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Sample records for cecum

  1. Epithelial inclusion cyst of the cecum: A rare entity

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    Shweta Mittal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial inclusion cyst of the cecum (EICC or epidermoid cyst of the cecum is extremely rare. Only seven cases of EICC have been reported in the English literature until now. A case of EICC is being reported in a 25-year-old female who presented with a pelvic mass associated with lower abdominal pain radiating to back. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed a well-defined mass juxtaposed to cecum. During operation, a subserosal cystic mass was found adherent to the anterior wall of the cecum and confirmed to be an epithelial inclusion cyst histopathologically. It is being reported due to its extreme rarity.

  2. Cecum microbial communities from steers differing in feed efficiency.

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    Myer, P R; Wells, J E; Smith, T P L; Kuehn, L A; Freetly, H C

    2015-11-01

    Apart from the rumen, limited knowledge exists regarding the structure and function of bacterial communities within the gastrointestinal tract and their association with beef cattle feed efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the microbial communities of the cecum among steers differing in feed efficiency. Within 2 contemporary groups of steers, individual feed intake and BW gain were determined from animals fed the same diet. Within both of 2 contemporary groups, BW was regressed on feed intake and 4 steers within each Cartesian quadrant were sampled ( = 16/group). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced from the cecal content using next-generation sequencing technology. No significant changes in diversity or richness were detected among quadrants, and UniFrac principal coordinate analysis did not show any differences among quadrants for microbial communities within the cecum. The relative abundances of microbial populations and operational taxonomic units revealed significant differences among feed efficiency groups ( Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Clostridiaceae, with significant shifts in the relative abundance of taxa among feed efficiency groups, including families Ruminococcaceae ( = 0.040), Lachnospiraceae ( = 0.020), Erysipelotrichaceae ( = 0.046), and Clostridiaceae ( = 0.043) and genera ( = 0.049), ( = 0.044), ( = 0.042), ( = 0.040), ( = 0.042), and ( = 0.042). The study identified cecal microbial associations with feed efficiency, ADG, and ADFI. This study suggests an association of the cecum microbial community with bovine feed efficiency at the 16S level. PMID:26641052

  3. Microbes of the avian cecum: types present and substrates utilized.

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    Mead, G C

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the types and properties of microorganisms found in avian ceca, with special reference to the chicken. Microbial activity in the cecum is primarily fermentative, but there has been little evidence of cellulose fermentation, and the predominant bacterial types are relatively inactive against other high-molecular-weight compounds of dietary origin. In all avian species examined, the consistent presence of large populations of uric acid-degrading bacteria supports the view that microbial populations in the ceca permit reabsorption of water and possibly nonprotein nitrogen from the backflow of urine. These capabilities may be of particular importance to wild birds under conditions of water and food deprivation.

  4. Host Genetic and Environmental Effects on Mouse Cecum Microbiota

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    Campbell, James H [ORNL; Foster, Carmen M [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Campbell, Alisha G [ORNL; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Wymore, Ann [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gut harbors complex and variable microbial communities, across both host phylogenetic space and conspecific individuals. A synergy of host genetic and environmental factors shape these communities and account for their variability, but their individual contributions and the selective pressures involved are still not well understood. We employed barcoded pyrosequencing of V1-2 and V4 regions of bacterial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes to characterize the effects of host genetics and environment on cecum assemblages in 10 genetically distinct, inbred mouse strains. Eight of these strains are the foundation of the Collaborative Cross (CC), a panel of mice derived from a genetically diverse set of inbred founder strains, designed specifically for complex trait analysis. Diversity of gut microbiota was characterized by complementing phylogenetic and distance-based, sequence-clustering approaches. Significant correlations were found between the mouse strains and their gut microbiota, reflected by distinct bacterial communities. Cohabitation and litter had a reduced, although detectable effect, and the microbiota response to these factors varied by strain. We identified bacterial phylotypes that appear to be discriminative and strain-specific to each mouse line used. Cohabitation of different strains of mice revealed an interaction of host genetic and environmental factors in shaping gut bacterial consortia, in which bacterial communities became more similar but retained strain specificity. This study provides a baseline analysis of intestinal bacterial communities in the eight CC progenitor strains and will be linked to integrated host genotype, phenotype and microbiota research on the resulting CC panel.

  5. Campylobacter jejuni Gene Expression in the Chick Cecum: Evidence for Adaptation to a Low-Oxygen Environment

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    Woodall, C. A.; Jones, M. A.; Barrow, P. A.; Hinds, J.; Marsden, G. L.; Kelly, D. J.; Dorrell, N.; Wren, B. W.; Maskell, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of Campylobacter jejuni during colonization of the chick cecum identified 59 genes that were differentially expressed in vivo compared with the genes in vitro. The data suggest that C. jejuni regulates electron transport and central metabolic pathways to alter its physiological state during establishment in the chick cecum. PMID:16041056

  6. Fecal loading in the cecum as a new radiological sign of acute appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andy Petroianu; Luiz Ronaldo Alberti; Renata Indelicato Zac

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Although the radiological features of acute appendicitis have been well documented, the value of plain radiography has not been fully appreciated. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the association of acute appendicitis with images of fecal loading in the cecum.METHODS: Plain abdominal radiographs of 400 patients operated upon for acute appendicitis (n = 100), acute cholecystitis (n = 100), right acute pelvic inflammatory disease (n = 100) and right nephrolithiasis (n = 100)were assessed. The presence of fecal loading was recorded and the sensitivity and specificity of this sign for acute appendicitis were calculated.RESULTS: The presence of fecal loading in the cecum occurred in 97 patients with acute appendicitis, 13 patients with acute cholecystitis, 12 patients with acute inflammatory pelvic disease and 19 patients with nephrolithiasis. The sensitivity of this sign for appendicitis was 97% and its specificity to this disease was 85.3%. Its positive predictive value for appendicitis was 68.7%; however, its negative predictive value for appendicitis was 98.8%.CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that the presence of radiological images of fecal loading in the cecum may be a useful sign of acute appendicitis, and the absence of this sign probably excludes this disease.This is the first description of fecal loading as a radiological sign for acute appendicitis.

  7. TH17, TH22 and Treg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum.

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    Martin J Wolff

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of CD4(+ T cell populations leads to intestinal inflammation, but the regional distribution of these populations throughout the intestinal tract in healthy individuals remains unclear. Here, we show that T(H17, T(H22 and T(Reg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum compared to the terminal ileum and sigmoid colon, whereas T(H1 and T(H2 cells do not significantly vary by location. Transcriptional profiling analysis of paired pinch biopsies from different regions of the intestine identified significant differences in the metabolic state of the terminal ileum, cecum, and sigmoid colon. An increased proportion of T(H17 cells was positively associated with expression of resistin (RETN and negatively associated with expression of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1. These results suggest that CD4(+ T helper cells that are important in maintaining mucosal barrier function may be enriched in the cecum as a result of metabolic differences of the surrounding microenvironment.

  8. Inflammatory myoglandular polyp of the cecum: case report and review of literature

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    Papini Federica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory myoglandular polyp (IMGP is a rare non-neoplastic polyp of the large bowel, commonly with a distal localization (rectosigmoid, obscure in its pathogenesis. Up till now, 60 cases of IMGP have been described in the literature, but none located in the cecum. Case presentation We report a case of a 53-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital for further evaluation of positive fecal occult blood test associated to anemia. A colonoscopy identified a red, sessile, lobulated polyp of the cecum, 4.2 cm in diameter, partially ulcerated. The histological examination of the biopsy revealed the presence of inflammatory granulation tissue with lymphocytic and eosinophil infiltration associated to a fibrous stroma: it was diagnosed as inflammatory fibroid polyp. Considering the polyp's features (absence of a peduncle and size that could increase the risk of a polypectomy, a surgical resection was performed. Histological examination of the specimen revealed inflammatory granulation tissue in the lamina propria, hyperplastic glands with cystic dilatations, proliferation of smooth muscle and multiple erosions on the polyp surface: this polyp was finally diagnosed as IMGP. There was also another little polyp next to the ileocecal valve, not revealed at the colonoscopy, 0.8 cm in diameter, diagnosed as tubulovillous adenoma with low grade dysplasia. Conclusions This is the first case of IMGP of the cecum. It is a benign lesion of unknown pathogenesis and must be considered different from other non-neoplastic polyps of the large bowel such as inflammatory cap polyps (ICP, inflammatory cloacogenic polyps, juvenile polyps (JP, inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFP, polyps secondary to mucosal prolapse syndrome (MPS, polypoid prolapsing mucosal folds of diverticular disease. When symptomatic, IMGP should be removed endoscopically, whereas surgical resection is reserved only in selected patients as in our case.

  9. A Case Report of Stercoraceous Perforation of the Cecum due to Scybalum

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    HR Khorshidi

    2006-10-01

    Introduction & Objective: Non-traumatic colon perforations are usually caused by malignancy, diverticulum and colitis. Stercoraceous perforation of the colon has rarely been reported in the literature. This lesion is assumed to be produced by the pressure from a hard scybalum resulting in a perforated ulcer with necrotic edges. We report a case of stercoraceous perforation of the cecum due to scybalum. Case: We report a 50-year-old man who had a severe abdominal pain from 3 days ago and had peritonitis in physical exam. He was admitted in Mars, 2005 at Mobasher Kashani Hospital in Hamadan and he was parapelegic from 8 months ago due to trauma in his medical history and then he had severe and chronic constipation that necessitated the use of cathartic drugs. We operated him with diagnosis of peritonitis, and perforation of cecum due to scybalum was seen and right hemicolectomy and colostomy and ileostomy was done. Conclusion: The most common site of colon perforation due to scybalum is rectosigmoid area and cecal perforation is a rare area in the literature. It is presented with peritonitis in old patients that have chronic constipation. It is difficult to diagnose this lesion preoperatively. This lesion was only 11% correctly diagnosed before operation and should be always suspected when a patient with chronic constipation suffers from sudden abdominal pain. Resection and colostomy is the treatment of choice in most situations.

  10. Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Engberg, R.M.; Leser, T.D.;

    2006-01-01

    The microbial communities of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens from a conventional and an organic farm were investigated using conventional culture techniques as well as cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty-five percent of the 557 cloned sequences were <97% related to known cult...

  11. Soft Tissue Myoepithelial Carcinoma Metastatic to the Cecum: Highlighting an Unusual Metastatic Pattern and the Need for Diagnostic Awareness

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    Mourtzoukou, Despoina; Zaidi, Shane; Jones, Robin L.; Fisher, Cyril; Thway, Khin

    2016-01-01

    Myoepithelial neoplasms of the soft tissues are a rare, heterogeneous group of tumors for which classification continues to evolve. While well defined within salivary glands, they can also arise in viscera and soft tissues, where diagnosis is challenging due to the lack of clinical and pathological familiarity. We present the case of a 36 year old man with myoepithelial carcinoma arising as a primary tumor within the soft tissues of the neck, which metastasized to the cecum, causing intussusception. This spindle cell neoplasm showed the classic S100 protein, smooth muscle actin and pancytokeratin-positive immunoprofile. Metastasis of myoepithelial carcinoma to the cecum has not been previously described, and coupled with the spindle cell morphology, may cause significant diagnostic difficulty in the absence of clinical familiarity, particularly as there is morphologic overlap with spindle cell neoplasms arising more commonly in gastrointestinal sites, including gastrointestinal stromal tumor, leiomyosarcoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma. PMID:27134707

  12. Soft Tissue Myoepithelial Carcinoma Metastatic to the Cecum: Highlighting an Unusual Metastatic Pattern and the Need for Diagnostic Awareness.

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    Mourtzoukou, Despoina; Zaidi, Shane; Jones, Robin L; Fisher, Cyril; Thway, Khin

    2016-03-21

    Myoepithelial neoplasms of the soft tissues are a rare, heterogeneous group of tumors for which classification continues to evolve. While well defined within salivary glands, they can also arise in viscera and soft tissues, where diagnosis is challenging due to the lack of clinical and pathological familiarity. We present the case of a 36 year old man with myoepithelial carcinoma arising as a primary tumor within the soft tissues of the neck, which metastasized to the cecum, causing intussusception. This spindle cell neoplasm showed the classic S100 protein, smooth muscle actin and pancytokeratin-positive immunoprofile. Metastasis of myoepithelial carcinoma to the cecum has not been previously described, and coupled with the spindle cell morphology, may cause significant diagnostic difficulty in the absence of clinical familiarity, particularly as there is morphologic overlap with spindle cell neoplasms arising more commonly in gastrointestinal sites, including gastrointestinal stromal tumor, leiomyosarcoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma.

  13. Cecum lymph node dendritic cells harbor slow-growing bacteria phenotypically tolerant to antibiotic treatment.

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    Patrick Kaiser

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In vivo, antibiotics are often much less efficient than ex vivo and relapses can occur. The reasons for poor in vivo activity are still not completely understood. We have studied the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin in an animal model for complicated Salmonellosis. High-dose ciprofloxacin treatment efficiently reduced pathogen loads in feces and most organs. However, the cecum draining lymph node (cLN, the gut tissue, and the spleen retained surviving bacteria. In cLN, approximately 10%-20% of the bacteria remained viable. These phenotypically tolerant bacteria lodged mostly within CD103⁺CX₃CR1⁻CD11c⁺ dendritic cells, remained genetically susceptible to ciprofloxacin, were sufficient to reinitiate infection after the end of the therapy, and displayed an extremely slow growth rate, as shown by mathematical analysis of infections with mixed inocula and segregative plasmid experiments. The slow growth was sufficient to explain recalcitrance to antibiotics treatment. Therefore, slow-growing antibiotic-tolerant bacteria lodged within dendritic cells can explain poor in vivo antibiotic activity and relapse. Administration of LPS or CpG, known elicitors of innate immune defense, reduced the loads of tolerant bacteria. Thus, manipulating innate immunity may augment the in vivo activity of antibiotics.

  14. Granular cell tumor of the cecum with extensive hyalinization and calcification: A case report

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    Ran Hong; Sung-Chul Lim

    2009-01-01

    A granular cell tumor (GCT) is a benign neoplasm of unclear histogenesis that is generally believed to be of nerve sheath origin. GCT is not common and most often affects the tongue, skin and soft tissue, although it may occur anywhere in the body. We experienced a case of GCT that arose in the cecum of a 55-yearold man. The GCT was removed by laparoscopic resection. In addition to the tumor, endoscopic examination revealed the presence of a 5-mm-polyp in the descending colon and multiple tiny polyps in the sigmoid colon and rectum. Histological examination with a hard consistency; in cut sections, mixed cells with yellowish and whitish portions were seen. The tumor was located between the mucosa and subserosa,and was composed of plump histiocyte-like tumor cells with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, which were immunoreactive for S-100 protein, vimentin,neuron-specific enolase, inhibin-a and calretinin.The tumor showed extensive hyalinization and focal dystrophic calcification. Immunohistochemical profiles did not confirm any particular cell type for the histogenetic origin of the GCT, including a nerve sheath origin. Extensive hyalinization and calcification showing involution of tumor cells suggest benign clinical behavior of GCT.

  15. Hundreds of circular novel plasmids and DNA elements identified in a rat cecum metamobilome.

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    Tue Sparholt Jørgensen

    Full Text Available Metagenomic approaches are widespread in microbiological research, but so far, the knowledge on extrachromosomal DNA diversity and composition has largely remained dependant on cultivating host organisms. Even with the emergence of metagenomics, complete circular sequences are rarely identified, and have required manual curation. We propose a robust in silico procedure for identifying complete small plasmids in metagenomic datasets from whole genome shotgun sequencing. From one very pure and exhaustively sequenced metamobilome from rat cecum, we identified a total of 616 circular sequences, 160 of which were carrying a gene with plasmid replication domain. Further homology analyses indicated that the majority of these plasmid sequences are novel. We confirmed the circularity of the complete plasmid candidates using an inverse-type PCR approach on a subset of sequences with 95% success, confirming the existence and length of discrete sequences. The implication of these findings is a broadened understanding of the traits of circular elements in nature and the possibility of massive data mining in existing metagenomic datasets to discover novel pools of complete plasmids thus vastly expanding the current plasmid database.

  16. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on the myenteric neurons from the duodenum and cecum of diabetic rats

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    Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Peripheral neuropathy is one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus and is directly related to gastrointestinal consequences of the disease. Myenteric neurons are affected in some pathological conditions such as diabetic neuropathy. The imbalance between cellular antioxidants and free radicals, leading to an increase in oxidative stress, is considered one of the main factors responsible for neuronal damages in diabetes. Drugs that reduce the oxidative stress may play a significant role in the treatment of neurological complications of diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of L-glutamine supplementation on the myenteric neurons from the cecum and duodenum of Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The animals were divided in four groups (n = 5: non-treated normoglycemics, normoglycemics treated with L-glutamine, non-treated diabetics and diabetics treated with L-glutamine from the 4th day of diabetes induction on. The amino acid L-glutamine was added to their diet at 1%. Giemsa's technique was employed to stain the myenteric neurons. We determined the cell body area of 500 neurons in each group studied. The quantitative analysis was performed by sampling in an area of 16.6 mm² in the cecum and 3.6 mm² in the duodenum of each animal. RESULTS: After the supplementation with L-glutamine in the duodenum, we observed a preservation of neuronal density in groups normoglycemic and diabetic (P<0.05. We also observed a preservation of the cell bodies area in diabetic animals (group treated with L-glutamine (P<0.05. In the cecum, that preservation was not evident. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with L-glutamine (1% promoted a neuroprotective effect on the myenteric neurons from the duodenum of rats, both in terms of natural aging and of diabetes mellitus.

  17. Quantification of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii- and Subdoligranulum variabile-like bacteria in the cecum of chickens by real-time PCR

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    Lund, Marianne; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Pedersen, Karl

    2010-01-01

    , and in hatcher material. Quantification of this group of F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like bacteria has not been performed before by real-time PCR, but results confirm previous results obtained by cloning and sequencing showing that the F. prausnitzii-S. variabile-like group of bacteria constitutes a major...... for quantifying potentially important bacteria in the intestine. We describe a real-time quantitative assay for detection and quantification of a whole group of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Subdoligranulum variabile-like bacteria, which has recently been found to dominate in the cecum of broiler chickens...

  18. Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Engberg, R.M.; Leser, T.D.;

    2006-01-01

    % of the cecal clones belonged to this cluster in conventional and organic broiler chickens, respectively. We were, however, able to recover a number of these phylotypes by cultivation, and the isolates were shown to be butyric acid producers. The investigation was a descriptive rather than a......The microbial communities of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens from a conventional and an organic farm were investigated using conventional culture techniques as well as cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty-five percent of the 557 cloned sequences were <97% related to known...... comparative study of 2 different rearing systems; however, several differences were observed. For instance, Clostridium perfringens was found in significantly higher numbers in the birds from the organic farm compared with the conventional broilers, probably due to the addition of salinomycin to the...

  19. Soluble Fiber Dextrin and Soluble Corn Fiber Supplementation Modify Indices of Health in Cecum and Colon of Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Maria R. C. de Godoy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate health outcomes resulting from dietary supplementation of novel, low-digestible carbohydrates in the cecum and colon of Sprague-Dawley rats randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups for 21 days: 5% cellulose (Control, Pectin, soluble fiber dextrin (SFD, or soluble corn fiber (SCF. Rats fed Pectin had a higher average daily food intake, but no differences in final body weights or rates of weight gain among treatments were observed. No differences were observed in total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA or branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA concentrations in the cecum and colon of rats fed either SFD or SCF. The SFD and SCF treatments increased cecal propionate and decreased butyrate concentrations compared to Control or Pectin. Pectin resulted in increased BCFA in the cecum and colon. Supplementation of SFD and SCF had no effect on cecal microbial populations compared to Control. Consumption of SFD and SCF increased total and empty cecal weight but not colon weight. Gut histomorphology was positively affected by SFD and SCF. Increased crypt depth, goblet cell numbers, and acidic mucin were observed in both the cecum and colon of rats supplemented with SFD, SCF, and Pectin. These novel, low-digestible carbohydrates appear to be beneficial in modulating indices of hindgut morphology when supplemented in the diet of the rat.

  20. Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns

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    Anderlise Borsoi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5ufc/mL each until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

  1. Behavior of salmonella heidelberg and salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns.

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    Borsoi, Anderlise; Ruschel do Santos, Luciana; Beatriz Rodrigues, Laura; Luiz de Souza Moraes, Hamilton; Tadeu Pippi Salle, Carlos; Pinheiro do Nascimento, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5)ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

  2. Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from cloaca and cecum content of chicken broilers bred in intensive systems in the Western part of Romani

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    Ada Cean

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp., belongs to the group of thermo-tolerant bacteria, and is the most frequent cause of gastrointestinal diseases in humans following consumption of poorly cooked chicken meat. The aim of our study was to test the common methodology for isolation of Campylobacter jejuni species from cloaca and cecum content of chicken broilers breed in intensive systems in Western part of Romania. The experiments were conducted during July –September 2013. As biological material we used chicken broilers from 6 intensive breeding facilities from the West part of Romania, from which cloaca swabs and cecum content were recovered as samples. Bacteria isolation was performed by inseminating Petri dish with Muller Hinton Agar media, after bacterial growth, they were subculture on Muller-Hinton Agar with Skirrow. The bacteria were tested by Gram staining and Oxidase test. Bacterial growth was detected from all samples when grown on Mueller-Hinton Agar, but when the bacteria was passed on Muller Hinton Agar with selective supplement (Skirrow 27 out of 36 samples remained positive (75,0%. With respect to the sample origin 13 (72.2% samples from cloaca swab and 14 (77.7% from cecum content grown on campylobacter selective media. All samples from Muller-Hinton supplemented with Skirrow tested negative for Gram staining and positive for oxidase test. We have successfully isolated Campylobacter spp., strains from farms and private producers in the western part of Romania.

  3. Expression of Chicken Toll-Like Receptors and Signal Adaptors in Spleen and Cecum of Young Chickens Infected with Eimeria tenella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zuo-yong; HU Shi-jun; WANG Zhi-ying; GUO Zhi-li; QIN Bo; NIE Kui

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of highly conserved molecules which initiate the innate immune response to pathogens by recognizing structural motifs of microbes. Understanding the changes in chicken Toll-like receptors (ChTLRs) and signal adaptors expression that occur with Eimeria tenella infection will help to elucidate the molecular basis of immune control of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria. The present study detected the dynamic changes in the expression of ChTLRs and associated signal adaptors in the spleen and cecum of E. tenella-infected chickens during the early stage of infection. The results showed that the expression peak for ChTLRs, MyD88 and TRIF occurred at 12 h post-infection (hpi), ChTLR3, ChTLR15 and MyD88 mRNA expression in the spleen of E. tenella infected chickens were signiifcantly higher (P<0.05) than that of negative control chickens, and there were similar tendencies of these molecules expression in the cecum and spleen of E. tenella-infected chickens. The expression of MyD88 was upregulated at four time points in the cecum of E. tenella-infected chickens. The results of this study indicate that ChTLR3, ChTLR15 and MyD88 play a role in young chickens infected with E. tenella.

  4. Rumen and Cecum Microbiomes in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Are Changed in Response to a Lichen Diet and May Affect Enteric Methane Emissions.

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    Salgado-Flores, Alejandro; Hagen, Live H; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Wright, André-Denis G; Pope, Phillip B; Sundset, Monica A

    2016-01-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen and cecum microbiotas and how this may affect methanogenesis in reindeer. Here, we examined the effects of dietary lichens on the reindeer gut microbiota, especially methanogens. Samples from the rumen and cecum were collected from two groups of reindeer, fed either lichens (Ld: n = 4), or a standard pelleted feed (Pd: n = 3). Microbial densities (methanogens, bacteria and protozoa) were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and methanogen and bacterial diversities were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In general, the density of methanogens were not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the intake of lichens. Methanobrevibacter constituted the main archaeal genus (>95% of reads), with Mbr. thaueri CW as the dominant species in both groups of reindeer. Bacteria belonging to the uncharacterized Ruminococcaceae and the genus Prevotella were the dominant phylotypes in the rumen and cecum, in both diets (ranging between 16-38% total sequences). Bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus (3.5% to 0.6%; p = 0.001) and uncharacterized phylotypes within the order Bacteroidales (8.4% to 1.3%; p = 0.027), were significantly decreased in the rumen of lichen-fed reindeer, but not in the cecum (p = 0.2 and p = 0.087, respectively). UniFrac-based analyses showed archaeal and bacterial libraries were significantly different between diets, in both the cecum and the rumen (vegan::Adonis: pseudo-F<0.05). Based upon previous literature, we suggest that the altered

  5. Rumen and Cecum Microbiomes in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus Are Changed in Response to a Lichen Diet and May Affect Enteric Methane Emissions.

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    Alejandro Salgado-Flores

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen and cecum microbiotas and how this may affect methanogenesis in reindeer. Here, we examined the effects of dietary lichens on the reindeer gut microbiota, especially methanogens. Samples from the rumen and cecum were collected from two groups of reindeer, fed either lichens (Ld: n = 4, or a standard pelleted feed (Pd: n = 3. Microbial densities (methanogens, bacteria and protozoa were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and methanogen and bacterial diversities were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In general, the density of methanogens were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by the intake of lichens. Methanobrevibacter constituted the main archaeal genus (>95% of reads, with Mbr. thaueri CW as the dominant species in both groups of reindeer. Bacteria belonging to the uncharacterized Ruminococcaceae and the genus Prevotella were the dominant phylotypes in the rumen and cecum, in both diets (ranging between 16-38% total sequences. Bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus (3.5% to 0.6%; p = 0.001 and uncharacterized phylotypes within the order Bacteroidales (8.4% to 1.3%; p = 0.027, were significantly decreased in the rumen of lichen-fed reindeer, but not in the cecum (p = 0.2 and p = 0.087, respectively. UniFrac-based analyses showed archaeal and bacterial libraries were significantly different between diets, in both the cecum and the rumen (vegan::Adonis: pseudo-F<0.05. Based upon previous literature, we suggest that the

  6. The Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 is required for active paracellular and transcellular Ca2+ transport across murine cecum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rievaj, Juraj; Pan, Wanling; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Alexander, R. Todd

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal calcium (Ca2+) absorption occurs via paracellular and transcellular pathways. Although the transcellular route has been extensively studied, mechanisms mediating paracellular absorption are largely unexplored. Unlike passive diffusion, secondarily active paracellular Ca2+ uptake occurs against an electrochemical gradient with water flux providing the driving force. Water movement is dictated by concentration differences that are largely determined by Na+ fluxes. Consequently, we hypothesized that Na+ absorption mediates Ca2+ flux. NHE3 is central to intestinal Na+ absorption. NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3−/−) display impaired intestinal Na+, water, and Ca2+ absorption. However, the mechanism mediating this latter abnormality is not clear. To investigate this, we used Ussing chambers to measure net Ca2+ absorption across different segments of wild-type mouse intestine. The cecum was the only segment with net Ca2+ absorption. Quantitative RT-PCR measurements revealed cecal expression of all genes implicated in intestinal Ca2+ absorption, including NHE3. We therefore employed this segment for further studies. Inhibition of NHE3 with 100 μM 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride decreased luminal-to-serosal and increased serosal-to-luminal Ca2+ flux. NHE3−/− mice had a >60% decrease in luminal-to-serosal Ca2+ flux. Ussing chambers experiments under altered voltage clamps (−25, 0, +25 mV) showed decreased transcellular and secondarily active paracellular Ca2+ absorption in NHE3−/− mice relative to wild-type animals. Consistent with this, cecal Trpv6 expression was diminished in NHE3−/− mice. Together these results implicate NHE3 in intestinal Ca2+ absorption and support the theory that this is, at least partially, due to the role of NHE3 in Na+ and water absorption. PMID:23764894

  7. Histological Study of the Caecal Tonsil in the Cecum of 4- 6 Months of Age White Leghorn Chicks

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    M. Rezaian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cecum, the largest part of chicken’s large intestine, has an important role in liquid absorption and cellulose digestion. It acts as a defensive organ as well due to the presence of large masses of diffuse and nodular lymphatic tissue in lamina propria and sub mucosa. The cecal tonsil activity has been proved to be depended on the activity of bursa of fabricious and thymus. As the bursa of fabricious and the thymus are exposed to involution through these ages, finding the changes (if any occur in the caecal tonsil has been our aims. Eighteen (18 healthy white leghorn chickens of 16, 20 and 24 weeks old were selected and fixed the samples of their caecal tonsils, thymuses and bursas of fabricious in 10% buffered formalin, immediately after slaughter. Routine histological laboratory methods were used and 6 µm sections were stained with hematoxylin- eosin staining method and studied under light microscope. The nodular units (ND width and height, ND fossulae’s lumen width, distribution areas of the lymphatic nodules and crypts of lieberkuhn /mm2 in the caecal tonsils, cortices and medullas diameters of the thymuses and the cortices and medullas diameters of lymphatic nodules, heights of plicas and No of nodules/ plica in the bursas of fabricious of all ages were measured and then analyzed with one way ANOVA test. In the cecal tonsils, the most important changes regarding with involution process was significant decline of lymphatic nodules/ mm2 of mucosal wall and nodular evacuation at 6 months ones, while thymuses decrease the cortical diameter at 5 months. No significant changes in regarding with involution process were shown in the bursas of fabricious through these ages and no changes in the sub epithelial lymphoid tissues of the cecal tonsils as well. By the results of this study, we come to know that the cecal tonsil growth can be depended on thymus and bursa of fabricious activity, since involution process is first begun in thymus at 5

  8. Exploring the in vitro formation of trimethylarsine sulfide from dimethylthioarsinic acid in anaerobic microflora of mouse cecum using HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although metabolism of arsenicals to form methylated oxoarsenical species has been extensively studied, less is known about the formation of thiolated arsenical species that have recently been detected as urinary metabolites. Indeed, their presence suggests that the metabolism of ingested arsenic is more complex than previously thought. Recent reports have shown that thiolated arsenicals can be produced by the anaerobic microflora of the mouse cecum, suggesting that metabolism prior to systemic absorption may be a significant determinant of the pattern and extent of exposure to various arsenic-containing species. Here, we examined the metabolism of 34S labeled dimethylthioarsinic acid (34S-DMTAV) by the anaerobic microflora of the mouse cecum using HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS to monitor for the presence of various oxo- and thioarsenicals. The use of isotopically enriched 34S-DMTAV made it possible to differentiate among potential metabolic pathways for production of the trimethylarsine sulfide (TMASV). Upon in vitro incubation in an assay containing anaerobic microflora of mouse cecum, 34S-DMTAV underwent several transformations. Labile 34S was exchanged with more abundant 32S to produce 32S-DMTAV, a thiol group was added to yield DMDTAV, and a methyl group was added to yield 34S-TMASV. Because incubation of 34S-DMTAV resulted in the formation of 34S-TMASV, the pathway for its formation must preserve the arsenic-sulfur bond. The alternative metabolic pathway postulated for formation of TMASV from dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) would proceed via a dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) intermediate and would necessitate the loss of 34S label. Structural confirmation of the metabolic product was achieved using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The data presented support the direct methylation of DMTAV to TMASV. Additionally, the detection of isotopically pure 34S-TMASV raises questions about the sulfur exchange properties of TMASV in the cecum material. Therefore, 34S-TMASV was incubated and

  9. T-2 toxin induced Salmonella Typhimurium intoxication results in decreased Salmonella numbers in the cecum contents of pigs, despite marked effects on Salmonella-host cell interactions

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    Verbrugghe Elin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mycotoxin T-2 toxin and Salmonella Typhimurium infections pose a significant threat to human and animal health. Interactions between both agents may result in a different outcome of the infection. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to investigate the effects of low and relevant concentrations of T-2 toxin on the course of a Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pigs. We showed that the presence of 15 and 83 μg T-2 toxin per kg feed significantly decreased the amount of Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria present in the cecum contents, and a tendency to a reduced colonization of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and colon contents was noticed. In vitro, proteomic analysis of porcine enterocytes revealed that a very low concentration of T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL affects the protein expression of mitochondrial, endoplasmatic reticulum and cytoskeleton associated proteins, proteins involved in protein synthesis and folding, RNA synthesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and regulatory processes. Similarly low concentrations (1-100 ng/mL promoted the susceptibility of porcine macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells to Salmonella Typhimurium invasion, in a SPI-1 independent manner. Furthermore, T-2 toxin (1-5 ng/mL promoted the translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium over an intestinal porcine epithelial cell monolayer. Although these findings may seem in favour of Salmonella Typhimurium, microarray analysis showed that T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL causes an intoxication of Salmonella Typhimurium, represented by a reduced motility and a downregulation of metabolic and Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 genes. This study demonstrates marked interactions of T-2 toxin with Salmonella Typhimurium pathogenesis, resulting in bacterial intoxication.

  10. Chicken-Specific Kinome Array Reveals that Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Modulates Host Immune Signaling Pathways in the Cecum to Establish a Persistence Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Michael H.; Swaggerty, Christina L.; Byrd, James Allen; Selvaraj, Ramesh; Arsenault, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induces an early, short-lived pro-inflammatory response in chickens that is asymptomatic of clinical disease and results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that transmits infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent colonization of the ceca of chickens by Salmonella are only beginning to be elucidated. We hypothesize that alteration of host signaling pathways mediate the induction of a tolerance response. Using chicken-specific kinomic immune peptide arrays and quantitative RT-PCR of infected cecal tissue, we have previously evaluated the development of disease tolerance in chickens infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in a persistent infection model (4–14 days post infection). Here, we have further outlined the induction of an tolerance defense strategy in the cecum of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis beginning around four days post-primary infection. The response is characterized by alterations in the activation of T cell signaling mediated by the dephosphorylation of phospholipase c-γ1 (PLCG1) that inhibits NF-κB signaling and activates nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling and blockage of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production through the disruption of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway (dephosphorylation of JAK2, JAK3, and STAT4). Further, we measured a significant down-regulation reduction in IFN-γ mRNA expression. These studies, combined with our previous findings, describe global phenotypic changes in the avian cecum of Salmonella Enteritidis-infected chickens that decreases the host responsiveness resulting in the establishment of persistent colonization. The identified tissue protein kinases also represent potential targets for future antimicrobial compounds for decreasing Salmonella loads in the intestines of food animals before going to market. PMID:27472318

  11. The Effect of Lactobacillus casei 32G on the Mouse Cecum Microbiota and Innate Immune Response Is Dose and Time Dependent.

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    Busra Aktas

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli have been associated with a variety of immunomodulatory effects and some of these effects have been related to changes in gastrointestinal microbiota. However, the relationship between probiotic dose, time since probiotic consumption, changes in the microbiota, and immune system requires further investigation. The objective of this study was to determine if the effect of Lactobacillus casei 32G on the murine gastrointestinal microbiota and immune function are dose and time dependent. Mice were fed L. casei 32G at doses of 106, 107, or 108 CFU/day/mouse for seven days and were sacrificed 0.5h, 3.5h, 12h, or 24h after the last administration. The ileum tissue and the cecal content were collected for immune profiling by qPCR and microbiota analysis, respectively. The time required for L. casei 32G to reach the cecum was monitored by qPCR and the 32G bolus reaches the cecum 3.5h after the last administration. L. casei 32G altered the cecal microbiota with the predominance of Lachnospiraceae IS, and Oscillospira decreasing significantly (p < 0.05 in the mice receiving 108 CFU/mouse 32G relative to the control mice, while a significant (p < 0.05 increase was observed in the prevalence of lactobacilli. The lactobacilli that increased were determined to be a commensal lactobacilli. Interestingly, no significant difference in the overall microbiota composition, regardless of 32G doses, was observed at the 12h time point. A likely explanation for this observation is the level of feed derived-nutrients resulting from the 12h light/dark cycle. 32G results in consistent increases in Clec2h expression and reductions in TLR-2, alpha-defensins, and lysozyme. Changes in expression of these components of the innate immune system are one possible explanation for the observed changes in the cecal microbiota. Additionally, 32G administration was observed to alter the expression of cytokines (IL-10rb and TNF-α in a manner consistent with an anti

  12. Síndrome do ceco móvel e as doenças gastrintestinais funcionais Mobile cecum sindrome and the functional gastrointestinal illnesses

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    Júlio César Monteiro dos Santos Jr.

    2006-12-01

    several symptoms whose structural and biochemical causes have not been determined. Indeed, although (FGI disorders affect millions of people of all ages, their pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear, so that no pathological conditions have been proven to be related to this kind of illness, nor biological markers have been found to identify their sufferers. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS has been shown to be one of the most common FGI illnesses. IBS is characterized by abdominal discomfort or pain and it has at least two of the following three features: pain relieved by bowel movements, more frequent stools with the onset of pain, and looser stools at the onset of pain - with no resultant inflammatory, metabolic or structural abnormalities. Since IBS diagnosis is fundamentally based on the description of symptoms reported by patients, it has been considered to be an exclusion diagnosis, despite the attempt to establish a connection between the origin of the illness and disorders caused by physical or sexual abuse or even by psychological disturbances. Although biochemical and hormone dosages have been performed in routine blood test for IBS, a precise biochemical marker has not been identified. Nevertheless, when the patients of this study were assessed by means of contrast intestinal radiography so as to observe topographic alterations in the cecum, it was possible to detect a mobile cecum in all of them. Would this be a coincident factor or could the mobile cecum - a widespread but misdiagnosed illness- explain the irritable bowel syndrome? The results of our study provide evidence that the majority of patients diagnosed as having IBS do not actually suffer from such illness, but rather from the mobile cecum syndrome.

  13. Avaliação morfológica do abomaso e ceco-cólon de bovinos Morphologic evaluation of the abomasum and cecum-colon of bovines

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    M.G. Cardoso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A morfofisiologia relacionada à absorção de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV ao longo do trato gastrintestinal de ruminantes não é totalmente caracterizada. Desse modo, os objetivos deste trabalho foram mensurar a extensão da superfície de absorção e determinar o índice mitótico (IM do abomaso, do ceco e da alça proximal do cólon ascendente (APCA. Dez bovinos mestiços adultos tiveram seu estômago e intestino grosso removidos imediatamente após o abate. A área total da superfície de absorção foi mensurada por meio de digitalização e análise de imagens. Cortes histológicos foram feitos para determinação do IM. A superfície absortiva do abomaso, 0,58m², foi menor (PThe morphology and physiology related to volatile fatty acid (VFA absorption throughout the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants is not totally characterized. The purpose of this work was to measure the abomasum and cecum-colon absorptive surface extension and determine the mitotic index (MI. Ten adult crossbred bovine had their stomach and large intestine removed after slaughter. The total area of the absorptive surface was measured through image capture and analysis. Histological sections were performed to measure the MI. The abomasum absorptive surface (0.58m² was lower (P<0.01 than that of the rumen (6.53m² and omasum (2.31m². The cecum-colon absorptive surface (0.23m² corresponded to 3.5% of the rumen and 10% of the omasum. The MI observed was 0.48%; 0.14%; 0.36% and 0.41% for the regions of spiral folds, pyloric, cecum and proximal loop of ascending colon, respectively. A positive correlation between abomasum tissue mass and the abomasum absorptive surface was observed. This phenomenon has also occurred in the cecum and colon. It was possible to establish regressions to facilitate measurements of the absorptive surface of the abomasum and cecum-colon.

  14. Temporal Relationships Exist Between Cecum, Ileum, and Litter Bacterial Microbiomes in a Commercial Turkey Flock, and Subtherapeutic Penicillin Treatment Impacts Ileum Bacterial Community Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzeisen, Jessica L; Clayton, Jonathan B; Huang, Hu; Knights, Dan; McComb, Brian; Hayer, Shivdeep S; Johnson, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Gut health is paramount for commercial poultry production, and improved methods to assess gut health are critically needed to better understand how the avian gastrointestinal tract matures over time. One important aspect of gut health is the totality of bacterial populations inhabiting different sites of the avian gastrointestinal tract, and associations of these populations with the poultry farm environment, since these bacteria are thought to drive metabolism and prime the developing host immune system. In this study, a single flock of commercial turkeys was followed over the course of 12 weeks to examine bacterial microbiome inhabiting the ceca, ileum, and corresponding poultry litter. Furthermore, the effects of low-dose, growth-promoting penicillin treatment (50 g/ton) in feed on the ileum bacterial microbiome were also examined during the early brood period. The cecum and ileum bacterial communities of turkeys were distinct, yet shifted in parallel to one another over time during bird maturation. Corresponding poultry litter was also distinct yet more closely represented the ileal bacterial populations than cecal bacterial populations, and also changed parallel to ileum bacterial populations over time. Penicillin applied at low dose in feed significantly enhanced early weight gain in commercial poults, and this correlated with predictable shifts in the ileum bacterial populations in control versus treatment groups. Overall, this study identified the dynamics of the turkey gastrointestinal microbiome during development, correlations between bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal tract and the litter environment, and the impact of low-dose penicillin on modulation of bacterial communities in the ileum. Such modulations provide a target for alternatives to low-dose antibiotics. PMID:26664983

  15. Temporal relationships exist between cecum, ileum and litter bacterial microbiomes in a commercial turkey flock, and subtherapeutic penicillin treatment impacts ileum bacterial community establishment

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    Jessica L Danzeisen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gut health is paramount for commercial poultry production, and improved methods to assess gut health are critically needed to better understand how the avian gastrointestinal tract matures over time. One important aspect of gut health is the totality of bacterial populations inhabiting different sites of the avian gastrointestinal tract, and associations of these populations with the poultry farm environment, since these bacteria are thought to drive metabolism and prime the developing host immune system. In this study, a single flock of commercial turkeys was followed over the course of twelve weeks to examine bacterial microbiome inhabiting the ceca, ileum, and corresponding poultry litter. Furthermore, the effects of low-dose, growth-promoting penicillin treatment (50 g/ton in feed on the ileum bacterial microbiome were also examined during the early brood period. The cecum and ileum bacterial communities of turkeys were distinct, yet shifted in parallel to one another over time during bird maturation. Corresponding poultry litter was also distinct yet more closely represented the ileal bacterial populations than cecal bacterial populations, and also changed parallel to ileum bacterial populations over time. Penicillin applied at low dose in feed significantly enhanced early weight gain in commercial poults, and this correlated with predictable shifts in the ileum bacterial populations in control versus treatment groups. Overall, this study identified the dynamics of the turkey gastrointestinal microbiome during development, correlations between bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal tract and the litter environment, and the impact of low-dose penicillin on modulation of bacterial communities in the ileum. Such modulations provide a target for alternatives to low-dose antibiotics.

  16. Long-term colonization levels of Helicobacter hepaticus in the cecum of hepatitis-prone A/JCr mice are significantly lower than those in hepatitis-resistant C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whary, M T; Cline, J; King, A; Ge, Z; Shen, Z; Sheppard, B; Fox, J G

    2001-10-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus infection causes hepatitis in A/JCr mice but mild or no disease in C57BL/6 mice. Colonization of H. hepaticus in the cecum of experimentally infected A/JCr and C57BL/6 mice was quantified by use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with primers for the H. hepaticus cdtB gene and mouse 18srRNA. Eight-week-old mice were experimentally (n = 48) or sham (n = 24) infected with H. hepaticus, then were necropsied 6 months after infection. Liver specimens from experimentally infected mice had negative results of PCR analysis for H. hepaticus; thus, real-time quantification was not attempted. Quantitative PCR analysis of H. hepaticus in cecal specimens indicated that C57BL/6 mice were colonized to a greater extent than were A/JCr mice (P JCr mice developed more severe parenchymal necrosis, portal inflammation, and phlebitis in the liver (P JCr mice caused by H. hepaticus infection is associated with significantly lower colonization levels of H. hepaticus in the cecum, compared with those of hepatitis-resistant C57BL/6 mice. Host responses of A/JCr mice that limit cecal colonization with H. hepaticus may have important roles in the pathogenesis of hepatic lesions.

  17. Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region 16S rRNA gene reveals extensive changes in bacterial communities in the cecum following carbohydrate oral infusion and development of early-stage acute laminitis in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Michael M; Eades, Susan C; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Fugaro, Michael N; Onishi, Janet C

    2014-01-31

    In the equine carbohydrate overload model of acute laminitis, disease progression is associated with changes in bacteria found in the cecum. To date, research has focused on changes in specific Gram-positive bacteria in this portion of the intestinal tract. Metagenomic methods are now available making it possible to interrogate microbial communities using animal protocols that sufficiently power a study. In this study, the microbiota in cecal fluid collected from control, non-laminitic horses (n=8) and from horses with early-stage acute laminitis induced with either oligofructan (n=6) or cornstarch (n=6) were profiled. The microbiota were identified based on sequencing the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results of the study show that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus sp. and Streptococcus sp. increased significantly (plaminitis. PMID:24355533

  18. 冷应激鹌鹑盲肠、直肠的超微组织学病理观察%Histopathology Observation of Cecum and Rectal in the Cold Stress Quail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖望; 付晶; 白秀娟

    2012-01-01

    本试验以鹌鹑为研究对象,进行急性(0h、30 min、3h和12h)、慢性(5d、10 d和20 d)冷应激(12±1℃)处理,通过对肠道超显微病理形态结构变化观察,以探讨冷应激对鹌鹑肠黏膜免疫的影响及机制,为冷应激对肠黏膜免疫影响的研究提供理论依据.研究结果表明,通过对盲肠、直肠的电镜观察,证实冷应激能够引起盲肠、直肠在形态学上的变化.%In this study, intestinal tissues were obtained from quail and were kept under the temperature of (12+1)°C for acute(0 h,30 min,3 h,12 h) and chronic(5,10,20 d) cold stress. Our aim is to explore the effects of cold stress on gut mucosal immune function of quail,through the observation of histopathology changes,in order to provide the scientific data for studying the mechanism of the effect of cold stress on gut mucosal immune system in quail. The results show that it is proved that the cold stress can cause morphological changes of the cecum and rectal in electron microscope levels.

  19. Intussusception secondary to endometriosis of the cecum

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    Hideki Katagiri

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Intussusception in an adult is a rare cause of bowel obstruction and intussusception caused by endometriosis is also rare. Although rare, the diagnosis of endometriosis as a cause of intussusception must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis.

  20. Fatores de risco no tratamento de lesões do ceco com sutura primária em ratos Risk factors on the treatment of cecum injuries with primary suture in rats

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    Gustavo Pereira Fraga

    2004-12-01

    ência de deiscência também foi maior nos ratos que apresentavam contaminação fecal mais intensa da cavidade peritoneal. A intensidade da peritonite no momento da sutura observada no exame histológico não teve associação com a ocorrência de complicações da sutura primária. Conclusão: A sutura primária é um procedimento de risco para tratar ratos, transcorrido intervalo superior a seis horas após o trauma, ou na vigência de contaminação intensa da cavidade por fezes.Purpose: Analyze the results of primary suture in the treatment of cecum traumatic injuries in rats, after the exposure to increasing time intervals between the trauma and the surgery and with different peritonitis degrees. Methods: In a randomized double-blinded study, 96 Wistar male rats, weight ranging between 200 and 250 grams, underwent laparotomy, in which a 5-milimiter-diameter-injury in the contramesenteric edge of the cecum was performed. In 12 animals of the control-group a prompt primary suture was executed, with total and separated stitches, with 7.0 polypropylene thread. In the other groups, with 12 animals each, a laparotomy for repair of the injury was executed after intervals of 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 hours. At the time of injury repair, one of its edges was ressected and sent for anatomopathological examination. A daily control after the surgery was done, observing the presence of complications, specially dehiscence of the suture, and the euthanasia of the animals were done in the 1st, 4th, 7th and 14th day after the surgery. Necropsy was executed in all animals, observing the macroscopic and microscopic findings in the area of suture. Results: There was no association between the delay for surgical treatment of the injury and peritonitis degrees. The mortality in the 14 animals with diffuse peritonitis was 100%. Global mortality was 25% (24 animals, and 6 animals (25% died before treatment. None of the animals treated that evolved to death had complications related

  1. Contenido de alimento y metabolismo ceco-cólico en el tracto digestivo de poblaciones silvestres de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata en Morelos, México Cecum-colic content of food and metabolism in the digestive tract of wild population black lizard (Ctenosaura pectinata in Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Vélez-Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron cinco tractos digestivos de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata en estado silvestre en el estado de Morelos, México, para conocer la composición botánica de la dieta y el metabolismo ceco-cólico. Se observaron frotis realizados del contenido ceco-cólico para registrar la presencia de protozoarios, bacterias y parásitos intestinales existentes. Se obtuvo la media y desviación estándar de las características evaluadas. En el contenido ceco-cólico se identificaron las especies vegetales guamúchil (Phitecellobium dulce y huizache (Acacia farnesiana. Se estimó en base a materia seca la porción vegetal que conforma la dieta, la cual se distribuyó en frutos (62,9%, hojas (30,6%, rebrotes (2,9% y flores (3,5%. La región ceco-cólica se caracterizó por la concentración (mmol de los ácidos grasos acético (68,9 ± 10,6, butírico (11,98 ± 5,7, propiónico (9,04 ± 1,5 y total (89,9 ± 15, con pH de 7,45 y concentración de nitrógeno amoniacal (7,4 ± 2,8 mg/dl. La microbiota que se observó fue el protozoario Nyctotherus spp. Las bacterias totales oscilaron en concentraciones 7 x 10 a 9 x 10/g, siendo las celulolíticas de 9,2 x 10 hasta 3,5 x 10/g de contenido cecal. Los parásitos encontrados son nematodos identificados como miembros de la superfamilia Oxyuroidea con 655 ± 265/g huevos y 6,300 ± 329 adultos/iguana. Se concluye que la fermentación de la región ceco-cólica de la iguana negra en estado adulto se comporta de manera similar como en las especies herbívoras, en las cuales la fermentación se manifiesta de acuerdo con el alimento consumido. La concentración dietaria de proteína cruda fue de 14,5% y energía de 2,193 Mcal/kg y son animales parasitados con oxiuros.Five digestive tracts of black lizards (Ctenosaura pectinata from a wild population were collected in Morelos State, México, in order to identify the plant composition in the diet and the cecum-colic metabolism. Smears obtained from cecum

  2. 16S rRNA基因的PCR-DGGE技术分析逍遥散干预抑郁模型大鼠盲肠菌群的变化%Changes of cecum flora of depressive rats after Xiaoyaosan intervention by PCR-DGGE and 16S rRNA gene library analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈小丽; 彭国茳; 孙海峰; 田俊生; 秦雪梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe and identify the flora changes in chronic unpredictable mild stress( CUMS) model after intervened by drugs. Methods All SD rats were randomized into four groups:healthy control group, model group,Xiaoyaosan group and fluoxer-tine hydrochloride group. The depressive rat model was coupled by chronic unpredictable mild stress( CUMS) . The rats in healthy con-trol group and model group were given volumetric saline,while the rats in the other groups were given Xiaoyaosan and fluoxetine hydro-chloride at 1 d,respectively. The cecum was taken at 28 d and the genomic DNAs were extracted from all of samples. Denaturing gradi-ent gel electrophoresis(DGGE)fingerprints were constructed by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA V3 variable region. The PCR amplifica-tion product was mixed with competent cells of Escherichia coli DH5α, and formed white colonies were selected and identified. Re-sults The results of body weight and behavior indicated the CUMS model was successfully established, and the index of cecum showed that Xiaoyaosan improved the impact of caecum stimulated by chronic unpredictable mild stress. Combined with DGGE fingerprint of the cecum flora and the measured sequence,the analysis of similarity by the BLAST program showed that four kinds of dominant bacteria were screened, including Lachnospiraceae bacterium, Lactobacillus animali, Burkholderiales bacterium and Lactobacillus reuteri. Com-pared with normal control group,the abundance of Lachnospiraceae bacterium,Lactobacillus animali and Burkholderiales bacterium was enhanced in CUMS group, and the abundance of Lactobacillus reuteri was weakened. After administration of Xiaoyaosan, the abun-dance of Lactobacillus animali was enhanced, the abundance of Lachnospiraceae bacterium showed no significant change and others were not found. Conclusion The cecum flora of depressive rats change markedly by the analysis of DGGE. Xiaoyaosan can regulate the probiotics in cecum flora of depressive rats to

  3. Morphological and quantitative analysis of the neurons of the myenteric plexus of the cecum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats Análise morfológica e quatitativa dos neurônios do plexo mientérico do ceco de ratos diabéticos induzidos por estreptozootocina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the neurons of the myenteric plexus of the cecum of rats with chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetes. We used four experimental groups of animals. In groups D2 and D8 animals were killed two and eight months, respectively, after diabetes induction and groups C2 and C8 were used as controls. We carried out whole-mount preparations stanied with Giemsa and NADH-diaphorase. We verified that the diabetes did not alter the shape and disposition of the myenteric ganglia; it provoked decrease on the neuronal density and increase on the incidence of weakly basophilic neurons. The effects of streptozotocin caused dilatation of the cecum still evidenced two months after induction, but no more observed on the eight months after induction. The smaller incidence of neurons in group D8 relative to group C8 was due to the early loss related to the drug toxicity and later to the aging in diabetic condition.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os neurônios do plexo mientérico do ceco de ratos, com diabetes mellitus crônico, induzido por estreptozootocina. Utilizamos quatro grupos de animais. Nos grupos D2 e D8, os animais foram mortos, dois e oito meses, respectivamente, após à indução do diabetes e os grupos C2 e C8 foram controles dos grupos experimentais. Realizamos preparados de membrana corados pelo método de Giemsa e NADH-diaforase. Verificamos que o diabetes não alterava a forma e a disposição dos gânglios do plexo mientérico; provocou redução da densidade neuronal e aumento da freqüência de neurônios fracamente basofílicos. Os efeitos da estreptozootocina provocavam dilatação do ceco ainda evidenciada dois meses após a indução, porém não mais verificada no oitavo mês após indução. A menor freqüência de neurônios no grupo D8 em relação ao grupo C8 deve-se a perda inicial relacionada à toxicidade da droga e posteriormente ao envelhecimento em condição de diabetes.

  4. Regulation of Glucose Oxidase on Digestibility of Main Nutrients and Cecum Microorganism of Laying Hens%葡萄糖氧化酶对蛋鸡日粮主要营养物质表观消化率及肠道微生物的调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国先; 张晓云; 左晓磊; 计成; 马秋刚; 张振红

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of glucose oxidase (GOD) on digestibility of main nutrients and cecum microorganism in laying hens. One hundred and eighty 26-week-old Hyline layers were randomly divided into 5 groups. Laying hens in group Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ and Ⅴ were fed basal diets with addition of 0, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4% GOD. The results showed that the apparent digestibility of nutrients in laying hens fed with GOD increased. Compared with those of the control group, the apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) in experimental groups increased by 15.25% (P0.05), 4.71% (P>0.05), 8.01% (P0.05), 16.30% (P>0.05), 24.58% (P0.05)、4.71%(P>0.05)、8.01%(P0.05)、16.30%(P>0.05)、24.58%(P<0.01)和27.32%(P<0.01).蛋鸡日粮中添加0.2%~0.4%葡萄糖氧化酶可显著提高盲肠内容物中乳酸杆菌数量,降低大肠杆菌数量.由此可知,葡萄糖氧化酶可调控肠道内微生态平衡,维护鸡的肠道健康,促进日粮营养物质的利用.

  5. CT differentiation of malignant and inflammatory lesion involving cecum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the morphological differences between malignant and inflammatory lesions that arise from the cecal or pericecal region on CT by analyzing not only the mass itself but also the changes of surrounding structures. We reviewed CT scans of 38 cases of cecal lesions of confirmed by pathology(16 malignant lesions and 22 inflammatory lesions). The analytical points were: the changes of bowel wall mass, the change of surrounding structures, strands of retroperitoneal fat, pericecal fluid collection, and regional lymphadenopathy. The malignant bowel wall thickening(18.0 mm) was thicker than inflammatory one(11.4 mm)(p < 0.001). Concentric bowel wall thickening was seen in 87.5%(14/16) of malignant lesions and 36%(8/22) of the inflammatory lesions. The pericecal fat stranding was circumferential in 84%(16/22) of inflammation and eccentric in 64%(916) of malignancy(p <0.01)). Pericolic fat infiltration was more extensive in inflammatory lesions(p < 0.005). The strands of retroperitoneal fat were more frequently found in inflammatory lesion(p < 0.05). The pericecal fluid collection was seen in 55%(12/22) of inflammatory lesions and none of malignant lesions. There was no difference in the presence of pericecal lymphadenopathy between the two groups. Malignant cecal masses have thicker and concentric bowel wall thickening, and narrower and eccentric pericolic fat infiltration. On the other hand, inflammatory masses have relatively thinner and eccentric bowel wall thickening, and more extensive and circumferential pericolic fat infiltration something accompanied by abnormal fluid collection

  6. Characterization of the Mobilome and Microbiome of Rat Cecum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tue Sparholt

    Where eukaryotic recombination relies on sex between two individuals of the same species, prokaryotic recombination is much, much more promiscuous. Here, an almost universal genetic language allow for traits to be shared between existing cells of different Family, Phylum and even Kingdom...

  7. Effects of Mulberry Leaf Meal and Fermented Mulberry Leaf Meal on Slaughter Performance,Meat Quality and Cecum Microflora in Huxu Chicken%桑叶粉和发酵桑叶粉对胡须鸡屠宰性能、肉品质及盲肠菌群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝哲师; 黄静; 廖森泰; 赵祥杰; 潘木水

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of mulberry leaf meal and fer‐mented mulberry leaf meal on slaughter performance ,meat quality and cecum microflora of Huxu chicken at the late growth stage .Three hundred and ninety‐two Lingnan Ⅲ Huxu chickens aged ninety‐five days were assigned to seven dietary treatments randomly ,they were control group , 5% ,10% ,20% mulberry leaf meal groups and 5% ,10% ,20% fermented mulberry leaf meal groups .Every treatment had 4 replicates ,14 chickens per replicates (7 males and 7 females) .The pre‐trial period was 4 days ,and the formal experiment period was 28 days .The results showed as follows :①Compared with the control group ,expect the 10% mulberry leaf meal group ,the semi‐eviscerated percentage were significantly decreased in other experimental groups (P0 .05) .All over ,the content of mulberry leaf meal in Huxu chickens’diet at the late grow th stage could be up to 10% ,and fermented mulberry leaf meal could be up to 20% .%试验旨在研究桑叶粉和发酵桑叶粉对胡须鸡饲养后期屠宰性能、肉品质及盲肠菌群的影响。选用95日龄岭南黄Ⅲ号胡须鸡392只,随机分为7组,即对照组,5%、10%、20%桑叶粉组,5%、10%、20%发酵桑叶粉组。每组4个重复,每个重复14只鸡(7公7母)。预试期4 d ,正试期28 d。结果表明:①与对照组相比,除10%桑叶粉组外,其余各试验组鸡半净膛率显著降低( P<0.05);10%发酵桑叶粉组鸡全净膛率显著降低( P<0.05),20%发酵桑叶粉及10%桑叶粉组鸡全净膛率极显著降低( P<0.01);饲喂5%发酵桑叶粉或20%桑叶粉使胡须鸡腿肌率分别极显著或显著降低( P<0.01;P<0.05)。②与对照组相比,各试验组胸肌剪切力和桑叶粉各组腿肌剪切力值均有所下降,但只有10%桑叶粉组胸肌剪切力值显著下降(P<0.05);20%桑叶粉组腿肌 pH45 min

  8. The number and profile of reactive NADH-d and NADPH-d neurons of myenteric plexus of six-month-old rats are different in the cecum portions O número de neurônios e a área do perfil neuronal NADH-d e NADPH-d reativos do plexo mioentérico de ratos com seis meses de idade são diferentes nas diferentes porções e regiões do ceco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizangela A. Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Whole-mount preparations were prepared and submitted to NADH-diaphorase and NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry techniques. The myenteric plexus arrangement and the number of neurons were comparatively evaluated among the different portions of the cecum. The neurons from the apical and basal regions were distributed in classes at intervals of 100µm², the means of the corresponding intervals being compared. The ganglia, in both techniques, were often connected by fine bundles, which became thicker in the mesenteric region and in the region next to the cecal ampulla. The number of positive NADH-d neurons was higher than that of NADPH-d neurons in all portions, from both regions. The numbers of reactive NADH-d e NADPH-d neurons were significantly different among the different portions of the cecum, except for the antimesenteric basal and intermediate basal regions, considering the NADH-d neurons. The profile area for the reactive NADH-d e NADPH-d neurons was higher in the apical region than in the basal area. Differences in arrangement, distribution and size of positive NADH-d e NADPH-d neurons in the different cecum portions evidenced the importance of the subdivision of the analyzed organ.Estudaram-se o arranjo do plexo mioentérico, o número de neurônios e a área do perfil do corpo celular (µm² dos neurônios mioentéricos, nas regiões apical e basal do ceco de ratos Wistar com 6 meses de idade. Estas regiões foram subdivididas nas seguintes porções: apical mesentérica (AM; apical intermediária (AI; apical antimesentérica (AA; próximo à ampola cecal (PA; basal intermediária (BI, e basal antimesentérica (BA. Foram montados preparados de membrana que receberam as técnicas histoquímica de NADH-diaforase (NADH-d e NADPH-diaforase (NADPH-d. O arranjo do plexo mioentérico e o número de neurônios foram avaliados comparativamente entre as diferentes porções das regiões do ceco. Os neurônios das regiões apical e basal foram

  9. [A case of intestinal occlusion caused by endometriosis of the cecum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, M; Zaraca, F; Framarino, M; Di Paola, M; Giobbe, M; Montemurro, L; Fabiani, C; Filippoussis, P; Mancicni, B; Marzetti, L; Carboni, M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to heighten awareness of intestinal endometriosis, a disease that may mimic other abdominal pathologies (bowel carcinoma, intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis), sometimes found in the emergency setting. The Authors report a case of acute bowel obstruction due to coecal endometriosis with appendix mucocele, peritoneal pseudomyxoma and ovarian endometrioma. The patient was operated on in the emergency setting, a right colectomy was performed and she then received pharmacological suppressive treatment with Gn-RH analogues and danatrol. We remark that preoperative diagnosis is very difficult in those cases that do not have a past history of pelvic endometriosis. An accurate anamnesis regarding the chronology of pain onset (typically only during the menstruation at first), but especially intraoperative histopathologic examination are useful for diagnosis. An increased awareness of intestinal endometriosis in reproductive age women with acute bowel obstruction, associated with an accurate anamnesis of menstrual history may allow pre- or intraoperative diagnosis, which is the clue to a less aggressive operation. Postoperative follow up and hormonal therapy are mandatory. PMID:10793771

  10. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the cecum: a case report and review of literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Gui-mei; HU Jin-chen; CAI Li; LANG Zhi-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are a group of rare mesenchymal neoplasms which composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells (PECs). In recent years, PEComas have been manily reported in liver, kidney, lung, uterus and adnexa,1 but rare in small or large intestine.2-6 Here, we describe a case of PEComa restricted in the cecal mucosa, which displayed histological characteristics of epithelioid clear cells.

  11. Chlorate Concentration in the Jejunum and Cecum in Growing Pigs when Supplemented in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research has demonstrated that oral administration of chlorate and nitrate results in reduced risk and / or concentration of Salmonella enterica fecal shedding of infected pigs, poultry and ruminants. The effect of chlorate is concentration dependent in vitro, but the concentrations of chlorat...

  12. Transient and Prolonged Response of Chicken Cecum Mucosa to Colonization with Different Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, Jiri; Polansky, Ondrej; Varmuzova, Karolina; Gerzova, Lenka; Sekelova, Zuzana; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Medvecky, Matej; Smith, Adrian L.; Kaspers, Bernd; Velge, Philippe; Rychlik, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    In this study we determined protein and gene expression in the caeca of newly hatched chickens inoculated with cecal contents sourced from hens of different ages. Over 250 proteins exhibited modified expression levels in response to microbiota inoculation. The most significant inductions were observed for ISG12-2, OASL, ES1, LYG2, DMBT1-L, CDD, ANGPTL6, B2M, CUZD1, IgM and Ig lambda chain. Of these, ISG12-2, ES1 and both immunoglobulins were expressed at lower levels in germ-free chickens compared to conventional chickens. In contrast, CELA2A, BRT-2, ALDH1A1, ADH1C, AKR1B1L, HEXB, ALDH2, ALDOB, CALB1 and TTR were expressed at lower levels following inoculation of microbiota. When chicks were given microbiota preparations from different age donors, the recipients mounted differential responses to the inoculation which also differed from the response profile in naturally colonised birds. For example, B2M, CUZD1 and CELA2A responded differently to the inoculation with microbiota of 4- or 40-week-old hens. The increased or decreased gene expression could be recorded 6 weeks after the inoculation of newly hatched chickens. To characterise the proteins that may directly interact with the microbiota we characterised chicken proteins that co-purified with the microbiota and identified a range of host proteins including CDD, ANGPTL6, DMBT1-L, MEP1A and Ig lambda. We propose that induction of ISG12-2 results in reduced apoptosis of host cells exposed to the colonizing commensal microbiota and that CDD, ANGPTL6, DMBT1-L, MEP1A and Ig lambda reduce contact of luminal microbiota with the gut epithelium thereby reducing the inflammatory response. PMID:27685470

  13. A Rare Case: Appendectomy After Connected Stump Appendicitis Perforation of the Cecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berke Manoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stump appendicitis is a rare complication after appendectomy . Stump appendicitis made of incomplete appendectomy after a rest appendix tissue develops as a result of the inflammation. Admitted to the emergency department with acute abdomen and a history of appendectomy in patients with a history of current pain in the right lower quadrant , especially that of the patient must be evaluated in terms of stump appendicitis. The fact that the earlier story appendectomy patients , causing a delay in diagnosis and increasing the morbidity Cecal perforation was offered an advanced case of delayed depending on the stump appendicitis in this article.

  14. Microbiome-metabolome responses in the cecum and colon of pig to a high resistant starch diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue eSun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, knowledge about the impact of long-term intake of high resistant starch diet on pig hindgut microbiota and metabolite profile is limited. In this study, a combination of the pyrosequencing and the mass spectrometry (MS-based metabolomics techniques were used to investigate the effects of a raw potato starch (RPS, high in resistant starch diet on microbial composition and microbial metabolites in the hindgut of pig. The results showed that Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, and Turicibacter increased significantly, while Sarcina and Clostridium decreased in relative abundances in the hindgut of pigs fed RPS. The metabolimic analysis revealed that RPS significantly affected starch and sucrose metabolites, amino acid turnover or protein biosynthesis, lipid metabolites, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, inositol phosphate metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. Furthermore, a Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that Ruminococcus and Coprococcus were positively correlated with glucose-6-phosphate, maltose, arachidonic acid, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, oleic acid, phosphate, but negatively correlated with α-aminobutyric acid. However, the correlation of Clostridium and Sarcina with these compounds was in the opposite direction. The results suggest that RPS not only alters the composition of the gut microbial community but also modulates the metabolic pathway of microbial metabolism, which may further affect the hindgut health of the host.

  15. TAXONS OF CHICKEN CECUM MICROBIOM ARE ABUNDANT, AND INFLUENCED BY THE COMBINED FEED COMPOSITION AND DECREASED METABOLIZABLE ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. IL’INA; E.A. YILDIRIM; I.N. NIKONOV; V.A. FILIPPOVA; G.Yu. LAPTEV; N.I. NOVIKOVA; A.A. GROZINA; T.N. LENKOVA; V.A. MANUKYAN; V.I. FISININ; I.A. EGOROV

    2015-01-01

    Currently the processed sunflower products as the cheapest source of vegetable protein are considered an alternative to soybean cake and meal in the poultry diet. However, in sunflower meal the energy value is lower, lysine rate is less than required, and the level of non-starch polysaccharides not digestible in poultry gut because of absence of specific enzymes (i.e., amylases, cellulases, etc.) are rather high. Digestion of these components is possible due to microbial enzymes. Gut content ...

  16. Inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium by medium chain fatty acids in an in vitro simulation of the porcine cecum

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella Typhimurium was responsible for more than half of the reported cases of human salmonellosis in Belgium in 2007 and was the predominant serovar isolated from slaughter pig carcasses. To lower the Salmonella contamination of pork meat, measures can be taken at the primary production level, e.g. by reducing the shedding of Salmonella through the use of feed additives such as medium chain fatty acids (MCFA's). An in vitro continuous culture system, simulating the po...

  17. Embryonic Gut Anomalies in a Mouse Model of Retinoic Acid-Induced Caudal Regression Syndrome : Delayed Gut Looping, Rudimentary Cecum, and Anorectal Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Pitera, Jolanta E.; Smith, Virpi V.; Woolf, Adrian S.; Milla, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin A and its derivatives such as retinoic acid (RA) are important signaling molecules for morphogenesis of vertebrate embryos. Little is known, however, about morphogenetic factors controlling the development of the gastrointestinal tract and RA is likely to be involved. In the mouse, teratogenic doses of RA cause truncation of the embryonic caudal body axis that parallel the caudal regression syndrome as described in humans. These changes are often associated with anomalies of the lower...

  18. High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Timothy J. [Ames Laboratory; Jones, Roger W. [Ames Laboratory; Ai, Yongfeng [Iowa State University; Houk, Robert S. [Ames Laboratory; Jane, Jay-lin [Iowa State University; Zhao, Yinsheng [Iowa State University; Birt, Diane F. [Iowa State University; McClelland, John F. [Ames Laboratory

    2013-12-04

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-week study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

  19. Chicken-specific kinome array reveals that Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis modulates host immune signaling pathways in the cecum to establish a persistence infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early, short-lived, pro-inflammatory response in chickens that is asymptomatic of clinical disease and results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that transmits infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The und...

  20. Rumen and Cecum Microbiomes in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Are Changed in Response to a Lichen Diet and May Affect Enteric Methane Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado-Flores, Alejandro; Live H Hagen; Suzanne L Ishaq; Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Wright, André-Denis G.; Pope, Phillip B.; Sundset, Monica A.

    2016-01-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen ...

  1. The cinnamon-oil ingredient trans-cinnamaldehyde fails to target Campylobacter jejuni strain KC 40 in the broiler chicken cecum despite marked in vitro activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, David; Martel, An; van Deun, Kim; van Immerseel, Filip; Heyndrickx, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2011-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of diarrheal disease in humans worldwide, with poultry products being a major source. Therefore, strategies to decrease Campylobacter colonization during primary production might aid in reducing the number of human campylobacteriosis cases. Several plant-derived compounds have been reported to possess anti-Campylobacter properties in vitro, so they could be promising candidates to reduce Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. To test this hypothesis, selected plant-derived antimicrobials (caffeic, gallic, protocatechuic, and vanillic acids, epigallocatechin gallate, trans-cinnamaldehyde, and thymol) were screened for anti-Campylobacter activity by determining MICs and setting up time-kill curves for C. jejuni strain KC 40. These experiments revealed marked antibacterial activity, especially for the cinnamon oil ingredient trans-cinnamaldehyde (CIN). This compound was tested in a broiler chick seeder model; it was added to the feed in coated form at an effective concentration of 0.3 % from day-of-hatch for the entire 22-day duration of the experiment. At 14 days of age, one-third of the birds were inoculated with C. jejuni strain KC 40 and served as seeders. CIN was not able to reduce cecal Campylobacter colonization in this model, which was confirmed in a cecal loop experiment. Despite CIN concentrations much higher than the MIC, C. jejuni numbers were not reduced compared with those in nontreated ceca at 2 and 24 h after injection. In conclusion, this study shows a marked discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo activity of CIN against C. jejuni strain KC 40. PMID:22004822

  2. Testicular histology after intestinal pedicle flap (cecum apposition in rats Histologia testicular depois da aposição de um retalho intestinal (ceco em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Rodrigues Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Histological study of vascularization between a cecal pedicle flap and the testicle of Wistar rats. METHODS: Fifty-three rats were studied. G1: submitted to celiotomy (a, mobilization of the right testicle (RT to the abdomen (b, cecal flap suture to the RT (d and cavity closure. G1: procedures a, b and d and fixation of RT into abdomen. G3: procedures a, b and d, exposition of RT to air and reposition into scrotum. G4: not operated. Euthanasia and histology was done after 20 days. Histometry and lesions score classification was done. Testicular vascularization was studied with comparison between G1 and G3. A p OBJETIVOS: Estudar histologicamente a vascularização entre um retalho cecal e o testículo de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta e três ratos foram estudados. G1, submetidos a (a celiotomia, (b mobilização do testículo direito (TD para o abdome, (c sutura do retalho cecal ao TD, (d fechamento da cavidade. G2, procedimentos (a, b e d, com o TD fixado no abdome. G3, procedimentos (a, b e d, com exposição do TD ao ar e retorno ao escroto. G4 não operados. Após 20 dias, eutanásia e histologia. Realizou-se histometria e classificação segundo escore de lesão. Avaliou-se a vascularização testicular, comparando-se os grupos 1 e 3. Considerou-se significativo um p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Diâmetros dos TD no G1, iguais ao G2 e diferentes de G3 e G4. O escore de lesão nos TD foi de 5,83 pontos para o G1, de 3,3 pontos para o G2, não havendo diferença significativa, porém diferentes de G3 e G4 (sem lesão. A vascularização no G1 teve média de 16,9 vasos por campo de grande aumento no TD. No G3 a média foi de 0,96 no TD e 0,92 no TE, com diferença significativa. O peso médio do G1 foi igual ao G2 e diferente de G3 e G4. CONCLUSÃO: Houve aumento significativo da vascularização entre o retalho e o testículo do rato.

