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Sample records for cecropia pachystachya trec

  1. PHOSPHATE AND INOCULATION WITH ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON THE GROWTH OF Cecropia pachystachya (Trec SEEDLINGS FÓSFORO E INOCULAÇÃO COM FUNGOS MICORRÍZICOS ARBUSCULARES NO ESTABELECIMENTO DE MUDAS DE EMBAÚBA (Cecropia pachystachya Trec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (FMA in different levels of P2O5 on the growth of Cecropia pachystachya seedlings in the field. The study consisted of a 5x2 factorial with five levels of P2O5 (zero, 85, 170, 255 and 340 mg.kg-1, with and ithout inoculation with a mixture of FMA. It was used four replications, each one with twelve seedlings. The seeds were sowed in plastic tubes with capacity of 50 cm3 of substratum and stored for 120 days. After this period the seedlings were transplanted to the field, where they remained for another 150 days. Seedling diameter and height were measured at 60 and 120 days, aerial part and root dry matter, and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Diameter, height, leaf area, aerial part dry matter and the number of surviving seedlings were determined after 150 days. None of the factors tested had any effect on seedling growth with one exception; inoculated plants with FMA had more root dry matter. Plants inoculated with smaller doses of P2O5 showed a larger percentage of surviving individuals and more vigorous seedlings. Results suggest that in low fertility soils of and subject to the hydric stress the C. pachystachya seedlings should be inoculated with FMA.

    KEY-WORDS: Native vegetation; mycorrhiza fungi; native species; seedling production; inoculation.

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA em diferentes doses de P2O5 na formação de mudas de embaúba (Cecropia pachystachya e no seu estabelecimento em campo. O estudo constou de um experimento fatorial 5x2, sendo cinco doses de P2O5

  2. Herança e desequilíbrio de ligação em sete locos isoenzimáticos de Cecropia pachystachya. Inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in sevem isozymes loci of Cecropia pachystachya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Arruda RIBAS

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seis sistemas enzimáticos (ACP,G6PDH, IDH, PGI, PGM e SKDH, codificandosete locos polimórficos (Acp-3, G6pdh-1, Idh-1,Pgi-2, Pgm-1, Pgm-2 e Skdh-1, foram investigadospara a herança e desequilíbrio de ligação emCecropia pachystachya Trec. A herança mendelianafoi confirmada para todos os locos avaliados.Desvios significativos da razão de segregaçãoesperada 1:1 foram detectados apenas em umaprogênies de árvore heterozigótica. O desequilíbriode ligação foi examinado para 21 pares de locosisoenzimáticos, não sendo detectados desequilíbriosentre nenhum deles e, assim, estes podem serutilizados em subseqüentes estudos do sistemade reprodução, diversidade e estrutura genética deC. pachystachya.

  3. Cecropia pachystachya: A Species with Expressive In Vivo Topical Anti-Inflammatory and In Vitro Antioxidant Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ramos Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia pachystachya is a species traditionally used in Brazil to treat inflammation. This work aims to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of C. pachystachya (CPM and to perform its chemical fingerprint by HPLC-DAD. The topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the mouse models of acute ear inflammation induced by croton oil, arachidonic acid, capsaicin, EPP, phenol, and chronic inflammation induced by multiple application of croton oil. The in vitro antioxidant effect of CPM was investigated using DPPH, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching, and TBARS assays. HPLC analysis was performed to quantify the antioxidant phenolics orientin, isoorientin, and chlorogenic acid previously identified in CPM. CPM exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effect in the acute models, in some cases comparable to the reference drugs. Histopathological analysis showed a moderate chronic skin anti-inflammatory effect with decrease in vasodilation, edema, cell infiltration, and epidermal hyperproliferation. It also showed strong in vitro antioxidant activity. The contents of orientin, isoorientin, and chlorogenic acid were 66.5 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 0.7, and 5.4 ± 0.2 µg/mg extract, respectively. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of CPM could be based on its antioxidant properties, although other effects are probably involved, including COX inhibition and other mechanisms.

  4. Cecropia pachystachya: a species with expressive in vivo topical anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Natália Ramos; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; da Silva, Josiane Mello; Mendes, Renata de Freitas; da Costa, Juliana de Carvalho; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Castañon, Maria Christina Marques Nogueira; Scio, Elita

    2014-01-01

    Cecropia pachystachya is a species traditionally used in Brazil to treat inflammation. This work aims to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of C. pachystachya (CPM) and to perform its chemical fingerprint by HPLC-DAD. The topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the mouse models of acute ear inflammation induced by croton oil, arachidonic acid, capsaicin, EPP, phenol, and chronic inflammation induced by multiple application of croton oil. The in vitro antioxidant effect of CPM was investigated using DPPH, reducing power, β -carotene bleaching, and TBARS assays. HPLC analysis was performed to quantify the antioxidant phenolics orientin, isoorientin, and chlorogenic acid previously identified in CPM. CPM exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effect in the acute models, in some cases comparable to the reference drugs. Histopathological analysis showed a moderate chronic skin anti-inflammatory effect with decrease in vasodilation, edema, cell infiltration, and epidermal hyperproliferation. It also showed strong in vitro antioxidant activity. The contents of orientin, isoorientin, and chlorogenic acid were 66.5 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 0.7, and 5.4 ± 0.2 µg/mg extract, respectively. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of CPM could be based on its antioxidant properties, although other effects are probably involved, including COX inhibition and other mechanisms.

  5. Frugivoria de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae e seus efeitos na germinação das sementes

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    Therys Midori Sato

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os morcegos frugívoros são componentes fundamentais na manutenção e regeneração de florestas tropicais, pois ao se alimentarem, promovem a mobilidade das sementes dos frutos em que se alimentaram. Muito se discute sobre os efeitos da passagem das sementes no trato digestivo dos morcegos sobre a taxa e velocidade de germinação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi examinar a dieta das espécies de morcegos frugívoros na Estação Experimental de Itirapina para descobrir quais utilizam significativamente os frutos de Cecropia pachystachya. Foi testada a importância dos quirópteros na dispersão e germinação desta espécie de planta. Para isso, os morcegos foram capturados no período de agosto de 2005 a julho de 2006, suas fezes foram recolhidas e as sementes de C. pachystachya separadas. Os testes de germinação foram feitos para duas espécies de morcegos, Artibeus liuratus e Platyrrhinus lineatus, e suas taxas de germinação comparadas com amostras de sementes coletadas da planta (controle. Foram feitos cinco repetições com 30 sementes em cada gerbox para cada teste. Os testes foram realizados em câmaras germinadoras " Mangelsdorf" , com temperatura de 25°C, luminosidade e umidade constante por 40 dias. Houve uma alta porcentagem de germinação das sementes encontradas em A. lituratus (79,3% e não diferiu estatisticamente das sementes controle (76%. Esses resultados foram superiores a P. lineatus (52%. Em relação ao Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG, esse resultado foi semelhante, sendo 2,73 para A. lituratus, 2,66 para o controle e 1,80 para P. lineatus. Com esse resultado, tem-se que a passagem das sementes de C. pachystachya pelos morcegos não aumentou a porcentagem, nem a velocidade de germinação delas, quando comparado com o controle, sendo até menor para P. lineatus. Com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que, o efeito da passagem do trato digestivo dos morcegos na germinação pode sofrer influências que

  6. Nest structure and occurrence of three species of Azteca (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae in non-floodable and floodable pantanal areas Arquitetura de ninho e ocorrência de três espécies de Azteca (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae em ambiente alagável e não alagável no Pantanal

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    Alexsandro S. Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Cecropia pachystachya trees were examined in non-floodable and floodable areas to investigate the association between C. pachystachya and Azteca ants in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The species Azteca ovaticeps, Azteca isthmica, and Azteca alfari were found nesting inside domatia of C. pachystachya. A. ovaticeps was the most frequent species in the trees in the floodable area, while A. isthmica and A. alfari, in the non-floodable area. A. ovaticeps and A. isthmica maintained more entrance/exit holes in comparison to A. alfari. All Azteca species maintained entrance/exit holes in the closest domatia to the apical area of the branch, due to proximity to Müllerian and pearl bodies, suggesting that these species of Azteca were influenced by their environment during evolution and became specialized. All internodal septa of each examined branch were perforated by ants, indicating the branches were inhabited by a single colony.Foram analisadas 30 plantas de Cecropia pachystachya em cada ambiente alagável e não alagável no Pantanal sul-mato-grossense, Brasil, com o objetivo de investigar a associação entre formigas Azteca e C. pachystachya. Foram encontradas as espécies Azteca ovaticeps, Azteca isthmica e Azteca alfari nidificando nas domáceas da planta. A. ovaticeps foi mais frequente em plantas de área alagável, enquanto A. isthmica e A. alfari em plantas em área não alagável. A. ovaticeps e A. isthmica apresentaram maior quantidade de orifícios de entrada/saída em relação à A. alfari e todas as espécies mantêm próximo da região apical do ramo, orifícios de entrada/saída nas domáceas, devido à proximidade com os corpúsculos müellerianos e pérola. Isto é, essas espécies de Azteca especializaram-se ao longo da evolução influenciadas pelo ambientes. Todos os septos internodais de cada ramo analisados apresentaram-se perfurados pelas formigas, sugerindo que os mesmos são habitados por uma única colônia.

  7. Taxa e velocidade de germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae ingeridas por Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae = Germination rate and velocity of seeds of Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae eaten by Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

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    Ricardo Anghinoni Bocchese

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o morcego frugívoro Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor na germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya, sendo avaliadas a taxa e a velocidade de germinação das sementes em diferentes condições. Osmorcegos e os frutos foram coletados na região central de Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; o experimento foi dividido em cinco tratamentos. O primeiro contou com sementes retiradas dos frutos; o segundo, com sementes retiradas das fezes, e o terceirodividido em três tratamentos ácidos, com concentrações de pH 1, 2 e 3. As sementes que passaram pelo sistema digestório dos animais germinaram com maior velocidade (p 0,05 quandocomparada às sementes sem tratamento. O tratamento com pH igual a 3 foi estatisticamente igual ao grupo sem tratamento e ao grupo experimental, com sementes retiradas das fezes, indicando o valor aproximado da concentração dos ácidos estomacais desta espéciefrugívora. Conclui-se que Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor do aumento da velocidade de germinação nas sementes desta espécie vegetal, refletindo na importância desta espécie frugívora na manutenção ecológica dos ecossistemas tropicais, principalmenteem áreas de Cerrado.The objective with this study was to verify whether frugivorous bat Artibeus lituratus can be considered an efficient germination inducer for Cecropia pachystachya seeds. Bats and fruits were collected in Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the experimentbeing divided in five treatments: one composed by seeds taken from natural fresh fruits, another with seeds taken from the bats’ excrements, and the last one sub-divided in three sub-groups with different acid treatments that corresponded to pH 1, 2 and 3. The seeds that passed through the digestive tract of the animals presented a higher germination velocity index (p 0.05 when compared with the seeds without any treatment. The

  8. Taxa e velocidade de germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae ingeridas por Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.879 Germination rate and velocity of seeds of Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae eaten by Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.879

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    Eliane Cristine Vicente

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o morcego frugívoro Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor na germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya, sendo avaliadas a taxa e a velocidade de germinação das sementes em diferentes condições. Os morcegos e os frutos foram coletados na região central de Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; o experimento foi dividido em cinco tratamentos. O primeiro contou com sementes retiradas dos frutos; o segundo, com sementes retiradas das fezes, e o terceiro dividido em três tratamentos ácidos, com concentrações de pH 1, 2 e 3. As sementes que passaram pelo sistema digestório dos animais germinaram com maior velocidade (p 0,05 quando comparada às sementes sem tratamento. O tratamento com pH igual a 3 foi estatisticamente igual ao grupo sem tratamento e ao grupo experimental, com sementes retiradas das fezes, indicando o valor aproximado da concentração dos ácidos estomacais desta espécie frugívora. Conclui-se que Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor do aumento da velocidade de germinação nas sementes desta espécie vegetal, refletindo na importância desta espécie frugívora na manutenção ecológica dos ecossistemas tropicais, principalmente em áreas de Cerrado.The objective with this study was to verify whether frugivorous bat Artibeus lituratus can be considered an efficient germination inducer for Cecropia pachystachya seeds. Bats and fruits were collected in Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the experiment being divided in five treatments: one composed by seeds taken from natural fresh fruits, another with seeds taken from the bats’ excrements, and the last one sub-divided in three sub-groups with different acid treatments that corresponded to pH 1, 2 and 3. The seeds that passed through the digestive tract of the animals presented a higher germination velocity index (p 0.05 when compared with the seeds without any treatment. The

  9. An HPLC-DAD method to quantification of main phenolic compounds from leaves of Cecropia Species

    OpenAIRE

    Geison M. Costa; Caroline F. Ortmann; Eloir P. Schenkel; Reginatto,Flávio H.

    2011-01-01

    An efficient and reproducible HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of major compounds (chlorogenic acid, isoorientin, orientin and isovitexin) present in the leaves of two Cecropia species, C. glaziovii and C. pachystachya. From the leaves of C. glaziovii and C. pachystachya were isolated the C-glycosylflavones isoorientin and isovitexin and identified on both species chlorogenic acid (3-O-caffeoylquinic acid) and the O-glycosylflavonol isoquercitrin...

  10. An HPLC-DAD method to quantification of main phenolic compounds from leaves of Cecropia species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Geison M.; Ortmann, Caroline F.; Schenkel, Eloir P.; Reginatto, Flavio H., E-mail: freginatto@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2011-07-01

    An efficient and reproducible HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of major compounds (chlorogenic acid, isoorientin, orientin and isovitexin) present in the leaves of two Cecropia species, C. glaziovii and C. pachystachya. From the leaves of C. glaziovii and C. pachystachya were isolated the C-glycosylflavones isoorientin and isovitexin and identified on both species chlorogenic acid (3-O-caffeoylquinic acid) and the O-glycosylflavonol isoquercitrin. The C-glycosylflavone orientin was isolated only from C. pachystachya. Chlorogenic acid was the major compound in both species (11.1 mg g{sup -1} of extract of C. glaziovii and 27.2 mg g{sup -1} of extract of C. pachystachya) and for the flavonoids quantified, isovitexin was the main C-glycosylflavonoid for C. glaziovii (4.6 mg g{sup -1} of extract) and isoorientin the main one for C. pachystachya (17.3 mg g{sup -1} of extract). (author)

  11. TREC 2014 Web Track Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-18

    automatic query reformulation . These algorithms aim to increase retrieval 8 29 8 28 7 26 7 27 6 27 3 28 4 28 5 29 2 29 6 25 1 29 4 25 8 25 7 25 6 26 0 25 3...sensitive retrieval, building upon the resources created by the TREC Web track. 8 Acknowledgements We thank Jamie Callan, David Pane and the Language

  12. BJUT at TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    of Technology, Beijing 100124, China 2. Beijing Key Laboratory of Trusted Computing, Beijing 100124, China 3. National Engineering Laboratory for...CTISCP, Beijing 100124, China ⇤yangzhen@bjut.edu.cn Abstract In this paper we described our efforts for TREC contextual suggestion task. Our goal of this

  13. TREC 2014 Temporal Summarization Track Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    TREC 2014 Temporal Summarization Track Overview Javed Aslam Fernando Diaz Matthew Ekstrand-Abueg Richard McCreadie Virgil Pavlu Tetsuya Sakai...string, time): u = (u.string, u.t). For example u = (“The hurricane was upgraded to category 4”, 1330169580) represents an update describing the... hurricane category, now 4, pushed out by system S at UNIX time 1330169580 (i.e. 1330169580 seconds after 0:00 UTC on January 1, 1970). In this year’s

  14. Overview of the TREC 2008 Legal Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Judge Grimm, writing in Victor Stanley v. Creative Pipe [13], went on to make this rather extraordinary set of observations about discovery of...results of the TREC Legal Track to date can be said to meet the judiciary’s ex- pectations, it is nevertheless the case that the opinion in Victor Stanley ...Crowley LLP), Joe Looby and Ryan Bilbrey (FTI Consulting), and the team from H5 (Todd Elmer, Jim Donahue, Misti Gerber , and others) for their

  15. The Second Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-2) [and] Overview of the Second Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-2) [and] Reflections on TREC [and] Automatic Routing and Retrieval Using Smart: TREC-2 [and] TREC and TIPSTER Experiments with INQUIRY [and] Large Test Collection Experiments on an Operational Interactive System: Okapi at TREC [and] Efficient Retrieval of Partial Documents [and] TREC Routing Experiments with the TRW/Paracel Fast Data Finder [and] CLARIT-TREC Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Donna; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of the second Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-2), an opinion paper about the program, and nine papers by participants that show a range of techniques used in TREC. Topics include traditional text retrieval and information technology, efficiency, the use of language processing techniques, unusual approaches to text retrieval,…

  16. The status of Cecropia (Urticaceae) introductions in Malesia: addressing the confusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conn, B.J.; Hadiah, J.T.; Webber, B.L.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the great global movement of plants in the 18th and 19th centuries, many valuable and commercial plants were sent from the Neotropics to Europe as seeds or as live specimens. Cecropia (Urticaceae) was in cultivation in England in 1789, yet species delimitation was not well-understood unti

  17. SOME STRENGTH AND RELATED PROPERTIES OF YAGRUMO HEMBRA (CECROPIA PELTATA) FROM PUERTO RICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluations of several mechanical and physical properties were conducted on specimens from five yagrumo hembra (Cecropia peltata) trees from Puerto...Dense yagrumo hembra resembles North American black cottonwood in both specific gravity and mechanical properties. Total shrinkage from green to the

  18. University of Delaware at TREC 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    which fit in the specified genre . We then aggregate all sets of results for a single user’s profile into one set of 50 ranked results, which is the...TREC 2014) held in Gaithersburg, Maryland, November 19-21, 2014. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology...randomly selected. 2.2 Submitted runs Our main idea is to maintain diversity among all the genres that suit the user’s taste. We have submitted two runs

  19. ECNU at TREC 2015: Microblog Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    specific settings for each run is as follows: ECNURUNA1(0.17, 0.3, 0.3, 0.5), 1 https://github.com/lintool/ twitter -tools/wiki/TREC-2013- API -Specifications...gather a parallel sample of tweets from the Twitter public stream during the evaluation period, i.e., from July 20, 2015, 00:00:00 UTC to July 29...2 https://github.com/lintool/ twitter -tools/wiki/Sampling-the-public- Twitter -stream 3 http://www.nltk.org/ 4 https://github.com/lintool/ twitter -tools

  20. University of glasgow at TREC 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Macdonald, C.; Plachouras, V.;

    2006-01-01

    In TREC 2006, we participate in three tasks of the Terabyte and Enterprise tracks. We continue experiments using Terrier1, our modular and scalable Information Retrieval (IR) platform. Furthering our research into the Divergence From Randomness (DFR) framework of weighting models, we introduce two......-independent evidence, in the form of prior probabilities. In the Enterprise track, we test our new voting model for expert search. Our experiments focus on the need for candidate length normalisation, and on how retrieval performance can be enhanced by applying retrieval techniques to the underlying ranking...

  1. Seasonal variations in the amount of isoorientin and isovitexin in cecropia glaziovii sneth. leaves over a two-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Geison; Caroline F. Ortmann; Eloir P. Schenkel; Reginatto,Flávio H.

    2014-01-01

    Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (Urticaceae) is a common tree from Southeast and South of Brazil, being widely used in traditional medicine to treat heart and respiratory conditions. C-glycosylflavonoids have being described as the major compounds for this genus, however, no seasonality studies of individual flavonoids was conducted for any Cecropia specie. In this work, the content of isoorientin and isovitexin in aqueous extract from the leaves of C glaziovii during a two-year period was determine...

  2. HU_DB at TREC 2014 Microblog Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    timeline is simply a list of representative tweets, sorted according to time. As part of the TREC framework, an online API to a historical Twitter dataset...Microblogging platforms, such as Twitter , Google+ and Tumblr, are a popular means to share and discover timely information. Such platforms differ from standard...The Microblog track at TREC 2014 focused only on Twitter , and defined the following task, called the Tweet Timeline Generation (TTG) task: Task 1

  3. CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search Jiepu Jiang1, Wei Lu1, Haozhen Zhao2 1 Center for Studies of...AND SUBTITLE CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...15. J. Jiang, W. Lu, D. Liu. CSIR at TREC 2007. In Proceedings of the 16th Text REtrieval Conference (TREC 2007), 2007. 16. J. Jiang, W. Lu. IR

  4. Myxomycetes occurring on Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae in fragments of Atlantic Rainforest Myxomycetes ocorrentes em Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae em fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia adenopus (Ambay pumpwood is a frequent native species on the edges of woods and clearings and is considered a pioneer species in re-colonized areas. Despite its distribution from Mexico to Argentina, this substrate has never been examined in detail regarding the presence of Myxomycetes. In the present study, the myxobiota associated with leaf debris of C. adenopus was investigated in two Atlantic Rainforest conservation units located in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte. Five specimens and one plasmodium were obtained directly from the field and 87 were developed in 43.7% of 200 moist-chamber cultures set up separately with blades and petioles. Fifteen species were identified and illustrated. The two predominant groups were representatives of Trichiales and Physarales. Didymium columella-cavum was recorded for the second time in Brazil and in the world.Cecropia adenopus (embaúba é uma espécie nativa, frequente em bordas de matas e clareiras e tida como espécie pioneira em áreas recolonizadas. Apesar de ocorrer desde o México até a Argentina este substrato nunca tinha sido examinado com detalhe quanto à presença de Myxomycetes. No presente estudo, a mixobiota associada a folhas mortas de C. adenopus foi investigada em duas Unidades de Conservação da Floresta Atlântica, situadas no estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Cinco espécimes e um plasmódio foram obtidos diretamente no campo e 87 desenvolveram-se em 43,7% de 200 câmaras-úmidas, montadas com lâminas foliares e pecíolos separadamente. Quinze espécies de Myxomycetes foram identificadas e ilustradas. Os dois grupos predominantes pertencem às ordens Trichiales e Physarales. Didymium columella-cavum foi encontrado pela segunda vez no Brasil e no mundo.

