.)

  17. Surgical Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Its Vasculature in the Laboratory Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Vdoviaková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate the morphology of the stomach, liver, intestine, and their vasculature to support the planning of surgical therapeutic methods in abdominal cavity. On adult Wistar rats corrosion casts were prepared from the arterial system and Duracryl Dental and PUR SP were used as a casting medium and was performed macroscopic anatomical dissection of the stomach, liver, and intestine was performed. The rat stomach was a large, semilunar shaped sac with composite lining. On the stomach was very marked fundus, which formed a blind sac (saccus cecus. The rat liver was divided into six lobes, but without gall bladder. Intestine of the rat was simple, but cecum had a shape as a stomach. The following variations were observed in the origin of the cranial mesenteric artery. On the corrosion cast specimens we noticed the presence of the anastomosis between middle colic artery (a. colica media and left colic artery (a. colica sinistra. We investigated the second anastomosis between middle colic artery and left colic artery. The results of this study reveal that the functional anatomical relationship between the rat stomach, liver and intestine is important for the development of surgical research in human and veterinary medicine.

  18. Rectosigmoid findings are not associated with proximal colon cancer: Analysis of 6 196 consecutive cases undergoing total colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Makoto Okamoto; Takao Kawabe; Yutaka Yamaji; Jun Kato; Tsuneo Ikenoue; Goichi Togo; Haruhiko Yoshida; Yasushi Shiratori; Masao Omata

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To review the risk of proximal colon cancer in patients undergoing colonoscopy.METHODS: We estimated the risk of advanced proximal adenomas and cancers in 6 196 consecutive patients that underwent colonoscopy (mean age 60 years, 65% males,without prior history of colorectal examination). Neoplasms were classified as diminutive adenoma (5 mm or less),small adenoma (6-9 mm), advanced adenoma (10 mm or more, with villous component or high-grade dysplasia)and cancer (invasive adenocarcinoma). The sites of neoplasms were defined as rectosigmoid (rectum and sigmoid colon) and proximal colon (from cecum to descending colon).RESULTS: The trend of the prevalence of advanced proximal adenoma was to increase with severe rectosigmoid findings, while the prevalence of proximal colon cancer did not increase with severe rectosigmoid findings. Among the 157 patients with proximal colon cancer, 74% had no neoplasm in the rectosigmoid colon. Multivariate logisticregression analysis revealed that age was the main predictor of proximal colon cancer and existence of rectosigmoid adenoma was not a predictor of proximal colon cancer.CONCLUSION: Sigmoidoscopy is inadequate for colorectal cancer screening, especially in older populations.

  19. [Cloning and expression of the alpha-amylase gene from a Bacillus sp. WS06, and characterization of the enzyme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ping; Wu, Jin; Cheng, An-Chun; Gao, Qi-Yu; Zhang, Shu-Zheng

    2005-12-01

    A Bacillus sp. WS06, which produces an extracellular alpha-amylase, was isolated from the cecum in a piglet. An amyF gene from this Bacillus strain was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. An open reading frame composed of 1581 bases, which encodes 526 amino acid residues was found. The amyF gene shows high sequence homologies with other microbial amylase genes, such as Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus polymyxa (93% and 53% identity). The deduced amino acid sequence revealed that four highly conserved regions of the alpha-amylase family. The amyF gene was overepressed using the pET21a vector and Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant enzyme was purified 22.2 fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and had a molecular mass of 57kD (by SDS-PAGE). The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7 and 55 approximately 60 degrees C and showed stability at the temperature below 55 degrees C. This enzyme efficiently hydrolyzed various types of starch to yield a series of malto-oligosaccharides by endo-cleavage mode.

  20. Anastomotic Recurrence of Sigmoid Colon Cancer over Five Years after Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yamauchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of anastomotic recurrence after curative resection of colorectal cancer is relatively low compared to that of other types of recurrence, such as hepatic, lung and local recurrence. However, almost all cases of anastomotic recurrence of colorectal cancer occur within 3 years after surgery. We experienced a rare case of anastomotic recurrence in whom colonoscopy revealed no signs of recurrence 3 years after surgery; however, anastomotic recurrence was detected over 5 years after surgery. A 60-year-old female with a history of surgery for cancer of the cecum in her forties underwent sigmoidectomy and right colectomy with D3 lymph node dissection for both stage IIA sigmoid colon cancer and stage IIA transverse colon cancer. Computed tomography and colonoscopy revealed no signs of recurrence 3 years after surgery; however, 5 years and 4 months after surgery, colonoscopy demonstrated surrounding flaring and swelling in the anastomotic area of the sigmoid colon, and a biopsy revealed an adenocarcinoma. Under the diagnosis of anastomotic recurrence over 5 years after surgery, lower anterior resection was performed. The patient has exhibited no other signs of recurrence in the 2 years since the last operation.

  1. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing a model cytochrome P450 in the rat digestive environment: viability and bioconversion activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrait, G; Jarrige, J F; Blanquet, S; Beyssac, E; Alric, M

    2007-06-01

    An innovative "biodrug" concept, based on the oral administration of living recombinant microorganisms, has recently emerged for the prevention or treatment of various diseases. An engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing plant P450 73A1 (cinnamate-4-hydroxylase [CA4H] activity) was used, and its survival and ability to convert trans-cinnamic acid (CIN) into p-coumaric acid (COU) were investigated in vivo. In rats, the recombinant yeast was resistant to gastric and small intestinal secretions but was more sensitive to the conditions found in the large intestine. After oral administration of yeast and CIN, the CA4H activity was shown in vivo, with COU being found throughout the rat's digestive tract and in its urine. The bioconversion reaction occurred very fast, with most of the COU being produced within the first 5 min. The gastrointestinal sac technique demonstrated that the recombinant yeast was able to convert CIN into COU (conversion rate ranging from 2 to 5%) in all the organs of the rat's digestive tract: stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon. These results promise new opportunities for the development of drug delivery systems based on engineered yeasts catalyzing a bioconversion reaction directly in the digestive tract.

  2. Multigene phylogenetic analysis of pathogenic candida species in the Kazachstania (Arxiozyma) telluris complex and description of their ascosporic states as Kazachstania bovina sp. nov., K. heterogenica sp. nov., K. pintolopesii sp. nov., and K. slooffiae sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J; Ward, Jerrold M; Brayton, Cory; Gorelick, Peter; Walsh, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    A yeast causing widespread infection of laboratory mice was identified from 26S rRNA gene sequences as Candida pintolopesii. To determine the relationship of C. pintolopesii with other members of the Kazachstania (Arxiozyma) telluris species complex, nucleotide sequences from domains 1 and 2 of the 26S rRNA gene, the mitochondrial small-subunit rRNA gene, and the RNA polymerase II gene were phylogenetically analyzed. That analysis resolved the 48 strains examined into five closely related species: K. telluris, Candida bovina, C. pintolopesii, Candida slooffiae, and a previously unknown species. One or more strains of each of the last four species formed an ascosporic state much like that of K. telluris. To place these ascosporogenous strains taxonomically, it is proposed that they be assigned to the teleomorphic genus Kazachstania as K. bovina (type strain NRRL Y-7283, CBS 9732, from the nasal passage of a pigeon), K. heterogenica (type strain NRRL Y-27499, CBS 2675, from rodent feces), K. pintolopesii (type strain NRRL Y-27500, CBS 2985, from the peritoneal fluid of a dead guinea pig), and K. slooffiae (type strain NRRL YB-4349, CBS 9733, from the cecum of a horse). On the basis of multigene sequence analyses, K. heterogenica appears to be a hybrid of K. pintolopesii and a presently unknown species. With the exception of K. bovina, the phylogenetically defined species show a moderate degree of host specificity.

  3. Effect of calf starter feeding on gut microbial diversity and expression of genes involved in host immune responses and tight junctions in dairy calves during weaning transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Li, Meiju; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Oba, Masahito; Guan, L Luo

    2013-05-01

    Calf starters are usually offered to dairy calves to facilitate the weaning process, however, the effect of solid feed consumption on gut health has not been well studied. This study aimed to investigate the effect of calf starter feeding on the gut bacterial community and mucosal immune functions in dairy calves during weaning transition. Mucosal tissue and digesta samples were collected from rumen, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon upon slaughtering of calves (n=8) after feeding the experimental diets [milk replacer (MR) or milk replacer + calf starter (MR+S)] for 6 wk. Expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 10 was downregulated along the gut, whereas TLR2 in colon and TLR6 along the gut were upregulated in MR+S-fed calves compared with MR-fed calves. Ileal TLR9 and TLR10 showed higher expression compared with the other regions regardless of the diet. Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 demonstrated a diet- and gut-regional dependent expression pattern, whereas β-defensin did not. The diet and gut region also affected the expression of tight junction-regulating genes claudin 4 and occludin. Bacterial diversity tended to be different between the 2 diets, whereas the bacterial density was different among gut regions and sample type. The present study revealed that changes in bacterial diversity, expression of genes encoding host mucosal immune responses, and barrier functions were associated with the MR+S diet, and suggests that solid feed consumption may alter gut microbiome and host mucosal functions during weaning transition.

  4. Technical note: a 2-stage cecal cannulation technique in standing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, W L; Slough, T L; Gunkel, C D

    2011-08-01

    Cecal cannulation is necessary for sampling of intestinal contents for a variety of nutritional or digestive physiology studies. This report describes a 2-stage technique for permanent cecal cannulation in standing horses. For the first procedure, a right flank laparotomy is performed and a small pouch of the cecal base exteriorized and sutured to the body wall. The second procedure is performed approximately 1 wk later. During the second procedure, the exposed cecal pouch is removed and the cannula inserted. Ten horses were cannulated using this technique. After the first procedure, 1 horse developed a cecal impaction unresponsive to medical therapy and ruptured its cecum, whereas 2 other horses developed mild transient colic that responded to medical management. Insertion of the cecal cannula after creation of the stoma in the second procedure resulted in transient colic in 4 of 9 horses, but they responded to analgesic therapy in less than 24 h in all instances. The time to complete healing of the cannula site was approximately 30 d. The technique described in this report decreases the risk of peritonitis due to intestinal leakage and is technically easier to perform than previously described techniques.

  5. Comparison and Efficacy of LigaSure and Rubber Band Ligature in Closing the Inflamed Cecal Stump in a Rat Model of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A and 7 days (Group B after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S, 5 mm LigaSure (L, or rubber band (R. Seven days after cecal resection, the LigaSure (BL and silk subgroups (BS had significantly less intra-abdominal adhesion and better laparotomy wound healing than rubber band subgroup (BR. The initial bursting pressure at cecal stump was comparable among the three methods; along with tissue healing process, both BL and BS provided a higher bursting pressure than BR 7 days after appendectomy. BL subgroup had more abundant hydroxyproline deposition than BS and BR subgroup. Furthermore, serum TNF-α in BR group kept persistently increasing along with time after cecal resection. Thus, the finding that LigaSure but not rubber band is safe in sealing off the inflamed cecal stump in rat model of acute appendicitis suggests the possibility of applying LigaSure for appendectomy via single port procedure or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES.

  6. Influence of green and gold kiwifruit on indices of large bowel function in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Butts, Christine A; Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Ansell, Juliet

    2014-08-01

    The effects of kiwifruit on large bowel health were investigated in healthy rats. Four-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were given diets containing 10% homogenized green kiwifruit, gold kiwifruit or 10% glucose solution (control) over 4 or 6 wk. Green kiwifruit increased the fecal output compared to control. Growth of certain bacterial species in cecum was influenced by both green and gold kiwifruit. A significant increase in cecal Lachnospiraceae in rats fed the green kiwifruit diet was observed at week 4. At week 6, green and gold kiwifruit diets assisted in improving colonic barrier function by upregulating the expression of mucin (MUC)-2, MUC3, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 or trefoil factor-3 genes. Gold kiwifruit consumption increased the colonic goblet cells per crypt at week 6. Significant negative correlations between E. coli and β-defensin 1 and TLR4 expression were observed. Consuming green and gold kiwifruit for 6 wk significantly altered the biomarkers of large bowel health; indicating that regularly consuming kiwifruit helps attain optimal digestive health.