  3. A search for synbiotics: effects of enzymatically modified arabinoxylan and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens on short-chain fatty acids in the cecum content and plasma of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Jensen, Bent Borg; Purup, Stig;

    2016-01-01

    ) versus a Western-style control diet (WSD) low in dietary fiber with or without orally administrated Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, a butyrate producer, on the SCFA pool in the cecal content and feces and the SCFA concentration in the blood of rats. The pool of acetate, butyrate and total SCFA was more than......Identification of dietary strategies to increase large intestinal production and absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate, is of great interest due to the possible health promoting effects. We explored the effect of an enzymatically modified arabinoxylan-rich diet (EAXD...

  4. Fatores de risco no tratamento de lesões do ceco com sutura primária em ratos Risk factors on the treatment of cecum injuries with primary suture in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Pereira Fraga; Mario Mantovani; Rosana Celestina Morandin; Cristiane Pereira Gomes; Luís Alberto Magna; Wagner Mauad Avelar; Lucas Marcelo Dias Freire

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os resultados da sutura primária no tratamento das lesões traumáticas de ceco em ratos, após exposição a intervalos de tempo crescentes entre o trauma e a cirurgia, e com diferentes graus de peritonite. Métodos: Em estudo randomizado, duplo-cego, 96 ratos Wistar, machos, com peso variando de 200 a 250 gramas, foram submetidos a laparotomia, em que se realizava lesão de 5 milímetros de diâmetro na borda contramesentérica do ceco. Em 12 a...

  5. Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Cecum of Laying Hens Fed in Cage%笼养成年蛋鸡盲肠中乳酸菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋菊; 崔一喆; 刘胜军; 周瑞进

    2013-01-01

    试验从笼养蛋鸡盲肠内容物中分离乳酸菌,采用MRS平板分离乳酸菌,经过革兰氏染色、菌落形态观察及糖发酵生化管鉴定为乳酸菌种属.结果显示,分离出15株革兰氏阳性菌,经抑菌试验选出7株乳酸菌,发酵生化鉴定为绿色乳杆菌、瑞士乳杆菌、果糖乳杆菌、德氏乳杆菌、肠膜明串珠菌葡聚糖亚种、假肠膜明串球菌和肠膜明串珠菌乳脂亚种.

  6. Identification of probiotics strain Tu-569 from rabbit cecum and property analysis of its extracellular antibacterial product%兔源益生菌Tu-569菌株鉴定与其胞外产抑菌物性质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴玉龙; 尚伟; 姜军坡; 王世英; 朱宝成

    2012-01-01

    目的 对兔源益生菌Tu-569菌株进行菌落形态和菌体形态观察、生理生化特性测定及16S rDNA序列系统发育分析以确定其种属.方法 以大肠埃希菌为指示菌,通过琼脂打孔扩散法分析Tu-569菌株胞外产抑菌物性质,初步评价该抗菌物活性.结果 Tu-569菌株为Bacillus velezensis; Tu-569菌株胞外产抑菌物为分子量3.5~8.0kD的多肽,可被饱和度60%的硫酸铵盐析;该抗菌肽热稳定性较好,但可被蛋白酶降解;采用正丁醇萃取该抗菌肽不会降低其活性;其活性可被Mn2+离子增强,但在强酸(pH 3)强碱(pH11)环境中会大幅度降低;当存在表面活性剂和β-巯基乙醇时,抗菌肽抑菌活性完全丧失.每1mg粗蛋白中含有的抗菌肽抑制大肠埃希菌的能力相当于2μg硫酸庆大霉素、10μg硫酸链霉素或50μg土霉素.结论 该抗菌肽性质稳定,具有较高的抗菌活性,在畜牧业、养殖业、食品等领域中有一定的应用价值.%Objective Works were done to identify probiotic strain Tu-569 and to analyze properties of its extracellular antibacterial product. Methods Identification was carried out by observations for colony morphology and cell shape, determinations of physiological, biochemical characteristics and sequence analysis. Properties analysis for extracellular antibacterial product were done with various treatments, such as salting out with ammonium sulfate, extraction with different organic solvent, heating, different pH environment, proteases, ions, protein protective and denaturant agents. The activity of antibacterial product was evaluated by agar diffusion assay with Escherichia coli as indicator bacteria. Results Strain Tu-569 was identified as Bacillus velezensis. The extracellular antibacterial product was polypeptide with molecular weight between 3.5kD to 8.0kD. The majority antibacterial polypeptide was salted out by 60% ammonium sulfate. The antibacterial polypeptide showed a good stability with heat, but could be degraded by proteases. The antibacterial polypeptide could be concentrated from butanol extraction without loss of antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of antibacterial polypeptide could be enhanced by Mn2+, but would be reduced in lower pH (pH3) or higher pH (pHll) buffer solutions. When surfactants or β-mercaptoethanol was present in buffer solutions, antimicrobial peptides would show complete loss of the antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity against E. coli of antimicrobial peptides in lmg of crude protein was equivalent to 2μg of gentamicin sulfate, 10μg of streptomycin sulfate or 50μg of oxytetracycline. Conclusion Antimicrobial peptides of Tu-569 strain had a high and stable antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, which was useful in applications of animal husbandry, aquaculture, food and other fields.

  7. Contenido de alimento y metabolismo ceco-cólico en el tracto digestivo de poblaciones silvestres de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata) en Morelos, México Cecum-colic content of food and metabolism in the digestive tract of wild population black lizard (Ctenosaura pectinata) in Morelos, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    L Vélez-Hernández; MA Cobos-Peralta; JL Arcos-García

    2012-01-01

    Se colectaron cinco tractos digestivos de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata) en estado silvestre en el estado de Morelos, México, para conocer la composición botánica de la dieta y el metabolismo ceco-cólico. Se observaron frotis realizados del contenido ceco-cólico para registrar la presencia de protozoarios, bacterias y parásitos intestinales existentes. Se obtuvo la media y desviación estándar de las características evaluadas. En el contenido ceco-cólico se identificaron las especies vege...

  8. Obstrução em alça fechada com ruptura do ceco: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada - relato de um caso Computed tomography findings in closed obstruction of the small bowel associated with rupture of the cecum: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Jandhyra Vianna Crespo; Edson Marchiori; Luis Fernando Mendes

    2001-01-01

    A obstrução intestinal em alça fechada determina uma situação de extrema gravidade, com conseqüências sérias, podendo por vezes levar ao óbito. Os autores descrevem um caso de obstrução intestinal secundária a câncer no sigmóide, destacando a importância da tomografia computadorizada na análise das alterações patológicas na rotina de abdome agudo.Closed loop obstruction of the bowel is an extremely grave condition that may lead to serious consequences and even be fatal. The authors describe a...

  9. Obstrução em alça fechada com ruptura do ceco: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada - relato de um caso Computed tomography findings in closed obstruction of the small bowel associated with rupture of the cecum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Jandhyra Vianna Crespo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A obstrução intestinal em alça fechada determina uma situação de extrema gravidade, com conseqüências sérias, podendo por vezes levar ao óbito. Os autores descrevem um caso de obstrução intestinal secundária a câncer no sigmóide, destacando a importância da tomografia computadorizada na análise das alterações patológicas na rotina de abdome agudo.Closed loop obstruction of the bowel is an extremely grave condition that may lead to serious consequences and even be fatal. The authors describe a case of a patient with intestinal obstruction secondary to cancer of the sigmoid and highlight the importance of computed tomography in the analysis of the pathological changes in routine management of patients with acute abdomen.

  10. Peritoneal pseudomyxoma associated with synchronic malignant mucinous neoplasias of the cecum, appendix and rectum: case report and review of the literature Pseudomixoma peritoneal associado a neoplasias malignas mucinosas do ceco, apêndice e reto: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Saad-Hossne; René Gamberini Prado; Alexandre Bakonyi Neto; Maria Aparecida Marchezan

    2007-01-01

    Peritoneal pseudomyxoma is a pathological condition that compromises the peritoneum, characterized by the production of large quantities of mucinous liquid, which progressively fills the peritoneal cavity, originating in general from mucinous appendicular or ovarian tumors. We report a peritonial pseudomyxoma associated with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix synchronic with adenocarcinoma of the rectum in 44 years old patient, where the initial diagnosis was rectal adenocarcinoma. Tumou...

  11. Peritoneal pseudomyxoma associated with synchronic malignant mucinous neoplasias of the cecum, appendix and rectum: case report and review of the literature Pseudomixoma peritoneal associado a neoplasias malignas mucinosas do ceco, apêndice e reto: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad-Hossne

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal pseudomyxoma is a pathological condition that compromises the peritoneum, characterized by the production of large quantities of mucinous liquid, which progressively fills the peritoneal cavity, originating in general from mucinous appendicular or ovarian tumors. We report a peritonial pseudomyxoma associated with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix synchronic with adenocarcinoma of the rectum in 44 years old patient, where the initial diagnosis was rectal adenocarcinoma. Tumour of the appendix and peritonial pseudomyxoma were incidental and found intraoperativelly. We focus the histological patterns of the lesions, diagnosis and the treatment, with revision of the literature.O pseudomixoma peritoneal é uma condição patológica que acomete o peritoneo, caracterizada pela produção de grandes quantidades de líquido mucinoso, que progressivamente preenche a cavidade peritoneal, tendo em geral como origem tumores mucinosos apendiculares ou de ovário. Relatamos a ocorrência de um pseudomixoma peritoneal associado a adenocarcinoma mucinoso do apêndice sincrônico e adenocarcinoma do reto em paciente de 44 anos, cujo diagnóstico inicial foi de adenocarcinoma do reto. A neoplasia do apêndice e o pseudomixoma peritonial foram achados incidentais, intra-operatórios. Enfocamos as principais características anatomo-patológicas das lesões, o diagnóstico e tratamento, através de ampla revisão da literatura.

  12. Antibacterial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol on Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in chicken cecal contents in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are two major food-borne pathogens that are transmitted through poultry products. These pathogens colonize the chicken cecum leading, to contamination of carcasses during slaughter and subsequent processing operations. We investigated the antimicrobial...

  13. IN VITRO BIOTRANSFOMATION OF AN ARSENOSUGAR BY MOUSE ANAEROBIC CECAL MICROFLORA AND CECAL TISSUE EXAMINED USING IC-ICP-MS AND LC-ESI-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation examined chemical and microbiological transformations of an arsenosugar by mouse cecum. To mimic the low oxygen environment in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, reaction mixtures were incubated under anaerobic conditions. An arsenosugar extracted from ribbo...

  14. Sonographic Diagnosis of Heutropenic Enterocolitis : Report of 3 Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon Yul; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-15

    Neutropenic enterocolitis is a necrotizing inflammatory bowel disease, usually involving cecum and/or terminal ileum. It is rarely found in severely neutropenic patients, most frequently those with acute leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. We report three cases of neutropenic enterocolitis demonstrating characteristic sonography features. There was diffuse thickening of bowel wall in the cecum and ascending colon, jejunum or terminal ileum, with thick hyper-echoic inner layer and relatively thin hypo-echoic outer layer

  15. Inhibition of Escherichia coli Translocation from the Gastrointestinal Tract by Normal Cecal Flora in Gnotobiotic or Antibiotic-Decontaminated Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Rodney D.

    1980-01-01

    Escherichia coli C25 maintained population levels of 109 to 1010 per g of cecum and translocated to 100% of the middle mesenteric lymph nodes in gnotobiotic mice monoassociated with E. coli C25. Intragastric inoculation of these mice with the cecal contents from specific-pathogen-free mice reduced the population levels of E. coli C25 to 106 per g of cecum and completely inhibited translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Intragastric inoculation with heat-treated, Formalintreated, or filte...

  16. Absorptive activity of calcium in the isolated cecal epithelium adaptively increased by 2 week's feeding of difructose anhydride III in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Mineo, Hitoshi; Amano, Midori; Chiji, Hideyuki; Shigematsu, Norihiro; Tomita, Fusao; Hara, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    We compared net Ca absorption and Lucifer Yellow (LY), a paracellular passage dye, permeability in the epithelium isolated from the rat small intestine, cecum, and colon after feeding with control and difructose anhydride (DFA) III diets for 14 days using the Ussing chamber system. Feeding of DFA III increased net Ca transport and LY passage in the cecal but not in small intestinal or colonic epithelium. Ability of paracellular Ca passage via Tight-junction (TJ) in the cecum was changed adapt...

  17. Unusual perforated appendicitis within umbilical hernia: CT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnáiz, J; Ortiz, A; Marco de Lucas, E; Piedra, T; Jordá, J; Arnáiz, A M; Pagola, M A

    2006-01-01

    We present the first imaging report of perforated appendicitis in an umbilical hernia. Computed tomography demonstrated a gas-forming abscess within an umbilical hernia and the cecum was found inside the hernial sac, with an inner relation to the abscess. Computed tomographic findings suggested appendicitis as possible diagnosis, which was confirmed at surgery. Physicians must consider appendicitis within the differential diagnosis of an abdominal abscess located near to the cecum, even at an unexpected location. PMID:16465570

  18. POTENCY OF LIGNOCELLULOSE DEGRADING BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BUFFALO AND HORSE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ELEPHANT DUNG FOR FEED FIBER DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wahyudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is limiting factor for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in rumen. Isolation andselection bacteria from buffalo and horse gastrointestinal tract and elephant dung could be foundbacteria that have superiority to degrade lignin, xylan, and cellulose. Those animals were chosenbecause they were herbivores that consume low quality crude fiber as their main energy sources.Lignocellulose degrading bacteria were isolated by Hungate selective media, by using lignin (tannicacid, xylan, and cellulose as selective substrates. The morphological identification used an enrichmentmedia by measuring color, colony size, diffusion zone, clear zone, and biochemical identification usingproduction of ligninase, xylanase, and cellulase enzymes. The best lignocellulose degrading bacteriathen was determined by the morphological and biochemical character. This study showed thatlignocellulose degrading bacteria could be found in gastrointestinal tract of buffalo and horse, andelephant dung. Highest number colony was found in samples from buffalo's colon (376, followed byhorse's cecum (203, elephant’s dung (46, buffalo’s cecum (23, buffalo's rumen (9 and horse’s colon(7. The highest isolates activity of lignolytic, xylanolytic, and cellulolytic were reached by buffalo’scecum (7.64, horse's cecum (6.27, and buffalo’s colon (2.48. Meanwhile the highest enzymesproductivities were: buffalo’s cecum (0.0400 µmol, horse’s cecum (1.3912 µmol and buffalo’s colon(0.1971 µmol. Based on morphologycal character and biochemical test, it could be concluded thatlignolytic from buffalo’s cecum, xylanolytic from horse’s cecum, and cellulolytic from buffalo’s colonwere the superior isolates and they were 99% analyzed as Enterococcus casseliflavus/gallinarumspecies.

  19. [Cecal volvulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abita, T; Lachachi, F; Durand-Fontanier, S; Maisonnette, F; Roudaut, P Y; Valleix, D; Descottes, B

    2005-01-01

    The cecum is the second most common site of colonic volvulus after the sigmoid. The mechanism is torsion or hyperflexion of the enlarged, poorly-fixed, and hypermobile cecum. It presents clinically as an acute bowel obstruction with strangulation. Diagnosis can be made by plain abdominal X-ray in more than half the cases on the basis of cecal distention (with a classical "teardrop" or "comma" appearance), proximal small bowel distention with air-fluid levels, and a gasless distal colon. Barium enema shows lack of filling of the cecum, often with a "beaked" termination of the column of contrast. CT images are pathognomonic when they reveal a cecal "vortex". After surgical reduction of the torsion, ileo-cecal resection is usually the best therapeutic alternative. Cecopexy may be aDDrouriate in older and debilitated Datients if there is no concomitant cecal necrosis. PMID:16335894

  20. Bacteria and methanogens differ along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Wright, André-Denis G; Li, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus). The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera). The phyla Firmicutes (51.2%) and Bacteroidetes (39.4%) were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (Pbacteria within the families Veillonellaceae and Paraprevotellaceae were more abundant in the rumen than in the other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae, Succinivibrio spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. were more predominant in the colon than in other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroides spp. were more prevalent in the ileum, cecum and fecal pellets. For methanogens in the rumen and cecum, a total of 375,647 high quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and assigned to 113 core OTUs. Methanobrevibacter millerae was the dominant species accounting for 77.3±7.4 (S.E) % and 68.9±4.4 (S.E) % of total sequences in the rumen and cecum of roe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004). These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum.

  1. Prevention of Intra-Abdominal Adhesion by Bi-Layer Electrospun Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Cunyi Fan; Hede Yan; Wei Wang; Shichao Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-adhesion efficacy of a bi-layer electrospun fibrous membrane consisting of hyaluronic acid-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibrous membrane as the inner layer and PCL fibrous membrane as the outer layer with a single-layer PCL electrospun fibrous membrane in a rat cecum abrasion model. The rat model utilized a cecal abrasion and abdominal wall insult surgical protocol. The bi-layer and PCL membranes were applied between the cecum and the abdomin...

  2. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred

  3. Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma of the Colon during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shoji

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cecum in a pregnant woman is described. A 32-year-old Korean woman was diagnosed as having an abdominal tumor immediately after giving birth. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a smooth mass measuring 10 cm in diameter on the right side of the abdomen. Acute abdomen developed 3 days after birth. At emergency surgery, volvulus of a polypoid tumor was detected at the cecum apart from the normal appendix. We successfully performed a tumorectomy; however, histopathological examination demonstrated mucinous adenocarcinoma with a massive blood clot.

  4. Limited fat absorption in the large intestine of mice. A morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, R L

    1977-01-01

    A limited fat-absorbing ability of the epithelial cells in the cecum and colon of mice was demonstrated light- and electron-microscopically. After injection of predigested donor fat into ligated segments of the large intestine and after massive gastric intubation of fat, fat droplets, predominantly of extremely large diameter, were visible in the cecum and colon. Comparison with fat absorption in the proximal and distal small intestine was undertaken. The large intestine, similar to the distal small intestine, is capable of absorbing lipids; however, the subsequent processing of fat appears considerably less effcient than in the proximal segments of the small intestine.

  5. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Chase, B.J.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred.

  6. Enzyme histochemistry of cecal lymphoid tissue during prenatal period of buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kritima; Singh, Opinder

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to elucidate the histoenzymic distribution of enzymes, i.e., phosphatases, oxidoreductases, dehydrogenases, and diaphorases in cecal lymphoid tissue during its development in the prenatal period. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on cecum of 15 buffalo fetuses ranging from 16 cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL) (100 days) to 100 cm CVRL (full term). The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL. Results: In Group I, the distribution of enzymes was uniformly weak in developing villi-like projections in cecum and completely absent from submucosa. In Group II, the enzymes showed a moderate to strong activity in epithelium lining tunica mucosa which progressively decreased as the fetus progresses toward late gestational age. However, the intense activity of enzymes was observed in developing lymphoid tissue in this group. In Group III, distribution of enzymes reduced in tunica mucosa of cecum with advancing age, whereas the intense activity was noticed in the developed lymphoid tissue complex. Conclusion: The distribution of enzymes was completely absent from submucosal region in cecum of Group I as there was no lymphoid tissue development at this age. In Group II, the enzymes showed a moderate to strong activity in epithelium lining tunica mucosa which progressively decreased toward late gestational age but an intense activity was observed in developing lymphoid tissue. In Group III, distribution of enzymes reduced in tunica mucosa with advancing age with intense activity noticed in the developed lymphoid tissue complex. PMID:27733804

  7. Successful colonoscopic approach in a child with intussusception associated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichiro Hagiwara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of intussusception caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli O157 infection is unknown. In our case, colonoscopy was useful for confirming O157 infection. The intussusception was caused by focally damaged edematous mucosa in the cecum. This case helped in elucidating the pathogenesis of the disease.

  8. Relationship between selection for feed efficiency and methane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric methane is a product of fermentation in the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants. A group of archaea bacteria collectively called “methanogens” are responsible for the synthesis of methane. In ruminants, the methanogens grow in the reticulum-rumen complex and in the cecum. Most of the met...

  9. Methane production and methanogen levels in steers that differ in residual gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane gas released by cattle is a product of fermentation in the digestive tract. The two primary sites of methane fermentation in ruminants are the reticulum-rumen complex, and the cecum. Methane release from cattle represents a 2 to 12% loss of the energy intake. Reducing the proportion of fe...

  10. Marek’s Disease Virus influences the core gut microbiome of the chicken during the early and late phases of viral replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is an important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by the Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. In this study, dysbiosis induced by MDV on the core gut flora of chicken was assessed using next generation sequence (NGS) analysis. Total fecal and cecum-der...

  11. SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS-INDUCED ALTERATION OF INFLAMMATORY CXCL CHEMOKINE MESSENGER-RNA EXPRESSION AND HISTOLOGIC CHANGES IN THE CECA OF INFECTED CHICKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the avian host immune response to Salmonella enteritidis, we examined mRNA expression for 8 genes: CXCLi1[K60], CXCLi2 [IL-8/CAF], Interferon [IFN]-y Interleukin [IL] -1, IL-6, IL-12, IL-12, and Gallinacin [Gal] -2 in the cecum of young chicks one week post-inoculation with Sa...

  12. Experimental infection with Cryptosporidium parvum IIaA21G1R1 subtype in immunosuppressed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium parvum subtype IIaA21G1R1 oocysts were used to infect dexamethasone immunosuppressed N: NIH Swiss mice. Histology showed developmental stages in the duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon, with the small intestine remaining infected until day 35 post infection....

  13. Changes in the bacterial microbiota in gut, blood, and lungs following acute LPS instillation into mice lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A Sze

    Full Text Available Previous reports have shown that the gastrointestinal (GI bacterial microbiota can have profound effects on the lungs, which has been described as the "gut-lung axis". However, whether a "lung-gut" axis exists wherein acute lung inflammation perturbs the gut and blood microbiota is unknown.Adult C57/Bl6 mice were exposed to one dose of LPS or PBS instillation (n=3 for each group directly into lungs. Bacterial microbiota of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, and cecum were determined using 454 pyrotag sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR at 4 through 168 hours post-instillation. We then investigated the effects of oral neomycin and streptomycin (n=8 on the microbiota at 4 and 24 hours post LPS instillation versus control treatment (n=5 at baseline and 4 hours, n=7 at 24 hours.At 24 hours post LPS instillation, the total bacterial count was significantly increased in the cecum (P<0.05; whereas the total bacterial count in blood was increased at 4, 48, and 72 hours (P<0.05. Antibiotic treatment reduced the total bacteria in blood but not in the cecum. The increase in total bacteria in the blood correlated with Phyllobacteriaceae OTU 40 and was significantly reduced in the blood for both antibiotic groups (P<0.05.LPS instillation in lungs leads to acute changes in the bacterial microbiota in the blood and cecum, which can be modulated with antibiotics.

  14. Effect of galactooligosaccharides on calcium absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Watanuki, M

    1995-02-01

    The effect of transgalactosylated oligosaccharides (TOS), which are oligosaccharides that are unhydrolyzed in the small intestine and are fermented by the intestinal bacteria, on calcium absorption was examined in male Wistar rats for 10 days. The apparent calcium absorption ratios and the apparent retention ratios were significantly higher in the rats fed TOS-containing diets (5 or 10 g/100 g of diet). In the second experiment, the cecum was ligated in situ and calcium absorption from the cecum was observed after injecting TOS into the cecal lumen. Four hours after the injection, the calcium concentration in the cecal vein of the rats given TOS was significantly higher than that of the control. The calcium content in the liquid phase of the cecal lumen and the liquid phase weight were also increased by the injection of TOS into the cecum. Although the extent of calcium absorption from the cecum of rats fed TOS is due to overall calcium absorption is not known, under the experimental conditions used in the present study the stimulatory effect of TOS on calcium absorption may be partly associated with increased solubility of calcium and the fluid content in the intestinal lumen.

  15. Investigation into Host Selection of the Cecal Acetogen Population in Rabbits after Weaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Yang

    Full Text Available Homoacetogenic bacteria have received attention as a hydrogenotrophic population that offers a significant energetic advantage to the host animal. Reductive acetogenesis is likely an important hydrogen disposal mechanism in the cecum of rabbits. However, molecular ecology information about cecal acetogen candidates has rarely been reported. To better understand the effect of host selection in the rabbit cecal acetogen community with respect to growth, rabbits at four different age stages (30, 60, 120 and 180 days with the same diet were studied. Although the abundance of potential acetogens and methanogens was high in the cecum of rabbits undergoing growth, many novel potential acetogen populations were observed in the cecum of rabbits across all age groups. Young and adult rabbits had their own distinct acetogen community although they received the same diet, which suggests that as the rabbit ages, acetogens in the cecum undergo developmental changes because of host selection that are independent of diet, and perhaps the different acetogen communities result in different hydrogenotrophic characteristics. The within-group similarity increased with age, indicating that the acetogen community converges to a more homogeneous and stable arrangement with aging.

  16. Detection of hemorrhage in a patient with cecal varices using /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonic or ileal varices secondary to portal hypertension or superior mesenteric vein obstruction may present with significant hemorrhage which is difficult to diagnose by angiography. In a patient with lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage and colonic varices, a /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scan demonstrated the varices and extravasation into the cecum. Extravasation was not demonstrable by angiography

  17. Effects of dietary fibre source on microbiota composition in the large intestine of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingli; Mu, Chunlong; He, Xiangyu; Su, Yong; Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Jing; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fibre sources on the gut microbiota in suckling piglets, and to test the hypothesis that a moderate increase of dietary fibre may affect the gut microbiota during the suckling period. Suckling piglets were fed different fibre-containing diets or a control diet from postnatal day 7 to 22. Digesta samples from cecum, proximal colon and distal colon were used for Pig Intestinal Tract Chip analysis. The data showed that the effects of fibre-containing diet on the gut microbiota differed in the fibre source and gut location. The alfalfa diet increased Clostridium cluster XIVb and Sporobacter termitidis in the cecum compared to the pure cellulose diet. Compared to the control diet, the alfalfa diet also increased Coprococcus eutactus in the distal colon, while the pure cellulose diet decreased Eubacterium pyruvativorans in the cecum. The pure cellulose diet increased Prevotella ruminicola compared to the wheat bran diet. Interestingly, the alfalfa group had the lowest abundance of the potential pathogen Streptococcus suis in the cecum and distal colon. These results indicated that a moderate increase in dietary fibres affected the microbial composition in suckling piglets, and that the alfalfa inclusion produced some beneficial effects on the microbial communities. PMID:27231242

  18. Effects of dietary fibre and protein on urea transport across the cecal mucosa of piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stumpff, F.; Lodemann, U.; Kessel, A.G. van; Pieper, R.; Klingspor, S.; Wolf, K. van der; Martens, H.; Zentek, J.; Aschenbach, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    In ruminants, gastrointestinal recycling of urea is acutely enhanced by fibre-rich diets that lead to high ruminal concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), while high ammonia has inhibitory effects. This study attempted to clarify if urea flux to the porcine cecum is similarly regulated. Thi

  19. An exceptional cause of left lower quadrant abdominal pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassam Abboud; Ronald Daher

    2009-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is an exceptional cause of left lower quadrant abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan is the key to its diagnosis and helps to establish its early treatment. We present a case of a 35-year-old male patient who presented acute appendicitis with redundant and loosely attached cecum which was diagnosed based on his left lower quadrant abdominal pain.

  20. Efficiency of bowel preparation for capsule endoscopy examination:A meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaron Niv

    2008-01-01

    Good preparation before endoscopic procedures is essential for successful visualization.The small bowel is difficult to evaluate because of its length and complex configuration.A meta-analysis was conducted of studies comparing small bowel visualization by capsule endoscopy with and without preparation.Medical data bases were searched for all studies investigating the preparation for capsule endoscopy of the small bowel up to July 31,2007.Studies that scored bowel cleanness and measured gastric and small bowel transit time and rate of cecum visualization were included.The primary endpoint was the quality of bowel visualization.The secondary endpoints were transit times and proportion of examinations that demonstrated the cecum,with and without preparation.Meta-analysis was performed with StatDirect Statistical software,version 2.6.1 (http://statsdirect.com).Eight studies met the inclusion criteria.Bowel visualization was scored as "good" in 78% of the examinations performed with preparation and 49% performed without (P<0.0001).There were no significant differences in transit times or in the proportion of examinations that demonstrated the cecum with and without preparation.Capsule endoscopy preparation improves the quality of small bowel visualization,but has no effect on transit times,or demonstration of the cecum.

  1. Investigation into Host Selection of the Cecal Acetogen Population in Rabbits after Weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunlei; Mi, Lan; Hu, Xialu; Liu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Homoacetogenic bacteria have received attention as a hydrogenotrophic population that offers a significant energetic advantage to the host animal. Reductive acetogenesis is likely an important hydrogen disposal mechanism in the cecum of rabbits. However, molecular ecology information about cecal acetogen candidates has rarely been reported. To better understand the effect of host selection in the rabbit cecal acetogen community with respect to growth, rabbits at four different age stages (30, 60, 120 and 180 days) with the same diet were studied. Although the abundance of potential acetogens and methanogens was high in the cecum of rabbits undergoing growth, many novel potential acetogen populations were observed in the cecum of rabbits across all age groups. Young and adult rabbits had their own distinct acetogen community although they received the same diet, which suggests that as the rabbit ages, acetogens in the cecum undergo developmental changes because of host selection that are independent of diet, and perhaps the different acetogen communities result in different hydrogenotrophic characteristics. The within-group similarity increased with age, indicating that the acetogen community converges to a more homogeneous and stable arrangement with aging. PMID:27379387

  2. Uncovering the composition of microbial community structure and metagenomics among three gut locations in pigs with distinct fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Xiaochang; Fang, Shaoming; Xin, Wenshui; Huang, Lusheng; Chen, Congying

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering the phylogenetic composition of microbial community and the potential functional capacity of microbiome in different gut locations is of great importance to pig production. Here we performed a comparative analysis of gut microbiota and metagenomics among jejunum, ileum and cecum in pigs with distinct fatness. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed dramatic differences of microbial composition, diversity and species abundance between small intestine and cecum. Clostridium and SMB53 were enriched in the small intestine, while Prevotella, Treponema, Ruminococcus and Faecalibacterium showed a higher abundance in the cecum. Functional capacity analysis of gut microbiome revealed that the microbiome of small intestine plays important roles in the metabolism of small molecule nutrients, while the microbiome of cecum has the stronger ability to degrade xylan, pectin and cellulose. We identified tens of fatness associated-bacterial species including Escherichia spp. that showed a notable increase of relative abundance in all three gut locations of high fatness pigs. We further suggested that the potential pathogens, inflammation process, and microbial metabolism and nutrient sensing are involved in the high fatness of pigs. These results improve our knowledge about microbiota compositions in different gut locations, and give an insight into the effect of gut microbiota on porcine fatness. PMID:27255518

  3. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera;

    2015-01-01

    (AMX), cefataxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10-11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and cecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general decrease in diversity...

  4. Hesperidin alleviates rat postoperative ileus through anti-inflammation and stimulation of Ca2+-dependent myosin phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yong-jian; Chu, Hong-wei; Lin, Yuan; Han, Fang; Li, Ya-chan; Wang, Ai-guo; Wang, Fu-jin; Chen, Da-peng; Wang, Jing-yu

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a postoperative dysmotility disorder of gastrointestinal tract, which remains one of the most perplexing problems in medicine. In the present study we investigated the effects of hesperidin, a major flavonoid in sweet oranges and lemons, on POI in rats. Methods: SD rats were administered hesperidin (5, 20, and 80 mg·kg−1·d−1, ig) for 3 consecutive days. POI operation (gently manipulating the cecum for 1 min) was performed on d 2. The gastrointestinal motility and isolated intestinal contraction were examined 1 d after the operation. Then the myosin phosphorylation and inflammatory responses in cecum tissue were assessed. Smooth muscle cells were isolated from rat small intestine for in vitro experiments. Results: The gastric emptying and intestinal transit were significantly decreased in POI rats, which were reversed by administration of hesperidin. In ileum and cecum preparations of POI rats in vitro, hesperidin (2.5–160 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased the spontaneous contraction amplitudes without affecting the contractile frequency, which was blocked by the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 or verapamil, but not by TTX. Furthermore, administration of hesperidin increased the phosphorylation of MLC20 in the cecum tissue of POI rats. Moreover, administration of hesperidin reversed the increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, iNOS and COX-2 in cecum tissue of POI rats. In freshly isolated intestinal smooth muscle cells, hesperidin (5–80 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration as well as the phosphorylation of MLC20, which was abrogated by ML-7 or siRNA that knocked down MLCK. Conclusion: Oral administration of hesperidin effectively alleviates rat POI through inhibition of inflammatory responses and stimulation of Ca2+-dependent MLC phosphorylation. PMID:27345626

  5. Profil Saraf Nitrergik Sekum Ayam Pedaging yang Diinfeksi Eimeria tenella (THE PROFILE OF NEORAL NITRERGIC IN THE COECUM OF BROILER INFECTED WITH Emeria tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Hana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitter found in the enteric nervous system that plays an important role in a variety ofenteropathies, including inflammatory bowel disease. Alteration of nitrergic neurons has been reported to bedependent on the manner by which inflammation is caused. This study was performed to determine theprofile of neural nitrergic with Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-dstaining in the cecum of broiler infected by Eimeria tenella (E. tenella. Thirty six health free of coccidiosisbroiler one-day old chickens (DOC used in this study. All of broiler adapted for 7 days with food and drinkgiven ad libitum then divided into three groups, each group consisted of 12 broilers. The 1st group wascontrol only given orally 1.0 ml of distilled water/ heads , while 2nd group was infected with a single dose of5x103 oocysts/ head orally, and 3rd group was infected with a single dose of 2x104 oocysts/ head orally. Onday 7 post infection, all of chickens were fasted for 12 hours then were euthanized and cecum was taken.Lesion score of cecum was assessed. Furthermore, tissue of the coecum was prepared for hisochemicalusing NADPH-d staining to determine morphology, and morhometric of nitrergic neurons. The resultshown that cecum lesion score of group I is 0, group II is +2, group III is +3. Neuron density in the cecum ofgroup I is 2794.96+4.65 neuron/cm2, group II is 4930.36+63.73 neuron/cm2 and group III is 7892.31+44.97 neuron/cm2. Neuron density of group II and III increased signifcantly (p<001 than group I. Nitrergic neurondesity of group III increased significantly (p<0.05 than that of group II. It was concluded that the infectionof E.tenella led to increase the number of neutrl mienteric nitrergic of the cecum. The higher lesion score ofcecum led to increase the number of mienteric nitrergic neuron.

  6. Bacteria and methanogens differ along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Li

    Full Text Available The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus. The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera. The phyla Firmicutes (51.2% and Bacteroidetes (39.4% were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (P<0.01 different from the other sampled regions along the GIT. Secondly, Prevotella spp., Anaerovibrio spp., and unidentified bacteria within the families Veillonellaceae and Paraprevotellaceae were more abundant in the rumen than in the other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae, Succinivibrio spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. were more predominant in the colon than in other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroides spp. were more prevalent in the ileum, cecum and fecal pellets. For methanogens in the rumen and cecum, a total of 375,647 high quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and assigned to 113 core OTUs. Methanobrevibacter millerae was the dominant species accounting for 77.3±7.4 (S.E % and 68.9±4.4 (S.E % of total sequences in the rumen and cecum of roe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004. These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum.

  7. Simultaneous Occurrence of Early Gastric Carcinoma and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Omentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Murakami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous association of gastric carcinoma with omental mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is a rare event that has not been reported previously. We focused on the hypothetic pathogenetic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition. A 55-year-old woman with Helicobacter pylori infection underwent distal gastrectomy in our hospital. Three independent early gastric cancers and a mass near the cecum were diagnosed preoperatively. Pathological review of the resected stomach showed three independent early signet ring cell gastric carcinomas, and the mass in the omentum near the cecum was shown to be omental MALT lymphoma. Due to the nature of the patient's disease, she was started on medical eradication of H. pylori. Synchronous gastric adenocarcinoma and omental MALT lymphoma is a rare event. Special attention given to H. pylori-associated gastric cancer patients can avoid misdiagnosis and lead to adequate treatment.

  8. Clinical case and short review of extreme short bowel syndrome: an update 21 years after

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Mansueto; Aurelio Seidita; Salvatore Iacono; Antonio Carroccio

    2016-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome refers to the malabsorptive state caused by loss of significant portions of the small intestine, whose clinical framework is characterized by malnutrition, diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, and low-weight-related symptoms/signs. These clinical conditions seem to be related to the length of resection. Twenty-one years ago we reported the clinical case of an infant, who underwent a massive resection of the loops of the small intestine, of the cecum and of part of the asce...

  9. "Cat scratch colon" in a patient with ischemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Eui Bae; Jeon, Seong Ran; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2015-03-01

    "Cat scratch colon" is a gross finding characterized by hemorrhagic mucosal scratches on colonoscopy. It is usually associated with a normal colon and is rarely associated with collagenous colitis. In a previous report, cat scratch colon was noted in the cecum and ascending colon, but has also been observed in the distal transverse colon. The patient in this study was also diagnosed with ischemic colitis that may have played a role in the development of cat scratch colon.

  10. Chronic abdominal pain, appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, and concurrent intestinal endometriosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kurogochi Takanori; Fujita Tetsuji; Iida Naoko; Etoh Ken; Ogawa Masaichi; Yanaga Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Although both appendiceal tumor and intestinal endometriosis have been reported as rare causes of abdominal pain, the coexistence of appendiceal mucinous neoplasm and ileal endometriosis has not previously been reported. Case presentation A 41-year-old Japanese woman presented with a positive fecal occult blood test and a 3-year history of menstruation-related lower abdominal pain. A colonoscopy demonstrated extrinsic compression of the cecum, suggesting a mass arising f...

  11. Horseshoe Appendix: An Extremely Rare Appendiceal Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ch Gyan; Nyuwi, Kuotho T; Rangaswamy, Raju; Ezung, Yibenthung S; Singh, H Manihar

    2016-03-01

    Appendiceal anomalies are extremely rare malformations that are usually found incidentally. Agenesis and duplication of the appendix has been well documented however, the cases of horseshoe appendix reported is very limited, only four cases reported so far. Here, we report a four and half-year-old who underwent interval appendectomy. Intraoperatively both the ends of the appendix were found to be communicating with the cecum with two separate base or stump located at a sagital disposal- the so called "horseshoe appendix".

  12. Whole-Genome Sequences of Agricultural, Host-Associated Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Vikrant; Altermann, Eric; Olson, Jonathan; Wray, Gregory Allan; Siletzky, Robin M; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant Campylobacter spp.: C. coli 11601 and C. jejuni 11601MD, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and C. coli 6067 and C. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. The genomes provide insights on Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations. PMID:27540063

  13. Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae from Rattus losea (Rodentia: Muridae in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaisiri K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae is described from the cecum of the lesser rice field rat (Rattus losea, from Loei Province in Thailand with a prevalence of 9.1% (eight of 88 rats infected. The new species differs from previously described Notocotylus species mainly by the extreme prebifurcal position of the genital pore and the number of ventral papillae. This is the first description at the species level of Notocotylus from mammals in Southeast Asia.

  14. Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis treated with posaconazole

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Stacey R.; Lindsley, Mark D.; Hurst, Steven F; Paddock, Christopher D.; Damodaran, Thara; BENNETT, John

    2012-01-01

    A 67 year-old Caucasian male from Arizona presented with indolent symptoms of intestinal obstruction and hydronephrosis, found at surgery to be caused by a mass involving the terminal ileum and cecum, extending into the posterior abdominal wall and obstructing the right ureter. Histopathology was diagnostic of basidiobolomycosis. PCR of tissue and sequencing identified the fungus as, Basidiobolus ranarum. During one year of posaconazole treatment, the residual mass shrank, hydronephrosis was ...

  15. Jejunal perforation caused by abdominal angiostrongyliasis Perfuração jejunal causada por angiostrongilíase abdominal

    OpenAIRE

    Jaques WAISBERG; Carlos Eduardo CORSI; Marisa Valente REBELO; Vilma Therezinha Trench VIEIRA; Sansom Henrique BROMBERG; Paulo Amaral dos SANTOS; Monteiro, Rodrigo

    1999-01-01

    The authors describe a case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in an adult patient presenting acute abdominal pain caused by jejunal perforation. The case was unusual, as this affliction habitually involves the terminal ileum, appendix, cecum or ascending colon. The disease is caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, whose definitive hosts are forest rodents while snails and slugs are its intermediate hosts. Infection in humans is accidental and occurs via the ingestion of snail or ...

  16. Analysis of local and systemic inflammatory responses induced by polymicrobial peritonitis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Silvia Fröde; Silvia Ines Alejandra Cordoba Pires Ferreira; Yara Santos Medeiros

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal sepsis induces a local production of proinflammatory mediators that may trigger both septic shock and organ-system dysfunction. AIMS: The present study analyzed exudation, cell migration, and CD11a and CD18 subset cells of both local and systemic responses induced by fecal peritonitis in mice. METHODS: Animals were anesthetized and, after performing a midline incision in the abdomen, the cecum was ligated and punctured twice with a needle. Sham-operated animals were incl...

  17. Effect of Carapa guianensis Aublet (Andiroba) and Orbignya phalerata (Babassu) in colonic healing in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cícero Evandro Soares Silva; Orlando Jose dos Santos; Jurandir Marcondes Ribas-Filho; Fernando Issamu Tabushi; Marcio Hiroaki Kume; Leandro Bressianini Jukonis; Igor Furlan Cella

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the healing effect of the babassu aqueous extract and andiroba oil on open wounds in the cecum of rats. Methods: fifty-four Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 18: 1) babassu group with application of aqueous extract of babassu; 2) andiroba group with application of the oil; and 3) control group, with application of saline solution. All procedures were done by gavage. Each group was divided into three subgroups of six animals according to the observation per...

  18. Bacterial Community Mapping of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Shenghua; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Jin-Na; Lv, Xiaoman; WANG Kun; Duan, Li-Ping; Nie, Yong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Keeping mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract communities in balance is crucial for host health maintenance. However, our understanding of microbial communities in the GI tract is still very limited. In this study, samples taken from the GI tracts of C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequence-based analysis to examine the characteristic bacterial communities along the mouse GI tract, including those present in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and feces. Further a...

  19. Gastrointestinal lymphomas: Morphology, immunophenotype and molecular features

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista-Quach, Marnelli A; Ake, Christopher D.; Chen, Mingyi; Wang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma comprises 10-15% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas and encompasses 30-40% of the total extranodal lymphomas. Approximately 60-75% of cases occur in the stomach, and then the small bowel, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum. Lymphoid neoplasms may consist of mature B, T and less commonly extranodal NK/T cells. Of these, the two most frequently encountered histologic subtypes are extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma), wher...

  20. Rehabilitation for Ataxia Following Chemotherapy for Burkitt Lymphoma Involving the Rectum

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyoung Seop; Jung, Chul Oh; Jeon, Ha Ra; Sung, Lee Ho

    2012-01-01

    Burkitt lymphoma is a type of B-cell lymphoma that occurs mostly in children, and rarely in adults. The sporadic type is known to occur mostly at the ileum and cecum. Cytarabine, which is used for central nervous system prophylaxis during chemotherapy for Burkitt lymphoma, has known neurotoxicity, and its side effects include motor ataxia due to cerebellar injury, ataxic dysarthria, dysfunction of ocular movement, confusion, somnolence and lethargy. This case report is about a patient diagnos...

  1. Impairment of the Peritoneal Surface as a Decisive Factor for Intestinal Adhesions in Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Surgery - Introducing a New Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Winny, M; Grethe, L; Maegel, L; Jonigk, D; Lippmann, T.; Klempnauer, J; Poehnert, D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Meshes implanted intraperitoneally are known to cause adhesions potentially resulting in complications such as chronic pain, enterocutaneous fistula, or mesh infection. This study introduces a model for investigation of intestine-to-mesh adhesions and evaluates as to whether missing of visceral peritoneum is causative. Methods: In 18 rats, rectangular 1.5 x 2 cm patches of an uncoated polypropylene mesh (Ultrapro®) were sewn to the inner abdominal wall next to the cecum. Additiona...

  2. Is single port incisionless-intracorporeal conventional equipment-endoscopic surgery feasible in patients with retrocecal acute appendicitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Karakus, Suleyman Cuneyt; Kilincaslan, Huseyin; Koku, Naim; Ertaskin, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Since laparoscopic appendectomy was first described, various modifications, such as single port incisionless-intracorporeal conventional equipment-endoscopic surgery (SPICES), have been described for reducing pain and improving cosmetic results. In the retrocecal and retrocolic positions, attachments to the lateral peritoneum and cecum may lead to difficulties during SPICES, which is performed with only one port. Here, we present the effects of variations in the position of the vermif...

  3. Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp on performance, carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Liu, Wuyi; Asadpour, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of agricultural by-products in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp (DCSP) is a potential source of valuable nutrients and natural antioxidants for poultry feed. In the experiment, a feeding trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of dried orange residues in diet on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites, humoral immunity, and cecum microbial population. A total o...

  4. Symbiotic Relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an Echinoderm†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigmon, Robin L.; De Ridder, Chantal

    1998-01-01

    Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates. PMID:9726902

  5. Symbiotic relationship of thiothrix spp. with An echinoderm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigmon; De Ridder C

    1998-09-01

    Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates. PMID:9726902

  6. Symbiotic Relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an Echinoderm†

    OpenAIRE

    Brigmon, Robin L.; De Ridder, Chantal

    1998-01-01

    Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. inte...

  7. Tissue Distribution of [3H]—Nicotine in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ParimalChowdhury; RyuichiroDOI; 等

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted in adult male Sprageue-Dawley rats to determine the distribution of [3H]-nicotine in blood and tissues following a bolus injection and a constant infusion of pure nicotine.The animalw were anesthetized and injectd with either 0.5ml of nicotine solution or given a constant infusion of the same nicotine solution with indentical amounts of radioactive nicotine.After sacrifice.blood,brain,trachea,salivery gland, esophagus,lung,heart,liver,fundus,antrum,spleen,pancreas,duodenum,jejunum,ileum, cecum,colon,kidneys,adrenal gland,and testes were collected and measured for radioactivity by scintillation counting.The distribution of nicotine was found highest in kidneys by both routes of administration.Higher accumulations were also found in salivary and adrenal glands,fundus,antrum,duodenum,jejunum,ileum and colon.Retention of nicotine via constant infusion was significantly higher in esophagus,fundus antrum,spleen,cecum, pancreas,testes,heart and muscle when compared with bolus injection,Six-fold increase in retention of blood levels of nicotine were ofund with constant infusion.(P<0.05).The results indicate that longer retention of nicotine occurs in blood and other specific tissues such as esophagus,fundus,antrum,spleen,cecum,pancreas,testes,heart and muscle via constant exposure.These data may implicate the predisposition of these tissues to patologic manifestations.

  8. [Anatomic-topographic description of the stomach, small intestine, large intestine and their arteries of the greater mara (Dolichotis patagonum Desmarest 1820)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissengruber, G E

    2000-04-01

    The abdominal parts of the alimentary canal and the associated arteries from seven male and nine female maras are described. The mara possesses a stomach with a single cavity and a glandular mucosa lining. The large stomach is situated caudal of the liver at right-angles to the longitudinal body axis. The long jejunum is located on the left side of the body caudal of the stomach. The cecum has two teniae and numerous haustra which are proximal larger than distal. The smooth colon ascendens runs proximal parallel to the cecum and describes distal an U-shaped double-loop. The internal surface of the proximal part of the colon ascendens is characterized by two parallel mucosal ledges. Cecum and colon ascendens lie right caudal of the liver. The colon descendens is coiled and situated on the left body side. The A. gastrica sinistra and branches of the A. lienalis and the A. hepatica supply the stomach. The A. mesenterica cranialis which branches of separately from the A. coeliaca is a large and long vessel that supplies the major parts of the small intestine and the colon. The A. mesenterica caudalis supplies parts of the colon desendens and of the rectum. PMID:10932385

  9. Dietary Casein and Soy Protein Isolate Modulate the Effects of Raffinose and Fructooligosaccharides on the Composition and Fermentation of Gut Microbiota in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Gaowa; Ni, Kuikui; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Nishino, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Although diet has an important influence on the composition of gut microbiota, the impact of dietary protein sources has only been studied to a minor extent. In this study, we examined the influence of different dietary protein sources regarding the effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides on the composition and metabolic activity of gut microbiota. Thirty female rats were fed casein and soy protein isolate with cellulose, raffinose (RAF), and fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Microbiota composition was examined by real-time qPCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dietary protein source affected cecum microbiota; acetic acid concentration and Lactobacillus spp. populations were greater with soy protein than with casein. Prebiotic oligosaccharides had distinctive effects on gut microbiota; RAF increased the acetic acid concentration and Bifidobacterium spp. populations, and FOS increased the butyric acid concentration regardless of the dietary protein. Likewise, Bifidobacterium sp., Collinsella sp., and Lactobacillus sp. were detected in microbiota of the rats fed RAF, and Bacteroides sp., Roseburia sp., and Blautia sp. were seen in microbiota of the rats fed FOS. Interactions between dietary proteins and prebiotic oligosaccharides were observed with Clostridium perfringens group populations and cecum IgA concentration. RAF and FOS decreased C. perfringens group populations in casein-fed rats, and the combination of soy protein and RAF substantially increased cecum IgA concentration. These results indicate that dietary proteins can differentially modulate the effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides on gut fermentation and microbiota, depending on the type of carbohydrate polymers involved. PMID:27434756

  10. Spatial dynamics of the bacterial community structure in the gastrointestinal tract of red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meirong; Jin, Wei; Li, Yuanfei; Zhao, Lingling; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-06-01

    The quantification and community of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) were examined by using real-time PCR and paired-end Illumina sequencing. The quantification of bacteria showed that the number of bacteria in jejunum and rectum was significantly lower than that in colon and cecum (P Ruminococcaceae was the most dominant family in large intestine and the total relative abundance of unclassified bacteria was above 50 %. In identified genera, Dorea was the most important variable to discriminate large intestine and it was significantly higher in cecum than in stomach, small intestine and colon (P < 0.05). Bifidobacterium (21.89 %) was the only dominant genus in colon. Future work on culture in vitro and genome sequencing of those unidentified bacteria might give us insight into the function of these microorganisms in the GI tract. In addition, the comparison of the bacterial community in the foregut of kangaroos and other herbivores and the rumen might give us insight into the mechanism of fiber degradation and help us exploit approaches to improve the feed efficiency and subsequently, reduce the methane emission from herbivores. PMID:27116964

  11. Selected lactic acid-producing bacterial isolates with the capacity to reduce Salmonella translocation and virulence gene expression in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0 and high bile salt (0.3-1.5% and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (10(6-7 CFU/chick or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (10(4 CFU/chick next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1. These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10 in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in

  12. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: The microbiome of the horse hindgut: History and current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julliand, V; Grimm, P

    2016-06-01

    In the early 1990s, the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem looked like a "black box." Its vital role in hydrolyzing and fermenting fiber, thus providing energy to the host, was recognized. Although there was a critical lack of information on the hindgut microbes, their role in preventing intestinal diseases was suggested. Traditionally, the microbes of the horse hindgut were studied using culture-dependent techniques. More recently, culture-independent methods have been used and provided further insight. This review presents the history and updated knowledge regarding the microbes that live inside the different intestinal ecosystems and which collective genomes compose the hindgut microbiome. In the first section, the quantification and diversity are described for each microbial community as well as the implication of plant fiber degradation and their crucial role for an herbivore host. The microbial communities are presented in chronological order of discovery: due to their large size, protozoa were brought to light as early as 1843 in the horse cecum; in 1897, bacteria were described in the horse intestine; as early as 1910, monoflagellated eukaryotic organisms resembling protozoa were observed in the horse cecum; since then, they have been identified to be zoospores of anaerobic fungi; in 1970, bacteriophage-like particles were recognized in the cecum and colon of pony and horse; and finally, in 1996, archaea were identified in the horse cecum. The second section discusses the variations that can occur between digestive segments or between individuals. The representativeness of the fecal microbiota to the hindgut one is debated, especially as the majority of recent studies conducted on the horse hindgut are in fact focused on the feces, rather than the cecum or colon. Also, the representation of microbiota between individuals is questioned. It has long been suggested in the literature that some ponies or horses that were more susceptible to intestinal diseases

  13. Ileocecal valve dysfunction in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Larry S Miller; Anil K Vegesna; Aiswerya Madanam Sampath; Shital Prabhu; Sesha Krishna Kotapati; Kian Makipour

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To explore whether patients with a defective ileocecal valve (ICV)/cecal distension reflex have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.METHODS:Using a colonoscope,under conscious sedation,the ICV was intubated and the colonoscope was placed within the terminal ileum (TI).A manometry catheter with 4 pressure channels,spaced 1 cm apart,was passed through the biopsy channel of the colonoscope into the TI.The colonoscope was slowly withdrawn from the TI while the manometry catheter was advanced.The catheter was placed across the ICV so that at least one pressure port was within the TI,ICV and the cecum respectively.Pressures were continuously measured during air insufflation into the cecum,under direct endoscopic visualization,in 19 volunteers.Air was insufflated to a maximum of 40 mmHg to prevent barotrauma.All subjects underwent lactulose breath testing one month after the colonoscopy.The results of the breath tests were compared with the results of the pressures within the ICV during air insufflation.RESULTS:Nineteen subjects underwent colonoscopy with measurements of the ICV pressures after intubation of the ICV with a colonoscope.Initial baseline readings showed no statistical difference in the pressures of the TI and ICV,between subjects with positive lactulose breath tests and normal lactulose breath tests.The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher than cecal pressures during air insufflation (49.33 ± 7.99 mmHg vs 16.40 ± 2.14 mmHg,P =0.0011).The average percentage difference of the area under the pressure curve of the ICV from the cecum during air insufflations in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher (280.72% ± 43.29% vs 100% ± 0%,P =0.0006).The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests was not significantly different than cecal pressures during

  14. 空气灌肠失败和晚期肠套迭的手术治疗%Surgical Treatment of Advanced Intussusceptions and Failure of Rectal Inflation Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐伟椿; 成守礼

    1983-01-01

    From Nov.,1975 to July,1982,80 cases(51 males and 29 females)of intussusceotion were operated on.Among them,31 rectal inflation reduction failed.49 cases were advanced intussusdeption including some small intestinal intussusception.66 cases were primary.62 children were aged under one.Most of them had either enlarged regional mesenteric lymph node or mobile cecum.14 had secondary intussusceptions,13 of whom aged over one.There were 5 cases of Meckel's diverticulum,4 polyps,4 ileal duplications and one allergic purpura complicated with hematoma in the anterior wall of the cecum.Manual reductions were accomplished in 58 patients,together with simultaneous appendectomy.No plication of the cecum was attempted nor relapse noted.Intestinal resection followed by anastomosis was performed in 22 cases for intestinal gangrene.While rectal inflation on two patients with intestinal perforation was not successful,surgical repair was performed immediately.Only one death due to preoperative pneumonia and chickenpox was recorded.Thus mortality rate was 1.25%.%@@ 肠套迭是婴儿常见的急腹症,自从应用空气灌肠治疗以来,早期肠套迭的整复治疗取得了肯定的疗效,显著地降低了手术率.但对于复杂型和晚期肠套迭的病例使用空气灌肠,不但难以奏效,而且往往发生危险,而仍需手术治疗.

  15. Ultrasonographic findings of right-side colonic diverticulitis: Correlation with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate ultrasonographic (US) findings of right-side colonic diverticulitis and to correlate them with pathologic findings. Twenty nine patients with surgically (n=7) and radiographically (n=8) proven diverticulitis in the cecum and ascending colon for the past five years were included in this study, and they all underwent US due to right lower quadrant abdominal pain. US findings were analyzed by two radiologists with a special emphasis on: (1) the presence, size, and internal echo of hypoechoic lesion bulging out from the colonic wall (thickened diverticulum), (2) changes in the adjacent cecum and ascending colon, (3) changes in the adjacent mesentery, (4) accompanying fluid collection, and (5) the presence of lymphadenopathy. US finding of 18 surgically proven patients were correlated with pathologic findings. On US, 25 of 29 patients (86.2%0 were found to have thicken diverticulum with the greater dimension of 8-20 mm (mean,, 12 mm). Wall thickening of the adjacent cecum and ascending colon was seen in 28 patients (96.5%), and 22 (75.9%) of them had eccentrically thickened wall. Comparing US findings with pathologic findings in 18 surgically proven patients, all revealed to have inflamed diverticulum on surgery, but only 15 showed thickened diverticulum on US. In 12 patients, fecalith, purulent exudates, and hemorrhage were found within diverticulum on surgery. In case of diverticulitis containing fecalith, all of their echogenecities were increased. All patients showed wall thickening of the adjacent colon and increased echogenecity of the adjacent mesentery on US. Pathologic findings of these thickened walls contained nonspecific inflammatory change and hemorrhage while the mesentery with an increased echogenecity contained purulent or hemorrhagic exudates. Ultrasonography can diagnose the right-side colonic diverticulitis when there is the presence of thickened diverticulum in the area with the thickened right side colonic wall in patients with right

  16. New Genus of Blood Fluke (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) from Malaysian Freshwater Turtles (Geoemydidae) and its Phylogenetic Position Within Schistosomatoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jackson R; Platt, Thomas R; Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-08-01

    :  Baracktrema obamai n. gen., n. sp. infects the lung of geoemydid turtles (black marsh turtle, Siebenrockiella crassicollis [type host] and southeast Asian box turtle, Cuora amboinensis ) in the Malaysian states of Perak, Perlis, and Selangor. Baracktrema and Unicaecum Stunkard, 1925 are the only accepted turtle blood fluke genera having the combination of a single cecum, single testis, oviducal seminal receptacle, and uterine pouch. Baracktrema differs from Unicaecum by having a thread-like body approximately 30-50× longer than wide and post-cecal terminal genitalia. Unicaecum has a body approximately 8-12× longer than wide and terminal genitalia that are anterior to the distal end of the cecum. The new genus further differs from all other accepted turtle blood fluke genera by having a cecum that is highly convoluted for its entire length, a spindle-shaped ovary between the cirrus sac and testis, a uterine pouch that loops around the primary vitelline collecting duct, a Laurer's canal, and a dorsal common genital pore. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1-D3 domains of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S) revealed, with high nodal support and as predicted by morphology, that Baracktrema and Unicaecum share a recent common ancestor and form a clade sister to the freshwater turtle blood flukes of Spirorchis, paraphyletic Spirhapalum, and Vasotrema and that, collectively, these flukes were sister to all other tetrapod blood flukes (Hapalorhynchus + Griphobilharzia plus the marine turtle blood flukes and schistosomes). Pending a forthcoming emended morphological diagnosis of the family, the clade including Spirorchis spp., paraphyletic Spirhapalum, Vasotrema, Baracktrema, and Unicaecum is a likely placeholder for "Spirorchiidae Stunkard, 1921 " (type genus Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918 ; type species Spirorchis innominatus Ward, 1921 ). The present study comprises the 17th blood fluke known to infect geoemydid turtles and the first proposal of a new genus of

  17. Alterations of intestinal immune function and regulatory effects of L-arginine in experimental severe acute pancreatitis rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Feng Qiao; Tian-Jing Lü; Jia-Bang Sun; Fei Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the changes of intestinal mucosal immune function in rats with experimental severe acute pancreatitis(SAP) and the regulatory effect of L-arginine.METHODS: Male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into pancreatitis group, sham-operation group, and L-arginine treatment group. Animals were killed at 24, 48, and 72 h after SAP models were developed and specimens were harvested. Endotoxin concentration in portal vein was determined by limulus endotoxin analysis kit. CD3+, CD4+,CD8+ T lymphocytes in intestinal mucosal lamina propria were examined by immunohistochemistry. Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in cecum feces was examined by radioimmunoassay.RESULTS: Compared to the control group, plasma endotoxin concentration in the portal vein increased, percentage of CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocyte subsets in the end of intestinal mucosal lamina propria reduced significantly,CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased, and SIgA concentrations in cecum feces reduced at 24, 48, and 72 h after SAP developed. Compared to SAP group, the L-arginine treatment group had a lower level of plasma endotoxin concentration in the portal vein, a higher CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocyte percentage in the end of intestinal mucosal lamina propria,an increased ratio of CD4+/CD8+ and a higher SIgA concentration in cecum feces.CONCLUSION: Intestinal immune suppression occurs in the early stage of SAP rats, which may be the main reason for bacterial and endotoxin translocation. L-arginine can improve the intestinal immunity and reduce bacterial and endotoxin translocation in SAP rats.

  18. Dysphagia and dyspnea by lingual thyroid mass: An appropriate approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ghiasi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lingual thyroid is a rare embryological anomaly originated from the thyroid gland failure that descends from the foramen cecum to its normal eutopic pre-laryngeal site. The case in this study was a 39 year old female, presenting with the sensation of a foreign body, progressive dysphagia and dyspnea. Indirect laryngoscopy revealed a large well-defined mass in the tongue base. Imaging studies confirmed the diagnosis of large ectopic lingual thyroid. The surgery was performed via an external cervical approach due to the mass size. The decision on the best treatment looks into the mass position, size, symptoms, airway emergency and medical facilities.

  19. Short colon in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 11-year-old male Japanese domestic cat was referred to the veterinary hospital with a chronic diarrhea and signs of pain and vocalization when defecating. The cat has discharged unformed feces throughout his life. Morphological diagnosis of short colon was made radiographically after barium enema. The ileocolic junction and cecum was located to the left of the midline at the proximal end of the descending colon. Additional endoscopic examination demonstrated the difference in visual structures of the mucosal surface and in histological structures on mucosal biopsy specimens, between the colon and ileum. This is the first report of short colon in a cat in Japan

  20. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...... addition of PF (15 g pure fiber) reduced the area under the incremental blood glucose curve significantly (by 65%, p less than 0.05). None of the fibers affected the area under the insulin-response curve significantly although it was reduced by all fibers. Mouth-to-cecum transit time, assessed...

  1. Carcinogenicity of azo dyes: Acid Black 52 and Yellow 3 in hamsters and rats. Volume 2. Technical report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plankenhorn, L.J.

    1983-09-30

    This document is an appendix to a study concerning the carcinogenicity of the azo dyes acid-black-52 and yellow-3 in male and female hamsters and rats and contains individual histopathology studies of both dyes. Histopathological features were reported in tabular form for the skin, mammary gland, muscle, salivary gland, mandibular lymph node, sciatic nerve, thymus, larynx, thyroid, parathyroid, trachea, bronchus, esophagus, adrenal, stomach, duodenum, jejunem, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, mesenteric lymph node, lung, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidney, heart, urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, prostate, testis, cerebrum, cerebellum, pituitary, sternabrae, femur, bone marrow, and nasal cavity.

  2. [Acute Meckel's diverticulitis perforated by a foreign body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahomeanu, M; Anghelide, A; Mandache, F

    1976-01-01

    The authors present the case of a patient with acute, right iliac fossa abdominal syndrome, simulating acute apendicitis. In the course of the intervention it was noted that the syndrome was determined by an acute Meckel diverticulitis, perforated by a foreign body (fish bone). In view of making the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis, that cannot be assessed before surgery, the importance is stressed of the correlation of the clinical aspects with the apendicular lesions found in the course of the operation, and, when there is no satisfactory concordance, careful checking of the cecum becomes necessary, as well as of the right annexe and of the ileon over at least three feet.

  3. Retroperitoneal fibrosis: A rare cause of both ureteral and small bowel obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faisal Aziz; Srinivasulu Conjeevaram; Than Phan

    2006-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare condition of unclear etiology. It can cause ureteral obstruction. We present the unique case of a 54 years old female, who initially presented with spontaneous perforation of the cecum. Upon exploring the abdomen, the classical glistening white, unyielding retroperitoneal fibrosis was encountered. A right hemicolectomy was performed.Subsequently, the patient presented with bilateral ureteral obstruction, and later on with small bowel obstruction. Ureteral obstruction was treated with stents,and small bowel obstruction was treated with bypass.To our knowledge no case of idiopathic RPF presenting with features of both bilateral ureteral and small bowel obstruction has been reported in the literature.

  4. Prebiotic oligosaccharides change the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids and the microbial population of mouse bowel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong PAN; Fen-qin CHEN; Tian-xing WU; Hong-gang TANG; Zhan-yu ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify effects of selected oligosaccharides on concentrations of cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), total large bowel wet weight and wall weight, and cecal microbiota levels in mice. Mice were respectively given gavage of selected fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), and chitooligosaccharides (COS) [1000 mg/(kg body weight.d)]. Control group was given physiological saline solution. After 14 d treatment, SCFAs and lactate in mice cecum were significantly increased (P<0.05) by intake of oligosaccharides, especially FOS and GOS. Thus, providing these oligosaccharides as ingredients in nutritional formulas may benefit the gastrointestinal tract.

  5. The response of gastrointestinal microbiota to avilamycin, butyrate, and plant extracts in early-weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, M; Martín-Orúe, S M; Roca, M; Manzanilla, E G; Badiola, I; Perez, J F; Gasa, J

    2006-10-01

    An experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of 3 different additives on the gastrointestinal microbiota of early-weaned pigs. Early-weaned (18 to 22 d; n = 32) pigs (6.0 +/- 0.10 kg of BW) from 8 litters were randomly distributed into 8 pens. Each pen was assigned 1 of 4 dietary treatments: a prestarter or control diet, the control diet with 0.04% avilamycin (AB), with 0.3% sodium butyrate, or with 0.03% plant extract mixture (XT; standardized mixture with 5% (wt/wt) carvacrol extracted from Origanum spp., 3% cinnamaldehyde extracted from Cinnamonum spp., and 2% capsicum oleoresin from Capsicum annum). At the end of the experimental period, 8 pigs per treatment were killed, and samples of their intestinal content were taken. The total bacterial load along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT; stomach, jejunum, cecum, and distal colon) and the lactobacilli and enterobacteria in the jejunum and cecum were measured by quantitative PCR. The total microbial counts along the GIT did not differ among the diets, but there was an increase in the lactobacilli:enterobacteria ratio in the cecum of the piglets on the XT diet (P = 0.003). Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the PCR-amplified V3, V4, and V5 regions of the 16S rDNA gene showed changes in the structure of the microbial community in the jejunum. Dendrograms grouped animals by diets; control with 0.3% sodium butyrate was the treatment that promoted the biggest changes in the microbial ecosystem, followed by AB and then XT. Biodiversity increased when using additives compared with the control diet (P = 0.002). Microbial metabolic activity along the hindgut was studied using the concentration of purine bases and carbohydrase activities. Different patterns for purine bases were observed between diets (diet x intestinal section, P = 0.01). The control diet reached a maximum purine base concentration at the end of the colon, whereas that of the AB diet was reached at the cecum. We could not detect any cellulase

  6. A non-occlusive bezoar of caecum in a 7-year-old child: ultrasound detection and multimodality imaging management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marilina, D'Amora; Gaetana, Cremone; Eugenio, Rossi; Massimo, Zeccolini

    2016-09-01

    Bezoars represent the most frequent foreign bodies of gastro-intestinal system, involving first of all the stomach and small intestine; instead the cecum tract is a very uncommon site for bezoars associated with a poor abdominal symptomatology. We report a case of a very rare localization of bezoar in the caecum tract of the ascending colon in a child affected by undefined abdominal pain. In this case, the abdominal Ultrasound examination showed characteristic imaging findings of bezoar completely comparable to that of Computed Tomography, allowing an early diagnosis of bezoar and the possibility of a conservative treatment for the young patient. PMID:27635158

  7. Morphologic aspects of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossums Didelphis marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, T; De Carli, G A; Glock, L; Jeckel-Neto, E A

    2001-02-01

    Tetratrichomonas didelphidis (Hegner & Ratcliffe, 1927) Andersen & Reilly, 1965 is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine, cecum, and colon of Didelphis marsupialis. The parasitic protozoa used in this study was found and isolated in the intestine of opossums in Pavlova starch-containing medium in Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, from D. marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata. The strains were cultivated in Diamond medium without maltose and with starch solution, pH 7.5 at 28 degrees C. The specimens were stained by the Giemsa method and Heidenhain's iron hematoxylin. The light microscopy study of the trophozoites revealed the same morphologic characteristics as specimens previously described. PMID:11285508

  8. Breath Testing for Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Should We Bother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen breath test is based on following breath hydrogen levels after the administration of a carbohydrate (most commonly lactulose) to a patient with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The test is based on the interaction between the administered carbohydrate and the intestinal bacteria. The resulting fermentation produces hydrogen. A positive breath test is based on a breath hydrogen rise prior to the expected arrival time in the highly microbial cecum. Despite renewed enthusiasm for breath testing in recent years due to associations with conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, breath testing poses many challenges. In this argument against breath testing, several pitfalls that complicate breath testing will be described. PMID:26902227

  9. Bacteria and Methanogens Differ along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Chinese Roe Deer (Capreolus pygargus)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Wright, André-Denis G.; Li, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus). The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and a...

  10. Comparison and Efficacy of LigaSure and Rubber Band Ligature in Closing the Inflamed Cecal Stump in a Rat Model of Acute Appendicitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Chieh Yeh; Chia-Ing Jan; Horng-Ren Yang; Po-Han Huang; Long-Bin Jeng; Wen-Pang Su; Hui-Chen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A) and 7 days (Group B) after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S), 5 mm LigaSure (L), or rubber band (R). Seven days after cecal resection, th...

  11. Glucagon-like peptide 2 therapy reduces negative effects of diarrhea on calf gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, E E; Kahl, S; Elsasser, T H; Baldwin, R L; Fayer, R; Santin-Duran, M; Sample, G L; Evock-Clover, C M

    2013-03-01

    Damage to the intestinal epithelium reduces nutrient absorption and animal growth, and can have negative long-term health effects on livestock. Because the intestinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) has been shown to contribute to gut integrity, reduce inflammation, and improve nutrient absorption, the present study was designed to determine whether administration of GLP-2 to calves with coccidiosis in the first month of life affects intestinal growth and mediates negative effects of the proinflammatory response. Holstein bull calves (n=19) were assigned to 4 treatment groups of 4 to 5 calves each: (1) infected with Eimeria bovis, GLP-2 treated; (2) noninfected, GLP-2 treated; (3) infected with E. bovis, buffer treated; and (4) noninfected, buffer treated. Infected calves received 100,000 to 200,000 sporulated E. bovis oocysts suspended in milk replacer on d 0 of the study. On d 18, calves in the GLP-2 groups received a subcutaneous injection of 50 μg of bovine GLP-2/kg of body weight twice daily for 10 d, and calves in the buffer-treated groups received an equivalent volume of sodium bicarbonate buffer only. On d 28, calves were slaughtered 2h after injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Intestinal tissues were measured and villus height, crypt depth, and BrdU immunostaining were evaluated in segments of the small intestine. Nitrotyrosine immunostaining, a measure of nitro-oxidative damage, was evaluated in the ileum and cecum. No GLP-2 treatment by E. bovis infection interaction was observed for any parameter measured, with the exception of nitrotyrosine immunostaining in the cecum. Large intestinal weight was greater in infected than noninfected calves and with GLP-2 treatment relative to buffer treatment. Calves that received GLP-2 also had greater small intestinal weight but no difference in cell proliferation, as assessed by BrdU labeling, relative to buffer-treated calves. No treatment effects were detected for villus height, crypt depth

  12. Effect of apple pectin on gut microbiota - qPCR in applied microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Poulsen, Morten;

    This study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial......), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of pectin derived from apples resulted in considerable changes of these DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7...