  5. Effects of light and temperature on seed germination in Cecropia hololeuca Miq. (Cecropiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoi Simone

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Cecropia hololeuca were submitted to regimes of constant and alternating temperatures, associated with photoperiods of white light, "shade light" and continuous darkness under controlled conditions in laboratory. Seeds did not germinate at constant temperatures of 10°C to 20°C and above 35°C. Seeds only germinated in the darkness when the temperature was alternated. "Shade light" inhibited germination. We concluded that the regime of alternating temperatures suppressed the light effects on seed germination of this species.

  6. University of Lugano at TREC 2009 Blog Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Texas School of Information at TREC 2007. In Proc. of the 2007 Text Retrieval Conf, 2007. [4] J. L. Elsas, J. Arguello, J. Callan, and J. G. Carbonell ...aggregation operators in multicriteria decision making. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern., 18(1):183–190, 1988. [14] Y. Yang, J. G. Carbonell , R. D. Brown, T

  7. Drexel at TREC 2014 Federated Web Search Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    TREC 2014) held in Gaithersburg, Maryland, November 19-21, 2014. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and... genre of content, e.g. news, blogs, encyclopedia, etc. The user’s query may have a strong indication of vertical intent, e.g. ”arrow icon”, which is

  8. Overview of the TREC 2013 Federated Web Search Track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeester, Thomas; Trieschnigg, Dolf; Nguyen, Dong; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2014-01-01

    The TREC Federated Web Search track is intended to promote research related to federated search in a realistic web setting, and hereto provides a large data collection gathered from a series of online search engines. This overview paper discusses the results of the first edition of the track, FedWeb

  9. Overview of the TREC 2014 Federated Web Search Track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeester, Thomas; Trieschnigg, Dolf; Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Zhou, Ke; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2014-01-01

    The TREC Federated Web Search track facilitates research in topics related to federated web search, by providing a large realistic data collection sampled from a multitude of online search engines. The FedWeb 2013 challenges of Resource Selection and Results Merging challenges are again included in

  10. Continental-scale patterns of Cecropia reproductive phenology: evidence from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Munoz, François; Stevenson, Pablo R; Paine, C E Timothy; Sarmiento, Carolina; Sabatier, Daniel; Heuret, Patrick

    2011-08-22

    Plant phenology is concerned with the timing of recurring biological events. Though phenology has traditionally been studied using intensive surveys of a local flora, results from such surveys are difficult to generalize to broader spatial scales. In this study, contrastingly, we assembled a continental-scale dataset of herbarium specimens for the emblematic genus of Neotropical pioneer trees, Cecropia, and applied Fourier spectral and cospectral analyses to investigate the reproductive phenology of 35 species. We detected significant annual, sub-annual and continuous patterns, and discuss the variation in patterns within and among climatic regions. Although previous studies have suggested that pioneer species generally produce flowers continually throughout the year, we found that at least one third of Cecropia species are characterized by clear annual flowering behaviour. We further investigated the relationships between phenology and climate seasonality, showing strong associations between phenology and seasonal variations in precipitation and temperature. We also verified our results against field survey data gathered from the literature. Our findings indicate that herbarium material is a reliable resource for use in the investigation of large-scale patterns in plant phenology, offering a promising complement to local intensive field studies.

  11. High-speed countercurrent chromatography as a valuable tool to isolate C-glycosylflavones from Cecropia lyratiloba Miquel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R R; Moraes, M C C; Castilho, R O; Valente, A P; Carauta, J P P; Lopes, D; Kaplan, M A C

    2003-01-01

    A new apigeninglycoside, apigenin 6-C-galactosyl-6"-O-beta-galactopyranoside (1), isoorientin, and a mixture of orientin and isovitexin were isolated from leaves of Cecropia lyratiloba by high-speed countercurrent chromatography using a solvent system containing ethyl acetate, butanol, methanol and water. The structural elucidation of 1 was based on NMR spectroscopy.

  12. THE TEST OF APPLYING RADAR TREC WIND IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL VARIATIONAL ASSIMILATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Qi-lin; XUE Ji-shan; CHEN Zhi-tong; LIU Chun-xia

    2006-01-01

    The application of radar-derived TREC wind to 3DVAR assimilation system of GRAPeS-3DVar developed by Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences is introduced. The resulting fundamental feature is estimated when radar TREC wind is assimilated into GRAPeS-3DVar system. It was found that radar TREC wind has better potential of the application in GRAPeS-3DVar system and can effectively improve the analyzed results. Moreover a numerical experiment is performed in which tropical cyclones make landfall and transform;it also showed that the predicted effect can be improved when the radar TREC wind is added into GRAPeS-3DVar system.

  13. The genus Cecropia: a biological clock to estimate the age of recently disturbed areas in the Neotropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Camilo Zalamea

    Full Text Available Forest successional processes following disturbance take decades to play out, even in tropical forests. Nonetheless, records of vegetation change in this ecosystem are scarce, increasing the importance of the chronosequence approach to study forest recovery. However, this approach requires accurate dating of secondary forests, which until now was a difficult and/or expensive task. Cecropia is a widespread and abundant pioneer tree genus of the Neotropics. Here we propose and validate a rapid and straightforward method to estimate the age of secondary forest patches based on morphological observations of Cecropia trees. We found that Cecropia-inferred ages were highly correlated with known ages of the forest. We also demonstrate that Cecropia can be used to accurately date disturbances and propose twenty-one species distributed all over the geographical range of the genus as potential secondary forest chronometer species. Our method is limited in applicability by the maximal longevity of Cecropia individuals. Although the oldest chronosequence used in this study was 20 years old, we argue that at least for the first four decades after disturbance, the method described in this study provides very accurate estimations of secondary forest ages. The age of pioneer trees provides not only information needed to calculate the recovery of carbon stocks that would help to improve forest management, but also provides information needed to characterize the initial floristic composition and the rates of species remigration into secondary forest. Our contribution shows how successional studies can be reliably and inexpensively extended without the need to obtain forest ages based on expensive or potentially inaccurate data across the Neotropics.

  14. Estudo comparativo das madeiras de cecropia palmata (imbaúba) e eucalyptus grandis para produção de celulose e papel

    OpenAIRE

    Pupo, Camyla Heckler [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Much remains to be studied on the Amazonian species, among many varieties can be species with excellent characteristics for the production of pulp and paper that have not yet had their technological potential revealed. The Cecropia palmata is native to the Amazon, which initially presents excellent characteristics for pulp production. Therefore, this study aimed to study the quality of the native wood Cecropia palmata Amazon for the production of pulp and paper, through a comparative study wi...

  15. UTD at TREC 2014: Query Expansion for Clinical Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Wikipedia and PubMed corpus statistics in order to au- tomatically extract keywords. Extracted key- words were then expanded by relying on struc- tured...designed for the TREC-CDS track in 2014 used the open access subset of the PubMed Central1 (PMC) collection of scientific arti- cles as retrieved on...query expansion in the four o cially submitted runs. Each of these systems exploits both Wikipedia and PubMed corpus statistics in order to au

  16. RUC at TREC 2014: Select Resources Using Topic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    them being observed (i.e. sampled). To infer the topic Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Selection. In CIKM 2009, pages 1277-1286. [10] M. Baillie, M. Carmen, and F. Crestani. A Multiple- Collection Latent Topic Model for Federated...RUC at TREC 2014: Select Resources Using Topic Models Qiuyue Wang, Shaochen Shi, Wei Cao School of Information Renmin University of China Beijing

  17. BUPT_PRIS at TREC 2014 Knowledge Base Acceleration Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Abstract This paper describes the system in Vital Filtering and Streaming Slot Filling task of TREC 2014 Knowledge Base Acceleration Track. In the Vital ...can help update a knowledge base like Wikipedia. The KBA2014 includes three tasks: Vital Filtering(VF) task ,Streaming Slot Filling task and Accelerate...Create. The third task is new open track which is not evaluated. For the Vital Filtering task, given a fixed list of target entities from

  18. TREC Based Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Jet; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; van der Burg, Mirjam; van Montfrans, JM

    2015-01-01

    Background Newborn screening (NBS) by quantifying T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in neonatal dried blood spots (DBS) enables early diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID). In recent years, different screening algorithms for TREC based SCID screening were reported. Purp

  19. Distributed Non-Parametric Representations for Vital Filtering: UW at TREC KBA 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Text REtrieval Conference (TREC), 2013. Blei, David . Probabilistic topic models. Communications of the ACM, pp. 7784, 2012...Conference (TREC 2012), 2012. Hinton, G. E., McClelland , J. L., and Rumelhart, D. E. Distributed Representations. In Parallel Distributed Processing

  20. K2U at TREC 2014 KBA Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    this purpose, a language model built from a set of non-relevant documents for the target entity is used. More details are found in Section III-C. Then...useful is based on another language model built from the Wikipedia article for the target entity. The details are described in Section III-D. 2trec...Graduate School of System Informatics,Kobe, Hy??go, Japan , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  1. In vivo potential hypoglycemic and in vitro vasorelaxant effects of Cecropia glazioviistandardized extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Paula Arend

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Cecropia glaziovii Snethl, Urticaceae, extracts on the oral glucose tolerance curve, on glycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and vasorelaxant effect after the extraction process, and to standardize the extractive solutions. The effects of the process variables and their interactions were calculated in relation to dry residue, pH, total phenolic results and chemical marker content. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts (400 mg/kg, chlorogenic (2 or 15 mg/kg and caffeic acids (2 mg/kg were investigated on the oral glucose tolerance curve and on glycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of ethanol extracts 4d20 and 8d20 significantly improved glucose tolerance in the hyperglycemic rats. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids, as well as the association of the compounds were able to significantly reduce glycemia after oral gavage treatments. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts did not alter the glycemia. The aqueous extracts (8020 and 9030 and only the higher dose of chlorogenic acid presented a significant effect on serum glucose lowering in diabetic rats. Additionally, the IC50 reveals that the ethanol extracts presented more potent vasodilator effects than the aqueous extracts in aortic rings. This study shows that C. glazioviistandardized extracts exhibits antihyperglycemic action, is able to improve glucose tolerance and has a potent vascular relaxing effect. These results are probably linked to concentrations of the main phenolic compounds of the extracts.

  2. Mid-infrared T-Recs spectroscopy of local lirgs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Díaz-Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta espectroscopia de alta resolución espacial con T-ReCS en la banda N (8 13 m de las regiones centrales (unos pocos kpc de tres galaxias infrarrojas (IR luminosas (LIRGs locales. Los espectros nucleares presentan una profunda banda de absorción de los silicatos a 9.7 m y la línea de emisión de [S IV]10:5 m en acuerdo con su clasificación como AGN. Las dos LIRGs con emisión en el IR medio no resuelta no muestran emisión PAH en 11:3 m en sus espectros nucleares. Para NGC 5135 los datos de T-ReCS nos han permitido resolver los espectros del núcleo, una región H II y la zona difusa entre ambos, en escalas menores que 2:500 600 pc. La zona difusa presenta emisión PAH brillante con un continuo débil, mientras que la región H II presenta emisión PAH con menor anchura equivalente y la línea de [Ne ii]12:8 m.

  3. Retrospective TREC testing of newborns with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and other primary immunodeficiency diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jilkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Manitoba, Canada, the overall incidence of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID is three-fold higher than the national average, with SCID overrepresented in two population groups: Mennonites and First Nations of Northern Cree ancestries. T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC assay is being used increasingly for neonatal screening for SCID in North America. However, the majority of SCID patients in Manitoba are T-cell-positive. Therefore it is likely that the TREC assay will not identify these infants. The goal of this study was to blindly and retrospectively perform TREC analysis in confirmed SCID patients using archived Guthrie cards. Thirteen SCID patients were tested: 5 T-negative SCID (3 with adenosine deaminase deficiency, 1 with CD3δ deficiency, and 1 unclassified and 8 T-positive SCID (5 with zeta chain-associated protein kinase (ZAP70 deficiency and 3 with inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase beta (IKKβ deficiency. As a non-SCID patient group, 5 Primary Immunodeficiency Disease (PID patients were studied: 1 T-negative PID (cartilage-hair hypoplasia and 4 T-positive PID (2 common immune deficiency (CID, 1 Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome, and 1 X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. Both patient groups required hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In addition, randomly-selected de-identified controls (n = 982 were tested. Results: all T-negative SCID and PID had zero TRECs. Low-TRECs were identified in 2 ZAP70 siblings, 1 CID patient as well as 5 preterm, 1 twin, and 4 de-identified controls. Conclusions: TREC method will identify T-negative SCID and T-negative PID. To identify other SCID babies, newborn screening in Manitoba must include supplemental targeted screening for ethnic-specific mutations.

  4. PolarTREC: Successful Methods and Tools for Attaining Broad Educational Impacts with Interdisciplinary Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K. M.; Warburton, J.; Owens, R.; Warnick, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    PolarTREC--Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded International Polar Year (IPY) project in which K-12 educators participate in hands-on field experiences in the polar regions, working closely with IPY scientists as a pathway to improving science education. Developing long-term teacher- researcher collaborations through PolarTREC ensures up-to-date climate change science content will permeate the K-12 education system long after the IPY. By infusing education with the cutting edge science from the polar regions, PolarTREC has already shown an increase in student and public knowledge of and interest in the polar regions and global climate change. Preliminary evaluations have shown that PolarTREC's program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes regarding the importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today's world. Researchers have been overwhelmingly satisfied with PolarTREC and cited several specific strengths, including the program's crucial link between the teachers' field research experiences and their classroom and the extensive training provided to teachers prior to their expedition. This presentation will focus on other successful components of the PolarTREC program and how researchers and organizations might use these tools to reach out to the public for long-term impacts. Best practices include strategies for working with educators and the development of an internet-based platform for teachers and researchers to interact with the public, combining several communication tools such as online journals and forums, real-time Internet seminars, lesson plans, activities, audio, and other educational resources that address a broad range of scientific

  5. PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Innovative Science Education from the Poles to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Breen, K.; Wiggins, H. V.; Larson, A.; Behr, S.

    2006-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program celebrating the International Polar Year (IPY) that will advance polar science education by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic. PolarTREC builds on the strengths of the existing TREC program in the Arctic, an NSF supported program managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the US (ARCUS), to embrace a wide range of activities occurring at both poles during and after IPY. PolarTREC will foster the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science and IPY. PolarTREC will enable thirty-six teachers to spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers investigating a wide range of IPY science themed topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. While in the field, teachers and researchers will communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of tools including satellite phones, online journals, podcasts and interactive "Live from IPY" calls and web-based seminars. The online outreach elements of the project convey these experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers. In addition to field research experiences, PolarTREC will support teacher professional development and a sustained community of teachers, scientists, and the public through workshops, Internet seminars, an e-mail listserve, and teacher peer groups. For further information on PolarTREC, contact Wendy Warnick, ARCUS Executive Director at warnick@arcus.org or 907-474-1600 or visit www.arcus.org/trec/

  6. The TREC/KREC assay for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with DiGeorge syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Froňková

    Full Text Available DiGeorge syndrome (DGS presents with a wide spectrum of thymic pathologies. Nationwide neonatal screening programs of lymphocyte production using T-cell recombination excision circles (TREC have repeatedly identified patients with DGS. We tested what proportion of DGS patients could be identified at birth by combined TREC and kappa-deleting element recombination circle (KREC screening. Furthermore, we followed TREC/KREC levels in peripheral blood (PB to monitor postnatal changes in lymphocyte production.TREC/KREC copies were assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR and were related to the albumin control gene in dry blood spots (DBSs from control (n = 56, severe immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID, n = 10 and DGS (n = 13 newborns. PB was evaluated in DGS children (n = 32, in diagnostic samples from SCID babies (n = 5 and in 91 controls.All but one DGS patient had TREC levels in the normal range at birth, albeit quantitative TREC values were significantly lower in the DGS cohort. One patient had slightly reduced KREC at birth. Postnatal DGS samples revealed reduced TREC numbers in 5 of 32 (16% patients, whereas KREC copy numbers were similar to controls. Both TREC and KREC levels showed a more pronounced decrease with age in DGS patients than in controls (p < 0.0001 for both in a linear model. DGS patients had higher percentages of NK cells at the expense of T cells (p < 0.0001. The patients with reduced TREC levels had repeated infections in infancy and developed allergy and/or autoimmunity, but they were not strikingly different from other patients. In 12 DGS patients with paired DBS and blood samples, the TREC/KREC levels were mostly stable or increased and showed similar kinetics in respective patients.The combined TREC/KREC approach with correction via control gene identified 1 of 13 (8% of DiGeorge syndrome patients at birth in our cohort. The majority of patients had TREC/KREC levels in the normal range.

  7. Does exogenic food benefit both partners in an ant-plant mutualism? The case of Cecropia obtusa and its guest Azteca plant-ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier; Orivel, Jérôme; Leroy, Céline

    2012-03-01

    In the mutualisms involving the myrmecophyte Cecropia obtusa and Azteca ovaticeps or A. alfari, both predatory, the ants defend their host trees from enemies and provide them with nutrients (myrmecotrophy). A. ovaticeps provisioned with prey and then (15)N-enriched food produced more individuals than did control colonies (not artificially provisioned). This was not true for A. alfari colonies, possibly due to differences in the degree of maturity of the colonies for the chosen range of host tree sizes (less than 3m in height). Myrmecotrophy was demonstrated for both Azteca species as provisioning the ants with (15)N-enriched food translated into higher δ(15)N values in host plant tissues, indicating that nitrogen passed from the food to the plant. Thus, the predatory activity of their guest ants benefits the Cecropia trees not only because the ants protect them from defoliators since most prey are phytophagous insects but also because the plant absorbs nutrients.

  8. MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Proanthocyanidins in Two Lowland Tropical Forest Species of Cecropia: A First Look at Their Chemical Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Van Huynh; John M. Bevington

    2014-01-01

    The structural chemistry of proanthocyanidin molecules has been investigated in temperate zone plants, but few studies have been done with plants of the Amazonian lowland tropical wet forests where herbivore pressure is more extensive and diverse. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we report unique properties of the proanthocyanidin structural chemistry in two neotropical Cecropia species, C. polystachya, a myrmecophyte with mutualistic ants, and C. sciadophylla, a non-myrmecophyte lacking mu...

  9. CWI and TU Delft at TREC 2013: Contextual Suggestion, Federated Web Search, KBA, and Web Tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellogín Kouki, A.; Gebremeskel, G.G.; He, J.; Lin, J.J.P.; Said, A.; Samar, T.; Vries, A.P. de; Vuurens, J.B.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work done at the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) and Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) for different tracks of TREC 2013. We participated in the Contextual Suggestion Track, the Federated Web Search Track, the Knowledge Base Acceleration (KBA) Trac

  10. The University of Amsterdam at TREC 2010: Session, Entity, and Relevance Feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, M.; He, J.; Hofmann, K.; Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.; Tsagkias, E.; Weerkamp, W.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the participation of the University of Amsterdam’s ILPS group in the session, entity, and relevance feedback track at TREC 2010. In the Session Track we explore the use of blind relevance feedback to bias a follow-up query towards or against the topics covered in documents returned to th

  11. Interação planta-inseto: Aspectos biológicos e ecológicos do mutualismo Cecropia-Azteca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-08-01

    Abstract. A well-known association is the mutualism between plants is between plant species of the genus Cecropia and ants, mostly belonging to the genus Azteca. In this association, the ants nest in domatia present in the hollow trunk of this myrmecophytes and feed on food bodies provided by the plant, known as mullerian bodies. In return, the ants protect the host plant against herbivore attacks and invasion by vines, and nourish it through waste laid in the trunk. However, the effectiveness of this association may vary with several factors, such as the associated ant species and the habitat type of the myrmecophyte. About 10% of Cecropia species lost their attractive characteristics, such as species living in high altitude and inhabit islands. Aspects like associated ant richness and molecular studies show that the colonization of these plants by ants occurred several times and independently by different genera. The selection pressure exerted by some species of ants may have been one of the decisive factors for the development of attractive traits for ants in Cecropia. With the evolution of these features ants might become an effective partner of the plant, facilitating the co-evolution of specific interactions.

  12. MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Proanthocyanidins in Two Lowland Tropical Forest Species of Cecropia: A First Look at Their Chemical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Van Huynh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The structural chemistry of proanthocyanidin molecules has been investigated in temperate zone plants, but few studies have been done with plants of the Amazonian lowland tropical wet forests where herbivore pressure is more extensive and diverse. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we report unique properties of the proanthocyanidin structural chemistry in two neotropical Cecropia species, C. polystachya, a myrmecophyte with mutualistic ants, and C. sciadophylla, a non-myrmecophyte lacking mutualistic ants. Our preliminary data suggests the presence of reportedly uncommon propelargonidin subunits in a majority of proanthocyanidin oligomers. The presence of 3-O-gallate proanthocyanidin monomers was also detected in the mass spectra of both species. Unlike other studies that have examined species growing at higher latitudes, oligomers composed of procyanidin, propelargonidin, and their 3-O-gallates were present in both Cecropia species while the presence of oligomers containing prodelphinidin units were absent or at lower levels. These distinctive features may suggest that proanthocyanidins in some tropical plant species may be an untapped source of proanthocyanidin structural complexity that warrants further investigation. Several differences between spectra of the two Cecropia species could also point to the presence of anti-herbivore defense tradeoffs between chemical defense quality and biotic defense between the two species.