  7. Congenital frontonasal masses: developmental anatomy, malformations, and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2006-07-15

    The newborn, infant, or young child who presents with a midline frontonasal mass often poses a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. The most pressing issue is whether the mass extends intracranially. The development of the frontonasal region or anterior neuropore is complex. Aberrant embryogenesis leads to three main types of anomalies: nasal dermal sinus, anterior cephalocele, and nasal glioma. Understanding the developmental anatomy of the anterior neuropore and postnatal maturation will serve the radiologist well when it comes to imaging frontonasal masses. Pitfalls particularly common to CT imaging interpretation include the evolving ossification of the frontal, nasal and ethmoid bones in the first year of life, morphology and size of the foramen cecum, and the natural intumescence of the anterior nasal septum. Determination of the presence of a connection between the frontonasal mass and the anterior cranial fossae is crucial in the imaging assessment and clinical management. In the case of the nasal dermal sinus, failure to appreciate the intracranial components of the malformation can lead to fatal meningitis. MR imaging is the modality of choice for assessing the pediatric frontonasal region. Its advantages include multiplanar imaging, distinguishing the interface among cartilage, bone, brain and fluid, diffusion imaging to detect epidermoid tumors, and the capacity to evaluate the brain for associated cerebral anomalies. (orig.)

  8. Tritrichomonas foetus infection, a cause of chronic diarrhea in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chaoqun; Köster, Liza S

    2015-03-19

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a very intriguing trichomonad protozoan with respect to its varied choice of residence in the different host species. It is an obligate parasite of the reproductive and the gastrointestinal tract of bovine and feline host respectively, leading to trichomonosis. Bovine trichomonosis is a sexually transmitted disease whereas feline trichomonosis is a disease with a purported fecal-oral route of spread. Further, the trichomonad is a commensal in the nasal passages, stomach, cecum and colon of swine host. Advances have been exponential in understanding the trichomonad biology and specifically feline trichomonosis since late 1990s and early 2000s when T. foetus was soundly determined to be a causative agent of chronic diarrhea in the domestic cat. It is a challenging task, even for a skilled investigator not to mention the busy clinical veterinarian, to keep up with the vast volume of information. Here we comprehensively reviewed the trichomonad biology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, host immunity, world map of distribution, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. Risk factors associated with T. foetus-positive status in the domestic cat include young age, purebred, history of diarrhea, co-infections with other enteral pathogens. In addition, molecular similarity of bovine and feline isolates of T. foetus in DNA sequence was concisely discussed. The data presented serve as an information source for veterinarians, and investigators who are interested in biology of T. foetus and feline trichomonosis.

  9. 哈萨克马和焉耆马不同组织中 IGFBP-5基因表达差异研究%Study on Expression Difference of IGFBP-5 Gene in Different Tissues of Kazakh and Yanqi Horses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吐尔逊江·吾木尔艾力; 黄晶晶; 阿米娜; 孟军; 王建文; 曾亚琦; 姚新奎; 李林玲; 姚芳芳; 王欢; 任海帆

    2016-01-01

    试验旨在探求胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白-5(insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5,IGFBP-5)基因在哈萨克马和焉耆马不同组织部位中的 mRNA 表达规律。采用实时荧光定量 PCR 技术检测在哈萨克马和焉耆马心脏、肝脏、脾脏、肺脏、肾脏、小肠、大肠、盲肠、肋间肌、背最长肌、臂肌和臀肌等不同组织中 IGFBP-5基因 mRNA表达量,同时比较该基因在哈萨克马和焉耆马相同组织中的表达差异。结果表明,哈萨克马和焉耆马表达量最高的均为背最长肌,其次是臂肌,并显著高于心脏、肝脏、脾脏、肺脏、肾脏、小肠、大肠、盲肠等内脏组织表达量(P <0.05),大肠中的表达量最低;焉耆马的肾脏、小肠、大肠、盲肠、背最长肌和臂肌中表达量高于哈萨克马相同部位的表达量,其中焉耆马背最长肌和大肠中的表达量极显著高于哈萨克马的相同部位(P <0.01),小肠和盲肠中的表达量显著高于哈萨克马的相同部位(P <0.05)。本试验为深入研究 IGFBP-5基因的生物学功能,以及对中国马生产性能的遗传改良提供理论依据。%The study aimed to explore the mRNA expression pattern of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5)gene in different tissues of Kazakh and Yanqi horses.The expression of IGFBP-5 gene in different tissues of heart,liver,spleen,lung,kidney,small intestine,large in-testine,cecum,intercostal muscles,longissimus dorsi muscles,brachialis muscle and gluteus in two horses were detected by Real-time quantitative PCR and compared the mRNA expression in the same tissues of two breeds.The results showed that the expression of IGFBP-5 in longissimus dorsi muscle and brachialis muscle of two breeds were significantly higher than other tissues in-cluding heart,liver,spleen,lung,kidney,small intestine,large intestine and cecum (P <0.05),and was the lowest in large intestine.The expression of IGFBP-5 in kidney

  10. The Effect of Growth Promoter Feed Additives on Performance of Broilers Challenged With Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Valipouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 528 day-old Ross 308 male broilers were used to study the effect of antibiotic, probiotic, prebiotic and organic acid on performance, cecal Coliform load and internal organs’ weight. The chickens were placed into 6 groups with 4 replicates and 22 chickens per pen. Six dietary treatments included: 1 negative control as basal diet without any antibiotic growth promoter and coccidiostat (Control, 2 Diet 1+ 0.9 g/kg Primalac® (Primalac, 3 Diet 1+0.1 g/kg Bactocell® (Bactocell, 4 Diet 1+15ppm virginiamycin (Virginiamycin, 5 Diet 1+2 g/kg Fermacto® (Fermacto, and 6 Diet 1+2 g/kg Formycin Gold® (Formycin. At day 7 all chickens were orally gavaged with a 0.5 mL of 107 cfu/mL of mixed culture of pathogenic E. coli (O2K12 and O78K80 verified for presence of genes including stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA. Eight chickens from each group were euthanized for detection of the challenged bacteria in liver, spleen and cecum content at days 14, 28 and 42. Overall weight gain (P

  11. Use of the mCherry Fluorescent Protein To Study Intestinal Colonization by Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423 in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Winschau F; Deane, Shelly M; Dicks, Leon M T

    2015-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and animals, and some LAB species receive considerable attention due to their health benefits. Although many papers have been published on probiotic LAB, only a few reports have been published on the migration and colonization of the cells in the GIT. This is due mostly to the lack of efficient reporter systems. In this study, we report on the application of the fluorescent mCherry protein in the in vivo tagging of the probiotic strains Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423. The mCherry gene, encoding a red fluorescent protein (RFP), was integrated into a nonfunctional region on the genome of L. plantarum 423 by homologous recombination. In the case of E. mundtii ST4SA, the mCherry gene was cloned into the pGKV223D LAB/Escherichia coli expression vector. Expression of the mCherry gene did not alter the growth rate of the two strains and had no effect on bacteriocin production. Both strains colonized the cecum and colon of mice.

  12. Diagnosis of Genus Helicobacter through a hemi-nested PCR assay o

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Qin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to establish a genus-specific PCR-based assay to detect helicobacters using 16S rRNA gene as the target template. We designed the hemi-nested primers based on sequences of 16S rRNA gene of 34 types of Helicobacter species. The inclusivity, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCR assay using these primers were examined in three different models, comprising feces simulated samples, BLAB/c mice infection model and clinic patients samples. The detection sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter hepaticus and Helicobacter bilis strains from feces simulated samples was all 102 CFU/ml. We successfully detected H. hepaticus and H. bilis in the liver, cecum and feces of experimentally infected mice. H. pylori was successfully detected in the feces samples from 3 patients infected with H. pylori while not in the feces samples from 3 healthy human. However, the C97/C05–C97/C98 PCR assay detected H. pylori in the 2 positive samples. Due to the PCR assay’s excellent inclusivity, high sensitivity and specificity it may be used to detect the presence of Helicobacters.

  13. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ngare; Hughes, Robert J; Aspden, William J; Chapman, James; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-05-01

    Microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an essential role in the health and well-being of the host. With the exception of chickens, this area has been poorly studied within birds. The avian GIT harbours unique microbial communities. Birds require rapid energy bursts to enable energy-intensive flying. The passage time of feed through the avian GIT is only 2-3.5 h, and thus requires the presence of microbiota that is extremely efficient in energy extraction. This investigation has used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the GIT microbiota of the flighted bird, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We are reporting, for the first time, the diversity of bacterial phylotypes inhabiting all major sections of the quail GIT including mouth, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, ileum, cecum, large intestine and feces. Nine phyla of bacteria were found in the quail GIT; however, their distribution varied significantly between GIT sections. Cecal microbiota was the most highly differentiated from all the other communities and showed highest richness at an OTU level but lowest richness at all other taxonomic levels being comprised of only 15 of total 57 families in the quail GIT. Differences were observed in the presence and absence of specific phylotypes between sexes in most sections.

  14. 高原鼢鼠的消化对策%Digestion Strategy of Plateau Zokor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守栋; 林恭华; 杨传华; 崔雪峰; 覃雯; 张同作; 苏建平

    2014-01-01

    动物面临不同的生活环境及生活方式,往往采取不同的消化对策,而消化道结构在动物的消化对策中起关键作用.为进一步了解高原鼢鼠的生存对策,比较了高原鼢鼠与大白鼠消化道形态结构与食物摄入量、食物吸收量及食物消化率的差异.结果表明:高原鼢鼠的食物摄入量及食物吸收量显著低于大白鼠,食物消化率、蛋白质消化率及粗纤维消化率显著高于大白鼠.而两种动物的蛋白质吸收量及粗纤维吸收量差异不显著.高原鼢鼠的胃、小肠、大肠、盲肠干重及大肠长度与盲肠长度显著高于大白鼠,小肠长度差异不显著.可见,动物的消化率及能量需求与其消化道形态相适应.高原鼢鼠采取摄取少量的食物、增加消化道长度或重量、提高食物消化率的消化对策.%Animal lifestyles can vary in different environments by adopting different digestion strategies,and the morphology of digestive tracts may play a key role in such adaptations.In order to investigate the surviving stratagem of plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi),a typical subterranean rodent species endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,the gastrointestinal morphology,food intake,food assimilation and food digestibility of plateau zokor was analyzed compared with laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus).The results showed that the amount of food intake and food assimilation of zokors were significantly less than those of rats ; the food digestibility,protein digestibility and crude fiber digestibility were significantly higher than those of rats; however,no significant differences of protein assimilation and crude fiber assimilation were observed between the two animals.The stomach,small intestine,large intestine and cecum of zokors were significantly heavier (dry weight) than those of rats.The large intestine and cecum of zokors were significantly longer than those of rats while no significant difference was observed between the

  15. POTENSI PROBIOTIK INDIGENUS Lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13 PADA YOGURT DENGAN SUPLEMENTASI EKSTRAK UBI JALAR UNGU UNTUK PENURUN DIARE DAN RADIKAL BEBAS

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    Agustina Intan Niken Tari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was studying the effectiveness of selected indigenous probiotic strains (Lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13 in yoghurt with purple sweet potato extract suplementation as reducing diarrhea and free radicals on white rats albino Norway rats (Rattus novergicus Sprague dawley strain. The study was designed using factorial completely randomized design, with treatment of purple sweet potato extract yogurt without probiotics (P0, purple sweet potato extract yogurt with probiotic (P1 to 2 groups of male Sprague dawley rats were treated without Enteropathogenik Escherichia coli (EPEC ATCC 35218 (E0 and with Enteropathogenik Escherichia coli (EPEC ATCC 35218 (E1. Probiotic treatment was conducted using the sonde at day 1st to 21st at a dose of 1 ml / 120 g weight or average 109 CFU/ ml. While the treatment of EPEC ATCC 35218 was conducted using the sonde at dose of 106 CFU/ml on day 7th to 14th. The observed parameters include fecal water content, water content of cecum, malonaldehide levels (MDA blood and liver. The results showed that (1 There was interaction between the treatment of indigenous probiotic yogurt purple sweet potato extract and EPEC ATCC 35218 on water content of faecal, water content of cecum, MDA levels blood and liver (2.Culture of Lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13 was able to provide health effects as reducing of diarrhea and free radicals. Keywords: Reducing of diarrhea, free radicals, purple sweet potato extract yogurt, probiotic bacteria   ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan mempelajari efektivitas strain probiotik indigenus terpilih (Lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13 pada yogurt dengan suplementasi ekstrak ubi jalar ungu sebagai penurun diare dan radikal bebas pada tikus putih albino Norway rats (Rattus novergicus galur Sprague dawley. Penelitian dirancang menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial, dengan perlakuan yogurt ekstrak ubi jalar ungu tanpa probiotik (P0, yogurt ekstrak ubi jalar ungu dengan probiotik (P1