  13. Intracecal fetiform teratoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Tiffany L.; Surapaneni, Krishna; Nardi, Peter M. [Long Island College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Fetiform teratoma is a rare form of mature cystic teratoma that is highly developed and organized, resembling a fetus-like structure. These are rare entities that have been typically described in women of reproductive age and most often present as ovarian masses. Only two cases of a fetiform teratoma have been reported in a male. Although teratomas are a common benign entity, only five prior cases of teratoma involving the cecum have been described. We present an atypical case of an intracecal fetiform teratoma occurring in a 21/2-year-old Chinese boy. (orig.)

  14. Computed tomographic findings of trichuriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naime Tokmak; Zafer Koc; Serife Ulusan; Ismail Soner Koltas; Nebil Bal

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we present computed tomographic findings of colonic trichuriasis. The patient was a 75-year-old man who complained of abdominal pain, and weight loss.Diagnosis was achieved by colonoscopic biopsy. Abdominal computed tomography showed irregular and nodular thickening of the wall of the cecum and ascending colon.Although these findings are nonspecific, they may be one of the findings of trichuriasis. These findings, confirmed by pathologic analysis of the biopsied tissue and KatoKatz parasitological stool flotation technique, revealed adult Trichuris. To our knowledge, this is the first report of colonic trichuriasis indicated by computed tomography.

  15. Effects of a Campylobacter jejuni infection on the development of the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, C. H.; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Finster, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a Campylobacter jejuni colonization on the development of the microflora of the cecum and the ileum of broiler chickens was studied using molecular methods. The infection did affect the development and complexity of the microbial Communities of the ceca, but we found no permanent...... effect of a C. jejuni infection on the ileal microflora of the broilers. In addition, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles generated from cecal and ileal contents revealed several DGGE bands that were present in the control chickens, but not in the chickens colonized with C. jejuni...

  16. Complete genome sequence of Bacteroides salanitronis type strain (BL78T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Lapidus, Alla L. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Nolan, Matt [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Tice, Hope [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Deshpande, Shweta [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Cheng, Jan-Fang [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Pitluck, Sam [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Liolios, Konstantinos [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Pagani, Ioanna [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chen, Amy [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Palaniappan, Krishna [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Woyke, Tanja [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Bristow, James [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Markowitz, Victor [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Eisen, Jonathan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California

    2011-01-01

    Bacteroides salanitronis Lan et al. 2006 is a species of the genus Bacteroides, which belongs to the family Bacteroidaceae. The species is of interest because it was isolated from the gut of a chicken and the growing awareness that the anaerobic microflora of the cecum is of benefit for the host and may impact poultry farming. The 4,308,663 bp long genome consists of a 4.24 Mbp chromosome and three plasmids (6 kbp, 19 kbp, 40 kbp) containing 3,737 protein-coding and 101 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  17. GDP-fucose: beta-galactoside alpha1,2-fucosyltransferase, MFUT-II, and not MFUT-I or -III, is induced in a restricted region of the digestive tract of germ-free mice by host-microbe interactions and cycloheximide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, B; Hayashi, Y; Saito, M; Sakakibara, Y; Yanagisawa, M; Iwamori, M

    2000-09-27

    A shift from sialylation to fucosylation of mucosal glycoconjugates occurred in the mammalian digestive tract in the weaning period, but mice under germ-free conditions were found to express both fucosyl GM1 (FGM1) and fucosyl asialo GM1 (FGA1) in the stomach, cecum and colon, but not in the small intestine. By host-microbe interactions and administration of cycloheximide, FGA1 was quickly induced in the small intestine, but the concentrations of fucosylated glycolipids in the other regions were not altered significantly. Their expression coincided with the activity of GDP-fucose:GA1 alpha(1, 2)-fucosyltransferase (alpha1,2-FT), and we isolated a cDNA with an open reading frame encoding the murine alpha1,2-FT (MFUT-II) of 347 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 39.21 kDa. The intraperitoneal injection of cycloheximide induced the mRNA and activity of alpha1,2-FT (MFUT-II) in the small intestine of germ-free mice, whereas no change in the mRNA or activity was observed in the stomach, cecum and colon, indicating that expression of FGA1 in response to microbial colonization or cycloheximide is transcriptionally regulated in a restricted region of the murine digestive tract. At 24 h after the administration of cycloheximide, FGA1 was preferentially produced in the upper half of the duodenal microvilli. PMID:11018479

  18. Immunohistochemical observations of methionine-enkephalin and delta opioid receptor in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Ailong; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan

    2013-02-01

    The study was designed to determine whether methionine-enkephalin (met-Enk) or delta opioid receptor was present in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus. The results showed that they were both in the bulbus oris, esophagus, crop, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, posterior salivary glands of O. ocellatus, one of them, met-Enk in the rectum, anterior salivary glands, digestive gland. And the distributions were extensive in the digestive system. Strong or general met-Enk immunoreactivity was observed in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, anterior salivary glands and the adventitia of the intestine and rectum, and so was the delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, and crop, however, they were weak in other parts. Combining with delta opioid receptor, met-Enk may be involved in the regulations of food intake, absorption, movement of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and secretion of digestive gland. The different densities of met-Enk and delta opioid receptor may be related to the different functions in the digestive system of O. ocellatus.

  19. To Investigate the Effect of Colchicine in Prevention of Adhesions Caused by Serosal Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Adhesion formation is a process which starts with an inflammation caused by a number of factors and eventually results in fibrosis. Colchicine prevents adhesion formation which is antifibrous process. The effectivity of colchicine in the prevention of adhesions was investigated. Materials and Methods. A total of 36 rats were equally divided into three groups: (I control group 1 (n=12, (II abrasion group 2 (n=12, and (III abrasion + colchicine group 3 (n=12. Group 1 underwent laparotomy and was orally given physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. In Group 2, injury was created in the cecum serosa following laparotomy and they were orally given physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. In Group 3, injury was created in the cecum serosa following laparotomy and the rats were orally given colchicine 50 mcg kg/day mixed with physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. Laparotomy was performed and adhesions were examined both macroscopically and microscopically. Both macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed using Zühlke’s score. Results. A significant difference was observed among the adhesion scores of the groups both macroscopically and microscopically. Macroscopic score was lower in group 3 than group 2. Microscopic score was lower in group 3 than group 2. Conclusion. Oral administration of colchicine is effective in the prevention of adhesions.

  20. Anthocyanins in Strawberry Polyphenolic Extract Enhance the Beneficial Effects of Diets with Fructooligosaccharides in the Rat Cecal Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Fotschki

    Full Text Available The administration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS beneficially modulates gastrointestinal functions and may enhance the metabolism of polyphenols. However, different polyphenolic components in the diet may have different influences on the activities of the digestive enzymes and microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, a 4-week study of forty-eight male Wistar rats was conducted to investigate the physiological response of the rat cecal environment to diets without and with FOS that contained two different strawberry polyphenolic extracts, specifically EP (polyphenolic profile 60, 35, 5, and 0% ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, anthocyanins, respectively and EPA (polyphenolic profile: 50, 35, 6, and 9%, respectively. When combined with FOS, both extracts beneficially enhanced the acidification of the cecal digesta (P≤0.05 vs the groups without extracts, but the dietary combination of EPA and FOS elicited the greatest reduction in putrefactive short-chain fatty acid production and the lowest fecal β-glucuronidase activity in the cecum (P≤0.05 vs group EP. Moreover, the addition of dietary FOS elevated the metabolism of the examined strawberry extracts in the cecum and thereby increased the concentrations of the metabolites in the cecal digesta and urine (P≤0.05 vs the group with cellulose. Overall, both strawberry extracts modulated the effects of FOS in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the combination with EPA extract that contained anthocyanins exhibited greater beneficial effects in the lower gut environment than the EP extract.

  1. Combined therapy of allantoin, metronidazole, dexamethasone on the prevention of intra-abdominal adhesion in dogs and its quantitative analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Chen Wang; Chang-Qing Gui; Qing-Shan Zheng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To observe the preventive effects of combined therapy of AMD (allantoin, metronidazolem and dexamethasone in combination) on intra-abdominal adhesion in dogs.METHODS: 20 dogs of both sexes were used in this study.After laparotomy under anesthesia, 2 cm section of cecal end was clamped and ligated, then 1 cm cecum section was cut and another 1 cm was kept. The cecum stump was closed with purse-string suture. Both parietal and visceral peritonea were stripped for an area of about 3x4 cm2. Before the skin closure, the animals were divided into two groups randomly.The abdominal cavities in Group AMD (m=10) were rinsed by 200 mi of AMD solution, and with 50 mi left, whereas the control (m=10) the equal volume of normal saline.After 7 d, the degree of intra-abdominal adhesions was evaluated by using the score method of ultrasonography and traditional dissection.RESULTS: Compared with the control, both the ultrasonography and traditional dissection scores in Group AMD were significantly decreased that marked as 2.0±1.25 vs3.3±0.82 and 1.91±0.83 vs3.3±0.82 respectively (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: The combined therapy of AMD is an effective way to prevent intra-abdominal adhesion, and ultrasonography is an useful tool to diagnose intra-abdominal adhesion.

  2. Yacon flour and Bifidobacterium longum modulate bone health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabiana Carvalho; Castro, Adriano Simões Barbosa; Rodrigues, Vívian Carolina; Fernandes, Sérgio Antônio; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; de Oliveira, Tânia Toledo; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2012-07-01

    Yacon flour has been considered a food with prebiotic potential because of the high levels of fructooligosaccharides, which allows for its use in formulating synbiotic foods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yacon flour and probiotic (Bifidobacterium longum) on the modulation of variables related to bone health. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control, yacon flour, diet+B. longum, and yacon flour+B. longum. After euthanasia, the bones were removed for analysis of biomechanical properties (thickness, length, and strength of fracture) and mineral content (Ca, Mg, and P); the cecum was removed for analysis of the microbiota and short-chain fatty acids. Tibia Ca, P, and Mg content was significantly (Pyacon flour+B. longum than in the control group. An increase in fracture strength was observed in the yacon flour (8.1%), diet+B. longum (8.6%), and yacon flour+B. longum (14.6%) in comparison to the control group. Total anaerobe and weight of the cecum were higher (Pyacon flour diet compared with the other groups. Cecal concentration of propionate was higher in all experimental groups compared with the control (PYacon flour in combination with B. longum helped increase the concentration of minerals in bones, an important factor in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:22510044

  3. Health properties of oca (Oxalis tuberosa) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, María Eugenia; Rossi, Analia; Sammán, Norma

    2015-10-01

    Andean roots and tubers are underexploited crops; many contain compounds beneficial to health, so a greater knowledge of their properties is important for encouraging their consumption. The aim of this work was to study the content of bioactive compounds of yacon and oca and their effect on intestinal health using as a model rats of the Wistar strain. Two varieties of ocas (Overa and Rosada) and yacon, which contain significant amounts of fructooligosaccharides and phenolic compounds, were chosen. Rats of the Wistar strain were fed for two months with diets containing these foods in amounts sufficient to provide 8% of fiber. A significant decrease in pH values and an increment in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria counts in the cecum of rats fed with inulin, oca Rosada and Overa were observed; there was no significant decrease in enterobacteriaceae and enterococci counts. The cecum antioxidant activity was incremented in rats fed with the experimental foods with respect to the control diets. The components of dietary fiber and phenolic compound contents in yacon and oca produce effects that contribute to the intestinal health of the experimental animals. PMID:26237397

  4. Spatial organization of bacterial flora in normal and inflamed intestine:A fluorescence in situ hybridization study in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander Swidsinski; Vera Loening-Baucke; Herbert Lochs; Laura P. Hale

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To studythe role of intestinal flora in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).METHODS: The spatial organization of intestinal flora was investigated in normal mice and in two models of murine colitis using fluorescence in situ hybridization.RESULTS: The murine small intestine was nearly bacteriafree. The normal colonic flora was organized in three distinct compartments (crypt, interlaced, and fecal), each with different bacterial compositions. Crypt bacteria were present in the cecum and proximal colon. The fecal compartment was composed of homogeneously mixed bacterial groups that directly contacted the colonic wall in the cecum but were separated from the proximal colonic wall by a dense interlaced layer. Beginning in the middle colon, a mucus gap of growing thickness physically separated all intestinal bacteria from contact with the epithelium. Colonic inflammation was accompanied with a depletion of bacteria within the fecal compartment, a reduced surface area in which feces had direct contact with the colonic wall, increased thickness and spread of the mucus gap, and massive increases of bacterial concentrations in the crypt and interlaced compartments. Adhesive and infiltrative bacteria were observed in inflamed colon only, with dominant Bacteroides species.CONCLUSION: The proximal and distal colons are functionally different organs with respect to the intestinal flora, representing a bioreactor and a Segregation device.The highly organized structure of the colonic flora, its specific arrangement in different colonic segments, and its specialized response to inflammatory stimuli indicate that the intestinal flora is an innate part of host immunity that is under complex control.

  5. Mortality of captive tortoises due to viviparous nematodes of the genus Proatractis (Family Atractidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, B A; Montali, R J; Phillips, L G; Gardiner, C H

    1987-01-01

    Between September 1982 and January 1984, verminous colitis was diagnosed post mortem in eight red-footed tortoises (Geochelone carbonaria) and three leopard tortoises (Geochelone pardalis) from the reptile collection of the National Zoological Park. This represented 69% of 16 tortoise necropsy accessions for that period. Etiology was determined to be a viviparous pinworm-like nematode of the genus Proatractis (Family Atractidae). Clinical signs were either nonspecific, consisting of anorexia, lethargy, and depression, or were absent. Limited trials with piperazine citrate and fenbendazole appeared to be ineffectual against the parasite and supportive therapy was unsuccessful. Post mortem examination revealed roughening and thickening of the mucosa of the cecum and colon, and in severe cases myriads of tiny (0.5-1.0 cm) nematodes were evident on the mucosal surface. In six tortoises, worms were found also in the small intestine. Histopathologic features in severe cases included mucosal necrosis with parasites and mixed inflammatory cells extending into the tunica muscularis. Focal to diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates were present consistently in the submucosa of the cecum and colon, and similar but milder lesions occasionally occurred in the small intestine. PMID:3820411

  6. PATHOGENICITY OF Blastocystis sp. TO THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF MICE: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INOCULUM SIZE AND PERIOD OF INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanelli, Mariana F; Kaneshima, Edilson Nobuyoshi; Uda, Carla F; Colli, Cristiane M; Falavigna-Guilherm, Ana L; Gomes, Mônica L

    2015-12-01

    The pathogenic potential of Blastocystis sp. in experimental models requires further investigation. In this work, the pathogenicity of this parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of male Swiss mice was evaluated according to the inoculum size and period of infection. Animals were infected intragastrically, with 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 Blastocystis sp. vacuolar forms obtained from a mixture of eight human isolates cultured axenically in Jones' medium. After seven, 14, 21, 28 and 60 days of infection, the animals were sacrificed and fragments of the small intestine (duodenum), large intestine, and cecum were subjected to histopathological analysis. Blastocystis sp. triggered an inflammatory response in the different tissues analyzed, with a predominance of mononuclear cells. The parasite was found in the muscular layer of the cecum, showing its invasive character. Larger inocula triggered inflammatory processes earlier (seven days) than smaller ones (from 21 days). We conclude that, in the proposed model, the pathogenicity of Blastocystis sp. isolates that were studied is related to inoculum size and period of infection. PMID:27049699

  7. Colon-specific drug delivery systems based on cyclodextrin prodrugs: In vivo evaluation of 5-aminosalicylic acid from its cyclodextrin conjugates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Juan Zou; Gang Cheng; Hirokazu Okamoto; Xiu-Hua Hao; Feng An; Fu-De Cui; Kazumi Danjo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the release of cyclodextrin-5-amino salicylic acid (CyD-5-ASA) in cecum and colon.METHODS: An anti-inflammatory drug 5-ASA was conjugated onto the hydroxyl groups of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (CyDs) through an ester linkage, and the in vivo drug release behavior of these prodrugs in rat' s gastrointestinal tract after the oral administration was investigated.RESULTS: The 5-ASA concentration in the rat's stomach and small intestine after the oral administration of CyD5-ASA conjugate was much lower than that after the oral administration of 5-ASA alone. The lower concentration was attributable to the passage of the conjugate throughthe stomach and small intestine without significant degradation or absorption, followed by the degradation of the conjugate site-specific in the cecum and colon. The oral administration of CyD-5-ASA resulted in lower plasma and urine concentration of 5-ASA than that of 5-ASA alone.CONCLUSION: CyD-5-ASA conjugates may be used as prodrugs for colon-specific drug delivery system.

  8. Messenger RNA expression of chicken CLOCK gene in the response to Campylobacter jejuni inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi; Liu, Liying; Zhang, Maozhi; Yang, Ning; Qi, Yukai; Sun, Yu; Li, Xianyao

    2015-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Previous research has shown that circadian rhythm plays a critical role in host response to C. jejuni colonization. The CLOCK gene is one of the core genes regulating circadian rhythms and shows significant expression on 7 d post-C. jejuni inoculation. The objective of this study was to investigate temporal and spatial expression of chicken CLOCK gene post-C. jejuni inoculation. Cecal and splenic RNA were isolated from 2 distinct chicken breeds and used to compare the mRNA expression of CLOCK gene between inoculated and noninoculated chickens within each breed and between breeds within each of inoculated and noninoculated groups. Our results showed that the CLOCK gene was significantly down-regulated at 20 h postinoculation (hpi) in cecum and spleen in Jiningbairi chicken. CLOCK gene was significantly down-regulated at 4 and 16 hpi and up-regulated at 8 hpi in cecum and spleen in specific pathogen free white leghorn noninoculated chicken. The findings suggested that expression of CLOCK gene was significantly changed post C. jejuin inoculation. This change was affected by genetic background, tissue, and time points postinoculation.

  9. Solitary caecum diverticulitis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot, Semih; Eğin, Seracettin; Gökçek, Berk; Yeşiltaş, Metin; Alemdar, Ali; Akan, Arzu; Karahan, Servet Rüştü

    2015-12-01

    Solitary cecum diverticulum is a benign formation, but it can be complicated with inflammation, perforation and bleeding. Cecum diverticulitis (CD) is the most common complication of caecal diverticulum and it has the highest incidence among Asians, but it is a rare condition in the western world. The incidence of colonic diverticular disease can vary according to national origin, cultural structure and nutritional habits. CD is not common in our country, but it is an important situation because of its clinical similarity with the commonly seen acute right side abdominal diseases like acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult, and hence, the actual frequency is not known. The treatment of CD can vary from medical therapy to right hemi colectomy. In this study, we presented ten CD cases on whom surgical resection was performed in our surgery unit during the last 8 years. Our purpose was to increase the awareness of surgeons about this situation, and so, make them pay attention for not having their first experience in the operating room. PMID:27054646

  10. Direct electrical stimulation using a battery-operated device for induction and modulation of colonic contractions in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschi, Mattia; Schlageter, Vincent; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Aellen, Steve; Peloponissios, Nicolas; D'Ambrogio, Aris; Wiesel, Paul Herman; Givel, Jean-Claude; Kucera, Pavel; Virag, Nathalie

    2010-07-01

    Direct electrical stimulation of the colon offers a promising approach for the induction of propulsive colonic contractions by using an implantable device. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility to induce colonic contractions using a commercially available battery-operated stimulator (maximum pulse width of 1 ms and maximum amplitude of 10 V). Three pairs of pacing electrodes were inserted into the cecal seromuscular layer of anesthetized pigs. During a first set of in vivo experiments conducted on six animals, a pacing protocol leading to cecum contractions was determined: stimulation bursts with 1 ms pulse width, 10 V amplitude (7-15 mA), 120 Hz frequency, and 30-s burst duration, repeated every 2-5 min. In a second testing phase, an evaluation of the pacing protocol was performed in four animals (120 stimulation bursts in total). By using the battery-operated stimulator, contractions of the cecum and movement of contents could be induced in 92% of all stimulations. A cecal shortening of about 30% and an average intraluminal pressure increase of 10.0 +/- 6.0 mmHg were observed. PMID:20300849

  11. Chicken intestine microbiota following the administration of lupulone, a hop-based antimicrobial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Glenn E; Haas, Gerhard J; Wise, Mark G; Oakley, Brian; Smith, Mary Alice; Siragusa, Gregory R

    2011-08-01

    The use of antibiotic growth promotants in poultry rearing is a public health concern due to antibiotic resistance in bacteria and the harborage of resistance genes. Lupulone, a hop β-acid from Humulus lupulus, has been considered as a potential feed additive growth promotant. Here, the effect of lupulone was evaluated for its effect on the microbiota of the chicken intestine. The intestinal microbiota of broilers was quantified after the addition of 125 mg L(-1) lupulone to water and challenge with Clostridium perfringens. Microbial DNA was extracted from the broiler midgut and cecal sections and bacterial groups were quantified using real-time PCR. The predominant cecal bacterial groups were Clostridium leptum subgroup 16S rRNA gene Cluster IV, Clostridium coccoides subgroup 16S rRNA gene Clusters XIVa and XIVb and Bacteroides, whereas Lactobacillus, the Enterobacteriaceae family and Enterococcus dominated the midgut. Lupulone at 125 mg L(-1) significantly decreased the C. perfringens subgroup 16S rRNA gene Cluster I, which contains several pathogenic species, in both the midgut and the cecum and Lactobacillus in the midgut. No significant changes were noted in the overall microbiota for the cecum or the midgut. Lupulone warrants further evaluation as a botanical agent to mitigate C. perfringens overgrowth in antibiotic-free reared poultry. PMID:21517917

  12. Identification and adhesion profile of Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ticiana Silva; Baptista, Ana Angelita Sampaio; Donato, Tais Cremasco; Milbradt, Elisane Lenita; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2014-01-01

    In the aviculture industry, the use of Lactobacillus spp. as a probiotic has been shown to be frequent and satisfactory, both in improving bird production indexes and in protecting intestine against colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Adhesion is an important characteristic in selecting Lactobacillus probiotic strains since it impedes its immediate elimination to enable its beneficial action in the host. This study aimed to isolate, identify and characterize the in vitro and in vivo adhesion of Lactobacillus strains isolated from birds. The Lactobacillus spp. was identified by PCR and sequencing and the strains and its adhesion evaluated in vitro via BMM cell matrix and in vivo by inoculation in one-day-old birds. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected one, four, 12 and 24 h after inoculation. The findings demonstrate greater adhesion of strains in the cecum and an important correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. It was concluded that BMM utilization represents an important technique for triage of Lactobacillus for subsequent in vivo evaluation, which was shown to be efficient in identifying bacterial adhesion to the enteric tract.

  13. Pulmonary exposure of mice to engineered pseudomonads influences intestinal microbiota populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, S.E.; Kohan, M.J.; Creason, J.P.; Claxton, L.D. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Health Effects Research Lab.)

    1993-09-01

    In this study, a mouse model was used to evaluate indirect effects of pulmonary exposure to representative biotechnology agents (Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain AC869 and Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100) selected for their ability to degrade hazardous chemicals. CD-1[reg sign] mice were challenged intranasally with approximately 10[sup 3] or 10[sup 7] colony-forming units (cfu) of strain AC869 or 10[sup 8] cfu of strain AC1100. At time intervals, clearance of the microorganisms and effects on resident microbiota were determined. When the low (10[sup 3] cfu) dose was administered, strain AC869 was not recovered from the small intestine but was detectable in the cecum and lungs 3 h after treatment and persisted in the nasal cavity intermittently for 14 d. Treatment of animals with 10[sup 7] cfu of strain AC869 resulted in detection 14 d following treatment. Strain AC869 challenge modified the small intestinal anaerobe count and cecal obligately anaerobic gram-negative rods (OAGNR) and lactobacilli. Following exposure, Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100 persisted in the lungs for 7 d and was recovered from the small intestine, cecum, and nasal cavity 2 d following treatment. Strain AC1100 treatment impacted the small intestinal anaerobe count, OAGNR counts, and reduced lactobacilli numbers. Strain AC1100 also altered the cecal OAGNR and lactobacilli. Therefore, pulmonary treatment of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or cepacia affects the balance of the protective intestinal microbiota, which may cause further negative health effects.

  14. Morphologic characterization and distribution of endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; Cupertino, Marli do Carmo; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Soares, Ítalo Augusto da Costa; Fonseca, Cláudio César; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Sartori, Sirlene Souza Rodrigues

    2013-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the morphology and distribution of argyrophil, argentaffins, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum Didelphis aurita. Fragments of the large intestine of 10 male specimens of the opossum D. aurita were collected, processed, and submitted for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy. The tunics of the large intestine of D. aurita presented morphological characteristics that have already been described for eutherian mammals. The morphometric data showed that the inner circular layer of all portions and regions analyzed is thicker relative to the longitudinal layer, and these layers in the rectum are thicker compared to the cecum and ascending colon. The majority of mucus-secreting cells have acid and neutral mucins, suggesting that the production of mucus is mixed. The number of these cells increases in the region of the cecum toward the rectum. Important findings include the occurrence of argyrophil, argentaffins, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in all segments of the large intestine of the opossum (D. aurita). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the presence of insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum (D. aurita). PMID:23810437

  15. Dietary resistant dextrins positively modulate fecal and cecal microbiota composition in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Libudzisz, Zdzisława; Barczyńska, Renata; Kapuśniak, Janusz; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the effect of dietary resistant dextrins, as potential prebiotics, on the intestinal microflora of young rats. Enzyme-resistant dextrin, prepared by heating of potato starch in the presence of hydrochloric (0.1% dsb) and tartaric (40% dsb) acid at 130ºC for 2 h (CA-dextrin). The experiment was performed on 24 Wistar male rats at 3-wk of age, divided by analogues in three experimental groups (control, starch and dextrin). Analyses determined the overall bacterial counts and the counts of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides and Clostridium strains within the feces and cecal contents of rats using fluorescence in situ hybridization method. CA-dextrin had no effect on primary growth indicators (body weight, body weight gain, dietary consumption) or the mass of the small intestine and the cecum, but dextrins caused a reduction in pH and the concentration of ammonia within the cecal contents. That supplementation of diet with resistant dextrins had a positive effect on composition of intestinal microflora in rats. It increased the counts of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains both in the feces and in the cecum. Moreover, it reduced the counts of Clostridium and Bacteroides strains. These results may suggest that resistant dextrins exerted a prebiotic-like effect in the large intestine. PMID:26610307

  16. Simultaneous Resection of Disseminated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Haga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old woman with abdominal pain and vomiting was admitted to our hospital. Colonoscopy showed an advanced colon cancer that encompassed the entire circumference of the descending colon’s lumen. The patient was diagnosed with occlusive ileus associated with the colon cancer. She had been watched for liver cirrhosis due to the hepatitis C virus and received radiofrequency ablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC 6 years previously. Although she exhibited a gradual increase in serum levels of α-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II starting 2 years before admission, no tumors were detected in the liver by abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography. On admission, contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed not only the colon cancer but also a tumor adjacent to the cecum. Both tumors were successfully removed by surgery and a pathological analysis revealed that the cecum tumor was poorly-differentiated HCC. The serum levels of α-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II declined markedly after the operation and no masses considered as peritoneal metastasis have been detected to date. This is the first report of the simultaneous resection of disseminated HCC and colon cancer.

  17. Isolated intestinal neurofibromatous proliferations in the absence of associated systemic syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J Elliot Carter; Javier A Laurini

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract involvement by neurofibromatous lesions is rare and occurs most frequently as one of the systemic manifestations of generalized neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). In this setting, the lesions may manifest as focal scattered neurofibromas or as an extensive diffuse neural hyperplasia designated ganglioneuromatosis. Occasionally, such lesions may be the initial sign of NF1 in patients without any other clinical manifestations of the disease. Rarely, cases of isolated neurofibromatosis of the large bowel with no prior or subsequent evidence of generalized neurofibromatosis have been documented. We present the case of a 52 year-old female with abdominal pain and alternating bowel habits. Colonoscopic evaluation revealed multiple small polyps in the cecum and the presence of nodular mucosa in the colon and rectum. Pathologic evaluation of the biopsies from the cecum, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum revealed tangled fascicles of spindle cells expanding the lamina propia leading to separation of the intestinal crypts. Immunohistochemical stains helped confirm the diagnosis of diffuse intestinal neurofibromatosis. A thorough clinical evaluation failed to reveal any stigmata of generalized neurofibromatosis. This case represents a rare presentation of isolated intestinal neurofibromatosis in a patient without classic systemic manifestations of generalized neurofibromatosis and highlights the need in such cases for close clinical follow-up to exclude neurofibromatosis type Ⅰ or multiple endocrine neoplasia type Ⅱ.

  18. Investigations into an Outbreak of Botulism Caused by Clostridium botulinum Type C/D in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarin, Hanna; Lindgren, Ylva; Jansson, Désirée S

    2015-06-01

    This case report describes a recent botulism outbreak in commercial laying hens with a history of increased mortality and flaccid paralysis. Routine diagnostic gross examination and microscopy from seven hens were inconclusive, but botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in peripheral blood was neutralized with both type C and type D antitoxins in the mouse bioassay. During a farm visit, 10 additional hens from a 34-wk-old flock on the farm were selected for clinical examination and further sampling. Nine hens were observed in sternal recumbency, with flaccid paralysis of the neck, drooping wings and tail, inability to escape, and bilateral ptosis, and one hen showed nonspecific clinical signs. Samples from cecum and liver were collected, and the gene coding for BoNT was detected by PCR in all 10 cecal samples and in four of the liver samples. Clostridium botulinum mosaic type C/D was isolated from 5 out of 10 hens from either cecum or liver, and the isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. All five isolates produced the same banding pattern, which was identical or showed >90% similarity to isolates from three different outbreaks on broiler farms in Sweden and Denmark during the 2007-10 period. However, they were clearly distinguishable from the predominantly reported pulsotype associated with avian botulism outbreaks in Europe. The authors are unaware of any previous report of C. botulinum mosaic type C/D isolates from laying hens.

  19. Acute necrotizing colitis with pneumatosis intestinalis in an Amazonian manatee calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Neto, Guilherme; Galvão Bueno, Marina; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otavio; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos; Plácido Guimarães, Juliana; Bossart, Gregory D; Marmontel, Miriam

    2016-08-01

    On 25 January 2014, a 1 mo old female Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis calf weighing 12 kg was rescued by air transport in Guajará, Brazil, and transferred to Mamirauá Institute's Community-based Amazonian Manatee Rehabilitation Center. The calf presented piercing/cutting lesions on the back, neck, and head, in addition to dehydration and intermittent involuntary buoyancy. X-ray analysis revealed a large amount of gases in the gastrointestinal tract. Daily procedures included wound cleaning and dressing, clinical and laboratory monitoring, treatment for intestinal tympanism, and artificial feeding. Adaptation to the nursing formula included 2 kinds of whole milk. Up to 20 d post-rescue the calf presented appetite, was active, and gained weight progressively. Past this period the calf started losing weight and presented constant involuntary buoyancy and died after 41 d in rehabilitation. The major findings at necropsy were pneumatosis intestinalis in cecum and colon, pulmonary edema, and hepatomegaly. The microscopic examination revealed pyogranulomatous and necrohemohrragic colitis with multinucleated giant cells, acute multifocal lymphadenitis with lymphoid depletion in cortical and paramedullary regions of mesenteric lymph nodes, and diffuse severe acinar atrophy of the pancreas. Anaerobic cultures of fragments of cecum and colon revealed colonies genotyped as Clostridium perfringens type A. We speculate that compromised immunity, thermoregulatory failure, and intolerance to artificial diet may have been contributing factors to the infection, leading to enterotoxemia and death. PMID:27503914

  20. Synthesis of an enzyme-dependent prodrug and evaluation of its potential for colon targeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Nuo Pang; Yan Zhang; Zhi-Rong Zhang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To synthesize dexamethasone-succinate-dextran(DSD) conjugate and to evaluate the potentiality of DSD forthe treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.METHODS: Dexamethasone was attached to dextran(average molecular weight=70 400 Dalton) using succinateanhydride in an anhydrous environment catalyzed by 4-dimethylaminopyridine and 1, 1′-carbonyldiimidazole. Thechemical structure of DSD was identified by UV, IR and NMR,and the in vivo drug release behavior of this prodrug wasinvestigated after oral administration of DSD suspension.RESULTS: The DSD conjugate was obtained in two stepsand the content of dexamethasone in DSD was 11.28 %.The dextran prodrug was stable in rat stomach and smallintestine and negligibly absorbed from these tracts. Four tonine hours after the oral administration, most of the prodrug(>95 %) had moved to the cecum and colon, and was easilyhydrolyzed by an endodextranase. Recover ofdexamethasone from colon and cecum after administrationof DSD conjugate was 6-12 folds higher than the recoveryafter administration of unmodified dexamethasone(t=2.74,P<0.05). The preferential release of free dexamethasone incecum and colon over that in the small intestine wasstatistically significant (t=2.27, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate thatdextran conjugates may be useful in selectively deliveringglucocorticoids to the colon.

  1. Comparative gastrointestinal morphology of three small mammalian insectivores: Acomys spinosissimus (Rodentia), Crocidura cyanea (Eulipotyphla), and Amblysomus hottentotus (Afrosoricida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonzaier, Julia; Van der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Bennett, Nigel C; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2013-06-01

    The gastrointestinal morphology was investigated in three mammalian insectivorous species, namely Acomys spinosissimus, Crocidura cyanea, and Amblysomus hottentotus. The aim of the study was to provide a comprehensive morphological comparison between the different species and to explore whether anatomical gastrointestinal adaptations are associated with the insectivorous diet of these species. The shape, proportional length, and proportional surface areas of the different gastrointestinal regions were recorded and compared in the three insectivores. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and Alcian Blue/Periodic Acid Schiff (AB/PAS) were used for morphological assessment. In all three species, the stomach was simple and uncompartmentalized. The internal aspect of the stomach in A. spinosissimus was hemi-glandular, containing stratified squamous epithelium in the fundus, with glandular epithelium in the body and pyloric region. However, C. cyanea and A. hottentotus had wholly glandular stomachs. Paneth cells were not observed in the intestinal tracts of C. cyanea and A. hottentotus. Acomys spinosissimus was the only species studied that had a cecum. The proximal colonic region of A. spinosissimus had V-shaped mucosal folds. Histologically, C. cyanea had villi throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT), whereas for A. hottentotus villi were not present in the most distal gastrointestinal regions. In both C. cyanea and A. hottentotus, longitudinal mucosal folds were present in the distal part of the colon. The GITs of C. cyanea and A. hottentotus showed little morphological differentiation namely, a simple, glandular stomach and the lack of a cecum.

  2. Phylum Level Change in the Cecal and Fecal Gut Communities of Rats Fed Diets Containing Different Fermentable Substrates Supports a Role for Nitrogen as a Factor Contributing to Community Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kalmokoff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation differs between the proximal and distal gut but little is known regarding how the bacterial communities differ or how they are influenced by diet. In order to investigate this, we compared community diversity in the cecum and feces of rats by 16S rRNA gene content and DNA shot gun metagenomics after feeding purified diets containing different fermentable substrates. Gut community composition was dependent on the source of fermentable substrate included in the diet. Cecal communities were dominated by Firmicutes, and contained a higher abundance of Lachnospiraceae compared to feces. In feces, community structure was shifted by varying degrees depending on diet towards the Bacteroidetes, although this change was not always evident from 16S rRNA gene data. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis (PCoA comparing cecal and fecal metagenomes grouped by location within the gut rather than by diet, suggesting that factors in addition to substrate were important for community change in the distal gut. Differentially abundant genes in each environment supported this shift away from the Firmicutes in the cecum (e.g., motility towards the Bacteroidetes in feces (e.g., Bacteroidales transposons. We suggest that this phylum level change reflects a shift to ammonia as the primary source of nitrogen used to support continued microbial growth in the distal gut.

  3. 基于DGGE分析的大鼠粪便及肠道细菌DNA提取方法研究%Genomic DNA Extraction from Rat Faecal and Intestinal Microflora Based on DGGE Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑刚; 陈己任; 胡博文; 陈彦斌; 赵国华

    2011-01-01

    In this study,SD rats were fed dietary fiber from tomato skin for understanding the effect of dietary fiber on intestinal flora.The feces and cecum of rats were collected and stored at-70 ℃.Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from feces and cecum using TIANamp bacterial DNA kit,proteinase K-CTAB(cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and muramidase protocol,respectively.The extracted DNA was assayed by agarose gel electrophoresis,bacterial universal primer PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE).Results showed that more and better DNA was extracted by using modified muramidase method with lower cost and shorter extraction time when compared with other methods.Therefore,the modified muramidase protocol is the best for DNA extraction from feces and cecum of rats.%为获得高质量肠道细菌总DNA用于研究膳食纤维对大鼠肠道菌群的影响,本实验以SD大鼠为实验动物,灌胃番茄皮膳食纤维,收集大鼠粪便及盲肠,-70℃冰箱保存。分别采用Tiangen细菌基因组试剂盒法、蛋白酶K-十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTAB)法和溶菌酶法提取粪便和肠道中的细菌总DNA,通过琼脂糖凝胶电泳、细菌通用引物PCR扩增和变性梯度凝胶电泳(DGGE)对提取效果进行观察比较,发现将溶菌酶法进行改进后,可以获得满意效果。改进后的溶菌酶法与另外两种方法比较,具有成本低、时间短、DNA得率高和多样性好等特点;该方法获得的DNA样品适合于用DGGE技术分析大鼠粪便及肠道菌群。

  4. Saccharomyces boulardii modifies Salmonella typhimurium traffic and host immune responses along the intestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Pontier-Bres

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST is an enteropathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that causes infection following oral ingestion. ST spreads rapidly along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and invades the intestinal epithelium to ultimately reach internal body organs. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii BIOCODEX (S.b-B is prescribed for prophylaxis of diarrheal infectious diseases. We previously showed that S.b-B prevents weight loss in ST-infected mice and significantly decreases bacterial translocation to the spleen and liver. This study was designed to investigate the effect of S.b-B on ST migration along the GIT and the impact of the yeast on the host's early innate immune responses. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI was used to evaluate the effect of S.b-B on the progression of luminescent Salmonella Typhimurium (ST-lux in the GIT of mice pretreated with streptomycin. Photonic emission (PE was measured in GIT extracts (stomach, small intestine, cecum and colon at various time periods post-infection (PI. PE analysis revealed that, 45 min PI, ST-lux had migrated slightly faster in the mice treated with S.b-B than in the untreated infected animals. At 90 min PI, ST-lux had reached the cecum in both groups of mice. Adhesion of ST to S.b-B was visualized in the intestines of the mice and probably accounts for (1 the faster elimination of ST-lux in the feces, and (2 reduced translocation of ST to the spleen and liver. In the early phase of infection, S.b-B also modifies the host's immune responses by (1 increasing IFN-γ gene expression and decreasing IL-10 gene expression in the small intestine, and (2 elevating both IFN-γ, and IL-10 mRNA levels in the cecum. BLI revealed that S.b-B modifies ST migration and the host immune response along the GIT. Study findings shed new light on the protective mechanisms of S.b-B during the early phase of Salmonella pathogenesis.

  5. Review of colorectal cancer and its metastases in rodent models: comparative aspects with those in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobaek-Larsen, M; Thorup, I; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt;

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common cancer forms developing in industrialized countries, and its incidence appears to be rising. Studies of human population groups provide insufficient information about carcinogenesis, pathogenesis, and treatment of CRC...... that human trials become more directed, with greater chances of success. The orthotopic transplantation of colon cancer cells into the cecum of syngeneic animals or intraportal inoculation appears to resemble the human metastatic disease most closely, providing a model for study of the treatment...... of metastases. Which model(s) to choose depends on the goal(s) of the experiment(s). The review published here can provide help in selecting the most optimal CRC model(s) for a certain purpose and in preventing unnecessary duplication of animal experimentation....

  6. A rare congenital anomaly, bridge-like appendiceal fistula to the terminal ileum, demonstrated by MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kayo; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Kinoshita, Kazuyuki; Sakai, Toyohiko; Sawai, Katsuji; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Hirohiko

    2013-08-01

    Although appendiceal anatomical anomalies are very rare, understanding of the anatomical details of these anomalies is important for surgery. In this case report, we present images from multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) and histological findings of a rare anatomical appendiceal anomaly originating from the cecum and opening into the terminal ileum like a bridge. These anatomical details were clearly depicted on MDCT with multi-planar reconstruction. MDCT demonstrated a communication between the appendix and terminal ileum. Histological analysis revealed that a normal mucosal layer was maintained from the appendix to the connected ileum, without any evidence of inflammatory or neoplastic changes, and only thickening of the muscular layer of the appendix was identified. Based on these histological findings, the appendix was considered to represent an anatomical anomaly rather than secondary fistula caused by inflammation or neoplasm, which has not yet been reported. PMID:23247734

  7. Peritonitis Aguda por Diverticulo Apendicular Perforado / Acute perforated diverticulum appendiceal peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Villalba N

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Appendix diverticular disease is a casual finding after appendectomies or pathological studies of surgical samples. Most patients are male adults between the fourth and fifth decade of life. 16 years old male consults for a 48 hours stitch pain in right iliac fossa of moderate intensity radiating to lower abdomen with nausea and fever, without vomiting or diarrhea. Presents lower abdominal pain with muscle guarding and pain on physical examination. Bowel sounds negative. Laboratory routine study shows leukocytosis with neutrophilia. A perforated diverticulum of about 15cm diameter is found during surgery in the middle third of the cecum appendix with 200cc purulent fluid in and multiple adhesions to transverse colon, omentum and small intestine. A conventional appendectomy is performed. Acute appendix diverticulitis is a rare entity and its finding is by casualty. It is important to consider it a differential diagnosis especially in the intraoperative treatment which in most cases does not differ from conventional appendectomy.

  8. Eosinophilic venulitis of colon presenting as ileocecal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhar, Faripour; Rustagi, Tarun; Lamea, Leela

    2011-01-01

    Reports of eosinophilic infiltration of the colon causing obstruction are few. It is even less common to find associated extensive intestinal venulitis, which is similar to and lumped together with so called Mesenteric Inflammatory Veno-Occlusive Disease (MIVOD) or Self-Limited Intestinal Venulitis. Eosinophilic necrotizing lymphadenitis, such as what we report here, has never been reported in association with this disease. A 41-year-old female presented with cramping lower abdominal pain, hematochezia, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed the presence of the mass and thickening of the illeocecal wall. Endoscopy confirmed a cecal mass with surface ulceration suggestive of cecal adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent right hemicolectomy with the clinical and radiologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Microscopic examination of the resected bowel showed an ulcerated mass in the cecum composed of markedly edematous tissue showing transmural eosinophilic infiltration and extensive eosinophilic and lymphocytic venulitis with and without thrombosis. This was associated with a necrotizing lymphadenitis.

  9. LaPlace's law revisited: Cecal perforation as an unusual presentation of pancreatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cason Frederick D

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer is often locally and distally aggressive, but initial presentation as cecal perforation is uncommon. Case presentation We describe a patient presenting with pneumoperitoneum, found at initial exploration to have a cecal perforation believed to be secondary to a large cecal adenoma, after palpation of the remainder of the colon revealed hard stool but no distal obstruction. Postoperatively, however, the patient progressed to large bowel obstruction and upon reexploration, a mass could now be delineated, encompassing the splenic flexure, splenic hilum, and distal pancreas. Histological evaluation determined this was locally invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and therefore the true etiology of the original cecal perforation. Conclusion Any perforation localized to the cecum must be highly suspicious for a distal obstruction, as dictated by the law of LaPlace.

  10. Endoscopic palliation of colorectal benign and malignant tumors: YAG laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberto, Lorenzo; Ranzato, Riccardo; Marino, Saverio; Angriman, Imerio; Vella, Vincenzo; Donadi, Michele; D'Amico, D. F.

    1997-12-01

    From November 1, 1992 to January 31, 1997, we treated 189 pts: 113 males and 76 females, of mean age 67 yrs. 148 pts were affected with colo-rectal cancer and 41 pts with extensive carpet benign tumors. Tumor location was: rectum in 115 pts, recto-sigmoid joint in 31 pts, colo-rectal anastomosis in 25 pts, sigmoid colon in 15 pts, descending colon in 2 pts and cecum in 1 pt. 26 pts were treated with diathermo-therapy, 15 pts with dilatation, 12 pts with radiotherapy, 5 pts with chemotherapy, 1 pt with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Yag-laser palliation gave good results in 90% (170 - 189) with an average survival of 24 weeks; there were complications due to the treatment in due pts (1%) without hospital mortality.

  11. Cecal duplication cyst: A rare case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Shyam Raj Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplication cysts of the alimentary tract are very rare congenital anomalies. Out of all these cases, two-thirds of them manifest before the age of 2 years. They are common in ileum, but very rare in cecum. Some of them may remain asymptomatic and present in the adulthood. The lesion may be tubular or cystic. Several theories have been postulated, but true etiology is not known. We hereby report a case of a 10-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain in the pediatric surgery outpatient department. Diagnosis of cecal duplication cyst was confirmed on histopathology. This report implies that although alimentary tract duplications are rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children who presents with acute abdominal pain.

  12. Successful Non-Invasive treatment of stricturing fibrosing colonopathy in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terheggen G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Fibrosing colonopathy (FC is a rare entity associated with cystic fibrosis (CF. Until now, patients with stricturing FC have usually been treated surgically. In this instance, we aimed at avoiding surgery by applying a new conservative approach. Methods Case report on an adult with CF who developed persistent abdominal pain due to a non-passable stricture in the right transverse colon. Histology confirmed fibrosing colonopathy. Results Initially we treated the patient with prednisolone pulse therapy and additive antibiotic therapy. For maintenance therapy we administered budesonide. The patient underwent clinical, laboratory and endoscopic follow-up over a three-year period. The stricture healed and was easy to pass. A relapse in the cecum at the ileocecal valve again improved under steroid and antibiotic therapy. Conclusions We present a novel therapeutic approach for advanced stricturing FC in an adult patient which successfully avoided surgery (right hemicolectomy over a three year follow up.

  13. Postharmostomiasis in wild turkeys in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, D B

    1994-04-01

    Postharmostomum gallinum (Trematoda: Digenea; Brachylaimidae) is reported for the second time from the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in North America. Seventy-six, 14 and three sexually mature specimens, respectively, were removed from the ceca of three of five wild turkeys collected in south-eastern New Mexico (USA). Local transmission of this infection was inferred since 10 immature specimens of P. gallinum also were collected from one host. In the turkey with the greatest intensity of mature trematodes, a concurrent hemorrhagic inflammation of the cecum apparently was associated with this infection. Specimens of P. gallinum from these wild turkeys were morphologically indistinguishable from, but their body and egg measurements were larger than, specimens described from the usual Eurasian galliform and columbiform hosts.

  14. Comparison of the effect of two types of whole mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Sakura; Araki, Takahiro; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko; Kamada, Takeo; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Han, Kyu-Ho; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-10-01

    The effects of two types of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus; white, WM; brown, BM) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats were investigated in terms of the physical characteristics of animals and by bacterial and HPLC analyses of cecal contents. Short-chain fatty acid levels were found to be significantly higher in the WM group than in the BM and the control (CN) groups; coliform bacteria levels in the BM group were significantly lower than those in the CN group, with the WM group inducing an apparent but insignificant decrease in coliforms. Anaerobe levels in the WM group were significantly higher than those in the CN group and, compared with the CN group, the BM and WM groups exhibited significantly increased feces weight and cecum weight, respectively. These results indicate that the mushroom powders, and in particular the WM powder, have beneficial effects on the intestinal environment in rats. PMID:27309965

  15. Influences of enteral nutrition combined with probiotics on gut microflora and barrier function of rats with abdominal infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-Yi Shen; Huan-Long Qin; Zhi-Guang Gao; Xiao-Bing Fan; Xiao-Ming Hang; Yan-Qun Jiang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influences of enteral, parenteral nutrition and probiotics delivered by gut on intestinal microecology, epithelial tight junctions, immune and barrier function of rats with abdominal infection.METHODS: Rat abdominal infection models established with cecal ligation and perforation method, were divided into three groups: parenteral nutrition (PN group, n = 7), PN+enteral nutrition (EN group, n = 7) and PN EN + probiotics (probiotics group, n = 7) via the needle jejunostomy and neck vein for five days. The total nutritional supplement of the three groups was isonitrogenic and isocaloric. Probiotics was delivered by jejunostomy 10 mL/d (1 × 108 cfu/mL). The rats were killed on the sixth day. The feces in the cecum were cultured for anaerobic bacterial growth and analyzed with bacterial group DNA fingerprint profile with random amplified polymorphic DNA. The transmembrane binding proteins (occludin) and IgA level in plasma cells of intestine epithelium in colon and terminal ileum were measured by an immunohistochemistry method. The ultrastructure of intestinal epithelial tight junctions in colon and small intestine was observed by electronmicroscopy. Vena cava blood and the homogenated tissue of liver, lung and mesenteric lymph nodes were cultured to determine the bacterial translocations, and endotoxin in the blood from portal vein was detected.RESULTS: (1) The amount of bacteria of gut species in EN group and probiotic group was higher than that in PN group. The DNA-profiles in EN group and probiotic group were similar to that of normal rats. The number of DNAprofiles in probiotics group was much more than that in PN group and EN group. Moreover, there were strange stripes in PN group. (2) The expression of occludin and IgA in the small and large intestine in EN group (2.309± 0.336, 15.440 ± 2.383) and probiotic group (2.938 ±0.515, 16.230 ± 3.183) was improved as compared with PN group (1.207 ± 0.587, P < 0.05, 11.189 ± 2.108, P < 0

  16. Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the ascending colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D. Gilman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary colorectal lymphoma is a rare malignancy accounting for 3% of all gastrointestinal lymphomas and 0.1-0.5% of all colorectal malignancies. Among primary colorectal lymphomas, the most common histological subtype of colorectal lymphoma is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We report a case of an 84-year old Caucasian female who was admitted to the hospital because of a 2 days history of altered mental status. In the emergency department the patient was found to have acute kidney injury and hypercalcemia. On physical examination a large lower quadrant abdominal mass was palpated. Computed tomography scan of abdomen confirmed the presence of a mass along the cecum and proximal ascending colon. Colonoscopy showed a large ulcerated mass and biopsy was consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient underwent colectomy but refused to receive chemotherapy.

  17. 薛荔籽果胶对去势雌性大鼠矿物质吸收的影响%Effect of Pectin from Ficus pumila L. Seeds on Mineral Absorption in Ovariectomized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 冯媛嫒; 刘雄; 陈宗道

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨薛荔籽果胶对去势雌性大鼠矿物质吸收的影响。方法:将30只SD成年雌鼠随机分为5组。4组大鼠做双侧卵巢切除手术,一周后分为空白组和薛荔籽果胶高、中、低剂量组;用伪切除同龄大鼠作对照(Sham组)。喂养4周后解剖,测定盲肠内容物pH值、短链脂肪酸、骨钙、骨磷含量及矿物质元素的表观吸收等指标。结果:去势雌性大鼠对钙、镁、磷、锌和铁元素的表观吸收率及骨钙和骨磷含量显著低于正常大鼠(P〈0.05)。薛荔籽果胶能显著增加去势雌性大鼠短链脂肪酸含量和盲肠面积(P〈0.05),降低盲肠pH值,并且在一定程度上抑制钙、镁、磷、锌和铁元素的表观吸收率。结论:薛荔籽果胶能降低去势雌性大鼠矿物质的表观吸收率。%Objective: To investigate the effect of pectin from Ficus pumila L. seeds on mineral absorption in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Thirty SD female rats were divided into five groups. The mice in four of them were double ovariectomized and one week later assigned as model control group and high, medium and low dose groups ofFicuspumila L. pectin. The mice in the fifth group were sham-ovariectomized as sham control. All rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks of feeding to assay pH values and short-chain fatty acids in cecum contents, calcium and phosphorus in bone, and apparent absorption rate of minerals. Results: Compared to the sham control group, the apparent absorption rates of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and iron, calcium and phosphorus in bone significantly decreased in OVX rats (P〈0.05). Pectin from Ficus pumila L. seeds drastically increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in cecum content and the area of cecum, decreased the pH of cecum contents, and inhibited the absorption of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and iron in ovariectomized rats. Conclusions: Ficus pumila L. seed

  18. Effects of Lactococcus lactis on composition of intestinal microbiota: Role of nisin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Licht, Tine Rask; Brogren, Carl-Henrik;

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the ability of (i) pure nisin, (ii) nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis strain CHCC5826, and (iii) the non-nisin-producing L. lactis strain CHCH2862 to affect the composition of the intestinal microbiota of human flora-associated rats. The presence of both the nisin......-producing and the non-nisin-producing L. lactis strains significantly increased the number of Bifidobacterium cells in fecal samples during the first 8 days but decreased the number of enterococci/streptococci in duodenum, ileum, cecum, and colon samples as detected by selective cultivation. No significant changes...... in the rat fecal microbiota were observed after dosage with nisin. Pearson cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the 16S rRNA genes present in the fecal microbial population revealed that the microbiota of animals dosed with either of the two L. lactis strains were different...

  19. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution profiles of the chicken R-spondin1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y Q; Geng, J; Shi, H T; Zhang, X M; Du, L L; Liu, F T; Li, M M; Wang, X T; Wang, Y Y; Yang, G Y

    2015-01-01

    Rspo1 belongs to the Rspo family, which is composed of 4 members (Rspo1-4) that share 40 to 60% sequence homology and similar domain organizations, and regulate the WNT signaling pathway via a common mechanism. Rspo1 plays a key role in vertebrate development and is an effective mitogenic factor of gastrointestinal epithelial cells. We report the cloning of chicken Rspo1 and its gene expression distribution among tissues. It contained an open reading frame of 783 bp encoding a protein of 260 amino acids, and its molecular weight was predicted to be 28.80 kDa. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based gene expression analysis indicated that chicken Rspo1 was highly expressed in the stomach muscle tissue, but was expressed at low levels in the lung, brain, jejunum, cecum, ileum, spleen, pancreas, kidney, and glandular stomach. These results suggest that Rspo1 plays a major role in muscular immune protection. PMID:25966073

  20. Morphologic aspects of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossums Didelphis marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasca Tiana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetratrichomonas didelphidis (Hegner & Ratcliffe, 1927 Andersen & Reilly, 1965 is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine, cecum, and colon of Didelphis marsupialis. The parasitic protozoa used in this study was found and isolated in the intestine of opossums in Pavlova starch-containing medium in Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, from D. marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata. The strains were cultivated in Diamond medium without maltose and with starch solution, pH 7.5 at 28°C. The specimens were stained by the Giemsa method and Heidenhain's iron hematoxylin. The light microscopy study of the trophozoites revealed the same morphologic characteristics as specimens previously described.

  1. A clinical retrospective study of the detectable ability of the advanced colorectal cancer by plain abdominal multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the efficacy of plain CT for diagnosis of advanced colorectal cancer retrospectively. During 2 years between December 1999 and November 2001, 26 patients with advanced colorectal cancer underwent abdominal CT scan (Toshiba ASTEIONMULTI). The patients had received no special preparation for CT scan except for avoiding breakfast. The sensitivity of CT scan in detecting tumors was 76.9%. Moreover, cancers originated in the cecum, ascending colon and descending colon were all detectable by CT. Ninety-two percent of cancers occupying more than 2/3 of circumference of the colonic wall were detectable. These evidences may indicate that plain CT is useful for detecting colorectal cancers with little patients' burden as well as providing information about their extension and metastasis, when colorectal cancer is suspected by patients' symptom. (author)

  2. Microbiota-Produced Succinate Improves Glucose Homeostasis via Intestinal Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vadder, Filipe; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Zitoun, Carine; Duchampt, Adeline; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Mithieux, Gilles

    2016-07-12

    Beneficial effects of dietary fiber on glucose and energy homeostasis have long been described, focusing mostly on the production of short-chain fatty acids by the gut commensal bacteria. However, bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber also produces large amounts of succinate and, to date, no study has focused on the role of succinate on host metabolism. Here, we fed mice a fiber-rich diet and found that succinate was the most abundant carboxylic acid in the cecum. Dietary succinate was identified as a substrate for intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN), a process that improves glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, dietary succinate improved glucose and insulin tolerance in wild-type mice, but those effects were absent in mice deficient in IGN. Conventional mice colonized with the succinate producer Prevotella copri exhibited metabolic benefits, which could be related to succinate-activated IGN. Thus, microbiota-produced succinate is a previously unsuspected bacterial metabolite improving glycemic control through activation of IGN. PMID:27411015

  3. 限饲条件下甘蔗糖蜜对断奶幼兔生长性能及消化道的影响%Effect of cane molasses on growth performence and gastrointestinal of weaned rabbits under the condition of limited feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秋岩; 郭东新; 田河

    2016-01-01

    The selection of 72 weaned 10-day-old Ira rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed diets added molasses 4 levels (0%, 2%, 4%, 8%), pre-feeding of 4 days, the official feeding of 30 days. During the official feed fed daily lim⁃it of 100 g diet, morning and night 50 g. And re⁃cord weight gain and number of deaths. The 31st day were officially fed slaughter, and analyze thedevelopment of the digestive tract, trypsin and cellulase activity of the cecum and cecum microbial population. The results showed that: the diet in the proportion of 0%~8% range of molasses added, young rabbits differences in the overall level of weight gain and feed to gain ratio was significantly (P=0.034 9). Weight gain with a higher proportion of molasses and improved feed conversion ratio. At the same time, the introduction of molasses to the amount of 10-day-old Ira rabbit weaning weight gain, feed conversion ratio, the total length of the small intestine, cecum cellulase activity, the number of to⁃tal bacteria and lactic acid number of the cecum and other indicators are there is a significant correla⁃tion (P <0.05); and death Amoy rate highly significant correlation (P<0.01). Description molasses for the growth and production performance in the presence of a positive impact on young rabbits trend.%选用72只断奶10日龄的伊拉兔随机分成4组,分别饲喂4个水平的糖蜜添加日粮(0%、2%、4%、8%),预饲期4 d,正式饲喂期30 d。在正式饲喂期间每日限饲100 g日粮,早晚各50 g,并记录增重与死亡数。正式饲喂第31 d进行屠宰,并分析消化道发育、胰蛋白酶与盲肠纤维素酶酶活以及盲肠微生物数量。结果发现:日粮在0%~8%比例的糖蜜添加范围内,幼兔在增重与料重比的各水平总体差异显著(P=0.0349)。其增重随着糖蜜比例的提高而提高,料重比反之。因此在此范围内,8%为最适添加水平。同时,引入糖蜜的量与断奶10日龄伊拉

  4. Genetic identification of Entamoeba polecki subtype 3 from pigs in Japan and characterisation of its pathogenic role in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Murakoshi, Naoko; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Tokoro, Masaharu; Haritani, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2015-12-01

    To date, three Entamoeba spp. (E. suis, zoonotic E. polecki and E. histolytica) have been identified in pigs, but their pathogenicity and molecular classification have not been fully determined. Examination and pathological analysis of pigs (n=3) with diarrhoea was conducted and revealed the presence of Entamoeba organisms. We performed a genetic analysis of the isolate using the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene region to identify the species. A severe ulcerative colitis was observed histopathologically with inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, infiltrating the mucous membranes of the cecum and colon. Many Entamoeba trophozoites were found at the erosion site or at ulcerative lesions. Pathogenic viruses or bacteria were not detected. The SSU rRNA sequence of the Entamoeba isolate was found to be completely homologous to that of E. polecki subtype 3.

  5. Usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to detect metastatic mucinous adencarcinoma within an inguinal hernia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyo Jung; Min, Byung Wook; Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Sun Il; Kang, Sang Hee; Jung, Sung Yup; Oh, Sang Chul; Choe, Jae Gol [Korea University College of Medicine, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma in an inguinal hernia is a rare disease and the image findings of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) are little known. Here, we introduce a 57-year-old man with metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma in an inguinal hernia. On initial {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, hypermetabolism was observed in mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cecum, and adenocarcinomas of the transverse and ascending colon, respectively. Follow-up {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT revealed newly developed multiple hypermetabolism in peritoneal seeding masses and nodules in the pelvic cavity and scrotum. Peritoneal carcinomatosis in the right pelvic side wall was extended to the incarcerated peritoneum and mesentery in the right inguinoscrotal hernia. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was useful to reveal unexpected peritoneal seeding within the inguinal hernia. Also, this case demonstrated that metastatic mucinous adenocarcinomas had variably intense FDG uptake.

  6. Expression patterns of Doppel in differential ovine PRNP genotypes: quantification using real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Zhao, C-L; Liu, L; Wu, R; Zhang, X-L

    2015-10-09

    Doppel is a homologue of cellular prion protein (PrP)-like protein (PrPC). Different tissue samples were collected from the central nervous system plus four regions of lymphoid system, eleven regions of digestive tract and two reproductive organs from four ARR/ARQ and four ARH/ARQ sheep, genotypes of the PrP gene. Total RNA was isolated from these samples, and Doppel mRNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR using SYBR Green. Doppel mRNA expression was higher in the ovary, hypothalamus and brain than in other tissues, and it significantly differed between the two genotypes in brain, ileum, cecum, rectum, colon, and uterus. This study demonstrated that Doppel mRNA expression in sheep with ARR/ARQ or ARH/ARQ genotypes was very different. These findings could be helpful in future studies of the relationship between PrP and Doppel.

  7. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera;

    (AMX), cefataxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10-11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and cecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general decrease in diversity...... in microbiota composition or function were observed following MTZ treatment. Permeability to 4 kDa FITC-dextran was decreased after CTX and VAN treatment and increased following MTZ treatment. Plasma haptoglobin levels were increased by both AMX and CTX but no changes in expression of host tight junction genes...... were found in any treatment group. Antibiotic induced changes in microbiota could be linked to intestinal permeability, although changes in permeability did not always result from major changes in microbiota and vice versa....

  8. Growth kinetic study of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossum Lutreolina crassicaudata and interaction with a prokaryotic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, T; DeCarli, G A

    2001-08-01

    Tetratrichomonas didelphidis is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine, cecum and colon of opossums, Didelphis marsupialis. This work reports the occurrence of T. didelphidis in another opossum species, Lutreolina crassicaudata. The strain was cultivated in monoxenic culture with Escherichia coli in Diamond (TYM) medium without maltose and with starch solution (trypticase-yeast extract-starch), pH 7.5 at 28 degrees C. The growth kinetic study of T. didelphidis showed a longer time of growth and a higher number of trophozoites when inoculated with E. coli than in axenic cultures, in aerobiosis as well as under anaerobic conditions. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the bacteria adhered throughout the protozoan body and probably evoked endocytic channels, strongly suggesting the existence of endocytosis of rods by T. didelphidis. Our preliminary results suggest that the in vitro culture of T. didelphidis depends on E. coli as a growth-promoting partner, and requires monoxenic cultivation. PMID:11510998

  9. First Report of Coccidiosis and Gizzard Erosion in a Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moini, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis and gizzard erosion are rare conditions in cage bird. A male zebra finch was presented with a history of watery diarrhea, anorexia, ruffled feathers, weight loss, and lethargy and died finally. Gross necropsy revealed small areas of erosions and hemorrhages on the gizzard wall. The intestine was oedematous. The spleen appeared pale and small. The testes were asymmetric.Histologically, necrosis of mucosal layer with infiltration of inflammatory cells observed in cecum. Eimeria stages were detected in the enterocytes. In Gizzard, hemorrhage and ulceration of mucosal layer with infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells in to the underlying mucosa were seen. In hepatic tissue, mild focal necrosis with mononuclear cells infiltration was seen. The disease was diagnosed as coccidiosis and gizzard erosion.

  10. Mesothelioma as a rapidly developing Giant Abdominal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Dinesh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum is a rare lesion and is known for local recurrence. This is first case report of a rapidly developing massive abdominal tumor with histological finding of benign cystic mesothelioma (BCM. We describe a BCM arising in the retroperitoneal tis[sue on the right side, lifting ascending colon and cecum to the left side of abdomen. Patient was an active 58-year-old man who noticed a rapid abdominal swelling within a two month time period with a weight gain of 40 pounds. Patient had no risk factors including occupational (asbestos, cadmium, family history, social (alcohol, smoking or history of trauma. We will discuss the clinical, radiologic, intra-operative, immunohistochemical, pathologic findings, and imaging six months after surgery. Patient has no recurrence and no weight gain on follow up visits and imaging.

  11. Effect of cane molasses on growth performence and gastrointestinal of weaned rabbits under the condition of limited feeding%限饲条件下甘蔗糖蜜对断奶幼兔生长性能及消化道的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秋岩; 郭东新; 田河

    2016-01-01

    选用72只断奶10日龄的伊拉兔随机分成4组,分别饲喂4个水平的糖蜜添加日粮(0%、2%、4%、8%),预饲期4 d,正式饲喂期30 d。在正式饲喂期间每日限饲100 g日粮,早晚各50 g,并记录增重与死亡数。正式饲喂第31 d进行屠宰,并分析消化道发育、胰蛋白酶与盲肠纤维素酶酶活以及盲肠微生物数量。结果发现:日粮在0%~8%比例的糖蜜添加范围内,幼兔在增重与料重比的各水平总体差异显著(P=0.0349)。其增重随着糖蜜比例的提高而提高,料重比反之。因此在此范围内,8%为最适添加水平。同时,引入糖蜜的量与断奶10日龄伊拉兔的增重、料重比、小肠总长度、盲肠纤维素酶酶活、盲肠总菌个数以及乳酸菌个数等指标都存在显著的相关性(P<0.05);与死淘率存在极显著的相关性(P<0.01)。说明糖蜜对于幼兔的生长发育与生产性能存在积极的影响趋势。%The selection of 72 weaned 10-day-old Ira rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed diets added molasses 4 levels (0%, 2%, 4%, 8%), pre-feeding of 4 days, the official feeding of 30 days. During the official feed fed daily lim⁃it of 100 g diet, morning and night 50 g. And re⁃cord weight gain and number of deaths. The 31st day were officially fed slaughter, and analyze thedevelopment of the digestive tract, trypsin and cellulase activity of the cecum and cecum microbial population. The results showed that: the diet in the proportion of 0%~8% range of molasses added, young rabbits differences in the overall level of weight gain and feed to gain ratio was significantly (P=0.034 9). Weight gain with a higher proportion of molasses and improved feed conversion ratio. At the same time, the introduction of molasses to the amount of 10-day-old Ira rabbit weaning weight gain, feed conversion ratio, the total length of the small intestine, cecum cellulase activity, the number of to

  12. Complete invagination of vermiform appendix with adenocarcinoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appendiceal intussusception is a very rare pathological condition, an incidence, as revealed by appendectomy specimens, of only 0.01 percent. There are various types among which complete invagination of the appendix is very rare. We encountered a case of intussusception of the appendix with complete invagination induced by appendiceal adenocarcinoma. A preoperative diagnosis of appendiceal adenocarcinoma and intussusception was not possible, but a final pathological report confirmed these conditions and retrospective analysis of a barium enema showed a finger-like filling defect of the cecum, a relatively specific finding in such cases. We describe a case involving a 39-year old man who one month earlier had noted the onset of pain in the right lower abdomen. (author)

  13. Assimilation of wheat starch in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Positive effect of enzyme replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, I; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1992-01-01

    of the Western diet. We studied the absorption of wheat starch and the effect of pancreatic enzyme substitution in seven patients with chronic pancreatitis and steathorrea. The malabsorption was determined from hydrogen breath tests with lactulose standards as reference. Without enzyme substitution, wheat starch...... (50 g) was absorbed to a lesser extent than in healthy controls (p less than 0.05). The mouth-to-cecum transit time was prolonged and correlated positively to the fat excretion before substitution with pancreatic enzymes (sigma = 1). The enzyme substitution increased the absorption of wheat starch......Pancreatic insufficiency due to chronic pancreatitis may lead to symptomatic malabsorption of both starch and fat. The absorption capacity of wheat starch has not been studied previously in patients with chronic pancreatitis, although this carbohydrate is a quantitatively important component...

  14. Endoscopic findings in a patient with Henoch-Sch(o)nlein purpura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jen Chen; Tsang-En Wang; Wen-Hsiung Chang; Shu-Jung Tsai; Wen-Shen Liao

    2005-01-01

    Henoch-Sch(o)nlein purpura (HSP) is a systemic vasculitis of the small vessels of the skin, joints, GI tract, and kidney.It preferentially affects children but may also occur in adults. We report a 60-year-old man with HSP who presented with colicky abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, arthralgia, and skin rash. The gastrointestinal tract was viewed by upper endoscopy and colonoscopy. We found characteristic endoscopic findings in the stomach, cecum and sigmoid colon, the combination of which has rarely been demonstrated in one patient. Histologic examination of skin biopsy specimens revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis with positive staining for IgA in the capillaries. Endoscopy appears to have substantial diagnostic utility in patients suspected of having HSP, especially when abdominal symptoms precede the cutaneous lesions.

  15. Gastric Burkitt’s lymphoma in a child: A rare case

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANGOTTI, ROSSELLA; MARINI, MARIO; GIANNOTTI, GIULIA; BURGIO, ANDREINA; MEUCCI, DANIELA; PAVONE, MARIA; MESSINA, MARIO

    2012-01-01

    Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) is a high-grade lymphoma which represents 8-10% of all tumors in individuals younger than 15 years old. It may occur as an abdominal tumor, which in rare cases may include gastric mucosa, although in most cases, the tumor is located in the ileum or cecum. Primary gastric lymphoma constitutes as low as 1.48% of all gastric cancers in children. In this study, we described a case of gastric BL in a 4-year-old child, presenting discontinuous abdominal pain, weight loss, constipation and irritability. Despite its rarity in children, this tumor should be treated aggressively and long-term survival has been reported. PMID:23226793

  16. Clinical case and short review of extreme short bowel syndrome: an update 21 years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Mansueto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Short bowel syndrome refers to the malabsorptive state caused by loss of significant portions of the small intestine, whose clinical framework is characterized by malnutrition, diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, and low-weight-related symptoms/signs. These clinical conditions seem to be related to the length of resection. Twenty-one years ago we reported the clinical case of an infant, who underwent a massive resection of the loops of the small intestine, of the cecum and of part of the ascending colon, due to intestinal malrotation with volvulus. The residual small intestine measured just 11 cm and consisted of the duodenum and a small part of jejunum, in the absence of the ileocecal valve, configuring the case of a ultra-short bowel syndrome. In this report, we update the case, reporting the patient succeeded to obtain a good weight gain and to conduct a quite normal lifestyle, despite the long-term consequences of such resection.

  17. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed......-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, puree or pomace....

  18. Phytobezoar: a recurring abdominal problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, J R; Guerkink, R E; Gordon, R T; Weinermann, P

    1977-06-01

    Phytobezoars often follow gastric surgery for peptic ulcer disease. Billroth I resections have a high incidence of gastric bezoars, especially if accompanied by vagotomy. The larger opening of a Billroth II resection may result in intestinal bezoars with obstruction in the narrow terminal ileum. Gastric bezoars can be treated with enzymes or can be broken up by endoscopy; only rarely is operative removal required. Intestinal bezoars can be treated by long-tube and enzyme instillation but usually require laparotomy. If possible, the bolus should be milked into the cecum, but enterotomy or even resection may be required. Prevention is the best treatment and can be carried out by instructing patients who have had gastric surgery to avoid the fibrous portion of oranges and grapefruit and to avoid persimmons.

  19. [Chilaiditi's syndrome complicated by subdiaphragmatic perforated appendicitis: unusual manifestation of a rare condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, M; Kindler, M; Schilling, M; Pollack, T; Schwab, W; Becker, M

    2011-09-01

    We report on a case of an 80-year-old female patient who presented to the emergency room of with right upper quadrant abdominal pain since the day before. During the initial diagnostic an abdominal x-ray study revealed an air-filled colonic section of the bowel under the right hemidiaphragm corresponding to Chilaiditi's sign. The clinical symptoms and laboratory results were mild at this time. After 12 h the patient developed right upper quadrant peritonitis due to a perforated, subdiaphragmatic appendicitis based on Chilaiditi's syndrome. During surgical treatment the cecum and parts of the ascending colon were found to be interposed between the liver and right hemidiaphragm. A right hemicolectomy was performed which led to complete recovery of the patient. In addition to presenting this interesting case this article highlights the regime of the diagnostics and therapy of a complication of the very rare condition of Chilaiditi's syndrome.

  20. Extensive gastric varices demonstrated by technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; Loh, F.G.; Pulmano, C.

    1987-04-01

    An alcohol abuse patient complicated by chronic pancreatitis had splenic vein thrombosis leading to gastric varices and underwent abdominal Tc-99m red blood cell scintigraphy. First pass study, sequential images up to 1 hour, and a 2.5 hour image showed abnormal radioactivity in the left side of the abdomen and midabdomen. In 24 hour images, the high level of activity in the left side persisted; in addition, there was accumulation of radioactivity in the cecum, ascending, transverse colon, the splenic flexure, and descending colon. A splenectomy was performed and during the surgical procedure, a large dilated vein in the greater omentum was noted. It is reemphasized that delayed imaging up to 24 hours is important when the results of earlier images are equivocal or negative.