  13. PolarTREC-Celebrating the Legacy of the IPY Through Researcher-Educator Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Warburton, J.; Larson, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Polar TREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a three-year (2007-2009) NSF-funded program, has matched over 40 teachers with polar researchers working in multiple scientific disciplines for 2-8 week Teacher Research Experiences (TRE) in the Arctic and Antarctica during the IPY. PolarTREC contributes to the legacy of the IPY through the creation and dissemination of polar education resources, prolonged teacher-researcher relationships, and contributions to scholarly knowledge on the impacts of TRE's. Products developed during PolarTREC are helping to sustain the widespread interest and enthusiasm in the polar regions generated during the IPY. During their expeditions, participating teachers brought science and information about profound changes at the poles to school, community, and professional audiences through web-based communications, journals, discussion forums, multimedia, and live events. PolarTREC teachers constructed nearly 100 classroom lesson plans and activities as products of their experiences. Live events from the field attracted over 11,000 participants, primarily K-12 students. Although the field experience is central to the PolarTREC TRE Model, many participants cite the relationship they built with their teacher/researcher as one of the best outcomes. Through personal communications, presentations at professional conferences, and continued support of each other’s work through classroom visits or joint proposal development, teachers and researchers have maintained the mutually beneficial relationships established during the IPY. Participating scientists gained access to professional educators with expertise in translating research approaches and results into programs. The need for researchers to explain their research and “boil it down to the raw essence” helped many see how their work fits into a bigger picture, often helping them communicate outside their scientific discipline and to diverse public audiences. Teachers, on

  14. Clinical trial of Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare leaf extracts on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Arellano, A; Aguilar-Santamaría, L; García-Hernández, B; Nicasio-Torres, P; Tortoriello, J

    2004-11-01

    Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the control of type 2 diabetes. In order to evaluate the clinical effect produced by the aqueous extract from these species on type 2 non-controlled diabetes mellitus, a total of 43 outpatients were included. Based on the European NIDDM (policy group) criteria, only patients with poor response to the conventional treatment were selected. All patients maintained their medical treatment and also received a prepared infusion of the dry leaves of the plant treatment for 21 days. In a double-blind manner, the patients were randomly grouped as follows: 22 patients were treated with C. obtusifolia and 21 with M. vulgare. The fasting blood glucose values were reduced by 15.25% on patients treated with C. obtusifolia, while cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased by 14.62% and 42.0%, respectively (ANOVA pvulgare, the plasma glucose level was reduced by 0.64% and cholesterol and triglycerides by 4.16% and 5.78%, respectively. When the results were compared between groups, significant differences in glucose and cholesterol diminution were found. The obtained results showed that the infusion prepared with the leaves of C. obtusifolia (containing 2.99+/-0.14mg of chlorogenic acid/g of dried plant) produced beneficial effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms when it was administered as an adjunct on patients with type 2 diabetes with poor response to conventional medical treatment.

  15. QU at TREC-2014: Online Clustering with Temporal and Topical Expansion for Tweet Timeline Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    github.com/lintool/ twitter -tools/wiki/TREC- 2013- API -Specifications 2https://code.google.com/p/language-detection/ 3We tried different values for this... Twitter are attracting users looking to engage in vibrant and influential hubs for informa- tion sharing and finding. With hundreds of millions of...tweets posted daily, a large number of queries are issued seeking in- formation. Recent studies on Twitter data have emphasized the high temporality of

  16. Re-ranking via User Feedback: Georgetown University at TREC 2015 DD Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    passages in the feedbacks to re-rank documents in the original list. The new relevance score of a document d in the original list becomes: ! ! ! = 1...metadata. It talks about how illicit and fake goods such as fake Viagra are made, advertised, and sold on the Internet. All documents are in the HTML... news dataset. This corpus is a subset of the original TREC 2014 KBA Stream Corpus. Table 2 shows the statistics of these three datasets. Table 2

  17. NASA IceBridge and PolarTREC - Education and Outreach Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.; Beck, J.; Woods, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a teacher professional development program, began with the International Polar Year in 2004 and continues today in the United States. PolarTREC has worked specifically with OIB for 3 years and looking forward to ongoing collaboration. PolarTREC brings U.S. K­12 educators and polar researchers together through an innovative teacher research experience model. Participating teachers spend 3-6 weeks in the field with research teams conducting surveys and collecting data on various aspects of polar science. During their experience, teachers become research team members filling a variety of roles on the team. They also fulfill a unique role of public outreach officer, conducting live presentations about their field site and research as well as journaling, answering questions, and posting photos. Working with OIB has opened up the nature of science for the participating teachers. In developing the long-term relationship with OIB teams, teachers can now share (1) the diversity of training, backgrounds, and interests of OIB scientists, (2) identify the linkages between Greenlandic culture and community and cryospheric science and evidence of climate change, (3) network with Danish and Greenlandic educators on the mission (4) gain access to the full spectrum of a science project - development, implementation, analysis, networking, and dissemination of information. All aspects help these teachers become champions of NASA science and educational leaders in their communities. Evaluation data shows that PolarTREC has clearly achieved it goals with the OIB partnership and suggests that linking teachers and researchers can have the potential to transform the nature of science education. By giving teachers the content knowledge, pedagogical tools, confidence, understanding of science in the broader society, and experiences with scientific inquiry, participating teachers are using authentic scientific research in their

  18. The effect of symbiotic ant colonies on plant growth: a test using an Azteca-Cecropia system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Karla N; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A; Kaminski, Lucas A; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Campos, Ricardo I

    2015-01-01

    In studies of ant-plant mutualisms, the role that ants play in increasing the growth rates of their plant partners is potentially a key beneficial service. In the field, we measured the growth of Cecropia glaziovii saplings and compared individuals that were naturally colonized by Azteca muelleri ants with uncolonized plants in different seasons (wet and dry). We also measured light availability as well as attributes that could be influenced by the presence of Azteca colonies, such as herbivory, leaf nutrients (total nitrogen and δ(15)N), and investments in defense (total phenolics and leaf mass per area). We found that colonized plants grew faster than uncolonized plants and experienced a lower level of herbivory in both the wet and dry seasons. Colonized plants had higher nitrogen content than uncolonized plants, although the δ(15)N, light environment, total phenolics and leaf mass per area, did not differ between colonized and uncolonized plants. Since colonized and uncolonized plants did not differ in the direct defenses that we evaluated, yet herbivory was lower in colonized plants, we conclude that biotic defenses were the most effective protection against herbivores in our system. This result supports the hypothesis that protection provided by ants is an important factor promoting plant growth. Since C. glaziovii is widely distributed among a variety of forests and ecotones, and since we demonstrated a strong relationship with their ant partners, this system can be useful for comparative studies of ant-plant interactions in different habitats. Also, given this study was carried out near the transition to the subtropics, these results help generalize the geographic distribution of this mutualism and may shed light on the persistence of the interactions in the face of climate change.

  19. The effect of symbiotic ant colonies on plant growth: a test using an Azteca-Cecropia system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla N Oliveira

    Full Text Available In studies of ant-plant mutualisms, the role that ants play in increasing the growth rates of their plant partners is potentially a key beneficial service. In the field, we measured the growth of Cecropia glaziovii saplings and compared individuals that were naturally colonized by Azteca muelleri ants with uncolonized plants in different seasons (wet and dry. We also measured light availability as well as attributes that could be influenced by the presence of Azteca colonies, such as herbivory, leaf nutrients (total nitrogen and δ(15N, and investments in defense (total phenolics and leaf mass per area. We found that colonized plants grew faster than uncolonized plants and experienced a lower level of herbivory in both the wet and dry seasons. Colonized plants had higher nitrogen content than uncolonized plants, although the δ(15N, light environment, total phenolics and leaf mass per area, did not differ between colonized and uncolonized plants. Since colonized and uncolonized plants did not differ in the direct defenses that we evaluated, yet herbivory was lower in colonized plants, we conclude that biotic defenses were the most effective protection against herbivores in our system. This result supports the hypothesis that protection provided by ants is an important factor promoting plant growth. Since C. glaziovii is widely distributed among a variety of forests and ecotones, and since we demonstrated a strong relationship with their ant partners, this system can be useful for comparative studies of ant-plant interactions in different habitats. Also, given this study was carried out near the transition to the subtropics, these results help generalize the geographic distribution of this mutualism and may shed light on the persistence of the interactions in the face of climate change.

  20. The Effect of Symbiotic Ant Colonies on Plant Growth: A Test Using an Azteca-Cecropia System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Karla N.; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Kaminski, Lucas A.; Moreira, Marcelo Z.; Campos, Ricardo I.

    2015-01-01

    In studies of ant-plant mutualisms, the role that ants play in increasing the growth rates of their plant partners is potentially a key beneficial service. In the field, we measured the growth of Cecropia glaziovii saplings and compared individuals that were naturally colonized by Azteca muelleri ants with uncolonized plants in different seasons (wet and dry). We also measured light availability as well as attributes that could be influenced by the presence of Azteca colonies, such as herbivory, leaf nutrients (total nitrogen and δ15N), and investments in defense (total phenolics and leaf mass per area). We found that colonized plants grew faster than uncolonized plants and experienced a lower level of herbivory in both the wet and dry seasons. Colonized plants had higher nitrogen content than uncolonized plants, although the δ15N, light environment, total phenolics and leaf mass per area, did not differ between colonized and uncolonized plants. Since colonized and uncolonized plants did not differ in the direct defenses that we evaluated, yet herbivory was lower in colonized plants, we conclude that biotic defenses were the most effective protection against herbivores in our system. This result supports the hypothesis that protection provided by ants is an important factor promoting plant growth. Since C. glaziovii is widely distributed among a variety of forests and ecotones, and since we demonstrated a strong relationship with their ant partners, this system can be useful for comparative studies of ant-plant interactions in different habitats. Also, given this study was carried out near the transition to the subtropics, these results help generalize the geographic distribution of this mutualism and may shed light on the persistence of the interactions in the face of climate change. PMID:25811369

  1. Evaluation of potentical use of the wood of Schizolobium amazonicum “Paricá” and Cecropia hololeuca “Embaúba” for wood cement board manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Yurk da Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed to evaluate the potential use of Schizolobium amazonicum “Paricá” and Cecropia hololeuca “Embaúba” wood for wood cement board manufacture. Panels with the density of 1.200 kg/m³ were made, using cement CP V ARI as mineral bonding and wood particles without treatment and treated with immersion in cold water, hot water and sodium hydroxide. The panels were pressed at the pressure of 40 kgf/cm², room temperature and press / clipping time of 24 hours and maturation time of 28 days. The evaluation of the properties of water absorption, thickness swelling, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture, showed that Schizolobium amazonicum “Paricá” and Cecropia hololeuca “Embaúba” wood are technically feasible for wood-cement board manufacture. It was also found that the panels of embaúba exhibit some properties superior to those of the paricá, and the particles do not necessarily need treatment.

  2. Potencial alelopático de espécies nativas na germinação e crescimento inicial de Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae Allelopathic potential of native species in Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae germination and initial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maraschin-Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos sobre o desenvolvimento da vegetação, causados por substâncias químicas produzidas e liberadas para o ambiente por uma planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial alelopático de espécies brasileiras, foram testados extratos foliares de Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae e Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burg., Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae, utilizando-se bioensaios de germinação e crescimento e alface (Lactuca sativa L. como planta alvo. Nesses bioensaios, foram usados extratos foliares aquosos nas concentrações de 2 e 4%, preparados por maceração estática com água fria e quente. Os extratos das cinco espécies causaram atraso na germinação dos aquênios da alface, bem como efeitos tóxicos no crescimento das plântulas, com redução e enfraquecimento das raízes. Os resultados obtidos mostraram a presença de substâncias químicas inibidoras nos extratos, revelando potencial alelopático para as cinco espécies avaliadas.Allelopathy is characterized by harmful or beneficial effects on vegetation development, caused by chemical substances produced and released into the environment by the plant. Aiming to assess the allelopathic potential of Brazilian species, aqueous leaf extracts of Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae, and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burger, Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae were tested on lettuce using germination and growth bioassays. In these bioassays, aqueous leaf extracts were used at concentrations of 2 and 4%, prepared by static maceration with cold and hot water. The five species extracts delayed lettuce germination and produced toxic effects on seedling growth, with root

  3. PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Science Education from the Poles to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K. M.; Warburton, J.; Owens, R.; Warnick, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    PolarTREC--Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), is a National Science Foundation (NSF)--funded International Polar Year (IPY) project in which K-12 educators participate in hands-on field experiences, working closely with IPY scientists as a pathway to improving science education. PolarTREC has developed a successful internet-based platform for teachers and researchers to interact and share their diverse experiences and expertise by creating interdisciplinary educational tools including online journals and forums, real-time Internet seminars, lesson plans, activities, audio, and other educational resources that address a broad range of scientific topics. These highly relevant, adaptable, and accessible resources are available to educators across the globe and have connected thousands of students and citizens to the excitement of polar science. By fostering the integration of research and education and infusing education with the thrill of discovery, PolarTREC will produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations and increased student knowledge of and interest in the polar regions well beyond the IPY time period. Educator and student feedback from preliminary evaluations has shown that PolarTREC's comprehensive program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes in key areas including amount of time spent in school exploring research activities, importance of understanding science for future work, importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today's world, as well as increased self-reported knowledge and interest in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics content areas. PolarTREC provides a tested approach and a clear route for researcher participation in the education community

  4. PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Science Education from the Poles to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Breen, K.; Warburton, J.; Fischer, K.; Wiggins, H.; Owens, R.; Polly, B.; Wade, B.; Buxbaum, T.

    2007-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program celebrating the International Polar Year (IPY) that advances polar science education by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic. Currently in its second year, the program fosters the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science. Through PolarTREC, over 40 U.S. teachers will spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers in the field as an integral part of the science team. Research projects focus on a wide range of IPY science themed topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. While in the field, teachers and researchers will communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of tools including satellite phones, online journals, podcasts and interactive "Live from IPY" calls and web-based seminars. The online outreach elements of the project convey these experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers. In addition to field research experiences, PolarTREC will support teacher professional development and a sustained community of teachers, scientists, and the public through workshops, Internet seminars, an e-mail listserve, and teacher peer groups. To learn more about PolarTREC visit the website at: http://www.polartrec.com or contact info@polartrec.com or 907-474-1600. PolarTREC is funded by NSF and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the US (ARCUS).

  5. PKUICST at TREC 2014 Microblog Track: Feature Extraction for Effective Microblog Search and Adaptive Clustering Algorithms for TTG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    on the queries and corpora are described as follows: 1https://github.com/lintool/ twitter -tools/wiki/TREC- 2013- API -Specifications • Non-English...query expansion and (2) web-based query expansion. In twitter corpus based query expansion, we first use TREC- API to get the top ranked tweet set. Then...the official corpus via a common API . Tweet Timeline Generation (TTG) is a new task for this year’s Microblog track with a putative user model as

  6. Tissue culture of Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (urticaceae: vegetative micropropagation and plant regeneration from callus Cultura de tecidos de Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (Urticaceae: micropropagação vegetativa e regeneração de plantas via calos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Nopper Alves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia glaziovii is a tree with used in Brazilian popular medicine. Methods allowing the clonal propagation of this species are of great interest for superior genotype multiplication and perpetuation. For this reason, we examined the effect of different culture media and different types of explants on adventitious shoot regeneration from callus and buds of C. glaziovii. Leaves, petioles and stipules obtained from aseptically grown seedlings or from pre-sterilized plants were used to initiate cultures. Adventitious shoot regeneration was achieved when apical and axillary buds were inoculated on gelled Murashige & Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine alone (BAP (1.0, 5.0 or 10.0 mg L-1 or combined with -naphthalene acetic acid (NAA (1.0 or 2.0 mg L-1, after 40 days of culture. Best callus production was obtained after 30 days of petioles' culture on gelled MS medium with 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D (5.0 mg L-1 combined with BAP (1.0 mg L-1. Successful shoot regeneration from callus was achieved when MS medium supplemented with zeatin (ZEA (0.1 mg L-1 alone or combined with 2,4-D (1.0 or 5.0 mg L-1 was inoculated with friable callus obtained from petioles. All shoots were rooted by inoculation on MS medium supplemented with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA (1.0 mg L-1. Rooted plants transferred to potting soil were successfully established. All in vitro regenerated plantlets showed to be normal, without morphological variations, being also identical to the source plant. Our study has shown that C. glaziovii can be propagated by tissue culture methods, allowing large scale multiplication of superior plants for pharmacological purposes.Cecropia glaziovii é uma planta lenhosa, popularmente usada no Brasil como medicinal. Métodos que visem a sua propagação clonal podem ser de grande utilidade na preservação de seus genótipos de elite. Foram examinados efeitos de diferentes reguladores de crescimento e explantes na forma

  7. Frequency analysis of TRBV subfamily sjTRECs to characterize T-cell reconstitution in acute leukemia patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT leads to a prolonged state of immunodeficiency and requires reconstitution of normal T-cell immunity. Signal joint T-cell receptor excision DNA circles (sjTRECs are markers of developmental proximity to the thymus that have been used to evaluate thymic function related to T-cell immune reconstitution after HSCT. To assess the proliferative history in different T-cell receptor beta variable region (TRBV subfamilies of T cells after HSCT, expansion of TRBV subfamily-naive T cells was determined by analysis of a series of TRBV-BD1 sjTRECs. Methods sjTRECs levels were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from 43 Chinese acute leukemia patients who underwent allo-HSCT. Twenty-three TRBV-BD1 sjTRECs were amplified by semi-nested PCR. Sixteen age-matched healthy volunteers served as normal controls. Results sjTRECs levels were low or undetectable in the first 6 weeks after allo-HSCT and increased after 8 weeks post HSCT; however, sjTRECs levels at week 20 post-HSCT were still less than normal controls. Frequencies of TRBV subfamily sjTRECs in PBMCs from recipients at week 8 post-HSCT (29.17 ± 20.97% or at week 16 post-HSCT (38.33 ± 9.03% were significantly lower than those in donors (47.92 ± 13.82% or recipients at pre-HSCT (45.83 ± 14.03%. However, frequencies of TRBV subfamily sjTRECs in recipients at week 30 post-HSCT (42.71 ± 21.62% were similar to those in donors and recipients at pre-HSCT. sjTRECs levels in donors had a positive linear correlation with sjTRECs levels in recipients within 8-12 weeks post-HSCT. Patients with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD or chronic GVHD had profoundly reduced TRECs levels during the first year post-HSCT. Frequencies of BV22-BD1 sjTRECs and BV23-BD1 sjTRECs in patients with GVHD were significantly lower than those in recipients at pre-HSCT, and the

  8. Improving Geoscience Education through the PolarTREC Teacher Research Experience Model (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Timm, K.; Larson, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Teacher Research Experiences (TRE’s) are not new. For more than a decade, the National Science Foundation (NSF) as well as other federal agencies have been funding programs that place teachers with researchers in efforts to invigorate science education by bringing educators and researchers together through hands-on experiences. Many of the TRE’s are successful in providing a hands-on field experience for the teachers and researchers however many of the programs lack the resources to continue the collaborations and support the growing network of teachers that have had these field experiences. In 2007, NSF provided funding for PolarTREC—Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS). PolarTREC is a TRE where K-12 teachers participate in polar field research, working closely with scientists as a pathway to improving science education. In just three years, it has become a successful TRE. What makes PolarTREC different than other the teacher research experience programs and how can others benefit from what we have learned? During this presentation, we will share data collected through the program evaluation and on how PolarTREC contributes to the discipline of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and pedagogy through a model program conceived and organized according to current best practices, such as pre-research training, mentoring, support for classroom transfer, and long-term access to resources and support. Data shows that PolarTREC’s comprehensive program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes in key areas including amount of time spent in school exploring research activities, importance of understanding science for future work, importance of understanding the polar regions as a person

  9. QCRI at TREC 2014: Applying the KISS Principle for the TTG Task in the Microblog Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    gradient descent. ICML 2005. 3. A. S. El -Din and W. Magdy. Web-based Pseudo Relevance Feedback for Microblog Retrieval. TREC 2012. 4. T. El -Ganainy...disabling hyperlink-based pseudo relevance feedback (HPRF) and reranking. The run which applied both HPRF and reranking was then used in the TTG task by...Relevance Feedback (HPRF) A hyperlink in a tweet is more than a link to related content as in webpages, but actually it is considered a link to the main

  10. Avaliação do potencial de utilização da madeira de Schizolobium amazonicum "Paricá" e Cecropia hololeuca "Embaúba" para produção de painéis aglomerados Evaluation of potential use of the wood of Schizolobium amazonicum "Paricá" and Cecropia hololeuca "Embaúba" to particleboard manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de madeira de Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba para produção de painéis aglomerados. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com densidade nominal de 0,70 g/cm³, utilizando a resina uréia-formaldeído e partículas de madeira de Paricá e Embaúba, e mistura destas, em proporções de 75, 50 e 25%. A madeira de Pinus taeda foi utilizada como testemunha. Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 40 kgf/cm², temperatura de 160ºC e tempo de prensagem de 8 minutos. Os resultados das avaliações de propriedades de absorção de água, inchamento em espessura, ligação interna, módulo de elasticidade e módulo de ruptura, indicaram que as madeiras de Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba são tecnicamente viáveis para produção de painéis aglomerados.This research was developed to evaluate the potential use of the woods Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá and Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba for manufacturing particleboard. Were made panels with the densities of 0.70 g/cm³, using mixtures of urea-formaldehyde resin and wood particles of Paricá and Embaúba, in proportions of 75, 50 and 25%. The Pinus taeda wood was used as the reference. The panels were pressed at the temperature of 160ºC, pressure of 40 kgf/cm², for 8 minutes. The evaluations of the properties of water absorption, thickness swelling, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of ruptures, showed that the woods of Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba are technically feasible for particleboard manufacture.