  16. Histological structure of the digestive tract of waders (Aves, Сharadrii

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    L. P. Kharchenko

    2014-09-01

    complex mazes and anastomoses, several times increasing the absorbing surface of the intestine. The plates are covered with a single layer of prismatic bordered epithelium which includes Goblet cells, the number of which increases in the caudal direction of intestines. It is found out that the particular feature of the histological structure of the examined wall of the waders’ small intestine is multi-layer location of crypts in the mucosa. A large number of cambial cells with figures of mitosis were noticed in the crypt, which indicated the intensive processes of proliferation of intestinal enterocytes. These features in the structure of the wall of the small intestine are considered as adaptations to distant migrations and are connected with waders’ intense nutrition on migration stops. For the first time Meckel diverticulum has been found in waders and its histological structure has been described. It is established that waders’ Meckel diverticulum is a lymphoid-epithelial organ and it serves as the immune system of waders’ digestive tract. It is stated that the wall of waders’ rectum has wrinkles that contribute to its stretching; mucous membrane has the plate relief, it is lined with a single layer of epithelium bordered with many Goblet cells. It is revealed that different parts of the investigated waders’ cecum have uneven development of histological structures and the presence of lymphoid tissue clusters in the lamina propria mucosa indicates the functional belonging of the cecum to the immune defense system of waders’ digestive tract; the presence of mainly bordered enterocytes in the surface epithelium indicates its osmo-regulatory function

  17. DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DEL TUBO DIGESTIVO DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO Salminus affinis (PISCES: CHARACIDAE Alimentary tract of juvenile Rubio Salminus affinis (Pisces: Characidae morphological description

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    VJ ATENCIO GARCÍA

    .8% of the alimentary tract total length; it presents internal folds that offer great distension capacity allowing the step of great volume of bit meat. The stomach is an asymmetric bag in "Y" form, big and muscular, wide in anterior part and narrow toward the bottom; the number of pyloric cecum can vary between 13 and 23 and could be monotubular and branching. The intestine, with three loops, extends from the pyloric sphincter until the anus. Histologycally alimentary tract is formed by four layers: mucous, submucous, muscular and serous; the epithelium lining of the esophagus is stratified plane non keratinized with chaliced cells changing to simple cylindrical mucosecretor up to stomach; in the stomach epithelium simple cylindrical mucosecretor are found and the pyloric and intestine cecum are covered by cylindrical simple epithelium with chaliced cells. So the middle value of the intestinal coefficient (0.58, as the distensible wall of the stomach suggest that Rubio has an alimentary tract of carnivorous and its histologycal characteristics are similar with most of superior vertebrates.

  18. Modelo de suprimento sanguíneo do intestino delgado e grosso da preguiça de coleira (Bradypus torquatus Blood supply model of the small and large intestine of the maned three-toed sloth (Bradypus torquatus

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    Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    formaldehyde (10%, preservation in modified Laskowski solution and dissection under mesoscopic light (Lupa LTS® 3700. The blood supply of small and large intestine depends on the abdominal aorta, whose ventral visceral branch identified as the common mesenteric artery was distributed in the mesentery and mesocolon. A sequence of 9 to 25 primary collateral branches cranial is allocated to the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and part of the cecum. Another sequence of 4 to 11 caudal branches are destined to the cecum and colon pouch. The vascular pattern of adult maned three-toed sloth intestine differs from those of other previously described vertebrates, because there is no occurrence of coalescence peritoneal through small and large intestine.

  19. The Regulated Effect of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Preparation of Mice Intestinal Flora Disequilibrium Model%乳酸菌和双歧杆菌制剂对小鼠肠道菌群失调模型的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍静; 苏春萍; 王显超; 杨静谊; 贺超; 李维国

    2013-01-01

    Use of antibiotics interference mice intestinal bona fide flora,the establishment of your degree of flora imbalance mice model.Use of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium to intestinal dysbacteriosis mice regulation.Observation lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria on intestinal flora disequilibrium model regulation effect.Different concentration of ceftriaxone,the mice lavage is Choosed.Cecum content culture main flora changes is take.After the success of the model for the preparation of using lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in flora of therapeutic adjustment,oral 6 weeks after the test,the flora number is detected.Different dosages ceftriaxone lavage in mice have been cecum volume increases.The advantage of the model group was significantly reduced in the number of bacteria.Through oral lactobacillus and bifidobacterium preparation,can proper recovery lactobacillus and bifidobacterium quantity.Significant difference compared with controls.It is conclused that experiment successful preparation mouse intestinal flora imbalance simulation model,long-term use of antibiotics,the function of the environment through the external supplement lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria,to keep the balance of the intestinal flora has regulation and repair action.%利用抗生素干扰小鼠肠道原籍菌群,建立小鼠肠道菌群失衡模型;并利用乳酸菌和双歧杆菌制剂对肠道菌群失调小鼠模型进行调节治疗.观察乳酸菌和双歧杆菌对肠道菌群失调模型的调节效果.选用不同浓度的头孢曲松钠,对小鼠进行灌胃.取盲肠和结肠内容物培养主要菌群变化.模型制备成功后利用乳酸菌和双歧杆菌进行菌群的治疗性调节,口服6周后,检测被检菌群的数量.结果不同剂量头孢曲松钠灌胃的小鼠盲肠体积均有所增大,模型组的优势菌的数量显著减少.通过口服乳酸菌和双歧杆菌制剂,可以适当的恢复乳酸菌和双歧杆菌的数量.与对照组比较

  20. A sepsis-inducedacute kidney injury mouse model and its kidney injury evaluation%小鼠脓毒症急性肾损伤模型制备及肾功能损伤指标评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金魁; 刘宝; 邵敏; 周树生; 高晓兰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the mortality and acute kidney injury in the cecum ligation and puncture ( CLP ) model with different ligation proportion.Methods Eighty -one mice were assigned to 3 different experiments.①Survival analysis between 25% vs 50% ligation of CLP model.②Analysis of 3 renal injury biomarkers (serum creatinine, NGAL, cystatin C) and cytokine of IL-6.③Renal histopathology at the most severely injured time point.Results The mortality rate of 50%ligation of CLP model at 48 hours was 100% whereas the 25% ligation mortality at 24 hours was 7%, and the 48 hours mortality was about 50%.Renal biomarkers of Creatinine, NGAL increased from 2 hours and reach their peak at 24 hours, by contrast, Cystatin C and IL-6 reach the highest level at 18 and 6 hours.Apical vacuolization can be found in the histopathology of kidneys at 24 hours after CLP but with absence of necrosis.Conclusion Cecum ligation ( 25%) and puncture through and through (2 holes) can mimic sepsis induced AKI, study of biomarkers of renal injury show kidney injury may most severely at 24 hours.%目的:研究使用小鼠盲肠结扎穿刺( CLP)模型,模拟脓毒症急性肾损伤( AKI)病理生理过程,研究不同结扎长度(比率)对死亡率的影响,选取最为适宜的结扎长度,并观察结扎后肾损伤标志物及肾脏病理变化。方法实验共纳入81只小鼠分别进行:①生存率研究分为CLP组(以25%、50%结扎比率)及假手术组,观察7 d记录生存时间。②选取生存率较为适合的结扎比率,再次行CLP术后,检测肾脏损伤标志物血清肌酐( Cr)、中性粒细胞酯酶( NGAL)、胱抑素C (Cystatin C)及白细胞介素-6(IL-6)。③AKI发生后进行肾脏病理检查。结果 CLP模型盲肠结扎50%与25%24 h死亡率100% vs 7%;结扎25%后,肾脏损伤标志物胱抑素C、中性粒细胞酯酶、血清肌酐于CLP术后2 h开始升高,胱抑素C于术后18 h

  1. Effects of Protease Addition and Replacement of Soybean Meal by Corn Gluten Meal on the Growth of Broilers and on the Environmental Performances of a Broiler Production System in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonos, Eleftherios; Anestis, Vasileios; Filioussis, Georgios; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Bartzanas, Thomas; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the combined effects of adding a dietary protease, reducing the levels of soybean meal (SBM) and introducing corn gluten meal (CGM) in the ration of a group of broilers reared on a commercial Greek farm. Five hundred forty chicks were divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates of thirty birds each. The first group (Control) was fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal, containing 21% w/w crude protein (CP). The second group (Soy-Prot) was supplied a corn and SBM-based diet containing a lower level of CP (20% w/w) and 200 mg of the protease RONOZYME® Proact per kg of feed. The third group (Gluten-Prot) was fed a diet without soybean-related constituents which was based on corn and CGM and with CP and protease contents identical to those of the diet of the Soy-Prot group. Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), intestinal microbiota populations and morphology, meat quality and cost were evaluated. Furthermore, a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed in order to assess the potential environmental performance of the systems defined by these three dietary treatments and identify their environmental hot-spots. The growth performance of the broilers supplied the Soy-Prot diet was similar to the broilers supplied the Control diet. However, the broilers which were fed the Gluten-Prot diet at the end of the trial showed a tendency (P≤0.010) for lower weight gain and feed intake compared to those of the Control diet. When compared to the Control group, lower counts of C. perfringens (P≤0.05) were detected in the ileum and cecum parts, and lower counts of F. necrophorum (P≤0.001) were detected in the cecum part of the birds from the Gluten-Prot group. The evaluation of intestinal morphometry showed that the villus height and crypt depth values were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the experimental groups for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum parts. No

  2. Carbon dioxide insufflation or warm-water infusion for unsedated colonoscopy: A randomized controlled trial in patients with chronic constipation in China

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    Xiaoling Xu

    2016-01-01

    cantly different between air (10.6 ± 2.5 and CO 2 ( 7.2 ± 1.4 (air vs CO 2 P < 0.001, air and water (6.9 ± 1.3 (air vs water P < 0.001. However, CO 2 and was not significantly different in cecum-intubated time (CO 2 vs water, P = 0.404. CO 2 and water group in extubation time were significantly different, respectively, CO 2 (7.9 ± 1.1 and water (8.0 ± 1.1 (CO 2 vs water, P = 0.707. CO 2 or water group required less implementation of adjunct measures and more willingness to repeat the procedure. Conclusions: Compared with air, the CO 2 or water-aided method reduced real-time maximum pain and cecum-intubated time for chronic constipated patients in unsedated colonoscopy. The CO 2 insufflation or warm-water irrigation may be a simple and inexpensive way to reduce discomfort in unsedated patients with constipation. This study demonstrated an advantage of using CO 2 insufflation and warm-water irrigation during colonoscopy in unsedated constipated patients in China.

  3. Preventive effect of gelatinizedly-modified chitosan film on peritoneal adhesion of different types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie-Lai Zhou; Shan-Wen Chen; Guo-Dong Liao; Zhou-Jun Shen; Zhi-Liang Zhang; Li Sun; Yi-Jun Yu; Qiao-Ling Hu; Xiao-Dong Jin

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To comparatively study the preventive effect of gelatinizedly-modified chitosan film on peritoneal adhesions induced by four different factors in rats.METHODS: Chitosan was chemically modified by gelatinization, and made into films of 60 μm in thickness, and sterilized. Two hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups, Shamoperation group (group A), wound-induced adhesion group (group B), purified talc-induced adhesion group (group C), vascular ligation-induced adhesion group (group D), and infection-induced adhesion group (group E),respectively. In each group, the rats were treated with different adhesion-inducing methods at the cecum of vermiform processes and then were divided into control and experimental subgroups. Serous membrane surface of vermiform processes were covered with the films in the experimental subgroups, and no films were used in the control subgroups. After 2 and 4 wk of treatments,the abdominal cavities were reopened and the adhesive severity was graded blindly according to Bhatia's method.The cecum of vermiform processes were resected for hydroxyproline (OHP) measurement and pathological examination.RESULTS: Adhesion severity and OHP level: After 2 and 4 wk of the treatments, in the experimental subgroups,the adhesions were significantly lighter and the OHP levels were significantly lower than those of the control subgroups in group B (2 wk: 0.199 ± 0.026 vs 0.285 ±0.041 μg/mg pr, P < 0.001; 4 wk: 0.183 ± 0.034 vs 0.276± 0.03 μg/mg pr, P < 0.001), D (2 wk: 0.216 ± 0.036 vs0.274 ± 0.040 μg/mg pr, P = 0.004; 4 wk: 0.211 ± 0.044vs 0.281 ± 0.047 μg/mg pr, P = 0.003) and E (2 wk: 0.259± 0.039 vs 0.371 ± 0.040 μg/mg pr, P < 0.001; 4 wk:0.242 ± 0.045 vs 0.355 ± 0.029 μg/mg pr, P < 0.001),but there were no significant differences in groups A (2wk: 0.141 ± 0.028 vs 0.137 :± 0.026 μg/mg pr, P =0.737; 4 wk: 0.132 ± 0.031 vs 0.150 ± 0.035 μg/mgpr, P = 0.225) and C (2 wk: 0.395 ± 0.044 vs 0

  4. Reação peritoneal tardia ao calculo biliar humano, de colesterol, deixado na cavidade abdominal de ratos Late peritoneal reaction to human cholesterol gallstone left into abdominal cavity of rats