  1. Morphometry of the alimentary system of the long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Kulawik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 40 long-tailed chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera (20 females and 20 males. The study measured the length of the internal organs of the digestive system and the measurements of their mass. In order to compare the examined metric traits in the male and the female, the figures were statistically analysed. The results found that the average length of the esophagus, the greater curvature of the stomach and cecum were larger in males. After estimating the mass of internal organs it was found that in the male greater value reached mass of the stomach and duodenum with food contained in it and mass of duodenum cleared of leftover food. Research has also shown that the females were characterized by longer intestines than males. The ratio of the small intestine to the large intestine in females was 1: 1.52, in males 1: 1.58.

  2. Scanning electron microscopy of damage to the cecal mucosa of turkeys infected with Eimeria adenoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrick, W J; Hammer, R F

    1979-01-01

    White Wrolstad turkeys were each inoculated with 100,000 Eimeria adenoides oocysts and killed on days 4-14 postinoculation. Tissue samples, obtained from 4 areas of the ceca comparable to areas examined in chickens infected with E. tenella in previous studies, were processed by a modification of the osmium-thiocarbo-hydrazide-osmium technique and examined with a scanning electron microscope. The pathologic situation found in turkeys was slightly different from that in the ceca of chickens infected with E. tenella. The mucosal lesions are most severe at the proximal end of an infected cecum. Surface disruption was far less severe than with cecal coccidiosis in chickens of the same age exposed to an equal number of infective oocysts. Rupture of the epithelial cell often caused the mucosal surface to present a honeycomb appearance. Some specific stages of the life cycle were identified, including schizonts and oocysts.

  3. Invasive amebiasis and ameboma formation presenting as a rectal mass: An uncommon case of malignant masquerade at a western medical center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A 54-year-old man presented with rectal pain and bleeding secondary to ulcerated, necrotic rectal and cecal masses that resembled colorectal carcinoma upon colonoscopy. These masses were later determined to be benign amebomas caused by invasive Entamoeba histolytica, which regressed completely with medical therapy. In Western countries, the occurrence of invasive protozoan infection with formation of amebomas is very rare and can mistakenly masquerade as a neoplasm. Not surprisingly, there have been very few cases reported of this clinical entity within the United States. Moreover, we report a patient that had an extremely rare occurrence of two synchronous lesions, one involving the rectum and the other situated in the cecum. We review the current literature on the pathogenesis of invasive E. Histolytica infection and ameboma formation, as well as management of this rare disease entity at a western medical center.

  4. Symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an echinoderm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); De Ridder, C. [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Lab. de Biologie Marine

    1998-09-01

    Thiothrix-like bacteria have been reported as symbionts in invertebrates from sulfide-rich habitats. Isolation of these symbiotic Thiothrix-like bacteria has failed, and the organisms have not been previously identified with certainty. The genus Thiothrix was created for ensheathed filamentous bacteria that oxidize sulfide and deposit sulfur granules internally, attach to substrates, produce gliding gonidia, and form rosettes. Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates.

  5. A Case of Unsuspected Peritoneal Mesothelioma Occurring with Colonic Adenocarcinoma Masquerading as Peritoneal Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of synchronous primary colonic adenocarcinoma and malignant mesothelioma. A 61-year-old male presented with a six-month history of fatigue and weight loss. An abdominal computed tomography (CT scan showed a 5.8 cm partially obstructing mass in the cecum with ascites and peritoneal thickening. A biopsy of the large mass showed an adenocarcinoma. Because the patient was clinically thought to be a T4 colon carcinoma with peritoneal metastatic lesions (M1, prior to initiating chemotherapy, a debulking right hemicolectomy was performed. Resection of the colon and ileum revealed a T3N0 colonic mucinous adenocarcinoma and concurrent diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. Presenting synchronous colonic and peritoneal mesothelial primary malignancies are exceedingly rare but must be considered to prevent incorrect clinical staging.

  6. ORIGEM E DISTRIBUIÇÃO DA ARTÉRIA CELÍACA DE AVESTRUZES (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gomes Vasconcelos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of ostriches aims at trading meat, feathers, leather and grease. The digestive system is intimately related to productivity, and the celiac artery is amongst the major vessels responsible for its nutrition. The artery´s origin and distribution was studied here. In 30 specimens, the left ischiatic artery was cannulated for the injection of a blood vessels marker solution and then fixed in formalin solution 10% via deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracavitary applications. We concluded that this artery originated from the descending aorta, its first branch is ventral and it headed for the right side sending branches to: esophagus, proventriculus, ventriculus, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, duodenum, ileum, left and right cecum.

  7. The utility of fistulography in the diagnosis of thyroglossal duct cyst with fistulous tract: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghua Zhu, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC is one of the most common congenital, midline, cervical lesions originating from an embryonic thyroglossal duct remnant. It is usually diagnosed clinically. Imaging is used to confirm the clinical diagnosis, and fistulography is very helpful in the diagnosis and surgical planning for thyroglossal fistulous tract. Fistulographs show the direction, length, and anatomy of the remnant tracts and the small tracts connecting a TGDC to the tongue base at the foramen cecum. This report presents a case of TGDC in a 12-year-old boy and demonstrates the utility of fistulography imaging in the diagnosis of TGDC with fistulous tract. In this case, fistulography was performed after cannulating the external opening of the fistula. The patient underwent a resection, including thyroglossal tract removal and further excision of the mid portion of the hyoid bone (the Sistrunk procedure. The postoperative pathology report indicated thyroglossal duct remnants with no evidence of malignancy.

  8. Remote discovery of an asymptomatic bowel perforation by a mid-urethral sling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jason E; Maslow, Ken D

    2012-02-01

    Bowel perforation is a rare complication of mid-urethral sling procedures and is usually reported shortly after the surgery. We report a remotely discovered asymptomatic bowel injury found at the time of subsequent surgery. The patient with a history of several prior pelvic surgeries underwent an uneventful retropubic mid-urethral sling placement. Five years later, during an abdominal sacrocolpopexy procedure, mesh from the mid-urethral sling was found perforating the wall of the cecum and fixating it to the right pelvic sidewall. Cecal wedge resection was performed to excise the sling mesh. Asymptomatic bowel perforation by mid-urethral sling mesh has not been previously reported. Pelvic and abdominal surgeons should be aware of the possibility of finding this injury in patients with prior sling surgeries. PMID:22052439

  9. Ectopic fascioliasis mimicking a colon tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozer Makay; Baris Gurcu; Cemil Caliskan; Deniz Nart; Muge Tuncyurek; Mustafa Korkut

    2007-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, a leaf shaped trematode that is common in cattle, sheep and goats, is acquired by eating raw water plants like watercress or drinking water infected with the encysted form of the parasite.The varied clinical presentations of fascioliasis still make a high index of suspicion mandatory. Besides having a wide spectrum of hepatobiliary symptoms like obstructive jaundice, cholangitis and liver cirrhosis, the parasitic infection also has extrabiliary manifestations.Until recently, extrahepatic fascioliasis has been reported in the subcutaneous tissue, brain, lungs, epididymis,inguinal lymph nodes, stomach and the cecum. In this report, a strange manifestation of the fasciola infection in a site other than the liver, a colonic fascioliasis, is presented.

  10. Pathological changes in turkeys liver associated with Histomoniasis in Duhok City,Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Histomoniasis were detected and described among naturally affected of twenty three young Turkeys poult compared with the adults. Sample for study were collected from different areas of Duhok city in Kurdistan region/Iraq. Giemsa stain where used for identification of parasite from specimens of liver and cecum samples, then specimen, where fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for routine histopathological study. The affected birds showed clinical signs of lethargic, drooping of head and wings with progressive emaciation and a clear distinctive signs in live ones, and appearance of continuous yellowish diarrhea. Pathologically there is an enlargement and discoloration of the liver associated with appearance of white to yellow multifocal nodules in the surface of the liver. While the result of histolpathological changes showed severs inflammatory reaction around necrotic tissues with degenerative and necrotic changes of the liver cells.

  11. Benign Duodenocolic Fistula: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Soheili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Benign duodenocolic fistula (DCF, known as a fistula between the duodenum and colon with orwithout cecum of nonmalignant origin, is an unusual complication of different gastrointestinal diseases. Thepresent paper records a case in which the patient presented with chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight lossas well as having a history of gastric ulcer. Most frequently the condition presents with signs ofmalabsorption such as weight loss and diarrhea, but other symptoms include nausea, vomiting (sometimeswith fecal, and abdominal pain. Gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions are the usual causes. The mostcommon ones are perforated duodenal ulcer and Crohn’s disease. Barium enemas are usually diagnostic.Treatment consists of excising the fistula and repairing the duodenal and colonic defects. Closure of thefistula provides quick relief.

  12. Lipocalin-2 Test in Distinguishing Acute Lung Injury Cases from Septic Mice Without Acute Lung Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zeng; Cong-wei Jia; Jie Liu; Shu-bin Guo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore whether the amount of lipocalin-2 in the biofluid could reflect the onset of sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Methods Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg/kg) injection or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was performed to induce severe sepsis and ALI in C57 BL/6 male mice randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10 in each group):group A (intraperitoneal LPS injection), group B (intravenous LPS injection via tail vein), group C (CLP with 25%of the cecum ligated), group D (CLP with 75%of the cecum ligated), and the control group (6 sham-operation controls plus 4 saline controls). All the mice received volume resuscitation. Measurements of pulmonary morphological and functional alterations were used to identify the presence of experimental ALI. The expressions of lipocalin-2 and interleukin (IL)-6 in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissue were quantified at both protein and mRNA levels. The overall abilities of lipocalin-2 and IL-6 tests to diagnose sepsis-induced ALI were evaluated by generating receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC) and computing area under curve (AUC). Results In both group B and group D, most of the“main features”of experimental ALI were reproduced in mice, while group A and group C showed septic syndrome without definite evidence for the presence of ALI. Compared with septic mice without ALI (group A+group C), lipocalin-2 protein expression in septic mice with ALI (group B+group D) was significantly up-regulated in BALF (P Conclusions Lipocalin-2 expression is significantly up-regulated in septic ALI mice compared with those without ALI. Lipocalin-2 tests with a dual cutoff system could be an effective tool in distinguishing experimental ALI cases.

  13. Diagnostic yield of endomicroscopy for dysplasia in primary sclerosing cholangitis associated inflammatory bowel disease: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugosz, Aldona; Barakat, Ammar Mohkles; Björkström, Niklas K.; Öst, Åke; Bergquist, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Primary sclerosing cholangitis associated inflammatory bowel disease (PSC-IBD) is characterized by a high risk of colorectal dysplasia. Surveillance colonoscopies with random biopsies have doubtful power for dysplasia detection. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the feasibility and efficacy of pCLE in surveillance colonoscopies in patients with PSC-IBD. Patients and methods: Sixty-nine patients with PSC-IBD underwent colonoscopy in 2 steps. On the way from rectum to cecum, the mucosa was inspected with high definition endoscopy (HDE) and random biopsies were taken according to the standard routine. On the way from cecum to rectum, fluorescein-enhanced pCLE and chromoendoscopy were performed. Regions where random biopsies had been taken, as well as visible lesions, were examined with pCLE and targeted biopsies were taken of lesions suspicious for dysplasia. Two investigators, blinded to histology and endoscopy results, analyzed all pCLE videos off-line. Results: Nineteen biopsies obtained in 13 patients (17 targeted biopsies, 2 random biopsies) revealed the presence of low-grade dysplasia. Thirteen lesions with dysplasia were endoscopically visible but by using pCLE-targeted biopsies, additional endoscopically invisible dysplasias in 4 biopsies obtained from 3 patients were detected. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of pCLE in predicting dysplasia were respectively 89 % (95 % CI: 65 – 98), 96 % (95 % CI: 94 – 97), and 96 % (95 % CI: 94 – 97). pCLE showed a good performance for differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic mucosa with negative predictive value of 99 %. Conclusions: pCLE in PSC-IBD surveillance is feasible and may be a good complement to HDE. Future research should aim at elucidating whether real-time pCLE is applicable in PSC-IBD surveillance. PMID:27540581

  14. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolnaya Lydia M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.

  15. Fecal-tagging CT colonography with structure-analysis electronic cleansing for detection of colorectal flat lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yonghua, E-mail: howardyonghua@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuhui Central Hospital of Shanghai and China Academy of Sciences Shanghai Medical Center, 966 Huai Hai Central Road, Shanghai 200031 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Cai, Wenli; Nappi, Janne; Yoshida, Hiro [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 25 New Chardon Street 400C, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and sensitivity of the 3D-reading of fecal-tagging CT colonography (CTC) with a novel structure-analysis electronic cleansing (SAEC) in detecting colorectal flat lesions in comparison with a cleansed 3D reading with Viatronix V3D Colon system (V3D) and primary uncleansed 2D reading (2D). Materials and methods: Forty CTC cases with flat lesions were retrospectively observed. The Subjects from a multicenter clinical trial underwent cathartic bowel preparation with orally administrated barium-based fecal-tagging. Sixty-nine flat lesions were confirmed using colonoscopy and histopathology as a reference standard. The results from SAEC reading were compared with those of prospective V3D and 2D readings. Results: Overall detection sensitivity with SAEC was 52% (36/69), which was statistically higher than that of 32% (22/69) and 29% (20/69) with V3D and 2D readings, respectively (p < 0.05). The sensitivities in detecting not-on-fold flat lesions were 63% (24/38), 45% (17/38), and 42% (16/38) with SAEC, V3D, and 2D readings, respectively; whereas those of on-fold flat lesions were 39% (12/31), 16% (5/31), and 13% (4/31), respectively. None of the eight flat lesions (2-9 mm) at cecum was detected by any of the three reading methods. Excluding the flat lesions at cecum, the sensitivity with SAEC for detecting flat lesion {>=}4 mm increased to 84% (31/37). Conclusions: The fecal-tagging CTC with structure-analysis electronic cleansing could yield a high sensitivity for detecting flat lesions {>=}4 mm. The not-on-fold flat lesions were detected with higher sensitivity than on-fold flat lesions.

  16. Multi drug resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to tested antibiotics in strains originating from humans, poultry and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran Ž.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter are among the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans. Food animals are considered one of the most important sources of Campylobacter causing infections in man. Campylobacter infection is clinically mild and resolves spontaneously. In severe or long-lasting cases, treatment with antibiotics is necessary. Resistance of Campylobacter spp. to drugs used in treatment of infection is a matter of concern. The aim of this paper is to determine presence of multi drug resistant strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from animals and man. Material for testing was obtained by scraping the cecum surface from boilers, pig cecum and colon, and human feces. For isolation Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli microaerophilic conditions, temperature of 42°C and antibiotic supplement were required to inhibit the growth of other intestinal bacteria. In this research, for sensitivity testing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli three different methods were used: disc diffusion test, E-test, and dilution agar method. A total of 55 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Out of the total, 24 strains originated from man, 16 from broilers were isolated, and 15 from pigs. Multidrug resistance was determined in cases when the strains were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Applying E-test, we detected that the largest number of Campylobacter jejuni were multi drug resistant to two antibiotics (41.2%, and three antibiotics (11.8%. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 5.9% of Campylobacter jejuni from man was resistant to four tested antibiotics. Applying all three methods, it was detected that the largest number of Campylobacter strains was resistant to two antibiotics and three antibiotics. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 50% of Campylobacter coli strains from pigs were resistant to three tested antibiotics.

  17. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels in feed on microbial composition and activity in gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Vahjen, W; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Villodre, C; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-06-01

    Thermal treatments of feed and organic acids are known to affect the gastrointestinal microbiota in chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of different thermal processes including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), expanding at 110°C (E110), and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) as well as organic acid (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) inclusion levels (0, 0.75, and 1.5%) on gastrointestinal microbiota in broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. At d 35, bacterial cell numbers in the crop, ileum, and cecum, and bacterial metabolites in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were determined. The inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased cell numbers of all clostridial clusters in the crop. The organic acid supplementation increased the propionic acid concentration in the crop and gizzard and there was a decrease in lactic acid concentration. In the ileum, the 0% organic acid group had the highest numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and enterobacteria. Inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased ileal acetate concentration. Increasing the feed processing temperature led to an increase of lactobacilli in the crop and ileum, whereas clostridia and enterobacteria seemed unaffected. Similarly, lactate concentrations increased in the ileum, but short-chain fatty acids remained identical. In the crop, an increase for acetate was found for the E130 group compared with all other thermal treatments. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that thermal treatments and organic acid supplementation to broiler diets more markedly influenced the bacterial status of the crop compared with the downstream segments and their effects decreased along the length of gastrointestinal tract. Whereas organic acids markedly modified bacterial composition and activity in the crop, expansion increased lactobacilli and lactate in the crop and ileum. PMID:24879694

  18. MSCT Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis%多层螺旋CT对急性阑尾炎的诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪红; 刘红宇; 张国华; 符惠宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral CT( MSCT) for acute appendicitis. Methods 58 cases of acute appendicitis conformed by surgery and clinic were collected,CT findings such as appendix size, shape and change around the cecum were retrospective analyzed. Results CT showed abnormal appendix ,including enlargement, wall thickening, stone cavity fluid, etc in 38 cascs;inflammatory changes around the appendix ,including speckled and stripcd fuzzy shadows within fat around the appendix, a little of ascites, the right cone fascial thickening , the front of psoas major muscle fuzzy ,the right perirenal fascial thickening; 2 cases with gas cavity ,1 case with stone cavity, 12 cases with the local cecum wall thickening. Conclusion MSCT has important value in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.%目的 分析急性阑尾炎的多层螺旋CT(MSCT)诊断价值.方法 对58例经手术、临床证实的急性阑尾炎的阑尾大小、形态及盲肠周围改变等CT资料进行回顾性分析.结果 38例显示异常阑尾(肿大增粗、壁增厚、腔内结石积液等),46例显示阑尾周围炎性改变(阑尾周围脂肪内斑点状及条纹状模糊影、腹腔少量积液、右侧侧锥筋膜增厚、腰大肌前缘模糊、右侧肾周筋膜增厚),腔外气体2例,腔外结石1例,局限性盲肠壁增厚12例.结论 MSCT在急性阑尾炎的诊断中有重要的价值.

  19. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  20. Effect of Carapa guianensis Aublet (Andiroba and Orbignya phalerata (Babassu in colonic healing in rats

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    Cícero Evandro Soares Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the healing effect of the babassu aqueous extract and andiroba oil on open wounds in the cecum of rats. Methods: fifty-four Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 18: 1 babassu group with application of aqueous extract of babassu; 2 andiroba group with application of the oil; and 3 control group, with application of saline solution. All procedures were done by gavage. Each group was divided into three subgroups of six animals according to the observation period of 7, 14 or 21 days. From each animal was removed caecum fragment of 1.5cm² diameter. The areas of the lesions were analyzed macroscopically and resected specimens by light microscopy using hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. Results: abscess and infection were observed in two aroeira group animals, and in one only hematoma. In relationship to adhesions degree, babassu group had higher incidence of grade II while in the control and aroeira groups predominated adhesions grade I. On microscopic examination on day 7 fibroblast proliferation was greater in aroeira and lower in babassu group (p=0.028. On the 14th day polymorphonuclear were less pronounced in babassu (p=0.007. As for the resistance test of air insufflation, it was observed that in all andiroba group in all tested days showed be higher. As for collagen, on the 7th day it was present in 100% of animals of aroeira group. On the 14th day was more pronounced in the control group and at day 21 similar results were found in the control and aroeira groups. Conclusion: animals in babassu and andiroba groups showed better cecum healing compared to the control group.

  1. Scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time of water in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; Marano, A.R.; McCallum, R.

    1984-01-01

    A method utilizing a lactulose solution to measure small intestinal transit time (SITT) has been previously reported. Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar and is known to increase SITT. In order to determine the extent to which lactulose accelerates SITT, a group of 4 normal male volunteers were studied after the ingestion of 150cc of water to which 100 uCi of 111-In was added. To provide adequate caloric intake, as occurs physiologically, the water was drunk while ingesting a solid meal. The subject was then placed supine under a 15 inch gamma camera. Data were collected and stored in a computer at one frame every 3 minute for 240 minutes. If activity was not present in the cecal region by this time, the subject was allowed to move about for 15 minutes and then repositioned under the gamma camera. Data were first viewed in a movie format. Regions of interest were selected over the cecum and ascending colon. The time of first appearance of radioactivity in the region of the cecum was taken as the SITT. Each subject was studied on three separate occasions. The mean (+- SEM) SITT for each of the separate studies was 248 +- 58 min., 240 +- 47 min. and 232 +- 54 min. respectively (pless than or equal toNS). Two previously studied groups of normal volunteers had a mean SITT of approximately 80 minutes. Water appears to have a significantly slower SITT when ingested with a solid meal when compared to lactulose. Clinically, the potential to use water as a test for SITT would not seem to be as attractive or practical as using lactulose as the test substance.

  2. The scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, A.R.; Caride, V.J.; Shah, R.V.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.J.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Diffuse disturbance in gastrointestinal motility may be present in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To further investigate small intestinal motility in IBS patients small intestinal transit time (SITT) was determined and related to the symptom status. 11 female patients with IBS (mean age 29 years) were divided into those whose predominate symptom was diarrhea (N=6), and those with only constipation (N=5). All subjects ingested an isosmotic solution of lactulose (10 gm in 150cc of water) labeled with 99m-Tc-DTPA (Sn). The patient was studied supine under a 25 inch gamma camera with data collected at 1 frame per minute for 180 minutes or until activity appeared in the ascending colon. Regions of interest were selected over the cecum and ascending colon. The time of first appearance of radioactivity in the region of the cecum was taken as the small intestinal transit time. SITT in the 5 normal females was 98.7 +- 13 min (mean +- SEM). SITT in the IBS patients with diarrhea, 67.3 +- 7 min was significantly faster (p< 0.08). SITT in the constipated IBS patients, 126 +- 12 min, was slower than normals and significantly different from diarrhea patients (p< 0.001). These studies show that IBS patients with diarrhea have significantly faster SITT than normals while constipated IBS patients have significantly slower SITT than the diarrhea subgroup. Further, this study emphasizes the need to study the various symptomatic subgroups of IBs patients independently and indicates a possible role for abnormal SITT in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  3. Glycol Methacrylate Embedding for the Histochemical Study of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania Infantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, A.J.W.; de Amorim, I.F.G.; Pinheiro, L.J.; Madeira, I.M.V.M.; Souza, C.C.; Chiarini-Garcia, H.; Caliari, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    In canine visceral leishmaniasis a diffuse chronic inflammatory exudate and an intense parasite load throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been previously reported. However, these studies did not allow a properly description of canine cellular morphology details. The aim of our study was to better characterize these cells in carrying out a qualitative and quantitative histological study in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum by examining gut tissues embedded in glycol methacrylate. Twelve infected adult dogs were classified in asymptomatic and symptomatic. Five uninfected dogs were used as controls. After necropsy, three samples of each gut segment, including oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum were collected and fixed in Carnoy’s solution for glycol methacrylate protocols. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue borate, and periodic acid-Schiff stain. Leishmania amastigotes were detected by immunohistochemistry employed in both glycol methacrylate and paraffin embedded tissues. The quantitative histological analysis showed higher numbers of plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages in lamina propria of all segments of GIT of infected dogs compared with controls. The parasite load was more intense and cecum and colon, independently of the clinical status of these dogs. Importantly, glycol methacrylate embedded tissue stained with toluidine blue borate clearly revealed mast cell morphology, even after mast cell degranulation. Infected dogs showed lower numbers of mast cells in all gut segments than controls. Despite the glycol methacrylate (GMA) protocol requires more attention and care than the conventional paraffin processing, this embedding procedure proved to be especially suitable for the present histological study, where it allowed to preserve and observe cell morphology in fine detail. PMID:26708180

  4. Subepithelial basement membrane thickness in patients with normal colonic mucosal appearance in colonoscopy:Results from southern Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fazilet Kayaselcuk; Ender Serin; Yǖksel Gumurdulu; Birol Ozer; Ilhan Tuncer; Sedat Boyacioglu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Our aims were to determine the normal limits of subepithelial basement membrane (SEBM) thickness in order to more accurately diagnose collagenous colitis in the population from southern Turkey and to investigate into links between SEBM thickness and age, and sex.METHODS: The study included 100 patients (mean age 50.0±13.3 years; male, 34; female, 66) with miscellaneous gastrointestinal symptoms, and normal colonic mucosal appearance in colonoscopic evaluation. Biopsies were taken from five different regions of the colon. SEBM was measured with a calibrated eyepiece on specimens prepared with specific stains for collagen. Intensity of inflammatory cells was graded semiquantitatively. Differences in SEBM thickness among the different colon regions, and relationships between SEBM thickness and age, sex, and density of inflammatory cells were statistically evaluated.RESULTS: The cecum and rectum showed the largest amounts of infiltrate. None of the specimens showed histologic findings of collagenous colitis. The SEBM thicknesses measured for each case ranged from 3-20 μm. The biggest thickness was observed in rectal mucosa (median value: 10 μm).Cecum and ascending colon showed similar SEBM thickness (median value: 5 μm). SEBM thickness was not correlated with patient age or sex, but was positively correlated with the intensity of inflammatory cells in each colon segment.CONCLUSION: In this patient group from southern Turkey,SEBM was thickest in the rectum. Our results indicate that,in this population, SEBM thickness is not correlated with age or sex, but is positively correlated with severity of inflammation. The findings also support the concept that measuring SEBM thickness at one segment in the colon is inadequate and may be misleading.

  5. Performance of different categories of operators in simulated diagnostic colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Renato; Pertile, Riccardo; Seligman, Sonia; de Pretis, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The possible involvement, although limited to the diagnostic phase of the procedure, of nonmedical staff (particularly endoscopy nurses) in lower digestive endoscopy has recently been suggested. Computer-based simulators have demonstrated objective evaluation of technical skills in digestive endoscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate basic colonoscopy skills of endoscopy nurses (naive operators), as compared with junior physician staff and senior endoscopists, through a virtual reality colonoscopy simulator. In this single-center, prospective, nonrandomized study, 3 groups of digestive endoscopy operators (endoscopy nurses, junior doctors [500 previous colonoscopies and >200/year]) completed six diagnostic cases generated by an endoscopic simulator (AccuTouch, Immersion Medical, Gaithersburg, MD). The performance parameters, collected by the simulator, were compared between groups. Five parameters have been considered for statistical analysis: time spent to reach the cecum; pain of any degree; severe/extreme pain; amount of insufflated air; percentage of visualized mucosa. Statistical analysis to compare the three groups has been performed by means of Wilcoxon test for two independent samples and by means of Kruskal-Wallis test for three independent samples (p < .05). Sixteen operators have been studied (six endoscopy nurses, five junior doctors, and five senior doctors); 96 colonoscopic procedures have been evaluated. Statistically significant differences between experts and naive operators were observed regarding time to reach the cecum and induction of severe/extreme pain, with both Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon test (p < .05); all other comparisons did not reach statistical significance. Although, as expected, expert doctors exceeded both junior doctors and naive operators in some relevant quality parameters of simulated diagnostic colonoscopies, the results obtained by less expert performers--and particularly by nursing staff--appear satisfactory as in

  6. Effect of feeding piglets with different extruded and nonextruded cereals on the gut mucosa and microbiota during the first postweaning week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrallardona, D; Andrés-Elias, N; López-Soria, S; Badiola, I; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M

    2012-12-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of different cereals in piglet diets on the jejunal mucosa and the ileal and cecal microbiota during the first postweaning days. In Trial 1, 48 newly weaned pigs (7.95 kg BW; 26 d of age) were individually housed and distributed among 3 experimental diets containing white rice (Oryza sativa), naked oats (Avena sativa), or barley (Hordeum vulgare) as the cereal source. At the start of the trial (weaning; day 0), 12 piglets were slaughtered and sampled to obtain initial reference values for histology and microbiology determinations. Additionally, 4 pigs per treatment per day were slaughtered and sampled at days 1, 2, and 6 postweaning. Villus height (VH), crypt depth (CD), and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in jejunal mucosa were measured, and microbiota in ileal and cecal digesta were evaluated by RFLP. The Manhattan distances between RFLP profiles were calculated and, for each treatment and sampling day, intragroup similarities (IGS) were estimated. In Trial 2, an additional 48 piglets were used (7.56 kg BW; 26 d of age), and the same experimental procedures were performed except that the 3 experimental diets contained extruded white rice, extruded naked oats, or extruded barley as the cereal source. A reduction in VH was observed in both trials from day 0 to 6 (P cereals), more IEL and deeper crypts were observed for the barley than for the naked oats based diets (P cereals were observed for the histological parameters. In Trial 1, feeding naked oats resulted in lower IGS (increased heterogeneity) of the microbiota in the ileum and in the cecum compared to rice and barley (P oats and extruded rice whereas in the cecum, both extruded barley and extruded rice resulted in lower IGS than extruded naked oats (P cereal nature affects the composition of the microbiota and the morphology of the gut mucosa in newly weaned pigs.

  7. Role of the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) in the maintenance of intestinal mucosal integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabui, Subrata; Bohl, Jennifer Ann; Kapadia, Rubina; Cogburn, Kyle; Ghosal, Abhisek; Lambrecht, Nils W; Said, Hamid M

    2016-09-01

    Utilizing a conditional (intestinal-specific) knockout (cKO) mouse model, we have recently shown that the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) (SLC5A6) is the only biotin uptake system that operates in the gut and that its deletion leads to biotin deficiency. Unexpectedly, we also observed that all SMVT-cKO mice develop chronic active inflammation, especially in the cecum. Our aim here was to examine the role of SMVT in the maintenance of intestinal mucosal integrity [permeability and expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins]. Our results showed that knocking out the mouse intestinal SMVT is associated with a significant increase in gut permeability and with changes in the level of expression of TJ proteins. To determine whether these changes are related to the state of biotin deficiency that develops in SMVT-cKO mice, we induced (by dietary means) biotin deficiency in wild-type mice and examined its effect on the above-mentioned parameters. The results showed that dietary-induced biotin deficiency leads to a similar development of chronic active inflammation in the cecum with an increase in the level of expression of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as an increase in intestinal permeability and changes in the level of expression of TJ proteins. We also examined the effect of chronic biotin deficiency on permeability and expression of TJ proteins in confluent intestinal epithelial Caco-2 monolayers but observed no changes in these parameters. These results show that the intestinal SMVT plays an important role in the maintenance of normal mucosal integrity, most likely via its role in providing biotin to different cells of the gut mucosa. PMID:27492331

  8. Soy protein diet, but not Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, decreases mucin-1, trefoil factor-3, and tumor necrosis factor-α in colon of dextran sodium sulfate-treated C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huanyi; Przybyszewski, Joseph; Mitra, Debjani; Becker, Chad; Brehm-Stecher, Byron; Tentinger, Amy; MacDonald, Ruth S

    2011-07-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases has increased during recent decades. Within the colon, the families of mucins (MUC) and trefoil factors (TFF) facilitate mucosal protection. Probiotic administration influences the intestinal MUC layer. Additionally, food components may affect gut microflora or have direct effects on the MUC barrier. Our objective was to determine whether diet and/or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) would mediate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis by altering expression of the MUC and TFF genes. C57BL/6 mice were fed diets containing 20% (wt:wt) casein, soy, or whey proteins with or without LGG for 12 d. Seven days after starting LGG diets, the mice were given 2% DSS in drinking water for 4 d. Two additional casein groups with or without LGG were given tap water, for a total of 8 groups. One day after the DSS treatment, the mice were killed and the colon and cecum tissues and cecum contents were collected and analyzed by qRT-PCR. Whey protein significantly increased cecal LGG content compared with the other diets. In the casein diet groups, MUC1 and TFF-3 expression in colon was significantly induced by DSS independent of LGG. Compared with other DSS-treated groups, soy protein decreased MUC-1 and TFF-3 in the colon. Similarly, soy protein decreased the impact of DSS on inflammatory scores, TNFα gene expression, and colon shortening. There was no overall effect of LGG on these measurements. In conclusion, soy protein suppressed the DSS-induced inflammatory stimulation of MUC, TFF, and TNFα gene expression independently of LGG.

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter on broiler chickens from farm to slaughter and efficiency of methods to remove visible fecal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giombelli, Audecir; Gloria, Maria Beatriz Abreu

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter from farm to slaughter. The efficiency of trimming and water spray (490 to 588 kPa pressure) on the removal of visible fecal contamination from broiler carcasses before chilling was also investigated. Drag swabs were used to sample litter from the farm houses. Samples of ceca and carcasses without and with visible fecal contamination before and after trimming or spray washing of fecal contamination were taken during slaughter of the flocks previously visited at the farms. There was a low prevalence of Salmonella on the litter from the farms (5%) and cecum and carcasses (0%). However, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were present in farms' litter (100 and 58.8%, respectively), cecum samples (100 and 70.6%, respectively), and carcasses with (58.8 and 11.6%, respectively) and without (17.6 and 9.8%, respectively) visible fecal contamination. There was high prevalence of C. jejuni but at low counts and low prevalence and high counts of C. coli. Campylobacter lari was not detected in any sample. Trimming the visible fecal contamination decreased the prevalence of C. jejuni but increased occurrence of C. coli. Trimming did not reduce the counts of Campylobacter and of hygiene indicator microorganisms on the carcasses. Water shower reduced the counts of hygiene indicator microorganisms by 20%. Therefore, control measures for preventing introduction of Campylobacter and the use of good hygienic conditions are needed to warrant the microbiological quality and safety of broiler carcasses. PMID:25364917

  10. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Feng Mei

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg–1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  11. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Wen Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg-1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  12. Resposta terapêutica e inflamatória de ratos com peritonite secundária submetidos ao uso tópico de ampicilina/sulbactam Therapeutical and inflammatory response in rats with secondary peritonitis and topical use of ampicilin/sulbactam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Kreimer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A peritonite aguda representa uma importante causa de sepsis e óbito nas unidades de terapia intensiva e cirurgia. Classicamente o seu tratamento deve incluir: a administração sistêmica de antibióticos, a remoção mecânica dos contaminantes e a restauração da integridade gastrintestinal. A utilização de antibióticos diretamente na cavidade peritoneal é controversa. Estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o uso terapêutico, intraperitoneal da ampicilina associada ao sulbactam. MÉTODOS: foram mensurados os níveis plasmáticos do óxido nítrico, bem como a contagem de eosinófilos, linfócitos, monócitos e neutrófilos no sangue e no lavado peritoneal, utilizando-se modelo de peritonite em ratos (ligadura-transfixação cecal. Vinte quatro ratos Wistar, machos, foram divididos em quatro grupos de seis animais, assim distribuídos: grupo A: método de indução de peritonite - soltura da ligadura + tratamento com soro fisiológico; grupo B: método de indução de peritonite + soltura da ligadura + tratamento com soro fisiológico acrescido de ampicilina / sulbactam; grupo C: método de indução de peritonite + soltura da ligadura-transfixação cecal; e grupo D: laparatomia para realização de lavado peritoneal mais coleta de sangue. A ligadura-transfixação do cecum permaneceu por 24 horas, antes do tratamento instaurado. Foi realizada uma relaparotomia nos 18 ratos com coleta de líquido de lavado peritoneal e sangue. Foram dosados os níveis plasmáticos de óxido nítrico e determinado o número de eosinófilos, linfócitos, monócitos e neutrófilos no sangue e no lavado peritoneal. RESULTADOS: Não ocorreu diferença estatisticamente significante (p > 0,05 nos níveis de óxido nítrico, bem como no número de eosinófilos, linfócitos, monócitos e neutrófilos no sangue e no lavado peritoneal, entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo, concluiu-se que: a utilização de ampicilina associada a sulbactam por via

  13. Effects of Xiaochaihu Decoction on Damage of Gut-liver-brain in CCl4/Ethanol Induced Mouse Hepatocellular Carcinoma%小柴胡汤对四氯化碳/乙醇诱发小鼠肝癌肠-肝-脑损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小剑; 刘晓秋

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the effects of Xiaochaihu Decoction on damage of gut-liver-brain in CCl4/ethanol-induced mouse hepatocellular carcinoma. Method; Hepatocellular carcinoma group ( HCC ) were induced by subcutaneous injection with 25% CC14 olive oil solution (5 mL 'kg twice per week) and allowed free access to a 8% ethanol solution as drinking fluid for 4 weeks, and allowed free access to 0. 5% CQ4-8% ethanol solution as drinking fluid for 20 weeks; in HCC combined with liver depression and spleen deficiency ( LDSD) group (HCC-LDSD group) , on the basis of HCC modelling, the mice were stimulated with the factor of LDSD, squeezing tails (30 min -d-1 ) , solitary breeding and intermittent fasting for 4 weeks, solitary breeding and intermittent fasting for 20 weeks; Xiaochaihu decoction (XCHD) treated group was administered by gavage for 8 weeks after 4 weeks of the HCC-LDSD modelling. The mortality rates and HCC incidence rates were calculated, weight and clinical signs were monitored daily. The degree of tissue injuries in the gut and liver were studied using a scoring system, and brain weights were measured. Result: The mortality rate in HCC-LDSD group was higher than that in the HCC group, after treatment with XCHD, the mortality rate decreased significantly. In death mouse of HCC group, significantly more injuries in small intestine, cecum, liver and fecal loading in the cecum, with the increased in brain weights, the most in HCC-LDSD group, after treatment with XCHD, all of which were improved. HCC incidence rate in the HCC-LDSD group was higher than that in the HCC group, after treatment with XCHD, the HCC incidence rate decreased significantly. In survival mouse of HCC group, significantly more injuries in small intestine, cecum, liver ( mainly hyperplasia) , with slight decreased in brain weights, the most in HCC-LDSD group, after treatment with XCHD, all of which were improved. Correlative analysis showed that there was a positive or negative

  14. Clinical and histological responses to laparoscopically-induced peritonitis in rats Resposta clínica e histológica à indução de peritonite via laparoscopia em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Rodrigues Bicalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of inducing peritonitis in rats through laparoscopic cecal ligation (CL, by means of an elastic band. METHODS: Twelve Wistar rats were subjected to cecal ligated with an elastic band applied using a specially constructed applicator. In six of the animals (the CL group the cecal sac was preserved intact whilst in the remaining animals (the CLP group the sac was perforated with scissors. Clinical parameters, characteristics of the peritoneal cavity and cecum, and histological features of the cecal tissue were observed in all experimental animals 8 and 24 h after surgery. RESULTS: CLP animals exhibited at least one clinical sign of sepsis within the first 8 h of observation. The peritoneal liquid was observed to be clear in almost all members of the CLP. Polymorphonucleated cells were detected in the tunica serosa of the cecum of CLP animals. In contrast, all members of the CL group were alive after 24h, and of polymorphonucleated cells in the muscle layer of the cecal wall were observed. The presence of peritoneal liquid was not detected in CL animals. CONCLUSION: Although elastic ligation of the cecum was reproducible, puncture of the cecal sac was essential for induction of sepsis.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia de induzir peritonite em ratos através da ligadura cecal laparoscópica (CL, por meio de banda elástica. MÉTODOS: Doze ratos Wistar foram submetidos a ligadura cecal com banda elástica aplicada com dispositivo especialmente construído para este fim. Em seis animais (grupo CL, a bolsa cecal foi mantida intacta, enquanto nos outros animais (grupo CLP, a bolsa foi perfurada com tesoura. Parâmetros clínicos, características da cavidade peritonial e ceco, e histologia do tecido cecal foram examinados em todos os animais 8 e 24 horas após a cirurgia. RESULTADOS: Os animais do grupo CLP apresentaram pelo menos um sinal clínico de sepses nas primeiras 8 h de observação. Líquido peritonial claro foi

  15. 日粮中不同稻壳替代水平对19~28日龄仔鹅肠道微生物区系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡中梅; 王志跃; 杨海明

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在利用PCR-DGGE(变性梯度凝胶电泳)技术研究日粮中不同稻壳替代水平对19~28日龄扬州鹅肠道微生物区系的影响。选用19日龄扬州公鹅260只,随机分成4组,每组5个重复,每个重复13只。A组饲喂基础日粮,B、C、D组分别饲喂7%、14%、21%稻壳替代的基础日粮。在28日龄时采集各肠段内容物进行总DNA的提取,对细菌16S rRNA V3区用细菌通用引物进行PCR扩增,利用DGGE电泳技术分析肠道微生物区系。结果显示:不同稻壳替代水平对十二指肠、空肠、盲肠菌群条带总数量影响不明显,但共有条带存在一定差异;十二指肠、空肠各组间菌群相似性程度均较低,盲肠组间相似性程度最高。由此可见,不同程度的稻壳替代能够影响肠道菌群分布,其中对十二指肠、空肠影响较大,对盲肠影响较小。%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of different proportions of rice husk replaced diets on intestinal microflora of geese from 19~28 days by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.Two hundred and sixty 19-day-old healthy Yangzhou geese were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 5 replicates of 13 geese each.The control group (A) were fed with basic diet (A);groups B,C,D were fed with 7%,14%,21% rice husk replaced diets,respectively.The genomic DNA was extracted from the content of various intestinal segments at the age of 28 days.The V3 variable region of bacterial 16S rRNA was amplified with universal primer.Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the amplicons were analyzed.The results showed that different proportions of rice husk replaced diets had no significant effects on the band quantity of microflora in duodenum jejunun,and cecum of geese,the common bands were different.And different pro-portions of rice husk replaced diets had no significant effects on the microflora similarity degree in duodenum and je-junum,the similarity index in

  16. 免疫应激对肉鸡肠道微生物区系的影响%Effects of Different Immune Status on the Variation of Intestinal Microflora Community in Broiler Chickens(Gallus gallus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯焱; 杨小军; 胡雄兵; 刘烨; 尹瑞卿; 覃定奎; 姚军虎

    2012-01-01

    微生物区系的平衡是确保肠道健康的重点,本研究对不同免疫状态下肉仔鸡消化道内微生物变化规律进行了研究.选用180只AA肉公鸡随机分4个处理,每个处理5个重复,每个重复9只肉公鸡.实验分为无免疫组、常规免疫组、免疫亢进和免疫抑制4个处理组.于21、28、35和42日龄肠段的内容物,提取总DNA,并以此为模板获得反映肠道微生物群落结构特征的肠杆菌基因间重复序列-PCR(ERIC-PCR)指纹图谱,比较各DNA样品指纹图谱的相似性指数.ERIC-PCR扩增产物大部分为200~2 000 bp的基因片段,聚类分析显示,各日龄阶段,处理组间十二指肠细菌种群结构的相似性最高(75%),其次是盲肠(40%),回肠(39%)和空肠(38%)的相似性较低.图谱的条带数目为十二指肠>回肠>盲肠>空肠.28和35日龄,十二指肠和空肠脂多糖(LPS)组条带都低于21日龄,而回肠和盲肠的未见显著变化.21日龄,回肠环磷酰胺(CYP)组的条带低于其他处理组.不同免疫状态影响回肠、空肠和盲肠道微生物区系,42日龄,不同免疫状态对微生物数量和种群的影响不明显.%It focuses on the intestinal health that balances in microbial flora. The objective of this study was to examine the variation of gastrointestinal tract microflora in broilers raised under different immune status. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) was conducted to evaluate this effect in broilers. Treatments consisted of a negative control, general vaccination, lipopolysaccharide(LPS) + general vaccination and cyclophosphamide (CYP )+ general vaccination. On the age of 21, 28, 35 and 42 d, digesta of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected to assay for gut microflora. The results showed that the DNA fingerprinting of ERIC-PCR had high stability and repetition. The molecular weights of gene fragment were almost from 200 to 2 000 bp after ERIC-PCR amplification. Different

  17. Accurate localization of a fall in pH within the ileocecal region: validation using a dual-scintigraphic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Natalia; Mohammed, Sahar D; O'Shaughnessy, Emma; Newell, Margaret; Yazaki, Etsuro; Williams, Norman S; Lunniss, Peter J; Semler, Jack R; Scott, S Mark

    2010-12-01

    Stereotypical changes in pH occur along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Classically, there is an abrupt increase in pH on exit from the stomach, followed later by a sharp fall in pH, attributed to passage through the ileocecal region. However, the precise location of this latter pH change has never been conclusively substantiated. We aimed to determine the site of fall in pH using a dual-scintigraphic technique. On day 1, 13 healthy subjects underwent nasal intubation with a 3-m-long catheter, which was allowed to progress to the distal ileum. On day 2, subjects ingested a pH-sensitive wireless motility capsule labeled with 4 MBq (51)Chromium [EDTA]. The course of this, as it travelled through the GI tract, was assessed with a single-headed γ-camera using static and dynamic scans. Capsule progression was plotted relative to a background of 4 MBq ¹¹¹Indium [diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid] administered through the catheter. Intraluminal pH, as recorded by the capsule, was monitored continuously, and position of the capsule relative to pH was established. A sharp fall in pH was recorded in all subjects; position of the capsule relative to this was accurately determined anatomically in 9/13 subjects. In these nine subjects, a pH drop of 1.5 ± 0.2 U, from 7.6 ± 0.05 to 6.1 ± 0.1 occurred a median of 7.5 min (1-16) after passage through the ileocecal valve; location was either in the cecum (n = 5), ascending colon (n = 2), or coincident with a move from the cecum to ascending colon (n = 2). This study provides conclusive evidence that the fall in pH seen within the ileocolonic region actually occurs in the proximal colon. This phenomenon can be used as a biomarker of transition between the small and large bowel and validates assessment of regional GI motility using capsule technology that incorporates pH measurement. PMID:20847301

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation with glutamine and a combination of glutamine-arginine on intestinal health in twenty-five-day-old weaned rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, S; de Blas, C; Grant, G; Badiola, I; Menoyo, D; Carabaño, R

    2010-01-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with 1% l-glutamine and a combination of 1% l-glutamine and 0.5% l-arginine on intestinal health was examined in weaned rabbits. A basal diet was formulated to meet nutrient recommendations. Another 2 diets were formulated by adding 1% (as-fed basis) Gln or a mixture of 1% (as-fed basis) Gln + 0.5% (as-fed basis) Arg (Gln-Arg) to the basal diet. In Exp. 1, a total of 357 rabbits were blocked by litter and assigned at random to the experimental diet to determine mortality (119 per diet) and growth performance (35 per diet; from weaning at 25 to 56 d of age). Rabbits were fed the experimental diets for a 2-wk period and thereafter received a commercial diet. Rabbits weaned at 25 d (blocked by litter and assigned at random to diets) were slaughtered at 35 d and used to determine apparent ileal digestibility of DM, CP, and AA (Exp. 2, a total of 60 rabbits), intestinal morphology, N-aminopeptidase and myeloperoxidase intestinal activity, the expression of PPARgamma at the ileum and kidney, serum immunoglobulin in healthy and sick rabbits (Exp. 3, a total of 24 rabbits), and ileal and cecal microbial composition by PCR-RFLP (Exp. 4, a total of 45 rabbits). Dietary treatment did not affect ADG, ADFI, or G:F, during the entire fattening period. Supplementation with Gln reduced mortality during the first 2 wk and the whole fattening period from 18.5 to 8.4% (P = 0.023) and from 31.9 to 20.2% (P = 0.039), respectively, whereas no effect was detected for Arg supplementation. Among all the variables studied, the reduction on mortality due to Gln was related to a reduced intestinal colonization (Eimeria lesions) and changes on microbial ecosystem in the ileum and cecum, reducing the frequency of detection of Clostridium spp. (from 86.7 to 33.3%, P = 0.003) at the ileum, and Helicobacter spp. at the ileum (from 86.7 to 46.7%, P = 0.003) and at the cecum (from 86.7 to 46.7, P = 0.028), whereas no effect was detected for Arg supplementation

  19. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiangbing; Gu, Changsong; Hu, Haiyan; Tang, Jun; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Luo, Junqiu; Tian, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05), and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier function

  20. HEMATOMAS E PETÉQUIAS INTESTINAIS ASSOCIADA A ENTERITE PROXIMAL EM EQUINO PORTADOR DE SÍNDROME CÓLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGOSTINHO, Juliana Maria Avanci

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterized by manifestation of acute abdominal pain, the pain was more common source of gastrointestinal origin, the Colic Syndrome is one of the main diseases affecting the equine species. As a causeof abdominal pain manifestations appears to acute enteritis, an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, involving mainly the duodenum. This paper reports the case of a horse race quarter mile seen at the Veterinary Hospital of FAFRAM showing signs of abdominal discomfort with the possible displacement of the cecum. Atexploratory laparotomy confirmed the displacement of the cecum associated with the presence of bruising and petechiae over the entire length of the serosa of the small intestine, suggestive of proximal enteritis. The postoperative period was maintained with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs, prokinetic drugs andprotective of the gastric mucosa. e postoperative complication rate was followed by endotoxemia early acute laminitis, also controlled. After the drug therapy the signs of abdominal discomfort, endotoxemia and laminitis ceased, and the satisfactory clinical and surgical therapy.Caracterizada por manifestação de dor abdominal aguda, sendo mais comuns as dores de origem gastrointestinal, a Síndrome Cólica é uma das principais enfermidades que acometem a espécie equina. Comouma das causas de manifestações de dor abdominal aparece a enterite aguda, uma doença inflamatória de etiologia desconhecida, envolvendo principalmente o duodeno. O presente trabalho relata o caso de uma égua da raça quarto de milha atendida no Hospital Veterinário da FAFRAM apresentando sinais de desconforto abdominal com possível deslocamento do ceco. À laparotomia exploratória confirmou-se o deslocamento do ceco associado à presença de hematomas e petéquias em toda a extensão da serosa do intestino delgado, sugestivos de enterite proximal. O pós-operatório foi mantido com antibioticoterapia e uso de antiinflamatórios, medica

  1. Chinese medicine compound Changtong oral liquid on postoperative intestinal adhesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Xiao Yang; Han-Ping Shi; Lian-Bing Hou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of a Chinese medicine compound Changtong oral liquid (CT) on tissue plasminogen activity (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), TGF-β1 and hydroxyproline (OHP).METHODS: Two sets of animal experiments were performed in the present study. Forty New Zealand rabbits and 48 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned randomly to one of the five groups: sham adhesion, adhesion with saline, adhesion with low dosage of the CT, adhesion with middle dosage of the CT and adhesion with high dosage of the CT. t-PA and PAI activity in plasma, OHP and TGF-β1 expression in adhesion were investigated. Analysis of variance was used to test differences among groups.RESULTS: CT treatment increased plasma t-PA activity in rabbits but decreased TGF-β1 activity in rats. The data were expressed from low to high dose respectively as follows: t-PA, 46.1±8.6 μkat/L, 59.6±10.1 μkat/L, 64.0±11.5 μkat/L; TGF-β1 28±7.23%, 31±3.05%, 30±4.04%. There were significant differences compared with saline-treated animals (t-PA 26.4±5.1 μkat/L, TGF-β1 54±5.51%). OHP content in cecum of rabbits from middle and high but not low dose of CT lowered significantly as compared with saline-treated rabbits, 0.3641±0.1373, 0.3348±0.0321, 0.2757±0.0497 mg/g vs0.4183±0.0883 mg/g of protein, P>0.05, P<0.05, P<0.05 respectively. The rabbit plasma PAI activity and OHP content in abdominal wall had no difference in all groups.CONCLUSION: CT treatment significantly enhanced t-PA activity in rabbits, but decreased TGF-β1 content in rats, OHP content in cecum of rabbits, and failed to affect the activity of PAI and OHP content in abdominal wall in rabbits,compared with saline group. The result suggests that CT could effectively prevent adhesions without interfering wound healing.

  2. Evolution of zinc, iron, and copper concentrations along the gastrointestinal tract of piglets weaned with or without in-feed high doses of zinc oxide compared to unweaned littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, R; Manzanilla, E G; Klasing, K C; Pérez, J F

    2012-12-01

    High doses of ZnO are used to treat diarrhea in weaning pigs but are also an environmental concern. The mechanism of action of Zn against diarrhea is still not well understood. The amount of solubilized Zn, the relation of Zn with Fe and Cu, and the concentration of these elements in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are key data to understanding its mechanism of action and optimize its use. Therefore, we studied the Zn, Fe, and Cu concentrations in the GIT content of unweaned, weaned, and ZnO-treated pigs. Eight litters were used and 3 piglets were selected within each litter. Two piglets from each litter were weaned at 21 d of age and fed a commercial control diet (WCt) or WCt + 2000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO (WZn). The third pig was kept unweaned (Uw) with the sow. All 24 pigs were killed at 28 d of age, GIT contents were sampled, soluble and insoluble fractions of the content were separated, and Zn, Fe, and Cu concentrations were analyzed. Concentration of Zn increased 3 to 5 fold along the GIT (2 to 10 fold in the soluble fraction) for weaned pigs on WZn compared to WCt and Uw pigs (P < 0.01 in all cases). The proportion of total Zn that was present in the soluble fraction was 4 to 10 folds higher in jejunum, ileum, and cecum of Uw pigs than in those weaned (P < 0.01 in all cases) but was not affected by ZnO treatment. Concentration of Fe in the soluble fraction was higher for Uw pigs compared to weaned pigs along the GIT (P < 0.05 in all cases) even when concentration in total content was lower for Uw pigs in stomach (P = 0.001) and jejunum (P = 0.029). Concentrations of Cu were lower in Uw pigs than in weaned pigs along the GIT (P < 0.05 in all cases). Surprisingly, animals on WZn showed a 5 to 10 fold increase of Cu solubilized in distal parts of the GIT (cecum and colon; P < 0.001) compared to other groups. Differences in Zn, Fe, and Cu concentrations found among treatments will be useful in future studies for understanding mechanism of action of ZnO and

  3. Prebiotic Properties of Galursan HF 7K on Mouse Gut Microbiota

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    Melinda A. Engevik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the rise of antibiotic resistance, new alternatives are being sought to effectively modulate the characteristics of gut microbiota to obtain pathogen resistance without the use of antibiotics. In the past, an oligosaccharide derivative of carrots, galursan HF 7K (GHF7K, has been used clinically in Austria and recently in the fowl-industry to promote health. This study examined the potential role of GHF7K as a prebiotic to alter the gut microbiota in mice. Methods: Mice were fed either a control diet (CT or a diet containing 2% GHF7K in the water and chow for 2 weeks, and weight, food and water consumption, gut microbiota and ion composition of the intestinal fluid were examined. Results: Dietary supplement of GHF7K did not alter mouse weight or daily food consumption. Additionally, no changes were observed in the total number of luminal or mucosa-associated bacteria populations in GHF7K-fed mice. GHF7K supplementation significantly altered the composition of luminal, and to a less extent, mucosa-associated bacterial populations at the level of the phyla, with region-specific differences. Similar to antibiotic use, Proteobacteria number was increased in the ileum and colon of GHF7K-fed mice, with no changes in the number of beneficial Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera of phylum Firmicutes. Corresponding with the altered gut microbiota, changes in the ion composition of the intestinal fluid were observed. An increased Cl- concentration was observed in the duodenum and jejunum, while the Na+ concentration was increased in the cecum of GHF7K-fed mice. Decreases were observed in the K+ concentration in the cecum and distal colon. Conclusions: Dietary supplement of GHF7K is capable of altering the gut microbiota, which correlates to changes in the intestinal environment. These data suggest that GHF7K dietary supplement can purposefully be used to alter the gut microbiota, and thus could potentially represent an alternative

  4. Técnica do aproveitamento da papila íleo-cecal naileostomia definitiva e na anastomose íleo-retal Technique of preserving the ileum-caecal papilla in the definitive ileostomy and ileum-rectal anastomose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcino Lázaro da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Quando se faz ileostomia com a papila, a perda líquida é bem menor e a irritação local às vezes é nula, podendo o paciente viver sem o uso da bolsa. OBJETIVO: Mostrar uma técnica operatória em que se preserva a papila na ileostomia ou na anastomose íleo-retal. Ela consta da preservação da vasculatura do ceco e íleo terminal e secção do ceco deixando-se 1 cm de orla na papila ileal que é fixada na pele por contra-abertura para ileostomia definitiva. Quando se resseca o cólon, a papila é anastomosada ao reto (íleo-papilo-retostomia. RESULTADOS: São bons, pois há diminuição do número de evacuações, da perda de líquidos nas fezes e da irritação epidérmica. CONCLUSÃO: O procedimento é exequível e traz resultados que melhoram a qualidade de vida do paciente.INTRODUCTION: When ileostomy is done with the ileum-caecal papilla, the liquid is decreased and happens much less local irritation and its possible that the patient can live without the use of the bag. OBJECTIVE: To show a surgical technique that preserves the papilla in ileostomy or ileo-rectal cancer. METHOD: It is done with the preservation of the vasculature of the cecum and terminal ileum; cecum section is made leaving 1 cm border, coronal, on the ileal papilla, which is fixed on the skin for a counter-opening for permanent ileostomy. When a colectomy is needed, the anastomosis can be made with the rectal stump (papilla-ileum-retostomy. RESULTS: They are good because there is a decrease in the number of bowel movements, loss of fluid in the stool and less epidermal irritation. CONCLUSION: The procedure is feasible and brings results that improve the quality of life of patients.

  5. Expression of mRNA transcription of Toll-like receptors 3,7 and 21 in different tissues of chicken by Real-time quantitative PCR%雏鸡不同组织TLR3、TLR7和TLR21 mRNA转录水平研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周作勇; 聂奎; 胡世君; 周荣琼

    2011-01-01

    According to the sequences of chicken Toll-like receptors(ChTLR), the real-time PCR primers were designed and synthesized to establish a met,hod for the detection of mRNA transcription of ChTLRs by real-time quantitative PCR and analyze the transcription of ChTLR3 ,ChTLR7 and ChTLR21 in different tissues of Luo-man chicken. The result showed that the ChTLRs mRNA was transcripted in spleen, bursa, thymus and intestinal tract. The ChTLR3 was transcripted at high level in kidney, thymus,cecum,jejunum, liver and duodenum, and not detected in skin. ChTLR7 was transcripted at high level in spleen,kidney,cecum , thymus and duodenum,and very low in liver and skin. ChTLR21 was transcripted in all selected tissues , and at high level in spleen, bursa, thymus and duodenum. These results indicated that there was comparatively large difference on the transcription level of ChTLRs mRNA in different tissues,which may be asscociated with the ability to recognize pathogens in chiken.%参考GenBank登录的ChTLRs基因序列设计实时定量PCR特异性引物,建立检测鸡T011样受体(ChTLR)mRNA相对转录水平的实时定量PCR方法,分析ChTLR3、ChTLR7和ChTLR21在雏鸡不同器官组织中的转录水平。3种ChTLRs在脾脏、法氏囊、胸腺和各段肠道组织中均有转录。其中,ChTLR3 mRNA在肾脏、胸腺、盲肠、空肠、肝脏和十二指肠转录水平较高,在皮肤中未检测到转录;chTLR7 mRNA在脾脏、肾脏、盲肠、胸腺和十二指肠转录水平较高,在肝脏和皮肤中转录水平很低;ChTLR21

  6. Effect of hydrolysis of potato pulp on body weight and intestinal microbial populations of rats%酶解马铃薯渣对大鼠体重和肠道菌群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲娜; 顾正彪; 程力; 洪雁

    2012-01-01

    对难于处理、易造成污染的废弃物马铃薯渣进行适度酶解,代替麸皮添加到饲料中,通过动物实验考察其对大鼠体重和肠道菌群的影响。研究结果表明:添加酶解马铃薯渣饲料喂养的大鼠(酶解组)增重效果1-7d显著高于对照组和添加马铃薯渣原浆喂养的大鼠(原浆组)。酶解组回肠、盲肠、结肠内容物及相应粘膜上乳酸杆菌数量显著高于对照组和原浆组。酶解组回肠、盲肠、结肠内容物及相应粘膜上大肠杆菌数量显著低于对照组和原浆组。%Potato pulps which were hard to be dealt with and might cause serious pollution,that were added into feed instead of wheat bran after treatment by enzyme,and the effect of fed with hydrolyzed potato pulps on body weight and intestinal flora of rats were investigated. The results showed that rats fed with feed which contained hydrolyzed potato pulps(hydrolysis group) gained higher increased in weight than control and those fed with feed containing untreated potato pulps(untreated group) and significant difference could be found during the first 7d.The number of lactoacillus in enzymatic group ileum,cecum,colon contents and on the corresponding mucous membranes was significantly higher than control and untreated group. The number of E. coil in enzymatic group ileum,cecum,colon contents and on the corresponding mucous membranes was significantly smaller than control and untreated group.

  7. Efeito da granulometria do bagaço de cana sobre as características digestivas e a contribuição nutritiva dos cecotrofos Effect particle size of sugar cane bagasse on the digestive traits and the cecotrophes nutritive contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia da Silva Vieira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos com coelhos mestiços Nova Zelândia Branco x Califórnia, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da granulometria da fonte de fibra sobre as características digestivas de coelhos em crescimento e sobre a produção, composição química e a contribuição nutritiva dos cecotrofos, em termos de matéria seca (MS e proteína bruta (PB. Quatro dietas foram elaboradas com diferentes granulometrias do bagaço de cana com diâmetro geométrico médio (DGM de 0,231, 0,506, 0,616 e 0,833 mm. O desempenho e os pesos do sistema digestivo cheio, sistema digestivo vazio, conteúdo do sistema digestivo, ceco cheio, ceco vazio e conteúdo cecal não foram afetados significativamente, entretanto o nitrogênio amoniacal do conteúdo cecal aumentou significativamente com o aumento da granulometria do bagaço de cana. Na avaliação da cecotrofia, foi observado efeito linear significativo da granulometria sobre a produção de cecotrofos e o teor de MS e PB ingerido por cecotrofia, porém sua composição química não foi afetada.Two experiments using New Zealand White x Californian rabbits were carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of fiber source particle size on digestive traits of growing rabbit and the production, chemical composition and cecotrophes nutritive contribuition on dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP base. Four diets were prepared with different particle size of sugar cane bagasse with average geometric diameters of .231, .506, .616 and .833 mm. The productive performance and weight of the full and empty digestive tract, digestive tract content, full and empty cecum and cecum content were not affected, however the ammonia nitrogen percentage in the caecum content was significantly increased by increasing particle size of sugar cane bagasse. In cecotrophy evaluation, effects of particle size on cecotrophes production, DM and CP content ingested were observed, but the cecotrophes chemical

  8. 不同类型益生素对断奶仔猪肠道微生物区系、pH和挥发性盐基氮的影响%Effect of Different Types of Probiotics on Intestinal Microflora,pH and Volatile Base Nitrogen of Weaned Piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦茂鑫; 吴涛

    2013-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to stduy the effect of Bacillus, Lactobacillus on intestinal microflora,pH and volatile base nitrogen (VBN) of weaned piglets. 24 crossbred piglets (Yorkshire × Landrace × Duroc) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments with 4 pens of 2 each and to feed for a period of 30 d. After the test, four piglets in each treatment were slaughtered, the digesta of the cecum and colon was collected to determine intestinal microflora, pH and volatile base nitrogen. The results showed that the Bacillus and Lactobacillus were making the relative number of Lactobacilli in the cecum and colon increased, the pH value of cecal digesta reduced, the pH value of colonic contents increased, and VBN of intestine content lower. The study showed that Bacillus and hactobacillus improved intestinal microflora and reduced the intestinal protein rancidness.%本试验研究芽孢杆菌、乳酸杆菌对断奶仔猪肠道微生物区系、肠道pH和挥发性盐基氮(VBN)的影响.试验选取28日龄左右的“杜×长×大三元”杂交仔猪24头,随机分为3组,每组4个重复,每个重复2头,进行为期30 d的饲养试验,试验结束后收集盲肠和结肠内容物用于微生物、pH和VBN的测定.结果表明,芽孢杆菌和乳酸杆菌均使得盲肠与结肠中乳酸杆菌相对数量都升高,降低盲肠内容物pH,结肠内容物pH升高,并降低了肠道内VBN含量.因此,芽孢杆菌和乳酸杆菌均能改善肠道微生物区系,降低肠道蛋白质的腐败变质.

  9. A multicenter evaluation of the effectiveness of Quest Gel (2% moxidectin) against parasites infecting equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleale, R M; Edmonds, J D; Paul, A J; Reinemeyer, C R; Chapman, M R; Clem, R; Meccoli, R A; Tolliver, S C; Amodie, D M

    2006-04-15

    Controlled trials with a common protocol were conducted in Idaho, Illinois and Tennessee to evaluate anthelmintic effectiveness of Quest Gel (QG; 2% moxidectin) against lumenal parasites in horses. Candidate horses were required to have naturally acquired nematode infections, as confirmed by presence of strongylid eggs in feces. At each site, 24 equids were blocked on the basis of pretreatment strongyle fecal egg counts (EPG) and randomly assigned to treatments within blocks. Within each block of two animals, one received QG on Day 0 at a dosage of 0.4 mg moxidectin/kg b.w. and one was an untreated control. Body weights measured the day before treatment served as the basis for calculating treatment doses. Horses assigned to treatment with QG received the prescribed dose administered orally with the commercially packaged Sure Dial syringe. Horses were necropsied 12-14 days after treatment, and lumenal parasites and digesta were harvested separately from each of five organs, including the stomach, small intestine, cecum, ventral colon and dorsal colon. Parasites from stomachs and small intestines were identified to genus, species and stage. Micro- (i.e., 1.5 cm) in aliquots from the cecum, ventral colon and dorsal colon were examined in aliquots of approximately 200 parasites until at least 600 parasites had been identified to genus, species and stage or until all parasites in the 5% aliquot were examined, whichever occurred first. Data were combined across sites and analyzed by mixed model analysis of variance to assess the fixed effect of treatment and random effects of site and block within site. Because QG does not contain a cestocide, efficacy of QG against tapeworms was not significant (P > 0.05). Based on geometric means, however, efficacy of QG was greater than 90% (P < 0.05) against 38 species and developmental stages of cyathostomes, strongyles, bots, larval pinworms and ascarids encountered in at least 6 of 36 control horses in the combined data set. None

  10. Increased wall thickness using ultrasonography is associated with inflammation in an animal model of experimental colitis

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    Lied GA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gülen Arslan Lied,1 Anne Marita Milde,2 Kim Nylund,1,3 Maja Mujic,1 Tore Grimstad,1,4 Trygve Hausken,1,3 Odd Helge Gilja1,31Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway; 2Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway; 3National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 4Division of Gastroenterology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: Experimentally induced colitis is used in animals to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease. When following disease course and treatment effects, it should be possible to perform repeated measurements without harming the animals. This pilot study was performed to investigate whether transabdominal ultrasound using a clinical scanner could be used on rats to demonstrate bowel inflammation in an experimental colitis model. Colitis was induced by either 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS in drinking water for 7 days or a single dose of intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. Using ultrasonography, wall thickness of distal colon, cecum, and small bowel was recorded prior to and after DSS, and prior to, 2, and 7 days after TNBS. Blood (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha and fecal samples (HemoFEC occult blood were taken from each group on the same days as sonography. Thereafter, rats were killed and specimens for histology were taken. Wall thickness of distal colon, not of cecum or small bowel, increased significantly after 7 days of DSS, and wall thickness of both distal colon and small bowel increased on day 2 and 7 after TNBS. TNF-alpha increased after 7 days in the latter group only. There was a significant correlation between ultrasonographic measurements and combined histology score of distal colon in the DSS group. HemoFEC was also positive in accordance with sonographic and histological features. Increased intestinal wall thickness in response to both DSS- and TNBS

  11. Role of intravenously administered hyoscine butyl bromide in retrograde terminal ileoscopy: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SP Misra; M Dwivedi

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To evaluated the role of hyoscine butyl bromide in facilitating retrograde ileoscopy.METHODS:Retrograde terminal ileoscopy was attempted in 200 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy. After intubation of the cecum and visualization of the ileocecal valve,butyl bromide injection or normal saline was given intravenously to the patients in a double blind random fashion. The pulse rate and oxygen saturation were measured continuously. After completion of the procedure,endoscopists were then asked to score the ease of intubation and the ease of visualization of the terminal ileum on a visual scale of 1 to 10. The patients were also asked to score the pain after receiving hyoscine butyl bromide injection on a score of 1 to 10.RESULTS:Terminal ileoscopy could be performed in 188 patients. The mean (SD) visual analogue score for the ease of intubation of the cecum was 7.4 (0.65) in the injection group and 5.9 (0.8) in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean (SD) length of ileum visualized in the injection group was 14.4 (3.3) cm and 10.4 (2.7) cm in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean (SD) visual analogue score for ease of visualization of the terminal ileum was 7.5 (0.69) in the injection group and 5.9 (0.7) in the placebo group (P<0.001). The pain score experienced by the patients was 6.5 (0.7) in the injection group and 6.7 (0.69) in the placebo group (P<0.008). Although the pulse rate increased significantly in patients receiving the drug,no statistically significant difference was noted in the oxygen saturation between the two groups either before or after administration of the drug. No complications were observed in either of the groups.CONCLUSION:Hyoscine butyl bromide injection is a useful adjunct in helping the intubation and visualizationof terminal ileum during colonoscopy.

  12. Role of the flagellar basal-body protein, FlgC, in the binding of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis to host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippy, Daniel C; Eakley, Nicholas M; Mikheil, Dareen M; Fadl, Amin A

    2014-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) infection in humans is often associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Binding of the bacterium to the intestinal mucosa is a major pathogenic mechanism of Salmonella in poultry. Transposon mutagenesis identified flgC as a potential binding mutant of SE. Therefore, we hypothesize FlgC which plays a significant role in the binding ability of SE to the intestinal mucosa of poultry. To test our hypothesis, we created a mutant of SE in which flgC was deleted. We then tested the in vitro and in vivo binding ability of ∆flgC when compared to the wild-type SE strain. Our data showed a significant decrease in the binding ability of ∆flgC to intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the small intestine and cecum of poultry. Furthermore, the decrease in binding correlated to a defect in invasion as shown by a cell culture model using intestinal epithelial cells and bacterial recovery from the livers and spleens of chickens. Overall, these studies indicate FlgC is a major factor in the binding ability of Salmonella to the intestinal mucosa of poultry.

  13. Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SV4089 as a potential carrier of oral DNA vaccine in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Ideris, Aini; Zakaria, Zunita; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2%) and MCF-10A (0.5%) human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 10(9) colony-forming unit (CFU) of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  14. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  15. Characteristics of invasion-reduced hilA gene mutant of Salmonella Enteritidis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shuang; Si, Wei; Yu, Shenye; Li, Zhaoli; Wang, Xiumei; Chen, Liping; Zhang, Wanjiang; Liu, Siguo

    2015-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes huge losses in poultry industry and also food poisoning in humans due to its being a food-borne pathogen. Functions of Invasion-related genes need to be explored, as invasion is a key step for Salmonella infection. In this study, a transposon mutant library of Salmonella Enteritidis isolate SM6 was constructed and screened for the invasion-related genes via incubation with Caco-2 cells. Three stably attenuated mutants were identified for significantly reduced invasion with insertions all in hilA (hyperinvasive locus A) gene. We constructed and evaluated the hilA deletion mutant in vivo and in vitro. SM6△hilA showed significantly reduced ability to invade Caco-2 cells and decreased pathogenicity in chicks. However, the bacterial load and pathological damage in the cecum were significantly higher than those in the SM6 in vivo. Present results provide new evidences for pathogenicity research on Salmonella Enteritidis.

  16. Chronic abdominal pain, appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, and concurrent intestinal endometriosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurogochi Takanori

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although both appendiceal tumor and intestinal endometriosis have been reported as rare causes of abdominal pain, the coexistence of appendiceal mucinous neoplasm and ileal endometriosis has not previously been reported. Case presentation A 41-year-old Japanese woman presented with a positive fecal occult blood test and a 3-year history of menstruation-related lower abdominal pain. A colonoscopy demonstrated extrinsic compression of the cecum, suggesting a mass arising from the appendix or adjacent structures. Abdominal imaging showed a 6-cm cystic mass with intraluminal thick fluids originating from the appendix. At ileocecal resection for an appendiceal tumor, a 2-cm mass in the terminal ileum was incidentally found, which was included in the surgical specimen. Microscopic examination confirmed a diagnosis of a mucinous neoplasm of the appendix with endometriosis of the terminal ileum. Conclusions To avoid urgent surgery for subsequent serious events associated with disease progression, appendiceal tumor and intestinal endometriosis should be ruled out in patients with chronic abdominal pain.