  11. T Cell Receptor Excision Circle (TREC) Monitoring after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation; a Predictive Marker for Complications and Clinical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballa, Ahmed; Sundin, Mikael; Stikvoort, Arwen; Abumaree, Muhamed; Uzunel, Mehmet; Sairafi, Darius; Uhlin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a well-established treatment modality for a variety of malignant diseases as well as for inborn errors of the metabolism or immune system. Regardless of disease origin, good clinical effects are dependent on proper immune reconstitution. T cells are responsible for both the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect against malignant cells and protection against infections. The immune recovery of T cells relies initially on peripheral expansion of mature cells from the graft and later on the differentiation and maturation from donor-derived hematopoietic stem cells. The formation of new T cells occurs in the thymus and as a byproduct, T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) are released upon rearrangement of the T cell receptor. Detection of TRECs by PCR is a reliable method for estimating the amount of newly formed T cells in the circulation and, indirectly, for estimating thymic function. Here, we discuss the role of TREC analysis in the prediction of clinical outcome after allogeneic HSCT. Due to the pivotal role of T cell reconstitution we propose that TREC analysis should be included as a key indicator in the post-HSCT follow-up. PMID:27727179

  12. KISTI at TREC 2014 Clinical Decision Support Track: Concept-based Document Re-ranking to Biomedical Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented in the proceedings of the Twenty-Third Text REtrieval Conference (TREC 2014) held in Gaithersburg, Maryland...November 19-21, 2014. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Defense Advanced Research...apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/ browse /2010/en 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera Based on the selected concepts, ranking is performed by scoring

  13. Evaluating Stream Filtering for Entity Profile Updates in TREC 2012, 2013, and 2014 (KBA Track Overview, Notebook Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    driving research on automatic systems for filtering streams of text for new information about entities. We refer to Report Documentation Page Form...Retrieval – Information Filtering; H.3.m [Information Storage and Retrieval]: Miscellaneous – Test Collections; I.2.7 [Natural Language Processing] Text ...in the proceedings of the Twenty-Third Text REtrieval Conference (TREC 2014) held in Gaithersburg, Maryland, November 19-21, 2014. The conference was

  14. Abnormal TREC-Based Newborn Screening Test in a Premature Neonate with Massive Perivillous Fibrin Deposition of the Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kostadinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID, a primary immunodeficiency arising from variable defects in lymphocyte development and survival, is characterized by significant deficiency of thymus derived (T- lymphocytes and variable defects in the B-lymphocyte population. Newborn screening for SCID is based on detection of low numbers of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs by real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. This screening allows for early identification of individuals with SCID and other disorders characterized by T-lymphopenia. Higher rates of abnormal screens are commonly seen in premature and critically ill neonates, often representing false positives. It is possible that many abnormal screens seen in these populations are result of conditions that are characterized by systemic inflammation or stress, possibly in the context of stress-induced thymic involution. We present a case of a male infant delivered at 27 weeks, 6 days of gestation, with severe intrauterine growth restriction who had an abnormal TREC screen and a massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPFD of the placenta. This association has not been reported previously. We are raising the awareness to the fact that conditions, such as MPFD, that can create adverse intrauterine environment are capable of causing severe stress-induced thymic involution of the fetus which can present with abnormal TREC results on newborn screening.

  15. Teachers, Researchers, and Students Collaborating in Arctic Climate Change Research: The Partnership Between the Svalbard REU and ARCUS PolarTREC programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, S.; Warburton, J.; Oddo, B.; Kane, M.

    2007-12-01

    Since 2004, the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) "TREC" program (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, now "PolarTREC") has sent four K-12 teachers to Svalbard, Norway to work alongside researchers and undergraduate students conducting climate change research as part of the Svalbard Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program. The benefits of this scientist/educator/student partnership are many. Researchers benefit from teacher participation as it increases their understanding of student learning and the roles and responsibilities of K-12 teachers. The TREC teacher contributes to the research by making observations, analyzing data, and carrying heavy loads of equipment. In collaborating with K- 12 teachers, undergraduate student participants discover the importance of teamwork in science and the need for effective communication of scientific results to a broad audience. The questions that K-12 teachers ask require the scientists and students in our program to explain their work in terms that non-specialists can understand and appreciate. The K-12 teacher provides a positive career role model and several Svalbard REU undergraduate students have pursued K-12 teaching careers after graduating. TREC teachers benefit from working alongside the researchers and by experiencing the adventures of real scientific research in a remote arctic environment. They return to their schools with a heightened status that allows them to share the excitement and importance of scientific research with their students. Together, all parties contribute to greatly enhance public outreach. With ARCUS logistical support, TREC teachers and researchers do live web conferences from the field, reaching hundreds of students and dozens of school administrators and even local politicians. Teachers maintain web journals, describing the daily activities and progress of the researcher team. Online readers from around the world write in to ask questions, which the

  16. TREC 2010 legal track: method and results of the ELK collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spearing, Shelly [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Kay, Bain [KAYVIUM; Lindquist, Eric [EWA-IIT

    2010-10-25

    The ELK team ([E]WA-IIT, [L]os Alamos National laboratory (LANL), and [K]ayvium Corporation (ELK)) used the legal Track task 302 as an opportunity to compare and integrate advanced semantic-automation strategies. The team members believe that enabling parties to discover, consume, analyze, and make decisions in a noisy and information-overloaded environment requires new tools. Together, as well as independently, they are actively developing these tools and view the TREC exercise as an opportunity to test, compare, and complement tools and approaches. Our collaboration is new to TREC, brought together by a shared interest in document relevance, concept-in-context identification and annotation, and the recognition that words out-of-context do not a match make. The team's intent was to lay the foundation for automating the mining and analysis of large volumes of electronic information by litigants and their lawyers, not only in the context of document discovery, but also to support litigation strategy, motion practice, deposition, trial tactics, etc. The premise was that a Subject Matter Expert- (SME-) built model can be automatically mapped onto various search engines for document retrieval, organization, relevance scoring, analysis and decision support. In the end, we ran nearly a dozen models, mostly, but not exclusively, with Kayvium Corporation's knowledge automation technology. The Sal Database Search Engine we used had a bug in its proximity feature, requiring that we develop a workaround. While the work-around was successful, it left us with insufficient time to converge the models to achieve expected quality. However, with optimized proximity processing in place, we would be able to run the model many more times, and believe repeatable quality would be a matter of working through a few requests to get the approach right. We believe that with more time, the results we would achieve might point towards a new way of processing documents for litigation

  17. EL ENOJO EN MADRES Y PADRES DE HIJAS ADOLESCENTES: PROPUESTA DE ORIENTACIÓN DESDE LA TREC Y LA INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo Murillo Aguilar

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo, basado en la tesis de grado denominada "Expresión del Enojo en Madres y Padres de Hijas Adolescentes: Propuesta de Orientación desde el Enfoque de la TREC", realizada por Jessie Arroyo Zúñiga y Osvaldo Murillo Aguilar, para optar por el grado de licenciatura en Orientación en el año 2008, ofrece desde esta disciplina, una integración entre la teoría de la Inteligencia Emocional y el enfoque de la Terapia Racional Emotivo - Conductual (TREC), para comprender y abordar la expresi...

  18. El enojo en madres y padres de hijas adolescentes: propuesta de orientación desde la TREC y la inteligencia emocional / The anger in parents of teenage daughters: propose of guidance since the TREC and emotional intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Resumen: Este artículo, basado en la tesis de grado denominada “Expresión del Enojo en Madres y Padres de Hijas Adolescentes: Propuesta de Orientación desde el Enfoque de la TREC”, realizada por Jessie Arroyo Zúñiga y Osvaldo Murillo Aguilar, para optar por el grado de licenciatura en Orientación en el año 2008, ofrece desde esta disciplina, una integración entre la teoría de la Inteligencia Emocional y el enfoque de la Terapia Racional Emotivo – Conductual (TREC), para comprender y abordar ...

  19. Ecophysiology of Cecropia schreberiana saplings in two wind regimes in an elfin cloud forest: growth, gas exchange, architecture and stem biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Roberto A.

    1999-03-01

    The hypothesis that the short, stunted development of elfin cloud forest trees is influenced by strong winds was tested by studying growth, gas exchange and biomechanics of potted saplings of Cecropia schreberiana Miq. ex. C. peltata L. (Cecropiaceae) exposed to two natural wind regimes (exposed and protected) at high elevation sites in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. The wind-exposure treatment produced several thigmomorphogenetic responses, including reductions in plant stature and crown area, changes in allocation patterns, and increased root to shoot ratio, leaf abrasion and leaf epinasty. Wind-exposure decreased maximum photosynthetic rate and respiration on an area basis, but not on a leaf-mass basis. Wind-exposed plants had lower apparent quantum yields, and higher light compensation points than wind-protected plants. Photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency was lower in wind-exposed plants, but such plants had higher leaf nitrogen concentration than wind-protected plants. There were no effects of treatments on stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and water-use efficiency. Stems of wind-exposed plants had lower second moment of area, apparent modulus of elasticity, flexural stiffness and stem density, but higher water content than wind-protected plants. Tissue-density-specific stiffness and the calculated critical height were not affected by the treatments. Wind-exposed plants were biomechanically less predisposed to bending and failing under their own weight than wind-protected plants because their safety factors were smaller, indicating that maintenance of an ontogenetically less developed structure enables plants to cope with wind loading. Windward trees showed a lower scaling component of the allometric relationship between diameter and height than leeward trees.

  20. T-cell Receptor Excision Circles (TREC) in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell Subpopulations in Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis Show Major Differences in the Emission of Recent Thymic Emigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Helle; Deleuran, Mette; Vestergaard, Christian;

    2008-01-01

    We used T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) to evaluate thymic function in adult patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. We observed that men, but not women, with atopic dermatitis had a significantly faster decline in TREC content with increasing age compared with healthy men. In cont......-cells, this indicates that atopic dermatitis patients can have compensatory emissions of thymic emigrants, whereas psoriatic patients do not, thus supporting different thymic function in these two diseases....

  1. El enojo en madres y padres de hijas adolescentes: propuesta de orientación desde la TREC y la inteligencia emocional / The anger in parents of teenage daughters: propose of guidance since the TREC and emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo Aguilar, Osvaldo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo, basado en la tesis de grado denominada “Expresión del Enojo en Madres y Padres de Hijas Adolescentes: Propuesta de Orientación desde el Enfoque de la TREC”, realizada por Jessie Arroyo Zúñiga y Osvaldo Murillo Aguilar, para optar por el grado de licenciatura en Orientación en el año 2008, ofrece desde esta disciplina, una integración entre la teoría de la Inteligencia Emocional y el enfoque de la Terapia Racional Emotivo – Conductual (TREC, para comprender y abordar la expresión del enojo en estas madres y padres de hijas adolescentes. Por ello, como recomendación, se presenta una propuesta de Orientación que pretende fortalecer los vínculos de las madres y padres con sus hijas adolescentes, por medio de un proceso que propicie formas de expresión emocionalmente saludables del enojo, basado en la integración de la teoría de la inteligencia emocional y el enfoque de la TREC. Para la elaboración del presente trabajo se establecieron los siguientes objetivos: 1. Analizar las formas en las que expresan el enojo las madres y los padres de familia del Liceo María Auxiliadora.2. Elaborar estrategias de Orientación dirigidas a madres y padres de hijas adolescentes que promuevan una expresión saludable del enojo. La metodología se estableció bajo la perspectiva cualitativa, que permitió la comprensión de las experiencias de las madres y los padres, sus emociones, pensamientos y conductas. La principal técnica de recolección de información fueron los grupos focales, y se analizó a partir de la organización y codificación de datos, por medio de categorías de análisis.Abstract: This article, based on the thesis entitled "Expression of Anger in Mothers and Fathers of Daughters Teens: proposed of Guidance since the TREC" performed by Jessie Arroyo Zúñiga and Osvaldo Murillo Aguilar, to graduate in Guidance in the 2008; offers from this discipline, an integration between the theory of Emotional

  2. NUDTSNA at TREC 2015 Microblog Track: A Live Retrieval System Framework for Social Network based on Semantic Expansion and Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    Overview It is a real-time job in this year’s Microblog track that teams listen to the twitter stream [9] via official common API . In this section...components as follow, 1) Feature Extraction Component, which extract features from twitter stream based on TREC-API1 and profiles provided by the...official. Before feature extracting, data preprocessing and data filtering is implemented to get rid of unnecessary data. For twitter stream, we extract

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF REAL-TIME MULTIPLEX PCR FOR THE QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF TREC'S AND KREC'S IN WHOLE BLOOD AND IN DRIED BLOOD SPOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gordukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies (PID such as severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and X-linked agammaglobulinemia are characterized by the lack of functional Tand B-cells, respectively. Without early diagnosis and prompt treatment children with PID suffer from severe infectious diseases, leading to their death or disability. Our purpose was developing of simple, inexpensive, high throughput technique based on the quantitative determination of TREC and KREC molecules by real-time PCR, and its validation in a group of children with a verified diagnosis of SCID and X-linked agammaglobulinemia.In this study, we developed and validated multiplex real-time PCR for the TREC’s and KREC’s quantitative analysis. We have shown that linear range of Ct changes depending on the concentrations of targets with a correlation coefficient R2 not worse than 0.98 was observed at concentrations from 109 to 5 × 104 copies per ml. The lowest amount of targets reliably detected in a reaction volume was 10 TREC’s copies, 5 KREC ‘s copies and 5 copies of internal control (IL17RA. We determined the age-depended reference values of TRECs and KRECs in whole blood in 29 boys and 27 girls with normal immunological parameters. The normal cut-offs for TRECs and KRECs were defined in dry blood spots depending on the method of extraction.The proposed method showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in the studied group. The method can be proposed as a screening tool for the diagnosis of SCID and X-linked agammaglobulinemia both in whole blood and in the dry blood spots. The further investigation is required with larger number of samples. 

  4. A New IL-2RG Gene Mutation in an X-linked SCID Identified through TREC/KREC Screening: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nourizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID represents a rare group of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs, with known or unknown genetic alterations. Here, we report a new interleukin 2 receptor, gamma chain (IL-2RG mutation in an Iranian SCID newborn.The patient was a 6-day old boy with a family history of PID. The child was screened using a molecular-based analysis for the assessment of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs and kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs. Moreover, a complete immunological evaluation and gene sequencing was performed.Results showed undetectable TREC but a high level of KREC copy numbers. Flowcytometric data indicated low numbers of T and NK cells, but elevated number of B cells. A novel substitution in IL2RG: c.675 C>A, leading to p.225 Ser>Arg was found. Based on the functional analysis, the mutation is predicted to be damaging. The patient was diagnosed as a T B+ NK X-linked SCID.

  5. Avaliação do efeito mutagênico do extrato hidroalcoólico bruto, por meio de bioensaios in vivo e prospecção fitoquímica de Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (embaúba, Cecropiaceae Evaluation of mutagenic effect of crude hydroalchoolic extract, using in vivo alive bioassays and phytochemical screening of Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (embaúba, Cecropiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor S. Stange

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Cecropia é conhecido popularmente por "embaúba" e apresenta várias espécies medicinais, sendo que estudos com a espécie C. glaziovii Sneth indicam que o extrato aquoso apresenta efeitos broncodilatador, anti-hipertensivo e antidepressivo, provavelmente, atribuídos às catequinas, procianidinas e flavonóides. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar os potenciais efeitos tóxico, citotóxicos, clastogênicos e aneugênicos do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico de folhas de C. glaziovii, por meio da dose letal média (DL50, da análise de micronúcleo em células de medula óssea de roedores e do teste com Allium cepa e realizar a prospecção fitoquímica. Os resultados demonstraram que as concentrações testadas não causaram toxicidade aguda, nem apresentaram atividade clastogênica e aneugênica, sugerindo que o extrato de C. glaziovii não interferem na divisão celular. A prospecção fitoquímica indicou a presença de taninos, flavonóides, fenóis, antraquinonas, cumarinas, catequinas, proteínas, açúcares redutores, depsídeos/depsidonas e triterpenos. Mesmo assim, esses resultados não prescrevem o consumo terapêutico da espécie, sem continuidade da sua avaliação e do cumprimento de todas as etapas pré-clínicas e clínicas.The genus Cecropia is as known popularly "embaúba" and presents several medical species. Studies with the species C. glaziovii Sneth indicates that the hydroalchoolic extracts presents bronchodilator, anti-hypertensive and antidepressive effects, probably due its contests catechins, procyanidins and flavonoids. The aim of this study was to assess the potential toxic, cytotoxic, clastogenic and aneugenic effects of the crude hydroalchoolic extract of leaves of C. glaziovii, by means of the determination of the median lethal dose (LD50, the analysis of micronucleus in cells from bone marrow of rodents and through the Allium cepa assay, and also to performe the phytochemical screening. The results showed

  6. Flora Polínica da Reserva do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (São Paulo, Brasil). Família: Urticaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa,Angela Maria da Silva; Ferreira,Lucileide Garces; Ribeiro,Vanessa Betyna da Silva; Gaglioti,André Luiz; Romaniuc Neto,Sergio; Guido,Barbara Melissa de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO No presente trabalho foram estudados os grãos de pólen de 11 espécies pertencentes à família Urticaceae (Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw., Cecropia glaziovii (Snethl), C. hololeuca (Miq), C. pachystachya Trécul, Coussapoa microcarpa ( Shott) Rizzini, Laportea aestuans (L.) Chew, Phenax sonneratti (Poir.) Wedd., Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm., Urera baccifera (L.) Gaudich. ex Wedd., U. caracasana (Jacq.) Griseb., U. nitida (Vell.) Brack). Para todos os táxons estudados, são apresentadas des...

  7. TREC Dynamic Domain: Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    Apache Nutch tool that can dump Nutch segments into Common Crawl data format, mapping each crawled-by-Nutch file on a JSON-based data structure... geographic region? 2. How many regions of interest are represented by the data you collected? Identify geographic “regions” as e.g., Circumpolar Arctic...measurements related to Climate Change? Is it time-based and/or geographic region based? What areas show a high document relevancy for sea-ice extent and

  8. TREC 2013 Web Track Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-30

    relative to a provided baseline). Second, we based the 2013 Web track experiments on the new ClueWeb12 collection created by the Language Technologies...sophisticated stages of retrieval in their quest to improve result quality: from personalized and contextual re-ranking to automatic query reformulation ...B manual 0.045 0.058 0.038 6 Acknowledgements We thank Jamie Callan, David Pane and the Language Technologies Insti- tute at Carnegie Mellon

  9. SIRA: TREC Session Track 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    including query topics, initial retrieved webpages , clicked on links, visit times, etc. SIRA has used several methods to improve search results that...sessions include many aspects of a search, including query topics, initial retrieved webpages , clicked on links, visit times, etc. SIRA has used several...which was designed for intelligence analysts researching weapons of mass destruction [5]. In these domains, a small number of specific frames can

  10. IRIT at TREC KBA 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    IRIT, Paul Sabatier University 118 route de Narbonne F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 Abstract. This paper describes the IRIT lab participation to the Vital ... vital documents containing timely new information that should help a human to update the profile of the target entity (e.g., Wikipedia page of the entity...In this work, we evaluate two factors that could detect vitality . The first one uses a Language Model to learn vitality from a sample of vital

  11. Triagem fitoquímica e avaliação das atividades trombolítica e citotóxica de Cecropia hololeuca Miq. (Urticaceae, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br. ex P. Wilson (Verbenaceae e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Dutra GOMES1 ; Rafael Destefani FAITANIN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia hololeuca, Lippia alba, e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium são espécies vegetais de ocorrência natural no Brasil, características de regiões de Mata Atlântica e, dentro de suas finalidades medicinais, estão incluídas ação anti-hipertensiva, digestiva e no tratamento de malária. Neste estudo, foram avaliados o perfil fitoquímico e as atividades citotóxica e trombolítica do extrato etanólico das folhas destas espécies vegetais. O perfil químico dos extratos foi obtido por meio de ensaios fitoquímicos clássicos, a fim de identificar as classes químicas presentes. A toxicidade preliminar foi avaliada frente Artemia salina e a atividade trombolítica foi determinada in vitro a partir da lise de coágulo de sangue humano. Os testes fitoquímicos indicaram a presença de alcaloides e flavonoides nos três extratos investigados. Saponinas, triterpenos e naftoquinonas foram detectados apenas em C. hololeuca. Essa não demonstrou toxicidade frente Artemia salina (DL50 >1000 ppm, enquanto Z. rhoifolium apresentou DL50 igual a 719,44 ppm e L. alba <250 ppm, o que indica atenção quanto à segurança no uso desta planta medicinal. A atividade trombolítica de L. alba e C. hololeuca foi de 6,43 ±2,08 e 9,64 ±1,83 %, respectivamente, mostrando baixa atividade. Por sua vez, Z. rhoifolium alcançou lise de 24,71 ±10,52 %, indicando promissora atividade (p <0,001. A atividade trombolítica de Z. rhoifolium justifica novos estudos, a fim de investigar os componentes responsáveis pela atividade. Perante a literatura, este é o primeiro relato da avaliação da atividade trombolítica destas espécies vegetais. Os resultados encontrados neste trabalho contribuem para o conhecimento químico-biológico das respectivas espécies.