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    Luiz Carlos Bertges

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os resultados tardios da colocação de cálculos biliares humanos, de colesterol, na cavidade peritoneal de ratos. Constituíram-se cinco grupos: cinco ratos foram apenas laparotomizados com manuseio da cavidade; cinco foram laparotomizados e receberam um ponto com fio monofilamentar cinco zeros no sulco paracólico direito e mesentério; dez receberam cálculos que foram deixados livres na cavidade peritoneal; em dez, os clculos foram fixados no sulco paracólico direito e, finalmente, dez tiveram clculos fixados no mesentério. Os animais foram mortos após cinco meses de pós-operatório quando se observou a cavidade abdominal e foi coletado material para estudo histopatológico. Concluiu-se que os cálculos não foram absorvidos, desenvolveram uma reação peritoneal do tipo corpo estranho com formação de plastrão e foram envolvidos por tecido fibroso e células inflamatórias.It was evaluated the late results of human gallstones placed into peritoneal cavity of rats. Five groups were created. In the first (group A five rats were submitted only to laparotomy and handling of abdominal cavity, in the second (group B five rats were submitted to laparotomy and a stitch was placed into right abdominal wall and in mesenterium between the ileus and cecum, in the third (group C ten rats received a gallstone left free into abdomen, in the fourth (group D ten rats received a gallstone fixed into right abdominal wall and in the fifth (group E ten rats received a gallstone fixed in mesenterium between the ileus and cecum. One rat in each group was selected to be use as a pilot and were re-laparotomized after 1 month and 3 months, in order to look for any possible alteration. All rats were dead after five months when the abdominal cavity was observed and specimens were collected around the gallstones to histopathology. ln groups A and B there were not important macroscopic alterations. The gallstones were not absorved in groups C, D

  5. Establishment the infant mouse model of acute peritonitis caused by cecal ligation perforation%盲肠穿孔所致幼鼠急性腹膜炎模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄薇; 李毅平; 汪健

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立一种稳定、符合临床小儿消化道穿孔所致多种细菌性急性腹膜炎的模型.方法 在3~4周龄BALB/c小鼠盲肠壁置入一个两端开放的18号无菌硅管,使得肠道内的细菌进入腹腔,观察实验小鼠每日情况,并记录体质量变化及死亡时间.1周后处死存活下来的小鼠,观察其腹腔内脏器外观改变情况,收集腹腔灌洗液做细菌培养,观察肝、脾、肾组织切片中炎症细胞的浸润情况.结果 实验组小鼠均表现出细菌性腹膜炎征象,48 h死亡率高达50%,未死亡小鼠的体质量进行性下降,腹腔灌洗液细菌培养呈现阳性,病理切片显示肝实质、肾周围脂肪组织内有不同程度的炎症细胞浸润.结论 幼鼠盲肠穿孔所致急性腹膜炎模型建立成功,这为探索小儿急性腹膜炎的发病机制和治疗方法奠定了基础.%Objective To establish an infant mouse model of polymicrobial acute peritonitis, which is similar to clinical syndrome. Methods we established a surgical connection between the cecum and the peritoneum (by placing a sterile 18-gauge silicon tube across the cecum) which allowed the exit of intestinal bacteria to the peritoneal cavity. The general situation and the time of death were recorded. One week later, the mice were killed and abdominal fluid was collected for bacteria culture in Luria-Bertani agar. The livers, spleens and kidneys were dissected and generated for pathological examination. Results The experiment groups showed typical clinical syndrome of peritonitis. The 48-hour mortality rate was 50% , the weight of mice decreased progressively. Abdominal fluid cultures were positive. Moreover, the pathological examination of liver and adipose tissue around the kidney revealed inflammatory cells infiltration. Conclusions The infant mouse model of polymicrobial peritonitis is constructed successfully, providing a useful tool to develop new diagnostic methods and therapeutic interventions.

  6. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTE IN AGOUTIS BRED IN CAPTIVITY MICROBIOTA INTESTINAL EM CUTIAS CRIADAS EM CATIVEIRO

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    LEANDRO LUÍS MARTINS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Intestines are colonized by microorganisms, which vary according to the species and the intestinal region. Thus, due the lack of information about this subject in literature, this research was developed for better knowing some aspects of the intestinal microbiology of the agouti, considered one of the biggest Brazilian wild rodents. Three males and three not pregnant adult females, belonging to the Catanduva City Zoo, SP, went through laparotomy after anesthesia. Samples were collected with sterile swab in the medium thirds of the jejune, cecum and greater colon after enterotomy. They were cultivated in Sabouraud agar and in TSA (triptone-soy agar. In the jejune, the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was of 83.33%, Salmonella spp. of 66.67% and Clostridium spp. of 50.00% of the samples. In the cecum, they were identified Staphylococcus aureus in 33.33%, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in 100% and Streptococcus spp. in 16.67% of the samples were identified. In the greater colon, the growth of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Clostridium spp. in 66.67%, Staphylococcus aureus in 83.33%, and Streptococcus spp. in 16.67% of the samples was observed, showing the occurrence of variations in the bacteriae proportion according to the intestinal region. 

    KEY WORDS: Dasyprocta azarae, intestines, microbiote.

    Os intestinos são colonizados por microorganismos, variáveis de acordo com a espécie e região intestinal. Assim, em virtude da ausência de informações sobre esse assunto na literatura, esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida para melhor se conhecer alguns aspectos da microbiota intestinal da cutia, um dos maiores roedores selvagens brasileiros. Três machos e três fêmeas adultas vazias, pertencentes ao Zoológico Municipal de Catanduva, SP, foram submetidos a laparotomia mediante anestesia. Amostras com swab estéril foram coletadas nos terços médios do jejuno, ceco e c

  7. Expression Patterns Analysis of Calcium Ion Trans-Membranous Absorption Related Genes in Gastrointestinal Tract of Kunming Mice%昆明小鼠胃肠道钙离子跨膜吸收途径相关基因表达模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艺; 莘海亮; 夏先林; 吴文旋; 李胜利

    2013-01-01

    本研究旨在分析钙离子(Ca2+)跨膜吸收途径相关基因在昆明小鼠胃肠道中的表达模式.选取12只8周龄、平均体重(30.71±2.93)g的雌性昆明小鼠,取胃、十二指肠、空肠、回肠、盲肠和结肠组织样品,利用实时定量PCR法检测维生素D依赖性钙结合蛋白(CaBP-D9k)、瞬时性受体电位通道香草酸受体6(TRP V6)和维生素D受体(VDR)mRNA表达量.结果表明:1) CaBP-D9k、TRP V6和VDR mRNA在胃内属低水平表达,而在盲肠内表达量较高;2)随着小肠的延伸,CaBP-D9k、VDR mRNA表达量逐渐降低,而TRPV6 mRNA则在回肠内高水平表达;3)CaBP-D9k(P<0.05)、VDR(P<0.05)、TRPV6 mRNA的表达量(P>0.05)随着大肠肠段的延伸而不同程度地下降.结果提示,CaBP-D9k、TRPV6和VDR mRNA表达量与胃肠道Ca2+跨膜吸收能力存在关联性.%This study was conducted to analyze the expression patterns of calcium ion trans-membranous absorption related genes in gastrointestinal tract of Kunming mice. A total of 12 female Kunming mice aged 8 weeks with an average body weight of (30.71 ±2.93) g were used as experimental animals. Tissues of stomach , duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon were collected for the analysis of vitamin D-dependent 9 ku calcium-binding protein ( CaBP-D9k) , transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 6 ( TRPV6) , and vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA expression levels by RT-qPCR. The results showed as follows: 1) CaBP-D9k, TRPV6 and VDR mRNA expressed in stomach at a low level, but in cecum at a high level; 2) with the extension of small intestine, expression levels of CaBP-D9k and VDR mRNA were gradually reduced, while TRPV6 mRNA expressed in ileum at a high level; 3) with the extension of large intestine, expression levels of CaBP-D9k (P 0.05) were also gradually reduced at different levels. These results indicate that expression levels of CaBP-D9k, VDR and TRPV6 mRNA are associated with the capability of Ca2+ trans-membranous absorption

  8. Apendicite aguda isquêmica em coelhos: um novo modelo com estudo histopatológico Acute ischaemic appendicitis in rabbits: new model with histopathological study

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    Fernando Costa Nunes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a isquemia parcial ou total do apêndice vermiforme de coelhos, através da ligadura com fio inabsorvível dos vasos do meso apêndice bem como a obstrução mecânica, através da ligadura com fio inabsorvível da base do apêndice a 1 cm do ceco, na patogênese da apendicite aguda. Avaliar a histologia do apêndice (normal e acometido. Estudar a flora bacteriana residente no apêndice vermiforme (normal e acometido e do exsudato peritoneal. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 72 coelhos (Oryctogalus cuniculos, machos, da linhagem Nova Zelândia, com peso médio de 3.000 gramas. Foram divididos em grupos: piloto (A, flora bacteriana (B, controle (H e experimento (C, D, E, F e G com períodos de observação de 96 horas e 192 horas. Fez-se a ligadura dos vasos do meso apêndice com fio inabsorvível nos grupos (D, E, F e G e da base do apêndice vermiforme a 1 cm do ceco, no grupo (C. No grupo experimento (D, E, F e G foi praticado o modelo isquêmico. No grupo experimento (C foi realizada a obstrução mec��nica e no grupo controle (H foi feita somente a simulação da cirurgia. RESULTADOS: Ocorreu apendicite aguda no grupo experimento (C,D,E,F, e G. CONCLUSÕES: O método utilizado causa apendicite aguda com alterações anatomopatológicas distintas. A bactéria residente encontrada na flora fisiológica do suco entérico do apêndice vermiforme e no exsudato peritoneal foi Escherichia coli.BACKGROUND: To evaluate partial or total ischemia, through ligature with an unabsorbed thread of vessels from the vermiform appendix of rabbits, as well as the mechanical obstruction, through ligature with an unabsorbed thread at the basis of the vermiform appendix, at 1 cm from the cecum, in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis. To evaluate the histology of the appendix (normal and affected. To study the resident bacterium flora in the appendix (normal and affected and the peritonitis exudate. METHODS: Seventy- two male rabbits (Oryctogalus

  9. Multislice CT scanning with three-dimensional reconstruction in early diagnosis of atypical appendicitis%多层螺旋CT三维重建对不典型阑尾炎的早期诊断价值

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    钱雷敏; 戈军刚; 黄建明

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of multislice spiral CT (MSCT)with three-di-mensional reconstruction in early diagnosis of acute appendicitis with atypical clinical features.Methods The clinical data of 108 patients preoperatively diagnosed as suspected appendicitis were retrospec-tively analyzed,and 58 patients were subjected to MSCT scan (MSCT group),the remaining were not given (non-MSCT group).Results In MSCT group,53 patients with acute appendicitis were confined by surgery and histopathology. The positive predictive value for pre-appendectomy MSCT was 91.5%.Five patients were misdiagnosed:1 case of adhesive ileum obstruction,1 case of right pyosal-pinx with pelvic inflammatory disease,1 case of Meckel diverticulitis with fish bone penetrating inj ury and 2 cases of cecum and ascending colon diverticulitis.The confirmed diagnostic rate of non-MSCT group was 78.0%.Eleven misdiagnoses were detected by exploratory laparotomy or postoperative CT scan:3 cases of duodenal bulbar ulcer perforation,2 cases of cecum tumor,2 cases of right lower ure-teral calculi with hydronephrosis,1 case of right ovarian cyst torsion,1 case of right corpus luteum rupture,1 case of ectopic pregnancy in isthmus of right uterine tube and 1 case of mesenteric lymphad-enitis.Conclusions MSCT scan with three-dimensional reconstruction of the appendix can improve early diagnosis level of atypical appendicitis,decrease the misdiagnosis rate and thereby provide signif-icant clinical benefit.%目的 探讨多层螺旋CT(multislice spiral CT,MSCT)三维重建对临床表现不典型阑尾炎的早期诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析2011年1月至2014年12月收治的108例不典型阑尾炎手术病人的临床资料,对两组在性别比、年龄、主诉、伴随症状、体征和白细胞计数等方面资料进行统计,其中经MSCT检查的病人58例,为MSCT组,50例为非MSCT组.结果 53例术前MSCT检查的不典型阑尾炎经手术、病理证实为

  10. Influence of laparoscopy and laparotomy on gasometry, leukocytes and cytokines in a rat abdominal sepsis model Influência da laparoscopia e laparotomia na gasometria, leucócitos e citocinas em modelo de sepse abdominal em ratos

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    Irami Araújo Filho

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Laparoscopic surgery is associated with reduced surgical trauma, and less acute phase response, as compared with open surgery. Cytokines are important regulators of the biological response to surgical and anesthetic stress. The aim of this study was to determine if CO2 pneumoperitoneum would change cytokine expression, gas parameters and leukocyte count in septic rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: control (anesthesia only, laparotomy, CO2 pneumoperitoneum, cecum ligation and puncture by laparotomy, and laparoscopic cecum ligation and puncture. After 30 min of the procedures, arterial blood samples were obtained to determine leukocytes subpopulations by hemocytometer. TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 were determined in intraperitoneal fluid (by ELISA. Gas parameters were measured on arterial blood, intraperitoneal and subperitoneal exsudates. RESULTS: Peritoneal TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 concentrations were lower in pneumoperitoneum rats than in all other groups (pOBJETIVO: A cirurgia laparoscópica está associada com trauma reduzido e baixa resposta na fase aguda do trauma, quando comparada com a cirurgia aberta. As citocinas e o balanço ácido-base são fatores importantes da resposta biológica ao trauma cirúrgico-anestésico. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se o pneumoperitôneo com CO2 altera a expressão das citocinas, a gasometria e a contagem diferencial de leucócitos em ratos com sepse abdominal. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em 5 grupos: controle (somente anestesia, laparotomia, pneumoperitôneo com CO2, ligadura e punção do ceco por laparotomia, ligadura e punção do ceco por laparoscopia. Após 30 minutos dos procedimentos, sangue arterial foi colhido para leucometria diferencial em hemocitômetro. TNFalfa, IL-1beta e IL-6 foram dosadas no líquido intraperitoneal (por ELISA. Os parâmetros gasosos foram medidos no sangue arterial e nos exsudatos

  11. Effects of dietary inulin on bacterial growth, short-chain fatty acid production and hepatic lipid metabolism in gnotobiotic mice.