  17. Evaluation of co-stimulatory effects of Tamarindus indica L. on MNU-induced colonic cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivshankar, Pooja; Shyamala Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu

    2004-08-01

    Colonic cell proliferation is the prerequisite for the genesis of cancer. Experimental and epidemiologic evidence indicate dietary factors to be one of the commonest predisposing factors in the development of several types of cancers including large intestine. Here we have investigated the role of the fruit pulp of Tamarindus indica L. (TI), a tropical plant-derived food material, on the proliferating colonic mucosa using Swiss albino mice. Crypt cell proliferation rate (CCPR), on histological basis and [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay were chosen to evaluate the modulating potential of TI per se and in response to a subacute dose of N-nitroso N'-methyl urea (MNU). Descending colonic segment showed greater rate of cell proliferation than the ascending colon and cecum tissues isolated from the group 2 (TI-per se) when compared with group 1 (negative controls). It also revealed a positive correlation with the incorporation studies. Significant increase in the CCPR and radiolabeled precursor incorporation (p <0.001) was observed in MNU-induced+TI fed group of animals (group 4) in all the three segments when compared with control diet fed normal (group 1) as well as MNU-induced (group 3) animals. This study therefore indicates a co-stimulatory effect of TI on MNU-induced colonic cell kinetics.

  18. Local chemerin levels are positively associated with DSS-induced colitis but constitutive loss of CMKLR1 does not protect against development of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranse, Helen J; Rourke, Jillian L; Stadnyk, Andrew W; Sinal, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a family of disorders including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease that are characterized by chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammation. Increased production of proinflammatory mediators, possibly combined with low expression of anti-inflammatory mediators, is thought to promote the development and progression of IBD. In the current study, we demonstrate that expression, secretion, and processing of chemerin, a potent chemoattractant for cells expressing chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), increased in the cecum and colon along a gradient positively associated with the severity of inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. We also show that levels of circulating bioactive chemerin increased following DSS treatment. At both 6-8 and 14-16 weeks of age, CMKLR1 knockout mice developed signs of clinical illness more slowly than wild type and had changes in circulating cytokine levels, increased spleen weight, and increased local chemerin secretion following DSS treatment. However, knockout mice ultimately developed similar levels of clinical illness and local inflammation as wild type. Finally, contrary to previous reports, intraperitoneal injection of bioactive chemerin had no effect on the severity of DSS-induced colitis. This suggests that local chemerin levels have a greater impact than circulating levels in the pathogenesis of colitis. Considered altogether, bioactive chemerin represents a novel biomarker for IBD severity, although strategies to modulate endogenous chemerin signaling other than chronic CMKLR1 loss are necessary in order to exploit chemerin as a therapeutic target for the treatment of IBD.

  19. A role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography in a strategy for abdominal wall metastasis of colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma developed after laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneko Hironori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastasis to the abdominal wall including port sites after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is rare. Resection of metastatic lesions may lead to greater survival benefit if the abdominal wall metastasis is the only manifestation of recurrent disease. A 57-year-old man, who underwent laparoscopic surgery for advanced mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cecum 6 years prior, developed a nodule in the surgical wound at the lower right abdomen. Although tumor markers were within normal limits, the metastasis to the abdominal wall and abdominal cavity from the previous cecal cancer was suspected. An abdominal computed tomography scan did not provide detective evidence of metastasis. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT was therefore performed, which demonstrated increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (maximum standardized uptake value: 3.1 in the small abdominal wall nodule alone. Histopathological examination of the resected nodule confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma. Prognosis of intestinal mucinous adenocarcinoma is reported to be poorer than that of non-mucinous adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, this case suggests an important role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in early diagnosis and decision-making regarding therapy for recurrent disease in cases where a firm diagnosis of recurrent colorectal cancer is difficult to make.

  20. Anastomotic Recurrence of Sigmoid Colon Cancer over Five Years after Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yamauchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of anastomotic recurrence after curative resection of colorectal cancer is relatively low compared to that of other types of recurrence, such as hepatic, lung and local recurrence. However, almost all cases of anastomotic recurrence of colorectal cancer occur within 3 years after surgery. We experienced a rare case of anastomotic recurrence in whom colonoscopy revealed no signs of recurrence 3 years after surgery; however, anastomotic recurrence was detected over 5 years after surgery. A 60-year-old female with a history of surgery for cancer of the cecum in her forties underwent sigmoidectomy and right colectomy with D3 lymph node dissection for both stage IIA sigmoid colon cancer and stage IIA transverse colon cancer. Computed tomography and colonoscopy revealed no signs of recurrence 3 years after surgery; however, 5 years and 4 months after surgery, colonoscopy demonstrated surrounding flaring and swelling in the anastomotic area of the sigmoid colon, and a biopsy revealed an adenocarcinoma. Under the diagnosis of anastomotic recurrence over 5 years after surgery, lower anterior resection was performed. The patient has exhibited no other signs of recurrence in the 2 years since the last operation.

  1. An unusual white blood cell scan in a child with inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; O'Loughlin, E; Uren, R; Chaitow, J

    2000-10-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled leukocyte (WBC) imaging is a valuable screening method for inflammatory bowel disease, especially in children, because of its high rate of sensitivity, low cost, and ease of preparation. A 14-year-old girl is described who had juvenile arthritis and iritis complicated by inflammatory bowel disease. She was examined for recurrent abdominal pain. A Tc-99m stannous colloid WBC scan was performed, and tracer accumulation was seen in the small bowel in the region of the distal ileum on the initial 1-hour image. Delayed imaging at 3 hours also revealed tracer accumulation in the cecum and ascending colon, which was not seen on the early image. A biopsy of the colon during endoscopy showed no evidence of active inflammation in the colon. The small bowel was not seen. Computed tomography revealed changes suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease in the distal ileum. The appearance on the WBC study was most likely a result of inflammatory bowel disease involving the distal ileum, with transit of luminal activity into the large bowel.

  2. Effect of Different Feed Structures and Bedding on the Horizontal Spread of Campylobacter jejuni within Broiler Flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Moen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of different feed structures and beddings on the spread of C. jejuni in broiler flocks, and the effect on the cecal microbiota. Broiler chickens raised in 24 eight-bird group cages on either rubber mat or wood shavings were fed either a wheat-based control diet (Control, a diet where 50% of the ground wheat was replaced by whole wheat prior to pelleting (Wheat, or a wheat-based diet, such as the control diet diluted with 12% oat hulls (Oat. Samples from the cloacal mucosa of all birds were taken daily for C. jejuni quantification and cecum samples were collected at the end of the experiment for C. jejuni quantification and microbiota analyses. We have shown a statistically significant effect of increased feed structure on the reduced spread of C. jejuni in chicken flocks, but no significant differences were detected between types of structure included in the feed. No significant changes in the dominating microbiota in the lower lower gastrointestinal (GI tract were observed, which indicates that feed structure only has an effect on the upper GI tract. Delaying the spread of C. jejuni in broiler flocks could, at time of slaughter, result in fewer C. jejuni-positive broilers.

  3. Effects of Different Dietary Levels of Two Types of Olive Pulp and Exogenous Enzyme Supplementation on the Gastrointestinal tract size, Immunology and Hematology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sayehban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of the dietary inclusion of olive pulp (OP and the supplementation of a commercial enzyme blend (ENZ on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT size, and immune and hematological parameters were evaluated. In total, 600 one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were divided into 6 treatments according to a completely randomized design, in a 2×2×2 factorial scheme, consisting of the dietary inclusion of two olive pulp levels (50 and 100 g/kg in diet, two pulp categories (processed and unprocessed, and the inclusion or not of an enzyme blend. On d 42, birds were euthanized and blood samples were collected, and lymphoid, hematologic, and GIT organs were measured. The inclusion of 100g/kg OP in the diets increased jejunum relative weight (J% and jejunum length (p ≤ 0.05. Processed OP reduced jejunum weight and length, J%, and left cecum length, serum triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol levels (p ≤ 0.05. Enzyme supplementation did affect any of the studied parameters (p>0.05. The OP inclusion improved the GIT size, while processed OP reduced GIT measurements and serum lipid levels.

  4. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ngare; Hughes, Robert J; Aspden, William J; Chapman, James; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-05-01

    Microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an essential role in the health and well-being of the host. With the exception of chickens, this area has been poorly studied within birds. The avian GIT harbours unique microbial communities. Birds require rapid energy bursts to enable energy-intensive flying. The passage time of feed through the avian GIT is only 2-3.5 h, and thus requires the presence of microbiota that is extremely efficient in energy extraction. This investigation has used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the GIT microbiota of the flighted bird, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We are reporting, for the first time, the diversity of bacterial phylotypes inhabiting all major sections of the quail GIT including mouth, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, ileum, cecum, large intestine and feces. Nine phyla of bacteria were found in the quail GIT; however, their distribution varied significantly between GIT sections. Cecal microbiota was the most highly differentiated from all the other communities and showed highest richness at an OTU level but lowest richness at all other taxonomic levels being comprised of only 15 of total 57 families in the quail GIT. Differences were observed in the presence and absence of specific phylotypes between sexes in most sections. PMID:26758298

  5. Effect of music on patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew L Bechtold; Rodney A Perez; Srinivas R Puli; John B Marshall

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of relaxing music during colonoscopy under low-dose conscious sedation, on patient satisfaction, scope insertion time and procedure duration, medication doses, and the perceived adequacy of sedation and scope insertion difficulty on the part of the endoscopist.SETHODS: One hundred and sixty-seven consecutive adult outpatients presenting for routine colonoscopy under low-dose conscious sedation were randomized to undergo their procedures either with music played during the procedure or no music played.RESULTS: There were no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of meperidine dose, midazolam dose, time to reach the cecum, total procedure time,endoscopist assessment of scope insertion difficulty,endoscopist assessment of adequacy of sedation, or the pain experience of the patients during their procedure.The music group did report significantly better overall procedure satisfaction as compared to the non music group on two of our three different scales.CONCLUSION: While music does not result in shortened procedure times, lower doses of sedative medications or perceived patient pain, the patients who have music playing during their procedures report modestly greater satisfaction with their procedures.

  6. Small intestinal emptying time in normal Beagle dogs: a contrast radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time in dogs are frequently discussed. However, it is often of interest to the radiologist to know what normal small intestinal emptying times should be. A total of 15 upper gastrointestinal studies was performed on five internal parasite-free, normal, standard Beagle dogs with three studies on each dog, 6 days apart. The ages and weights of the dogs ranged from 2–8 years and from 12.4–13.7 kg, respectively. Following 24-hour fasting, a dose of 10 ml/kg bw of 60% wt/vol barium sulfate suspension was administered through a stomach tube. Then, sequential radiographs were made at 30-minute intervals until the entire contrast medium column was in the colon and cecum. The mean, standard deviation, and range of gastric emptying time, small intestinal transit time, and small intestinal emptying time were 76 ± 16.7 (30–120), 73 ± 16.4 (30–120), and 214 ± 25.1 (180–300) minutes, respectively. This study offers the possibility that small intestinal emptying time may be used to further evaluate patients with suspected small intestinal partial obstruction, pseudo-obstruction, ischemia, or lymphangiectasia

  7. Value of CT scan in the diagnosis of primary large bowel lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵修义; 张雪林; 王劲; 郑卫权; 文戈

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the CT imaging of primary large bowel lymphoma and evaluate the value of CT scan.Methods:CT reports of 8 patients with proven primary large bowel lymphoma were retrospectively reviewed.Plain CT scans were done on all patients,enhanced CT scans simultaneously with 5 - 10 mm section thickness,and 5 - 10 mm table increments in 6 cases.Results:Primary involved sites were on the cecum(n = 3),the ascending colon(n = 2),and the rectum(n = 1).The tumor was found in multiple areas of the large bowel in 2 cases.CT appearance fell into 3 typical patterns in our study.The first was focal mass type in 2 cases,with one combined with intussusception and retroperitoneal adenopathy; the second was segmental annular involvement type in 3 cases,with one of them combined with mesenteric adenopathy; the last was diffuse involvement type in 2 cases.Multiple nodules were seen in the rectum in 1 case.Conclusion:CT was found to be accurate in detecting the primary sites and complications of lymphoma,and evaluating invasion of adjacent structures; Focal mass type,segmental annular involvement type and diffuse involvement type are the main patterns of CT features in the primary large bowel lymphoma; The features revealed by CT scan are suggestive of primary large bowel lymphoma in some cases.

  8. Routine use of modified CT Enterography in patients with acute abdominal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourtsoyianni, Sofia [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, 71110 Stavrakia, Heraklion/Crete (Greece)], E-mail: sgty76@gmail.com; Zamboni, Giulia A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital GB Rossi, Verona (Italy); Romero, Janneth Y.; Raptopoulos, Vassilios D. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate routine use of CT Enterography (CTE) in patients presenting with non-traumatic acute abdominal pain with respect to patient tolerance, imaging of intestinal detail along with conventional abdominal evaluation. Materials and methods: Modified CTE was performed in 165 consecutive patients with acute abdominal pain: ingestion, as tolerated, of 900-1200 ml of 2% barium suspension + 5 ml of Gastrografin over 45 min; 150 ml of iv contrast given in two boluses (50 and 100 ml) 3 min apart (split bolus injection protocol). Axial, coronal and sagittal reformats were reviewed by two radiologists and graded on a 5-point scale (5 best) in regard to GI tract luminal opacification and distension and abdominal organ and vascular enhancement. Results: In 81 patients the cause of abdominal pain was identified (intestinal in 54 and extraintestinal in 27). Oral contrast reached cecum in 76% of the patients and the small bowel was well distended and opacified (medians = 4). Mucosa detail was good (median = 3) and there was significant (p < 0.0001) correlation between bowel opacification and distension for both jejunum and ileum. A combined nephrographic and excretory phase was achieved (medians 4 and 5, respectively), while the great vessels were well opacified, allowing for vascular evaluation (median = 5). The rest of the abdominal structures were well visualized. Conclusion: Modified CTE is well tolerated by patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain, and can be used routinely as a non-invasive examination informative of bowel, vessel and organ pathology in Emergency Department patients.

  9. Gastrointestinal Spatiotemporal mRNA Expression of Ghrelin vs Growth Hormone Receptor and New Growth Yield Machine Learning Model Based on Perturbation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Tao; Liu, Yong; Li, Hengzhi; Tang, Shaoxun; He, Zhixiong; Munteanu, Cristian R; González-Díaz, Humberto; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-01-01

    The management of ruminant growth yield has economic importance. The current work presents a study of the spatiotemporal dynamic expression of Ghrelin and GHR at mRNA levels throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of kid goats under housing and grazing systems. The experiments show that the feeding system and age affected the expression of either Ghrelin or GHR with different mechanisms. Furthermore, the experimental data are used to build new Machine Learning models based on the Perturbation Theory, which can predict the effects of perturbations of Ghrelin and GHR mRNA expression on the growth yield. The models consider eight longitudinal GIT segments (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum), seven time points (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 d) and two feeding systems (Supplemental and Grazing feeding) as perturbations from the expected values of the growth yield. The best regression model was obtained using Random Forest, with the coefficient of determination R(2) of 0.781 for the test subset. The current results indicate that the non-linear regression model can accurately predict the growth yield and the key nodes during gastrointestinal development, which is helpful to optimize the feeding management strategies in ruminant production system. PMID:27460882

  10. Rectosigmoid findings are not associated with proximal colon cancer: Analysis of 6 196 consecutive cases undergoing total colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Makoto Okamoto; Takao Kawabe; Yutaka Yamaji; Jun Kato; Tsuneo Ikenoue; Goichi Togo; Haruhiko Yoshida; Yasushi Shiratori; Masao Omata

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To review the risk of proximal colon cancer in patients undergoing colonoscopy.METHODS: We estimated the risk of advanced proximal adenomas and cancers in 6 196 consecutive patients that underwent colonoscopy (mean age 60 years, 65% males,without prior history of colorectal examination). Neoplasms were classified as diminutive adenoma (5 mm or less),small adenoma (6-9 mm), advanced adenoma (10 mm or more, with villous component or high-grade dysplasia)and cancer (invasive adenocarcinoma). The sites of neoplasms were defined as rectosigmoid (rectum and sigmoid colon) and proximal colon (from cecum to descending colon).RESULTS: The trend of the prevalence of advanced proximal adenoma was to increase with severe rectosigmoid findings, while the prevalence of proximal colon cancer did not increase with severe rectosigmoid findings. Among the 157 patients with proximal colon cancer, 74% had no neoplasm in the rectosigmoid colon. Multivariate logisticregression analysis revealed that age was the main predictor of proximal colon cancer and existence of rectosigmoid adenoma was not a predictor of proximal colon cancer.CONCLUSION: Sigmoidoscopy is inadequate for colorectal cancer screening, especially in older populations.

  11. Horizontal gene transfer of a ColV plasmid has resulted in a dominant avian clonal type of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky.

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    Timothy J Johnson

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica continues to be a significant cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness in humans. A wide variety of Salmonella serovars have been isolated from production birds and from retail poultry meat. Recently, though, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky has emerged as one of the prominent Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler chickens. Recent work suggests that its emergence apparently coincides with its acquisition of a ColV virulence plasmid. In the present study, we examined 902 Salmonella isolates belonging to 59 different serovars for the presence of this plasmid. Of the serovars examined, the ColV plasmid was found only among isolates belonging to the serovars Kentucky (72.9%, Typhimurium (15.0% and Heidelberg (1.7%. We demonstrated that a single PFGE clonal type of S. Kentucky harbors this plasmid, and acquisition of this plasmid by S. Kentucky significantly increased its ability to colonize the chicken cecum and cause extraintestinal disease. Comparison of the completed sequences of three ColV plasmids from S. Kentucky isolated from different geographical locales, timepoints and sources revealed a nearly identical genetic structure with few single nucleotide changes or insertions/deletions. Overall, it appears that the ColV plasmid was recently acquired by a single clonal type S. Kentucky and confers to its host enhanced colonization and fitness capabilities. Thus, the potential for horizontal gene transfer of virulence and fitness factors to Salmonella from other enteric bacteria exists in poultry, representing a potential human health hazard.

  12. Comparison and Efficacy of LigaSure and Rubber Band Ligature in Closing the Inflamed Cecal Stump in a Rat Model of Acute Appendicitis

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    Chun-Chieh Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A and 7 days (Group B after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S, 5 mm LigaSure (L, or rubber band (R. Seven days after cecal resection, the LigaSure (BL and silk subgroups (BS had significantly less intra-abdominal adhesion and better laparotomy wound healing than rubber band subgroup (BR. The initial bursting pressure at cecal stump was comparable among the three methods; along with tissue healing process, both BL and BS provided a higher bursting pressure than BR 7 days after appendectomy. BL subgroup had more abundant hydroxyproline deposition than BS and BR subgroup. Furthermore, serum TNF-α in BR group kept persistently increasing along with time after cecal resection. Thus, the finding that LigaSure but not rubber band is safe in sealing off the inflamed cecal stump in rat model of acute appendicitis suggests the possibility of applying LigaSure for appendectomy via single port procedure or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES.

  13. Use of maltodextrin and a prebiotic in the feed of weaned piglets

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    Mayara Rodrigues Pivetta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing lactose with maltodextrin and adding fructooligosaccharides (FOSs to the feed of weaned piglets. The first experiment was conducted using a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (2 sources of carbohydrates: maltodextrin and lactose in the pre-starter feed and with or without the use of 0.3% FOS in the pre-starter and starter feeds with 7 repetitions in 3 animals. Performance and hematological parameters were evaluated. The second experiment was conducted using a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement (2 sources of carbohydrates: maltodextrin and lactose and with or without the use of 0.3% FOS; 2 slaughter dates: 7 and 14 d post-weaning; and slaughter on the day of weaning with 8 repetitions in 1 animal. The following parameters were evaluated: pH and relative weight of digestive organs, enzyme activity, and microbial population. In the initial phase, maltodextrin did not compromise performance and could replace lactose with economic benefits; however, it does reduce intake of the pre-starter I feed. Maltodextrin has a prebiotic effect because it reduces the total coliform and E. coli populations in the cecum and reduces the pH of the rectal contents. The use of FOSs is not justified, regardless of whether lactose or maltodextrin is added to the feed.

  14. Novel Combination of Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Inulin-Inhibited Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation and Biomarkers of Colon Cancer in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Tahir Rasool; Syed, Fatima; Nasir, Muhammad; Rehman, Habib; Zahid, Muhammad Nauman; Liu, Rui Hai; Iqbal, Sanaullah

    2016-08-01

    The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin in cancer prevention. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of novel GOS and inulin against various biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rodent model. Prebiotic treatments of combined GOS and inulin (57 mg each), as well as individual doses (GOS: 76-151 mg; inulin 114 mg), were given to DMH-treated animals for 16 weeks. Our data reveal the significant preventive effect of the GOS and inulin combination against the development of CRC. It was observed that inhibition of ACF formation (55.8%) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher using the GOS and inulin combination than GOS (41.4%) and inulin (51.2%) treatments alone. This combination also rendered better results on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bacterial enzymatic activities. Dose-dependent effects of prebiotic treatments were also observed on cecum and fecal bacterial enzymes and on SCFA. Thus, this study demonstrated that novel combination of GOS and inulin exhibited stronger preventive activity than their individual treatments alone, and can be a promising strategy for CRC chemoprevention.

  15. Stable isotope model for assessing production of short chain fatty acids from colon-derived sugar: application in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, C L; Murray, R D; Ailabouni, A; Powers, P; Kepner, J; Powers, L; Brunengraber, H

    1996-12-01

    Sugar reaching the colon because of intestinal maldigestion or malabsorption may be fermented to acetate and other short-chain fatty acids, resulting in stimulation of colonic water absorption and cell proliferation. To explore this phenomenon in more detail, we have developed a stable isotope model for estimating the fraction of colon-derived glucose or lactose that is fermented to acetate, propionate and butyrate. In an initial application of the model, [d3]-acetate and either [1-(13)C]-glucose or [D-1-(13)C]-lactose were infused into the cecum or colon of piglets, and plateau plasma acetate enrichment was monitored in the carotid artery. In acutely anesthetized piglets, the fractions of glucose and lactose fermented to acetate were 17.0 and 20.0%, respectively. In a chronically catheterized piglet, fermentation was higher (34.2%). When conducted in chronically catheterized animals or via a colostomy or ileostomy in infants, this model may be used to determine how age, previous surgery or antibiotic therapy affects the efficiency of colonic assimilation of carbohydrate. PMID:9001376

  16. Effects of Xylo-Oligosaccharides on Broiler Chicken Performance and Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maesschalck, C; Eeckhaut, V; Maertens, L; De Lange, L; Marchal, L; Nezer, C; De Baere, S; Croubels, S; Daube, G; Dewulf, J; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Taminau, B; Van Immerseel, F

    2015-09-01

    In broiler chickens, feed additives, including prebiotics, are widely used to improve gut health and to stimulate performance. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans that can be fermented by the gut microbiota. In the current study, we aimed to analyze the prebiotic properties of XOS when added to the broiler diet. Administration of XOS to chickens, in addition to a wheat-rye-based diet, significantly improved the feed conversion ratio. XOS significantly increased villus length in the ileum. It also significantly increased numbers of lactobacilli in the colon and Clostridium cluster XIVa in the ceca. Moreover, the number of gene copies encoding the key bacterial enzyme for butyrate production, butyryl-coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA):acetate CoA transferase, was significantly increased in the ceca of chickens administered XOS. In this group of chickens, at the species level, Lactobacillus crispatus and Anaerostipes butyraticus were significantly increased in abundance in the colon and cecum, respectively. In vitro fermentation of XOS revealed cross-feeding between L. crispatus and A. butyraticus. Lactate, produced by L. crispatus during XOS fermentation, was utilized by the butyrate-producing Anaerostipes species. These data show the beneficial effects of XOS on broiler performance when added to the feed, which potentially can be explained by stimulation of butyrate-producing bacteria through cross-feeding of lactate and subsequent effects of butyrate on gastrointestinal function. PMID:26092452

  17. Ogilvie′s syndrome following posterior spinal arthrodesis for scoliosis

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    Athanasios I Tsirikos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report Ogilvie′s syndrome following posterior spinal arthrodesis on a patient with thoracic and lumbar scoliosis associated with intraspinal anomalies. Postoperative paralytic ileus can commonly complicate scoliosis surgery. Ogilvie′s syndrome as a cause of abdominal distension and pain has not been reported following spinal deformity correction and can mimic post-surgical ileus. 12 year old female patient with double thoracic and lumbar scoliosis associated with Arnold-Chiari 1 malformation and syringomyelia. The patient underwent posterior spinal fusion from T 4 to L 3 with segmental pedicle screw instrumentation and autogenous iliac crest grafting. She developed abdominal distension and pain postoperatively and this deteriorated despite conservative management. Repeat ultrasounds and abdominal computer tomography scans ruled out mechanical obstruction. The clinical presentation and blood parameters excluded toxic megacolon and cecal volvulus. As the symptoms persisted, a laparotomy was performed on postoperative day 16, which demonstrated ragged tears of the colon and cecum. A right hemi-colectomy followed by ileocecal anastomosis was required. The pathological examination of surgical specimens excluded inflammatory bowel disease and vascular abnormalities. The patient made a good recovery following bowel surgery and at latest followup 3.2 years later she had no abdominal complaints and an excellent scoliosis correction. Ogilvie′s syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of postoperative ileus in patients developing prolonged unexplained abdominal distension and pain after scoliosis correction. Early diagnosis and instigation of conservative management can prevent major morbidity and mortality due to bowel ischemia and perforation.

  18. Curcuma and Scutellaria plant extracts protect chickens against inflammation and Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Gerzova, Lenka; Cejkova, Darina; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Panhéleux, Marina; Robert, Fabrice; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    After a ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in farm animals in the European Union in 2006, an interest in alternative products with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory properties has increased. In this study, we therefore tested the effects of extracts from Curcuma longa and Scutellaria baicalensis used as feed additives against cecal inflammation induced by heat stress or Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection in chickens. Curcuma extract alone was not enough to decrease gut inflammation induced by heat stress. However, a mixture of Curcuma and Scutellaria extracts used as feed additives decreased gut inflammation induced by heat or S. Enteritidis, decreased S. Enteritidis counts in the cecum but was of no negative effect on BW or humoral immune response. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA we found out that supplementation of feed with the 2 plant extracts had no effect on microbiota diversity. However, if the plant extract supplementation was provided to the chickens infected with S. Enteritidis, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus, both bacterial genera with known positive effects on gut health were positively selected. The supplementation of chicken feed with extracts from Curcuma and Scutelleria thus may be used in poultry production to effectively decrease gut inflammation and increase chicken performance.

  19. Reprogramming of Yersinia from virulent to persistent mode revealed by complex in vivo RNA-seq analysis.

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    Kemal Avican

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently found that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can be used as a model of persistent bacterial infections. We performed in vivo RNA-seq of bacteria in small cecal tissue biopsies at early and persistent stages of infection to determine strategies associated with persistence. Comprehensive analysis of mixed RNA populations from infected tissues revealed that Y. pseudotuberculosis undergoes transcriptional reprogramming with drastic down-regulation of T3SS virulence genes during persistence when the pathogen resides within the cecum. At the persistent stage, the expression pattern in many respects resembles the pattern seen in vitro at 26oC, with for example, up-regulation of flagellar genes and invA. These findings are expected to have impact on future rationales to identify suitable bacterial targets for new antibiotics. Other genes that are up-regulated during persistence are genes involved in anaerobiosis, chemotaxis, and protection against oxidative and acidic stress, which indicates the influence of different environmental cues. We found that the Crp/CsrA/RovA regulatory cascades influence the pattern of bacterial gene expression during persistence. Furthermore, arcA, fnr, frdA, and wrbA play critical roles in persistence. Our findings suggest a model for the life cycle of this enteropathogen with reprogramming from a virulent to an adapted phenotype capable of persisting and spreading by fecal shedding.

  20. Laser induced fluorescence as a diagnostic tool integrated into a scanning fiber endoscope for mouse imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher M.; Maggio-Price, Lillian; Seibel, Eric J.

    2007-02-01

    Scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) technology has shown promise as a minimally invasive optical imaging tool. To date, it is capable of capturing full-color 500-line images, at 15 Hz frame rate in vivo, as a 1.6 mm diameter endoscope. The SFE uses a singlemode optical fiber actuated at mechanical resonance to scan a light spot over tissue while backscattered or fluorescent light at each pixel is detected in time series using several multimode optical fibers. We are extending the capability of the SFE from a RGB reflectance imaging device to a diagnostic tool by imaging laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in tissue, allowing for correlation of endogenous fluorescence to tissue state. Design of the SFE for diagnostic imaging is guided by a comparison of single point spectra acquired from an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model to tissue histology evaluated by a pathologist. LIF spectra were acquired by illuminating tissue with a 405 nm light source and detecting intrinsic fluorescence with a multimode optical fiber. The IBD model used in this study was mdr1a-/- mice, where IBD was modulated by infection with Helicobacter bilis. IBD lesions in the mouse model ranged from mild to marked hyperplasia and dysplasia, from the distal colon to the cecum. A principle components analysis (PCA) was conducted on single point spectra of control and IBD tissue. PCA allowed for differentiation between healthy and dysplastic tissue, indicating that emission wavelengths from 620 - 650 nm were best able to differentiate diseased tissue and inflammation from normal healthy tissue.

  1. Fermentation and growth response of a primary poultry isolate of Salmonella typhimurium grown under strict anaerobic conditions in continuous culture and amino acid-limited batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciorowski, K G; Nisbet, D J; Ha, S D; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R; Ricke, S C

    1997-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium is a significant hazard to consumer health that is carried asymptomatically in poultry gastrointestinal tracts. Nurmi cultures may prevent Salmonella colonization in young chicks, but the mechanism of competitive exclusion is unclear. Modeling Salmonella's metabolism in pure culture may allow for greater definition in choosing strains for Nurmi cultures. The growth rates and affinity constants of S. typhimurium growing in amino acid-limited conditions were determined in batch culture and compared to primary poultry isolates of cecal strains. Serine and NH4Cl were the best N sources for growth of all organisms tested in this study. The fermentation response of S. typhimurium was also monitored in continuous culture at a slow dilution rate of 0.021 h-1. S. typhimurium was found to adapt to VL media, with trends in protein disappearance, Yglucose, and Yprotein. This may show that amino acid or protein concentrations may be an integral component of the initial establishment of S. typhimurium in the cecum. PMID:9192013

  2. Inhibition of postsurgical adhesions by methylene blue-loaded nanofibers versus cast film matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Nesma; Galal, Sally; El-Gowelli, Hanan; El-Khordagui, Labiba

    2016-07-01

    In the quest for barrier membranes for the prevention of post-surgical tissue adhesions, polymer matrices may provide a platform of biomaterials with versatile properties. However, the relationship between the anti-adhesion effects of different polymer matrices and their physicochemical and structural properties is not yet adequately understood. In a preclinical study using a rat cecum model, we directly compared the anti-adhesion potential of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) electrospun nanofibrous versus cast film matrices loaded with methylene blue (MB) as antioxidant adhesion inhibitor. PHB retained MB presumably forming MB-bioactivated matrices. In the preclinical study, quantitative morphologic assessment in addition to histopathologic and SEM examinations 14 days post-surgery indicated that plain PHB NFs and MB-PHB NFs, moderately enhanced cecal wall healing and inhibited adhesion formation. In contrast, reshaping PHB as cast films, significantly enhanced healing, reduced adhesion bands and prevented inter-visceral adhesions. Cast films also inhibited tissue attachment to the matrix recovered 14 days post-surgery. Both PHB matrix types reduced tissue inflammation. Despite tissue anti-adhesion potential of individual matrix components, modulation of the micro-architectural properties generated polymer barriers with varying tissue anti-adhesion and healing potentials, the MB-loaded cast film achieving the best outcome. PMID:27093975

  3. An unusual white blood cell scan in a child with inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; O'Loughlin, E; Uren, R; Chaitow, J

    2000-10-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled leukocyte (WBC) imaging is a valuable screening method for inflammatory bowel disease, especially in children, because of its high rate of sensitivity, low cost, and ease of preparation. A 14-year-old girl is described who had juvenile arthritis and iritis complicated by inflammatory bowel disease. She was examined for recurrent abdominal pain. A Tc-99m stannous colloid WBC scan was performed, and tracer accumulation was seen in the small bowel in the region of the distal ileum on the initial 1-hour image. Delayed imaging at 3 hours also revealed tracer accumulation in the cecum and ascending colon, which was not seen on the early image. A biopsy of the colon during endoscopy showed no evidence of active inflammation in the colon. The small bowel was not seen. Computed tomography revealed changes suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease in the distal ileum. The appearance on the WBC study was most likely a result of inflammatory bowel disease involving the distal ileum, with transit of luminal activity into the large bowel. PMID:11043720

  4. Detecção de Salmonella Anatum em ema (Rhea americana Detection of Salmonella Anatum in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana

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    Rosecler Alves Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para pesquisa de Salmonella spp. foram coletadas amostras de fígado e conteúdo cecal de 70 emas (Rhea americana abatidas no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil. Uma colônia morfológica e bioquimicamente compatível com Salmonella spp., isolada de uma amostra de fígado, foi sorotipada como Salmonella Anatum. Considerando-se o alto potencial zoonótico deste microrganismo, destaca-se a relevância do controle microbiológico efetivo em frigoríficos que abatem espécies silvestres, assim como no produto final.In aiming to investigate the Salmonella spp. presence in one slaughterhouse in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil, liver and cecum samples from 70 Greater Rhea (Rhea americana were collected. One Salmonella-like colonie was serologically typed and identified as Salmonella Anatum. Considering the high zoonotical potential of this microorganism, an effective microbiological control of wild animal slaughterhouses and the final product is needed.

  5. The relationship between nitro group reduction and the intestinal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, L A; Soderberg, F B; Goldman, P

    1975-07-01

    The capacity of rats to reduce a 25-mg dose of p-nitrobenzoic acid (PNBA) was measured by quantifying the amount of this compound recovered in the urine as p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its conjugates. It was found that germfree rats converted approximately 1% of PNBA to PABA; in conventional rats the conversion was approximately 25%. Various bacteria isolated from the rat cecum were selectively associated with germfree rats and it was demonstrated that these bacteria colonized their gastrointestinal tracts. In assoication with Lactobacillus plantarum, the conversion of PNBA to PABA increased to 3.9%. When these rats were further associated with Clostridium sp. and Streptoccocus faecalis, the conversion increased to approximately 12%. A general correlation was found between the capacity of constituents of the microflora to reduce PNBA in vitro and when associated with the germfree rat. Cecectomy, which removes a substantial portion of the microflora of the rat, decreases the capacity of the conventional rat to reduce PNBA. Similar experiments with p-nitrobenzenesulfonamide indicate that this compound is also largely reduced by the flora. Evidence that the reduction of the nitro group in these compounds is carried out by the intestinal microflora explains previous observations in which the reduction of these compounds in rats did not correlate with the activity of liver enzymes putative for these reactions. PMID:1097637

  6. Localization of motilin-immunopositive cells in the rat intestine by light microscopic immunocytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T; Satoh, M; Koyama, H; Iesaki, K; Umahara, M; Fujikura, K; Itoh, Z

    1994-01-01

    Motilin-immunopositive cells (Mo cells) are known to exist in the upper small intestine of many species including man. However, the possible presence of Mo cells in the rat gastrointestine has remained obscure because antiserum against it raised in rabbit was found not to cross-react with motilin in the rat gastrointestine. The present study was designed to investigate the distribution of Mo cells in the rat gastrointestine by the peroxidase-conjugated second antibody method using newly raised chicken anti-motilin serum (CPV3). This antiserum was suggested to recognize the N-terminal region of the motilin molecule by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunocytochemical absorption test. Mo cells detected in the rat gastrointestine by immunocytochemistry were found to be distributed in the duodenum (1.5 cells/mm2), jejunum (2.2 cells/mm2), and ileum (0.028 cells/mm2), and no positive cells were found in the gastric body, gastric antrum, cecum, colon, or pancreas. The immunopositive cells in the rat intestine were spindle shaped or polygonal, scattered throughout the epithelium of the villi and crypts, and similar to those commonly observed in the upper small intestine of other species. These results indicate for the first time that motilin-immunopositive cells do exist in the rat intestine.

  7. "Melanosis" in the small and large intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of pigment in the intestinal mucosa is commonly observed by the endoscopist, especially within the colon, and particularly during investigations for constipation. Pigment may also be detected in the small intestine. Although labeled as melanosis, electron microscopy and X-ray analytical methods have provided evidence that this pigment is not melanin at all, but lipofuscin. Often, herbal remedies or anthracene containing laxatives are often historically implicated, and experimental studies in both humans and animal models have also confirmed the intimate relationship with these pharmacological or pseudo-pharmacological remedies. The appearance of melanosis coil during colonoscopy is largely due to pigment granule deposition in macrophages located in the colonic mucosa. The pigment intensity is not uniform, being more intense in the cecum and proximal colon compared to the distal colon. Possibly, this reflects higher luminal concentrations of an offending agent in the proximal compared to distal colon, differential absorption along the length of the colon, or finally, differences in macrophage distribution within the colon. Mucosal lymphoid aggregates normally display a distinct absence of pigment producing a "starry sky" appearance, especially in the rectosigmoid region. Interestingly, some focal, usually sessile, colonic mucosal neoplastic lesions, rather than submucosal lesions, may be better appreciated as pigment deposition may be absent or limited. If detected, removal and further histopathologic analysis of the polyp may be facilitated.

  8. Conditional knockout of the Slc5a6 gene in mouse intestine impairs biotin absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Lambrecht, Nils; Subramanya, Sandeep B; Kapadia, Rubina; Said, Hamid M

    2013-01-01

    The Slc5a6 gene expresses a plasma membrane protein involved in the transport of the water-soluble vitamin biotin; the transporter is commonly referred to as the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) because it also transports pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. The relative contribution of the SMVT system toward carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the native intestine in vivo has not been established. We used a Cre/lox technology to generate an intestine-specific (conditional) SMVT knockout (KO) mouse model to address this issue. The KO mice exhibited absence of expression of SMVT in the intestine compared with sex-matched littermates as well as the expected normal SMVT expression in other tissues. About two-thirds of the KO mice died prematurely between the age of 6 and 10 wk. Growth retardation, decreased bone density, decreased bone length, and decreased biotin status were observed in the KO mice. Microscopic analysis showed histological abnormalities in the small bowel (shortened villi, dysplasia) and cecum (chronic active inflammation, dysplasia) of the KO mice. In vivo (and in vitro) transport studies showed complete inhibition in carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the intestine of the KO mice compared with their control littermates. These studies provide the first in vivo confirmation in native intestine that SMVT is solely responsible for intestinal biotin uptake. These studies also provide evidence for a casual association between SMVT function and normal intestinal health.

  9. Effects of sorghum on broilers gastrointestinal tract

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    MCA Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of whole and ground sorghum, compared with ground corn, on the live weight, feed conversion ratio, organs weight and intestinal biometrics and histomorphometrics. In total, 960 Hubbard Flex broilers were reared until 42-day-old and distributed into 24 pens, according to the three treatments: ground corn, whole-grain sorghum, and ground sorghum. On day 42, five male birds per treatment were selected by similar body weight and sacrificed. Gizzard absolute weight, and proventriculus, liver, pancreas and heart relative weights, and duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and colon length and relative weight were determined. Villus characteristics and intestinal mucosa absorption surface area were evaluated. Broilers fed sorghum, independently of physical form, were heavier and had greater feed conversion ratio than those fed ground corn. Gizzard showed the highest relative weight in broilers fed whole sorghum compared to corn. Liver and jejunum relative weight was higher in broilers fed ground corn, compared to ground sorghum. Whole small intestine, cecum and colon relative lengths showed no difference among treatments. Deeper crypts were found in the duodenum of broilers fed whole grain sorghum, compared to ground sorghum, as well as in jejunum compared to ground corn; however, intestinal absorption surface area was not different among treatments. Whole or ground grain sorghum may replace corn in the feed of 1- to 42-d-old broilers, since they improve body weight and feed conversion ratio, and not adversely affect intestinal morphometry and organs weight.

  10. Laparoscopic Splenectomy for Traumatic Splenic Injury after Screening Colonoscopy

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    Salim Abunnaja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Colonoscopy is a widespread diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. The most common complications include bleeding and perforation. Splenic rupture following colonoscopy is rarely encountered and is most likely secondary to traction on the splenocolic ligament. Exploratory laparotomy and splenectomy is the most commonly employed therapeutic intervention for this injury reported in the literature. We present the case of a patient with this potentially fatal complication who was treated successfully at our institution. To our knowledge it is the first report in the literature of laparoscopic splenectomy as a successful minimally invasive treatment of splenic rupture following colonoscopy. The patient was a 62-year-old female who underwent screening colonoscopy with polypectomies at the cecum, descending colon and rectum. Immediately following the procedure she developed abdominal pain and had a syncopal episode. Clinical, laboratory and imaging findings were suggestive of hemoperitoneum and a ruptured spleen. A diagnostic laparoscopy was emergently performed and revealed a grade IV splenic laceration and hemoperitoneum. Laparoscopic splenectomy was completed safely and effectively. The patient’s postoperative recovery was uneventful. We conclude that splenic rupture after colonoscopy is a rare but dangerous complication. A high index of suspicion is required to recognize it early. Awareness of this potential complication can lead to optimal patient outcome. Laparoscopic splenectomy may be a feasible treatment option.

  11. Feasibility study of computed tomography colonography using limited bowel preparation at normal and low-dose levels study

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    Florie, Jasper; Gelder, Rogier E. van; Schutter, Michiel P.; Randen, Adrienne van; Jager, Steven de; Prent, Anna; Bipat, Shandra [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, G1-230, P.O. Box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Venema, Henk W. [Academic Medical Center, Department of MedicaPhysics, L0-106, P.O. Box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulst, Victor P.M. van der [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, P.O. BOX 95500, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bossuyt, Patrick M.M. [Academic Medical Center, Department Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, J1b-212, P.O. BOX 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baak, Lubbertus C. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department Gastroenterology, P.O. BOX 95500, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, G1-211, P.O. BOX 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    The purpose was to evaluate low-dose CT colonography without cathartic cleansing in terms of image quality, polyp visualization and patient acceptance. Sixty-one patients scheduled for colonoscopy started a low-fiber diet, lactulose and amidotrizoic-acid for fecal tagging 2 days prior to the CT scan (standard dose, 5.8-8.2 mSv). The original raw data of 51 patients were modified and reconstructed at simulated 2.3 and 0.7 mSv levels. Two observers evaluated the standard dose scan regarding image quality and polyps. A third evaluated the presence of polyps at all three mSv levels in a blinded prospective way. All observers were blinded to the reference standard: colonoscopy. At three times patients were given questionnaires relating to their experiences and preference. Image quality was sufficient in all patients, but significantly lower in the cecum, sigmoid and rectum. The two observers correctly identified respectively 10/15 (67%) and 9/15 (60%) polyps {>=}10 mm, with 5 and 8 false-positive lesions (standard dose scan). Dose reduction down to 0.7 mSv was not associated with significant changes in diagnostic value (polyps {>=}10 mm). Eighty percent of patients preferred CT colonography and 13% preferred colonoscopy (P<0.001). CT colonography without cleansing is preferred to colonoscopy and shows sufficient image quality and moderate sensitivity, without impaired diagnostic value at dose-levels as low as 0.7 mSv. (orig.)

  12. Modulation of antimicrobial host defense peptide gene expression by free fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi T Sunkara

    Full Text Available Routine use of antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels in animal feed drives the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Development of antibiotic-alternative approaches to disease control and prevention for food animals is imperatively needed. Previously, we showed that butyrate, a major species of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs fermented from undigested fiber by intestinal microflora, is a potent inducer of endogenous antimicrobial host defense peptide (HDP genes in the chicken (PLoS One 2011, 6: e27225. In the present study, we further revealed that, in chicken HD11 macrophages and primary monocytes, induction of HDPs is largely in an inverse correlation with the aliphatic hydrocarbon chain length of free fatty acids, with SCFAs being the most potent, medium-chain fatty acids moderate and long-chain fatty acids marginal. Additionally, three SCFAs, namely acetate, propionate, and butyrate, exerted a strong synergy in augmenting HDP gene expression in chicken cells. Consistently, supplementation of chickens with a combination of three SCFAs in water resulted in a further reduction of Salmonella enteritidis in the cecum as compared to feeding of individual SCFAs. More importantly, free fatty acids enhanced HDP gene expression without triggering proinflammatory interleukin-1β production. Taken together, oral supplementation of SCFAs is capable of boosting host immunity and disease resistance, with potential for infectious disease control and prevention in animal agriculture without relying on antibiotics.

  13. Effect of human isolated probiotic bacteria on preventing Campylobacter jejuni colonization of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cean, Ada; Stef, Lavinia; Simiz, Eliza; Julean, Calin; Dumitrescu, Gabi; Vasile, Aida; Pet, Elena; Drinceanu, Dan; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    This study was performed in order to determine whether human isolated probiotic bacteria can be effective in reducing Campylobacter jejuni infection of chicken intestinal cells, in vitro, and in decreasing its colonization abilities within the chicken gut. Our results show that the probiotic strains Lactobacillus paracasei J. R, L. rhamnosus 15b, L. lactis Y, and L. lactis FOa had a significant effect on C. jejuni invasion of chicken primary cells, with the strongest inhibitory effect detected when a combination of four was administered. In regard to the in vivo effect, using all four strains in one combination prevented mucus colonization in the duodenum and cecum. Moreover, the pathogen load in the lumen of these two compartments was significantly reduced. When probiotics were introduced during the early growth period, the presence of the pathogen in feces was increased (p>0.05), but when they were given during the last week of growth, there was no significant effect. In conclusion, our data indicate that these four new probiotic strains are able to cause modifications in the chicken intestinal mucosa and can reduce the ability of C. jejuni to invade, in vitro, and to colonize, in vivo. These probiotics are now proven to be effective even when introduced in broiler's feed 7 days before slaughter, which makes them cost-effective for the producers.

  14. Profil Mikrobiologis Pollard yang Difermentasi dengan Ekstrak Limbah Pasar Sayur pada Lama Peram yang Berbeda

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    Cahya Setya Utama

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Profile microbiological of pollard fermented with extract of waste vegetable market in different long ripened  ABSTRACT. The purpose of fermentation is to produce a product (material feed that have nutritional content, texture and better biological availability, while it also can reduce the anti-nutritional. Microorganisms are often used as probiotics in feed is kind of Lactobacillus sp and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microorganisms are able to produce secondary metabolites such as β -glucan, mannan oligosaccharides and anti-cancer. Very familier as probiotic Lactobacillus among humans or livestock , while saccharomyces cerevisiae have specific characteristics in animal feed because of its ability to produce glutamic acid which can increase feed palatability. Grant Saccharomyces cerevisie can enhance digest protein and fiber, such as cellulose and hemicellulose , with Sacaromyces cerevisiea supplementation can increase the rate of short-chain fatty acids in cecum and suppresses the growth of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae species. Observing the above, needed an activity to find additional engineering efforts antibiotics as a source of natural probiotic , prebiotic and synbiotic on the particular poultry and livestock in general, to take advantage of the waste as a probiotic supplement that naturally produced feed additives to support healthy organic livestock production and economically.

  15. Prevalence and pathology of the nematode Heterakis gallinarum, the trematode Paratanaisia bragai, and the protozoan Histomonas meleagridis in the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Beatriz; Tortelly, Rogério; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C; Pinto, Roberto Magalhães

    2006-09-01

    The prevalence of infection and associated pathology induced by two helminth and one protozoan species infecting Brazilian turkeys are reported. The intestinal nematode Heterakis gallinarum appeared with a prevalence of 70% in the infected birds, without gross lesions when not associated to the protozoan Histomonas meleagridis. Histological findings in the ceca were represented by the presence of H. gallinarum worms, intense chronic diffuse inflammatory processes with mononuclear and polymorphonuclear (heterophils) leucocyte infiltrations. The prevalence of the protozoan H. meleagridis associated to H. gallinarum was of 2.5% and microscopic examination revealed a severe inflammatory process in the liver and cecum with the presence of small clear areas with round eosinophilic parasites. Gross lesions were absent in turkeys infected with the renal digenetic trematode Paratanaisia bragai; the parasite was prevalent in 20% of the cases and cross-sections of the kidneys showed a remarkable distension of the collecting ducts with several worms in the lumen. The walls of the ducts presented a discrete heterophilic infiltrate among mononuclear cells.

  16. Prevalence and pathology of the nematode Heterakis gallinarum, the trematode Paratanaisia bragai, and the protozoan Histomonas meleagridis in the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Brener

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of infection and associated pathology induced by two helminth and one protozoan species infecting Brazilian turkeys are reported. The intestinal nematode Heterakis gallinarum appeared with a prevalence of 70% in the infected birds, without gross lesions when not associated to the protozoan Histomonas meleagridis. Histological findings in the ceca were represented by the presence of H. gallinarum worms, intense chronic diffuse inflammatory processes with mononuclear and polymorphonuclear (heterophils leucocyte infiltrations. The prevalence of the protozoan H. meleagridis associated to H. gallinarum was of 2.5% and microscopic examination revealed a severe inflammatory process in the liver and cecum with the presence of small clear areas with round eosinophilic parasites. Gross lesions were absent in turkeys infected with the renal digenetic trematode Paratanaisia bragai; the parasite was prevalent in 20% of the cases and cross-sections of the kidneys showed a remarkable distension of the collecting ducts with several worms in the lumen. The walls of the ducts presented a discrete heterophilic infiltrate among mononuclear cells.

  17. Monosodium L-Glutamate and Dietary Fat Differently Modify the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Meng Feng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Chinese have been undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet-consuming lifestyle, while monosodium L-glutamate (MSG is widely used as a daily food additive. It has been reported that fat alters the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, little information is available on the effects of oral MSG on intestinal microbiota, and no study was done focusing on the interaction effect of fat and MSG with respect to intestinal microbiota. The present study thus aimed to determine the effects of MSG and/or fat on intestinal microbiota, and also to identify possible interactions between these two nutrients. Methods: Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets were provided to growing pigs. The microbiota from jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon were analyzed. Results: Our results show that both MSG and fat clearly increased the intestinal microbiota diversity. MSG and fat modified the composition of intestinal microbiota, particularly in the colon. Both MSG and fat promoted the colonization of microbes related to energy extraction in gastrointestinal tract via different ways. MSG promoted the colonization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia, while fat increased the percentage of Prevotella in colon and other intestinal segments. Conclusion: Our results will help to understand how individual or combined dietary changes modify the microbiota composition to prevent obesity.

  18. Reducing Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Disparities: Performance and Outcomes of a Screening Colonoscopy Program in South Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Xirasagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency, effectiveness, and racial disparities reduction potential of Screening Colonoscopies for People Everywhere in South Carolina (SCOPE SC, a state-funded program for indigent persons aged 50–64 years (45–64 years for African American (AA with a medical home in community health centers. Patients were referred to existing referral network providers, and the centers were compensated for patient navigation. Data on procedures and patient demographics were analyzed. Of 782 individuals recruited (71.2% AA, 85% (665 completed the procedure (71.1% AA. The adenoma detection rate was 27.8% (males 34.6% and females 25.1%, advanced neoplasm rate 7.7% (including 3 cancers, cecum intubation rate 98.9%, inadequate bowel preparation rate 7.9%, and adverse event rate 0.9%. All indicators met the national quality benchmarks. The adenoma rate of 26.0% among AAs aged 45–49 years was similar to that of older Whites and AAs. We found that patient navigation and a medical home setting resulted in a successful and high-quality screening program. The observed high adenoma rate among younger AAs calls for more research with larger cohorts to evaluate the appropriateness of the current screening guidelines for AAs, given that they suffer 47% higher colorectal cancer mortality than Whites.

  19. CO_2 insufflation for potentially difficult colonoscopies:Efficacy when used by less experienced colonoscopists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshio Uraoka; Jun Kato; Motoaki Kuriyama; Keisuke Hori; Shin Ishikawa; Keita Harada; Koji Takemoto; Sakiko Hiraoka; Hideyuki Fujita; Joichiro Horii; Yutaka Saito; Kazuhide Yamamoto

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the effectiveness of CO_2 insufflation in potentially difficult colonoscopy cases, particularly in relation to the experience level of colonoscopists. METHODS: One hundred twenty potentially difficult cases were included in this study, which involved females with a low body mass index and patients with earlier abdominal and/or pelvic open surgery or previously diagnosed left-side colon diverticulosis. Patients receiving colonoscopy examinations without sedation using a pediatric variable-stiffness colonoscope were divided into two groups based on either CO_2 or standard air insufflation. Both insufflation procedures were also evaluated according to the experience level of the respective colonoscopists who were divided into an experienced colonoscopist (EC) group and a less experienced colonoscopist (LEC) group. Study measurements included a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) for patient pain during and after colonoscopy examinations, in addition to insertion to the cecum and withdrawal times. RESULTS: Examination times did not differ, however, VAS scores in the CO_2 group were significantly better than in the air group (P < 0.001, two-way ANOVA) from immediately after the procedure and up to 2 h later. There were no significant differences between either insufflation method in the EC group (P = 0.29), however, VAS scores for CO_2 insufflation were significantly better than air insufflation in the LEC group (P = 0.023) immediately after colonoscopies and up to 4 h afterwards. CONCLUSION: CO_2 insufflation reduced patient pain after colonoscopy in potentially difficult cases when performed by LECs.

  20. Salmonella Typhi shdA: pseudogene or allelic variant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, I M; Fuentes, J A; Valenzuela, L M; Ortega, A P; Hidalgo, A A; Mora, G C

    2014-08-01

    ShdA from Salmonella Typhimurium (ShdASTm) is a large outer membrane protein that specifically recognizes and binds to fibronectin. ShdASTm is involved in the colonization of the cecum and the Peyer's patches of terminal ileum in mice. On the other hand, shdA gene from Salmonella Typhi (shdASTy) has been considered a pseudogene (i.e. a nonfunctional sequence of genomic DNA) due to the presence of deletions and mutations that gave rise to premature stop codons. In this work we show that, despite the deletions and mutations, shdASTy is fully functional. S. Typhi ΔshdA mutants presented an impaired adherence and invasion of HEp-2 pre-treated with TGF-β1, an inducer of fibronectin production. Moreover, shdA from S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium seem to be equivalent since shdASTm restored the adherence and invasion of S. Typhi ΔshdA mutant to wild type levels. In addition, anti-FLAG mAbs interfered with the adherence and invasion of the S. Typhi shdA-3xFLAG strain. Finally, shdASTy encodes a detectable protein when heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α. The data presented here show that shdASTy is not a pseudogene, but a different functional allele compared with shdASTm. PMID:24859062

  1. Topographical and biometrical anatomy of the digestive tract of White New Zealand Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

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    Sabuj Kanti Nath

    2016-06-01

    Materials and methods: Five rabbits of both sexes were used in this study. After dissection of the rabbits, the exact positions of different parts of the digestive tract (i.e., esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine were measured using Metric rule, thread, electronic and normal balance. Results: The mean lengths of the small intestine and large intestine were 169.53+/-21.65 and 132.3+/-17.42 cm, respectively, and weight of the whole digestive tract was 263.60+/-56.80 gm. The mean lengths and mean diameter of esophagus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum were 9.62+/-1.64, 41.26+/-4.06, 106.60+/-14.64, 21.64+/-46.32, 41.14+/-2.82, 83.16+/-13.74 and 8.0+/-1.08 cm and 1.16+/-0.12, 1.71+/-0.11, 1.70+/-0.09, 1.73+/-0.05, 5.47+/-0.15, 3.36+/-0.16 and 2.81+/-0.24 cm, respectively. Conclusion: These results can be considered as a baseline study that may assist in disease diagnosis and clinical works with rabbits. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 145-151

  2. CT appearance of the normal appendix in adults

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    Tamburrini, Stefania [Universita' di Napoli Federico II, Dip. Sc. Biomorfologiche e Funzionali, Naples (Italy); UCSD Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Brunetti, Arturo [Universita' di Napoli Federico II, Dip. Sc. Biomorfologiche e Funzionali, Naples (Italy); Brown, Michele; Sirlin, Claude B.; Casola, Giovanna [UCSD Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The aims of this study were to identify (1) the normal range of the appendix on computed tomography (CT), (2) the correlation of patient age and sex with the visibility and appearance of the appendix on CT, and (3) the normal variations in wall thickness, intraluminal content, and location of the appendix. Three hundred seventy-two outpatients underwent abdominopelvic CT. The scans were reviewed on the picture archiving and communication system and appendiceal outer-to-outer wall diameter, wall thickness, location, content and its correlation with appendix diameter were analyzed. The appendix was visualized in 305/372 patients. Its location relative to the cecum was highly variable. The diameter range was 3-10 mm; in 42% of cases the diameter was greater than 6 mm. When the intraluminal content (185/305) was visualized, the diameter was slightly superior to the mean (p=0.0156). In 329 CT scans in which oral contrast material was given, the appendix was filled by contrast material in 74/329 patients. The appendix wall thickness was measurable in 22/305 patients (average 0.15 cm). There is significant overlap between the normal and abnormal CT appearance of the appendix. Consequently the diagnosis of acute appendicitis should be based not only on the appearance of the appendix but also on the presence of secondary signs. (orig.)

  3. CT appearance of the normal appendix in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study were to identify (1) the normal range of the appendix on computed tomography (CT), (2) the correlation of patient age and sex with the visibility and appearance of the appendix on CT, and (3) the normal variations in wall thickness, intraluminal content, and location of the appendix. Three hundred seventy-two outpatients underwent abdominopelvic CT. The scans were reviewed on the picture archiving and communication system and appendiceal outer-to-outer wall diameter, wall thickness, location, content and its correlation with appendix diameter were analyzed. The appendix was visualized in 305/372 patients. Its location relative to the cecum was highly variable. The diameter range was 3-10 mm; in 42% of cases the diameter was greater than 6 mm. When the intraluminal content (185/305) was visualized, the diameter was slightly superior to the mean (p=0.0156). In 329 CT scans in which oral contrast material was given, the appendix was filled by contrast material in 74/329 patients. The appendix wall thickness was measurable in 22/305 patients (average 0.15 cm). There is significant overlap between the normal and abnormal CT appearance of the appendix. Consequently the diagnosis of acute appendicitis should be based not only on the appearance of the appendix but also on the presence of secondary signs. (orig.)

  4. Oral tolerance induction with altered forms of ovalbumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stransky B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As a T cell-dependent phenomenon, oral tolerance is not expected to depend necessarily on native configuration of antigens. We investigated the induction of oral tolerance with modified ovalbumin (Ova. Oral administration of heat-denatured (HD-Ova and cyanogen bromide-degraded ovalbumin was less effective than native Ova in inducing oral tolerance in B6D2F1 mice. HD-Ova was effective in suppressing delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reactions but did not suppress specific antibody formation. Injection of Ova directly into the stomach, but not into the ileum or cecum, suppressed subsequent immunization to DTH reactions. Gavage with protease inhibitors (aprotinin or ovomucoid before gavage with Ova was ineffective in blocking tolerance induction. Treatment with hydroxyurea to destroy cycling cells 24 h before gavage with Ova blocked oral tolerance induction and also the possibility to passively transfer tolerance to naive recipients with the serum of mice gavaged with Ova 1 h before. The implications of these findings about oral tolerance induction are discussed

  5. Effects of Fructooligosaccharides,compared with Direct-Fed Microbial Bacteria,and Zinc Bacitracin on Cecal Microbial Populations and Performance of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructooligosaccharides(FOS),compared with direct-fed microbial bacteria (DFM),and zinc bacitracin ,on cecal microbial populations and performance of broiler Chickens. One hundred and ninety-two broilers (Avian) were randomly assigned to four groups,with four replicates of 12 birds each. The control group was fed with the basal diet,without any drug additive. FOS,DFM and zine bacitracin was respectively added to the basal diet at the level of 1.5% ,800 mg@kg-1 and 300 mg@ kg-1 to form the experimental diets. Body weight ,feed intake and feed efficiency were measured weekly. The feeding trial started at 1 d and ended at 21 d. At day 14 and day 21 ,four broilers per group were killed and cecum waa taken to determined microflors and pH. The results showed that dietary FOS increased bifidobactrial concentration by 1. 75-fold( P <0. 05) at 14 d of age and 1.45-fold( P <0. 05) at 21 d of age compared with control. FOS had no effect on concnetrations of E. coli and pH. There were no dietary effects of FOS,DFM,and zinc bacitracin on weight gain,feed intake,feed conversion( P >0. 05).

  6. Practical approaches to effective management of intestinal radiation injury: Benefit of resectional surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolaos Perrakis; Evangelos Athanassiou; Dimitra Vamvakopoulou; Maria Kyriazi; Haris Kappos; Nikolaos C Vamvakopoulos; Iakovos Nomikos

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the outcome of patients undergoing surgical resection of the bowel for sustained radiation-induced damage intractable to conservative management.METHODS: During a 7-year period we operated on 17 cases (5 male, 12 female) admitted to our surgical department with intestinal radiation injury (IRI). They were originally treated for a pelvic malignancy by surgical resection followed by postoperative radiotherapy. During follow-up, they developed radiation enteritis requiring surgical treatment due to failure of conservative management.RESULTS: IRI was located in the terminal ileum in 12 patients, in the rectum in 2 patients, in the descending colon in 2 patients, and in the cecum in one patient. All patients had resection of the affected region(s). There were no postoperative deaths, while 3 cases presented with postoperative complications (17.7%). All patients remained free of symptoms without evidence of recurrence of IRI for a median follow-up period of 42 mo (range, 6-96 mo).CONCLUSION: We report a favorable outcome without IRI recurrence of 17 patients treated by resection of the diseased bowel segment.

  7. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Guo, Jiang; Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1-21 days and 61.0% during 22-42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers. PMID:26599444

  8. Novel Combination of Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Inulin-Inhibited Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation and Biomarkers of Colon Cancer in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Tahir Rasool; Syed, Fatima; Nasir, Muhammad; Rehman, Habib; Zahid, Muhammad Nauman; Liu, Rui Hai; Iqbal, Sanaullah

    2016-01-01

    The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin in cancer prevention. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of novel GOS and inulin against various biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rodent model. Prebiotic treatments of combined GOS and inulin (57 mg each), as well as individual doses (GOS: 76–151 mg; inulin 114 mg), were given to DMH-treated animals for 16 weeks. Our data reveal the significant preventive effect of the GOS and inulin combination against the development of CRC. It was observed that inhibition of ACF formation (55.8%) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher using the GOS and inulin combination than GOS (41.4%) and inulin (51.2%) treatments alone. This combination also rendered better results on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bacterial enzymatic activities. Dose-dependent effects of prebiotic treatments were also observed on cecum and fecal bacterial enzymes and on SCFA. Thus, this study demonstrated that novel combination of GOS and inulin exhibited stronger preventive activity than their individual treatments alone, and can be a promising strategy for CRC chemoprevention. PMID:27490566

  9. Effect of commercially available chemically defined liquid diets on the intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation from the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverdy, J C; Aoys, E; Moss, G S

    1990-01-01

    The effect of chemically defined liquid diets on the intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation from the gut was studied in the rat. Seventy-five female Fischer rats were randomized to five groups of 15 animals each. Group I was fed rat chow and water, group II was fed Vivonex TEN, group III was fed Ensure, group IV was fed Enrich, and group V was fed Ensure plus ground corn cobs, a crude fiber source. Animals were fed their respective diets ad libitum for 1 week and then killed. Quantitative culture of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and cecum was performed to determine bacterial translocation from the gut. A 66% translocation rate (10/15) of bacteria to MLN was observed in the animals fed Ensure and Enrich compared to 21% in the Vivonex TEN group (3/14) and 20% in the animals fed Ensure plus ground corn cobs (3/15). None of the animals in the control group eating their normal diets of rat chow and water developed positive MLN. Statistical significance (p less than 0.001) was achieved between the Ensure and Enrich groups when compared to controls but not between the Vivonex TEN and Ensure plus corn cobs. Cecal culture revealed a statistically significant rise in cecal bacteria in all groups when compared to the control group (group I). These results indicate that chemically defined liquid diets result in altered intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation from the gut. PMID:2325237

  10. Eimeria minasensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in the Domestic Goat Capra hircus, from Brazil

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    Silva Andréa C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria minasensis n. sp. is described in the domestic goat Capra hircus from Brazil. Oocysts ellipsoidal are 35 x 24.5 (32-37.7 x 20.9-27.9 mm. Sporocysts elongate-ellipsoid are 15.2 x 9 (12.3-18.4 x 7.8-10.2 mm, with a Stieda body at the narrow end. Oocyst wall smooth and bilayered; outer layer about 1.2 (0.8-1.6 mm and colorless; inner layer about 0.5 (0.4-0.8 mm and dark-brown. Micropyle, a mound-shaped micropylar cap 1,6 x 8,9 (0,8-2 x7-10,2 easily dislodged; one or more oocyst polar granules present. Oocyst residuum absent. Sporocyst residuum present, composed of many scattered granules. Sporozoites elongate, lying lengthwise, "head to tail" in the sporocysts; one or two refractile globules are usually visible. Sporulation time was 120 hr at 27oC, prepatent period, 19 to 20 days and patent period 15 to 25 days. Gamonts, gametes and oocysts present in cecum and colon. Prevalence was 12.8% (6/47 in goats from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  11. Effect of gluconic acid on piglet growth performance, intestinal microflora, and intestinal wall morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, G; Piva, A; Moschini, M; Vezzali, E; Roth, F X

    2006-02-01

    Gluconic acid (GA) derives from the incomplete oxidation of glucose by some Gluconobacter strains. When fed to nonruminant animals, GA is only poorly absorbed in the small intestine and is primarly fermented to butyric acid in the lower gut. This study investigated the effect of GA on in vitro growth response and metabolism of swine cecal microflora and on animal growth performance, intestinal wall morphology, and intestinal microflora. During a 24-h in vitro cecal fermentation, total gas production and maximum rate of gas production were increased by GA (linear, P acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, acetic to propionic acid ratio, and acetic + butyric to propionic acid ratio were linearly increased by GA (P acid bacteria were not affected by GA. Gluconic acid tended to increase total short-chain fatty acids in the jejunum (+174, +87, and +74% for GA at 3,000, 6,000, and 12,000 ppm, respectively; P of the model = 0.07; quadratic, P = 0.07). Morphological evaluation of intestinal mucosa from jejunum, ileum, and cecum did not show any significant differences among treatments. This study showed that feeding GA influences the composition and activity of the intestinal microflora and may improve growth performance of piglets after weaning.

  12. Whipworm genome and dual-species transcriptome analyses provide molecular insights into an intimate host-parasite interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Sarah; Tracey, Alan; Holroyd, Nancy; Cotton, James A.; Stanley, Eleanor J.; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Liu, Jimmy Z.; Huckvale, Thomas; Cooper, Philip J.; Grencis, Richard K.; Berriman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Whipworms are common soil-transmitted helminths that cause debilitating chronic infections in man. These nematodes are only distantly related to Caenorhabditis elegans and have evolved to occupy an unusual niche, tunneling through epithelial cells of the large intestine. Here we present the genome sequences of the human-infective Trichuris trichiura and the murine laboratory model T. muris. Based on whole transcriptome analyses we identify many genes that are expressed in a gender- or life stage-specific manner and characterise the transcriptional landscape of a morphological region with unique biological adaptations, namely bacillary band and stichosome, found only in whipworms and related parasites. Using RNAseq data from whipworm-infected mice we describe the regulated Th1-like immune response of the chronically infected cecum in unprecedented detail. In silico screening identifies numerous potential new drug targets against trichuriasis. Together, these genomes and associated functional data elucidate key aspects of the molecular host-parasite interactions that define chronic whipworm infection. PMID:24929830

  13. Helmintos parasitos das espécies Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill do litoral cearense: Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia M. Klein

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available De nematódeos encontrados parasitando estômago, intestinos delgado e grosso de Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuv. e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitch. o autor propões para o gênero Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912 uma nova espécie, C. fortalezae sp. n., que mais se aproxima de C. clavatum (Rud., 1809 Baylis, 1920 dela se diferenciando por possuir espículos desiguais, um curto ovejetor, útero opistodelfo, ovos menores e por apresentar em todos exemplares estudados ceco intestinal curto e ceco esofagiano longo.In this paper the author proposes a new species of the genus Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912. Of the species under Contracaecum, Contracaecum clavatum (Rudolphi, 1809 Baylis, 1920 is the nearest to Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. differing from the latter by the following aspects: The males have unequal spicules. The females have a short ovijector and parallel uteri directed backward and the eggs are smaller. In both sexes the intestinal cecum is always short and the ventricular posterior appendix is always long, while Contracaecum clavatum presents these structures in an inverse way, considering the lenght of them. Besides, the thorn-like formations at the posterior end of the body are different.

  14. Gastrointestinal Spatiotemporal mRNA Expression of Ghrelin vs Growth Hormone Receptor and New Growth Yield Machine Learning Model Based on Perturbation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Tao; Liu, Yong; Li, Hengzhi; Tang, Shaoxun; He, Zhixiong; Munteanu, Cristian R.; González-Díaz, Humberto; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-01-01

    The management of ruminant growth yield has economic importance. The current work presents a study of the spatiotemporal dynamic expression of Ghrelin and GHR at mRNA levels throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of kid goats under housing and grazing systems. The experiments show that the feeding system and age affected the expression of either Ghrelin or GHR with different mechanisms. Furthermore, the experimental data are used to build new Machine Learning models based on the Perturbation Theory, which can predict the effects of perturbations of Ghrelin and GHR mRNA expression on the growth yield. The models consider eight longitudinal GIT segments (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum), seven time points (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 d) and two feeding systems (Supplemental and Grazing feeding) as perturbations from the expected values of the growth yield. The best regression model was obtained using Random Forest, with the coefficient of determination R2 of 0.781 for the test subset. The current results indicate that the non-linear regression model can accurately predict the growth yield and the key nodes during gastrointestinal development, which is helpful to optimize the feeding management strategies in ruminant production system. PMID:27460882

  15. Effect of antiorthostatic BedRest (BR) on GastroIntestinal Motility (GIM) of normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, L.; Hunter, R. P.; Tietze, K. J.; Cintron, N. M.

    1992-01-01

    The combined effects of postural changes, fluid shifts and diuresis associated with the absence of the gravity vector may decrease gastrointestinal motility (GIM) during space flight. GIM can be estimated from the mouth to cecum transit time (MCTT) of orally administered lactulose (LAC); this test is used to assess changes in GIM in normal subjects and in patients with GI pathology and related disease conditions. Since bedrest (BR) mimics some of the physiological changes that occur during space flight, the effect of ten days of BR on GIM was evaluated from the MCTT of LAC. Methods: Subjects were 12 nonsmoking males between the ages of 35 and 50. After an 8-10 hour fast, subjects ingested Cephulac (registered) (20 g solution) with a low-fiber breakfast on four different days (45, 30, 25, and 20) before BR and on three separate days (4, 7, and 10) during BR. Breath-H2 concentrations were measured before and at 10 minute intervals for 4 hours after breakfast using a Quintron breathalyzer and MCTT was determined from these data. Results: MCTT ranged between 10 and 122 minutes during ambulation and 80 to 120 minutes during BR with means of 79 minutes and 122 minutes respectively. Conclusion: Mean MCTT during BR was 54 percent longer than during ambulation, suggesting that absorption and availability of orally administered medications and nutrients may be delayed or impaired as a result of decreased GIM during bedrest.

  16. Effects of focal cooling of the ventral medullary surface on breathing pattern and blood pressure in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T; Hida, W; Okabe, S; Izumiyama, T; Sakurai, M; Takishima, T

    1991-01-01

    We assessed the effect of focal graded cooling of the ventral medullary surface (VMS) on breathing pattern and blood pressure in 15 anesthetized, vagotomized and artificially ventilated dogs. Diaphragmatic electromyogram or phrenic neurogram, referred to as Ec, and blood pressure (BP) were obtained during localized (2 x 2 mm2) cooling of the VMS. Greatest depression of both Ec and BP was obtained by cooling in the areas located 4-9 mm caudal to the foramen cecum (Fc) and lateral to the pyramids. Mild cooling in these intermediate areas decreased both inspiratory duration (Ti) and the rate of rise of Ec (Ec/Ti), but respiratory rate was unchanged. Cooling of the rostral areas (0-3 mm from Fc) induced mild depression of Ec amplitude due to reduction in Ec/Ti without changing Ti, and prolonged expiratory duration (Te) significantly. Cooling of the caudal areas (12-18 mm from Fc) reduced Ec amplitude mildly due to reduction in Ti without affecting Ec/Ti, and shortened Te greatly. Cooling of the rostral areas produced mild fall in BP, but cooling of the caudal areas did not affect BP significantly. It is suggested that rostral and intermediate parts of the VMS participate in the shaping of inspiratory drive, whereas wide areas of the VMS including caudal part are involved in the determination of respiratory timing. It is also suggested that the rostral and intermediate parts, and not the caudal part, of the VMS are important in the regulation of vasomotor tone.