  12. The impact of T-TREC-retrieved wind and radial velocity data assimilation using EnKF and effects of assimilation window on the analysis and prediction of Typhoon Jangmi (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjun; Xue, Ming; Zhao, Kun

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relative impact of assimilating T-TREC-retrieved winds (VTREC) versus radial velocity (Vr) on the analysis and forecast of Typhoon Jangmi (2008) using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). The VTREC and Vr data at 30 min intervals are assimilated into the ARPS model at 3 km grid spacing over four different assimilation windows that cover, respectively, 0000-0200, 0200-0400, 0400-0600, and 0000-0600 UTC, 28 September 2008. The assimilation of VTREC data produces better analyses of the typhoon structure and intensity than the assimilation of Vr data during the earlier assimilation windows, but during the later assimilation windows when the coverage of Vr data on the typhoon from four Doppler radars is much improved, the assimilation of Vr outperforms VTREC data. The combination of VTREC and Vr data, either by assimilating both VTREC and Vr data in all cycles or by assimilating VTREC in the first cycle and Vr in the remaining cycles (labeled VTFVR), further improves the analyses of the typhoon structure and intensity compared to assimilating VTREC or Vr data alone. Quantitative verifications of 24 h forecasts of the typhoon show that the VTFVR assimilation experiments produces forecasts that best match the best track data and also have the highest precipitation prediction skills. The track forecast errors in experiment that assimilate VTREC data through the later cycles are the largest. The behaviors are discussed based on the coverage, information content, and accuracy of the various forms of data.

  13. Frugivory by phyllostomid bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a restored area in Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Maurício; Trevelin, Leonardo; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Godoi, Simone; Mandetta, Elizabeth Neuenhaus; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the potential contribution of frugivorous bats to the reestablishment of vegetational diversity in a restored area. We analysed the diets of the bat species and the differences between them in the consumption of fruits of autochtonous and allochthonous species. Planted (autochtonous) species were the basis of diets, especially Solanum mauritianum and Cecropia pachystachya, whereas for allochthonous species we found that Piperaceae to be of particular importance. Carollia perspicillata was the main seed disperser for allochthonous species, and potentially the most important bat in the promotion of vegetation diversity in the study area. Our results suggest that frugivorous bats are especially important in the reestablishment of vegetation in disturbed areas, and that restorarion efforts should focus on the planting of different zoochorous species that would guarantee a high year-round fruit production, thereby facilitating natural plant reestablishment by frugivorous bats in regenerating areas.

  14. Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351 Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Gazarini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redes-neblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp. , Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007 to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus

  15. Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Cavalcanti Brito

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redesneblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp., Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus

  16. A TRECs screening assay and its combination with IL2RG gene analysis for diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency%TRECs筛查方法的建立及联合IL2RG基因分析对重症联合免疫缺陷症的诊断意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓燕; 刘姗; 戴荣欣; 刘玮; 刘之岱; 余朝文; 唐诗; 赵晓东; 邹琳

    2015-01-01

    目的 拟建立适合临床应用的新生儿筛查技术,结合Sanger测序技术,明确重症联合免疫缺陷(SCJD)相关基因突变,为患儿的早期筛查与诊治提供依据.方法 前瞻性研究.利用Taqman实时荧光PCR技术,建立定量检测滤纸干血斑中T细胞受体重排删除环(TRECs)的方法,进行方法学评价;收集2013年1月至2014年6月到重庆医科大学附属儿童医院就诊的SCID疑似患儿30例,检测干血斑TRECs拷贝数和外周血基因组DNA中IL2RG核酸序列;结合患儿临床诊断,分析两种方法的临床符合率.结果 自建荧光定量PCR法的最低检测量为103拷贝/ml,批内及批间变异系数分别为<4.7%和<9.1%.30例SCID疑似患儿中,17例TRECs含量低于参考区间,根据临床表现,最终均确诊为SCID,自建方法的临床符合率为17/17.17例SCID确诊患儿均为男孩,其中16例存在IL2RG基因突变(7例移码突变,6例错义突变,2例无义突变,1例剪切突变),1例为RAG1基因复合杂合错义突变.结论 建立以TRECs为基础的新生儿筛查技术,联合应用IL2RG基因分析技术,将有助于SCID患儿的早期发现、早期诊断及治疗方案的正确选择.%Objective To establish a newborn screening method suitable for clinical application,combined with Sanger sequencing assay for related gene mutation,and thereby to provide early screening and diagnosis basis for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).Methods Using Taqman real-time PCR technology,the quantitative detection method for T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (TRECs) from the dried blood spots was developed and the methodology evaluation was performed.From January 2013 to June 2014,a total of 30 suspected SCID cases in the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University were enrolled.TRECs copies were measured in DNA isolated from the dried blood spots.IL2RG gene mutations were also tested in DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by sequencing.Compared with

  17. UCD IIRG at TREC 2012 Medical Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    documents. For ex- ample, the query “shakespeare.author” would en- sure that documents matching shakespeare in the au- thor field are returned. On the...corpus side, field extents are identified using XMLlike markup, e.g. <author> shakespeare </author>. 3 System Background & Motivation This section outlines

  18. TUW @ TREC Clinical Decision Support Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    for health has become a common task nowadays. Pew Research Center estimates that 80% of the American population uses the Web to seek health information...Herrera, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Dina Demner-Fushman, Sameer Antani, and Ivan Eggel. Overview of the imageclef 2012 medical image retrieval and

  19. CMIC@TREC-2009: Relevance Feedback Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Carbonell and Goldstein [2] suggested the so-called Maximal Marginal Relevance (MMR) which attempts to reduce redundancy while maintaining relevance...Search and Data Mining, (Barcelona, Spain: ACM, 2009), pp. 5-14. 2. Carbonell , J. and Goldstein, J. The use of MMR, diversity-based reranking for

  20. QACTIS Enhancements in TREC QA-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    to the weight seemed to have only limited effect on score but prevented accidental discarding of legitimate answers. The last challenge was to...overall corpus) as filter terms, but there was not enough time to adequately analyze the effect . Additional parameters such as how many of the top 1000...Further reviewing in the “a” arena, we noted that vital nuggets for 152.7 ( Mozart ) appeared in our 17th and 60th documents; a vital for 163.8 (Hermitage

  1. ICTNET at Microblog Track in TREC 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    relevant to query Q before time T. Participants can access the corpus by official APIs . The second task is Tweet Timeline Generation(TTG) task. It is newly...the methodology of TTG task. Section 5 gives the final results of the two tasks. 2 Data Preparation The twitter -tools[3] was downloaded from github...By using it we can interact with the service API to download the original tweets of each topic of each year in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. We

  2. UCAS at TREC-2014 Microblog Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    interact with the tweet collection via a search API . In the previous years, quite a few researches have attempted to apply learning to rank to Twitter ...last year (the Tweets2013 collection). It contains 243 million tweets gathered from the (sampled) public Twitter stream from February 1, 2013 to March...search[2]. By using learning to rank, multiple intrinsic features of Twitter , such as user authority, mentions, retweets, hashtags and recency can be

  3. TUW @ TREC Clinical Decision Support Track 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    Introduction It is estimated that more than 80% of the American population uses the Web to seek health information [1]. Small wonder that it attracts...generated by this important mapping. <topic number=ŕ" type="diagnosis"> <description>....</description> <summary>58-year-old woman with hypertension and...TUW1 1 - - - TUW2 1 1 1 - TUW3 3 2 1 - B TUW4 1 - - 6 TUW5 1 1, 4 1, 4 6 TUW6 3 2, 5 1, 4 6 Original Text: ============== 58-year-old woman with

  4. Endicott College at 2014 TREC Session Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    the currentquery. For RL2 and RL3, we used real clicks in sessions with at least one click , and simulated clicks as the top retrieved baseline result...baseline), post spam removal. For the ECxSRMxOS RL2, we used real clicks in sessions with at least one click , and the baseline in clickless sessions. RL3

  5. Overview of the TREC 2009 Legal Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Clearwell . The original emails were from the mailboxes of about 150 employees of Enron Corporation. At the time of collection, these mailboxes contained...pst) format by Clearwell . Clearwell first extracted user names from the .pst collection. They then cleaned up these names, where possible, using...First, exact duplicates were identified and automatically removed by Clearwell . Duplication detected at this stage resulted in retention of a single

  6. ICTNET at Web Track TREC2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    recognition Some entities such as "orcas island", “african american music ” and "windsor knot" consist of more than one word. It is very useful to treat...However, we found that a lot of noise was brought in at the same time. We choose the Wikipedia Dump to help extract the entities in the topics this

  7. IBM’s PIQUANT in TREC2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    La Bomba ,’’ ( the bomb ) for his explosive skiing style DSA P11 work: La Bomba LQA P12 most successful and popular Italian skier ever DSA P11...Alberto Tomba , Italy LQA P2 lawyer SQA job: champion LQA P6 work: Slalom for Peace LQA P12 born: Italy LQA P2 work: the Bomba LQA P12 some World Cup

  8. ICTNET at Session Track TREC2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    expansion score of the document. SVD The score of the session visual document model. UAT The score of user attention time model. BM25QC The BM25...QE, SVD , UAT, BM25QC, CosSimQT, Clicked BM25QC, CosSimQT, SVD , QE CosSimQT, SVD , QE, UAT RL3 The same as above except that it use all the sessions

  9. ICTNET at Temporal Summarization Track TREC 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 3 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b...Allocation  Module   LDA  is  an   unsupervised  learning  method.  We  use  the  LDA  to  find  the  latent  semantic  topic.  For   each  query,  we...Vector  Machine  method   SVM   is   a   supervised   learning   classifier.   Its   classification   results   often   depend   on   the   features

  10. Overview of the TREC 2014 Session Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    present evaluation results and analysis. 2 Evaluation Tasks We use the word “session” to mean a sequence of reformulations along with any user interaction...query reformulations ). A single topic can have more than one session associated with it, since two different users could go about satisfying the same...collection consists of roughly 730 million English- language web pages, comprising approximately 5TB of compressed data. The dataset was crawled from the Web

  11. NLM at TREC 2012 Medical Records Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    UMLS synonymy, our search treated ‘increased platelet count ’ and ‘thrombocythemia’ as synonyms of ‘thrombocytosis’, whereas as shown in Table 6...Control (ɠ.0%), we assume that being able to issue database-like queries for finding values above the normal platelet count range (150- 450) and... children ; translating the ICD-9 codes to their preferred terms in the UMLS; and extracting the patient’s age and gender into structured fields. These

  12. Overview of the TREC-2014 Microblog Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    respect to tweets in the existing cluster, or she can create a new cluster for the tweet. We have developed a JavaScript -based annotation in- terface...pace on their laptops, at locations of their choosing (this was possible because the an- notation interface was implemented in JavaScript and hence...determine to what extent this impacts our ability to make system comparisons , i.e., that system X is more effective than system Y [14]. Note that as is

  13. Overview of the TREC 2012 Web Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    picture of the Last Supper painting by Leonardo da Vinci . </description> <subtopic number=ŕ" type="nav"> Find a picture of the Last Supper painting by...Leonardo da Vinci . </subtopic> <subtopic number=Ŗ" type="nav"> Are tickets available online to view da Vinci’s Last Supper in Milan, Italy

  14. Overview of the TREC 2012 Crowdsourcing Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    women clergy 445 1404 62 5% 29 2% 69% tourists, violence 446 2020 162 9% 119 6% 90% Stirling engine 447 1588 16 1% 2 0% 100% Table 1: Each of the 10...descrip- tive concepts, e.g., sky , clouds, birds, the task in IRAT was to gather relevance decisions for a set of 90 search topics and 20k images

  15. IRIT at TREC 2012 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    place sets that we came up to were: • PS 1: amusement park, aquarium, art gallery, bar, book store, bowling alley, cafe , movie theater, museum, park...restaurant, shopping mall, zoo. • PS 2: aquarium, art gallery, bar, book store, bowling alley, cafe , movie theater, museum, park, restaurant, shopping...mall. • PS 3: bar, cafe , grocery or supermarket. • PS 4: bar, cafe , restaurant, shopping mall. • PS 5: bowling alley, cafe , casino, movie theater

  16. Abundance and frugivory of the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco in a gallery forest in Brazil's Southern Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Unlike other toucan species, the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco - the largest Ramphastidae - usually inhabits dry semi-open areas. This conspicuous canopy frugivore uses a large home range that includes a variety of vegetation types, among which gallery forests are widely cited as important to this species. However, the factors relating to the occurrence of Toco toucans in such habitats are unclear. I studied the abundance of Toco toucans as well as the availability of fleshy fruit in a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (sub-region of Miranda, Brazil, in order to assess the relationship between these parameters. Also, I examined toucan foraging activity to analyze its relationship with both toucan abundance and fruit availability. The presence of the Toco toucan was more common in the gallery forest from the middle to the end of the dry season and during the middle of the wet season. Toucans foraged for fleshy fruits, mainly Genipa americana, Ficus luschnatiana, and Cecropia pachystachya fruits, feeding mostly on G. americana (by far the favorite food resource and F. luschnatiana fruits during the dry season, while C. pachystachya fruits were important in the wet season. Toco toucans foraged particularly heavily (> 80% of foraging activity on G. americana fruits during the latter part of the dry season, when fleshy fruit availability declined sharply. Toco toucan abundance in the gallery forest was associated with the availability of the most commonly consumed fleshy fruits, and also with its foraging activity. This finding suggests that the Toco toucan moved to the gallery forest periodically in response to the availability of abundant food resources, especially the G. americana fruits widely available and exploited during the severely dry season. Therefore, these fruits potentially contribute to Toco toucan persistence in the South Pantanal during the harshest period of the year.

  17. Remediación de suelos contaminados con mercurio utilizando guarumo (Cecropia peltata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Víctor Vidal Durango

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de suelos por el mercurio resultante de la explotación aurífera puede ser remediada mediante la utilización de plantas que lo acumulan en sus tejidos, disminuyendo su impacto sobre los ecosistemas y la salud humana. En este trabajo se determinó la influencia del grado de contaminación, la aplicación de ácido cítrico y tiempo de crecimiento del guarumo, sobre la tasa de remoción de mercurio en suelo. Después de 4 meses de crecimiento, los porcentajes de remoción estuvieron entre 15.7% y 33.7% debido a la capacidad del guarumo para acumular grandes cantidades del metal sin presentar efectos tóxicos considerables, así como al alto contenido de mercurio biodisponible en los suelos contaminados, lo que conllevó también a que el ácido cítrico no tuviera una influencia significativa sobre la recuperación de Hg; por lo cual se concluyó, que el guarumo es una especie con capacidad fitorremediadora.

  18. In vitro phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera, Plukenetia volubilis, Caiophora carduifolia, Cecropia membranacea

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Quino, César; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Laboratorio de Fisiología y Farmacología, Facultad de Odontología, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Muñoz Espinoza, Danny; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Guayaquil, Ecuador; Gómez Herreros, César; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Chau Miranda, Gina; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Cueva Piña, Liliana; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Guardia Ortiz, Eliza; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Saavedra Yucra, Santos; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Arroyo Acevedo, Jorge; Laboratorio de Farmacología Experimental, Facultad de Medicina Humana, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Herrera Calderón, Oscar; Facultad de Fisiología y Fisiopatología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, Perú

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Antioxidants have shown chemopreventive potential in degenerative, inflammatory, autoimmune, oncology and respiratory distress associated pathologies. Objective. To assess the phytochemical and antioxidant properties in vitro by DPPH and ABTS method. Design. Observational analytical. Location. Laboratory of Experimental Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Biological/Chemical Material. Aloe vera leaves, Plukenetia volubilis see...

  19. Dieta de morcegos filostomídeos (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em fragmento urbano do Instituto São Vicente, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Pires Veiga Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Os morcegos (Chiroptera, devido à sua diversidade e abundância exercem um importante papel ecológico para o ecossistema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi reportar a dieta das espécies de morcegos frugívoros capturados nos fragmentos do Instituto São Vicente, zona urbana do município de Campo Grande, MS. As coletas ocorreram entre setembro de 2011 e Junho de 2012, sendo realizadas com o auxílio de redes-de-neblina. Foram realizadas 154 capturas, com ocorrência de 10 espécies representantes de três famílias, sendo predominantes as espécies frugívoras. Dentre as capturas foram obtidas 41 amostras fecais, onde se verificou a presença de polpa, vestígios de artrópodes e sementes. O recurso mais utilizado por quirópteros foram plantas pioneiras, constatado através do predomínio de sementes da espécie Cecropia pachystachya, consumida em maior intensidade por Artibeus lituratus. Os resultados ressaltam a importância destes animais no ambiente, em especial no processo de regeneração dessas áreas através da dispersão de sementes.

  20. Antioxidant properties of species from the Brazilian cerrado by different assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to screen the antioxidant activity of medicinal plant extracts from the Brazilian cerrado, through other methods than the total phenolic content and its correlation with the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts of ten species were evaluated through three antioxidant assays, in vitro, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total antioxidant activity and reducing power; and by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method the total phenolic content was determined. Ethanolic extracts of Stryphnodendron obovatum, Cecropia pachystachya and Duguetia furfuraceae showed strong antioxidant activity (IC50<5 µg mL-1 in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay; the species Vernonia phosphorea, Hymenaea stignocarpa and Jacaranda ulei may also be highlighted. These results were confirmed in the assays of total antioxidant capacity and reducing power. The extracts of S. obovatum and V. phosphorea showed an abundant phenolic content; therefore, the phenolic content may play a role in the antioxidant activity. These two species, traditionally used in Brazil, showed great power in these assay systems and may be a promising source for the development of natural antioxidants and future candidates for phytochemical and pharmacological studies in related diseases.

  1. WaterlooClarke: TREC 2015 LiveQA Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    an answer on the in- ternet using a search engine . After receiving a question we picked key terms from its text and constructed a query. We then used... search engine and extracting an answer from the top 10 retrieved documents. 7. REFERENCES [1] E. Agichtein, C. Castillo, D. Donato, A. Gionis, and G...Mishne. Finding high-quality content in social media. In Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining, pages 183

  2. NudtMDP at TREC 2015 LiveQA Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    liveQAs than factoid QAs. We build a question answering system to find the answers from web data. The system has two channels, one use search engine ...culating the similarity between two questions is a very important component in our QA systems. In search engine and community question answering web sites...perform much better than the avarge scores. Keywords: web based search , question answering, CQA 1 Introduction In this paper, we describe the online

  3. Overview of the TREC 2014 Clinical Decision Support Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    interested in indexing the text of the articles in the collection (most participants) could download files containing all 733,138 articles in the January 21...and swelling and tenderness of her wrists and ankles. Her lab shows normocytic anemia , thrombocytopenia, a 4/4 positive ANA and anti-dsDNA. Her urine

  4. CWI at TREC 2012, KBA Track and Session Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    the session infor- mation will then calculate. the documents in the stream corpora. Three out of the seven runs used a Hadoop cluster provide by...information will then calculate. the documents in the stream corpora. Three out of the seven runs used a Hadoop cluster provide by Sara.nl to process the...Environment We used JAVA and python as main programming languages. We used Hadoop architecture provided by SARA (the Natherlands SARA Computing and

  5. CWI at TREC 2012, KBA track and Session Track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araújo, S.; Boscarino, C.; Gebremeskel, G.G.; He, J.; Vries, A.P. de; Voorhees, E.M.; Buckland, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    We participated in two tracks: Knowledge Base Acceleration (KBA) Track and Session Track. In the KBA track, we focused on experi- menting with different approaches as it is the first time the track is launched. We experimented with supervised and unsupervised re- trieval models. Our supervised appro

  6. Overview of the TREC 2014 Federated Web Search Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    description>You are looking for information about Squamous Cell Carcinoma (skin cancer ). </description> <narrative>You have been diagnosed with squamous cell... dogs . For the rightmost topic 7222, no Key results were returned, although a num- ber of HRel results were. The query route 666 appeared to be rather...ranking (rank correlation ρ = 0.95). Also, despite the clear absolute benefit of remov- ing duplicates (with regard to the official metric nDCG@20), the

  7. RMIT at the TREC 2015 LiveQA Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    likely to contribute the most in the ranking function . First, we used the WAND implementation from Petri et al. [3, 4] to extract the MaxScore Ub for...natural language parsing. Computational linguistics , 29(4):589–637, 2003. [2] Zhiheng Huang, Marcus Thint, and Zengchang Qin. Question classification

  8. Northeastern University in TREC 2009. Million Query Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    queries in the collection had at least one click on documents in the .gov collection. Given the computational complexity of feature extraction and...ranking functions (by employing SVM) over two different collections, (a) the Million Query 2008 (MQ08) collection (GOV2 corpus and queries with at least one ... click on doc- uments in the .gov domain), and (b) a Bing generated collection (described in Section 2.1) and employed the constructed ranking

  9. Webis at TREC 2014: Web, Session, and Contextual Suggestion Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00...much to improve the result ranking. 4. CONTEXTUAL SUGGESTION TRACK The research question we examine in the Contextual Sug- gestion track is whether a... gestions we build upon state-of-the-art tools. Our first run uses descriptions without explanations while an explanation is added in the second run

  10. Overview of the TREC 2013 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    venue categorization, for example “landmark” or “ amusement park ”, then the system creates a language model for each category. The category-specific...Contexts represent locations at the granularity of a city- level . 2.3 Collections Participants were able to gather suggestions from either the open web...for the venue, as opposed to non- relevant documents, for example “yellow-page”-like list pages. The second approach divides venues into a two- level

  11. WaterlooClarke: TREC 2015 Clinical Decision Support Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    terms synonyms from the database. Example: A young woman in her second gestation presenting with anemia resistant to improvement by iron supplementation...References G. Amati. Probability models for information retrieval based on divergence from randomness. PhD thesis , University of Glasgow, 2003. S. Büttcher

  12. PARADISE Based Search Engine at TREC 2009 Web Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Ghemawat, "MapReduce: Simplified data processing on large clusters." OSDI 2004 [3] S. Robertson, H. Zaragoza , and M. Taylor, "Simple BM25 Extension to...Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS), vol. 21, 2003, pp. 286-313. [5] N. Craswell, S. Robertson, H. Zaragoza , and M. Taylor, "Relevance