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    Weitkunat, Karolin; Schumann, Sara; Petzke, Klaus Jürgen; Blaut, Michael; Loh, Gunnar; Klaus, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    In literature, contradictory effects of dietary fibers and their fermentation products, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), are described: On one hand, they increase satiety, but on the other hand, they provide additional energy and promote obesity development. We aimed to answer this paradox by investigating the effects of fermentable and non-fermentable fibers on obesity induced by high-fat diet in gnotobiotic C3H/HeOuJ mice colonized with a simplified human microbiota. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented either with 10% cellulose (non-fermentable) or inulin (fermentable) for 6 weeks. Feeding the inulin diet resulted in an increased diet digestibility and reduced feces energy, compared to the cellulose diet with no differences in food intake, suggesting an increased intestinal energy extraction from inulin. However, we observed no increase in body fat/weight. The additional energy provided by the inulin diet led to an increased bacterial proliferation in this group. Supplementation of inulin resulted further in significantly elevated concentrations of total SCFA in cecum and portal vein plasma, with a reduced cecal acetate:propionate ratio. Hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis (Fasn, Gpam) and fatty acid elongation/desaturation (Scd1, Elovl3, Elovl6, Elovl5, Fads1 and Fads2) were decreased in inulin-fed animals. Accordingly, plasma and liver phospholipid composition were changed between the different feeding groups. Concentrations of omega-3 and odd-chain fatty acids were increased in inulin-fed mice, whereas omega-6 fatty acids were reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that, during this short-term feeding, inulin has mainly positive effects on the lipid metabolism, which could cause beneficial effects during obesity development in long-term studies.

  12. Adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as metachronous colonic polyps

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    Aloísio Felipe-Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare disease characterized by proliferation of Langerhans-type cells that express CD1a, Langerin (CD207 and S100 protein. Birbeck granules are a hallmark by ultrastructural examination. LCH presents with a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from solitary lesions of a single site (usually bone or skin to multiple or disseminated multisystemic lesions, which can lead to severe organ dysfunction. Most cases occur in children. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is rare and has been associated with systemic illness and poor prognosis especially in children under the age of 2 years. Adult gastrointestinal LCH is very rare. We report a case of a previously healthy, nonsmoking 48-year-old male who was referred for routine screening colonoscopy. Two sessile, smooth, firm and yellowish LCH polyps measuring 0.2 cm and 0.3 cm were detected in the sigmoid colon. Fifteen months later a second colonoscopy found two histologically confirmed hyperplastic polyps at the sigmoid colon. No other LCH lesions were seen. A third colonoscopy after 28 months of follow-up found a submucosal 0.5 cm infiltrated and ulcerated LCH polyp in the cecum, close to the ostium of the appendix. The patient had been asymptomatic for all this period. Imaging investigation for systemic or multiorgan disease did not find any sign of extracolonic involvement. On histology all lesions showed typical LCH features and immunohistochemical analysis showed strong and diffuse staining for CD1a and CD207. This case illustrates two distinct clinicopathologic features not previously reported in this particular clinical setting: metachronous colonic involvement and positivity for CD207.

  13. Transcellular oxalate and Cl- absorption in mouse intestine is mediated by the DRA anion exchanger Slc26a3, and DRA deletion decreases urinary oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freel, Robert W; Whittamore, Jonathan M; Hatch, Marguerite

    2013-10-01

    Active transcellular oxalate transport in the mammalian intestine contributes to the homeostasis of this important lithogenic anion. Several members of the Slc26a gene family of anion exchangers have a measurable oxalate affinity and are expressed along the gut, apically and basolaterally. Mouse Slc26a6 (PAT1) targets to the apical membrane of enterocytes in the small intestine, and its deletion results in net oxalate absorption and hyperoxaluria. Apical exchangers of the Slc26a family that mediate oxalate absorption have not been established, yet the Slc26a3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)] protein is a candidate mediator of oxalate uptake. We evaluated the role of DRA in intestinal oxalate and Cl(-) transport by comparing unidirectional and net ion fluxes across short-circuited segments of small (ileum) and large (cecum and distal colon) intestine from wild-type (WT) and DRA knockout (KO) mice. In WT mice, all segments demonstrated net oxalate and Cl(-) absorption to varying degrees. In KO mice, however, all segments exhibited net anion secretion, which was consistently, and solely, due to a significant reduction in the absorptive unidirectional fluxes. In KO mice, daily urinary oxalate excretion was reduced 66% compared with that in WT mice, while urinary creatinine excretion was unchanged. We conclude that DRA mediates a predominance of the apical uptake of oxalate and Cl(-) absorbed in the small and large intestine of mice under short-circuit conditions. The large reductions in urinary oxalate excretion underscore the importance of transcellular intestinal oxalate absorption, in general, and, more specifically, the importance of the DRA exchanger in oxalate homeostasis.

  14. Dietary fat and bile juice, but not obesity, are responsible for the increase in small intestinal permeability induced through the suppression of tight junction protein expression in LETO and OLETF rats

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    Suzuki Takuya

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increase in the intestinal permeability is considered to be associated with the inflammatory tone and development in the obesity and diabetes, however, the pathogenesis of the increase in the intestinal permeability is poorly understood. The present study was performed to determine the influence of obesity itself as well as dietary fat on the increase in intestinal permeability. Methods An obese rat strain, Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF, and the lean counter strain, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO, were fed standard or high fat diets for 16 weeks. Glucose tolerance, intestinal permeability, intestinal tight junction (TJ proteins expression, plasma bile acids concentration were evaluated. In addition, the effects of rat bile juice and dietary fat, possible mediators of the increase in the intestinal permeability in the obesity, on TJ permeability were explored in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Results The OLETF rats showed higher glucose intolerance than did the LETO rats, which became more marked with the prolonged feeding of the high fat diet. Intestinal permeability in the OLETF rats evaluated by the urinary excretion of intestinal permeability markers (Cr-EDTA and phenolsulfonphthalein was comparable to that in the LETO rats. Feeding the high fat diet increased intestinal permeability in both the OLETF and LETO rats, and the increases correlated with decreases in TJ proteins (claudin-1, claudin-3, occludin and junctional adhesion molecule-1 expression in the small, but not in the large intestine (cecum or colon. The plasma bile acids concentration was higher in rats fed the high fat diet. Exposure to bile juice and the fat emulsion increased TJ permeability with concomitant reductions in TJ protein expression (claudin-1, claudin-3, and junctional adhesion molecule-1 in the Caco-2 cell monolayers. Conclusion Excessive dietary fat and/or increased levels of luminal bile juice, but not genetic obesity, are

  15. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses.

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    Tamer A Sharafeldin

    Full Text Available Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O'Neil strain. Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi. Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1-2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV.

  16. Intraspecies competition for niches in the distal gut dictate transmission during persistent Salmonella infection.

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    Lilian H Lam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to be transmitted, a pathogen must first successfully colonize and multiply within a host. Ecological principles can be applied to study host-pathogen interactions to predict transmission dynamics. Little is known about the population biology of Salmonella during persistent infection. To define Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium population structure in this context, 129SvJ mice were oral gavaged with a mixture of eight wild-type isogenic tagged Salmonella (WITS strains. Distinct subpopulations arose within intestinal and systemic tissues after 35 days, and clonal expansion of the cecal and colonic subpopulation was responsible for increases in Salmonella fecal shedding. A co-infection system utilizing differentially marked isogenic strains was developed in which each mouse received one strain orally and the other systemically by intraperitoneal (IP injection. Co-infections demonstrated that the intestinal subpopulation exerted intraspecies priority effects by excluding systemic S. Typhimurium from colonizing an extracellular niche within the cecum and colon. Importantly, the systemic strain was excluded from these distal gut sites and was not transmitted to naïve hosts. In addition, S. Typhimurium required hydrogenase, an enzyme that mediates acquisition of hydrogen from the gut microbiota, during the first week of infection to exert priority effects in the gut. Thus, early inhibitory priority effects are facilitated by the acquisition of nutrients, which allow S. Typhimurium to successfully compete for a nutritional niche in the distal gut. We also show that intraspecies colonization resistance is maintained by Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands SPI1 and SPI2 during persistent distal gut infection. Thus, important virulence effectors not only modulate interactions with host cells, but are crucial for Salmonella colonization of an extracellular intestinal niche and thereby also shape intraspecies dynamics. We conclude that priority

  17. Innate immune detection of flagellin positively and negatively regulates salmonella infection.

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    Marvin A Lai

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a flagellated bacterium and one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in humans. Bacterial flagellin is required for motility and also a prime target of the innate immune system. Innate immune recognition of flagellin is mediated by at least two independent pathways, TLR5 and Naip5-Naip6/NlrC4/Caspase-1. The functional significance of each of the two independent flagellin recognition systems for host defense against wild type Salmonella infection is complex, and innate immune detection of flagellin contributes to both protection and susceptibility. We hypothesized that efficient modulation of flagellin expression in vivo permits Salmonella to evade innate immune detection and limit the functional role of flagellin-specific host innate defenses. To test this hypothesis, we used Salmonella deficient in the anti-sigma factor flgM, which overproduce flagella and are attenuated in vivo. In this study we demonstrate that flagellin recognition by the innate immune system is responsible for the attenuation of flgM(- S. Typhimurium, and dissect the contribution of each flagellin recognition pathway to bacterial clearance and inflammation. We demonstrate that caspase-1 controls mucosal and systemic infection of flgM(- S. Typhimurium, and also limits intestinal inflammation and injury. In contrast, TLR5 paradoxically promotes bacterial colonization in the cecum and systemic infection, but attenuates intestinal inflammation. Our results indicate that Salmonella evasion of caspase-1 dependent flagellin recognition is critical for establishing infection and that evasion of TLR5 and caspase-1 dependent flagellin recognition helps Salmonella induce intestinal inflammation and establish a niche in the inflamed gut.

  18. Innate immune detection of flagellin positively and negatively regulates salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Marvin A; Quarles, Ellen K; López-Yglesias, Américo H; Zhao, Xiaodan; Hajjar, Adeline M; Smith, Kelly D

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a flagellated bacterium and one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in humans. Bacterial flagellin is required for motility and also a prime target of the innate immune system. Innate immune recognition of flagellin is mediated by at least two independent pathways, TLR5 and Naip5-Naip6/NlrC4/Caspase-1. The functional significance of each of the two independent flagellin recognition systems for host defense against wild type Salmonella infection is complex, and innate immune detection of flagellin contributes to both protection and susceptibility. We hypothesized that efficient modulation of flagellin expression in vivo permits Salmonella to evade innate immune detection and limit the functional role of flagellin-specific host innate defenses. To test this hypothesis, we used Salmonella deficient in the anti-sigma factor flgM, which overproduce flagella and are attenuated in vivo. In this study we demonstrate that flagellin recognition by the innate immune system is responsible for the attenuation of flgM(-) S. Typhimurium, and dissect the contribution of each flagellin recognition pathway to bacterial clearance and inflammation. We demonstrate that caspase-1 controls mucosal and systemic infection of flgM(-) S. Typhimurium, and also limits intestinal inflammation and injury. In contrast, TLR5 paradoxically promotes bacterial colonization in the cecum and systemic infection, but attenuates intestinal inflammation. Our results indicate that Salmonella evasion of caspase-1 dependent flagellin recognition is critical for establishing infection and that evasion of TLR5 and caspase-1 dependent flagellin recognition helps Salmonella induce intestinal inflammation and establish a niche in the inflamed gut.