  17. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species.

  18. Use of the mCherry Fluorescent Protein To Study Intestinal Colonization by Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423 in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Winschau F; Deane, Shelly M; Dicks, Leon M T

    2015-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and animals, and some LAB species receive considerable attention due to their health benefits. Although many papers have been published on probiotic LAB, only a few reports have been published on the migration and colonization of the cells in the GIT. This is due mostly to the lack of efficient reporter systems. In this study, we report on the application of the fluorescent mCherry protein in the in vivo tagging of the probiotic strains Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423. The mCherry gene, encoding a red fluorescent protein (RFP), was integrated into a nonfunctional region on the genome of L. plantarum 423 by homologous recombination. In the case of E. mundtii ST4SA, the mCherry gene was cloned into the pGKV223D LAB/Escherichia coli expression vector. Expression of the mCherry gene did not alter the growth rate of the two strains and had no effect on bacteriocin production. Both strains colonized the cecum and colon of mice.

  19. Pathological study of experimental infection with Enterococcus faecalis in quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Al-hamdany

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried to isolate and identificate of Enterococcus. faecalis from small intestine and cecum of quails by culturing on differential and selective media. The concentration of E. faecalis suspension was fixed for experimental infection. Quails divided randomly into four groups, the first group considered as control group, the other groups injected with 0.5 ml of bacterial suspension as following: second group 1X108 CFU, the third group injected with 1X109 CFU, and the forth group injected with 1X1010 CFU. The clinical signs and pathological changes of heart, liver and kidney were observed at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after infection. The results showed identification of E. faecalis after culturing and isolation of it. The gross lesions represented by opacity of pericardium, heart hypertrophy and liver infarction, histopathological lesions include beginning of endocarditis, severe fatty changes with localized recent thrombus and severe necrosis in liver, and cell swelling of epithelium lining renal tubules and apoptosis in kidney. The histopathological changes were more severe at 3 and 7 days post infection. This study concludes that quails have a strong defense and immune mechanism despite the appearance of pathological changes with high concentrations of bacterial suspension which cause death in other animals such as mice and rats, also E.faecalis possesses the ability to induce apoptosis.

  20. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers.

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    Lin Lu

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage with 10 cages (replicates for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1-21 days and 61.0% during 22-42 days or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers.

  1. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Guo, Jiang; Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1-21 days and 61.0% during 22-42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers.

  2. Tuberculosis terminal ileitis: A forgotten entity mimicking Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzu, Simona; Molnar, Calin; Contac, Anca Otilia; Fetyko, Annamaria; Jung, Ioan

    2016-09-16

    Intestinal tuberculosis (TB) is an uncommon lesion for which differential diagnosis can be difficult. We present a case of a 53-year-old male and a systematic review of the literature, from clinical symptoms to differential diagnosis, unusual complications and therapy. The patient was admitted to the hospital with signs of acute abdomen as a result of a perforated terminal ileitis. Based on the skip lesions of the terminal ileum and cecum, Crohn's disease (CD) was clinically suspected. An emergency laparotomy and right colectomy with terminal ileum resection was performed and systematic antibiotherapy was prescribed. The patient's status deteriorated and he died 4 d after the surgical intervention. At the autopsy, TB ileotyphlitis was discovered. The clinical criteria of the differential diagnosis between intestinal TB and CD are not very well established. Despite the large amount of published articles on this subject, only 50 papers present new data regarding intestinal TB. Based on these studies and our experience, we present an update focused on the differential diagnosis and therapy of intestinal TB. We highlight the importance of considering intestinal TB as a differential diagnosis for inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the modern techniques of diagnosis and therapy, the fulminant evolution of TB can still lead to a patient's death. PMID:27672643

  3. Assessment of Acute Oral and Dermal Toxicity of 2 Ethyl-Carbamates with Activity against Rhipicephalus microplus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Prado-Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute oral and dermal toxicity of two new ethyl-carbamates (ethyl-4-bromophenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorophenyl-carbamate with ixodicide activity was determined in rats. The oral LD50 of each carbamate was 300 to 2000 mg/kg, and the dermal LD50 of each carbamate was >5000 mg/kg. Clinically, the surviving rats that had received oral doses of each carbamate showed decreased weight gain (P<0.05 and had slight nervous system manifestations. These clinical signs were evident from the 300 mg/kg dose and were reversible, whereas the 2000 mg/kg dose caused severe damage and either caused their death or was motive for euthanasia. At necropsy, these rats had dilated stomachs and cecums with diffuse congestion, as well as moderate congestion of the liver. Histologically, the liver showed slight degenerative lesions, binucleated hepatocytes, focal coagulative necrosis, and congestion areas; the severity of the lesions increased with dosage. Furthermore, an slight increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine was observed in the plasma. The dermal application of the maximum dose (5000 mg/kg of each carbamate did not cause clinical manifestations or liver and skin alterations. This finding demonstrates that the carbamates under study have a low oral hazard and low acute dermal toxicity.

  4. Ileocecal masses in patients with amebic liver abscess: Etiology and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sri Prakash Misra; Vatsala Misra; Manisha Dwivedi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the causes of ileocecal mass in patients with amebic liver abscess.METHODS: Patients with amebic liver abscess and ileocecal mass were carefully examined and investigated by contrast-enhanced CT scan followed by colonoscopy and histological examination of biopsy materials from lesions during colonoscopy.RESULTS: Ileocecal masses were found in seventeen patients with amebic liver abscess. The cause of the mass was ameboma in 14 patients, cecal tuberculosis in 2 patients and adenocarcinoma of the cecum in 1 patient. Colonic ulcers were noted in five of the six (83%) patients with active diarrhea at presentation. The ileocecal mass in all these patients was ameboma. Ulcers were seen in only one of the 11 (9%) patients without diarrhea. The difference was statistically significant from the group with diarrhea (P< 0.005).CONCLUSION: Ileocecal mass is not an uncommon finding in patients with amebic liver abscess. Although,the ileocecal mass is due to ameboma formation in most cases, it should not be assumed that this is the case in all patients. Colonoscopy and histological examination of the target biopsies are mandatory to avoid missing a more sinister lesion.

  5. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species. PMID:26859799

  6. Sonographic assessment of splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C.F. [Medical Department II, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: Christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de; Jedrzejczyk, M.; Ignee, A. [Medical Department II, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The intestinal wall can be visualized using high resolution transabdominal ultrasound. The normal intestinal wall thickness in the terminal ileum, cecum, and right and left colon is <2 mm when examined with graded compression. It is important to appreciate that a contracted intestinal segment can be misinterpreted as a thickened wall. Vascularisation can be mainly displayed in the second hyperechoic layer (submucosal layer) as well as vessels penetrating the muscularis propria. Imaging of the gastrointestinal wall is dependent on the experience of the examiner as well dependent on the equipment used. Acute or chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall is accompanied by increased perfusion of the mesentery, which can be displayed non-quantitatively with colour duplex. In contrast, ischemia is characterised by hypoperfusion of the mesenteric arteries and the bowel wall. The most promising sonographic approach in assessing splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall is combining the analysis of superior and inferior mesenteric inflow by pulsed Doppler scanning (systolic and diastolic velocities, resistance index) with the end-organ vascularity by colour Doppler imaging diminishing the influence of examination technique only displaying bowel wall vascularity. Colour Doppler imaging has been described as helpful in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly in patients with Crohn's disease, celiac disease, mesenteric artery stenosis and other ischemic gastrointestinal diseases, graft versus host disease and hemorrhagic segmental colitis.

  7. Fermentation and growth response of a primary poultry isolate of Salmonella typhimurium grown under strict anaerobic conditions in continuous culture and amino acid-limited batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciorowski, K G; Nisbet, D J; Ha, S D; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R; Ricke, S C

    1997-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium is a significant hazard to consumer health that is carried asymptomatically in poultry gastrointestinal tracts. Nurmi cultures may prevent Salmonella colonization in young chicks, but the mechanism of competitive exclusion is unclear. Modeling Salmonella's metabolism in pure culture may allow for greater definition in choosing strains for Nurmi cultures. The growth rates and affinity constants of S. typhimurium growing in amino acid-limited conditions were determined in batch culture and compared to primary poultry isolates of cecal strains. Serine and NH4Cl were the best N sources for growth of all organisms tested in this study. The fermentation response of S. typhimurium was also monitored in continuous culture at a slow dilution rate of 0.021 h-1. S. typhimurium was found to adapt to VL media, with trends in protein disappearance, Yglucose, and Yprotein. This may show that amino acid or protein concentrations may be an integral component of the initial establishment of S. typhimurium in the cecum.

  8. New Aspidoderidae species parasite of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae): a light and scanning electron microscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Sant'anna, V; Oliveira-Menezes, A; De Souza, W

    2014-02-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, are widely distributed in the Americas. The family Aspidoderidae includes the subfamilies Aspidoderinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, and Lauroiinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1951. These two subfamilies are delineated by the presence or absence of cephalic cordons at the anterior region. The nematodes in the subfamily Aspidoderinae, which includes the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are represented by nematodes with anterior cephalic cordons at the anterior end. The nematodes of the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are found in the cecum and large intestine of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia and Rodentia. Species within this genus have many morphological similarities. The use of scanning electron microscopy allows the specific characterization of the species within this genus. In the present work, we describe a new species of Aspidodera parasite of the large intestine of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae) Wied-Neuwied, 1826, collected from Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro. The combination of light and scanning electron microscopy allowed us a detailed analysis of this nematode. PMID:24129095

  9. The role of gallium 67 imaging in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, M; Kawamura, M; Tsuda, T; Itoh, H; Komatsu, A; Tanada, S; Iio, A; Hamamoto, K

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of gallium 67 imaging in the detection of gastrointestinal (GI) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and in the assessment of the therapeutic effects, images were reviewed in 24 cases (25 lesions: stomach, 20; ileum, 2; and terminal ileum and or cecum, 3) and were compared using barium studies and, in 16 cases, computerized tomography (CT). In all, 23 (92.0%) of the 25 lesions were detected by 67Ga citrate imaging, the barium studies detected all 25, and CT detected 15 of 16 lesions (93.8%). The two lesions not identified by imaging and the one not found by CT were the smallest of all. In 2 (8.7%) of the 23 lesions positively identified by 67Ga-citrate imaging, both CT and imaging revealed the extent of the tumor more accurately than did the barium studies. In all but one of the patients, a close correlation existed between the imaging results and the therapeutic effects. These data suggest that 67Ga imaging is useful in conjunction with CT and barium studies for the detection of GI NHL and for the assessment of both the spatial extent of disease and the therapeutic effects, although a lack of 67Ga uptake after therapy does not always indicate a good therapeutic effect. PMID:2279495

  10. Congenital frontonasal masses: developmental anatomy, malformations, and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2006-07-15

    The newborn, infant, or young child who presents with a midline frontonasal mass often poses a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. The most pressing issue is whether the mass extends intracranially. The development of the frontonasal region or anterior neuropore is complex. Aberrant embryogenesis leads to three main types of anomalies: nasal dermal sinus, anterior cephalocele, and nasal glioma. Understanding the developmental anatomy of the anterior neuropore and postnatal maturation will serve the radiologist well when it comes to imaging frontonasal masses. Pitfalls particularly common to CT imaging interpretation include the evolving ossification of the frontal, nasal and ethmoid bones in the first year of life, morphology and size of the foramen cecum, and the natural intumescence of the anterior nasal septum. Determination of the presence of a connection between the frontonasal mass and the anterior cranial fossae is crucial in the imaging assessment and clinical management. In the case of the nasal dermal sinus, failure to appreciate the intracranial components of the malformation can lead to fatal meningitis. MR imaging is the modality of choice for assessing the pediatric frontonasal region. Its advantages include multiplanar imaging, distinguishing the interface among cartilage, bone, brain and fluid, diffusion imaging to detect epidermoid tumors, and the capacity to evaluate the brain for associated cerebral anomalies. (orig.)

  11. Nanoscale and customary non-esterified sitosterols are equally enriched in different body compartments of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sylvia; Helbig, Dorit; Härtl, Albert; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2007-12-01

    The impact of sitosterol formulation particle size on the intestinal sterol absorption and the sterol status in various tissues in Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs was investigated. Three groups of animals (six each) were fed a basal diet ("control") or a basal diet containing either customary sitosterol ("customary", particle size: 10 000-90 000 nm) or nanoscale sitosterol ("nanoscale", particle size: 200-300 nm). The average daily sitosterol intake was 21 +/- 7 mg (control), 154 +/- 8 mg (customary), and 127 +/- 18 mg (nanoscale) for 2 weeks. Sitosterol and cholesterol were analyzed in samples of plasma, blood cells, bile, liver, kidney, jejunal mucosa/serosa, cecum, colon and feces. Concentrations of sitosterol in all analyzed matrices increased significantly in the supplemented groups when compared to control group. No differences in the sitosterol concentrations in analyzed matrices occurred between nanoscale and customary group. The cholesterol concentrations in tissues remained unchanged. Fecal fatty acid and sterol distributions were modified during sitosterol intervention. Both particle sizes equally increased sitosterol levels in cholesterol-metabolizing compartments in the guinea pig. No differences in body compartment accumulation and intestinal absorption of the different sitosterol particle sizes were observed.

  12. Bacterial community mapping of the mouse gastrointestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Gu

    Full Text Available Keeping mammalian gastrointestinal (GI tract communities in balance is crucial for host health maintenance. However, our understanding of microbial communities in the GI tract is still very limited. In this study, samples taken from the GI tracts of C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequence-based analysis to examine the characteristic bacterial communities along the mouse GI tract, including those present in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and feces. Further analyses of the 283,234 valid sequences obtained from pyrosequencing revealed that the gastric, duodenal, large intestinal and fecal samples had higher phylogenetic diversity than the jejunum and ileum samples did. The microbial communities found in the small intestine and stomach were different from those seen in the large intestine and fecal samples. A greater proportion of Lactobacillaceae were found in the stomach and small intestine, while a larger proportion of anaerobes such as Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, Rikenellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae were found in the large intestine and feces. In addition, inter-mouse variations of microbiota were observed between the large intestinal and fecal samples, which were much smaller than those between the gastric and small intestinal samples. As far as we can ascertain, ours is the first study to systematically characterize bacterial communities from the GI tracts of C57BL/6 mice.

  13. Campylobacter inoculation and quantification from broiler cecal samples to compare two plate counting methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderlise Borsoi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis, a disease transmitted to humans from animals or animal products. The primarily source of Campylobacter infection in human is believed to be the handling and/or consumption of contaminated meat, especially poultry meat. Although in humans such infections are generally self-limiting, complications can arise and may include bacteraemia, Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis and abortion. In this study, 32 birds were divided in 2 groups: a control (C group and an inoculated (I group, with 16 birds each. The I group was inoculated orally with 108 CFU/mL of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33291, whereas the C group was inoculated with a saline solution. Four chicks per group were euthanized by cervical dislocation at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days post-inoculation (pi. Cecum samples were collected for microbiological analyses. The samples were processed by two plate count methodologies, one developed by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture in 2011 (B method and the other a serial dilution direct count method (A method. All birds from the C group remained negative until day 21. For the I group, the B method was found to be statistically superior to the A method for counting the recovered cells from the cecal contents at 7, 14 and 21 days pi. The microbiological direct plating counting method is a cost effective and rapid method to determine the level of contamination in broilers to help risk assessment programs at the industry level.

  14. Primary duodenal Burkitt lymphoma presenting as sessile, button-like bleeding polyps

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    Ching-Chih Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary gastrointestinal (GI lymphoma accounts for 30–50% of all extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, making the GI tract the most common site of extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Most GI lymphomas belong to the B cell lineage. Burkitt lymphoma (BL is a highly aggressive mature B cell neoplasm that occurs in three forms: endemic, sporadic, and immunodeficiency-associated. Sporadic BL accounts for 1–2% of all adult lymphomas and usually presents as an abdominal manifestation of extranodal disease involving the distal ileum or cecum. Primary BL of the duodenum is rare. However, this report emphasizes the importance of awareness of the malignancy potential of duodenal polyps. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman admitted to our ward with upper GI bleeding due to duodenal polyps. An upper GI endoscopic examination showed button-like polyps with central depression, and an immunohistochemical study of the polyps revealed a high-grade B cell malignancy (BL. Consequently, the patient was treated with aggressive chemotherapy. The tumors regressed after chemotherapy. Although primary duodenal Burkitt lymphoma is very rare, the possibility of malignancy should be considered if a patient presents with duodenal button-like polyps with a central depressed surface.

  15. Intranasal Immunization with Chitosan/pCAGGS-flaA Nanoparticles Inhibits Campylobacter jejuni in a White Leghorn Model

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    Jin-lin Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common zoonotic bacterium associated with human diarrhea, and chickens are considered to be one of the most important sources for human infection, with no effective prophylactic treatment available. We describe here a prophylactic strategy using chitosan-DNA intranasal immunization to induce specific immune responses. The chitosan used for intranasal administration is a natural mucus absorption enhancer, which results in transgenic DNA expression in chicken nasopharynx. Chickens immunized with chitosan-DNA nanoparticles, which carried a gene for the major structural protein FlaA, produced significantly increased levels of serum anti-Campylobacter jejuni IgG and intestinal mucosal antibody (IgA, compared to those treated with chitosan-DNA (pCAGGS. Chitosan-pCAGGS-flaA intranasal immunization induced reductions of bacterial expellation by 2-3 log10 and 2 log10 in large intestine and cecum of chickens, respectively, when administered with the isolated C. jejuni strain. This study demonstrated that intranasal delivery of chitosan-DNA vaccine successfully induced effective immune response and might be a promising vaccine candidate against C. jejuni infection.

  16. Surprising finding on colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griglione, Nicole; Naik, Jahnavi; Christie, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    A 48-year-old man went to his primary care physician for his annual physical. He told his physician that for the past few years, he had intermittent, painless rectal bleeding consisting of small amounts of blood on the toilet paper after defecation. He also mentioned that he often spontaneously awoke, very early in the morning. His past medical history was unremarkable. The patient was born in Cuba but had lived in the United States for more than 30 years. He was divorced, lived alone, and had no children. He had traveled to Latin America-including Mexico, Brazil, and Cuba-off and on over the past 10 years. His last trip was approximately 2 years ago. His physical exam was unremarkable. Rectal examination revealed no masses or external hemorrhoids; stool was brown and Hemoccult negative. Labs were remarkable for eosinophilia ranging from 10% to 24% over the past several years (the white blood cell count ranged from 5200 to 5900/mcL). A subsequent colonoscopy revealed many white, thin, motile organisms dispersed throughout the colon. The organisms were most densely populated in the cecum. Of note, the patient also had nonbleeding internal hemorrhoids. An aspiration of the organisms was obtained and sent to the microbiology lab for further evaluation. What is your diagnosis? How would you manage this condition? PMID:20141726

  17. Intestinal colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Bai; Xian-Hua Liu; Qing-Ying Tong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between intestinal lumen colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA).METHODS: A total of 82 specific-pathogen-free mice were divided randomly into control and colonization groups. After Candida albicans were inoculated into specific-pathogenfree mice, the number of Candida albicans adhering to cecum and mucosal membrane was counted. The lymphocyte proliferation in Peyer's patch and in lamina propria was shown by BrdU incorporation, while mucosal sIgA (surface membrane) isotype switch in Peyer's patch was investigated. IgA plasma cells in lamina propria were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Specific IgA antibodies to Candida albicans were measured with ELISA.RESULTS: From d 3 to d 14 after Candida albicans gavaging to mice, the number of Candida albicans colonizing in lumen and adhering to mucosal membrane was sharply reduced.Candida albicans translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred at early time points following gavage administration and disappeared at later time points. Meanwhile, the content of specific IgA was increased obviously. Proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes in lamina propria were also increased.CONCLUSION: Lymphocytes in lamina propria play an important role in intestinal mucosal immunity of specificpathogen-free mice when they are first inoculated with Candida albicans. The decreasing number of Candida albicans in intestine is related to the increased level of specific IgA antibodies in the intestinal mucus.

  18. Novel Combination of Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Inulin-Inhibited Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation and Biomarkers of Colon Cancer in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Tahir Rasool; Syed, Fatima; Nasir, Muhammad; Rehman, Habib; Zahid, Muhammad Nauman; Liu, Rui Hai; Iqbal, Sanaullah

    2016-01-01

    The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin in cancer prevention. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of novel GOS and inulin against various biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rodent model. Prebiotic treatments of combined GOS and inulin (57 mg each), as well as individual doses (GOS: 76-151 mg; inulin 114 mg), were given to DMH-treated animals for 16 weeks. Our data reveal the significant preventive effect of the GOS and inulin combination against the development of CRC. It was observed that inhibition of ACF formation (55.8%) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher using the GOS and inulin combination than GOS (41.4%) and inulin (51.2%) treatments alone. This combination also rendered better results on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bacterial enzymatic activities. Dose-dependent effects of prebiotic treatments were also observed on cecum and fecal bacterial enzymes and on SCFA. Thus, this study demonstrated that novel combination of GOS and inulin exhibited stronger preventive activity than their individual treatments alone, and can be a promising strategy for CRC chemoprevention. PMID:27490566

  19. Comparison and efficacy of LigaSure and rubber band ligature in closing the inflamed cecal stump in a rat model of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Jan, Chia-Ing; Yang, Horng-Ren; Huang, Po-Han; Jeng, Long-Bin; Su, Wen-Pang; Chen, Hui-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A) and 7 days (Group B) after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S), 5 mm LigaSure (L), or rubber band (R). Seven days after cecal resection, the LigaSure (BL) and silk subgroups (BS) had significantly less intra-abdominal adhesion and better laparotomy wound healing than rubber band subgroup (BR). The initial bursting pressure at cecal stump was comparable among the three methods; along with tissue healing process, both BL and BS provided a higher bursting pressure than BR 7 days after appendectomy. BL subgroup had more abundant hydroxyproline deposition than BS and BR subgroup. Furthermore, serum TNF-α in BR group kept persistently increasing along with time after cecal resection. Thus, the finding that LigaSure but not rubber band is safe in sealing off the inflamed cecal stump in rat model of acute appendicitis suggests the possibility of applying LigaSure for appendectomy via single port procedure or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). PMID:25699264

  20. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

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    Bert J. M. van de Heijning

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control. A 50%–75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  1. The role of gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy in the gastro-intestinal malignant lymphoma

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    Kataoka, Masaaki; Tsuda, Takaharu; Kawamura, Masashi; Itoh, Hisao; Komatsu, Akira; Mogami, Hiroshi; Tanada, Shuji; Iio, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Ken (Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of gallium-67 scintigraphy in the detection of the gastrointestinal (GI) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and in the assessment of the therapeutic effects, gallium-67 scintigraphy was reviewed on 24 cases (25 lesions; stomach in 20, ileum in 2, and terminal ileum and/or cecum in 3). Twenty-three out of the 25 lesions (92.0%) were detected by gallium-67 scintigraphy, while barium study could detect all of the 25 lesions. The sizes of the gallium-67 negative 2 lesions were the smallest of all (2.5 and 3.0 cm). The tumor size was considered to the most important factor in the detection by gallium-67 scintigraphy, while the histological classification and the location of the tumor were not related to its detectability. Findings in follow-up gallium-67 scintigraphy after therapy on 10 cases were correlated well with the therapeutic effects. These data suggest that gallium-67 scintigraphy is useful for the detection of GI involvement of NHL and for the assessment of therapeutic effects. (author).

  2. Colonoscopic screening and follow-up for colorectal cancer in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wan; Zi-Qi Zhang; Cheng Zhu; Meng-Wei Wang; Dong-Hai Zhao; Yong-He Fu; Jian-Ping Zhang; Ya-Hong Wang; Ben-Yan Wu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To improve the prevention and treatment of senilepatients with colorectal cancer by evaluating the importanceof colonoscopy in clinical screening and follow-up.METHODS: Clinical screening of colonoscopy wasperformed for 2196 patients aged 60-90 years old accordingto the protocol,and 174lO of them (79.2 %) were followed-up.RESULTS: Colorsctal cancer was found in 52 patients, and the detectable rate was 2. 4 %. Among them, 19 werediagnosed as early colorectsl cancer, accounting for 36. 5 %of the detected colorectal cancer. Among the followed-uppatients, early colorectsl cancer was found in 9, accountingfor 45.0 % of the detected colorsctal cancer. The resectsblerate and 5 years survival rate of colorectsl cancer were 97.7% and 80.9 % respectively. The incidence of complicationwas 0.05 %, and the successful rate of cecum intubationwas 98.9 %.CONCLUSION: Colonuscopic screening and follow-up of theelderly for colorectsl cancer and pre-cancerous lesion(adenomatoid polyp) can increase the detectable rate ofearly colorectal cancer and improve its prevention andtreatment.

  3. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Gastrointestinal Tract Tissues Induced by Arsenic Toxicity in Cocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Guangyang; Hu, Zhibo; Tian, Li; Zhang, Kexin; Zhang, Wen; Xing, Mingwei

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widely distributed trace element which is known to be associated with numerous adverse effects on human beings and animals. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is an inorganic arsenical-containing toxic compound. The effect of excessive amounts of As2O3 exposure on gastrointestinal tract tissue damage in cocks is still unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of As2O3 exposure on gastrointestinal tract tissue damage in cocks. In total, 72 1-day-old male Hyline cocks were randomly divided into four groups and fed either a commercial diet or an As2O3 supplement diet containing 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days and gastrointestinal tract tissue samples (gizzard, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum) were collected at 30, 60, and 90 days. Catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities; malondialdehyde (MDA) contents; and hydroxyl radical (OH·)-mediated inhibition were examined. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that MDA content in the gastrointestinal tract was increased, while the activities of CAT, GSH, and GSH-Px and the ability to resist OH· was decreased in the As2O3 treatment groups. Extensive damage was observed in the gastrointestinal tract. These findings indicated that As2O3 exposure caused oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal tract of cocks due to alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities and elevation of free radicals.

  4. Abdominal tuberculosis, clinical-radiological revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively evaluated the clinical charts and diagnostic images of hospitalised patients with histological or bacteriologic demonstration of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) including those with probable abdominal TB, who had pulmonary TB and radiologic findings highly suggestive of abdominal TB with favourable response to treatment. Cases with genitourinary TB were excluded. We found 24 patients with an average age of 25 yrs. In some cases this entity was not suspected on the imaging studies, and diagnosis was made on surgery. The most frequent symptoms were: abdominal pain, diarrhoea, fever, vomiting, weight loss and abdominal mass. Active pulmonary TB was demonstrated on 8 cases (33%) Peritoneal presentation was the most frequent (54%) with septated or simple ascites, cystic ascites or pseudocysts within bowel loops. Mesenteric involvement (21 %) showed adenopathy or masses identified with CT. Intestinal forms (17%) showed pseudo-polyps on terminal ileum and ulcers on ileum, cecum and colon. We found one case with diffuse ulcerative involvement of the colon. Two cases showed hepatic involvement, one with an abscess and a tuberculosis Cole cystitis, with pyloric syndrome due to fibrosis

  5. The Effect of Postoperative Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment on Intra-Abdominal Adhesions in Rats

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    Yi-Chiang Hsu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal adhesions, whether caused by peritoneal trauma, radiation, infection, or a congenital condition, are associated with a wide range of complications. These complications include chronic abdominal or pelvic pain, infertility, and adhesive small bowel obstruction. Such adhesions render re-operation difficult, with attendant risks of inadvertent enterostomy and increased operation time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy in the prevention of abdominal adhesions in an experimental animal study. A laparotomy was performed on Wistar rats to induce the formation of adhesions on the cecum and the intra-abdominal area (1 ´ 2 cm. A superficial layer of the underlying muscle from the right abdominal wall was also shaved and prepared for aseptic surgery. The rats were divided into four groups according to the duration of HBO therapy; five additional groups were designated according to the conditions of HBO therapy. When the rats were evaluated according to adhesion area and grade, a statistically significant difference was observed between the control and HBO treatment groups (p < 0.005. Results from this study suggest that HBO treatment could reduce adhesion formation; and further suggest that HBO therapy may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of postoperative peritoneal adhesion.

  6. An unusual presentation of perforated appendicitis in epigastric region☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Abuoglu, Hasan; Gunay, Emre; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Ozkan, Erkan; Aktekin, Ali; Muftuoglu, M.A. Tolga

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Atypical presentations of appendix have been reported including backache, left lower quadrant pain and groin pain from a strangulated femoral hernia containing the appendix. We report a case presenting an epigastric pain that was diagnosed after computed tomography as a perforated appendicitis on intestinal malrotation. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 27-year-old man was admitted with a three-day history of epigastric pain. Physical examination revealed tenderness and defense on palpation of epigastric region. There was a left subcostal incision with the history of diaphragmatic hernia repair when the patient was 3 days old. He had an intestinal malrotation with the cecum fixed at the epigastric region and the inflamed appendix extending beside the left lobe of liver. DISCUSSION While appendicitis is the most common abdominal disease requiring surgical intervention seen in the emergency room setting, intestinal malrotation is relatively uncommon. When patients with asymptomatic undiagnosed gastrointestinal malrotation clinically present with abdominal pain, accurate diagnosis and definitive therapy may be delayed, possibly increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSION Atypical presentations of acute appendicitis should be kept in mind in patients with abdominal pain in emergency room especially in patients with previous childhood operation for diaphragmatic hernia. PMID:24441442

  7. Expression of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Ganglia of Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ruiqi; Gu, Huan; Qiu, Yamei; Guo, Yong; Korteweg, Christine; Huang, Jin; Gu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    CF is caused by mutations of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) which is an anion selective transmembrane ion channel that mainly regulates chloride transport, expressed in the epithelia of various organs. Recently, we have demonstrated CFTR expression in the brain, the spinal cord and the sympathetic ganglia. This study aims to investigate the expression and distribution of CFTR in the ganglia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Fresh tissue and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal gastrointestinal tract samples were collected from eleven surgical patients and five autopsy cases. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, laser-assisted microdissection and nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed. Expression of CFTR protein and mRNA was detected in neurons of the ganglia of all segments of the human gastrointestinal tract examined, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, colon and rectum. The extensive expression of CFTR in the enteric ganglia suggests that CFTR may play a role in the physiology of the innervation of the gastro-intestinal tract. The presence of dysfunctional CFTRs in enteric ganglia could, to a certain extent, explain the gastrointestinal symptoms frequently experienced by CF patients. PMID:27491544

  8. A ninety-day oral toxicity study of a new type of processed gum arabic, from Acacia tree (Acacia senegal) exudates, in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Y; Ichihara, T; Hagiwara, A; Imai, N; Tamano, S; Orikoshi, H; Ogasawara, K; Sasaki, Y; Nakamura, M; Shirai, T

    2006-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate and characterize any subchronic toxicity of a new type of gum arabic (SUPER GUM [Acacia(sen)SUPER GUM]), a naturally processed polysaccharide exudate from gum acacia trees (Acacia senegal), when administered to both sexes of F344 rats at dietary levels of 0 (control), 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (10 rats/sex/group). During the study, the treatment had no effects on clinical signs, survival, body weights, and food and water consumption, or on findings of urinalysis, ophthalmology, hematology, or blood biochemistry. Gross pathology and histopathology exhibited no differences of toxicological significance between control and treated rats. Increased relative cecum (filled) weights, evident in both sexes of 5.0% group and females of 1.25% and 2.5% groups, were considered to be a physiological adaptation. Thus, the results indicated the toxic level of SUPER GUM to be more than 5.0%, and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was concluded to be 5.0% (3,117 mg/kg body weights/day for males, and 3,296 mg/kg body weights/day for males) from the present study. PMID:16256256

  9. In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Bo Li; Xiao-Si Zhou; Jing-Sen Shi; Jin-Guang Wu; Zhi Xu; Neng-Wei Zhang; Li Zhang; Fan Wang; Li-Min Yang; Jian-Sheng Wang; Su Zhou; Yuan-Fu Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Real-time and rapid identification of the malignant tissue can be performed during or before surgical operation.Here we aimed to detect in vivo and in situ colorectal cancer by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and fiber-optic technology.METHODS: A total of five patients with large intestine cancer were detected in vivo and in situ. Of them, three cases of colon cancer and one case of cecum cancer were detected intraoperatively and in vivo by using a FTIR spectrometer during surgical operation, and one case of rectum cancer was explored non-invasively and in vivo before the surgical operation. Normal and malignant colorectal tissues were detected in vivo and in situ using FTIR spectroscopy on the basis of fundamental studies.RESULTS: There were significant differences between FTIR spectra of normal and malignant colorectal tissues detected in vivo and in situ. Experimental results revealed that the spectral characteristics of normal and malignant tissues found in vivo and in situ were similar to those obtained from in vitro measurement in our previous fundamental research.CONCLUSION: FTIR fiber-optic attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy can identify in situ and in vivo colorectal cancer. FTIR spectroscopic method with fiber optics is a non-invasive, rapid, accurate and in vivo cancer detection technique in clinical diagnosis.

  10. Development of a colonoscopy add-on device for improvement of the intubation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litten JD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan D Litten1, JungHun Choi2, David Drozek31Department of Mechanical Engineering; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering Program; 3College of Osteopathic Medicine, Department of Specialty Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USAAbstract: A colonoscopy add-on device has been developed to reduce intubation time without modification of the current colonoscope and peripheral devices. One of the main purposes of the system is to minimize trauma caused by the distal tip of the colonoscope. The detachable sensory fixture at the end of the distal tip measures the distance between the distal tip and the colon wall in three directions, and the actuation system attached at the base of the colonoscope controls the distal tip by rotating two dial knobs. The device controls the distal tip to minimize contact between the distal tip and the colon wall, and the distal tip ideally points out the next possible lumen. A compatibility test of the infrared sensory system was carried out, and the design of the actuation system was accomplished. The system is integrated and controlled by a microprocessor. The device was tested in a silicon colon and porcine intestine. The results showed that a colonoscopist successfully reached the cecum with the aid of the colonoscopy add-on device without significant contact between the colon wall and the distal tip. The colonoscopy aid device was very helpful for the novice colonoscopist.Keywords: colonoscope, infrared sensors, intubation, trauma, colonoscopy training model

  11. Molecular exploration of fecal microbiome in quinoa-supplemented obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F; Mills, David; Noratto, Giuliana

    2016-07-01

    Diet affects gut microorganisms and dietary interventions can help treat obesity and overweight. Our aim was to investigate the effect of quinoa supplementation on fecal microbial ecology of obese diabetic mice. Obese db/db mice were fed commercial diets with and without quinoa supplementation for eight weeks; non-obese mice consuming non-supplemented diet served as lean-control. Fecal bacterial communities were analyzed using marker gene sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Over 300 000 good-quality sequences were studied and assigned to 5774 different bacterial species (Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity). Significant differences in bacterial abundances were found among the treatment groups, including some associated specifically with quinoa consumption. Analysis of weighted UniFrac distances revealed a distinctive clustering of lean microbial communities independently from obese-control and quinoa-supplemented mice (Analysis of Similarities, P succinic acid concentrations in cecum that were not necessarily more similar to those concentrations in lean mice. This study provides insight into the complex interactions between nutritional supplements and the gut microbiota thus informing future molecular analysis of the health benefits. PMID:27127197

  12. Enterococcal surface protein Esp is not essential for cell adhesion and intestinal colonization of Enterococcus faecium in mice

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    van Luit-Asbroek Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterococcus faecium has globally emerged as a cause of hospital-acquired infections with high colonization rates in hospitalized patients. The enterococcal surface protein Esp, identified as a potential virulence factor, is specifically linked to nosocomial clonal lineages that are genetically distinct from indigenous E. faecium strains. To investigate whether Esp facilitates bacterial adherence and intestinal colonization of E. faecium, we used human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2 cells and an experimental colonization model in mice. Results No differences in adherence to Caco-2 cells were found between an Esp expressing strain of E. faecium (E1162 and its isogenic Esp-deficient mutant (E1162Δesp. Mice, kept under ceftriaxone treatment, were inoculated orally with either E1162, E1162Δesp or both strains simultaneously. Both E1162 and E1162Δesp were able to colonize the murine intestines with high and comparable numbers. No differences were found in the contents of cecum and colon. Both E1162 and E1162Δesp were able to translocate to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Conclusion These results suggest that Esp is not essential for Caco-2 cell adherence and intestinal colonization or translocation of E. faecium in mice.

  13. Retroperitoneal and pelvic hemangiopericytomas: A clinical, radiologic, pathologic correlative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hemangiopericytoma (HP) is an aggressive neoplasm consisting of proliferation of endothelial-lined capillaries with intact reticulum sheaths surrounded by the pericyte. Approximately a fifth of these lesions occur in the retroperitoneum. This is the first large clinical, radiologic, pathologic study of retroperitoneal HP (17 cases). Significant clinical findings included a palpable mass (64%) and hypoglycemia in one. Approximately 40% were located in the true anatomic pelvis or near the cecum along the pelvic psoas muscle. Radiographically, a mass may be seen on plain film, IVP, or barium studies which might displace, compress, or rarely invade an adjacent organ. Most significant was the angiographic findings of an extremely vascular tumor with extensive collateralization, hypertrophy of vessels, and venous engorgement. On CT, HP appeared as a large, bulky well-defined enhancing tumor occasionally with areas of low density in a swirled or marbled pattern. Although by no means diagnostic, HP can be considered when a hypervascular retroperitoneal tumor is encountered on angiography or a large, enhancing mass with several low-density areas is recognized on CT

  14. Efficacy of gallium maltolate against Lawsonia intracellularis infection in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, F; Allen, A L; Alcorn, J; Clark, C R; Vannucci, F A; Pusterla, N; Mapes, S M; Ball, K R; Dowling, P M; Thompson, J; Bernstein, L R; Gebhart, C J; Hamilton, D L

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial efficacy against Lawsonia intracellularis is difficult to evaluate in vitro, thus, the effects of gallium maltolate's (GaM) were investigated in a rabbit model for equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). Juvenile (5-6-week-old) does were infected with 3.0 × 10(8) L. intracellularis/rabbit and allocated into three groups (n = 8). One week postinfection, one group was treated with GaM, 50 mg/kg; one, with doxycycline, 5 mg/kg; and one with a sham-treatment (control). Feces and blood were collected daily and weekly, respectively, to verify presence of L. intracellularis fecal shedding using qPCR, and seroconversion using immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. Rabbits were sacrificed after 1 week of treatment to collect intestinal tissues focusing on EPE-affected sections. Intestinal lesions were confirmed via immunohistochemistry. No difference was noted between treatments regarding EPE-lesions in jejunum (P = 0.51), ileum (P = 0.74), and cecum (P = 0.35), or in L. intracellularis fecal shedding (P = 0.64). GaM and doxycycline appear to have similar efficacy against EPE in infected rabbits.

  15. Abdominal-Pelvic Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Pusiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis is often mistaken for other conditions, presenting a preoperative diagnostic challenge. In a 46-year-old female, computed tomography showed an abdominal-pelvic retroperitoneal mass extending from the lower pole of the right kidney to the lower pelvis. The patient had a 3-year history of intrauterine device. The mass appeared to involve the ascending colon, cecum, distal ileum, right Fallopian tube and ovary, and ureter anteriorly and the psoas muscle posteriorly. The resection of retroperitoneal mass, distal ileum appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. The retroperitoneal mass measured 4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm, surrounded adjacent organs and histologically showed inflammatory granulomatous tissue, agglomeration of filaments, and sulfur granules of Actinomyces, with positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff. Right tubo-ovarian abscess was present. Abdominalpelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intrauterine device.

  16. Energy Taxis toward Host-Derived Nitrate Supports a Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1-Independent Mechanism of Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Lopez, Christopher A.; Zhang, Lillian F.; García-Pastor, Lucía; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L.; Tsolis, Renée M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can cross the epithelial barrier using either the invasion-associated type III secretion system (T3SS-1) or a T3SS-1-independent mechanism that remains poorly characterized. Here we show that flagellum-mediated motility supported a T3SS-1-independent pathway for entering ileal Peyer’s patches in the mouse model. Flagellum-dependent invasion of Peyer’s patches required energy taxis toward nitrate, which was mediated by the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP) Tsr. Generation of nitrate in the intestinal lumen required inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which was synthesized constitutively in the mucosa of the terminal ileum but not in the jejunum, duodenum, or cecum. Tsr-mediated invasion of ileal Peyer’s patches was abrogated in mice deficient for Nos2, the gene encoding iNOS. We conclude that Tsr-mediated energy taxis enables S. Typhimurium to migrate toward the intestinal epithelium by sensing host-derived nitrate, thereby contributing to invasion of Peyer’s patches. PMID:27435462

  17. The role of myeloid differentiation factor 88 on mitochondrial dysfunction of peritoneal leukocytes during polymicrobial sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lin; Chen, Dunjin; Chao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) on mitochondrial dysfunction of peritoneal leukocytes during polymicrobial sepsis. Material and methods Polymicrobial peritonitis, a clinically relevant mouse model of sepsis, was generated by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) in both male C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and MyD88 knockout (MyD88–/–) mice. Twenty-four hours after surgeries, peritoneal leukocytes were collected and four parameters of mitochondrial function, including total intracellular and mitochondrial ROS burst, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and ATP depletion, were measured by flow cytometry or ATP assay, and then compared. Results Polymicrobial sepsis led to a marked mitochondrial dysfunction of peritoneal leukocytes with total intracellular and mitochondrial ROS overproduction, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced intracellular ATP production. In comparison, there was no significant difference in the extent of mitochondrial dysfunction of peritoneal leukocytes between WT and MyD88–/– septic mice. Conclusions MyD88 may be not sufficient to regulate mitochondrial dysfunction of peritoneal leukocytes during polymicrobial sepsis. PMID:27536200

  18. Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp on performance, carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Liu, Wuyi; Asadpour, Leila

    2015-03-01

    Utilization of agricultural by-products in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp (DCSP) is a potential source of valuable nutrients and natural antioxidants for poultry feed. In the experiment, a feeding trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of dried orange residues in diet on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites, humoral immunity, and cecum microbial population. A total of 200 one day experimental broiler chicks were distributed into a completely randomized design (CRD) which included 5 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment and 10 birds fed in each replicate. The experimental treatments consist of a control group (without additive), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2% of DCSP (residue) in diet. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. Blood parameters and carcass traits were measured in the postnatal 35th day. The highest level of dried orange residues in treatment 5 (T5) had significantly increased the feed intake and body weight of broilers in groups and overall during the rearing period (P > 0.05). Different levels of dried orange residues had no significant effect on chicken FCR. Using of dried orange residues significantly decreased the liver and abdominal fat of broilers (P broiler chicken. PMID:25737644

  19. Targeted adsorption of molecules in the colon with the novel adsorbent-based medicinal product, DAV132: A proof of concept study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gunzburg, Jean; Ducher, Annie; Modess, Christiane; Wegner, Danilo; Oswald, Stefan; Dressman, Jennifer; Augustin, Violaine; Feger, Céline; Andremont, Antoine; Weitschies, Werner; Siegmund, Werner

    2015-01-01

    During antibiotic treatments, active residuals reaching the colon profoundly affect the bacterial flora resulting in the emergence of resistance. To prevent these effects, we developed an enteric-coated formulated activated-charcoal based product, DAV132, meant to deliver its adsorbent to the ileum and neutralize antibiotic residues in the proximal colon. In a randomized, control, crossover study, the plasma pharmacokinetics of the probe drugs amoxicillin (500 mg) absorbed in the proximal intestine, and sulfapyridine (25 mg) metabolized from sulfasalazine in the cecum and rapidly absorbed, were compared after a single administration in 18 healthy subjects who had received DAV132, uncoated formulated activated charcoal (FAC) or water 16 and 8 hours before, concomitantly with the probe drugs, and 8 hours thereafter. The AUC0-96 h of amoxicillin was reduced by more than 70% when it was taken with FAC, but bioequivalent when it was taken with water or DAV132. By contrast, the AUC0-96 h of sulfapyridine was reduced by more than 90% when administered with either FAC or DAV132 in comparison with water. The results show that DAV132 can selectively adsorb drug compounds in the proximal colon, without interfering with drug absorption in the proximal small intestine, thereby constituting a proof of concept that DAV132 actually functions in humans.

  20. Expression of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Ganglia of Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ruiqi; Gu, Huan; Qiu, Yamei; Guo, Yong; Korteweg, Christine; Huang, Jin; Gu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    CF is caused by mutations of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) which is an anion selective transmembrane ion channel that mainly regulates chloride transport, expressed in the epithelia of various organs. Recently, we have demonstrated CFTR expression in the brain, the spinal cord and the sympathetic ganglia. This study aims to investigate the expression and distribution of CFTR in the ganglia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Fresh tissue and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal gastrointestinal tract samples were collected from eleven surgical patients and five autopsy cases. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, laser-assisted microdissection and nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed. Expression of CFTR protein and mRNA was detected in neurons of the ganglia of all segments of the human gastrointestinal tract examined, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, colon and rectum. The extensive expression of CFTR in the enteric ganglia suggests that CFTR may play a role in the physiology of the innervation of the gastro-intestinal tract. The presence of dysfunctional CFTRs in enteric ganglia could, to a certain extent, explain the gastrointestinal symptoms frequently experienced by CF patients. PMID:27491544

  1. Technical note: a 2-stage cecal cannulation technique in standing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, W L; Slough, T L; Gunkel, C D

    2011-08-01

    Cecal cannulation is necessary for sampling of intestinal contents for a variety of nutritional or digestive physiology studies. This report describes a 2-stage technique for permanent cecal cannulation in standing horses. For the first procedure, a right flank laparotomy is performed and a small pouch of the cecal base exteriorized and sutured to the body wall. The second procedure is performed approximately 1 wk later. During the second procedure, the exposed cecal pouch is removed and the cannula inserted. Ten horses were cannulated using this technique. After the first procedure, 1 horse developed a cecal impaction unresponsive to medical therapy and ruptured its cecum, whereas 2 other horses developed mild transient colic that responded to medical management. Insertion of the cecal cannula after creation of the stoma in the second procedure resulted in transient colic in 4 of 9 horses, but they responded to analgesic therapy in less than 24 h in all instances. The time to complete healing of the cannula site was approximately 30 d. The technique described in this report decreases the risk of peritonitis due to intestinal leakage and is technically easier to perform than previously described techniques.

  2. Fermentation Characterization of Chinese Yam Polysaccharide and Its Effects on the Gut Microbiota of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. F. Kong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat was used to characterize Chinese Yam polysaccharides (CYPs. In Exp. 1, maximum volume and rate of gas production in CYP 3-supplemented group were higher than other CYP-supplemented groups and control group, while pH values and NH3 contents in CYP 2-, CYP 3-, and CYP 4-supplemented groups were lower than control group. Contents of acetate, propionate and butyrate increased by supplementing CYP 3 or CYP 4 compared to other groups, except for glucose-supplemented group. Contents of isobutyrate for CYPs groups decreased compared to control group. CYP 3 enhanced beneficial gut microbiota, but suppressed bacterial pathogens. In Exp. 2, contents of acetate and butyrate in cecal digesta of rats fed 0.25 or 0.5 g/kg CYP 3 were higher than other groups on day 7. pH values in 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg groups were lower than 1.0 g/kg group. Contents of acetate in 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg groups were greater than other 2 groups on day 21. Gut microflora in CYP 3-supplemented rats had greater diversity than non-supplemented rats. CYP 3 enriched beneficial gut microbiota, but suppressed bacterial pathogens in rat cecum. These findings suggested that CYP 3 is a good source of carbon and energy, and may improve bacterial community diversity and modulate short-chain fatty acid production in hindgut of rats.

  3. Enterite granulomatosa associada a larvas de ciatostomíneos em eqüinos no Rio Grande do Sul Granulomatous enteritis associated with larval cyathostomiasis in horses in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pierezan

    2009-05-01

    occurred from January 1999 to December 2007. The clinical course in two cases in which clinical follow-up was available was 10-14 days. Clinical signs presented by two horses were similar and included diarrhea (3/3, weight loss (2/3, pyrexia (1/3, tachycardia (1/3, and tachypnea (1/3. Gross changes consisted of thickening of the wall of large colon and cecum by edema and the occurrence of numerous 1-4mm, dark-tan, slightly raised multifocal pinpoints disseminated throughout the mucosa. Up on the incision of these pinpoints, brown-reddish, small (1-2mm nematode larvae emerged. Large numbers of parasites with morphology compatible with small strongyles were observed in the lumina of large colon and cecum or adhered to the mucosae of these organs. Histologically, multiple granulomas were seen in the mucosa and submucosa of large colon and cecum. These granulomas consisted of moderate to severe inflammatory infiltrate of macrophages, epithelioid macrophages, and eosinophils surrounded by fewer lymphocytes and plasma cells. In the center of these granulomas, transversal cut sections of parasites with morphology compatible with cyathostomes larvae were observed. Additionally, there was edema and moderate to marked lymphohistioplasmacytic and eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate throughout the mucosa and submucosa of the large colon and cecum; necrosis and lymphohistiocytic proliferation in the submucosal lymphoid follicles, with hyperplasia of goblet cells in the epithelial lining of these organs were also observed. The diagnosis of granulomatous enteritis associated with larval cyathostomiasis was made based on epidemiological, clinical, and gross findings which were confirmed by histopathology.

  4. Endoscopic Observation of the Growth Process of a Right-Side Sessile Serrated Adenoma/Polyp with Cytological Dysplasia to an Invasive Submucosal Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kanako; Daa, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    A sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) with cytological dysplasia in the right colon, which transformed to an invasive submucosal adenocarcinoma finally, was endoscopically observed in a 76-year-old woman. A whitish soft SSA/P (approximately 25 mm in diameter) was detected in the cecum. Biopsy samples were obtained from the small nodule, and the lesion was eventually diagnosed as an SSA/P with cytological dysplasia, considering endoscopic observations, among which the narrow-band imaging features suggested that the lesion was adenomatous, that is, a round-oval pattern, and hyperplastic, that is, comprising a circular pattern with dots and an invisible capillary vessel. After 11 months, an SSA/P had rapidly developed into a submucosal adenocarcinoma with lymphatic infiltrations, and the most aggressive deep invasion was observed in the central depression. This case suggests that right-side SSA/Ps with cytological dysplasia should be removed immediately, considering the potential for rapid progression to a larger size and eventually to deep and extensive cancer. PMID:27437153

  5. Inhibition of Aloperine on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-induced Chronic Colitis in C57BL/6 Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li-jun; ZHAO Wen-chang; DENG Hong-zhu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of aloperine (ALO) on a model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis in C57BL/6 mice.Methods Repeated colitis was induced by administration of four cycles of 4% DSS.The severity of colitis was assessed on the basis of clinical signs,ratio of colon weight and colon length,and histological grading scores.Moreover,secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) and plasma haptoglobin (HP) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,and the changes of mRNA expression of ICAM-1and MIF gene in colorectal tissue were detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction using SYBR Green Ⅰ.Results ALO administration significantly attenuated the colon damage,caused substantial reductions of the rise in HP,and maintained the level of cecum S-IgA.ALO inhibited the ICAM-1mRNA expression and had no effect on MIF mRNA expression.Conclusion The effect of ALO on DSS-induced chronic colitis in mice is investigated for the first time,which suggests that ALO could be an attractive therapeutic candidate in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Correlating diet and digestive tract specialization: examples from the lizard family Liolaemidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Shannon P; Morando, Mariana; Avila, Luciano; Dearing, M Denise

    2005-01-01

    A range of digestive tract specializations were compared among dietary categories in the family Liolaemidae to test the hypothesis that herbivores require greater gut complexity to process plant matter. Additionally, the hypothesis that herbivory favors the evolution of larger body size was tested. Lastly, the association between diet and hindgut nematodes was explored. Herbivorous liolaemids were larger relative to omnivorous and insectivorous congeners and consequently had larger guts. In addition, small intestine length of herbivorous liolaemids was disproportionately longer than that of congeners. Significant interaction effects between diet and body size among organ dimensions indicate that increases in organ size occur to a greater extent in herbivores than other diet categories. For species with plant matter in their guts, there was a significant positive correlation between the percentage of plant matter consumed and small intestine length. Herbivorous liolaemids examined in this study lacked the gross morphological specializations (cecum and colonic valves) found in herbivores in the families Iguanidae and Agamidae. A significantly greater percentage of herbivorous species had nematodes in their gut. Of the species with nematodes, over 95% of herbivores had nematodes only in the hindgut. Prevalence of nematodes in the hindgut of herbivores was 2 x that of omnivores and 4 x that of insectivores. PMID:16351968

  7. Intestinal mucosal changes and upregulated calcium transporter and FGF-23 expression during lactation: Contribution of lactogenic hormone prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Sripong, Chanakarn; Longkunan, Asma; Chankamngoen, Wasutorn; Keadsai, Chutiya; Kraidith, Kamonshanok; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2016-01-15

    As the principal lactogenic hormone, prolactin (PRL) not only induces lactogenesis but also enhances intestinal calcium absorption to supply calcium for milk production. How the intestinal epithelium res-ponses to PRL is poorly understood, but it is hypothesized to increase mucosal absorptive surface area and calcium transporter expression. Herein, lactating rats were found to have greater duodenal, jejunal and ileal villous heights as well as cecal crypt depths than age-matched nulliparous rats. Morphometric analyses in the duodenum and cecum showed that their mucosal adaptations were diminished by bromocriptine, an inhibitor of pituitary PRL release. PRL also upregulated calcium transporter expression (e.g., TRPV6 and PMCA1b) in the duodenum of lactating rats. Since excessive calcium absorption could be detrimental to lactating rats, local negative regulator of calcium absorption, e.g., fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, should be increased. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the upregulation of FGF-23 protein expression in the duodenal and cecal mucosae of lactating rats, consistent with the enhanced FGF-23 mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells. Bromocriptine abolished this lactation-induced FGF-23 expression. Additionally, FGF-23 could negate PRL-stimulated calcium transport across Caco-2 monolayer. In conclusion, PRL was responsible for the lactation-induced mucosal adaptations, which were associated with compensatory increase in FGF-23 expression probably to prevent calcium hyperabsorption.

  8. Surgical Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Its Vasculature in the Laboratory Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Vdoviaková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate the morphology of the stomach, liver, intestine, and their vasculature to support the planning of surgical therapeutic methods in abdominal cavity. On adult Wistar rats corrosion casts were prepared from the arterial system and Duracryl Dental and PUR SP were used as a casting medium and was performed macroscopic anatomical dissection of the stomach, liver, and intestine was performed. The rat stomach was a large, semilunar shaped sac with composite lining. On the stomach was very marked fundus, which formed a blind sac (saccus cecus. The rat liver was divided into six lobes, but without gall bladder. Intestine of the rat was simple, but cecum had a shape as a stomach. The following variations were observed in the origin of the cranial mesenteric artery. On the corrosion cast specimens we noticed the presence of the anastomosis between middle colic artery (a. colica media and left colic artery (a. colica sinistra. We investigated the second anastomosis between middle colic artery and left colic artery. The results of this study reveal that the functional anatomical relationship between the rat stomach, liver and intestine is important for the development of surgical research in human and veterinary medicine.

  9. Appendiceal Diverticulitis Clinically Masquerading as an Appendiceal Carcinoma

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    Tadashi Terada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appendiceal diverticulosis is a rare condition. Herein reported is a case of appendiceal diverticulosis and diverticulitis clinically masquerading as appendiceal carcinoma. A 62-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain. US and CT showed a tumor measuring 5 × 4 × 4 cm in vermiform appendix. Colon endoscopy showed mucosal elevation and irregularity in the orifice of vermiform appendix. A biopsy of the appendiceal mucosa showed no significant changes. Clinical diagnosis was appendiceal carcinoma and wide excision of terminal ileum, appendix, cecum, and ascending colon was performed. Grossly, the appendix showed a tumor measuring 5 × 3 × 4 cm. The appendiceal lumen was opened, and the appendiceal mucosa was elevated and irregular. The periappendiceal tissue showed thickening. Microscopically, the lesion was multiple appendiceal diverticula. The diverticula were penetrating the muscle layer. The mucosa showed erosions in places. Much fibrosis, abscess formations, and lymphocytic infiltration were seen in the subserosa. Abscesses were also seen in the diverticular lumens. Some diverticula penetrated into the subserosa. The pathologic diagnosis was appendiceal diverticulitis. When they encounter an appendiceal mass, clinicians should consider appendiceal diverticulitis as a differential diagnosis.

  10. The Effects of Agave fourcroydes Powder as a Dietary Supplement on Growth Performance, Gut Morphology, Concentration of IgG, and Hematology Parameters in Broiler Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Maidelys; Martínez, Yordan; Jiang, Hongmei; Valdivié Navarro, Manuel; Wu, Xiaosong; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Rosales, Manuel; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Agave fourcroydes powder as a dietary supplement on the growth performance, gut morphology, serum concentration of IgG, and the hematology parameters of broiler rabbits. A total of 32 rabbits [New Zealand × Californian] were weaned at 35 days. They were randomly selected for two dietary treatments (eight repetitions per treatment), which consisted of a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% dried-stem powder of A. fourcroydes. On day 60 from the initiation of treatment, gut histomorphology (duodenum and cecum), serum concentration of IgG, and hematology parameters were all measured. The results showed that A. fourcroydes powder supplementation improved (P < 0.05) the ADFI, ADG, and final BW. Correspondingly, this treatment increased (P < 0.05) the muscle and mucosa thickness and height and width of villi. However, duodenum crypts depth was lower (P < 0.05) when rabbits were fed with this natural product, compared with the basal diet treatment. Results also indicated that the A. fourcroydes powder increased (P < 0.05) the serum concentration of IgG but did not change the hematology parameters. This data indicates that A. fourcroydes powder, as a supplement, had beneficial effects on increasing the growth performance and serum concentration of IgG, as well as improving the gut morphology without affecting the hematology parameters in broiler rabbits. PMID:27777945

  11. Tritrichomonas foetus infection, a cause of chronic diarrhea in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chaoqun; Köster, Liza S

    2015-03-19

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a very intriguing trichomonad protozoan with respect to its varied choice of residence in the different host species. It is an obligate parasite of the reproductive and the gastrointestinal tract of bovine and feline host respectively, leading to trichomonosis. Bovine trichomonosis is a sexually transmitted disease whereas feline trichomonosis is a disease with a purported fecal-oral route of spread. Further, the trichomonad is a commensal in the nasal passages, stomach, cecum and colon of swine host. Advances have been exponential in understanding the trichomonad biology and specifically feline trichomonosis since late 1990s and early 2000s when T. foetus was soundly determined to be a causative agent of chronic diarrhea in the domestic cat. It is a challenging task, even for a skilled investigator not to mention the busy clinical veterinarian, to keep up with the vast volume of information. Here we comprehensively reviewed the trichomonad biology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, host immunity, world map of distribution, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. Risk factors associated with T. foetus-positive status in the domestic cat include young age, purebred, history of diarrhea, co-infections with other enteral pathogens. In addition, molecular similarity of bovine and feline isolates of T. foetus in DNA sequence was concisely discussed. The data presented serve as an information source for veterinarians, and investigators who are interested in biology of T. foetus and feline trichomonosis.

  12. Investigation of the metabolism of colostomized laying hens with 15N-labelled wheat. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an experiment with 3 colostomized laying hybrids each animal received 80 g pelleted mixed feed and 40 g 15N-labelled wheat with 20.13 atom-% 15N excess (15N') over a period of four days. On the following four days the hens received rations composed in the same way with unlabelled wheat, however in the tissues and organs of the slaughtered hens 15N' was determined in the total N and the amino acids lysine, histidine and arginine in both the segments of the gastro intestinal tract and in its content. The amount of 15N' stomach, small intestine and colon was 43.7%, 27.2% and 29.1%, respectively. The tissue of the small intestine contained, on an average, the highest 15N' in lysine of all the basic amino acids. It was 0.82 atom-% 15N' for lysine, 0.55% for histidine and 0.63% for arginine. The percentage of the 15N' of the basic amino acids from the corresponding total 15N' amount of the charges was 20.5% in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract, 28.0% in the stomach tissue and in the tissues of the small intestine 24.4% of the cecum 21.5% and of the rectum 25.7%. (author)

  13. Sonographic assessment of splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intestinal wall can be visualized using high resolution transabdominal ultrasound. The normal intestinal wall thickness in the terminal ileum, cecum, and right and left colon is <2 mm when examined with graded compression. It is important to appreciate that a contracted intestinal segment can be misinterpreted as a thickened wall. Vascularisation can be mainly displayed in the second hyperechoic layer (submucosal layer) as well as vessels penetrating the muscularis propria. Imaging of the gastrointestinal wall is dependent on the experience of the examiner as well dependent on the equipment used. Acute or chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall is accompanied by increased perfusion of the mesentery, which can be displayed non-quantitatively with colour duplex. In contrast, ischemia is characterised by hypoperfusion of the mesenteric arteries and the bowel wall. The most promising sonographic approach in assessing splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall is combining the analysis of superior and inferior mesenteric inflow by pulsed Doppler scanning (systolic and diastolic velocities, resistance index) with the end-organ vascularity by colour Doppler imaging diminishing the influence of examination technique only displaying bowel wall vascularity. Colour Doppler imaging has been described as helpful in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly in patients with Crohn's disease, celiac disease, mesenteric artery stenosis and other ischemic gastrointestinal diseases, graft versus host disease and hemorrhagic segmental colitis

  14. Biological properties of a thermally crosslinked gelatin film as a novel anti-adhesive material: Relationship between the biological properties and the extent of thermal crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Tanzawa, Ayumi; Miyamoto, Hiroe; Horii, Tsunehito; Tsuji, Misaki; Kawasumi, Akari; Tamura, Atsushi; Wang, Zhen; Abe, Rie; Tanaka, Shota; Yamanaka, Kouki; Matoba, Mari; Torii, Hiroko; Ozamoto, Yuki; Takamori, Hideki; Suzuki, Shuko; Morita, Shinichiro; Ikada, Yoshito; Hagiwara, Akeo

    2015-10-01

    In order to prevent postoperative adhesion and the related complications, a thermally crosslinked gelatin (TCG) film was developed and the basic biological properties were examined, paying special attention to the relationship between these properties and the extent of crosslinking of the film. The gelatin films crosslinked thermally for five different time periods (0, 1, 3, 8, and 14 hours) were developed and the following tests were performed. Regarding the material characterization of the films, the water content, the water solubility, and the enzymatic degradation for collagenase were found to be closely related to the duration of thermal crosslinking. In an in vitro study conducted to examine the cell growth of fibroblasts cultured on the films, the degree of cell growth, except no crosslinked film, was less than that observed in the control group, thus suggesting that such effects of the films on fibroblast cell growth may be related with their anti-adhesive effects. In in vivo tests, the films crosslinked for longer time periods (3, 8, and 14 hours) were retained for longer after being implanted into the abdominal cavity in rats and showed a significant anti-adhesive effect in the rat cecum adhesion models, indicating that the biodegradability and anti-adhesive effects of the TCG films depend on the duration of thermal crosslinking. In order to develop useful and effective anti-adhesive gelatin film, it is very important to optimize duration of the thermal crosslinking. PMID:25449656

  15. Intestinal Rotation and Physiological Umbilical Herniation During the Embryonic Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yui; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    Drastic changes occur during the formation of the intestinal loop (IL), including elongation, physiological umbilical herniation (PUH), and midgut rotation. Fifty-four sets of magnetic resonance images of embryos between Carnegie stage (CS) 14 and CS 23 were used to reconstruct embryonic digestive tract in three dimensions in the Amira program. Elongation, PUH, and rotation were quantified in relation to the proximal part of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), designated as the origin. Up to CS 16, IL rotation was initially observed as a slight deviation of the duodenum and colorectum from the median plane. The PUH was noticeable after CS 17. At CS 18, the IL showed a hairpin-like structure, with the SMA running parallel to the straight part and the cecum located to the left. After CS 19, the IL began to form a complex structure as a result of the rapid growth of the small intestinal portion. By CS 20, the IL starting point had moved from the right cranial region to an area caudal to the origin, though elongation of the duodenum was not conspicuous-this was a change of almost 180° in position. The end of the IL remained in roughly the same place, to the left of and caudal to the origin. Notably, the IL rotated around the origin only during earlier stages and gradually moved away, running transversely after CS 19. The movements of the IL may be explained as the result of differential growth, suggesting that IL rotation is passive. PMID:26599074

  16. A case of multiple cancers in the pelvic organs after radiation for uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients who have undergone pelvic irradiation are reported to be at an increased risk of subsequently developing malignancies of the pelvic organs. We report a case of multiple cancers in the pelvic organs after radiation therapy for uterine cancer. The patient was a 76-year-old woman who had undergone a hysterectomy with radiation therapy for uterine cancer in 1960. Thereafter, she had undergone a total cystectomy for bladder cancer in 1989; an abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer with radiation proctitis in February 1991; and a right hemicolectomy for cecum cancer in 1995. Then, in 2005, she was found to have early cancer of the sigmoid colon at the stoma, so that the colon was dissected from the periphery of the stoma, the sigmoid colon was removed, and an artificial anus was reconstructed again. The histopathological diagnosis was early well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. She had undergone three operations for multiple cancers of the large intestine in the pelvis at different times during 16 years since 1989 when the bladder cancer was detected and surgically treated. And she has been alive and well. Long-term follow-up would be mandatory for such patients undergone pelvic irradiation who might be able to survive for a long time with appropriate therapies like this patient. (author)

  17. Particularity and universality of a putative Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein (GNBP) gene from amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri): insights into the function and evolution of GNBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ping; Zhou, Lu; Song, Xiaojun; Qian, Jinjun; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei

    2012-10-01

    Gram-negative bacteria-binding proteins (GNBPs) are important pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), which can initiate host defense in response to pathogen surface molecules. The roles of GNBP in innate immunity of arthropods and molluscs have recently been reported. However, the GNBP gene has not been characterized in the species of higher evolutionary status yet. In this study, we identified and characterized an amphioxus GNBP gene (designated as AmphiGNBP). First, we identified and cloned the AmphiGNBP and found that the AmphiGNBP encodes a putative protein with 558 amino acids, which contains a conserved β-1, 3-glucan recognizing and binding domain. Second, we found that the AmphiGNBP encodes two extra WSC (cell Wall integrity and Stress response Component) domains, which are unique in AmphiGNBP protein. The two WSC domains of AmphiGNBP protein coupled with the expansion of amphioxus immunity repertoire might undergo intensive domain shuffling during the age of the Cambrian explosion. Finally, we found that the AmphiGNBP was mainly expressed in immune tissues, such as hepatic cecum and intestine, and the expression of AmphiGNBP was affected after LPS stimulation. In conclusion, our findings disclose the particularity and universality of AmphiGNBP and provide profound insights into the function and evolution of GNBP. PMID:22986589

  18. Alteration of bile acid metabolism in the rat induced by chronic ethanol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoxiang; Zhong, Wei; Li, Houkai; Li, Qiong; Qiu, Yunping; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Chen, Huiyuan; Zhao, Xueqing; Zhang, Shucha; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Zeisel, Steven H.; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the bile acid metabolism is limited by the fact that previous analyses have primarily focused on a selected few circulating bile acids; the bile acid profiles of the liver and gastrointestinal tract pools are rarely investigated. Here, we determined how chronic ethanol consumption altered the bile acids in multiple body compartments (liver, gastrointestinal tract, and serum) of rats. Rats were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet with 38% of calories as ethanol (the amount equivalent of 4–5 drinks in humans). While conjugated bile acids predominated in the liver (98.3%), duodenum (97.8%), and ileum (89.7%), unconjugated bile acids comprised the largest proportion of measured bile acids in serum (81.2%), the cecum (97.7%), and the rectum (97.5%). In particular, taurine-conjugated bile acids were significantly decreased in the liver and gastrointestinal tract of ethanol-treated rats, while unconjugated and glycine-conjugated species increased. Ethanol consumption caused increased expression of genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis, efflux transport, and reduced expression of genes regulating bile acid influx transport in the liver. These results provide an improved understanding of the systemic modulations of bile acid metabolism in mammals through the gut-liver axis.—Xie, G., Zhong, W., Li, H., Li, Q., Qiu, Y., Zheng, X., Chen, H., Zhao, X., Zhang, S., Zhou, Z., Zeisel, S. H., Jia, W. Alteration of bile acid metabolism in the rat induced by chronic ethanol consumption. PMID:23709616

  19. Effect of fasting on the transit time of 144Ce in the mouse gut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our work with G.I. absorption of actinide elements indicates greater absorption by fasted animals than by animals on regular diets (Weiss and Walburg, undated). Residence time of a metallic compound in the gut may be an important factor influencing G.I. absorption. Cerium-144 (III) chloride was administered by gavage to fasted mice and to mice on regular feed. The G.I. tract was excised, cut into sections, and the activity of each section determined as a function of time after dosing. Our results indicate rapid transit of 144CeCl3 along the empty mouse gut. One hour after dosing, about half the Ce is in the cecal contents; about 40% remains in stomach contents. Twelve hours after dosing, only about 2% remains in the cecum; by 16 hours, almost the entire dose has been cleared from the intestine. Transit times in mice with stomach and intestines containing food were 12 hours longer than in fasted mice. These results lead to the conclusion that factors other than G.I. residence time determine G.I. absorption of actinides in mice

  20. Comparative analysis of intestinal microbial community diversity between healthy and orally infected ducklings with Salmonella enteritidis by ERIC-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Yan Cao; De-Kang Zhu; Qi-Hui Luo; Xiao-Yue Chen; Ming-Shu Wang; An-Chun Cheng; Xue-Feng Qi; Xiao-Yan Yang; Shu-Xuan Deng; Nian-Chun Yin; Zhen-Hua Zhang; Deng-Chun Zhou

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the difference of intestinal microbial community diversity between healthy and (S.enteritidis)orally infected ducklings.METHODS:Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR was applied to analyze the intestinal microbial community diversity and dynamic change including duodenum,jejunum,ileum,cecum and rectum from healthy ducklings and 7-dayoold ducklings after oral infection with S.enteritidis at different time points.RESULTS:The intestinal microbial community of the control healthy ducklings was steady and the ERIC-PCR band numbers of the control healthy ducklings were the least with rectum and were the most with caecum.ER[C-PCR bands of orally inoculated ducklings did not obviously change until 24 h after inoculation (p.i.).The numbers of the ERIC-PCR bands gradually decreased from 24 h to 72 h p.i.,and then,with the development of disease,the band numbers gradually increased until 6 d p.i.The prominent bacteria changed because of S.enteritidis infection and the DNAstar of staple of ERIC-PCR showed that aerobe and facultative aerobe (Escherichia coli,Shigella,Salmonella) became preponderant bacilli in the intestine of orally infected ducklings with SE.CONCLUSION:This study has provided significant data to clarify the intestinal microbial community diversity and dynamic change of healthy and S.enterltidis orally infected ducklings,and valuable insight into the pathogenesis of S.enteritidis infection in both human and animals.

  1. Macroscopic study of the digestive tract of Gracilinanus microtarsus (Wagner, 1842 (Mammalia: Didelphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Lobo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gracilinanus microtarsus is a small marsupial species belonging to the Didelphidae family. It has an omnivorous/frugivorous feeding habit and, therefore, it has a great ecological importance, because it is a seed-dispersing species. This article aims to describe the macroscopic morphology of the digestive tract in G. microtarsus. We used 4 animals fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The organs were dissected, measured, and photographed. The animals under study had the dental formula 2x I 5/4 C 1/1 P 3/3 M 4/4. This is the dental formula of the whole Didelphidae family. The dorsum of the tongue had vallate, fungiform, and filiform papillae. Tubular esophagus evidenced the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal portions. The unicavitary stomach consisted of glandular and aglandular region and gastric folds. Small intestine had 3 portions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Large intestine consisted of: cecum, colon, and rectum. Parotid salivary gland was the largest and it had a flattened shape. The sublingual salivary gland, whi h was the smallest, had a flattened and elongated shape. Mandibular salivary gland had an oval shape. Pancreas had a dispersed shape and lobulated aspect. Liver had a dome shape and it consisted of the lobes right medial, square, right side, left medial, left side, and caudate. The digestive tract of the animals under study is similar to the marsupial species described in the literature.