  13. NovaSearch at TREC 2014 Clinical Decision Support Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    performance of multiple informa- tion retrieval techniques: retrieval functions, re-ranking, query expansion and classification of medical articles...into question categories. The best performing run was based on an ensemble of state-of-the-art retrieval algorithms combined with unsupervised fusion...ensemble of state-of-the-art retrieval algorithms combined with unsupervised fusion. Our best run was based on the late fusion of runs using MeSH query

  14. BIT and Purdue at TREC-KBA-CCR Track 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    including query expansion, classification and learning to rank. Query expansion is an unsupervised baseline by combining an en- tity and its related...rank. Query expansion is an unsupervised baseline by combining an en- tity and its related entities as a query to retrieve its relevant documents... CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 7 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b

  15. LAMDA at TREC CDS track 2015: Clinical Decision Support Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    Language (Xpath) and Document Type Definition (DTD) is built for extracting the information of pmcid, author, title, abstract, and body of the...a result, we found better performance using summary than description [5]. Query expansion is the process of reformulating a query to improve...From Randomness (DFR), Information Based (IB), Language Model with Dirichlet similarity (LMD) and Language Model with Jelinek Mercer similarity

  16. Overview of the TREC 2009 Chemical IR Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    describe the use of hyperbranched polyesteramides in ink formulations. 10 catalysts for simultane- ous hydrotreating and hydrodewaxing of hydro- carbons...catalysts for the simultaneous hydrotreating and hydrodewaxing of hydrocarbons.Therefore, we are doing an information search to have a better

  17. Atigeo at TREC 2014 Clinical Decision Support Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    configurable suite of natural language processing ( NLP ) compo- nents, to compute a relevance score for each article and topic. We describe our ensemble...approach, the strategies and tools we use to create labeled data to support this approach, the components in our IR / NLP pipeline, and our results on...Indri/Lemur5 – and includes several text processing and natural lan- guage processing ( NLP ) modules, such as negation tagging, age grouping, and

  18. WHU at TREC KBA Vital Filtering Track 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    view the problem as a classification problem and use Stanford NLP Toolkit to extract necessary information. Various kinds of features are leveraged to...profile of an entity. Our approach is to view the problem as a classification problem and use Stanford NLP Toolkit to extract necessary information

  19. Overview of the TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    provided as a convenience and are synonymous with the city. They are not meant to represent the exact position of the user. Contexts represent...activities, restaurant , shopping, and nightlife). The number of venues in the top 50 suggestions from each category is determined by this probability

  20. Estrutura fitossociológia de um fragmento natural de floresta inundável em área de orizicultura irrigada, município de Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins Phytosociologial structure of a natural fragment of floodplain forest in area of irrigated rice cultivation, municipal district of Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rodrigues Brito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fragmentos naturais de florestas inundáveis conhecidos como ipucas localizam-se na planície do Araguaia, sob a forma de depressões naturais, que no Estado do Tocantins estão situados em áreas de planícies de inundação, que favorece seu alagamento e, conseqüentemente, o maior tempo de retenção da água em épocas de elevada precipitação. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido na fazenda Lago Verde, Município de Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins, situado entre as coordenadas UTM: 643586 e 644060 leste e 8792795 e 8799167 norte. O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar a estrutura de um fragmento de floresta inundável de aproximadamente um hectare, inserido em área de orizicultura irrigada. Para o levantamento fitossociológico, foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbustivo-arbóreos com perímetro a 1,30 m do solo (PAP > 15 cm. Ao todo, foram encontrados 807 indivíduos, 35 famílias e 70 espécies. As espécies com maior VC, em ordem decrescente, foram Hirtella racemosa Lam., Qualea multiflora Mart. e Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. As famílias mais ricas em espécies foram Fabaceae (9, Vochysiaceae (6, Annonaceae e Malvaceae (4. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,44. A distribuição de classes de diâmetro apresentou curva na forma de "J" invertido, estando a maioria dos indivíduos na primeira classe.The natural fragments of floodplain forests known as "ipucas" are located in the Araguaia plain, in form of natural depressions, which are located in areas of floodplains in the State of Tocantins, favoring its flooding and, consequently, the largest period of water retention during periods of high precipitation. The present study was developed at Lagoa Verde farm, municipal district of Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins between the coordinates UTM: 643586 and 644060 east and 8792795 and 8799167 north. The objective of the work was to characterize the structure of a floodplain forest fragment of approximately one-hectare area

  1. Análise fitossociológica de um remanescente de vegetação na microbacia do Córrego Criminoso (Bacia do Rio Taquari, Coxim, MS, Brasil: subsídios para a recomposição da vegetação Phytosociological analysis of a vegetation remnant in the Córrego Criminoso Basin (Taquari River Basin, Coxim District, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: data for vegetation recovery studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Güntzel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a análise florística e fitossociológica preliminar em um remanescente de vegetação na área de entorno do Córrego Criminoso, visando subsidiar futuros projetos de recomposição da vegetação. A área total do remanescente foi determinada com o auxílio de GPS e dos programas Pathfinder e Autocad. Amostragens de indivíduos com CAP maior ou igual a 20 cm foram realizadas em 20 parcelas de 300 m² distribuídas na área. Foram encontradas 26 famílias botânicas contendo 36 gêneros e 49 espécies. A família Leguminosae foi a mais rica em espécies, seguida da família Annonaceae. A espécie Xylopia aromatica foi a mais freqüente, apresentando valores de IVI e IVC de 99,77 e 85,73, respectivamente. Observou-se que mais de 50% das espécies presentes na área são pioneiras ou secundárias, sendo cinco consideradas típicas de matas ciliares: Tapirira guianenses, Cecropia pachystachya, Terminalia argentea, Ocotea pulchellae e Luehea grandiflora. O remanescente de vegetação do entorno do Córrego Criminoso encontra-se fortemente degradado, necessitando de ações de manejo específicos nos fragmentos vegetados e nas áreas destituídas de vegetação, cujas recomendações são propostas.The aim of this study was to complete a preliminary, floristic, phytosociological analyses of a vegetation remnant in the Criminoso Stream Basin, in order to provide data for future projects focusing on vegetation recovery. The total area of the remnant was determined using a GPS and the software Pathfinder and Autocad. Samples of individuals larger or equal to 20 cm CBH were made in 20 quadrats that were 300 m². Thirty-six genera and 49 species, within 26 botanical families, were found. The family Leguminosae was the richest in species, followed by the Annonaceae. Xylopia aromatica was the most frequent species, presenting values of IVI and IVC of 99.77 and 85.73, respectively. More than 50% of the species present

  2. Plantas hipoglicemiantes utilizadas por comunidades tradicionais na Bacia do Alto Paraguai e Vale do Guaporé, Mato Grosso - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macedo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, com inúmeras espécies tropicais, evidencia-se o conhecimento e uso da vegetação medicinal pelas comunidades quilombolas, ribeirinhas, rurais, tradicionais e indígenas, que são praticadas até os dias atuais. O Estado de Mato Grosso pela sua localização no Planalto Central brasileiro possui uma variedade destas comunidades, que utilizam estas plantas medicinais, levando em consideração o conhecimento popular passado de geração em geração. Esta pesquisa visa identificar a forma de coleta e os usos desse grupo vegetal indicados pelos usuários. O estudo foi realizado em 15 comunidades tradicionais (não indígenas na Bacia do Alto Paraguai e 2 (duas no Vale do Guaporé. A coleta de dados deu-se através de líderes comunitários, benzedeiras, parteiras e usuários utilizando o método qualitativo, mediante abordagem qualitativa, com auxílio de entrevistas estruturadas, semi-estruturadas e abertas. Dentre as espécies identificadas 17 estacam-se para o tratamento do Diabetes, dentre elas citam-se: Anacadium humile; Bauhinia glabra; Cecropia pachystachya; Hancornia speciosa; Heteropteris aphrodisiaca; Leonotis nepetifolia; Momordica charantia; Solanum lycocarpum. Registra-se ainda que as partes mais utilizadas desses vegetais são: folhas, casca do caule, raiz, planta toda, brotos, óleos dos frutos e polvilho dos frutos. De acordo com os usuários a maioria das plantas não podem ser colhidas após o nascer do sol e o preparo deve ser feito com folhas secas ou que tenham sido submetidas ao processo de secagem sobre o fogão de lenha ou em local abafado.

  3. Estrutura da comunidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therys M. Sato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura de comunidades de morcegos no Brasil ainda é pouco estudada e vêm sofrendo sérias modificações devido à perda de habitats. O principal objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a comunidade de morcegos da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, município de Itirapina, Estado de São Paulo. Nesta Estação, além das espécies cultivadas de Eucalyptus e Pinus, há diversas plantas que podem fornecer alimento aos morcegos. Entre julho de 2001 e julho de 2006, foram realizadas 58 sessões noturnas de captura de morcegos com 4 a 12 redes-de-neblina dispostas a cada sessão. Nesse período, foram capturados 720 indivíduos de 16 espécies de morcegos dos quais 13 pertencem à família Phyllostomidae, duas à Vespertilionidae e uma à Molossidae. A curva cumulativa de espécies atingiu o equilíbrio, no qual apenas espécies raras são acrescentadas. Cinco espécies (Artibeus lituratus, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina e Sturnira lilium representaram 80% dos morcegos capturados na Estação Experimental, onde se alimentavam de frutos de plantas pioneiras, tais como Cecropia pachystachya, Solanum spp. e Piper spp. A prevalência do vírus rábico foi zero na amostragem das 10 espécies analisadas. Apesar de estar muito modificada, a Estação Experimental de Itirapina pode ser uma importante área de abrigo e alimento para os morcegos e tem potencial de atuar como corredor entre áreas de Cerrado e Mata Atlântica.

  4. Interspecific variation in vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in pioneer and non-pioneer species used in tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, Daniele R; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-09-01

    Reforestation projects have gained interest over recent years due to the loss of biodiversity in tropical regions as a result of large deforestation by anthropogenic actions. However, better knowledge on the tolerance of plant species to environmental stresses is needed for reforestation success. Here, we evaluated the photoprotective and antioxidant capacity, in terms of vitamin E accumulation, of five pioneer (Platypodium elegans Vogel, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil, Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. and Aegiphila sellowiana Cham.) and five non-pioneer (Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Cedrela fissilis Vell., Genipa americana L., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. and Hymenaea courbaril L.) species, in relation to the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. Furthermore, we examined differences between sun and shade leaves on vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation. Pioneer plants showed on average 33% higher malondialdehyde levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, than non-pioneer species, but no significant differences in vitamin E contents. In contrast, a marked interspecific variation was observed in the levels of α-tocopherol and its precursor, γ-tocopherol. Natural variation revealed interesting relationships between vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. The pioneer species, P. elegans, did not accumulate α-tocopherol and displayed the highest levels of malondialdehyde. Sun and shade leaves accumulated vitamin E levels to a similar extent, except for the pioneer L. pacari and the non-pioneer C. langsdorffii, the former accumulating more α-tocopherol in sun leaves and the latter in shade leaves. We conclude that interspecific variation is higher than both leaf type and successional-group variation in terms of vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation, and that vitamin E levels, particularly those of α-tocopherol, negatively correlate with the extent of lipid

  5. UCLA at TREC 2014 Clinical Decision Support Track: Exploring Language Models, Query Expansion, and Boosting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    decreased Raw terms, stopwords removed, appetite enlarged appendix abdominal ultrasound. Xx-year-old phrase removed metamap_concept:Entire appendix UMLS...pain for hours, decreased appetite , and enlarged appendix on abdominal ultrasound. Table 1 describes the query terms for an example patient summary. The...metamap_concept:Right lower quadrant pain ^20 metamap_concept:Decrease in appetite ^20 +(treat treatment manage management Query expansion for topic type and

  6. CMU OAQA at TREC 2015 LiveQA: Discovering the Right Answer with Clues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    issue them to different search engines (Bing Web Search , Yahoo! An- swers) in order to retrieve web pages related to the question. 2. Answer Ranking...to search engines for web retrieval. We collect the snippets returned for each hit and also download the full text of the web page for each hit. Our...into three major processing phases: 1. Clue Retrieval. Given a question title and its full text description, we formulate search engine queries and

  7. The University of Illinois’ Graduate School of Library and Information Science at TREC 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    21, 2014. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects...which describe the topic, media type, or genre of resources. Though classification of resources into verticals was available, our system did not make

  8. Evaluating Stream Filtering for Entity Profile Updates for TREC 2013 (KBA Track Overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    form name of an entity and assigning a 5   confidence score based on the length of the observed name. See code in github [6]. This achieves...name of an entity. See the implementation of the baseline system in the github repository for the “toy_kba_algorithm.py”   The scores indicate

  9. NovaSearch at TREC 2014 Microblog Track: Reranking with Wikipedia Page Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    tweets (statuses), collected via the Twitter streaming API by crawling the pub- lic stream sample over a two-month period: 1 February, 2013 - 31 March...Tweets2013 search API . Additionally the system tries to filter two classes of tweets that are not relevant as per track guidelines. Firstly, Twitter -style...tweets. Participants can access the Tweets2013 corpus by issuing text queries to a search API provided by the track. Therefore we experimented with

  10. BJUT at TREC 2015 Microblog Track: Real Time Filtering Using Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    time filtering with the usage of external knowledge base. Introduction As with the microblog such as Twitter rapidly getting popular, the information...title as the keywords to search in Wikipedia through the API . Noted that, to avoid duplication, pages that describe the same thing would be redirected...and fully function API for the programmer to use. Therefore, we take it as our choice. As we described above, we assume that the each topic of interest

  11. THUIR at TREC 2009 Web Track: Finding Relevant and Diverse Results for Large Scale Web Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Porn words‟ filtering is also one of the anti-spam techniques in real world search engines. A list of porn words was found from the internet [2...When the numbers of the porn words in the page is larger than α, then the page is taken as the spam. In our experiments, the threshold is set to 16

  12. CRP Henri Tudor at TREC 2014: Combining Search Results for Clinical Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CRP...their pairwise semantic similarity. Acknowledgments This work has been done in the context of the GECAMed2 R&D project (“ Gestion de Cabinets Médicaux

  13. UCM at TREC-2012: Does Negation Influence the Retrieval of Medical Reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ANSI Std Z39-18 retrieval task, but found that incorporating informa- tion from negations reports marginal improvements. Karimi et al (2011) also used...Semantics (*SEM 2012), Mon- treal, Canada. Sarvnaz Karimi , David Martinez, Sumukh Ghodke, Lu- min Zhang, Hanna Suominen, and Lawrence Cavedon. 2011

  14. San Francisco State University at TREC 2014: Clinical Decision Support Track and Microblog Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    many biomedical articles we saw numerous medical terms occurring in pairs or triples. Words such as “heart attack” and “ myocardial infarction ... diagnosis , treatment and test. The experimental results demonstrate that the developed system performed close to the median performance on most metrics...case report. Three types of clinical questions were included in the 2014 task: diagnosis , treatment or test

  15. Query Refinement: Negation Detection and Proximity Learning Georgetown at TREC 2014 Clinical Decision Support Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    documents to be returned in the ranked list. Terms comprised of more than one word such as “ myocardial infarction ” were ignored as Lemur’s indexing...articles to answer clinical questions to determine the patient’s diagnosis , the tests the patient should receive, and how the patient should be treated...what is the patient’s diagnosis ?”, “what tests should the patient receive?”, and “how should the patient be treated?” [1]. Thirty topics were

  16. Identifying Patients for Clinical Studies from Electronic Health Records: TREC 2012 Medical Records Track at OHSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    treated for migraine in the emergency department discharge_icd_codes_txt:346* AND report_text:"emergency department" 149 Patients with delirium ...blockade") 169 Elderly patients with subdural hematoma (report_text:"subdural hematoma" OR discharge_icd_codes_txt:852.21) AND NOT(report_text...90+") 174 Elderly patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia ((report_text:"nosocomial pneumonia" AND report_text:ventilator) OR report_text

  17. UT Austin in the TREC 2012 Crowdsourcing Track’s Image Relevance Assessment Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Silberman . Turkopticon: Interrupting worker invisibility in amazon me- chanical turk. In Proceeding of the Annual ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human...Eliminating spammers and ranking annotators for crowdsourced labeling tasks. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 13:491–518, 2012. 14. M. Silberman , L

  18. TREC Microblog 2012 Track: Real-Time Algorithm for Microblog Ranking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...Mining Text Data. 2012. [5] D. Feltoni. Twittersa: un sistema per l’analisi del sentimento nelle reti sociali. Master’s thesis, Roma Tre University

  19. Using Meta-data to Search for Clinical Records: RMIT at TREC 2012 Medical Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    department” ”acute coronary syndrome” presented cad plavix ”parenteral nutrition , total” hospital received patients received hospital diabetic ”diabetic...education” patients episodes hospital patients present acute glaucoma secondary vision loss infected hiv ”hepatitis c” patients diagnosis admit...or sec- ondary diseases of patients ; these codes can be used as evi- dence to find relevant documents. In this paper we propose a novel approach to

  20. Retrieving Medical Records with sennamed: NEC Labs America at TREC 2012 Medical Records Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    submissions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 12 19a. NAME OF...concept detection, a vector- space retrieval model, a probabilistic retrieval model, a supervised preference ranking model, unsupervised ...query into a reduced space with m latent dimensions. Here m is a hyper -parameter to tune. Before applying LSI, the dictionary size was cut down to

  1. Modeling Rich Interactions in Session Search - Georgetown University at TREC 2014 Session Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    iterations triggered by query reformulations to accomplish a complex search task. In our groups’ 2013 work [1], we model this interactive process of session...algorithm is set as Language Modeling with Dirichlet smoothing. The smoothing parameter mu is set as 5000. In RL2, we adopt QCM algorithm [1] where we...hoc Retrieval Model (Ad-hoc) Our RL1 approach directly uses the current query of each session as search terms. The retrieval algorithm is Language

  2. UMass at TREC WEB 2014: Entity Query Feature Expansion using Knowledge Base Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    rogers 289 benefits of yoga Model MAP ERR@20 NDCG@20 SDM 4.18 9.15 12.61 WikiRM1 4.00 9.31 12.80 SDM-RM3 3.53 7.61 11.00 EQFE 4.67 10.00 14.61 (a) Results...task on the category A subset and demonstrate the benefit of entity-centric approaches even for non-entity queries like “dark chocolate health benefits ...category A subset and demonstrate the benefit of entity-centric approaches even for non-entity queries like ???dark chocolate health benefits ???. 15

  3. Facet Classification of Blogs: Know-Center at the TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    of techniques. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 2007. 6. A. Juffinger, M. Granitzer, and E. Lex. Blog credibility ranking by exploiting verified...Recognizing text genres with simple metrics using discriminant analysis. In Proceedings of COLING, pages 1071–1075, 1994.