  19. Intraspecies competition for niches in the distal gut dictate transmission during persistent Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lilian H; Monack, Denise M

    2014-12-01

    In order to be transmitted, a pathogen must first successfully colonize and multiply within a host. Ecological principles can be applied to study host-pathogen interactions to predict transmission dynamics. Little is known about the population biology of Salmonella during persistent infection. To define Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium population structure in this context, 129SvJ mice were oral gavaged with a mixture of eight wild-type isogenic tagged Salmonella (WITS) strains. Distinct subpopulations arose within intestinal and systemic tissues after 35 days, and clonal expansion of the cecal and colonic subpopulation was responsible for increases in Salmonella fecal shedding. A co-infection system utilizing differentially marked isogenic strains was developed in which each mouse received one strain orally and the other systemically by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Co-infections demonstrated that the intestinal subpopulation exerted intraspecies priority effects by excluding systemic S. Typhimurium from colonizing an extracellular niche within the cecum and colon. Importantly, the systemic strain was excluded from these distal gut sites and was not transmitted to naïve hosts. In addition, S. Typhimurium required hydrogenase, an enzyme that mediates acquisition of hydrogen from the gut microbiota, during the first week of infection to exert priority effects in the gut. Thus, early inhibitory priority effects are facilitated by the acquisition of nutrients, which allow S. Typhimurium to successfully compete for a nutritional niche in the distal gut. We also show that intraspecies colonization resistance is maintained by Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands SPI1 and SPI2 during persistent distal gut infection. Thus, important virulence effectors not only modulate interactions with host cells, but are crucial for Salmonella colonization of an extracellular intestinal niche and thereby also shape intraspecies dynamics. We conclude that priority effects and

  20. CPU0213,a novel endothelin receptor antagonist,ameliorates septic renal lesion by suppressing ET system and NF-κB in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo HE; De-zai DAI; Yin DAI

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To examine whether a novel endothelin receptor antagonist, CPU0213, is effective in relieving the acute renal failure (ARF) of septic shock by suppressing the activated endothelin-reactive oxygen species (ET-ROS) pathway and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Methods: The cecum was ligated and punctured in rats under anesthesia. CPU0213 (30 mg·kg-1·d-1, bid, sc×3 d) was administered 8 h after surgical operation. Results: In the untreated septic shock group, the mean arterial pressure and survival rate were markedly decreased (P<0.01), and heart rate, weight index of kidney, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, 24 h urinary protein and creatinine were significantly increased (P<0.01). The levels of ET-1, total NO synthetase (tNOS), indusible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), and ROS in serum and the renal cortex were markedly increased (P< 0.01). The upregulation of the mRNAlevels of preproET-1, endothelin converting enzyme, ETA, ETB, iNOS, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the renal cortex was significant (P<0.01). The protein amount of activated NF-κB was significantly increased (P<0.01) in comparison with the sham operation group. All of these changes were significantly reversed after CPU0213 administration. Conclusion: Upregulation of the ET signaling pathway and NF-κB play an important role in the ARF of septic shock. Amelioration of renal lesions was achieved by suppressing the ETA and ETB receptors in the renal cortex following CPU0213 medication.

  1. Ileoscopy in patients with ileocolonic tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SP Misra; Vatsala Misra; Manisha Dwivedi

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of retrograde terminal ileoscopy in patients suspected to have ileocolonic tuberculosis.METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for patients undergoing colonoscopy for suspected ileocolonic tuberculosis between January 2000 and June 2004, in whom retrograde ileoscopy had been performed. Only patients diagnosed with tuberculosis on the basis of histological findings of either a caseating granuloma or those having non-caseating granuloma or a collection of epithelioid cells at a minimum of one endoscopic lesion (either in the colon or the terminal ileum) on histology with good responses to conventional anti-tuberculous drugs were enrolled for the study.RESULTS: Fifty-three patients were included. The terminal ileum was involved in only 11 patients. Eight of these patients had involvement of the cecum too. Two patients had ileal lesions without cecal involvement; however, lesions were noted in the ascending colon. In one patient the whole colon was normal and only the terminal ileum showed nodularity and ulceration. Histological examination of the ileal biopsies obtained from the ileal lesions showed noncaseating granulomas in five, collection of epithelioid cells in four and nonspecific histology in two patients. Mucosal biopsies obtained from the lesion in the terminal ileum, in the patient in whom mucosal abnormality was observed to be confined to the ileum, showed noncaseating granulomas. In two other patients the ileal biopsies alone showed histological evidence of tuberculosis with biopsies from the colonic lesions showing non-specific inflammatory changes only.CONCLUSION: Retrograde ileoscopy should be performed in all patients undergoing colonoscopy for suspected ileocolonic tuberculosis. In some patients only the terminal ileum may be involved and histological examination may reveal evidence of tuberculosis only from the lesions in the terminal ileum. This approach would lead to additional lesions being picked up and increasing

  2. PCO(2) in the large intestine of mice, rats, guinea pigs, and dogs and effects of the dietary substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Mirtaheri, Peyman; Dirven, Hubert; Johnsen, Helge; Kvarstein, Gunnvald; Tønnessen, Tor Inge; Midtvedt, Tore

    2002-01-01

    PCO(2) in the lumen and serosa of cecum and colon was measured in rats, guinea pigs, and dogs to examine the relationship between serosal PCO(2) and the incidence of intestinal necrotic lesions after administration of gas-carrier contrast agents in rodents. The effects of the dietary substrate were tested in a group of mice maintained on a diet based on glucose as the only carbohydrate source. The anesthetic used was a fentanyl-fluanison-midazolam mixture (rodents) and pentobarbital (dogs). PCO(2) was measured in vivo and postmortem, and the kinetics of the postmortem serosal PCO(2) [transmural CO(2) flux (J(CO(2)))] was calculated. PCO(2) in the cecal serosa and lumen, respectively, was 64 +/- 4 and 392 +/- 18 Torr in rats, 67 +/- 3 and 276 +/- 17 Torr in guinea pigs, and 73 +/- 6 and 137 +/- 7 Torr in mice on glucose-based diet. In the colon serosa and lumen of dogs, PCO(2) was 30 +/- 6 and 523 +/- 67 Torr, respectively. Serosal PCO(2) increased rapidly after death in rats and slower in guinea pigs and mice, and the slowest change was observed in dogs. Compared with dogs, serosal PCO(2) and J(CO(2)) of rats and guinea pigs were significantly higher. Serosal PCO(2) of guinea pigs was similar to that of rats, whereas the J(CO(2)) of guinea pigs was significantly lower. These data suggest a causal relationship between the ability of the cecal and colonic wall to act as a barrier to CO(2) diffusion and the presence of characteristic gas-carrier contrast agent-induced intestinal lesions in mice and rats and their absence in guinea pigs, dogs, and other species.

  3. Scintigraphic measurement of colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation

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    Yoon, K. H.; Kim, C. K. [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate usefulness of scintigraphic measurement of total and regional colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation. 25 patients who were complained chronic constipation underwent scintigraphic measurement of the total and regional colon transit. Of them 10 patients were diagnosed as idiopathic constipation, none of whom had evidence of abnormal function of the pelvic floor. Ten healthy volunteers were also studied. 67 Gallium-labelled Amberlite resin particles were ingested in a coated capsule with methacrylate that dispersed in the ileocecal region. Images were obtained using a gamma camera at regular intervals for the 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours after the initial counting of the radioactivity in the cecum. We determined the geometric center in four regions of interest in the colon (ascending, transverse, descending, and rectosigmoid). Ten patients with colonic inertia showed significant retention of solid residue in the ascending and transverse colon over a 48-hour period. The median values for the healthy subjects at 2, 4, 8, and 24, and 48 hours were 1.44{+-}0.2 (midway through ascending), 1.71{+-}0.45 (midway through transverse), 2.64{+-}0.95 (midway through descending), 3.94{+-}0.89 (midway through rectosigmoid), and 4.52{+-}0.76 (midway through the stool compartment). On the contrary, the values of ten patients with colonic inertia were 1.0{+-}0.0 (midway through ascending), 1.0{+-}0.0 (midway through ascending). 1.02 {+-}0.06 (midway through ascending), 1.70{+-}0.36 (midway through transverse), and 2.33{+-}0.31(midway through descending) at the same time (p<0.001). In patients with idiopathic constipation is characterized by exaggerated reservoir factions of the ascending and transverse colons. Scintigraphy using 67 Gallium-labelled pellets seems to be a useful tool to demonstrate the delayed colonic transit in patients with colonic inertia.

  4. Extração de fitobezoar gástrico por videolaparoscopia: considerações técnicas originais Videolaparoscopic extraction of gastric phytobezoar: original technical aspects

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    Carlos Eduardo Domene

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Videolaparoscopic surgery has been used for treatment of almost all surgical abdominal diseases, mainly where there are no large ressections, or operative field is limited. In these situations, laparoscopic surgery has the advantages of less morbidity, quick recovery and good cosmetic results. Bezoars removal, or its mobilization, is probably included in these possible proceedings. Three non-laparotomic procedures were described: 1. endoscopic-laparoscopic; 2. videolaparoscopy and mobilization of intestinal bezoar to the cecum; 3. laparoscopy and gastrotomy for bezoar removal, through suprapubic incision or the umbilical punction. There have been only two publications describing the videolaparoscopic method for bezoar removal, and the methods applied can be complications or morbidity related. We describe one case where the applied technique is simple and easy to perform, time saving and probably less complications-related. This technique, with four trocars, utilized a plastic bag besides the stomach to be opened, followed by gastrotomy, bezoar removal and immediate introduction in the plastic bag, suture of gastrotomy and removal through the left subcostal trocar. This technique was feasible and easy to perform, with short operative time, and there were no intra or post-operative complications; the patient was discharged in the second post-operative day, and is without further problems after one year follow-up. We believe that this could be an adequate technique to perform laparoscopic gastric bezoar removal, and the rigid sequence of operative events allows a quick procedure, with minimal contamination. The videolaparoscopy seems to be an adequate access to surgical treatment of gastro-intestinal bezoars, with or without obstruction, and should be the ellected the procedure of choice to begin the surgical treatment, with convertion to laparotomy in case of any intra-operative adversity.

  5. The pathology of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type C in calves.

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    Garcia, Jorge P; Anderson, Mark; Blanchard, Patricia; Mete, Asli; Uzal, Francisco A

    2013-05-01

    The pathology of Clostridium perfringens type C infection has been described with detail only in foals and piglets. The current report describes the diagnostic workup and detailed pathology of 3 cases of C. perfringens type C infection in calves. A 2-day-old Jersey calf and fresh and fixed tissues from a 4-week-old Angus calf and from a 1-week-old Jersey calf were received at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System with a history of digestive disease and death. The gross changes in the gastrointestinal tract of 1 calf consisted of multifocal subserosal hemorrhages of the rumen, diffuse congestion and multifocal hemorrhages of the small intestinal mucosa, and dilated cecum with bloody liquid contents. In a second calf, a large segment of small intestine was hemorrhagic. The small intestine of the third calf was dilated and filled with abundant yellow fluid content. Microscopically, all 3 calves had diffuse coagulation necrosis of the intestinal mucosa. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from the intestinal content of 2 calves. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Bovine rotavirus was positive on colonic content of 1 calf. Small numbers of cryptosporidia were seen in smears of colonic content of 2 calves, and Salmonella sp. group E was detected in the small intestinal content of another calf. Clostridium perfringens beta toxin was detected in the intestinal content of the 3 animals. A diagnosis of C. perfringens type C infection was confirmed based on pathological findings and detection of beta toxin in the intestinal content of the 3 animals.