  2. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in endangered Florida Key deer and Key deer habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Heidi L; Yabsley, Michael J; Keel, M Kevin; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Wilmers, Thomas J; Corn, Joseph L

    2014-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was first reported in the endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) in 1996 on Big Pine Key, Florida, USA. By 2008, eight additional MAP-positive Key deer had been identified on Big Pine Key and the nearby Newfound Harbor Keys. This study was conducted to determine if MAP was still present in Key deer and whether natural or man-made freshwater sources were contaminated with MAP. Between November 2009 and September 2012, MAP was isolated from 36/369 (10%) fecal samples collected from the ground throughout the Key deer range on Big Pine Key and the Newfound Harbor Keys, but all 36 positive samples were from Little Palm Island (36/142 [25%]). Only 1/729 (0.1%) environmental samples was positive; this was from the garden fountain on Little Palm Island (1/81 [1%]). In addition, MAP was detected in 3/43 (7%) necropsied Key deer, all from Little Palm Island (3/3 [100%]). Of these three Key deer, pooled samples from the ileum, cecum, and ileocecal lymph node from two were MAP-culture positive and feces from one of these were culture-positive. The third deer was only PCR-positive. Evidence of MAP was only detected on Little Palm Island during this sampling period and environmental contamination was limited. PMID:24506424

  3. Presence of Selected Methanogens, Fibrolytic Bacteria, and Proteobacteria in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Neonatal Dairy Calves from Birth to 72 Hours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar E Guzman

    Full Text Available The microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract of a young calf are essential for the anatomical and physiological development that permits a transition from milk to solid feed. Selected methanogens, fibrolytic bacteria, and proteobacteria were quantified in the rumen fluid and tissue, abomasum fluid, cecum fluid and tissue, and feces of Holstein bull calves on day 0 (0-20 mins after birth, day 1 (24 ± 1 h after birth, day 2 (48 ± 1 h after birth, and day 3 (72 ± 1 h after birth. Methanogens, fibrolytic bacteria, and Geobacter spp. were found to be already present from birth, indicating that microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract occurred before or during delivery. The abundance of methanogens and Geobacter spp. differed between the days tested and between compartments of the digestive tract and feces, but such difference was not observed for fibrolytic bacteria. Our findings suggests that methanogens might have an alternative hydrogen provider such as Geobacter spp. during these early stages of postnatal development. In addition, fibrolytic bacteria were present in the rumen well before the availability of fibrous substrates, suggesting that they might use nutrients other than cellulose and hemicellose.

  4. CT appearance of the duodenum and mesenteric vessels in children with normal and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, George A. [Harvard Medical School and Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Demonstration of the third duodenal segment (D3) in retroperitoneal location has been recently proposed as a method for excluding malrotation. This study was performed to determine whether a retroperitoneal third duodenal segment can reliably exclude malrotation. CTs of 38 patients with proven malrotation and 100 patients without malrotation were evaluated for the location of the duodenum/proximal small bowel, and the relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) to superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The D3 segment was in normal retroperitoneal location in 100% of control patients, compared to 2.5% or (1 of 38) of patients with malrotation. Nine of 11 patients (91%) with malrotation imaged prior to surgery had the proximal bowel in an abnormal location, while all 100 control patients had it in a normal location. The SMV was in normal relationship to the SMA in 11/38 patients (29%) with malrotation, compared to 79% of normal controls. In 10 controls, a branch of the SMV was partially wrapped around the SMA, potentially mimicking partial mesenteric volvulus. A retroperitoneal location of the D3 segment makes the diagnosis of malrotation unlikely but not impossible. Additional imaging of the duodenojejunal junction or cecum may be necessary to reliably exclude intestinal malrotation. (orig.)

  5. Peritoneal wash contents used to predict mortality in a murine sepsis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuethe, Joshua W.; Midura, Emily F.; Rice, Teresa C.; Caldwell, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) is considered the gold standard for inducing abdominal sepsis in mice. However, the model lacks source control, a component of sepsis management in humans. Using a CLP-excision model, we characterized peritoneal cytokines and cells and hypothesized these analyses would allow us to predict survival. Methods Fifty-eight mice were first subjected to CLP. Twenty hours later, the necrotic cecums were debrided, abdominal cavity lavaged, and intraperitoneal antibiotics administered. Peritoneal cytokines and leukocytes collected from the peritoneal lavage were analyzed. These immune parameters were used to generate receiver operator characteristic curves. In separate experiments, the accuracy of the model was verified with a survival cohort. Finally, we collected the peritoneal lavage and analyzed both serum and peritoneal cytokines, bacterial load, and leukocyte functionality. Results Peritoneal interleukin (IL)-6 levels and neutrophil CD11b intensity were observed to be significantly different in mice that lived versus those who died. In separate experiments, mice predicted to live (P-LIVE) had decreased bacterial loads, systemic IL-10, and neutrophil oxidative burst and increased peritoneal inflammatory monocyte numbers and phagocytosis. Conclusions This study couples a clinically relevant sepsis model with methodology to limit pathogen spread. Using surgical waste, stratification of the mice into groups P-LIVE and predicted to die was possible with a high degree of accuracy and specificity. In mice P-LIVE, increased inflammatory monocyte recruitment and phagocytosis were associated with decreased systemic IL-10 and bacterial loads. PMID:26049288

  6. Multislice CT scanning with three-dimensional reconstruction in early diagnosis of atypical appendicitis%多层螺旋CT三维重建对不典型阑尾炎的早期诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱雷敏; 戈军刚; 黄建明

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of multislice spiral CT (MSCT)with three-di-mensional reconstruction in early diagnosis of acute appendicitis with atypical clinical features.Methods The clinical data of 108 patients preoperatively diagnosed as suspected appendicitis were retrospec-tively analyzed,and 58 patients were subjected to MSCT scan (MSCT group),the remaining were not given (non-MSCT group).Results In MSCT group,53 patients with acute appendicitis were confined by surgery and histopathology. The positive predictive value for pre-appendectomy MSCT was 91.5%.Five patients were misdiagnosed:1 case of adhesive ileum obstruction,1 case of right pyosal-pinx with pelvic inflammatory disease,1 case of Meckel diverticulitis with fish bone penetrating inj ury and 2 cases of cecum and ascending colon diverticulitis.The confirmed diagnostic rate of non-MSCT group was 78.0%.Eleven misdiagnoses were detected by exploratory laparotomy or postoperative CT scan:3 cases of duodenal bulbar ulcer perforation,2 cases of cecum tumor,2 cases of right lower ure-teral calculi with hydronephrosis,1 case of right ovarian cyst torsion,1 case of right corpus luteum rupture,1 case of ectopic pregnancy in isthmus of right uterine tube and 1 case of mesenteric lymphad-enitis.Conclusions MSCT scan with three-dimensional reconstruction of the appendix can improve early diagnosis level of atypical appendicitis,decrease the misdiagnosis rate and thereby provide signif-icant clinical benefit.%目的 探讨多层螺旋CT(multislice spiral CT,MSCT)三维重建对临床表现不典型阑尾炎的早期诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析2011年1月至2014年12月收治的108例不典型阑尾炎手术病人的临床资料,对两组在性别比、年龄、主诉、伴随症状、体征和白细胞计数等方面资料进行统计,其中经MSCT检查的病人58例,为MSCT组,50例为非MSCT组.结果 53例术前MSCT检查的不典型阑尾炎经手术、病理证实为

  7. Prospective controlled study on the effects of polyethylene glycol in capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takafumi Ito; Ken Ohata; Akiko Ono; Hideyuki Chiba; Yosuke Tsuji; Hajime Sato; Nobuyuki Matsuhashi

    2012-01-01

    .003;segment 5:2.7 ± 1.0 vs 4.4 ± 0.8,P =0.00004).Thus,the use of PEG during CE examination significantly improved image quality in all time segments,and this effect was more pronounced in the distal ileum.The completion rate to the cecum was not significantly different between groups A and B (81.8% vs 85.0%,P=0.89).There was no difference in the gastric transit time between groups (36.2 ± 35.0 min vs 54.0 ± 56.6min,P =0.23),but the small bowel transit time was significantly longer in group A than in group B (246.0 ±107.0 min vs 171.0 ± 104.0 min,P =0.04).CONCLUSION:The ingestion of a small amount of PEG after the swallowing of an endoscopy capsule significantly improved CE image quality,but did not enhance the completion rate to the cecum.

  8. Establishment the infant mouse model of acute peritonitis caused by cecal ligation perforation%盲肠穿孔所致幼鼠急性腹膜炎模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄薇; 李毅平; 汪健

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立一种稳定、符合临床小儿消化道穿孔所致多种细菌性急性腹膜炎的模型.方法 在3~4周龄BALB/c小鼠盲肠壁置入一个两端开放的18号无菌硅管,使得肠道内的细菌进入腹腔,观察实验小鼠每日情况,并记录体质量变化及死亡时间.1周后处死存活下来的小鼠,观察其腹腔内脏器外观改变情况,收集腹腔灌洗液做细菌培养,观察肝、脾、肾组织切片中炎症细胞的浸润情况.结果 实验组小鼠均表现出细菌性腹膜炎征象,48 h死亡率高达50%,未死亡小鼠的体质量进行性下降,腹腔灌洗液细菌培养呈现阳性,病理切片显示肝实质、肾周围脂肪组织内有不同程度的炎症细胞浸润.结论 幼鼠盲肠穿孔所致急性腹膜炎模型建立成功,这为探索小儿急性腹膜炎的发病机制和治疗方法奠定了基础.%Objective To establish an infant mouse model of polymicrobial acute peritonitis, which is similar to clinical syndrome. Methods we established a surgical connection between the cecum and the peritoneum (by placing a sterile 18-gauge silicon tube across the cecum) which allowed the exit of intestinal bacteria to the peritoneal cavity. The general situation and the time of death were recorded. One week later, the mice were killed and abdominal fluid was collected for bacteria culture in Luria-Bertani agar. The livers, spleens and kidneys were dissected and generated for pathological examination. Results The experiment groups showed typical clinical syndrome of peritonitis. The 48-hour mortality rate was 50% , the weight of mice decreased progressively. Abdominal fluid cultures were positive. Moreover, the pathological examination of liver and adipose tissue around the kidney revealed inflammatory cells infiltration. Conclusions The infant mouse model of polymicrobial peritonitis is constructed successfully, providing a useful tool to develop new diagnostic methods and therapeutic interventions.

  9. Analysis of Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Hylan Brown Laying Chicken Fed in Cage by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis%笼养海兰褐蛋雏鸡肠道菌群的聚合酶链式反应-变性梯度凝胶电泳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋菊; 崔一喆; 刘胜军; 尹汉周

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the intestinal bacterial flora of Hylan brown laying chicken fed in cage by polymerase chain reaction ( PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ( DGGE) .Five 8-week-old chick-ens fed in cage were randomly selected and slaughtered to collect whole intestinal samples.Intestinal contents in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were individually mixed, and genome DNA of them were extracted, then sequences in hypervariable region of 16S rDNA were amplified with bacterial common primers, finally, the PCR products were used in DGGE analysis.The results showed as follows:there was obvious difference in bacterial flora composition among different intestinal segments.Eight, twelve, eight and nine strains of bacteri-a were isolated from duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum, respectively, twenty strains in all, and seven strains of Lactobacillus among those ( including two strains of Lactobacillus aviaries, two strains of Lactococ-cus raffinolactis, one strain of Lactobacillus agilis, one strain of Coprococcus comes and one strain of Lactoba-cillus equigenerosi.There were 3 common strains of bacteria in all intestinal segments, which were one strain of Rummeliibacillus stabekisii, one strain of Lactobacillus equigenerosi and one strain of Gardnerella vaginalis. The results indicate that bacterial flora structure is relative with intestinal segment of Hylan brown laying chick-en fed in cage, and there are differences in intestinal bacterial flora composition among different intestinal seg-ments.%本试验旨在采用聚合酶链式反应( PCR )-变性梯度凝胶电泳( DGGE )法分析笼养海兰褐蛋雏鸡肠道菌群。随机取5只8周龄笼养鸡剖杀,取全部小肠,将5只鸡的十二指肠、空肠、回肠和盲肠内容物分别混匀,提取基因组DNA,以细菌通用引物扩增16S rDNA高变区序列,对PCR产物进行DGGE分析。结果表明:雏鸡不同肠段中细菌菌群组成差别很大,十二指肠、

  10. Histological structure of the digestive tract of waders (Aves, Сharadrii

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    L. P. Kharchenko

    2014-09-01

    complex mazes and anastomoses, several times increasing the absorbing surface of the intestine. The plates are covered with a single layer of prismatic bordered epithelium which includes Goblet cells, the number of which increases in the caudal direction of intestines. It is found out that the particular feature of the histological structure of the examined wall of the waders’ small intestine is multi-layer location of crypts in the mucosa. A large number of cambial cells with figures of mitosis were noticed in the crypt, which indicated the intensive processes of proliferation of intestinal enterocytes. These features in the structure of the wall of the small intestine are considered as adaptations to distant migrations and are connected with waders’ intense nutrition on migration stops. For the first time Meckel diverticulum has been found in waders and its histological structure has been described. It is established that waders’ Meckel diverticulum is a lymphoid-epithelial organ and it serves as the immune system of waders’ digestive tract. It is stated that the wall of waders’ rectum has wrinkles that contribute to its stretching; mucous membrane has the plate relief, it is lined with a single layer of epithelium bordered with many Goblet cells. It is revealed that different parts of the investigated waders’ cecum have uneven development of histological structures and the presence of lymphoid tissue clusters in the lamina propria mucosa indicates the functional belonging of the cecum to the immune defense system of waders’ digestive tract; the presence of mainly bordered enterocytes in the surface epithelium indicates its osmo-regulatory function

  11. A sepsis-inducedacute kidney injury mouse model and its kidney injury evaluation%小鼠脓毒症急性肾损伤模型制备及肾功能损伤指标评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金魁; 刘宝; 邵敏; 周树生; 高晓兰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the mortality and acute kidney injury in the cecum ligation and puncture ( CLP ) model with different ligation proportion.Methods Eighty -one mice were assigned to 3 different experiments.①Survival analysis between 25% vs 50% ligation of CLP model.②Analysis of 3 renal injury biomarkers (serum creatinine, NGAL, cystatin C) and cytokine of IL-6.③Renal histopathology at the most severely injured time point.Results The mortality rate of 50%ligation of CLP model at 48 hours was 100% whereas the 25% ligation mortality at 24 hours was 7%, and the 48 hours mortality was about 50%.Renal biomarkers of Creatinine, NGAL increased from 2 hours and reach their peak at 24 hours, by contrast, Cystatin C and IL-6 reach the highest level at 18 and 6 hours.Apical vacuolization can be found in the histopathology of kidneys at 24 hours after CLP but with absence of necrosis.Conclusion Cecum ligation ( 25%) and puncture through and through (2 holes) can mimic sepsis induced AKI, study of biomarkers of renal injury show kidney injury may most severely at 24 hours.%目的:研究使用小鼠盲肠结扎穿刺( CLP)模型,模拟脓毒症急性肾损伤( AKI)病理生理过程,研究不同结扎长度(比率)对死亡率的影响,选取最为适宜的结扎长度,并观察结扎后肾损伤标志物及肾脏病理变化。方法实验共纳入81只小鼠分别进行:①生存率研究分为CLP组(以25%、50%结扎比率)及假手术组,观察7 d记录生存时间。②选取生存率较为适合的结扎比率,再次行CLP术后,检测肾脏损伤标志物血清肌酐( Cr)、中性粒细胞酯酶( NGAL)、胱抑素C (Cystatin C)及白细胞介素-6(IL-6)。③AKI发生后进行肾脏病理检查。结果 CLP模型盲肠结扎50%与25%24 h死亡率100% vs 7%;结扎25%后,肾脏损伤标志物胱抑素C、中性粒细胞酯酶、血清肌酐于CLP术后2 h开始升高,胱抑素C于术后18 h

  12. Preventive effect of gelatinizedly-modified chitosan film on peritoneal adhesion of different types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie-Lai Zhou; Shan-Wen Chen; Guo-Dong Liao; Zhou-Jun Shen; Zhi-Liang Zhang; Li Sun; Yi-Jun Yu; Qiao-Ling Hu; Xiao-Dong Jin

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To comparatively study the preventive effect of gelatinizedly-modified chitosan film on peritoneal adhesions induced by four different factors in rats.METHODS: Chitosan was chemically modified by gelatinization, and made into films of 60 μm in thickness, and sterilized. Two hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups, Shamoperation group (group A), wound-induced adhesion group (group B), purified talc-induced adhesion group (group C), vascular ligation-induced adhesion group (group D), and infection-induced adhesion group (group E),respectively. In each group, the rats were treated with different adhesion-inducing methods at the cecum of vermiform processes and then were divided into control and experimental subgroups. Serous membrane surface of vermiform processes were covered with the films in the experimental subgroups, and no films were used in the control subgroups. After 2 and 4 wk of treatments,the abdominal cavities were reopened and the adhesive severity was graded blindly according to Bhatia's method.The cecum of vermiform processes were resected for hydroxyproline (OHP) measurement and pathological examination.RESULTS: Adhesion severity and OHP level: After 2 and 4 wk of the treatments, in the experimental subgroups,the adhesions were significantly lighter and the OHP levels were significantly lower than those of the control subgroups in group B (2 wk: 0.199 ± 0.026 vs 0.285 ±0.041 μg/mg pr, P < 0.001; 4 wk: 0.183 ± 0.034 vs 0.276± 0.03 μg/mg pr, P < 0.001), D (2 wk: 0.216 ± 0.036 vs0.274 ± 0.040 μg/mg pr, P = 0.004; 4 wk: 0.211 ± 0.044vs 0.281 ± 0.047 μg/mg pr, P = 0.003) and E (2 wk: 0.259± 0.039 vs 0.371 ± 0.040 μg/mg pr, P < 0.001; 4 wk:0.242 ± 0.045 vs 0.355 ± 0.029 μg/mg pr, P < 0.001),but there were no significant differences in groups A (2wk: 0.141 ± 0.028 vs 0.137 :± 0.026 μg/mg pr, P =0.737; 4 wk: 0.132 ± 0.031 vs 0.150 ± 0.035 μg/mgpr, P = 0.225) and C (2 wk: 0.395 ± 0.044 vs 0

  13. Carbon dioxide insufflation or warm-water infusion for unsedated colonoscopy: A randomized controlled trial in patients with chronic constipation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Xu

    2016-01-01

    cantly different between air (10.6 ± 2.5 and CO 2 ( 7.2 ± 1.4 (air vs CO 2 P < 0.001, air and water (6.9 ± 1.3 (air vs water P < 0.001. However, CO 2 and was not significantly different in cecum-intubated time (CO 2 vs water, P = 0.404. CO 2 and water group in extubation time were significantly different, respectively, CO 2 (7.9 ± 1.1 and water (8.0 ± 1.1 (CO 2 vs water, P = 0.707. CO 2 or water group required less implementation of adjunct measures and more willingness to repeat the procedure. Conclusions: Compared with air, the CO 2 or water-aided method reduced real-time maximum pain and cecum-intubated time for chronic constipated patients in unsedated colonoscopy. The CO 2 insufflation or warm-water irrigation may be a simple and inexpensive way to reduce discomfort in unsedated patients with constipation. This study demonstrated an advantage of using CO 2 insufflation and warm-water irrigation during colonoscopy in unsedated constipated patients in China.

  14. Apendicite aguda isquêmica em coelhos: um novo modelo com estudo histopatológico Acute ischaemic appendicitis in rabbits: new model with histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Costa Nunes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a isquemia parcial ou total do apêndice vermiforme de coelhos, através da ligadura com fio inabsorvível dos vasos do meso apêndice bem como a obstrução mecânica, através da ligadura com fio inabsorvível da base do apêndice a 1 cm do ceco, na patogênese da apendicite aguda. Avaliar a histologia do apêndice (normal e acometido. Estudar a flora bacteriana residente no apêndice vermiforme (normal e acometido e do exsudato peritoneal. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 72 coelhos (Oryctogalus cuniculos, machos, da linhagem Nova Zelândia, com peso médio de 3.000 gramas. Foram divididos em grupos: piloto (A, flora bacteriana (B, controle (H e experimento (C, D, E, F e G com períodos de observação de 96 horas e 192 horas. Fez-se a ligadura dos vasos do meso apêndice com fio inabsorvível nos grupos (D, E, F e G e da base do apêndice vermiforme a 1 cm do ceco, no grupo (C. No grupo experimento (D, E, F e G foi praticado o modelo isquêmico. No grupo experimento (C foi realizada a obstrução mec��nica e no grupo controle (H foi feita somente a simulação da cirurgia. RESULTADOS: Ocorreu apendicite aguda no grupo experimento (C,D,E,F, e G. CONCLUSÕES: O método utilizado causa apendicite aguda com alterações anatomopatológicas distintas. A bactéria residente encontrada na flora fisiológica do suco entérico do apêndice vermiforme e no exsudato peritoneal foi Escherichia coli.BACKGROUND: To evaluate partial or total ischemia, through ligature with an unabsorbed thread of vessels from the vermiform appendix of rabbits, as well as the mechanical obstruction, through ligature with an unabsorbed thread at the basis of the vermiform appendix, at 1 cm from the cecum, in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis. To evaluate the histology of the appendix (normal and affected. To study the resident bacterium flora in the appendix (normal and affected and the peritonitis exudate. METHODS: Seventy- two male rabbits (Oryctogalus

  15. Reação peritoneal tardia ao calculo biliar humano, de colesterol, deixado na cavidade abdominal de ratos Late peritoneal reaction to human cholesterol gallstone left into abdominal cavity of rats

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    Luiz Carlos Bertges

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os resultados tardios da colocação de cálculos biliares humanos, de colesterol, na cavidade peritoneal de ratos. Constituíram-se cinco grupos: cinco ratos foram apenas laparotomizados com manuseio da cavidade; cinco foram laparotomizados e receberam um ponto com fio monofilamentar cinco zeros no sulco paracólico direito e mesentério; dez receberam cálculos que foram deixados livres na cavidade peritoneal; em dez, os clculos foram fixados no sulco paracólico direito e, finalmente, dez tiveram clculos fixados no mesentério. Os animais foram mortos após cinco meses de pós-operatório quando se observou a cavidade abdominal e foi coletado material para estudo histopatológico. Concluiu-se que os cálculos não foram absorvidos, desenvolveram uma reação peritoneal do tipo corpo estranho com formação de plastrão e foram envolvidos por tecido fibroso e células inflamatórias.It was evaluated the late results of human gallstones placed into peritoneal cavity of rats. Five groups were created. In the first (group A five rats were submitted only to laparotomy and handling of abdominal cavity, in the second (group B five rats were submitted to laparotomy and a stitch was placed into right abdominal wall and in mesenterium between the ileus and cecum, in the third (group C ten rats received a gallstone left free into abdomen, in the fourth (group D ten rats received a gallstone fixed into right abdominal wall and in the fifth (group E ten rats received a gallstone fixed in mesenterium between the ileus and cecum. One rat in each group was selected to be use as a pilot and were re-laparotomized after 1 month and 3 months, in order to look for any possible alteration. All rats were dead after five months when the abdominal cavity was observed and specimens were collected around the gallstones to histopathology. ln groups A and B there were not important macroscopic alterations. The gallstones were not absorved in groups C, D

  16. Rice bran supplementation during nutritional recovery period of malnourished rats improves colon development El suplemento con salvado de arroz durante el periodo de recuperación nutricional de ratas malnutridas mejora con el desarrollo del colon

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    M.ª Salete F. Martins

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the colon's development in rats subjected to protein energy malnutrition followed bysupplementation with rice bran. Materials and methods: Weaned Wistar male rats (21 days old, weight (40-50 g were divided into two groups: diet with 17% protein (C; control group or an aproteic diet (A; aproteic group, for 12 days. After this, 50% of the rats from each group were sacrificed. The remaining rats were further distributed in the three groups for a recovery (21 days: control (C continued to receive the control diet whereas the aproteic group (A received either a control diet (AC or a control diet supplementedwith 5% of rice bran (ARB. Results: The A group showed alterations in the colon and cecum, excreted dry feces mass and fecal nitrogen, compared with C rats. In the proximal colon of A rats, the external muscularis and the width of the colon wall were higher whereas in the distal colon they were lower than C. After the recovery period, the relative cecum mass, colon mass and colon length of the recovered groups (AC and ARB were higher than in the C group. Dry feces and fecal nitrogen excreted of the rats from recovered groups were lower than C group. Colon length of the AC group was lower than in the C group. Only the crypt's depthfrom ARB group was higher than in the C group. Conclusion: Control diet supplemented with 5% rice bran, reestablished the large intestine of aproteic rats. The recovery in the ARB group was even better than in the AC rats.Objetivo: investigar el desarrollo del colon en ratas sometidas a malnutrición proteico-calórica seguida de complementación con salvado de arroz. Material y métodos: se emplearon ratas Wistar macho destetadas (de 21 días de edad, peso (40-50 g que se dividieron en dos grupos: dieta con 17% de proteínas (C, grupo control y dieta aproteica (A, grupo aproteico, durante 12 días. Tras ello, se sacrificó al 50% de las ratas de cada grupo. A las ratas restantes se las dividi

  17. Modelo de suprimento sanguíneo do intestino delgado e grosso da preguiça de coleira (Bradypus torquatus Blood supply model of the small and large intestine of the maned three-toed sloth (Bradypus torquatus

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    Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    formaldehyde (10%, preservation in modified Laskowski solution and dissection under mesoscopic light (Lupa LTS® 3700. The blood supply of small and large intestine depends on the abdominal aorta, whose ventral visceral branch identified as the common mesenteric artery was distributed in the mesentery and mesocolon. A sequence of 9 to 25 primary collateral branches cranial is allocated to the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and part of the cecum. Another sequence of 4 to 11 caudal branches are destined to the cecum and colon pouch. The vascular pattern of adult maned three-toed sloth intestine differs from those of other previously described vertebrates, because there is no occurrence of coalescence peritoneal through small and large intestine.

  18. Oral treatment of Fischer 344 rats with weathered crude oil and a dispersant influences intestinal metabolism and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S E; Nelson, G M; Kohan, M J; Warren, S H; Eischen, B T; Brooks, L R

    2001-06-22

    When oil is spilled into aquatic systems, chemical dispersants frequently are applied to enhance emulsification and biological availability. In this study, a mammalian model system was used to determine the effect of Bonnie Light Nigerian crude oil, weathered for 2 d with continuous spraying and recirculation, and a widely used dispersant, Corexit (Cx) 9527, on intestinal microbial metabolism and associated populations. To determine the subchronic dose, concentrated or diluted (1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20) Cx9527 or oil was administered by gavage to Fischer 344 rats and the effect on body weight was determined. Next, rats were treated for 5 wk with oil, dispersant, or dispersant + oil. Body and tissue weights, urine mutagenicity, and the impact on the intestinal microflora and three microbial intestinal enzymes linked to bioactivation were determined in the small and large intestines and cecum. Two tested dispersants, Cx9527 and Cx9500, were toxic in vitro (1:1,000 dilution), and oil was not mutagenic in strains TA98 and TA100(+/-S9). None of the treated rats produced urine mutagens detected by TA98 or TA100. Undiluted dispersant was lethal to rats, and weight changes were observed depending on the dilution, whereas oil generally was not toxic. In the 5-wk study, body and tissue weights were unaffected at the doses administered. Small-intestinal levels of azoreductase (AR), beta-glucuronidase (BG), and nitroreductase (NR) were considerably lower than cecal and large-intestinal activities at the same time point. A temporal increase in AR activity was observed in control animals in the 3 tissues examined, and large-intestinal BG activity was elevated in 3-wk controls. No significant changes in cecal BG activity were observed. Oil- or dispersant-treated rats had mixed results with reduced activity at 3 wk and elevated activity at 5 wk compared to controls. However, when the dispersant was combined with oil at 3 wk, a reduction in activity was observed that was similar to

  19. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTE IN AGOUTIS BRED IN CAPTIVITY MICROBIOTA INTESTINAL EM CUTIAS CRIADAS EM CATIVEIRO

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    LEANDRO LUÍS MARTINS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Intestines are colonized by microorganisms, which vary according to the species and the intestinal region. Thus, due the lack of information about this subject in literature, this research was developed for better knowing some aspects of the intestinal microbiology of the agouti, considered one of the biggest Brazilian wild rodents. Three males and three not pregnant adult females, belonging to the Catanduva City Zoo, SP, went through laparotomy after anesthesia. Samples were collected with sterile swab in the medium thirds of the jejune, cecum and greater colon after enterotomy. They were cultivated in Sabouraud agar and in TSA (triptone-soy agar. In the jejune, the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was of 83.33%, Salmonella spp. of 66.67% and Clostridium spp. of 50.00% of the samples. In the cecum, they were identified Staphylococcus aureus in 33.33%, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in 100% and Streptococcus spp. in 16.67% of the samples were identified. In the greater colon, the growth of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Clostridium spp. in 66.67%, Staphylococcus aureus in 83.33%, and Streptococcus spp. in 16.67% of the samples was observed, showing the occurrence of variations in the bacteriae proportion according to the intestinal region. 

    KEY WORDS: Dasyprocta azarae, intestines, microbiote.

    Os intestinos são colonizados por microorganismos, variáveis de acordo com a espécie e região intestinal. Assim, em virtude da ausência de informações sobre esse assunto na literatura, esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida para melhor se conhecer alguns aspectos da microbiota intestinal da cutia, um dos maiores roedores selvagens brasileiros. Três machos e três fêmeas adultas vazias, pertencentes ao Zoológico Municipal de Catanduva, SP, foram submetidos a laparotomia mediante anestesia. Amostras com swab estéril foram coletadas nos terços médios do jejuno, ceco e c

  20. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

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    Jamal Abo OMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding different dietary fat supplements in the finisher rations of Baladi rabbits, including sesame oil (SO, olive oil sediments (OOS, and poultry grease (PG, in comparison to the traditional oil supplement, the soybean soap stock oil (SS, on growth performance, blood lipid profile, dressing percentage and carcass cut, and meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC and cell forming unit (CFU. A total of 48 Baladi rabbits were used, with individual body weights (BW of 519 ± 22 g at the beginning of the experiment. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12, and those in each group were individually fed cereal grain-soybean meal (SBM with a fixed amount (i.e. 30 g/kg dry matter (DM of oil, being either soybean oil (SOY, olive oil sediments (OOS, recycled restaurant oil (RRO, or poultry grease (PG. All rations were isonitrogenous and contained iso-metabolizable energy (ME. At the end of the 44 day feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered. Rabbits fed a SOY supplemented diet consumed more (P < 0.05 feed than those fed the OOS, RRO, or PG supplemented diets. However, rabbits fed the SOY had a better (P < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than rabbits fed the OOS, PG, or RRO diets. Oil source had no effect on carcass components weights. Liver was heavier (P < 0.05 in rabbits fed the SOY supplemented diet. However, the RRO fed rabbits had heavier (P < 0.05 small intestine, large intestine and cecum. In conclusion, the positive effects of the tested oil supplements (i.e. RRO, OOS, PG on the studied performance and carcass traits is encouraging, but more investigation is needed to identify the optimal levels for these supplements in various diets of local rabbits.

  1. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses.

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    Tamer A Sharafeldin

    Full Text Available Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O'Neil strain. Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi. Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1-2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV.

  2. Clear evidence of carcinogenic activity by a whole-leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis miller (aloe vera) in F344/N rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Mary D; Mellick, Paul W; Olson, Greg R; Felton, Robert P; Thorn, Brett T; Beland, Frederick A

    2013-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats.

  3. Effect of nitrogen intake on nitrogen recycling and urea transporter abundance in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, J C; Klein, J D; Sands, J M; Van Amburgh, M E

    2004-04-01

    Urea recycling in ruminants has been studied extensively in the past, but the mechanisms regulating the amount of urea recycled or excreted remain obscure. To elucidate the role of urea transporters (UT) in N recycling, nine Dorset-Finn ewe lambs (20.8 +/- 0.8 kg) were fed diets containing 15.5, 28.4, and 41.3 g of N/kg of DM for 25 d. Nitrogen balance and urea N kinetics were measured during the last 3 d of the period. Animals were then slaughtered and mucosa samples from the rumen, duodenum, ileum, and cecum, as well as kidney medulla and liver, were collected. Increasing N intake tended to increase N balance quadratically (1.5, 5.1, and 4.4 +/- 0.86 g of N/d, P 2.62 mg of urea N/dL, P creatinine excretion (518 +/- 82.4 mg/d; P level of N intake increased linearly the weight of the liver as a proportion of BW (1.73, 1.88, and 2.22 +/- 0.15%, P 0.10) in UT abundance, quantified by densitometry, were found. Ruminal-wall urease activity decreased linearly (P level of N intake. Urease activity in duodenal, ileal, and cecal mucosa did not differ from zero (P > 0.10) in lambs on the high-protein diet. In the present experiment, urea transporter abundance in the kidney medulla and the gastrointestinal tract did not reflect the increase in urea-N reabsorption by the kidney and transferred into the gut. PMID:15080338

  4. Staphylococus E salmonella EM ENVOLTÓRIOS NATURAIS SALGADOS DE BOVINOS EMPREGADOS EM EMBUTIDOS Staphylococcus AND Salmonella GENUS IN NATURAL SALTED CASINGS FROM BOVINES USED IN SAUSAGES

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    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram examinadas bacteriologicamente 35 amostras de envoltório natural salgado de bovino (intestino delgado, intestino grosso, ceco e bexiga colhidas em frigoríficos com Inspeção Federal, localizados no município de Goiânia - GO. As enumerações de bactéria do gênero Staphylococcus variaram entre 1,0 x 10¹ UFC/g e 1,0 x 10^6 UFC/g de tripa natural. De 24 isolamentos de bactérias pertencentes a esse gênero, apenas 3 apresentaram características fenotípicas que sugerem a espécie Staphylococcus aureus. Das 35 amostras de envoltório natural examinadas para bactérias do gênero Salmonella, apenas uma (ceco mostrou-se contaminada por esse microorganismo.

    Thirty-five samples of natural salted bovine casings collected in federally inspected meat processing plants, located in the municipality of Goiânia, Goiás, were examined. The bacteria count of Staphylococcus genus varied between 1.0 x 10¹ UFC/g to 1.0 x 10^6 UFC/g of natural casings. From the 24 bacteria of this genus isolated, only three presented phenotipic characteristics that suggest the species Staphylococcus aureus. From the 35 samples of natural salted bovine casings tested for bacteria of the Solmonella genus, only one was contaminated (cecum by this organism.

  5. Hydrophobicity of mucosal surface and its relationship to gut barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaofa; Caputo, Francis J; Xu, Da-Zhong; Deitch, Edwin A

    2008-03-01

    Loss of the gut barrier has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and, thus, understanding the intestinal barrier is of potential clinical importance. An important, but relatively neglected, component of the gut barrier is the unstirred mucus layer, which through its hydrophobic and other properties serves as an important barrier to bacterial and other factors within the gut lumen. Thus, the goal of this study was to establish a reproducible method of measuring mucosal hydrophobicity and test the hypothesis that conditions that decrease mucosal hydrophobicity are associated with increased gut permeability. Hydrophobicity was measured in various segments of normal gut by measuring the contact angle of an aqueous droplet placed on the mucosal surface using a commercial goniometer. Second, the effect of the mucolytic agent N-acetyl cysteine on mucosal hydrophobicity and gut permeability was measured, as was the effects of increasing periods of in vivo gut ischemia on these parameters. Gut ischemia was induced by superior mesenteric artery occlusion, and gut permeability was measured by the mucosal-to-serosal passage of fluoresceine isothiocyanate-dextran (4.3 kDa) (FD4) across the everted sacs of ileum. Intestinal mucosal hydrophobicity showed a gradual increase from the duodenum to the end of the ileum and remained at high level in the cecum, colon, and rectum. Both N-acetyl cysteine treatment and ischemia caused a dose-dependent decrease in mucosal hydrophobicity, which significantly correlated increased gut permeability. Mucosal hydrophobicity of the intestine can be reproducibly measured, and decreases in mucosal hydrophobicity closely correlate with increased gut permeability. These results suggest that mucosal hydrophobicity can be a reliable method of measuring the barrier function of the unstirred mucus layer and a useful parameter in evaluating the pathogenesis of gut barrier dysfunction.

  6. Effect of Origanum chemotypes on broiler intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Liliana; Rodriguez, Fernando; Phandanouvong, Vienvilay; Ariza-Nieto, Claudia; Hume, Michael; Nisbet, David; Afanador-Téllez, German; Van Kley, Alexandra Martynova; Nalian, Armen

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic use in food animal production. This study evaluated 3 chemotypes of the Origanum genus, containing varying amounts of secondary metabolites carvacrol, thymol, and sabinene, in the broiler chicken diet. Aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OL), O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OH), and O. majorana (OM) were collected from a greenhouse located in the high altitude Sabana de Bogotá (Savanna of Bogotá) and O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OG) produced and ground in Greece. Oregano essential oils (OEO) from these plants were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Six treatments were evaluated: 200 mg/kg of OEO from OH, OL, and OM, 50 mg/kg of OEO from OG, 500 mg/kg of chlortetracycline, and without additives. Broiler chicks were maintained at 2,600 m above sea level, placed in brooder cages under a completely randomized design. Template DNA was isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents in each group and bacterial 16S rDNA patterns were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dendrograms of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis band patterns revealed 2 main clusters, OEO-treated chicks and nontreated control chicks, in each intestinal segment. Band patterns from different gut compartments revealed major bacterial population shifts in the foregut (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) compared with the hindgut (cecum and colon) at all ages evaluated (P < 0.05). The OEO groups showed less shift (62.7% similarity coefficient) between these 2 compartments versus the control groups (53.7% similarity coefficient). A reduction of 59% in mortality from ascites was seen in additive-supplemented groups compared with the control group. This study represents the first work to evaluate the effects of the 3 main chemotypes of Origanum genus in broilers. PMID:25071230

  7. Acupuncture at “Zusanli” (St.36) and “Sanyinjiao” (SP.6) Points on the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Study of the Bioavailability of 99mTc-Sodium Pertechnetate in Rats

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    Senna-Fernandes, Vasco; França, Daisy L. M.; de Souza, Deise; Santos, Kelly C. M.; Sousa, Rafael S.; Manoel, Cristiano V.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Cortez, Célia M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Guimarães, Marco Antonio M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the differences of acupuncture effect between the Zusanli (St.36) and Sanyinjiao (SP.6) points on the gastrointestinal-tract (GIT) segment performed by the bioavailability of 99mTc-sodium-pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 21) were allocated into three groups of seven each. Group 1 was treated by acupuncture bilaterally at St.36; Group 2 at SP.6; and Group 3 was untreated (control). After 10 min of needle insertion in anesthetized rats, 0.3 mL of Na99mTcO4 (7.4 MBq) was injected via ocular-plexus. After 20 min, the exitus of animals was induced by cervical-dislocation and GIT organs isolated. However, immediately before the exitus procedure, blood was collected by cardiac-puncture for blood radio-labeling (BRL). The radioactivity uptake of the blood constituents was calculated together with the GIT organs by a well gamma counter. The percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) of Na99mTcO4 was calculated for each GIT organs, while BRL was calculated in %ID. According to the one-way ANOVA, the stomach, jejunum, ileum from the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2) had significant differences compared to the controls (Group 3). However, between the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2), there were significant differences (P < .05) in the stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, transverse and rectum. In BRL analysis, Group 2 showed significant increase and decrease of the insoluble and soluble fractions of the blood cells, respectively (P < .0001). The authors suggest that St.36 may have a tendency of up-regulation effect on GIT, whereas SP.6, down-regulation effect. However, further rigorous experimental studies to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture in either acupuncture points need to be carried out. PMID:19213853

  8. Aislamiento de Clostridium perfringens tipo D en un ternero lactante afectado con abomasitis ulcerativa Isolation of Clostridium perfringens type D from a suckling calve with ulcerative abomasitis

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    R. A ASSIS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un brote de abomasitis ulcerativa asociada con infección por Clostridium perfringens tipo D en terneros lactantes. Seis terneros Holstein, de 2 semanas de edad, murieron después de presentar anorexia y apatía. Otros animales del mismo establecimiento habían muerto de la misma forma seis meses antes. A la necropsia el abomaso estaba muy distendido con contenido fluido y oscuro, la mucosa estaba edematosa y presentaba gran cantidad de úlceras milimétricas y habían depósitos de fibrina en la serosa. En el ciego de un animal se observaron extensas areas de infarto. En frotis de la mucosa abomasal se observaron bacilos cortos Gram positivos, no esporulados, aislándose de ella un cultivo rico de C. perfringens tipo D. Es probable que la baja inmunidad de los terneros debido a falta de calostro y estrés alimenticio, haya sido el predisponente para la infección por C. perfringens tipo DAn outbreak of ulcerative abomasitis in suckling calves associated with Clostridium perfrigens type D infection is described. Six twoweek old Holstein calves died after showing loss of appetite and lethargy. Other animals had died in similar circumstances during the previous six months. At necropsy, the abomasum was severely distended with dark fluid and the mucosa was oedematous and covered with many millimetric ulcers, while the serous surface of this organ was covered with fibrin. Several irregular black areas of infarcts were observed in the cecum of one animal. Histologically, the abomasal mucosa showed ulcers and haemorrhage, while the submucosa showed severe oedema and infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Short, thick, nonsporulated Gram positive rods were observed on smears of abomasal mucosa. C. perfringens type D was isolated from the abomasal mucosa. Low immunity and stress could have contributed to the pathogenesis of the lesions described

  9. Ethyl pyruvate regulates the levels of leptin, lactin acid-pyruvic, ALT and UA in mice sepsis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on the serum levels of leptin, lactin acid to pyruvic acid ratio, ALT and UA in sepsis mice. The mice sepsis model of cecum ligation and perforation was established. The 90 male mice were divided randomly into sham-operation ( Sham), injury (RLS) and EP(REPS)-intervened groups, the latter two groups were further divided into 15 min, 1 h, 3 h and 6 h subgroups, each of them had 10 mice. The serum lactin acid to pyruvic acid ratio, ALT and UA were detected by autonomous biochemical analyzer, and the serum leptin were detected by RIA. The results showed that the serum leptin level in REPS group was significantly higher than that of in RLS group at the later phase (P<0.05). The ratio of lactin acid to pyruvic acid in RLS and REPS groups were significantly higher that of in sham group, but there is no significant different between REPS group and RLS group at same time points. The serum levels of ALT in RLS and REPS groups were significantly higher than that of in Sham group, and the serum level of ALT in REPS group at later time points was significantly higher than that of RLS group. Compared with Sham group, the serum UA in RLS group was increased significantly at first time points (P<0.05) and then decreased at later time points; the serum UA in REPS group was significantly lower than that of RLS group (P<0.05). The results indicated that EP may protect renal function, worsen hepatic injury at the early phase and up-regulate the serum leptin level. (authors)

  10. Studies on the possible role of thyroid hormone in altered muscle protein turnover during sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five days after thyroidectomy (Tx) or sham-Tx in young male Sprague-Dawley rats, sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Control animals underwent laparotomy and manipulation of the cecum without ligation or puncture. Sixteen hours after CLP or laparotomy, protein synthesis and degradation were measured in incubated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles by determining rate of 14C-phenylalanine incorporation into protein and tyrosine release into incubation medium, respectively. Triiodothyronine (T3) was measured in serum and muscle tissue. Protein synthesis was reduced by 39% and 22% in EDL and SOL, respectively, 16 hours after CLP in sham-Tx rats. The response to sepsis of protein synthesis was abolished in Tx rats. Protein breakdown was increased by 113% and 68% in EDL and SOL, respectively, 16 hours after CLP in sham-Tx animals. The increase in muscle proteolysis during sepsis was blunted in hypothyroid animals and was 42% and 49% in EDL and SOL, respectively. T3 in serum was reduced by sepsis, both in Tx and sham-Tx rats. T3 in muscle, however, was maintained or increased during sepsis. Abolished or blunted response of muscle protein turnover after CLP in hypothyroid animals may reflect a role of thyroid hormones in altered muscle protein metabolism during sepsis. Reduced serum levels of T3, but maintained or increased muscle concentrations of the hormone, suggests that increased T3 uptake by muscle may be one mechanism of low T3 syndrome in sepsis, further supporting the concept of a role for thyroid hormone in metabolic alterations in muscle during sepsis

  11. Sonography-guided gastrografin enema for meconium plug syndrome in premature newborns: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Kim, Ki Soo; Kim, Rhan Ellen Ai; Pi, Soo Young; Yoon, Chong Hyun [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of sonography-guided Gastrografin enema for the diagnosis and treatment of meconium plug syndrome in premature newborns in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Fifteen premature newborns underwent 23 sonography-guided Gastrografin enemas on the 8th day of life on average (range: 3 days-21 days). The gestational age and birth weight (mean{+-}standard deviation) of the patients were 29{+-}2 weeks and 999{+-}148 g, respectively. The diagnosis of meconium plug syndrome was based on relevant clinical and radiological findings. Diluted Gastrografin (1:3, 17-45 ml) was administered through a rectal tube under the guidance of sonography until it reached to the cecum. Thereafter, immediate post-procedure and delayed portable abdominal radiographs were taken. All the procedures were done within the NICU. We reviewed the dates of meconium evacuation and the first feeding after the last enema from the clinical data. Radiologically, the timing of the radiographic improvement after the last enema was checked. In cases of distended distal ileum with meconium on preenema sonography, follow-up sonography was performed to determine the interval change after gastrografin enema. None of the sonography-guided Gastrografin enemas performed within the NICU caused procedure-related complications. Meconium was evacuated within one day in all patients. In 14 patients, on average, feeding was started on the 7th day and radiographic improvement was observed on the 3rd day. Four of the five patients showing a distended distal ileum with meconium revealed a decrease in ileal distension on follow-up sonography. On the other hand, the other patient, who did not show such a decrease on follow-up sonography, was found to have ileal stenosis during subsequent surgery. Sonography-guided Gastrografin enema is a safe and effective bedside procedure, when performed in the NICU for the diagnosis and treatment of meconium plug syndrome.

  12. Rye affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition and bone mineralization in Turkey poults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Tellez

    Full Text Available Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group. At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d. After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (p<0.05 intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed

  13. 直肠癌低位前切除术吻合口漏的治疗效果观察%Low Before Colorectal Cancer Resection Anastomosis Leak in Treatment Effect Observed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓永

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察直肠癌低位前切除术吻合口漏的治疗效果。方法将100例行根治性前切除术的直肠癌患者随机分为观察组和对照组(各50例),观察组行盲肠管道式造口持续减压,对照组行常规手术。结果观察组的漏后进食时间及住院时间均显著短于对照组(P<0.05),吻合口漏及其他并发症发生率均显著低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论在低位前切除术中行盲肠管道式造口持续减压,可有效降低术后吻合口漏发生率。%Objective Observe the cecum pipeline stoma sustained pressure before treatment of colorectal cancer resection low anastomotic leakage effect.Methods Patients with colorectal cancer before the need radical resection of 100 cases were randomly divided into observation group and control group(n=50),observation group underwent cecal pipeline stoma sustained pressure,and the control group underwent conventional surgery.Results Leakage observation group after eating time and hospital stay were significantly shorter than the control group (P<0.05),anastomotic leakage and other complications were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Low anterior resection BOC cecal stoma sustained pressure pipeline,which can effectively reduce the incidence of postoperative anastomotic leak.

  14. Feed Fermentation with Reuteran- and Levan-Producing Lactobacillus reuteri Reduces Colonization of Weanling Pigs by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Galle, Sandra; Le, Minh Hong Anh; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Gänzle, Michael G

    2015-09-01

    This study determined the effect of feed fermentation with Lactobacillus reuteri on growth performance and the abundance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in weanling piglets. L. reuteri strains produce reuteran or levan, exopolysaccharides that inhibit ETEC adhesion to the mucosa, and feed fermentation was conducted under conditions supporting exopolysaccharide formation and under conditions not supporting exopolysaccharide formation. Diets were chosen to assess the impact of organic acids and the impact of viable L. reuteri bacteria. Fecal samples were taken throughout 3 weeks of feeding; at the end of the 21-day feeding period, animals were euthanized to sample the gut digesta. The feed intake was reduced in pigs fed diets containing exopolysaccharides; however, feed efficiencies did not differ among the diets. Quantification of L. reuteri by quantitative PCR (qPCR) detected the two strains used for feed fermentation throughout the intestinal tract. Quantification of E. coli and ETEC virulence factors by qPCR demonstrated that fermented diets containing reuteran significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the copy numbers of genes for E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin in feces compared to those achieved with the control diet. Any fermented feed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the abundance of E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin in colonic digesta at 21 days; reuteran-containing diets reduced the copy numbers of the genes for E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin below the detection limit in samples from the ileum, the cecum, and the colon. In conclusion, feed fermentation with L. reuteri reduced the level of colonization of weaning piglets with ETEC, and feed fermentation supplied concentrations of reuteran that may specifically contribute to the effect on ETEC. PMID:26070673

  15. Inflammatory Factor Alterations in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cocks Overexposed to Arsenic Trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingwei; Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Guangyang; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Kexin; Tian, Li; He, Ying; Chai, Hongliang; Zhang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Exposure of people and animals to arsenic (As) is a global public health concern because As is widely distributed and associated with numerous adverse effects. As is a poisonous metalloid and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is a form of As. Thus far, there have been very few reports on the inflammatory factor alterations of the gastrointestinal tract in birds exposed to As2O3. To investigate the possible correlation of As2O3 with inflammatory injury induced by an arsenic-supplemented diet in birds, 72 1-day-old male Hy-line cocks were selected and randomly divided into four groups. They were fed with either a commercial diet or an arsenic-supplemented diet containing 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days, and samples of gizzard, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum were collected at days 30, 60, and 90 of the experiment period. The inflammation-related genes were determined, including NF-κB, iNOS, COX-2, PTGEs, and TNF-α. The connection between arsenic dosage and inflammation-related genes was assessed. The content of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was measured by Western blot of the samples. The results showed that arsenic supplementation increased the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes in the gastrointestinal tract of cocks at different time points (p function regression of the gastrointestinal tract by affecting inflammation-related genes and iNOS in cocks. This study offers some information on the mechanism of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory injury and iNOS expression level alterations induced by arseniasis. PMID:25784090

  16. Unusual metachronous isolated inguinal lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parodo Giuseppina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to describe an unusual case of metachronous isolated inguinal lymph nodes metastasis from sigmoid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man was referred to our department because of an obstructing sigmoid carcinoma. Colonoscopy showed the obstructing lesion at 30 cm from the anal verge and abdominal CT revealed a sigmoid lesion infiltrating the left lateral abdominal wall. The patient underwent a colonic resection extended to the abdominal wall. Histology showed an adenocarcinoma of the colon infiltrating the abdominal wall with iuxtacolic nodal involvement. Thirty three months after surgery abdominal CT and PET scan revealed a metastatic left inguinal lymph node involvement. The metastatic lymph node was found strictly adherent to the left iliac-femoral artery and encompassing the origin of the left inferior epigastric artery. Histology showed a metachronous nodal metastasis from colonic adenocarcinoma. Despite metastastic involvement of inguinal lymph node from rectal cancer is a rare but well known clinical entity, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of inguinal metastasis from a carcinoma of the left colon. Literature review shows only three other similar reported cases: two cases of inguinal metastasis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the cecum and one case of axillary metastasis from left colonic carcinoma. A metastatic pathway through superficial abdominal wall lymphatic vessels could be possible through the route along the left inferior epigastric artery. The solitary inguinal nodal involvement from rectal carcinoma could have a more favorable prognosis. In the case of nodal metastasis to the body surface lymph nodes from colonic carcinoma, following the small number of such cases reported in the literature, no definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  17. Use of computed tomography to evaluate the intestinal tract of adult llamas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the llama, signs of colic are obscure and may be exhibited as persistent sternal recumbency and anorexia even in the presence of a surgical lesion. Diagnostic methods for evaluation of abdominal disorders are limited. As a result, surgical intervention may be prolonged and increase the risk of mortality and postoperative complications. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of computed tomography to evaluate the llama intestinal tract. Eighteen hours prior to the computed tomography scan, six llamas were given barium sulfate (15%) via an orogastric tube. Following induction of general anesthesia, the llamas were positioned in sternal recumbency, and 10 mm contiguous slices were obtained from the diaphragm to the tuber ischiadicum. Structures that were consistently identified included the first, second, and third compartments (C1, 2, and 3), small intestine, spiral colon, and ascending colon. C1 was easily identified in the cranial aspect of the abdomen due to its large size relative to the other compartments and characteristic saccules. C2 was located cranial, ventral, and to the right of C1, while C3 was visualized as a tubular structure to the right and ventral to C1 and C2, C3 was traced caudally until it turned dorsally and continued cranially to a dilated ampulla in the right cranial abdomen delineating the entrance to the small intestine. The spiral colon was identified consistently in the left ventral caudal abdomen. Structures that could not be conclusively identified included the cecum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Computed tomography allowed a consistent evaluation of the major intestinal structures associated with colic in the llama. Thus, computed tomography is a potentially valuable noninvasive diagnostic tool to effectively evaluate the abdominal cavity and differentiate medical from surgical lesions in the llama

  18. Utilization and excretion of a new sweetener, fructooligosaccharide (Neosugar), in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T; Oku, T; Hosoya, N

    1989-04-01

    In order to study the digestibility of the fructooligosaccharide "Neosugar," [U-14C]Neosugar or [U-14C]sucrose was orally administered to germfree, conventional and antibiotic-treated rats and the radioactivities of expired 14CO2, urine and feces were determined 24 h later. More than 50% of the Neosugar was expired as CO2 in conventional rats. This was the same as for sucrose, but the time course was delayed by about 2 h. In germfree rats, no 14CO2 was released for the first 8 h, and 14CO2 released after 8 h probably reflected bacterial colonization of the gut. The radioactivity of the urine was about 3-4% in all groups, but that of the feces from germfree rats was about eight times higher than the level in conventional rats. When [U-14C]Neosugar was anaerobically incubated with the cecal contents of conventional rats, more than 10% of the added Neosugar was metabolized to CO2, about 66% to volatile fatty acids and about 7% to microbes. More than 58% of 1-14C-volatile fatty acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid or butyric acid injected directly into the cecum of conventional rats was excreted as CO2 within 24 h. These results indicate that Neosugar given orally to rats is metabolized mainly to volatile fatty acids and CO2 by intestinal microorganisms, and the volatile fatty acids produced are absorbed and further converted to CO2 in the body. Thus, the data indicate that Neosugar is partially utilized as an energy source. PMID:2495342

  19. In vitro probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 and its modulatory effect on gut microbiota of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Renhui; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Li, Shengjie; Xu, Hengyi; Xu, Feng; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013, a novel strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented acid beans, was systematically evaluated for its survival capacity under stress conditions (pH, bile salt, simulated gastrointestinal tract, and antibiotics), production of exopolysaccharide and antagonism against 8 pathogens. Its effect on mice gut microbiota was also investigated by quantitative PCR and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results showed that ZDY 2013 can grow at pH 3.5 and survive at pH 2.0 for 6 h and at 0.45% bile salt for 3 h. The exopolysaccharide yield was up to 204±7.68 mg/L. The survival rate of ZDY 2013 in a simulated gastrointestinal tract was as high as 65.84%. Antagonism test with a supernatant of ZDY 2013 showed maximum halo of 28 mm against Listeria monocytogenes. The inhibition order was as follows: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Staphylococcus aureus. Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 was sensitive to some antibiotics (e.g., macrolide, sulfonamides, aminoglycoside, tetracyclines and β-lactams), whereas it was resistant to glycopeptides, quinolones, and cephalosporins antibiotics. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile demonstrated that ZDY 2013 administration altered the composition of the microbiota at various intestinal loci of the mice. Moreover, the quantitative PCR test showed that the administration of ZDY 2013 enhanced the populations of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in either the colon or cecum, and reduced the potential enteropathogenic bacteria (e.g., Enterococcus, Enterobacterium, and Clostridium perfringens). Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 exhibited high resistance against low pH, bile salt, and gastrointestinal fluid, and possessed antibacterial and gut microbiota modulation properties with a potential application in the development of dairy food and nutraceuticals. PMID:26142853

  20. Hypolipidemic effect of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) roots on diabetic rats: biochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Natalia C; Honoré, Stella Maris; Genta, Susana B; Sánchez, Sara S

    2011-10-15

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are sugars found naturally at high concentrations in the storage roots of yacon. This study was designed to analyze the beneficial effects of subchronic oral consumption of yacon root flour as a diet supplement in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. The experiments were carried out using yacon flour tablets containing the desired level of FOS (340 or 6800mg FOS/kg body weight/day). Yacon flour is a natural product obtained by a simple process of dehydration of yacon roots without added preservatives or chemicals. The administration of FOS-rich yacon flour to diabetic rats for 90days did not significantly alter the body weight of animals throughout the experimental period. Interestingly, a significant decrease in fasting plasma triacylglycerol and very low-density lipoprotein levels were observed. In addition, the treatment was able to protect the diabetic rats of the postprandial peak of plasma triacylglycerol. Yacon-supplemented rats showed an increased insulin-positive pancreatic cell mass distributed in small cell clusters within the exocrine parenchyma, but can only observe a slight increase in fasting plasma insulin levels. Glucagon like peptide-1 content in the cecum was significantly higher in diabetic rats treated with a diet supplemented with yacon flour compared with untreated diabetic animals, accompanied by an important cecal tissue enlargement. All these findings lead us to suggest that this incretin could be an effective mediator of the lipid lowering effects of FOS present in yacon flour. In conclusion, yacon root flour is a natural product rich in FOS that could be well positioned as a nutraceutical product since the present results demonstrate its beneficial effects on diabetes-associated hyperlipidemia. PMID:21907189

  1. "Mass-forming" variant of ischemic colitis is a distinct entity with predilection for the proximal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Tze S; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Odze, Robert D; Srivastava, Amitabh

    2015-09-01

    We systematically evaluated the clinicopathologic features and outcome of a rare, unusual variant of ischemic colitis that presents as a mass lesion mimicking malignancy on imaging or colonoscopy. A retrospective search was performed for cases with a histologic diagnosis of ischemic colitis and a clinical impression of malignancy. Of the 23 patients initially identified, 4 were excluded because clinical and histologic review showed mucosal prolapse (n=1), discrete colon polyp (n=2), and a diverticular mass (n=1) without concern for malignancy. The mass-forming variant of ischemic colitis (n=19) was seen predominantly in elderly (mean age 71.8 y) women (63.2%) with a striking predilection for the right colon (13/19), particularly the cecum (n=6). Abdominal pain (52.6%) and hematochezia (26.3%) were the most common presenting symptoms. A computed tomography scan showed segmental thickening suspicious for malignancy in 6/8 patients. Colonoscopy revealed an exophytic (n=16) or stricturing (n=3) mass with a mean size of 4.67 cm. Mucosal biopsies showed features typical for ischemic colitis in all cases. A colectomy was performed in 4 cases. In 2, the mass-like appearance was due to marked submucosal and mural edema, whereas in the other 2 cases, with a malignant stricture-like lesion, marked submucosal fibrosis and cholesterol emboli were present. No malignancy was identified on follow-up in any patient (mean 39.9 mo). Follow-up colonoscopy was performed in 7 patients 1 to 32 weeks after initial presentation and showed resolution of the mass in all cases. Awareness of this rare variant of ischemic colitis will prevent unnecessary resections in these patients.

  2. Identification of a centromeric exchange of acrocentric chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.W.; Immken, L.; Curry, C.J.R. [UCSF, Fresno, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Exchanges of the peri-centromeric area of acrocentric chromosomes are difficult to identify using the conventional cytogenetic techniques. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) provides a new way for precisely identifying such rearrangements. Here we report a case of centromeric rearrangement in an amniotic fluid specimen with an extra marker chromosome. M.G., a 41-year-old G1, was referred for advanced maternal age. Chromosome studies revealed a 47,XX +mar karyotype. The marker appeared to be bi-satallited with a single C band. Chromosome studies from the parents were normal. The parents elected to terminate the pregnancy. Anatomical examination of the abortus revealed a very short neck, posteriorly rotated ears, high set cecum, absent hepatic lobation and low abdominal kidneys with short ureters. FISH studies with alpha-satellite probes of 13/21, 14/22, and 15, and the DiGeorge probe, indicated that there is a translocation of 21 alpha-satellite to the 22, and that the marker chromosome probably consists of 14/22 alpha-satellite material. FISH analysis of the parents chromosome revealed that father had the translocation of 21 alpha-satellite to the 22 as well. Exchanges of centromeric material among the acrocentric chromosomes may not be an uncommon event in humans. Although it probably has no clinical significance, it may result in non-disjunction or marker chromosome formation from an uncommon satellite association. With the use of FISH techniques, exchanges involving the centromeric regions of acrocentric chromosomes can be identified.

  3. Ileoscopy in patients with ileocolonic tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SP Misra; Vatsala Misra; Manisha Dwivedi

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of retrograde terminal ileoscopy in patients suspected to have ileocolonic tuberculosis.METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for patients undergoing colonoscopy for suspected ileocolonic tuberculosis between January 2000 and June 2004, in whom retrograde ileoscopy had been performed. Only patients diagnosed with tuberculosis on the basis of histological findings of either a caseating granuloma or those having non-caseating granuloma or a collection of epithelioid cells at a minimum of one endoscopic lesion (either in the colon or the terminal ileum) on histology with good responses to conventional anti-tuberculous drugs were enrolled for the study.RESULTS: Fifty-three patients were included. The terminal ileum was involved in only 11 patients. Eight of these patients had involvement of the cecum too. Two patients had ileal lesions without cecal involvement; however, lesions were noted in the ascending colon. In one patient the whole colon was normal and only the terminal ileum showed nodularity and ulceration. Histological examination of the ileal biopsies obtained from the ileal lesions showed noncaseating granulomas in five, collection of epithelioid cells in four and nonspecific histology in two patients. Mucosal biopsies obtained from the lesion in the terminal ileum, in the patient in whom mucosal abnormality was observed to be confined to the ileum, showed noncaseating granulomas. In two other patients the ileal biopsies alone showed histological evidence of tuberculosis with biopsies from the colonic lesions showing non-specific inflammatory changes only.CONCLUSION: Retrograde ileoscopy should be performed in all patients undergoing colonoscopy for suspected ileocolonic tuberculosis. In some patients only the terminal ileum may be involved and histological examination may reveal evidence of tuberculosis only from the lesions in the terminal ileum. This approach would lead to additional lesions being picked up and increasing

  4. Association of INOS, TRAIL, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and IgL genes with response to Salmonella enteritidis in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Massoud

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several candidate genes were selected, based on their critical roles in the host's response to intracellular bacteria, to study the genetic control of the chicken response to Salmonella enteritidis (SE. The candidate genes were: inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS, tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL, transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2, transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3, and immunoglobulin G light chain (IgL. Responses to pathogenic SE colonization or to SE vaccination were measured in the Iowa Salmonella response resource population (ISRRP. Outbred broiler sires and three diverse, highly inbred dam lines produced 508 F1 progeny, which were evaluated as young chicks for either bacterial load isolated from spleen or cecum contents after pathogenic SE inoculation, or the circulating antibody level after SE vaccination. Fragments of each gene were sequenced from the founder lines of the resource population to identify genomic sequence variation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were identified, then PCR-RFLP techniques were developed to genotype the F1 resource population. Linear mixed models were used for statistical analyses. Because the inbred dam lines always contributed one copy of the same allele, the heterozygous sire allele effects could be assessed in the F1 generation. Association analyses revealed significant effects of the sire allele of TRAIL-StyI on the spleen (P P P TGF-β3-BsrI. Varied and moderate association was found for SE vaccine antibody response for all genes. This is the first reported study on the association of SNP in INOS, TRAIL, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and IgL with the chicken response to SE. Identification of candidate genes to improve the immune response may be useful for marker-assisted selection to enhance disease resistance.

  5. Trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica epigenetically silenced in several genes are virulence-attenuated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelman D.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebic colitis and amoebic liver abscesses. Three classes of amoebic molecules have been identified as the major virulence factors, the Gal/GalNAc inhibitable lectin that mediates adherence to mammalian cells, the amoebapores which cause the formation of membrane ion channels in the target cells and the cysteine proteinases which degrade the matrix proteins, the intestinal mucus and secretory IgA. Transcriptional silencing of the amoebapore (Ehap-a gene occurred after transfection of trophozoites with a plasmid containing a segment of the 5’ upstream region of the gene. Transcriptional silencing of the Ehap-a gene continued even after the removal of the plasmid and the cloned amoebae were termed G3. Transfection of G3 trophozoites with a plasmid construct containing the cysteine proteinase (EhCP-5 gene and the light subunit of the Gal- lectin (Ehlgl1 gene, each under the 5’ upstream sequences of the amoebapore gene, caused the simultaneous epigenetic silencing of expression of these two genes. The resulting trophozoites, termed RB-9, were cured from the plasmid and they do not express the three types of virulent genes. The RB-9 amoeba are virulence attenuated and are incapable of killing mammalian cells, they can not induce the formation of liver abscesses and they do not cause ulcerations in the cecum of experimental animals. The gene-silenced amoebae express the same surface antigens which are present in virulent strains and following intra peritoneal inoculation of live trophozoites into hamsters they evoked a protective immune response. Further studies are needed to find out if RB-9 trophozoites could be used for vaccination against amoebaisis.

  6. Digestive efficiencies of ex situ and in situ West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Graham A J; Worthy, Tamara A M

    2014-01-01

    Digestive efficiencies (Dm) of ex situ and in situ manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were, for the first time, assessed using manganese (Mn(2+)) as a naturally occurring marker. The Dm of ex situ manatees determined using [Mn(2+)] did not differ significantly from the Dm assessed using lignin, supporting the efficacy of the manganese approach. Gastrointestinal tract samples, obtained from recently dead animals, showed [Mn(2+)] concentrations were lowest in the stomach and remained low in the duodenum and small intestine but increased in the cecum, colon, and rectum, consistent with colonic digestion and absorption. In situ manatees consuming marine vegetation had significantly lower Dm (mean ± SE, 46.9% ± 1.8%; n=8) than did in situ manatees consuming freshwater vegetation (77.8% ± 2.6%; n=7), which in turn had significantly lower values than did ex situ manatees consuming lettuce (84.0% ± 0.7%; n=37). In situ manatees eating seagrasses had significantly higher Dm than did long-term ex situ animals consuming seagrass for short periods of time (46.9% ± 1.8% vs. 36.2% ± 1.2%, respectively), suggesting potential modification of gut flora over time. One significant ramification of our results is that manatees consuming seagrasses would require a greater standing biomass to support their needs than would be required if they were eating freshwater vegetation. This reinforces the critical need to implement habitat conservation and protection before considering downlisting or delisting manatees as an endangered species. PMID:24457923

  7. Helminth Infections in Rattus ratus and Rattus norvigicus in Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Meshkekar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine intestinal and liver helminth infections in Rattus rodents in Tehran Iran.Overall, 306 traps were put in 39 different regions in Tehran from 2009 to 2010. Rodents, including R. rattus and R. norvegicus were caught by live-traps. They become unconscious and the spinal cords were cut, afterwards the body was dissected and the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, and cecum were studied separately. The dominant type and the prevalence rate of parasites in the rodents were determined based on the infected parts of their body.After recognition of the helminthes' types, among the 120 total number of rodents, 39 belonged to males, while among the infected rodents, 57(47.5% were female and 18(15% were male. The prevalence of infection in Tehran was 62.5%. Seventy cases (58.33% of helminth infections were observed in R. rattus and 5 cases (4.16% were observed in R. norvegicus. The maximum prevalence (15.5% was seen in the center and east part of Tehran, while the minimum (9.16% was in the north part of the city. The helminthes types and the corresponding percentages were Hymenolepis nana fraterna (35.8%, Heterakis spumosa (17.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (7.5% and Capillaria annulosa (1.6%. The dominant rodent was Rattus rattus and among the identified helminthes, Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana fraterna are zoonotic ones.The information presented here improves our understanding of the major parasitic infections that rodents harbor and can transmit to human and animal populations in Iran. To prevent infectivity of human, the hazard of the identified zoonotic species needs to be contemplated.

  8. Adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as metachronous colonic polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Felipe-Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare disease characterized by proliferation of Langerhans-type cells that express CD1a, Langerin (CD207 and S100 protein. Birbeck granules are a hallmark by ultrastructural examination. LCH presents with a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from solitary lesions of a single site (usually bone or skin to multiple or disseminated multisystemic lesions, which can lead to severe organ dysfunction. Most cases occur in children. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is rare and has been associated with systemic illness and poor prognosis especially in children under the age of 2 years. Adult gastrointestinal LCH is very rare. We report a case of a previously healthy, nonsmoking 48-year-old male who was referred for routine screening colonoscopy. Two sessile, smooth, firm and yellowish LCH polyps measuring 0.2 cm and 0.3 cm were detected in the sigmoid colon. Fifteen months later a second colonoscopy found two histologically confirmed hyperplastic polyps at the sigmoid colon. No other LCH lesions were seen. A third colonoscopy after 28 months of follow-up found a submucosal 0.5 cm infiltrated and ulcerated LCH polyp in the cecum, close to the ostium of the appendix. The patient had been asymptomatic for all this period. Imaging investigation for systemic or multiorgan disease did not find any sign of extracolonic involvement. On histology all lesions showed typical LCH features and immunohistochemical analysis showed strong and diffuse staining for CD1a and CD207. This case illustrates two distinct clinicopathologic features not previously reported in this particular clinical setting: metachronous colonic involvement and positivity for CD207.

  9. Transcellular oxalate and Cl- absorption in mouse intestine is mediated by the DRA anion exchanger Slc26a3, and DRA deletion decreases urinary oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freel, Robert W; Whittamore, Jonathan M; Hatch, Marguerite

    2013-10-01

    Active transcellular oxalate transport in the mammalian intestine contributes to the homeostasis of this important lithogenic anion. Several members of the Slc26a gene family of anion exchangers have a measurable oxalate affinity and are expressed along the gut, apically and basolaterally. Mouse Slc26a6 (PAT1) targets to the apical membrane of enterocytes in the small intestine, and its deletion results in net oxalate absorption and hyperoxaluria. Apical exchangers of the Slc26a family that mediate oxalate absorption have not been established, yet the Slc26a3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)] protein is a candidate mediator of oxalate uptake. We evaluated the role of DRA in intestinal oxalate and Cl(-) transport by comparing unidirectional and net ion fluxes across short-circuited segments of small (ileum) and large (cecum and distal colon) intestine from wild-type (WT) and DRA knockout (KO) mice. In WT mice, all segments demonstrated net oxalate and Cl(-) absorption to varying degrees. In KO mice, however, all segments exhibited net anion secretion, which was consistently, and solely, due to a significant reduction in the absorptive unidirectional fluxes. In KO mice, daily urinary oxalate excretion was reduced 66% compared with that in WT mice, while urinary creatinine excretion was unchanged. We conclude that DRA mediates a predominance of the apical uptake of oxalate and Cl(-) absorbed in the small and large intestine of mice under short-circuit conditions. The large reductions in urinary oxalate excretion underscore the importance of transcellular intestinal oxalate absorption, in general, and, more specifically, the importance of the DRA exchanger in oxalate homeostasis.