  4. University of Twente @ TREC 2009: Indexing Half a Billion Web Pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    terms that co-occur with the query most often were determined. For instance, the query dinosaurs (wt09-14) occurred in the log as dinosaurs (194 times... dinosaurs com (12), walking with dinosaurs (9), www dinosaurs com (7), the dinosaurs (7), dinosaurs tv show (6), dinosaurs pictures (6), types of... dinosaurs (6), dinosaurs for kids (6) and dinosaurs the tv show. From each of the 50 queries, a number of new queries are derived, containing the

  5. BJUT at TREC 2015 Microblog Track: Real-Time Filtering Using Non-negative Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    text and the number of followers, (4) removing the http links ,the words of length less than 3 greater than 15 and stopwords, and (5) converting the...with support vector machines: Learning with many relevant features[M]. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1998. [4] Albadvi A, Shahbazi M.A hybrid...Application of hybrid recommendation in web-based cooking assistant[C].Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems. Springer

  6. A Hybrid Method for Opinion Finding Task (KUNLP at TREC 2008 Blog Track)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    deployed this idea by using Clusty search en- gine2. Clusty is a text clustering search engine al- lows grouping search results into folder topics. Em...pirically, we issue an original query to Clusty and take the titles of top n clusters3 as expanded terms. Pseudo-relevance feedback: The intuition of...contain terms which are highly related to the topic. For simply examining this method, we se- 2http://clusty.com 3In Clusty , clusters are sorted by

  7. UMass Amherst and UT Austin @ The TREC 2009 Relevance Feedback Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    d fulfills the following criteria : • d does not appear in A, or • d’s rank in A is worse than in B 2. If there are less than 5 documents found using...the previous step, fill the remaining space with any document d from B that fulfills the following criteria : • d’s rank is worse than rank 5, and • d...infraorder disney activision ringtone nj puppy body bird abc sega forum ny pet lowest extinct channel hardware wireless brook rottweiler cost

  8. Searching and Filtering Tweets: CSIRO at the TREC 2012 Microblog Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    convey emotions such as lol or xoxo could also increase noise in a tweet. We investigated the effect of removing these words from the tweet as well...the common words that convey feelings such as lol , haha, or xoxo, and emoticons such as :-), ☼, or /, and Japanese emoticons such as (>_<). Lexical

  9. Laval University and Lakehead University Experiments at TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    better ranking results. Track results of our sub- mitted runs show the effectiveness of the system. Keywords— ElasticSearch , Boosting Query, Rec...pref- erences. For the live experiment, we combined an ElasticSearch engine together with a SVM regres- sor on a virtual server in order to respond... ElasticSearch c) Customized Queries d) Re-ranking regressor 3. Offline re-ranking methods a) Category filter The entire framework is illustrated in Figure 1

  10. Mining Tasks from the Web Anchor Text Graph: MSR Notebook Paper for the TREC 2015 Tasks Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    investigated the effectiveness of mining session co-occurrence data. For a search engine log, session bound- aries can be defined in the typical way but to...matching seed candidates (link text from the web graph or queries over search logs) and expand to related candidate key phrases via this session as...Given a query, we find matching seed candidates (link text 1 from the web graph or queries over search logs) using a soft matching. These seed

  11. University of Glasgow at TREC 2014: Experiments with Terrier in Contextual Suggestion, Temporal Summarisation and Web Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT...this year on the generation of more meaningful and interesting descriptions for each venue sug- gestion , instead of simply returning the LBSN’s... gestions track. Figures in bold represent the top performances. follows. For each venue suggestion, we extracted the reviews that have been entered by

  12. Bi-directional Linkability From Wikipedia to Documents and Back Again: UMass at TREC 2012 Knowledge Base Acceleration Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    cutoff (ETR) document set. The PRF query model uses The parameter settings: λT = 0.3, λNV = 0.3, λCW = 0.2, λNER = 0.2. The highest scor - ing 2000...Base Acceleration Track. UMass’ objective is to in- troduce a single model for Knowledge Base Entity Link- ing and Knowledge Base Acceleration stream...from mentions of entities in docu- ments to their KB entries. The entity to document di- rection, is modeled as a retrieval task where the goal is to

  13. ADAPT.DCU at TREC LiveQA: A Sentence Retrieval based Approach to Live Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    Several attempts towards non-factoid question answering were made. For example, Higashinaka and Isozaki (2008) present a learning -to-rank approach to...phrase ’welcome, sit, goodbye’ in all the Indian languages such as Gujarati, Bengali , Assamese, Punjabi...8 is good luck). The obvious drawback of... Learning to rank answers to non-factoid questions from web collections. Comput. Linguist., 37(2):351–383. Zhai, C. and Lafferty, J. (2001). A study of

  14. DCU@TRECMed 2012: Using Ad-Hoc Baselines for Domain-Specific Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    http://wiki.ir-facility.org/index.php/TREC Chemistry Track 2 http://www.cl.cs.titech.ac.jp/∼fujii/ntc8patmt/rs.html 3 http://www.linguateca.pt...KHRESMOI). References 1. King, B., Wang, L., Provalov, I., Zhou, J.: Cengage Learning at TREC 2011 medical track. In: TREC 2011, Gaithersburg, Maryland

  15. Exploiting SNOMED CT Concepts & Relationships for Clinical Information Retrieval: Australian e-Health Research Centre and Queensland University of Technology at the TREC 2012 Medical Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    data. References [1] Gaudinat, A., Ruch, P., Joubert, M., Uziel, P., Strauss, A., Thonnet, M., Baud , R., Spahni, S., Weber, P., Bonal, J., Boyer, C...Retrieval. Australasian Medical Journal: Special Issue on Artificial Intelligence in Health 5, 9 (2012), 482–488. 7 [4] Koopman, B., Zuccon, G ., Bruza...Pakhomov, S. V. S., Patwardhan, S., and Chute, C. G . Measures of semantic similarity and relatedness in the biomedical domain. Journal of Biomedical

  16. Full-texts Representations with Medical Subject Headings, and Co-citations Network Reranking Strategies for TREC 2014 Clinical Decision Support Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    evaluation campaigns [7]. MeSH concepts were recog- nised in documents using a classical strict mapping (Rabin- Karp algorithm). See [8] for further...details and evaluation of MeSH recognition by Rabin- Karp algo- rithm. MeSH concepts manually assigned by human in- dexers also could be collected when

  17. WSU-IR at TREC 2015 Clinical Decision Support Track: Joint Weighting of Explicit and Latent Medical Query Concepts from Diverse Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    presents with persistent fever for the past week. The parents report a spike at 104◦F. The parents brought the child to the emergency room when they...the case of narrative queries, the queries were modified slightly to increase the recall in Google search. Only healthcare-related concepts that are...after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy with incomplete kawasaki disease: Case report and literature review . Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine

  18. UWM-HBUT at TREC 2014 Microblog Track: Using Query Expansion (QE) and Event Identification Algorithm (EIA) to Improve Microblog Retrieval Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Algorithm (EIA). In addition, we also evaluate the Query Expansion (QE) approach using Google as an external data corpus. There are 55 search topics and...messages, QE is used to enrich a user query. This *Wei Huang is the corresponding author and also a visiting scholar of University of Wisconsin...stamp is to the event using Event Identification Algorithm (EIA). In addition, we also evaluate the Query Expansion (QE) approach using Google as an

  19. Mining Specific and General Features in Both Positive and Negative Relevance Feedback. QUT E-Discovery Lab at the TREC󈧍 Relevance Feedback Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    relevance feedback algo- rithm. Four methods, εMap [1], MapA , P10A, and StatAP [2], were used in the track to measure the performance of Phase 2 runs...εMap and StatAP were applied to the runs us- ing the testing set of only ClueWeb09 Category-B, whereas MapA and P10A were applied to those using the...whole ClueWeb09 English set. Because our experiments were based on only ClueWeb09 Category-B, measuring our per- formance by MapA and P10A might not

  20. TREC-SAVE: a randomised trial comparing mechanical restraints with use of seclusion for aggressive or violent seriously mentally ill people: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Marco AV

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thousands of people whose aggression is thought due to serious mental illness are secluded or restrained every day. Without fair testing these techniques will continue to be used outside of a rigorous evidence base. With such coercive treatment this leaves all concerned vulnerable to abuse and criticism. This paper presents the protocol for a randomised trial comparing seclusion with restraints for people with serious mental illnesses. Methods/Design Setting-General psychiatric wards of a large psychiatric hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Participants-Anyone aggressive or violent suspected or known to have serious mental illness for whom restriction is felt to be indicated by nursing and medical staff, but also for whom they are unsure whether seclusion or restraint would be indicated. Interventions-The standard care of either strong cotton banding to edge of bed with medications as indicated and close observation or the other standard care of use of a minimally furnished seclusion room but with open but barred windows onto the nursing station. Outcomes-time to restrictions lifted, early change of treatment, additional episodes, adverse effects/events, satisfaction with care during episode. Duration-2 weeks. Identifier: ISRCTN 49454276 http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN49454276

  1. Evaluation of bovine thymic function by measurement of signal joint T-cell receptor excision circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisazumi, Rinnosuke; Kayumi, Miya; Zhang, Weidong; Kikukawa, Ryuji; Nasu, Tetuo; Yasuda, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    A signal joint T-cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC) is a circular DNA produced by T-cell receptor α gene rearrangement in the thymus. Measurements of sjTREC values have been used to evaluate thymic function. We recently established a quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay of bovine sjTREC. In the present study, we used this QPCR assay to measure the sjTREC value in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and we then evaluated the relationships between sjTREC values and peripheral blood T-cell number, growth stage, gender, and meteorological season. The sjTREC value was highest at the neonatal stage, and its value subsequently decreased with age. On the other hand, the peripheral T-cell number increased with age. The sjTREC value in calves up to 50-days old was significantly higher for males than for females, suggesting that thymic function might differ by gender. In addition, the sjTREC value and the peripheral T-cell number were significantly higher in calves in the summer season than in calves in the winter season. These data suggest that bovine thymic function is highly variable and varies according to the growth stage, gender, and environmental factors such as air temperature or the UV index.

  2. Morphological and physio-chemical characterization of five Canistel accessions at the subtropical horticulture research station in Miami Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit of five canistel cultivars, 'Fairchild','E11', 'Keisau', 'TREC#3' and 'TREC 3680' were evaluated and characterized at the National Germplasm Repository, Subtropical horticulture Research Station (SHRS) Miami, Florida. Thirty fruits were harvested from clonal accessions during July and August, ...

  3. T-cell receptor excision circle levels after allogeneic stem cell transplantation are predictive of relapse in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunel, Mehmet; Sairafi, Darius; Remberger, Mats; Mattsson, Jonas; Uhlin, Michael

    2014-07-15

    In this retrospective study, 209 patients with malignant disease were analyzed for levels of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) for the first 24 months after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. CD3(+) cells were separated by direct antibody-coupled magnetic beads, followed by DNA extraction according to a standard protocol. The δRec-ψJα signal joint TREC was measured with real-time quantitative PCR. Patients were grouped based on malignant disease: chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphatic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Patients were further subdivided based on TREC levels below (low-TREC) or above (high-TREC) median at each time point. TREC levels were then correlated to relapse incidence and relapse-free survival (RFS). For patients with AML, low TREC levels 2 months post-transplantation were correlated to high relapse incidence at 5 years (Pleukemia, high TREC levels were correlated with improved RFS (Pafter allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  4. Neonatal screening for severe combined immunodeficiency in Brazil,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Pyles Patto Kanegae

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To apply, in Brazil, the T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs quantification technique using real-time polymerase chain reaction in newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency and assess the feasibility of implementing it on a large scale in Brazil. Methods 8715 newborn blood samples were collected on filter paper and, after DNA elution, TRECs were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The cutoff value to determine whether a sample was abnormal was determined by ROC curve analysis, using SSPS. Results The concentration of TRECs in 8,682 samples ranged from 2 to 2,181 TRECs/µL of blood, with mean and median of 324 and 259 TRECs/µL, respectively. Forty-nine (0.56% samples were below the cutoff (30 TRECs/µL and were reanalyzed. Four (0.05% samples had abnormal results (between 16 and 29 TRECs/µL. Samples from patients previously identified as having severe combined immunodeficiency or DiGeorge syndrome were used to validate the assay and all of them showed TRECs below the cutoff. Preterm infants had lower levels of TRECs than full-term neonates. The ROC curve showed a cutoff of 26 TRECs/µL, with 100% sensitivity for detecting severe combined immunodeficiency. Using this value, retest and referral rates were 0.43% (37 samples and 0.03% (3 samples, respectively. Conclusion The technique is reliable and can be applied on a large scale after the training of technical teams throughout Brazil.

  5. Core Temperature Measurement During Submaximal Exercise: Esophageal, Rectal, and Intestinal Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Williams, W. Jon; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if intestinal temperature (Tin) might be in acceptable alternative to esophageal (Tes) and rectal temperature (Trec) to assess thermoregulation during supine exercise. We hypothesized that Tin would have values similar to Tes and a response time similar to Trec, but the rate of temperature change across time would not be different between measurement sites. Seven subjects completed a continuous supine protocol of 20 min of rest, 20 min of cycle exercise at 40% peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk), 20 min of cycle exercise at 65% V02pk, and 20 min of recovery. Tes, Trec, and Tin were recorded each min throughout the test. Temperatures were not different after 20 min of rest, but Trec was less than the Tes and Tin at the end of the 40% and 65% VO2pk stages. After 20 min of recovery, Tes was less than either Trec or Tin, which were not different from each other. Time to threshold for increased temperature from rest was greater for Trec than Tes but not different from Tin. Time to reach peak temperature was greater for Tin and Trec than Tes. Similarly, time to a decrease in temperature after exercise was greater for Trec than Tes, but not different from Tin. The rate of temperature change from threshold to the end of the 40% VO2pk stage was not different between measurement sites. However, the rate of change during recovery was more negative for Tes than Tin and Trec, which were different from each other. Measurement of Tin may he an acceptable alternative to Tes and Trec with an understanding of its limitations.

  6. A comparison of rectal, oesophageal and gastro-intestinal tract temperatures during moderate-intensity cycling in temperate and hot conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mündel, Toby; Carter, James M; Wilkinson, David M; Jones, David A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three of the most commonly used methods of core temperature (Tcore) measurement during cycling under different environmental conditions as there are practical problems associated with each method and, sometimes, uncertainty as to which is the appropriate measure. Eight trained males (VO2 max: 60 ± 7 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed two 60-min cycling trials at ~70% VO2 max at 20°C (MOD) and 35°C (HOT). Measures of Tcore were made every 5 min with oesophageal (Toes) and rectal (Trec) thermistors and of the gastro-intestinal tract temperature (Tgi ) with a temperature-sensitive disposable radio pill. During MOD Toes initially plateaued after 10 min, Tgi after 25 min and Trec after 50 min, whereas during HOT these times had increased to 25 min for Toes and 55 min for both Tgi and Trec. Toes consistently provided lower readings than Trec (0·24-0·26°C) and Tgi (0·26-0·28°C) with Tgi and Trec similar (0·02°C). Readings for Tgi displayed closer agreement with Trec (ICC = 0·92) than Toes (ICC = 0·86) with less agreement between Trec and Toes (ICC = 0·84). 95% of all Tgi readings were within ±0·5°C of Trec and within ±0·6°C of Toes with 95% of all Toes readings being within ±0·7°C of Trec . These results demonstrate distinct response times, absolute values and agreement between Tcore measured at different body locations under different ambient conditions. Implications and considerations are discussed.

  7. A New Species of Neotropical Carpenter Ant in the Genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Apparently without Major Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mackay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of carpenter ants from Ecuador, which apparently has an obligatory relationship with the ant plants Cecropia membranacea Trécul, C. herthae Diels and C. marginalis Cuatrec. The workers are relatively small and hairy, and based on a number of collections, it does not appear to have major workers. We compare the new species to Camponotus balzani, to which it appears to be similar and which has normal major workers, and also lives in Cecropia spp.

  8. Nelfinavir monotherapy increases naïve T-cell numbers in HIV-negative healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Stacey R; Tangalos, Eric G; McClees, Mark D; Strausbauch, Michael A; Targonski, Paul V; McKean, David J; Wettstein, Peter J; Badley, Andrew D

    2008-01-01

    Although patients treated with HIV protease inhibitor (PI) containing regimens manifest increases in naïve T cell number, it is unclear whether this is due to reduction in viral replication or a direct drug effect. We questioned whether Nelfinavir monotherapy directly impacted naïve T-cell number in HIV-negative individuals. HIV-negative volunteers received Nelfinavir, 1250 mg orally, BID for 3 weeks, and T-cell receptor recombination excision circles (TREC) content in peripheral blood were assessed. Whereas TREC copies did not change over 3 weeks in untreated controls, TREC copies/copies CCR5 increased following Nelfinavir monotherapy in 8 patients (p negative patients, monotherapy with the HIV PI Nelfinavir for 21 days increases TREC-positive naïve T cell number, particularly in individuals who are healthy and young.

  9. Laboratory technology for population-based screening for severe combined immunodeficiency in neonates: the winner is T-cell receptor excision circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puck, Jennifer M

    2012-03-01

    The most profound primary immunodeficiency disease, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), is fatal in infancy unless affected infants are provided with an adaptive immune system through allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, enzyme replacement, or gene therapy. However, most infants with SCID lack a family history or any clinical clues before the onset of infections, making this serious but treatable disease a candidate for population-based newborn screening. Of several approaches considered for SCID screening, testing for T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), a DNA biomarker of normal T-cell development, has proved successful. TREC numbers can be measured in DNA isolated from the dried bloodspots already routinely collected for newborn screening. Infants with low or absent TRECs can thus be identified and referred for confirmatory testing and prompt intervention. TREC testing of newborns is now being performed in several states, indicating that this addition to the newborn screening panel can be successfully integrated into state public health programs.

  10. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Karla; Harper Tisha; Lans Cheryl; Bridgewater Elmo

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Pe...

  11. Intestinal temperature does not reflect rectal temperature during prolonged, intense running with cold fluid ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, Félix A; Dion, Tommy; Asselin, Audrey; Gariepy, Carolanne; Boucher, Pierre M; Berrigan, Félix; Goulet, Eric D B

    2015-02-01

    It is generally assumed that intestinal temperature (Tint), as measured with a telemetric pill, agrees relatively well with rectal temperature (Trec) during exercise. However, whether Tint reflects Trec during prolonged, intense and continuous exercise when cold fluids are consumed is unknown. Therefore, we compared Trec and Tint during a half-marathon during which cold water was ingested to prevent bodyweight (BW) losses >2%. Nine endurance athletes (age 30  ±  5 years) underwent a 21.1 km running time-trial (TT) in the heat (~30 °C and 44% RH) while BW losses were maintained to ~1% with continuous cold (4 °C) water provision. Tint and Trec were monitored throughout the TT. Hypohydration level, TT time and fluid intake were 1.2  ±  0.4% BW, 93.2  ±  9.9 min and 2143  ±  264 ml, respectively. Trec was systematically higher than Tint by 0.25 °C (95% CI: 0.14-0.37 °C). Tint and Trec showed an excellent relative (r = 0.90, p < 0.01), but poor absolute agreement as reflected by a 95% limit of agreement of ±1.07 °C and a standard error of measurement of ±0.39 °C. In conclusion, Tint does not mirror Trec during prolonged, intense running with cold fluid ingestion and, therefore, these measures should not be used interchangeably under this scenario.

  12. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Yoshida

    Full Text Available Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  13. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c) and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  14. From Researchers to Teachers to Students: Capturing the Ripple Effect of Climate Change Science Experience and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.; Larson, A.

    2014-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a National Science Foundation funded program in which K-12 teachers spend 3-6 weeks participating in hands-on, transformative field research experiences in the polar regions which focus heavily on climate change and climate science. Administrated by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, the goal of PolarTREC is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together. Since 2007, the PolarTREC program evaluation has been collecting deep and diverse sets of data from all audiences engaged in the project. Nearly all expeditions focus on at least one aspect of climate change science. Teacher and researcher participants are queried pre- and post- expedition on their knowledge and interested in polar science, K-12 education, and a critique of the PolarTREC program. A specific highlight is the thousands of students surveyed in regards to their knowledge gain, attitudes, and interest in science learning. Additionally, longitudinal studies expose the myriad of ways that the PolarTREC program influences teachers and their practice many years after program completion. The findings influence and shape the program every year, nearly perfecting the strategy for communicating climate change science to audiences around the world. This presentation will present the social science research findings in our extensive evaluation and provide best practices for program structure as well as evaluation methods to best capture the impact on audiences beyond participants.

  15. The case for newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency and related disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puck, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of primary immunodeficiency is recognized as important for avoiding infectious complications that compromise outcomes. In particular, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is fatal in infancy unless affected infants can be diagnosed before the onset of devastating infections and provided with an immune system through allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation, enzyme replacement, or gene therapy. A biomarker of normal T cell development, T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), can be measured in DNA isolated from the dried blood spots routinely obtained for newborn screening; infants identified as lacking TRECs can thus receive confirmatory testing and prompt intervention. Early results of TREC testing of newborns in five states indicate that this addition to the newborn screening panel can be successfully integrated into state public health programs. A variety of cases with typical SCID genotypes and other T lymphocytopenic conditions have been detected in a timely manner and referred for appropriate early treatment. PMID:22236435

  16. A Call to Include Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in Newborn Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raz Somech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of the T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs has recently emerged as a useful non-invasive clinical and research tool to investigate thymic activity. It allows the identification of T cell production by the thymus. Quantification of TREC copies has recently been implemented as the preferred test to screen neonates with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID or significant lymphopenia. Neonatal genetic screening for SCID is highly important in countries with high rates of consanguinous marriages, such as Israel, and can be used for early diagnosis, enabling prompt therapeutic intervention that will save lives and improve the outcome of these patients. TREC measurement is also applicable in clinical settings where T cell immunity is involved, including any T cell immunodeficiencies, HIV infection, the aging process, autoimmune diseases, and immune reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation.

  17. Contributions en faveur d'une meilleure personnalisation de la recherche d'informations - Applications à la tâche questions-réponses, à la recherche de documents audio et à l'accessibilité pour des personnes dyslexiques

    OpenAIRE

    Bellot, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    Dans un article récent sur les enjeux de la recherche d'informations, Belkin (2008) rappelle que la question de la personnalisation est annoncée comme majeure depuis une vingtaine d'années mais que la plupart des tentatives vers une étude systématique ont échoué. S'il n'est pas question de prétendre que les évaluations TREC Interactive puis TREC Hard et TREC ciQA, pour ne mentionner qu'elles, n'ont abouti à rien dans ce domaine, force est de constater que l'utilisateur n'intervient que très p...

  18. The Wisconsin approach to newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbsky, James; Thakar, Monica; Routes, John

    2012-03-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a life-threatening disease of infants that is curable with hematopoietic cell transplantation if detected early. Population-based screening for SCID using the T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay began in Wisconsin in 2008; 5 infants with SCID or other forms of severe T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) have been detected, and no infants with SCID have been missed. This review will provide an overview of the TREC screening assay and an update of the findings from Wisconsin on all infants screened from January 1, 2008, until December 31, 2010. Importantly, we give practical recommendations regarding newborn population-based screening using the TREC assay, including the evaluation and care of infants detected.

  19. The case for newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puck, Jennifer M

    2011-12-01

    Early detection of primary immunodeficiency is recognized as important for avoiding infectious complications that compromise outcomes. In particular, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is fatal in infancy unless affected infants can be diagnosed before the onset of devastating infections and provided with an immune system through allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation, enzyme replacement, or gene therapy. A biomarker of normal T cell development, T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), can be measured in DNA isolated from the dried blood spots routinely obtained for newborn screening; infants identified as lacking TRECs can thus receive confirmatory testing and prompt intervention. Early results of TREC testing of newborns in five states indicate that this addition to the newborn screening panel can be successfully integrated into state public health programs. A variety of cases with typical SCID genotypes and other T lymphocytopenic conditions have been detected in a timely manner and referred for appropriate early treatment.