  6. Diets containing inulin but not lupins help to prevent swine dysentery in experimentally challenged pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C F; Phillips, N D; La, T; Hernandez, A; Mansfield, J; Kim, J C; Mullan, B P; Hampson, D J; Pluske, J R

    2010-10-01

    Swine dysentery is a contagious mucohemorrhagic diarrheal disease caused by the intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae that colonizes and induces inflammation of the cecum and colon. It has been reported that a diet containing chicory root and sweet lupin can prevent swine dysentery. This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inulin in the chicory root rather than galactans in lupins was responsible for protective effects. An experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was undertaken using pigs fed barley- and triticale-based diets, with the main effects being protein source [185 g/kg of canola meal (decreased galactans) or 220 g/kg of lupins (greater galactans)] and inulin supplementation (0 or 80 g/kg). Forty Large White × Landrace pigs weighing 21 ± 3 kg, with 10 pigs per diet, were allowed to adapt to the diets for 2 wk, and then each pig was challenged orally 4 times with a broth culture containing B. hyodysenteriae on consecutive days. Pigs were killed when they showed clinical signs of dysentery or 6 wk postchallenge. Pigs fed diets without inulin had 8.3 times greater risk (P = 0.017) of developing swine dysentery and were 16 times more likely (P = 0.004) to have colon contents that were culture-positive for B. hyodysenteriae, compared with the pigs fed a diet with 80 g/kg of inulin. Diets containing lupins did not prevent pigs from developing clinical swine dysentery; however, inclusion of lupins or inulin or both in the diets delayed the onset of disease compared with the diet based mainly on canola meal (P 0.05) by diet. However the pH values of the ileal digesta were decreased in pigs fed the diet with both lupins and inulin compared with the diet containing only lupins (P pigs against developing swine dysentery.

  7. Safety evaluation of probiotic bifidobacteria by analysis of mucin degradation activity and translocation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Fumiaki; Muto, Masamichi; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Aihara, Hiroaki; Ohashi, Yuji; Fujisawa, Tomohiko

    2010-04-01

    Although probiotic-containing nutrient formulas for infants and toddlers have become very popular, some adverse effects related to translocation of probiotic strains have been reported. We assessed the safety of probiotic bifidobacteria that have been used in clinical investigations and proven to have beneficial effects, by analyzing mucin degradation activity and translocation ability. Mucin degradation activities of three probiotic bifidobacteria strains; Bifidobacterium longum BB536, Bifidobacterium breve M-16V and Bifidobacterium infantis M-63, were evaluated by three in vitro tests comprising growth in liquid medium, SDS-PAGE analysis of degraded mucin residues, and degradation assay in Petri dish. All test strains and control type strains failed to grow in the liquid medium containing mucin as the only carbon source, although good growth was obtained from fecal sample. In the SDS-PAGE analyses of mucin residues and observation of mucinolytic zone in agar plate, the three test strains also showed no mucin degradation activity as the type strains, although fecal sample yielded positive results. In another study, a high dose of B. longum BB536 was administered orally to conventional mice to examine the translocation ability. No translocation into blood, liver, spleen, kidney and mesenteric lymph nodes was observed and no disturbance of epithelial cells and mucosal layer in the ileum, cecum and colon was detected, indicating that the test strain had no translocation ability and induced no damage to intestinal surface. These results resolve the concern about bacterial translocation when using bifidobacteria strains as probiotics, which have been tested in various clinical trials, supporting the continuous use of these probiotic strains without anxiety.

  8. Intravenous glucagon beneficial during colonoscopy in patient with IBS

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    Dharmesh H Kaswala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. Patients with IBS requiring colonoscopy take longer time to cecum with higher need for medications used for conscious sedation. Glucagon is routinely used during endoscopic procedures to reduce peristalsis that interfere with the procedure. However, randomized controlled data using glucagon during endoscopic procedures are lacking. We designed a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial to study the effect of intravenous glucagon given during colonoscopy. Materials and Methods: We received approval from the FDA for this off-label use of glucagon during colonoscopy. This is a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. Patients were selected based on ROME III criteria for IBS; patients who met Rome III criteria and had an indication for colonoscopy for age-specific colon cancer screening or for work up of any alarm signs. We selected 34 patients meeting the Rome III for IBS and randomized into Group A and Group B. Both the performing endoscopist and patients were blinded. These patients in both groups initially received a standard dose of conscious sedation, up to 100 mcg of fentanyl and up to 5 mg of midazolam intravenously. In Group A, 17 patients, in addition to conscious sedation, received 1 ml saline as placebo. In Group B, 17 patients, in addition to conscious sedation, received 1 mg of intravenous glucagon. Parameters evaluated were as follows: 1 Total time required for colonoscopy 2 Completion of colonoscopy as documented by cecal intubation or visualization of appendicular orifice 3 Level of comfort in patient concerned to post- procedure spasmodic pain, which was based on Wong-Baker FACES pain rating scale and 4 Calculate the amount of sedation required in both groups of patients and also at what extent glucagon helped to decrease the requirement of sedatives. Data was

  9. Bitter, sweet and umami taste receptors and downstream signaling effectors: Expression in embryonic and growing chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheled-Shoval, Shira L; Druyan, Shelly; Uni, Zehava

    2015-08-01

    Taste perception is a crucial biological mechanism affecting food and water choices and consumption in the animal kingdom. Bitter taste perception is mediated by a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family-the taste 2 receptors (T2R)-and their downstream proteins, whereas sweet and umami tastes are mediated by the GPCR family -taste 1 receptors (T1R) and their downstream proteins. Taste receptors and their downstream proteins have been identified in extra-gustatory tissues in mammals, such as the lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and their GIT activation has been linked with different metabolic and endocrinic pathways in the GIT. The chicken genome contains three bitter taste receptors termed ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, and ggTas2r7, and the sweet/umami receptors ggTas1r1 and ggTas1r3, but it lacks the sweet receptor ggTas1r2. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the expression of genes related to taste perception in the chicken GIT, both at the embryonic stage and in growing chickens. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time, using real-time PCR, expression of the chicken taste receptor genes ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, ggTas2r7, ggTas1r1, and ggTas1r3 and of their downstream protein-encoding genes TRPM5, α-gustducin, and PLCβ2 in both gustatory tissues-the palate and tongue, and extra-gustatory tissues-the proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon of embryonic day 19 (E19) and growing (21 d old) chickens. Expression of these genes suggests the involvement of taste pathways for sensing carbohydrates, amino acids and bitter compounds in the chicken GIT.

  10. Fate of ingested Clostridium difficile spores in mice.

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    Amber Howerton

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a major nosocomial complication. The infective form of C. difficile is the spore, a dormant and resistant structure that forms under stress. Although spore germination is the first committed step in CDI onset, the temporal and spatial distribution of ingested C. difficile spores is not clearly understood. We recently reported that CamSA, a synthetic bile salt analog, inhibits C. difficile spore germination in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the anti-germination activity of bile salts to determine the fate of ingested C. difficile spores. We tested four different bile salts for efficacy in preventing CDI. Since CamSA was the only anti-germinant tested able to prevent signs of CDI, we characterized CamSa's in vitro stability, distribution, and cytotoxicity. We report that CamSA is stable to simulated gastrointestinal (GI environments, but will be degraded by members of the natural microbiota found in a healthy gut. Our data suggest that CamSA will not be systemically available, but instead will be localized to the GI tract. Since in vitro pharmacological parameters were acceptable, CamSA was used to probe the mouse model of CDI. By varying the timing of CamSA dosage, we estimated that C. difficile spores germinated and established infection less than 10 hours after ingestion. We also showed that ingested C. difficile spores rapidly transited through the GI tract and accumulated in the colon and cecum of CamSA-treated mice. From there, C. difficile spores were slowly shed over a 96-hour period. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using molecular probes to obtain disease progression information for C. difficile infection.

  11. Segmental pneumatosis cystoides coli: computed tomography-facilitated diagnosis

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    Dorota Ksiadzyna

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal pneumatosis is a rare entity of unclear etiopathogenesis characterized by the presence of gaseous cystic or linear collections within the intestinal wall. Intestinal pneumatosis may be primary and idiopathic in origin or, more frequently, it accompanies various clinical conditions. Rarely, the development of intestinal pneumatosis is attributed to the pharmacotherapy with different drugs. Case report: This is a case report of cystic pneumatosis limited to the large intestine with predominant clinical presentation of chronic watery diarrhea in a 64-year-old man suffering from diabetes mellitus treated with metformin and acarbose. The patient had been referred to the outpatient gastroenterology clinic for further investigation of numerous polyp-like lesions found on colonoscopy. There was no history of cigarette smoking, drug abuse or extraintestinal complaints. The patient was in a good general condition and his laboratory tests were normal. No relevant abnormalities were found on chest X-ray, esophagogastroduodenoscopy or abdominal ultrasound, but computed tomography showed intramural gas-filled bubbles in the cecum and splenic flexure without signs of perforation or any other significant pathology in the abdominal cavity. The final diagnosis of pneumatosis cystoides coli (PCC, possibly related to treatment with acarbose, was established. On a follow-up visit after discontinuation of acarbose the patient reported no complaints and remained asymptomatic for the next 12 months. Discussion: To conclude, drug-related PCC should be considered in a differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal symptoms and/or polyp-like lesions disclosed on colonoscopy in diabetic patients treated with acarbose.

  12. Contribution of gene expression to metabolic fluxes in hypermetabolic livers induced through burn injury and cecal ligation and puncture in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Scott; Vemula, Murali; Yokoyama, Tadaaki; Jayaraman, Arul; Berthiaume, François; Yarmush, Martin L

    2007-05-01

    Severe injury activates many stress-related and inflammatory pathways that can lead to a systemic hypermetabolic state. Prior studies using perfused hypermetabolic rat livers have identified intrinsic metabolic flux changes that were not dependent upon the continual presence of elevated stress hormones and substrate loads. We investigated the hypothesis that such changes may be due to persistent alterations in gene expression. A systemic hypermetabolic response was induced in rats by applying a moderate burn injury followed 2 days later by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) to produce sepsis. Control animals received a sham-burn followed by CLP, or a sham-burn followed by sham-CLP. Two days after CLP, livers were analyzed for gene expression changes using DNA microarrays and for metabolism alterations by ex vivo perfusion coupled with Metabolic Flux Analysis. Burn injury prior to CLP increased fluxes while decreases in gene expression levels were observed. Conversely, CLP alone significantly increased metabolic gene expression, but decreased many of the corresponding metabolic fluxes. Burn injury combined with CLP led to the most dramatic changes, where concurrent changes in fluxes and gene expression levels occurred in about 1/3 of the reactions. The data are consistent with the notion that in this model, burn injury prior to CLP increased fluxes through post-translational mechanisms with little contribution of gene expression, while CLP treatment up-regulated the metabolic machinery by transcriptional mechanisms. Overall, these data show that mRNA changes measured at a single time point by DNA microarray analysis do not reliably predict metabolic flux changes in perfused livers.

  13. Dietary fat content and fiber type modulate hind gut microbial community and metabolic markers in the pig.

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    Hui Yan

    Full Text Available Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose. High fat diets (HFD resulted in a higher (P<0.05 total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05 the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05 expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO, a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity.

  14. Subcutaneous preconditioning increases invasion and metastatic dissemination in mouse colorectal cancer models

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    Alamo, Patricia; Gallardo, Alberto; Pavón, Miguel A.; Casanova, Isolda; Trias, Manuel; Mangues, Maria A.; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio; Mangues, Ramon; Céspedes, Maria V.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse colorectal cancer (CRC) models generated by orthotopic microinjection of human CRC cell lines reproduce the pattern of lymphatic, haematological and transcoelomic spread but generate low metastatic efficiency. Our aim was to develop a new strategy that could increase the metastatic efficiency of these models. We used subcutaneous implantation of the human CRC cell lines HCT116 or SW48 prior to their orthotopic microinjection in the cecum of nude mice (SC+ORT). This subcutaneous preconditioning significantly enhanced metastatic dissemination. In the HCT116 model it increased the number and size of metastatic foci in lymph nodes, lung, liver and peritoneum, whereas, in the SW48 model, it induced a shift from non-metastatic to metastatic. In both models the number of apoptotic bodies in the primary tumour in the SC+ORT group was significantly reduced compared with that in the direct orthotopic injection (ORT) group. Moreover, in HCT116 tumours the number of keratin-positive tumour buddings and single epithelial cells increased at the invasion front in SC+ORT mice. In the SW48 tumour model, we observed a trend towards a higher number of tumour buds and single cells in the SC+ORT group but this did not reach statistical significance. At a molecular level, the enhanced metastatic efficiency observed in the HCT116 SC+ORT model was associated with an increase in AKT activation, VEGF-A overexpression and downregulation of β1 integrin in primary tumour tissue, whereas, in SW48 SC+ORT mice, the level of expression of these proteins remained unchanged. In summary, subcutaneous preconditioning increased the metastatic dissemination of both orthotopic CRC models by increasing tumour cell survival and invasion at the tumour invasion front. This approach could be useful to simultaneously study the mechanisms of metastases and to evaluate anti-metastatic drugs against CRC. PMID:24487410

  15. Digestive efficiencies of ex situ and in situ West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Graham A J; Worthy, Tamara A M

    2014-01-01

    Digestive efficiencies (Dm) of ex situ and in situ manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were, for the first time, assessed using manganese (Mn(2+)) as a naturally occurring marker. The Dm of ex situ manatees determined using [Mn(2+)] did not differ significantly from the Dm assessed using lignin, supporting the efficacy of the manganese approach. Gastrointestinal tract samples, obtained from recently dead animals, showed [Mn(2+)] concentrations were lowest in the stomach and remained low in the duodenum and small intestine but increased in the cecum, colon, and rectum, consistent with colonic digestion and absorption. In situ manatees consuming marine vegetation had significantly lower Dm (mean ± SE, 46.9% ± 1.8%; n=8) than did in situ manatees consuming freshwater vegetation (77.8% ± 2.6%; n=7), which in turn had significantly lower values than did ex situ manatees consuming lettuce (84.0% ± 0.7%; n=37). In situ manatees eating seagrasses had significantly higher Dm than did long-term ex situ animals consuming seagrass for short periods of time (46.9% ± 1.8% vs. 36.2% ± 1.2%, respectively), suggesting potential modification of gut flora over time. One significant ramification of our results is that manatees consuming seagrasses would require a greater standing biomass to support their needs than would be required if they were eating freshwater vegetation. This reinforces the critical need to implement habitat conservation and protection before considering downlisting or delisting manatees as an endangered species.