  10. Dietary fat and bile juice, but not obesity, are responsible for the increase in small intestinal permeability induced through the suppression of tight junction protein expression in LETO and OLETF rats

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    Suzuki Takuya

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increase in the intestinal permeability is considered to be associated with the inflammatory tone and development in the obesity and diabetes, however, the pathogenesis of the increase in the intestinal permeability is poorly understood. The present study was performed to determine the influence of obesity itself as well as dietary fat on the increase in intestinal permeability. Methods An obese rat strain, Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF, and the lean counter strain, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO, were fed standard or high fat diets for 16 weeks. Glucose tolerance, intestinal permeability, intestinal tight junction (TJ proteins expression, plasma bile acids concentration were evaluated. In addition, the effects of rat bile juice and dietary fat, possible mediators of the increase in the intestinal permeability in the obesity, on TJ permeability were explored in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Results The OLETF rats showed higher glucose intolerance than did the LETO rats, which became more marked with the prolonged feeding of the high fat diet. Intestinal permeability in the OLETF rats evaluated by the urinary excretion of intestinal permeability markers (Cr-EDTA and phenolsulfonphthalein was comparable to that in the LETO rats. Feeding the high fat diet increased intestinal permeability in both the OLETF and LETO rats, and the increases correlated with decreases in TJ proteins (claudin-1, claudin-3, occludin and junctional adhesion molecule-1 expression in the small, but not in the large intestine (cecum or colon. The plasma bile acids concentration was higher in rats fed the high fat diet. Exposure to bile juice and the fat emulsion increased TJ permeability with concomitant reductions in TJ protein expression (claudin-1, claudin-3, and junctional adhesion molecule-1 in the Caco-2 cell monolayers. Conclusion Excessive dietary fat and/or increased levels of luminal bile juice, but not genetic obesity, are

  11. Intricacies in the surgical management of appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma: a case report and review of the literature

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    Saleem Taimur

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucinous cystadenoma is a type of mucocele of the appendix that is rarely encountered in clinical practice. Dogmatic consensus on the optimal surgical modus operandi of appendicular mucocele is lacking in the literature and this remains a subject of controversy. There is little agreement with regard to the best procedure (right hemicolectomy versus appendectomy or the best surgical approach (laparoscopic versus laparotomy. Case presentation We report the case of a 70-year-old Asian woman from Karachi who presented with pain in the right iliac fossa for 15 days. On physical examination, a mobile and firm mass was palpable in the right iliac fossa. A colonoscopy was performed which showed external compression of the cecum. A biopsy of the mucosa was normal. Computed tomography scan showed a mucocele of the appendix with minimal periappendiceal fat stranding. She underwent an initial diagnostic laparoscopy to evaluate any mucin spillage in the peritoneal cavity. Once no spillage was identified, an open appendectomy was then performed. Intra-operatively, a frozen section of the appendiceal sample was sent to ascertain the need for an extension of surgery to a right hemicolectomy. Absence of any malignancy on the frozen section obviated the need for a surgical extension. The final histopathological examination showed a mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix. The patient was symptom-free at one year after surgery. Conclusion It is important to distinguish between mucinous cystadenomas and mucinous cystadenocarcinomas. However, this distinction remains elusive in the pre-operative setting. A simple appendectomy using an intra-operative frozen section appears to be a reasonable surgical approach for selected cases with an intact mucocele of the appendix. However, long-term follow-up is warranted in such patients to evaluate the risks of using this approach.

  12. Efficacy and safety of gum chewing in adjunct to high-dose senna for bowel cleansing before colonoscopy: A single-blind randomized controlled trial

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    Bilal Ergül

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Inadequate bowel cleaning leads to a suboptimal colonoscopic examination. Gum chewing has been reported to have a favorable effect on postoperative bowel functions. We conducted this study to establish if gum chewing added to high-dose senna before colonoscopy promotes bowel cleaning. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled study, consecutive outpatients scheduled for elective colonoscopy were randomized into two groups. Group 1 patients (n = 65 used senna solution 150 mL (300 mg senna the night before colonoscopy. The patients also used sennoside tablet 80 mg daily for 3 days before the colonoscopy. Patients in group 2 (n = 64 were additionally advised to chew sugarless gum half an hour three-times daily after meals for these 3 days. The overall quality of colonoscopy cleaning was evaluated using the Aronchick scale by a single endoscopist who was blinded to the intervention. Difficulty of procedure, patients′ tolerance, and adverse events were also evaluated. Results: A total 129 patients were enrolled in the study. Superior cleaning was found in gum chewing group when compared with other group particularly in the cecum and ascending colon. Cecal intubation time was significantly shorter in the gum-chewing group (8.6 ± 5.1 and 7.1 ± 2.8 min, P = 0.03. Adverse events were more common in group 1 compared to the gum-chewing group. Conclusions: Gum chewing enhances colonoscopy bowel preparation quality. Moreover, it is a physiologically sound, safe, and an inexpensive part of the colonoscopy bowel preparation. Gum chewing could be advised in addition to high-dose senna containing bowel preparation.

  13. Effect of erythromycin on image quality and transit time of capsule endoscopy: A two-center study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Niv; Ido Bogner; Olga Barkay; Zamir Halpern; Elisabeth Mahajna; Roman Depsames; Yael Kopelman; Zvi Fireman

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effect of oral erythromycin vs no preparation with prokinetics on the transit time and the image quality of capsule endoscopy (CE) in evaluating small bowel (SB) pathology.METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, blinded (to the type of preparation) review of 100 CE studies,50 with no preparation with prokinetics from one medical center (Group A) and 50 from another center with administration of a single dose of 200 mg oral erythromycin 1 h prior to CE (Group B).Gastric, SB and total transit times were calculated, the presence of bile in the duodenum was scored, as was cleanliness within the proximal, middle and distal intestine.RESULTS: The erythromycin group had a slightly shorter gastric transit time (21 rain vs 28 min, with no statistical significance).SB transit time was similar for both groups (all P > 0.05).Total transit time was almost identical in both groups.The rate of incomplete examination was 16% for Group A and 10% for Group B (P = 0.37).Bile and cleanliness scores in different parts of the intestine were similar for the two groups (P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: Preparation for capsule endoscopy with erythromycin does not affect SB or total transit time.It tends to reduce gastric transit time, but it does not increase the cecum-reaching rate.Erythromycin does not adversely affect image quality.We consider the routine use of oral erythromycin preparation as being unjustified,although it might be considered in patients with known prolonged gastric emptying time.

  14. Colonic ornithine decarboxylase in inflammatory bowel disease: ileorectal activity gradient, guanosine triphosphate stimulation, and association with epithelial regeneration but not the degree of inflammation and clinical features.

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    Allgayer, Hubert; Roisch, Ulla; Zehnter, Elmar; Ziegenhagen, Dieter J; Dienes, Hans P; Kruis, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The role of colonic mucosal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains controversial. This study assessed mucosal ODC activity in IBD patients segment by segment with regard to patient characteristics, disease activity/duration, medication, degree of mucosal inflammation, and presence/absence of epithelial regeneration and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) stimulation. Mucosal ODC activity was determined in biopsy specimens from the terminal ileum, cecum/ascending, transverse, and descending colon, and the sigmoid/rectum of 35 patients with IBD (18 with Crohn's disease, 17 with ulcerative colitis) and 29 controls, using the amount of 14CO2 liberated from (carboxyl-14C)ornithine hydrochloride. GTP-stimulatable activity was expressed as the ratio of ODC activity in the presence and absence of GTP (70 micromol/L). Mucosal inflammation was assessed endoscopically/microscopically with previously described criteria. Presence/absence of mucosal regeneration also was determined by predefined criteria. Mucosal ODC-activity did not significantly differ in IBD patients and controls. There was a 4.4-fold activity gradient from the ileum to the rectum. Mucosal ODC activity was significantly higher in areas with epithelial regeneration compared to those without regeneration, and was stimulated by GTP by a factor of 1.42 in Crohn's disease and 1.19 in ulcerative colitis patients compared to controls (p < 0.004). On the other hand, there was no significant association/relationship of mucosal ODC activity with disease activity/duration and the endoscopic/histologic degree of mucosal inflammation. The observation of unchanged mucosal ODC activity in patients with IBD and the absence of a significant relationship with clinical and endoscopic/histologic disease characteristics speaks against a major role of ODC in IBD as a major disease marker. The role of the ileorectal gradient, the enhanced activity in areas with epithelial regeneration, and the GTP

  15. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 14C-5-aminosalicylic acid (14C-5-ASA) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is effective in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. As part of a preclinical metabolism profile with 5-ASA, we evaluated the tissue level and distribution of 14C-5-ASA in rats. Biodistribution of 14C-radioactivity was determined in the major organs of rats after a single oral dose (34 mg/kg; 15 uci/rat). Data from tissue area under the curve (AUC 0-72) indicated that the highest amounts of radioactivity were retained in cecum (481.1 hr.ug.equ/gm), colon-rectum (178.5 hr.ug.equ/gm), ileum (166.7 hr.ug.equ/gm), jejunum (65.5 hr.ug.equ/gm), followed by kidneys (58.0 hr.ug.equ/gm) and liver (14.8 hr.ug.equ/gm). The radioactivity retained in tissues at 72 hours postdose was wither nondetectable or less than 0.1 ppm. The radioactivity concentration in blood was highest at 0.5 hr (tmax) postdose and the terminal half-life (t1/2) of 14C-radioactivity (5-ASA + metabolite) was 2.7 hours. 14C-5-ASA is absorbed and distributed in the body. The greatest amount of 14C-radioactivity was found in the stomach and GI tract. 14C-5-ASA was eliminated completely (44.9% in the urine, 51.7% in the feces) 72 hours after administration without significant tissue retention

  16. Sonography-guided gastrografin enema for meconium plug syndrome in premature newborns: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of sonography-guided Gastrografin enema for the diagnosis and treatment of meconium plug syndrome in premature newborns in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Fifteen premature newborns underwent 23 sonography-guided Gastrografin enemas on the 8th day of life on average (range: 3 days-21 days). The gestational age and birth weight (mean±standard deviation) of the patients were 29±2 weeks and 999±148 g, respectively. The diagnosis of meconium plug syndrome was based on relevant clinical and radiological findings. Diluted Gastrografin (1:3, 17-45 ml) was administered through a rectal tube under the guidance of sonography until it reached to the cecum. Thereafter, immediate post-procedure and delayed portable abdominal radiographs were taken. All the procedures were done within the NICU. We reviewed the dates of meconium evacuation and the first feeding after the last enema from the clinical data. Radiologically, the timing of the radiographic improvement after the last enema was checked. In cases of distended distal ileum with meconium on preenema sonography, follow-up sonography was performed to determine the interval change after gastrografin enema. None of the sonography-guided Gastrografin enemas performed within the NICU caused procedure-related complications. Meconium was evacuated within one day in all patients. In 14 patients, on average, feeding was started on the 7th day and radiographic improvement was observed on the 3rd day. Four of the five patients showing a distended distal ileum with meconium revealed a decrease in ileal distension on follow-up sonography. On the other hand, the other patient, who did not show such a decrease on follow-up sonography, was found to have ileal stenosis during subsequent surgery. Sonography-guided Gastrografin enema is a safe and effective bedside procedure, when performed in the NICU for the diagnosis and treatment of meconium plug syndrome

  17. Extração de fitobezoar gástrico por videolaparoscopia: considerações técnicas originais Videolaparoscopic extraction of gastric phytobezoar: original technical aspects

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    Carlos Eduardo Domene

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Videolaparoscopic surgery has been used for treatment of almost all surgical abdominal diseases, mainly where there are no large ressections, or operative field is limited. In these situations, laparoscopic surgery has the advantages of less morbidity, quick recovery and good cosmetic results. Bezoars removal, or its mobilization, is probably included in these possible proceedings. Three non-laparotomic procedures were described: 1. endoscopic-laparoscopic; 2. videolaparoscopy and mobilization of intestinal bezoar to the cecum; 3. laparoscopy and gastrotomy for bezoar removal, through suprapubic incision or the umbilical punction. There have been only two publications describing the videolaparoscopic method for bezoar removal, and the methods applied can be complications or morbidity related. We describe one case where the applied technique is simple and easy to perform, time saving and probably less complications-related. This technique, with four trocars, utilized a plastic bag besides the stomach to be opened, followed by gastrotomy, bezoar removal and immediate introduction in the plastic bag, suture of gastrotomy and removal through the left subcostal trocar. This technique was feasible and easy to perform, with short operative time, and there were no intra or post-operative complications; the patient was discharged in the second post-operative day, and is without further problems after one year follow-up. We believe that this could be an adequate technique to perform laparoscopic gastric bezoar removal, and the rigid sequence of operative events allows a quick procedure, with minimal contamination. The videolaparoscopy seems to be an adequate access to surgical treatment of gastro-intestinal bezoars, with or without obstruction, and should be the ellected the procedure of choice to begin the surgical treatment, with convertion to laparotomy in case of any intra-operative adversity.

  18. Hydrophobicity of mucosal surface and its relationship to gut barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaofa; Caputo, Francis J; Xu, Da-Zhong; Deitch, Edwin A

    2008-03-01

    Loss of the gut barrier has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and, thus, understanding the intestinal barrier is of potential clinical importance. An important, but relatively neglected, component of the gut barrier is the unstirred mucus layer, which through its hydrophobic and other properties serves as an important barrier to bacterial and other factors within the gut lumen. Thus, the goal of this study was to establish a reproducible method of measuring mucosal hydrophobicity and test the hypothesis that conditions that decrease mucosal hydrophobicity are associated with increased gut permeability. Hydrophobicity was measured in various segments of normal gut by measuring the contact angle of an aqueous droplet placed on the mucosal surface using a commercial goniometer. Second, the effect of the mucolytic agent N-acetyl cysteine on mucosal hydrophobicity and gut permeability was measured, as was the effects of increasing periods of in vivo gut ischemia on these parameters. Gut ischemia was induced by superior mesenteric artery occlusion, and gut permeability was measured by the mucosal-to-serosal passage of fluoresceine isothiocyanate-dextran (4.3 kDa) (FD4) across the everted sacs of ileum. Intestinal mucosal hydrophobicity showed a gradual increase from the duodenum to the end of the ileum and remained at high level in the cecum, colon, and rectum. Both N-acetyl cysteine treatment and ischemia caused a dose-dependent decrease in mucosal hydrophobicity, which significantly correlated increased gut permeability. Mucosal hydrophobicity of the intestine can be reproducibly measured, and decreases in mucosal hydrophobicity closely correlate with increased gut permeability. These results suggest that mucosal hydrophobicity can be a reliable method of measuring the barrier function of the unstirred mucus layer and a useful parameter in evaluating the pathogenesis of gut barrier dysfunction. PMID:17693944

  19. The effect of dietary prebiotics and probiotics on body weight, large intestine indices, and fecal bile acid profile in wild type and IL10-/- mice.

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    Shiu-Ming Kuo

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested roles of probiotics and prebiotics on body weight management and intestinal function. Here, the effects of a dietary prebiotic, inulin (50 mg/g diet, and probiotic, Bfidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bb12 (final dose verified at 10(5 colony forming unit (cfu/g diet, comparable to human consumption, were determined separately and in combination in mice using cellulose-based AIN-93G diets under conditions allowed for the growth of commensal bacteria. Continuous consumption of Bb12 and/or inulin did not affect food intake or body, liver, and spleen weights of young and adult mice. Fecal bile acid profiles were determined by nanoESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry. In the presence of inulin, more bacterial deconjugation of taurine from primary bile acids was observed along with an increased cecal weight. Consumption of inulin in the absence or presence of Bb12 also increased the villus cell height in the proximal colon along with a trend of higher bile acid sulfation by intestinal cells. Feeding Bb12 alone at the physiological dose did not affect bile acid deconjugation and had little effect on other intestinal indices. Although interleukin (IL10-null mice are susceptible to enterocolitis, they maintained the same body weight as the wild type mice under our specific pathogen-free housing condition and showed no signs of inflammation. Nevertheless, they had smaller cecum suggesting a mildly compromised intestinal development even before the disease manifestation. Our results are consistent with the notion that dietary factors such as prebiotics play important roles in the growth of intestinal microbiota and may impact on the intestinal health. In addition, fecal bile acid profiling could potentially be a non-invasive tool in monitoring the intestinal environment.

  20. Effects of dietary inulin on bacterial growth, short-chain fatty acid production and hepatic lipid metabolism in gnotobiotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Schumann, Sara; Petzke, Klaus Jürgen; Blaut, Michael; Loh, Gunnar; Klaus, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    In literature, contradictory effects of dietary fibers and their fermentation products, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), are described: On one hand, they increase satiety, but on the other hand, they provide additional energy and promote obesity development. We aimed to answer this paradox by investigating the effects of fermentable and non-fermentable fibers on obesity induced by high-fat diet in gnotobiotic C3H/HeOuJ mice colonized with a simplified human microbiota. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented either with 10% cellulose (non-fermentable) or inulin (fermentable) for 6 weeks. Feeding the inulin diet resulted in an increased diet digestibility and reduced feces energy, compared to the cellulose diet with no differences in food intake, suggesting an increased intestinal energy extraction from inulin. However, we observed no increase in body fat/weight. The additional energy provided by the inulin diet led to an increased bacterial proliferation in this group. Supplementation of inulin resulted further in significantly elevated concentrations of total SCFA in cecum and portal vein plasma, with a reduced cecal acetate:propionate ratio. Hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis (Fasn, Gpam) and fatty acid elongation/desaturation (Scd1, Elovl3, Elovl6, Elovl5, Fads1 and Fads2) were decreased in inulin-fed animals. Accordingly, plasma and liver phospholipid composition were changed between the different feeding groups. Concentrations of omega-3 and odd-chain fatty acids were increased in inulin-fed mice, whereas omega-6 fatty acids were reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that, during this short-term feeding, inulin has mainly positive effects on the lipid metabolism, which could cause beneficial effects during obesity development in long-term studies.

  1. Tissue expression and developmental regulation of chicken cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides

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    Achanta Mallika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cathelicidins are a major family of antimicrobial peptides present in vertebrate animals with potent microbicidal and immunomodulatory activities. Four cathelicidins, namely fowlicidins 1 to 3 and cathelicidin B1, have been identified in chickens. As a first step to understand their role in early innate host defense of chickens, we examined the tissue and developmental expression patterns of all four cathelicidins. Real-time PCR revealed an abundant expression of four cathelicidins throughout the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts as well as in all primary and secondary immune organs of chickens. Fowlicidins 1 to 3 exhibited a similar tissue expression pattern with the highest expression in the bone marrow and lung, while cathelicidin B1 was synthesized most abundantly in the bursa of Fabricius. Additionally, a tissue-specific regulatory pattern was evident for all four cathelicidins during the first 28 days after hatching. The expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 showed an age-dependent increase both in the cecal tonsil and lung, whereas all four cathelicidins were peaked in the bursa on day 4 after hatching, with a gradual decline by day 28. An abrupt augmentation in the expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 was also observed in the cecum on day 28, while the highest expression of cathelicidin B1 was seen in both the lung and cecal tonsil on day 14. Collectively, the presence of cathelicidins in a broad range of tissues and their largely enhanced expression during development are suggestive of their potential important role in early host defense and disease resistance of chickens.

  2. Bitter, sweet and umami taste receptors and downstream signaling effectors: Expression in embryonic and growing chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheled-Shoval, Shira L; Druyan, Shelly; Uni, Zehava

    2015-08-01

    Taste perception is a crucial biological mechanism affecting food and water choices and consumption in the animal kingdom. Bitter taste perception is mediated by a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family-the taste 2 receptors (T2R)-and their downstream proteins, whereas sweet and umami tastes are mediated by the GPCR family -taste 1 receptors (T1R) and their downstream proteins. Taste receptors and their downstream proteins have been identified in extra-gustatory tissues in mammals, such as the lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and their GIT activation has been linked with different metabolic and endocrinic pathways in the GIT. The chicken genome contains three bitter taste receptors termed ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, and ggTas2r7, and the sweet/umami receptors ggTas1r1 and ggTas1r3, but it lacks the sweet receptor ggTas1r2. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the expression of genes related to taste perception in the chicken GIT, both at the embryonic stage and in growing chickens. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time, using real-time PCR, expression of the chicken taste receptor genes ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, ggTas2r7, ggTas1r1, and ggTas1r3 and of their downstream protein-encoding genes TRPM5, α-gustducin, and PLCβ2 in both gustatory tissues-the palate and tongue, and extra-gustatory tissues-the proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon of embryonic day 19 (E19) and growing (21 d old) chickens. Expression of these genes suggests the involvement of taste pathways for sensing carbohydrates, amino acids and bitter compounds in the chicken GIT.

  3. Effects of dietary inulin on bacterial growth, short-chain fatty acid production and hepatic lipid metabolism in gnotobiotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Schumann, Sara; Petzke, Klaus Jürgen; Blaut, Michael; Loh, Gunnar; Klaus, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    In literature, contradictory effects of dietary fibers and their fermentation products, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), are described: On one hand, they increase satiety, but on the other hand, they provide additional energy and promote obesity development. We aimed to answer this paradox by investigating the effects of fermentable and non-fermentable fibers on obesity induced by high-fat diet in gnotobiotic C3H/HeOuJ mice colonized with a simplified human microbiota. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented either with 10% cellulose (non-fermentable) or inulin (fermentable) for 6 weeks. Feeding the inulin diet resulted in an increased diet digestibility and reduced feces energy, compared to the cellulose diet with no differences in food intake, suggesting an increased intestinal energy extraction from inulin. However, we observed no increase in body fat/weight. The additional energy provided by the inulin diet led to an increased bacterial proliferation in this group. Supplementation of inulin resulted further in significantly elevated concentrations of total SCFA in cecum and portal vein plasma, with a reduced cecal acetate:propionate ratio. Hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis (Fasn, Gpam) and fatty acid elongation/desaturation (Scd1, Elovl3, Elovl6, Elovl5, Fads1 and Fads2) were decreased in inulin-fed animals. Accordingly, plasma and liver phospholipid composition were changed between the different feeding groups. Concentrations of omega-3 and odd-chain fatty acids were increased in inulin-fed mice, whereas omega-6 fatty acids were reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that, during this short-term feeding, inulin has mainly positive effects on the lipid metabolism, which could cause beneficial effects during obesity development in long-term studies. PMID:26033744

  4. Primary gastrointestinal lymphomas - A study of 81 Cases from a Tertiary Healthcare Centre

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    H S Shirsat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Retrospective analysis of 81 routinely diagnosed gastrointestinal (GI lymphoma to illustrate clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics with predisposing condition. Materials and Methods: Age, sex, site, tumour stage, associated pathological features like lympho-epithelial lesion (LEL, atrophic gastritis (AG, intestinal metaplasia (IM and enteropathy changes were analysed. Requisite immunohistochemical panel was applied wherever needed. Results: There were 55 male and 26 female patients with median age of 54.5 years. Site wise distributions were stomach 40, small intestine 22, colon 4, cecum 2, ileocecum 3, esophagus 1 and multiple sites 9. Histological subtypes were mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALTOMA 48, diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBL 21, T cell lymphoma 9 [5 anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL and 4 enteropathy associated T cell lymphoma (EATL], immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID 2 and follicular lymphoma 1. LEL was present in 31 cases. Of the 19 AG, 8 had associated IM, and 1 case each had associated H Pylori infection and neuroendocrine tumor. Enteropathy was observed in 4 EATL, and one case each of DLBL and high grade MALTOMA. Giardia infection was present in 1 low grade duodenal MALTOMA. Of the 24 resected specimens, 16 were stage IE, 7 stage IIE and 1 stage IV (Mushoff′s staging. Conclusion: Primary GI lymphoma was frequently observed in 6 th decade of life with male preponderance. Stomach was the commonest site and high grade MALTOMA being the commonest histological variant. Isolated colonic involvement and intestinal perforations were not infrequent. Rare variants like ALCL and follicular lymphomas were also observed.

  5. Ekstrak Sambiloto Menurunkan Patogenesitas Ookista Eimeria Tenella

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    Yulia Yellita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria tenella is one of the nine of Eimeria species, a pathogenic intraseluler protozoa causing aviancoccidiosis. Infection was initiated by the ingestion of sporulated oocysts. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the effect of E. tenella oocyst incubation in methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata beforeinfection in broiler performance. This research used 115 broiler DOC (CP 707 devided into five groups,each group consisted of 23 broilers. The infection with 1x105 oocyst were done at the 14th day old of chicken.The 1st group was placebo (KN, while the 2nd group was infected with unincubated oocyst (KP, and theother three groups i.e. : 3rd, 4th, 5th were infected with incubated oocyst in A. paniculata extract for 2, 4, and6 hours, respectively. The number of oocysts in feces were counted on day 5th to 14th post-infection, theheterophile and macrophages were counted from caecum histology preparation, by slaughtered threechickens of each of groups on the day 0,3,6.9, and 14 post infection, and accretion body weight wasmeasured by weighing chickens per week to five-week old chickens. The results of this study indicated thatthe incubation period the sporulated oocyst in the extract of A.paniculata for six hours before infection,reduced the number of oocysts production in the feces, the number of inflammatory cells (macrophages andheterophile in the cecum, and increases body weight (gain. In conclusion A.paniculata extract decreasedthe pathogenisity of E.tenella oocyst, so the extract of A.paniculata has good potential as anticoccidia. Itis high likely that A. paniculata extract has a potential to be anticoccidia.

  6. Acidic Conditions in the NHE2-/- Mouse Intestine Result in an Altered Mucosa-Associated Bacterial Population with Changes in Mucus Oligosaccharides

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    Melinda A. Engevik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms bacteria use to proliferate and alter the normal bacterial composition remain unknown. The ability to link changes in the intestinal micro-environment, such as ion composition and pH, to bacterial proliferation is clinically advantageous for diseases that involve an altered gut microbiota, such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease, obesity and diabetes. In human and mouse intestine, the apical Na+/H+ exchangers NHE2 and NHE3 affect luminal Na+, water, and pH. Loss of NHE2 results in acidic luminal pH. Since acid resistance systems in gram-positive bacteria are well documented, we hypothesize that gram-positive bacteria would increase in representation in the acidic NHE2-/- intestine. Methods: Intestinal ion composition was measured by fame photometry and chloridometry and pH measured electrochemically. DNA extracted from intestinal flushes or from mucosal scrapings was analyzed by qRT-PCR to examine luminal and mucosa-associated bacterial populations. Epithelial mucus oligosaccharide patterns were examined by histology with FIT-C labeled lectins. Results: Although total luminal and mucosa-associated bacteria were unchanged in NHE2-/- intestine, gram-positive bacterial phyla were increased in the mucosa-associated bacterial population in a region-specific manner. The genera Clostridium and Lactobacillus were increased in the cecum and colon which corresponded to changes in NHE2-/- mucus oligosaccharide composition of mannose, N-acetyglucosamine, N-acetygalactosamine and galactose. Conclusions: Together these data indicate that changes in ion transport induce region-specific bacterial changes, which alter host mucus oligosaccharide patterns. These host-bacterial interactions provide a possible mechanism of niche-development and shed insight on how certain groups proliferate in changing environments and maintain their proliferation by altering the host.

  7. Digestive efficiencies of ex situ and in situ West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Graham A J; Worthy, Tamara A M

    2014-01-01

    Digestive efficiencies (Dm) of ex situ and in situ manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were, for the first time, assessed using manganese (Mn(2+)) as a naturally occurring marker. The Dm of ex situ manatees determined using [Mn(2+)] did not differ significantly from the Dm assessed using lignin, supporting the efficacy of the manganese approach. Gastrointestinal tract samples, obtained from recently dead animals, showed [Mn(2+)] concentrations were lowest in the stomach and remained low in the duodenum and small intestine but increased in the cecum, colon, and rectum, consistent with colonic digestion and absorption. In situ manatees consuming marine vegetation had significantly lower Dm (mean ± SE, 46.9% ± 1.8%; n=8) than did in situ manatees consuming freshwater vegetation (77.8% ± 2.6%; n=7), which in turn had significantly lower values than did ex situ manatees consuming lettuce (84.0% ± 0.7%; n=37). In situ manatees eating seagrasses had significantly higher Dm than did long-term ex situ animals consuming seagrass for short periods of time (46.9% ± 1.8% vs. 36.2% ± 1.2%, respectively), suggesting potential modification of gut flora over time. One significant ramification of our results is that manatees consuming seagrasses would require a greater standing biomass to support their needs than would be required if they were eating freshwater vegetation. This reinforces the critical need to implement habitat conservation and protection before considering downlisting or delisting manatees as an endangered species.

  8. Sex influence on chronic intestinal inflammation in Helicobacter hepaticus-infected A/JCr mice.

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    Livingston, Robert S; Myles, Mathew H; Livingston, Beth A; Criley, Jennifer M; Franklin, Craig L

    2004-06-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus is a bacterial pathogen of mice that has been reported to cause chronic intestinal inflammation in A/JCr, germfree Swiss Webster, and immunodeficient mice. To the authors' knowledge, the influence of sex on development of chronic intestinal inflammation in H. hepaticus-infected mice has not been investigated. The purposes of the study reported here were to determine whether severity of intestinal inflammation differs between male and female A/JCr mice chronically infected with H. hepaticus and to characterize the mucosal immune response in these mice. The cecum of male and female A/JCr mice infected with H. hepaticus for 1 month and 3 months was objectively evaluated histologically for intestinal disease. Also, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was done to measure interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10), and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) mRNA values in the cecal tissue of these mice. Significant differences in cecal lesion scores were not present at 1 month after infection. However, infected female mice had significantly up-regulated expression of cecal IL-10, MIP-1alpha, IP-10, and MIG mRNA compared with that in uninfected females, and expression of IL-10 and MIP-1alpha was significantly greater than that detected in infected male mice (P JCr mice, females develop more severe intestinal inflammation than do males, and the chronic mucosal inflammation is polarized toward a Th1 response that is not down-regulated by increased activity of IL-10. We propose that H. hepaticus-infected A/JCr mice will serve as a good animal model with which to study the influence of sex on bacterial-induced mucosal inflammation.

  9. Chronic proliferative hepatitis in A/JCr mice associated with persistent Helicobacter hepaticus infection: a model of helicobacter-induced carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Li, X; Yan, L; Cahill, R J; Hurley, R; Lewis, R; Murphy, J C

    1996-05-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus causes hepatitis in selected strains of mice and in A/JCr mice is linked to liver cancer. To analyze whether H. hepaticus persists in specified ecological niches, to determine whether biomarkers of infection exist, and to analyze the influence of H. hepaticus on hepatocyte proliferation, a longitudinal study of H. hepaticus-infected A/JCr mice was undertaken. A/JCr mice were serially euthanatized from 3 through 18 months and surveyed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; bacterial culture of liver, colon, and cecum; histology; electron microscopy; hepatocyte proliferation indices determined by using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine; and measurement of the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase. In infected animals throughout the 18-month study, H. hepaticus was consistently isolated from the lower bowel but only sporadically from the liver. By electron microscopy, H. hepaticus was noted infrequently and only in bile canaliculi. Infected mice, particularly males, showed chronic inflammation; oval cell, Kupffer cell, and Ito cell hyperplasia; hepatocytomegaly; and bile duct proliferation. The inflammatory and necrotizing lesion was progressive and involved the hepatic parenchyma, portal triads, and intralobular venules. Hepatic adenomas were noted only in male mice, whereas 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine proliferation indices were markedly increased in both sexes, but especially in males, compared to control A/J mice. Infected mice also developed sustained anti-H. hepaticus serum immunoglobulin G antibody responses and elevated alanine aminotransferase levels. H. hepaticus, which persists in the lower bowels and livers of A/JCr mice, is associated with a chronic proliferative hepatitis, and hepatomas in selected male mice indicate that this novel bacterium may cause an increased risk of hepatic cancer induction in susceptible strains of mice. This murine model should prove useful in dissecting the molecular events operable in the development of neoplasms

  10. The expression of aldolase A in colonic mucosa from the IBS%醛缩酶A在肠易激综合征患者结肠黏膜的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春燕; 杨云生; 郭旭; 孙刚; 王巍峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究醛缩酶A(ALDOA)在肠易激综合征(IBS)患者结肠黏膜的表达情况,探讨IBS发病的新机制,为未来研究提供新的思路.方法 应用Western blot和免疫组织化学等方法,观察ALDOA在腹泻型肠易激综合征(IBS-D)及便秘型肠易激综合征(IBS-C)患者结肠黏膜的表达情况.结果 ALDOA在IBS-D组乙状结肠、IBS-C组乙状结肠及IBS-D组盲肠表达量明显少于健康对照组的相应部位,差异有统计学意义.结论 ALDOA在IBS患者结肠的表达异常提示着IBS-D、IBS-C患者结肠存在能量代谢异常.%Objective The expression of aldolase A(ALDOA)was detected in colonic mucosa from the IBS with diarrea(IBS-D) group,IBS with constipation (IBS-C) group and normal control group. All these researchs may provide new clues to further research on the molecular mechisms of IBS . Methods Western blot and IHC were also performed for observing the level of ALDOA. Results The results showed that ALDOA were markedly decreased in mucosa of cecum and sigmoid colon from IBS -D and IBS-C groups than that of normal controls. Conclusions ALDOA were metabolism enzymes. The abnormal expression of ALDOA showed that colonic mucosa from IBS patients may involve in dysregulation of energy metabolism .

  11. Experimental infection of Balb/c nude mice with Hepatitis E virus

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    Zhu Jianguo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several animal species can reportedly act as reservoirs for Hepatitis E virus (HEV, a zoonotic pathogen. HEV and antibody to the virus have been detected in a variety of animals including rodents. Pig and rat models for HEV have been established for HEV, but a nude mouse has not yet been developed. Methods Balb/c nude mice were inoculated with swine HEV, both orally and via intravenous injection to insure infection. Negative control and experimental contact-exposed groups of mice were also included in the study. The liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon of each mouse from all three groups were collected for reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR detection, indirect immunofluorescence observation and histopathologic examination. The sera from nude mice were tested for anti-HEV IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Activities of liver enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, as well as total bilirubin (TBIL were also measured in the sera of the nude mice. Results HEV antigens and HEV RNA were detected in liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, ileum and colon both by indirect immunofluorescence and by RT-nPCR in all of the inoculated and in one of the contact-exposed nude mice. Histopathological changes were observed in the liver and spleen of these mice. Infected mice showed increased levels of AST, ALP, and anti-HEV IgG in sera. The livers of contact-exposed mice showed obvious histopathological damage. Conclusion Nude mice could be readily infected by HEV isolated from pigs. The nude mouse may therefore be a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of HEV.

  12. In vitro probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 and its modulatory effect on gut microbiota of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Renhui; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Li, Shengjie; Xu, Hengyi; Xu, Feng; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013, a novel strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented acid beans, was systematically evaluated for its survival capacity under stress conditions (pH, bile salt, simulated gastrointestinal tract, and antibiotics), production of exopolysaccharide and antagonism against 8 pathogens. Its effect on mice gut microbiota was also investigated by quantitative PCR and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results showed that ZDY 2013 can grow at pH 3.5 and survive at pH 2.0 for 6 h and at 0.45% bile salt for 3 h. The exopolysaccharide yield was up to 204±7.68 mg/L. The survival rate of ZDY 2013 in a simulated gastrointestinal tract was as high as 65.84%. Antagonism test with a supernatant of ZDY 2013 showed maximum halo of 28 mm against Listeria monocytogenes. The inhibition order was as follows: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Staphylococcus aureus. Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 was sensitive to some antibiotics (e.g., macrolide, sulfonamides, aminoglycoside, tetracyclines and β-lactams), whereas it was resistant to glycopeptides, quinolones, and cephalosporins antibiotics. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile demonstrated that ZDY 2013 administration altered the composition of the microbiota at various intestinal loci of the mice. Moreover, the quantitative PCR test showed that the administration of ZDY 2013 enhanced the populations of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in either the colon or cecum, and reduced the potential enteropathogenic bacteria (e.g., Enterococcus, Enterobacterium, and Clostridium perfringens). Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 exhibited high resistance against low pH, bile salt, and gastrointestinal fluid, and possessed antibacterial and gut microbiota modulation properties with a potential application in the development of dairy food and nutraceuticals.

  13. [Clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal carcinoma in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kaixiong; Gao, Jinbo; Wang, Guobin

    2016-05-01

    Elderly patients with colorectal cancer have different clincopathological characteristics from younger patients. Colorectal cancers tend to localize in the proximal colon, from cecum to the splenic flexure in the elderly patients. Changes in the stools, rectal bleeding or black stool, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss and anemia are the common symptoms. Analysis showed that age is one of independent risk factors for lower completion rates of colonoscopy. Therefore, the choice of diagnosis methods in elderly patients should be careful. Achieving a clear diagnosis and avoiding complications should be considered at the same time. Most colorectal cancers in elderly are highly and moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas and locally advanced, and have less lymphatic and blood metastasis. The proportion of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma increases with the increase of age, which should be concerned. Multiple colorectal cancers and colorectal cancer with extra-colorectal malignancy are not rare in the elderly patients. The common extra-colorectal tumors consist of gastric cancer, lung cancer, biliary carcinoma, pancreas cancer and malignancy from blood system. Molecular events, such as mutations of KARS, BRAF, TP53 and deficiency of DNA mismatch repair, are more frequent in elderly colorectal cancer patients. Many factors have impact on treatment decision in elderly patients with colorectal cancer, including age, comorbidities, physiological functions of organs and willingness of patients and their relatives. Although surgery is still the main treatment, the proportion of radical surgery is lower and emergency surgery is higher as compared to younger patients. With the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques and advances in anesthesia and perioperative management, laparoscopic surgery has become widespread in elderly patients with colorectal cancer. In addition, more attention should be paid to adjuvant therapy. Comprehensive individualized

  14. Reconstructive techniques for creation of catheterizable channels: tunneled and nipple valve channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mya E; Elliott, Sean P

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous catheterizable channels allow for continent bladder emptying when an alternate route is desired. The goals of channel creation in the neurogenic bladder population are successful urine elimination, renal preservation, continence and lastly cosmesis. In addition to a particular surgeon's comfort and experience with a given procedure, individual patient factors such as medical comorbidities, anatomic factors, and occupational function should be central to the selection of a surgical approach. An ideal channel is one that is short, straight, and well supported by associated blood supply and surrounding adventitia, so as to minimize difficulty with catheterization. Two types of channel continence mechanisms are discussed at length in this review-the tunneled channel, and the nipple valve. The appendicovesicostomy (Mitrofanoff), and reconfigured ileum (Yang-Monti) are both tunneled channels. The ileocecal valve is a commonly used nipple valve and provides continence when reinforced. The continent catheterizable ileal cecocystoplasty (CCIC) is an example of this channel technique. This method couples a tapered ileal limb as a catheterizable channel, the ileocecal valve as the continence mechanism, and the cecum and ascending colon as a bladder augmentation. While this procedure has higher perioperative complications relative to a simple tunneled channel, it has increased channel length flexibility and is also coupled with a bladder augment, which is completely performed using one bowel segment. Continent channel creation in adults can improve quality of life and minimize morbidity associated with neurogenic bladder. However, the decision to proceed with creation of a catheterizable channel should be made only after careful consideration of the patient's medical comorbidities, physical abilities social support, and surgeon experience. PMID:26904419

  15. Ileocolic esophageal replacement in children with benign stricture ofesophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Kang Wei; Ting Ze Hu; Ming Liu; Bo Xiang; Qi Cheng Luo; Min Liu; Fu Yu Li

    2000-01-01

    AIM To treat esophageal stricture secondary to the ingestion of corrosive materials in children using theileocolon with ileocecal valve as a substitute for esophagus.METHODS Between 1992 and 1999, isoperistaltic retrosternal ileocolic esophageal replacements wereperformed in 12 patients; 50 cadavers were studied to observe the vascularity in the ileocolic region andmetabolic indexes were measured before and after surgery or between the operative group and the normalcontrols in 20 piglet models.RESULTS A follow-up of 3 years in the 12 cases found no death in intra- and post- operative periodclinically. Cervical ileoesophageal anastomotic leaks occurred in 2 cases. The distribution pattern of venousvessel in the ileocolic region was far more constant than that of the artery. The arrangements of artery in theileocolic segment were classified into 7 types, and there was no interruption of paracolic anastomosis betweenarteries. The resections of 50 cm terminal ileum, cecum and 50 cm ascending colon affected enterohepaticcirculation of bile acid (bile salt) and the fatty metabolism in early period after surgery in piglet models.Shortening of the time and reducing of the area for water absorption after ileocolic resection resulted indiarrhea in piglet models. The loss of “bacterial barrier” role of ileocecal valve led to bacteria immigrationfrom colon to ileum and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.CONCLUSION The ileocolic esophageal replacement taking advantage of antireflux role of the ileocecalvalve has obtained satisfactory effect. To understand the characteristics of the patterns of arteries and veinsdistribution and physiological functions of the ileocolic segment is useful in guiding clinical practice andpostoperative management and preventing postoperative complications as well.

  16. Subcutaneous preconditioning increases invasion and metastatic dissemination in mouse colorectal cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamo, Patricia; Gallardo, Alberto; Pavón, Miguel A.; Casanova, Isolda; Trias, Manuel; Mangues, Maria A.; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio; Mangues, Ramon; Céspedes, Maria V.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse colorectal cancer (CRC) models generated by orthotopic microinjection of human CRC cell lines reproduce the pattern of lymphatic, haematological and transcoelomic spread but generate low metastatic efficiency. Our aim was to develop a new strategy that could increase the metastatic efficiency of these models. We used subcutaneous implantation of the human CRC cell lines HCT116 or SW48 prior to their orthotopic microinjection in the cecum of nude mice (SC+ORT). This subcutaneous preconditioning significantly enhanced metastatic dissemination. In the HCT116 model it increased the number and size of metastatic foci in lymph nodes, lung, liver and peritoneum, whereas, in the SW48 model, it induced a shift from non-metastatic to metastatic. In both models the number of apoptotic bodies in the primary tumour in the SC+ORT group was significantly reduced compared with that in the direct orthotopic injection (ORT) group. Moreover, in HCT116 tumours the number of keratin-positive tumour buddings and single epithelial cells increased at the invasion front in SC+ORT mice. In the SW48 tumour model, we observed a trend towards a higher number of tumour buds and single cells in the SC+ORT group but this did not reach statistical significance. At a molecular level, the enhanced metastatic efficiency observed in the HCT116 SC+ORT model was associated with an increase in AKT activation, VEGF-A overexpression and downregulation of β1 integrin in primary tumour tissue, whereas, in SW48 SC+ORT mice, the level of expression of these proteins remained unchanged. In summary, subcutaneous preconditioning increased the metastatic dissemination of both orthotopic CRC models by increasing tumour cell survival and invasion at the tumour invasion front. This approach could be useful to simultaneously study the mechanisms of metastases and to evaluate anti-metastatic drugs against CRC. PMID:24487410

  17. Fate of ingested Clostridium difficile spores in mice.

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    Amber Howerton

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a major nosocomial complication. The infective form of C. difficile is the spore, a dormant and resistant structure that forms under stress. Although spore germination is the first committed step in CDI onset, the temporal and spatial distribution of ingested C. difficile spores is not clearly understood. We recently reported that CamSA, a synthetic bile salt analog, inhibits C. difficile spore germination in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the anti-germination activity of bile salts to determine the fate of ingested C. difficile spores. We tested four different bile salts for efficacy in preventing CDI. Since CamSA was the only anti-germinant tested able to prevent signs of CDI, we characterized CamSa's in vitro stability, distribution, and cytotoxicity. We report that CamSA is stable to simulated gastrointestinal (GI environments, but will be degraded by members of the natural microbiota found in a healthy gut. Our data suggest that CamSA will not be systemically available, but instead will be localized to the GI tract. Since in vitro pharmacological parameters were acceptable, CamSA was used to probe the mouse model of CDI. By varying the timing of CamSA dosage, we estimated that C. difficile spores germinated and established infection less than 10 hours after ingestion. We also showed that ingested C. difficile spores rapidly transited through the GI tract and accumulated in the colon and cecum of CamSA-treated mice. From there, C. difficile spores were slowly shed over a 96-hour period. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using molecular probes to obtain disease progression information for C. difficile infection.

  18. Epithelial cell adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry.

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    Spivey, Megan A; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Duong, Tri

    2014-11-01

    Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus cultures is an important alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters and has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and preharvest food safety in poultry production. Whereas gastrointestinal colonization is thought to be critical to their probiotic functionality, factors important to Lactobacillus colonization in chickens are not well understood. In this study we investigate epithelial cell adhesion in vitro and colonization of Lactobacillusin vivo in broiler chickens. Adhesion of Lactobacillus cultures to epithelial cells was evaluated using the chicken LMH cell line. Lactobacillus cultures were able adhere effectively to LMH cells relative to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Epithelial cell adhesion was similar for Lactobacillus crispatus TDCC 75, L. cristpatus TDCC 76, and Lactobacillus gallinarum TDCC 77, and all 3 were more adherent than L. gallinarum TDCC 78. However, when colonization was evaluated in the ileum and cecum of broiler chicks, L. crispatus TDCC 75 and L. gallinarum TDCC 77 were more persistent than L. crispatus TDCC 76 and L. gallinarum TDCC 78. The reduction of growth in medium supplemented with oxgal was greater for L. gallinarum TDCC 78 than L. gallinarum TDCC 77, suggesting that whereas adhesion was similar for the 2 strains, the difference in colonization between L. gallinarum strains may be due in part to their bile sensitivity. This study demonstrates that whereas adhesion to epithelial cells may be important in predicting gastrointestinal colonization, other factors including bile tolerance may also contribute to the colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry. Additionally, the chicken LMH cell line is expected to provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of Lactobacillus adhesion to epithelial tissue and evaluating the probiotic potential Lactobacillus in poultry.

  19. Molecular weight distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids in ileal digesta of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, E; Andersson, R; Lindberg, J E

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dietary fiber source on molecular weight (MW) distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in ileal digesta of 7 post valve T-cecum (PVTC) cannulated growing pigs was studied. Pigs were fed semisynthetic diets with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp (SBP) or chicory (Cichorium intybus) forage (CFO) as fiber sources of which the soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) fraction originated mainly from pectin. Three MW intervals were selected-large MW (MWL): 10,000,000 to 1,000,000 g/mol, medium MW (MWM): 1,000,000 to 200,000 g/mol, and small MW (MWS): 200,000 to 10,000 g/mol-and the relative distribution (% of total) of molecules in each interval was calculated. The MWM fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet SBP and the MWS fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet CFO. The mole/100 mole of propionic acid (HPr) was higher (P < 0.010) in pigs fed diet SBP whereas pigs fed diet CFO had higher (P < 0.010) mole/100 mole of acetic acid (HAc). The proportion of the MWL and MWM fractions in ileal digesta were negatively correlated to HAc (r = -0.52, P = 0.05, and r = -0.62, P = 0.02, respectively). The proportion of MWM in ileal digesta was positively correlated to HPr (r = 0.83; P = 0.001) whereas MWS and HPr were negatively correlated (r = -0.76; P = 0.002). In conclusion, the bacterial degradation of the soluble NSP fraction is selective and MW distribution may explain differences in SCFA production. PMID:23365284

  20. Characterization of the oxidative stress stimulon and PerR regulon of Campylobacter jejuni

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    Naikare Hemant

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During gut colonization, the enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni must surmount the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species produced by its own metabolism, the host immune system, and intestinal microflora. Elucidation of C. jejuni oxidative stress defense mechanisms is critical for understanding Campylobacter pathophysiology. Results The mechanisms of oxidative stress defense in C. jejuni were characterized by transcriptional profiling and phenotypic analysis of wild-type and mutant strains. To define the regulon of the peroxide-sensing regulator, PerR, we constructed an isogenic ΔperR mutant and compared its transcriptome profile with that of the wild-type strain. Transcriptome profiling identified 104 genes that belonged to the PerR regulon. PerR appears to regulate gene expression in a manner that both depends on and is independent of the presence of iron and/or H2O2. Mutation of perR significantly reduced motility. A phenotypic analysis using the chick colonization model showed that the ΔperR mutant exhibited attenuated colonization behavior. An analysis of changes in the transcriptome induced by exposure to H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide, or menadione revealed differential expression of genes belonging to a variety of biological pathways, including classical oxidative stress defense systems, heat shock response, DNA repair and metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, and multidrug efflux pumps. Mutagenic and phenotypic studies of the superoxide dismutase SodB, the alkyl-hydroxyperoxidase AhpC, and the catalase KatA, revealed a role for these proteins in oxidative stress defense and chick gut colonization. Conclusion This study reveals an interplay between PerR, Fur, iron metabolism and oxidative stress defense, and highlights the role of these elements in C. jejuni colonization of the chick cecum and/or subsequent survival.

  1. Perforated Meckel's diverticulum presenting with combined bowel and urinary obstruction and mimicking Crohn's disease: a case report

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    Wong Banny S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Meckel's diverticulum is a common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, but is an uncommon cause of serious complications in adults. Although cases of patients with hemorrhage, bowel obstruction or perforation associated with Meckel's diverticulum have been reported, there have been no prior reports of patients with combined urinary and bowel obstruction due to abscess formation. Case presentation We describe the case of a 21-year-old man with a history of recurrent papillary thyroid cancer, but no prior abdominal surgeries, who presented with a one-month history of rectal pain and new-onset obstipation with urinary retention. He reported night sweats and weight loss, and had a second-degree relative with known Crohn's disease. A digital rectal examination was notable and revealed marked tenderness with proximal induration. A computed tomography scan of the patient's abdomen revealed a large, complex, circumferential perirectal abscess compressing the rectal lumen and base of the urinary bladder, associated with terminal ileal thickening and an ileocecal fistula. A flexible sigmoidoscopy with an endorectal ultrasound scan displayed a complex abscess with extensive mucosal and surrounding inflammation. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a Meckel's diverticulum with a large perforation at its base, positioned near the ileocecal fistula and immediately superior to the perirectal abscess. The section of small bowel containing the Meckel's diverticulum, the terminal ileum, and the cecum, were all resected, and the abscess was debrided. Conclusions Pre-operative diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum can be difficult. If the nature of the complication makes ultimate surgical management likely, an early laparoscopic or open exploration should be performed to prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with late complications.

  2. Radiation-induced functional damages in the regeneration system for the gastrointestinal epithelium cell and analysis of its nutritional modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been known that the stem cells of villus-crypt zone are highly sensitive to radiation exposure. In this study, radiation-induced damages in gastrointestinal cell regeneration system were investigated from an aspect of nutritional factors to clarify the damages in digestive functions caused by X-ray exposure and recovery from them. The activities of digestive enzymes in the small intestine after in vivo X-ray exposure at 100 Gy were determined. The sucrose activity in the upper intestine was gradually reduced to about a half 3 days after the exposure. This change pattern of activity was also observed in other regions in the intestine. This tendency was similar to that of trehalase activity, but the changes in alkaline phosphatase and leucine amino-peptidase activities were less than the above two enzymes. Therefore, time course changes of sucrose and trehalase pattern in the villus-crypt zone were monitored after radiation exposure. Either of the two enzyme activities was low in the crypt and gradually increased from the basement of villus to its top. These activities were dose-dependently reduced by X-ray exposure. Especially it was marked for trehalose activity. Moreover, the amounts of short-chain fatty acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid, butylic acid in the cecum were determined. Significant increases in acetic acid and propionic acid contents were fount at 1 or 2 days after the X-ray exposure. These increases in fatty acids contents were more distinctive in the animals that received forced and free administration of food than those that received free administration alone. The presence of food components in the intestine might be effective for protecting the mucous membrane regeneration from radiation exposure. (M.N.)

  3. The short-chain fatty acid receptor, FFA2, contributes to gestational glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Miles; Priyadarshini, Medha; Gibbons, Sean M; Angueira, Anthony R; Brodsky, Michael; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Gilbert, Jack A; Lowe, William L; Layden, Brian T

    2015-11-15

    The structure of the human gastrointestinal microbiota can change during pregnancy, which may influence gestational metabolism; however, a mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we observed that in wild-type (WT) mice the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased during pregnancy. Along with these changes, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are mainly produced through gut microbiota fermentation, significantly changed in both the cecum and peripheral blood throughout gestation in these mice. SCFAs are recognized by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as free fatty acid receptor-2 (FFA2), and we have previously demonstrated that the fatty acid receptor-2 gene (Ffar2) expression is higher in pancreatic islets during pregnancy. Using female Ffar2-/- mice, we explored the physiological relevance of signaling through this GPCR and found that Ffar2-deficient female mice developed fasting hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the setting of impaired insulin secretion compared with WT mice during, but not before, pregnancy. Insulin tolerance tests were similar in Ffar2-/- and WT mice before and during pregnancy. Next, we examined the role of FFA2 in gestational β-cell mass, observing that Ffar2-/- mice had diminished gestational expansion of β-cells during pregnancy. Interestingly, mouse genotype had no significant impact on the composition of the gut microbiome, but did affect the observed SCFA profiles, suggesting a functional difference in the microbiota. Together, these results suggest a potential link between increased Ffar2 expression in islets and the alteration of circulating SCFA levels, possibly explaining how changes in the gut microbiome contribute to gestational glucose homeostasis. PMID:26394664

  4. The type VI secretion system encoded in SPI-6 plays a role in gastrointestinal colonization and systemic spread of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the chicken.

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    David Pezoa

    Full Text Available The role of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs in pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium infection in the chicken is poorly studied, while many studies have been completed in murine models. The Type VI Secretion System (T6SS is a recently described protein secretion system in Gram-negative bacteria. The genus Salmonella contains five phylogenetically distinct T6SS encoded in differentially distributed genomic islands. S. Typhimurium harbors a T6SS encoded in SPI-6 (T6SSSPI-6, which contributes to the ability of Salmonella to colonize mice. On the other hand, serotype Gallinarum harbors a T6SS encoded in SPI-19 (T6SSSPI-19 that is required for colonization of chicks. In this work, we investigated the role of T6SSSPI-6 in infection of chicks by S. Typhimurium. Oral infection of White Leghorn chicks showed that a ΔT6SSSPI-6 mutant had reduced colonization of the gut and internal organs, compared with the wild-type strain. Transfer of the intact T6SSSPI-6 gene cluster into the T6SS mutant restored bacterial colonization. In addition, our results showed that transfer of T6SSSPI-19 from S. Gallinarum to the ΔT6SSSPI-6 mutant of S. Typhimurium not only complemented the colonization defect but also resulted in a transient increase in the colonization of the cecum and ileum of chicks at days 1 and 3 post-infection. Our data indicates that T6SSSPI-6 contributes to chicken colonization and suggests that both T6SSSPI-6 and T6SSSPI-19 perform similar functions in vivo despite belonging to different phylogenetic families.

  5. Purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp as a source of fiber for weaned piglets

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    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber is an important component, which has a direct effect on intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients; and also alters intestinal microbiota and morphology according to solubility. One digestibility trial and one performance experiment were performed to evaluate the effects of sources of fiber in diets for 21 day weaned piglets. The experimental diets used in both trials consisted of a control diet and diets with purified cellulose, soybean hulls or citrus pulp as a main source of dietary fiber. To evaluate the digestibility of nutrients (Assay 1, the total feces and urine collection method was used. The fiber sources did not affect nutrient digestibility, except for soluble fiber, which increased with the inclusion of citrus (Citrus sinensisL. pulp. To evaluate performance, morphophysiology and microbiology of the digestive tract of weaned piglets, a total of 32 castrated male piglets was used. Slaughter of animals was implemented at 35 and 50 days of age. The use of soybean (Glycine max L. hulls and citrus pulp in diets increased the number of goblet cells and the density of villi in the jejunum. The viscosities of stomach and cecum contents increased due to the addition of citrus pulp. Soybean hulls and the citrus pulp included in diets reduced the occurrence of E. coli in the small intestines of piglets slaughtered at 35 days of age. Among the fiber sources, purified cellulose in piglet diets promotes better performance of animals, due to the modulation of the small intestine microbiota, with lower E. coli occurrence resulting in higher villus density.

  6. Diets containing inulin but not lupins help to prevent swine dysentery in experimentally challenged pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C F; Phillips, N D; La, T; Hernandez, A; Mansfield, J; Kim, J C; Mullan, B P; Hampson, D J; Pluske, J R

    2010-10-01

    Swine dysentery is a contagious mucohemorrhagic diarrheal disease caused by the intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae that colonizes and induces inflammation of the cecum and colon. It has been reported that a diet containing chicory root and sweet lupin can prevent swine dysentery. This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inulin in the chicory root rather than galactans in lupins was responsible for protective effects. An experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was undertaken using pigs fed barley- and triticale-based diets, with the main effects being protein source [185 g/kg of canola meal (decreased galactans) or 220 g/kg of lupins (greater galactans)] and inulin supplementation (0 or 80 g/kg). Forty Large White × Landrace pigs weighing 21 ± 3 kg, with 10 pigs per diet, were allowed to adapt to the diets for 2 wk, and then each pig was challenged orally 4 times with a broth culture containing B. hyodysenteriae on consecutive days. Pigs were killed when they showed clinical signs of dysentery or 6 wk postchallenge. Pigs fed diets without inulin had 8.3 times greater risk (P = 0.017) of developing swine dysentery and were 16 times more likely (P = 0.004) to have colon contents that were culture-positive for B. hyodysenteriae, compared with the pigs fed a diet with 80 g/kg of inulin. Diets containing lupins did not prevent pigs from developing clinical swine dysentery; however, inclusion of lupins or inulin or both in the diets delayed the onset of disease compared with the diet based mainly on canola meal (P 0.05) by diet. However the pH values of the ileal digesta were decreased in pigs fed the diet with both lupins and inulin compared with the diet containing only lupins (P pigs against developing swine dysentery.

  7. The complete Campylobacter jejuni transcriptome during colonization of a natural host determined by RNAseq.

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    Michael E Taveirne

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of bacterial derived gastroenteritis worldwide. C. jejuni regulates gene expression under various environmental conditions and stresses, indicative of its ability to survive in diverse niches. Despite this ability to highly regulate gene transcription, C. jejuni encodes few transcription factors and its genome lacks many canonical transcriptional regulators. High throughput deep sequencing of mRNA transcripts (termed RNAseq has been used to study the transcriptome of many different organisms, including C. jejuni; however, this technology has yet to be applied to defining the transcriptome of C. jejuni during in vivo colonization of its natural host, the chicken. In addition to its use in profiling the abundance of annotated genes, RNAseq is a powerful tool for identifying and quantifying, as-of-yet, unknown transcripts including non-coding regulatory RNAs, 5' untranslated regulatory elements, and anti-sense transcripts. Here we report the complete transcriptome of C. jejuni during colonization of the chicken cecum and in two different in vitro growth phases using strand-specific RNAseq. Through this study, we identified over 250 genes differentially expressed in vivo in addition to numerous putative regulatory RNAs, including trans-acting non-coding RNAs and anti-sense transcripts. These latter potential regulatory elements were not identified in two prior studies using ORF-based microarrays, highlighting the power and value of the RNAseq approach. Our results provide new insights into how C. jejuni responds and adapts to the cecal environment and reveals new functions involved in colonization of its natural host.

  8. Subcutaneous preconditioning increases invasion and metastatic dissemination in mouse colorectal cancer models

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    Patricia Alamo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mouse colorectal cancer (CRC models generated by orthotopic microinjection of human CRC cell lines reproduce the pattern of lymphatic, haematological and transcoelomic spread but generate low metastatic efficiency. Our aim was to develop a new strategy that could increase the metastatic efficiency of these models. We used subcutaneous implantation of the human CRC cell lines HCT116 or SW48 prior to their orthotopic microinjection in the cecum of nude mice (SC+ORT. This subcutaneous preconditioning significantly enhanced metastatic dissemination. In the HCT116 model it increased the number and size of metastatic foci in lymph nodes, lung, liver and peritoneum, whereas, in the SW48 model, it induced a shift from non-metastatic to metastatic. In both models the number of apoptotic bodies in the primary tumour in the SC+ORT group was significantly reduced compared with that in the direct orthotopic injection (ORT group. Moreover, in HCT116 tumours the number of keratin-positive tumour buddings and single epithelial cells increased at the invasion front in SC+ORT mice. In the SW48 tumour model, we observed a trend towards a higher number of tumour buds and single cells in the SC+ORT group but this did not reach statistical significance. At a molecular level, the enhanced metastatic efficiency observed in the HCT116 SC+ORT model was associated with an increase in AKT activation, VEGF-A overexpression and downregulation of β1 integrin in primary tumour tissue, whereas, in SW48 SC+ORT mice, the level of expression of these proteins remained unchanged. In summary, subcutaneous preconditioning increased the metastatic dissemination of both orthotopic CRC models by increasing tumour cell survival and invasion at the tumour invasion front. This approach could be useful to simultaneously study the mechanisms of metastases and to evaluate anti-metastatic drugs against CRC.

  9. Receptors for insulin-like growth factors I and II in rat gastrointestinal epithelium

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    Laburthe, M.; Rouyer-Ressard, C.; Gammeltoft, S. (Institut National de La Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Villejuif (France) Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1988-03-01

    Distinct receptors for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have been characterized in rat intestinal epithelium using {sup 125}I-labeled IGF-I and {sup 125}I-labeled IGF-II. In jejunal epithelial plasma membranes, IGF-I receptors were observed with a dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of 7.2 nM and a binding capacity of 0.56 pmol/mg protein. Distinct IGF-II receptors were also found with a K{sub d} of 9.5 nM and a binding capacity of 2.61 pmol/mg protein. For IGF-I receptors the following order of affinity was observed: IGF-I > IGF-II > insulin > proinsulin. IGF-II receptors recognize IGF-II with a 20-fold higher affinity than IGF-I and display no cross-reactivity with insulin and proinsulin. Affinity labeling of intestinal membranes also discriminates between the two types of receptors, revealing a radioligand-receptor complex of relative molecular weight (M{sub r}) 130,000 using {sup 125}I-IGF-I and 250,000 for {sup 125}I-IGF-II under reducing conditions. Separation of proliferative crypt cells from mature villus cells in the small intestine makes it possible to show that a gradient of IGF receptors is present along the crypt-villus axis. {sup 125}I-IGF-I and {sup 125}I-IGF-II binding is 4.0- and 1.8-fold higher in crypt cells than in villus cells, respectively. Specific {sup 125}I-IGF binding is detectable throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The level of IGF binding is similar in stomach, small intestine, and cecum, but higher values are observed in colon.

  10. Receptors for insulin-like growth factors I and II in rat gastrointestinal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distinct receptors for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have been characterized in rat intestinal epithelium using 125I-labeled IGF-I and 125I-labeled IGF-II. In jejunal epithelial plasma membranes, IGF-I receptors were observed with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 7.2 nM and a binding capacity of 0.56 pmol/mg protein. Distinct IGF-II receptors were also found with a Kd of 9.5 nM and a binding capacity of 2.61 pmol/mg protein. For IGF-I receptors the following order of affinity was observed: IGF-I > IGF-II > insulin > proinsulin. IGF-II receptors recognize IGF-II with a 20-fold higher affinity than IGF-I and display no cross-reactivity with insulin and proinsulin. Affinity labeling of intestinal membranes also discriminates between the two types of receptors, revealing a radioligand-receptor complex of relative molecular weight (Mr) 130,000 using 125I-IGF-I and 250,000 for 125I-IGF-II under reducing conditions. Separation of proliferative crypt cells from mature villus cells in the small intestine makes it possible to show that a gradient of IGF receptors is present along the crypt-villus axis. 125I-IGF-I and 125I-IGF-II binding is 4.0- and 1.8-fold higher in crypt cells than in villus cells, respectively. Specific 125I-IGF binding is detectable throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The level of IGF binding is similar in stomach, small intestine, and cecum, but higher values are observed in colon

  11. Safety evaluation of probiotic bifidobacteria by analysis of mucin degradation activity and translocation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Fumiaki; Muto, Masamichi; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Aihara, Hiroaki; Ohashi, Yuji; Fujisawa, Tomohiko

    2010-04-01

    Although probiotic-containing nutrient formulas for infants and toddlers have become very popular, some adverse effects related to translocation of probiotic strains have been reported. We assessed the safety of probiotic bifidobacteria that have been used in clinical investigations and proven to have beneficial effects, by analyzing mucin degradation activity and translocation ability. Mucin degradation activities of three probiotic bifidobacteria strains; Bifidobacterium longum BB536, Bifidobacterium breve M-16V and Bifidobacterium infantis M-63, were evaluated by three in vitro tests comprising growth in liquid medium, SDS-PAGE analysis of degraded mucin residues, and degradation assay in Petri dish. All test strains and control type strains failed to grow in the liquid medium containing mucin as the only carbon source, although good growth was obtained from fecal sample. In the SDS-PAGE analyses of mucin residues and observation of mucinolytic zone in agar plate, the three test strains also showed no mucin degradation activity as the type strains, although fecal sample yielded positive results. In another study, a high dose of B. longum BB536 was administered orally to conventional mice to examine the translocation ability. No translocation into blood, liver, spleen, kidney and mesenteric lymph nodes was observed and no disturbance of epithelial cells and mucosal layer in the ileum, cecum and colon was detected, indicating that the test strain had no translocation ability and induced no damage to intestinal surface. These results resolve the concern about bacterial translocation when using bifidobacteria strains as probiotics, which have been tested in various clinical trials, supporting the continuous use of these probiotic strains without anxiety.

  12. Dietary fat content and fiber type modulate hind gut microbial community and metabolic markers in the pig.

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    Hui Yan

    Full Text Available Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose. High fat diets (HFD resulted in a higher (P<0.05 total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05 the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05 expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO, a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity.

  13. Equivocal colonic carcinogenicity of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis berger at high-dose level in a Wistar Hannover rat 2-y study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokohira, M; Matsuda, Y; Suzuki, S; Hosokawa, K; Yamakawa, K; Hashimoto, N; Saoo, K; Nabae, K; Doi, Y; Kuno, T; Imaida, K

    2009-03-01

    A 2-y carcinogenicity study of Aloe, Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger, a food additive, was conducted for assessment of toxicity and carcinogenic potential in the diet at doses of 4% or 0.8% in groups of male and female Wistar Hannover rats. Both sexes receiving 4% showed diarrhea, with loss of body weight gain. The survival rate in the 4% female group was significantly increased compared with control females after 2 y. Hematological and biochemical examination showed increase of RBC, Hb, and Alb in the 4% males. The cause of these increases could conceivably have been dehydration through diarrhea. AST and Na were significantly decreased in the males receiving 4%, and Cl was significantly decreased in both 4% and 0.8% males. A/G was significantly increased in the 4% females, and Cl was significantly decreased (0.8%) in the female group. Histopathologically, both sexes receiving 4% showed severe sinus dilatation of ileocecal lymph nodes, and yellowish pigmentation of ileocecal lymph nodes and renal tubules. Adenomas or adenocarcinomas in the cecum, colon, and rectum were observed in 4% males but not in the 0.8% and control male groups. Similarly, in females, adenomas in the colon were also observed in the 4% but not 0.8% and control groups. In conclusion, Aloe, used as a food additive, exerted equivocal carcinogenic potential at 4% high-dose level on colon in the 2-y carcinogenicity study in rats. Aloe is not carcinogenic at nontoxic-dose levels and that carcinogenic potential in at 4% high-dose level on colon is probably due to irritation of the intestinal tract by diarrhea. PMID:19323775

  14. "Mass-forming" variant of ischemic colitis is a distinct entity with predilection for the proximal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Tze S; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Odze, Robert D; Srivastava, Amitabh

    2015-09-01

    We systematically evaluated the clinicopathologic features and outcome of a rare, unusual variant of ischemic colitis that presents as a mass lesion mimicking malignancy on imaging or colonoscopy. A retrospective search was performed for cases with a histologic diagnosis of ischemic colitis and a clinical impression of malignancy. Of the 23 patients initially identified, 4 were excluded because clinical and histologic review showed mucosal prolapse (n=1), discrete colon polyp (n=2), and a diverticular mass (n=1) without concern for malignancy. The mass-forming variant of ischemic colitis (n=19) was seen predominantly in elderly (mean age 71.8 y) women (63.2%) with a striking predilection for the right colon (13/19), particularly the cecum (n=6). Abdominal pain (52.6%) and hematochezia (26.3%) were the most common presenting symptoms. A computed tomography scan showed segmental thickening suspicious for malignancy in 6/8 patients. Colonoscopy revealed an exophytic (n=16) or stricturing (n=3) mass with a mean size of 4.67 cm. Mucosal biopsies showed features typical for ischemic colitis in all cases. A colectomy was performed in 4 cases. In 2, the mass-like appearance was due to marked submucosal and mural edema, whereas in the other 2 cases, with a malignant stricture-like lesion, marked submucosal fibrosis and cholesterol emboli were present. No malignancy was identified on follow-up in any patient (mean 39.9 mo). Follow-up colonoscopy was performed in 7 patients 1 to 32 weeks after initial presentation and showed resolution of the mass in all cases. Awareness of this rare variant of ischemic colitis will prevent unnecessary resections in these patients. PMID:26034865

  15. Fermentable non-starch polysaccharides increases the abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas in ileal microbial community of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, E; Roos, S; Liu, H Y; Lindberg, J E

    2014-11-01

    Most plant-origin fiber sources used in pig production contains a mixture of soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The knowledge about effects of these sources of NSP on the gut microbiota and its fermentation products is still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of feeding diets with native sources of NSP on the ileal and fecal microbial composition and the dietary impact on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid. The experiment comprised four diets and four periods in a change-over design with seven post valve t-cecum cannulated growing pigs. The four diets were balanced to be similar in NSP content and included one of four fiber sources, two diets were rich in pectins, through inclusion of chicory forage (CFO) and sugar beet pulp, and two were rich in arabinoxylan, through inclusion of wheat bran (WB) and grass meal. The gut microbial composition was assessed with terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism and the abundance of Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas and the β-xylosidase gene, xynB, were assessed with quantitative PCR. The gut microbiota did not cluster based on NSP structure (arabinoxylan or pectin) rather, the effect was to a high degree ingredient specific. In pigs fed diet CFO, three TRFs related to Prevotellaceae together consisted of more than 25% of the fecal microbiota, which is about 3 to 23 times higher (Pchicory pectin increased the acetic acid proportion in both ileal digesta and feces. PMID:25046106

  16. The clinical and radiological observation of the intususception in infancy and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intussusception is the invagination of one portion of the intestine into the contiguous distal segment. During infancy and childhood it is the most common cause of acquired intestinal obstruction. This is a clinical and radiological study of 120 cases who visited our Chonnam National University Hospital from January 1975 to August 1979. The results were summarized as follows; 1. Age, sex and seasonal incidence. In 120 cases, 88.3% of the patients were under the one year of age and peak incidence occurred from 4 to 12 month of age. In sex distribution, male showed definitely higher incidence than in female patients with the ratio of 2.2 : 1. Although the disease occurs the year around, sprig and summer showed somewhat higher incidences. 2. The common symptoms and signs were vomiting (88.3%), bloody stool (81.7%), palpable mass (66.7%), and irritability (29.2%) in order of the frequency. 3. The common x-ray findings of plain abdomen were moderate dilatation of gas filled bowels loop (62.8%), obliteration of the gas shadow in the cecum ascending colon (5.0%), and soft tissue mass density (43%)> 4. The most common obstructing point found by barium enema was at the hepatic flexure. 5. The overall reduction rate by hydrostatic barium reduction was 69.4%, and this rate was increased in the following cases: 1) the duration of symptoms under the 12 hours (89.2%) and between 13 of 24 hour (70%). 2) no evidence of severe small bowel obstruction. 3) in the cases of ileocecal, ileocolic or colocolic of the type of intussusception. 6. Recurrence rate was 4.2%. 7. Mortality rate in 120 cases of intussusception was 2.5%.

  17. Perforated peptic ulcer in an adolescent boy with acute appendicitis: a case report

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    Aazam Khorassani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer disease is one of the most common GI disorders. Perforation has the highest mortality rate of any complication of ulcer disease, while early diagno-sis and emergency treatment save patient life.Case presentation: This paper reports an adolescent boy admitted to the Ziaeian University Hospital. He suffered from severe abdominal pain with dyspnea had been started since past three hours. Periumbilical pain started from past 2-3 days, gradually localized to the right lower quadrant. He had anorexia without nausea and vomiting. He was tachycardic and tachypneic, but he did not have fever. On physical examination, bowel sound was hypoactive, there was generalize tenderness, guarding and rebound tender-ness focused in the right lower quadrant and suprapubic region. Laboratory finding indicated leukocytosis. Chest X-ray showed free air under diaphragm. Once the diagno-sis has been made, the patient was given analgesia and antibiotics, resuscitated with isotonic fluid, and taken to the operating room. Laparotomy was implemented through a midline incision. There was bile secretion in the peritoneal cavity. Appendix was inflamated. Cecum and ileum were normal. A small perforation, 4mm in size was detected in first portion of duodenum. Appendectomy and omental patch repair were done. Ten days later, the patient was discharged in a good state. Serologic test for helicobacter pylori was negative.Conclusion: Stomach and duodenal perforation should be considered in patients with-out peptic ulcer disease, especially in children and adolescents with sudden and severe abdominal pain who are admitted to the hospital for other diseases. Because some patients present with peptic ulcer complications that are seemingly exacerbated by stressful life events.

  18. Differential effects of energy balance on experimentally-induced colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah J McCaskey; Elizabeth A Rondini; Ingeborg M Langohr; Jenifer I Fenton

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To characterize the influence of diet-induced changes in body fat on colitis severity in SMAD3-/-mice.METHODS:SMAD3-/-mice (6-8 wk of age) were randomly assigned to receive a calor