  16. Study on relationship between porcine HSP70 protein expression and weaning diarrhoea piglets%仔猪HSP70蛋白表达与断奶腹泻关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 汪蕊; 王希彪

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨HSP70在断奶过程中的作用,试验通过免疫组化方法检测民猪、长白猪断奶仔猪的胃、十二指肠、空肠、回肠、盲肠、结肠六个组织中HSP70蛋白的组织定位与定量变化.结果表明,胃肠道中HSP70蛋白主要在黏膜上皮和肠腺内表达,在各组织内的表达没有因腹泻与否而发生组织定位的改变,在除胃以外的其他消化道组织中,长白健康组仔猪的HSP70蛋白的表达量显著高于长白腹泻组、民猪健康与腹泻组.%In order to investigate the effect of HSP70 during weaning of piglets, this experiment determined the expression of HSP70 protein and located HSP70 protein in the gastrointestinal (Gl) tissues (stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon) of Min pig and Landrace by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that, HSP70 protein expressed mainly in the epithelium mucosae and intestinal gland of Gl tract, while the diarrhoea didn't affect HSP70's location. The HSP70 expression of Landrace healthy piglets in Gl tract, expect for the stomach, was significantly higher than other groups (Landrace diarrhoea piglets, Min pig healthy and diarrhoea piglets).

  17. Effects of Coriander Essential Oil on the Performance, Blood Characteristics, Intestinal Microbiota and Histological of Broilers

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    S Ghazanfari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary supplementation of coriander oil on broiler performance, blood characteristics, microbiota, and small intestine morphology measurements. A number of one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 were allocated to five treatments, with four replicates according to a completely randomized design (CRD. Birds were offered either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control, or the basal diet supplemented with 600 mg/kg of a flavophospholipol antibiotic, 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg coriander essential oil. At 42 days of age, two birds per replicate were selected for blood collection, slaughtered, and its intestinal microbiota and morphology were investigated. The results indicated that weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio significantly improved by the dietary inclusion of the coriander oil and antibiotic compared with the control treatment (p0.05. Birds fed the coriander oil and antibiotic diets had lower populations of Escherichia coli than control group in cecum (p<0.05. The dietary treatments influenced the morphology of small intestinal villi. Birds fed antibiotic and coriander essential oil presented higher villus height and crypt depth compared with those in the control treatment (p<0.01. Coriander essential oil supplementation significantly decreased epithelial thickness and the number of goblet cell of the small intestinal compared with the control treatment (p<0.0001. In conclusion, coriander oil was shown to be an efficient growth promoter. The intestinal health improvement obtained with coriander oil was associated with improvements in broiler growth performance.

  18. Different antibiotic growth promoters induce specific changes in the cecal microbiota membership of broiler chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessegatto, Jose A.; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Weese, J. Scott; Filho, João A. B.; Oba, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobials are sometimes given to food animals at low doses in order to promote faster growth. However, the mechanisms by which those drugs improve performance are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of zinc bacitracin (55g/ton), enramycin (10g/ton); halquinol® (30g/ton); virginiamycin (16,5g/ton) and avilamycin (10g/ton) on the cecal microbiota of broiler chicken, compared to a control group. Six hundred and twenty four chicks (Cobb 500) arriving to an experimental unit were randomly assigned into each treatment with four repetitions per treatment. The cecal content of 16 animals per treatment (n = 96) was used for DNA extraction and sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina technology. The use of antimicrobials induced significant changes in membership but not in structure of the cecal microbiota compared to the control group, suggesting a greater impact on the less abundant species of bacteria present in that environment. Halquinol was the only drug that did not affect microbial membership. Firmicutes comprised the major bacterial phylum present in the cecum of all groups. There was no statistical difference in relative abundances of the main phyla between treated animals and the control group (all P>0.05). Treatment with enramycin was associated with decreased richness and with lower relative abundance of unclassified Firmicutes, Clostridium XI, unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae (all Pchicken under controlled conditions and add new insights to the current knowledge on how AGPs affect the cecal microbiota of chicken. PMID:28222110

  19. The effect of Bacillus coagulans-fermented and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Wang, Qin; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba (NFG) on the immunity status of broiler chickens, 180 1-d-old female Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups and fed either a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% NFG, or a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% FG. Blood samples were taken on the seventh (before vaccination), 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day for the assessment of serum IL-18 and interferon γ (IFN-γ) levels by ELISA. In addition, Newcastle disease antibody titer analysis was made via hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition test methods. On d 35, 6 chickens from each group were sacrificed and the thymus, liver, spleen, small intestine (jejunum segment), cecum, and bursa of Fabricius from each chicken were removed for analysis. RNA was isolated for defensin expression detection by real-time PCR (q-PCR). The results showed that serum IL-18 and IFN-γ levels decreased after treatment with NFG and FG compared with untreated control chickens. The ND antibody titers did not differ significantly between the 3 groups on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th day; however, on the 35th day, the ND antibody titers of the NFG and FG chickens were both significantly higher than those of control group chickens. Defensin RNA expression levels were inhibited by NFG; however, they were induced by FG. In conclusion, fermentation of Ginkgo biloba with Bacillus coagulans can promote the beneficial effect of Gingko biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

  20. Staphylococus E salmonella EM ENVOLTÓRIOS NATURAIS SALGADOS DE BOVINOS EMPREGADOS EM EMBUTIDOS Staphylococcus AND Salmonella GENUS IN NATURAL SALTED CASINGS FROM BOVINES USED IN SAUSAGES

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    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram examinadas bacteriologicamente 35 amostras de envoltório natural salgado de bovino (intestino delgado, intestino grosso, ceco e bexiga colhidas em frigoríficos com Inspeção Federal, localizados no município de Goiânia - GO. As enumerações de bactéria do gênero Staphylococcus variaram entre 1,0 x 10¹ UFC/g e 1,0 x 10^6 UFC/g de tripa natural. De 24 isolamentos de bactérias pertencentes a esse gênero, apenas 3 apresentaram características fenotípicas que sugerem a espécie Staphylococcus aureus. Das 35 amostras de envoltório natural examinadas para bactérias do gênero Salmonella, apenas uma (ceco mostrou-se contaminada por esse microorganismo.

    Thirty-five samples of natural salted bovine casings collected in federally inspected meat processing plants, located in the municipality of Goiânia, Goiás, were examined. The bacteria count of Staphylococcus genus varied between 1.0 x 10¹ UFC/g to 1.0 x 10^6 UFC/g of natural casings. From the 24 bacteria of this genus isolated, only three presented phenotipic characteristics that suggest the species Staphylococcus aureus. From the 35 samples of natural salted bovine casings tested for bacteria of the Solmonella genus, only one was contaminated (cecum by this organism.

  1. Adenocarcinoma of the Right Colon in a Patient with Bloom Syndrome

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    Carlos Augusto Real Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bloom syndrome (BS is an inherited disorder due to mutation in BLM gene. The diagnosis of BS should be considered in patients with growth retardation of prenatal onset, a photosensitive rash in a butterfly distribution over the cheeks, and an increased risk of cancer at an early age. Clinical manifestations also include short stature, dolichocephaly, prominent ears, micrognathia, malar hypoplasia and a high-pitched voice, immunodeficiency, type II diabetes, and hypogonadism associated with male infertility and female subfertility. The aim of this report is to describe case of patient with BS who developed adenocarcinoma of the cecum, successfully treated by right colectomy. Case Report. A 40-year-old man underwent colonoscopy to investigate the cause of his diarrhea, weight loss, and anemia. The patient knew that he was a carrier of BS diagnosed at young age. The colonoscopy showed an expansive and vegetating mass with 5.5 cm in diameter, located within the ascending colon. Histopathological analysis of tissue fragments collected during colonoscopy confirmed the presence of tubular adenocarcinoma, and he was referred for an oncological right colectomy. The procedure was performed without complications, and the patient was discharged on the fifth postoperative day. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the presence of a grade II tubular adenocarcinoma (stage IIA. The patient is currently well five years after surgery, without clinical or endoscopic signs of relapse in a multidisciplinary approach for the monitoring of comorbidities related to BS. Conclusion. Despite the development of colorectal cancer to be, a possibility rarely described the present case shows the need for early screening for colorectal cancer in all patients affected by BS.

  2. Colonic ornithine decarboxylase in inflammatory bowel disease: ileorectal activity gradient, guanosine triphosphate stimulation, and association with epithelial regeneration but not the degree of inflammation and clinical features.

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    Allgayer, Hubert; Roisch, Ulla; Zehnter, Elmar; Ziegenhagen, Dieter J; Dienes, Hans P; Kruis, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The role of colonic mucosal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains controversial. This study assessed mucosal ODC activity in IBD patients segment by segment with regard to patient characteristics, disease activity/duration, medication, degree of mucosal inflammation, and presence/absence of epithelial regeneration and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) stimulation. Mucosal ODC activity was determined in biopsy specimens from the terminal ileum, cecum/ascending, transverse, and descending colon, and the sigmoid/rectum of 35 patients with IBD (18 with Crohn's disease, 17 with ulcerative colitis) and 29 controls, using the amount of 14CO2 liberated from (carboxyl-14C)ornithine hydrochloride. GTP-stimulatable activity was expressed as the ratio of ODC activity in the presence and absence of GTP (70 micromol/L). Mucosal inflammation was assessed endoscopically/microscopically with previously described criteria. Presence/absence of mucosal regeneration also was determined by predefined criteria. Mucosal ODC-activity did not significantly differ in IBD patients and controls. There was a 4.4-fold activity gradient from the ileum to the rectum. Mucosal ODC activity was significantly higher in areas with epithelial regeneration compared to those without regeneration, and was stimulated by GTP by a factor of 1.42 in Crohn's disease and 1.19 in ulcerative colitis patients compared to controls (p < 0.004). On the other hand, there was no significant association/relationship of mucosal ODC activity with disease activity/duration and the endoscopic/histologic degree of mucosal inflammation. The observation of unchanged mucosal ODC activity in patients with IBD and the absence of a significant relationship with clinical and endoscopic/histologic disease characteristics speaks against a major role of ODC in IBD as a major disease marker. The role of the ileorectal gradient, the enhanced activity in areas with epithelial regeneration, and the GTP

  3. CT findings of early right colonic diverticulitis

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    Lee, Jong Hwa; Ham, Su Yeon; Whang, Kang Ik [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the CT findings of acute right colonic diverticulitis, and to determine the difference between these and published reports describing left colonic, especially sigmoid, diverticulitis. Inflamed diverticula were visible in all cases, and were solitary. Nine cases occurred in the ascending colon and four in the cecum; in particular, eleven occurred around the ileocecal valve. In three cases, the inflamed diverticulum was less than 1 cm in diameter; in five cases, 1-2 cm; in three, 2-3 cm, and in two, 3-4 cm. These were able to be classified into two major forms. In three cases it was nodular with hyperattenuation and some inhomogeneity, and ten shows the target form with thick walls and a central cavity. In five of these target lesions, the wall pattern was partially or completely inhomogeneous, or multilayered. The material filling the central cavity were gas in five cases, fecalith in two, and fluid in three. Abnormal pericoloic fat infiltrations were seen in t