  20. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campagne Fabien

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC, organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. Results We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation. The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches. Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79–0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86–0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Conclusion Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT

  1. Assessment of thymic output in common variable immunodeficiency patients by evaluation of T cell receptor excision circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUAZZI, V; AIUTI, F; MEZZAROMA, I; MAZZETTA, F; ANDOLFI, G; Mortellaro, A; Pierdominici, M; FANTINI, R; MARZIALI, M; AIUTI, A

    2002-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by repeated infections and hypogammaglobulinaemia. Additionally, T-cell abnormalities including lymphopenia, decreased proliferation to mitogens and antigens, and the reduced production and expression of cytokines, have also been observed. In this study we have investigated the expression of naive, memory and activation markers in T-cell subpopulations in 17 CVID patients in comparison to age-matched normal controls. The numbers of CD4+ T cells, including CD45RA+CD62L+ and, to a lesser extent, CD45RA−CD62L+/RA+CD62L− were significantly reduced in patients, whereas CD8+ T cells were within normal range. In contrast, HLA-DR+ cells were increased both in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. To assess the thymic output, we analysed the presence of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by quantitative PCR. TRECs were decreased significantly in patients and the rate of TREC loss was higher with increasing age. TRECs correlated with naive CD4+ T cells, whereas there was an inverse relationship between TRECs and CD8+HLA−DR+ and CD8+CD45RA−CD62L+/RA+CD62L− T cells. Our results suggest the presence of a defect in the naive T cell compartment with origin at the thymic level in CVID, and indicate that TREC may be a useful marker to monitor thymic function in this primary immunodeficiency. PMID:12165093

  2. Meta-analysis of beta radiation augmentation for trabeculectomy - results in distinct ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Issa de Fendi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis on the efficacy of trabeculectomy (TREC followed by beta irradiation (BRT/TREC compared to TREC alone for glaucoma in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP control and adverse effects of treatment in different ethnic groups. METHODS: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT was performed comparing adjunct BRT treatment for glaucoma with standard TREC after 12 months. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases, Trial registers, bibliographic databases and recent studies of relevant journals were searched. Two reviewers independently reviewed relevant reports and the references from these reports were searched for additional trials, using guidelines set by QUOROM statement criteria. RESULTS: Of a total of 1,350 citations, eight studies (five cohorts, three randomized were identified and only 3 RCT were included in this meta-analysis. Higher IOP reductions were verified in the BRT arm compared to the control arm (mean difference=1.68 mmHg, 95% CI= 0.61-2.68, P=0.002. Uncontrolled postoperative IOP (>21 mmHg was less frequent when BRT was used (BRT/ TREC arm compared to the control arm (38/218=17.4% versus 9/239=3.8%; OR=6.7; 95% CI 3.2-14.3, P<0.0001. Although better IOP control was observed in all patients treated with adjuvant BRT, only Black patients displayed a significant difference (P=0.005. There were no significant differences between the BRT and control arms regarding loss of visual acuity, postoperative complications and necessity of cataract surgery. CONCLUSION: Adjunct BRT increases the success rate of TREC, with better results in non Caucasian patients, and does not influence the occurrence of postoperative complications.

  3. Probing and mapping the binding sites on streptavidin imprinted polymer surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duman, Memed, E-mail: memi@hacettepe.edu.tr

    2014-10-01

    Molecular imprinting is an effective technique for preparing recognition sites which act as synthetic receptors on polymeric surfaces. Herein, we synthesized MIP surfaces with specific binding sites for streptavidin and characterized them at nanoscale by using two different atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. While the single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) reveals the unbinding kinetics between streptavidin molecule and binding sites, simultaneous topography and recognition imaging (TREC) was employed, for the first time, to directly map the binding sites on streptavidin imprinted polymers. Streptavidin modified AFM cantilever showed specific unbinding events with an unbinding force around 300 pN and the binding probability was calculated as 35.2% at a given loading rate. In order to prove the specificity of the interaction, free streptavidin molecules were added to AFM liquid cell and the binding probability was significantly decreased to 7.6%. Moreover, the recognition maps show that the smallest recognition site with a diameter of around ∼ 21 nm which corresponds to a single streptavidin molecule binding site. We believe that the potential of combining SMFS and TREC opens new possibilities for the characterization of MIP surfaces with single molecule resolution under physiological conditions. - Graphical abstract: Simultaneous Topography and RECognition (TREC) imaging is a novel characterization technique to reveal binding sites on molecularly imprinted polymer surfaces with single molecule resolution under physiological conditions. - Highlights: • Highly specific streptavidin printed polymer surfaces were synthesized. • Unbinding kinetic rate of single streptavidin molecule was studied by SMFS. • The distribution of binding pockets was revealed for the first time by TREC imaging. • TREC showed that the binding pockets formed nano-domains on MIP surface. • SMFS and TREC are powerful AFM techniques for characterization of MIP surfaces.

  4. Anti-stress and Adaptogenic Activity of l-Arginine Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, oral supplementation of l-arginine in rats was evaluated for its anti-stress and adaptogenic activity using the cold (5°C–hypoxia (428 mmHg–restraint (C-H-R animal model. A dose-dependent study of l-arginine was carried out at doses of 12.5, 25.0, 50.0, 100.0, 200.0 and 500.0 mg/kg body weight, administered orally 30 min prior to C-H-R exposure. The time taken by the rat to attain a rectal temperature of 23°C (Trec 23°C during C-H-R exposure and its recovery to Trec 37°C at normal atmospheric pressure and 32 ± 1°C were used as biomarkers of anti-stress and adaptogenic activity. Biochemical parameters related to lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidants, cell membrane permeability, nitric oxide and stress, with and without administration of the least effective l-arginine dose, were measured in rats on attaining Trec 23°C and Trec 37°C. The least effective adaptogenic dose of l-arginine was 100.0 mg/kg body weight. The C-H-R exposure of control rats, on attaining Trec 23°C, resulted in a significant increase in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and a decrease in blood catalase (CAT and plasma testosterone levels. On recovery (Trec 37°C of control rats, there was a further decrease in CAT and plasma testosterone, and an increase in LDH. l-Arginine supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in plasma MDA, an increase in blood superoxide dismutase (SOD, CAT levels maintained at control values and a lower increase in LDH compared with controls (45.3 versus 58.5% and 21.5 versus 105.2% on attaining Trec 23°C during C-H-R exposure and on recovery to Trec 37°C. The results suggested that l-arginine possesses potent anti-stress activity during C-H-R exposure and recovery from C-H-R-induced hypothermia.

  5. Siena’s Twitter Information Retrieval System: The 2012 Microblog Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Hashtag 3. Asterisks 4. Emoticons Percentage Values: 1. Number of Capital Letters vs Total number of letters 2. Number of Vowels vs Total number...discovered that the most effective data to use was the URL, Hashtag, Asterisk, Emoticons , number of question marks and exclamation marks, and the...Lexical Database for English. Communications of the ACM Vol. 38, No. 11: 39-41. [8]http://trec.nist.gov/pubs/trec11/papers/OVER.FILTERING.pdf [9]http://opennlp.apache.org/ [10] Twitter.com

  6. Correlation of recalescence with grain refinement of magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The grain refinement of Mg-Al based alloys with carbon inoculation was investigated by a computer-aided cooling curve analysis(CA-CCA)system.The results show that carbon inoculation decreases the main parameters of the recalescence regime during the initial stage of solidification.These parameters include the recalescence undercooling(△θrec),duration of recalescence (trec),and liquid peak parameter(LPP)which is firstly introduced into magnesium alloys.The resultant grain size decreases with increasing nucleation temperature(θn)and decreasing values of △θrec,trec and LPE

  7. Seed predation, disease and germination on landslides in Neotropical lower montane wet forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myster, R.W. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico). Inst. for Tropical Ecosystem Studies

    1997-02-01

    Seed mortality (caused by predators and pathogens) and germination were compared between Puerto Rico and Costa Rica on landslides in lower montane wet forest. Seeds of six common species on five Puerto Rican landslides and four common species on two Costa Rican landslides were used with a Cecropia species and a Gonzalagunia species included at both sites. In the Puerto Rican experiments Cecropia schreberiana was the only species to show significant seed predation (which was due to insects), pathogens grew from all species and fewer seeds were lost to predators than pathogens. Also in Puerto Rico mean germination across all species was 57% before dispersal (filled seeds collected while still on the tree) and 71% after, with Phytolacca rivinoides seeds germinating most abundantly, followed in descending order by Ocotea leucoxylon, Cecropia spec., Miconia racemosa, Palicourea riparia and Gonzalagunia spicata. In the Costa Rican experiments three species had significant predation: Cecropia polyphlebia and Urera caracasana (both due to insects) and Witheringia coccoloboides (due to mammals); pathogenic disease caused more seed loss than predation, and germination was high (61% pre-dispersal, 69% post-dispersal). Similarities between these island and mainland sites included (1) percentage of seeds lost to predation and percentage lost to pathogens (all in the 5-15% range), (2) generalist pathogens which claimed more seeds than predators and (3) majority germination with a general increase after dispersal. Finally sites were dissimilar only in the number of species with significant predation loss and whether it was by insects or mammals, casting doubt on the traditional island/mainland dichotomy. 62 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Tropical Timbers of the World,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    1964. Some strength and related properties of yagrumo hembra (Cecropia peltata) from Puerto Rico. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Note FPL-053. Forest Prod. Lab...Department of Agriculture. 4. McMillen, J. M. 1961. Kiln schedules for Puerto Rican yagrumo hembra . Caribbean Forester 22(3/4):84-90. 80 CEDRELA SPP. SPANISH...272 _7 SCHINC(PSIS SPP. QUEBRACHO Family: Anacardiaceae Other Common Names: Baralva, Braina, Quebracho hembra (Brazil), Quebracho colorado, Q. chaqueio

  9. Chlorinated tyrosine derivatives in insect cuticle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2004-01-01

    during sample hydrolysis. Mono- and dichlorotyrosine are also present in cuticular samples from other insect species, such as the beetle, Tenebrio molitor, the moth Hyalophora cecropia, the cockroach Blaberus craniifer, and the bug Rhodnius prolixus, but not in the sclerotized puparial cuticle...... of the blowfly, Calliphora vicina, or in sclerotized ootheca from the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Cuticular sclerotization and formation of chlorotyrosines occur simultaneously in locust legs; sclerotized cuticles tend to have a higher content of chlorotyrosines than unsclerotized cuticles...

  10. Decline of photosynthetic capacity with leaf age and position in two tropical pioneer tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Kaoru; Mulkey, Stephen S; Samaniego, Mirna; Joseph Wright, S

    2002-12-01

    The effect of leaf age on photosynthetic capacity, a critical parameter in the theory of optimal leaf longevity, was studied for two tropical pioneer tree species, Cecropia longipes and Urera caracasana, in a seasonally dry forest in Panama. These species continuously produce short-lived leaves (74 and 93 d, respectively) during the rainy season (May-December) on orthotropic branches. However, they differ in leaf production rate, maximum number of leaves per branch, light environment experienced by the leaves, leaf mass per unit area, and nitrogen content. Light-saturated photosynthetic rates for marked leaves of known ages (±1 wk) were measured with two contrasting schemes (repeated measurements vs. chronosequence within branch), which overall produced similar results. In both species, photosynthetic rates and nitrogen use efficiency were negatively correlated with leaf age and positively correlated with light availability. Photosynthetic rates declined faster with leaf age in Cecropia than in Urera as predicted by the theory. The rate of decline was faster for leaves on branches with faster leaf turnover rates. Nitrogen per unit leaf area decreased with leaf age only for Urera. Leaf mass per unit area increased with leaf age, either partly (in Cecropia) or entirely (in Urera) due to ash accumulation.

  11. Storage hexamer utilization in two lepidopterans: differences correlated with the timing of egg formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Pan

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Most insects produce two or more storage hexamers whose constituents and developmental profiles are sufficiently different to suggest specialization in the ways that they support metamorphosis and reproduction. Hexamerin specializations are compared here in the Cecropia moth (Hyalophora cecropia, which produces eggs during the pupal-adult molt, and the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus, which produces eggs under long-day conditions after adult eclosion. In both sexes of both species, reserves of arylphorin (ArH were exhausted by the end of metamorphosis. In Cecropia, the same was true for the high-methionine hexamerins, V-MtH and M-MtH. But in short day Monarch females 20-30% of the pupal reserves of V-MtH and M-MtH survived metamorphosis, persisting until long-day conditions were imposed to stimulate egg formation. Differences in storage sites have been documented in other lepidopterans, with MtH reserves being found primarily in fat body protein granules and the ArH reserve being found primarily in the hemolymph. Similar differences could explain how a fraction of the MtH's, but not of ArH, escapes utilization during metamorphosis in a species with post-eclosion egg formation. No differences in utilization schedules were detected between V- and M-MtH, despite divergent compositions and antigenic reactivity.

  12. Concept Based Tie-breaking and Maximal Marginal Relevance Retrieval in Microblog Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    more appropriate order could further improve the performance. 3. TWEET TIMELINE GENERATION 1https://github.com/lintool/ twitter - tools/wiki/TREC-2013- API ...were used to search against the API , and the number of results required to return was set to 10,000. The returned tweets were then used to build

  13. The strange case of reproducibility versus representativeness in contextual suggestion test collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samar, T.; Bellogin, A.; De Vries, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    The most common approach to measuring the effectiveness of Information Retrieval systems is by using test collections. The Contextual Suggestion (CS) TREC track provides an evaluation framework for systems that recommend items to users given their geographical context. The specific nature of this tr

  14. FedWeb greatest hits: presenting the new test collection for federated web search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeester, Thomas; Trieschnigg, Dolf; Zhou, Ke; Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents 'FedWeb Greatest Hits', a large new test collection for research in web information retrieval. As a combination and extension of the datasets used in the TREC Federated Web Search Track, this collection opens up new research possibilities on federated web search challenges, as we

  15. MapReduce for Experimental Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Hauff, Claudia; Voorhees, E.M.; Buckland, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents preliminary results for the TREC 2010 ad-hoc web search task. We ran our MIREX system on 0.5 billion web documents from the ClueWeb09 crawl. On average, the system retrieves at least 3 relevant documents on the first result page containing 10 results, using a simple index consis

  16. Low thymic output in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome measured by CCR9+CD45RA+ T cell counts and T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, K; Abrahamsen, Gitte Meldgaard; Foelling, I

    2010-01-01

    Thymic hypoplasia is a frequent feature of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, but we know little about patients' age-related thymic output and long-term consequences for their immune system. We measured the expression of T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (TREC) and used flow cytometry...

  17. Access to legal documents: Exact match, best match, and combinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Arampatzis; J. Kamps; M. Koolen; N. Nussbaum

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we document our efforts in participating to the TREC 2007 Legal track. We had multiple aims: First, to experiment with using different query formulations, trying to exploit the verbose topic statements. Second, to analyse how ranked retrieval methods can be fruitfully combined with tr

  18. A Call to Include Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in Newborn Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somech, Raz; Etzioni, Amos

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of the T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) has recently emerged as a useful non-invasive clinical and research tool to investigate thymic activity. It allows the identification of T cell production by the thymus. Quantification of TREC copies has recently been implemented as the preferred test to screen neonates with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) or significant lymphopenia. Neonatal genetic screening for SCID is highly important in countries with high rates of consanguinous marriages, such as Israel, and can be used for early diagnosis, enabling prompt therapeutic intervention that will save lives and improve the outcome of these patients. TREC measurement is also applicable in clinical settings where T cell immunity is involved, including any T cell immunodeficiencies, HIV infection, the aging process, autoimmune diseases, and immune reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation. TAKE-HOME MESSAGES Severe combined immunodeficiency, a life-threatening condition, can be detected by neonatal screening. The earlier the detection and the quicker the implementation of appropriate treatment, the greater the likelihood for improved outcome, even cure, for the affected children. TRECs and KRECs quantification are useful screening tests for severe T and B cell immunodeficiency and can be used also to evaluate every medical condition involving T and B cell immunity. PMID:24498508

  19. Neonatal Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puck, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Population-based newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and related disorders has been instituted in five states, with several more planning to add this testing to their newborn screening panels. This review summarizes the rationale, development, and implementation of SCID screening programs to date and highlights current and future challenges. Recent findings Early results of T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) testing newborns in pilot states indicate that this addition to the newborn screening panel can be successfully integrated into state public health programs. The TREC test has clinical validity and TRECs, as predicted, are an excellent biomarker of poor T-cell lymphocyte production in the thymus or increased lymphocyte loss resulting in T-cell lymphopenia. A variety of cases with typical SCID genotypes and other conditions have been detected in a timely manner and referred for appropriate early treatment. Summary Early detection of primary immunodeficiency is recognized as important for avoiding infectious complications that compromise outcomes. Routine screening of all newborns with the TREC test, implemented as part of an integrated public health program, can achieve pre-symptomatic diagnosis of SCID and other disorders with T-cell lymphopenia, allowing prompt and effective treatment and leading to a better understanding of the spectrum of these disorders and how to manage them. PMID:22001765

  20. Experiments with result diversity and entity ranking: Text, anchors, links, and Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Koolen, M.; Kamps, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we document our efforts in participating to the TREC 2009 Entity Ranking and Web Tracks. We had multiple aims: For the Web Track’s Adhoc task we experiment with document text and anchor text representation, and the use of the link structure. For the Web Track’s Diversity task we exper

  1. Using anchor text, spam filtering and Wikipedia for web search and entity ranking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.; Kaptein, R.; Koolen, M.; Voorhees, E.M.; Buckland, L.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we document our efforts in participating to the TREC 2010 Entity Ranking and Web Tracks. We had multiple aims: For the Web Track we wanted to compare the effectiveness of anchor text of the category A and B collections and the impact of global document quality measures such as PageRan

  2. Relevance feedback in probabilistic multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boldareva, L.; Hiemstra, D.; Jonker, W.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explore a new view on data organisation and retrieval in a (multimedia) collection. We use probabilistic framework for indexing and interactive retrieval of the data, which enable to fill the semantic gap. Semi-automated experiments with TREC-2002 video collection showed that our ap

  3. A Hybrid Approach to Clinical Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    obtained from the clinical knowledge base are used to retrieve candidate biomedical articles by search- ing through TREC-CDS abstracts of PubMed Cen- tral...of the available patient information. 3.2 Corpus The document collection for the track comes from the open access portion of PubMed Central7 (PMC), a

  4. Data Visualization in Information Retrieval and Data Mining (SIG VIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiadis, Efthimis

    2000-01-01

    Presents abstracts that discuss using data visualization for information retrieval and data mining, including immersive information space and spatial metaphors; spatial data using multi-dimensional matrices with maps; TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) experiments; users' information needs in cartographic information retrieval; and users' relevance…

  5. The importance of anchor text for ad hoc search revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2010-01-01

    It is generally believed that propagated anchor text is very important for effective Web search as offered by the commercial search engines. "Google Bombs" are a notable illustration of this. However, many years of TREC Web retrieval research failed to establish the effectiveness of link evidence fo

  6. Result diversity and entity ranking experiments: anchors, links, text and Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Koolen, M.; Kamps, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we document our efforts in participating to the TREC 2009 Entity Ranking and Web Tracks. We had multiple aims: For the Web Track’s Adhoc task we experiment with document text and anchor text representation, and the use of the link structure. For the Web Track’s Diversity task we exper

  7. An effective statistical approach to blog post opinion retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, B.; Macdonald, C.; He, J.; Ounis, I.; Shanahan, J.G.; Amer-Yahia, S.; Zhang, Y.; Kołcz, A.; Chowdury, A.; Kelly, D.

    2008-01-01

    Finding opinionated blog posts is still an open problem in information retrieval, as exemplified by the recent TREC blog tracks. Most of the current solutions involve the use of external resources and manual efforts in identifying subjective features. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective

  8. Cross language information retrieval for biomedical literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuemie, M.; Trieschnigg, D.; Kraaij, W.

    2007-01-01

    This workshop report discusses the collaborative work of UT, EMC and TNO on the TREC Genomics Track 2007. The biomedical information retrieval task is approached using cross language methods, in which biomedical concept detection is combined with effective IR based on unigram language models. Furthe

  9. A language modeling approach to the Text Retrieval Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, D.; Kraaij, W.

    2005-01-01

    In deze bijdrage wordt beschreven hoe taalmodelleren kan helpen Information Retrieval te gebruiken voor het systematisch combineren van informatie uit verschillende bronnen. Vier subtaken van TREC (Ad Hoc, Entry Page, Adaptive Filtering en Cross-language) worden gebruikt om de toepassing te demonstr

  10. Evaluating Mobile Proactive Context-Aware Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menegon, Davide; Mizzaro, Stefano; Nazzi, Elena

    We present the evaluation of a novel application for Web content perusal by means of context-aware mobile devices that proactively query an external search engine. To this aim, we develop a TREC-like benchmark and we use it to evaluate different strategies for automatic query construction...

  11. Challenging Conventional Assumptions of Automated Information Retrieval with Real Users: Boolean Searching and Batch Retrieval Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, William; Turpin, Andrew; Price, Susan; Kraemer, Dale; Olson, Daniel; Chan, Benjamin; Sacherek, Lynetta

    2001-01-01

    Describes research conducted at the TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) interactive track that compared Boolean and natural language searching, showing they achieved comparable results; and assessed the validity of batch-oriented retrieval evaluations, showing that the results from batch evaluations were not comparable to those obtained in…

  12. Detecting cartoons: a case study in automatic video-genre classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ianeva, T.; Vries, A.P. de; Röhrig, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for classifying individual video frames as being a `cartoon' or a `photographic image'. The task arose from experiments performed at the TREC-2002 video retrieval benchmark: `cartoons' are returned unexpectedly at high ranks even if the query gave only `photographi

  13. Language modeling approaches to blog post and feed finding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernsting, B.J.; Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.; Voorhees, E.M.; Buckland, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    We describe our participation in the TREC 2007 Blog track. In the opinion task we looked at the differences in performance between Indri and our mixture model, the influence of external expansion and document priors to improve opinion finding; results show that an out-of-the-box Indri implementation

  14. "Live from IPY"--Connecting Students, Teachers and the Public to Polar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, K.; Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Fischer, K.; Wiggins, H.

    2007-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) that pairs K-12 teachers with researchers to improve science education through authentic polar research experiences. Each year of PolarTREC, approximately 15 teachers spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers investigating a wide range of topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. PolarTREC is funded by the National Science Foundation. While in the field, teachers and researchers communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of communication technologies and tools to appeal to broad student and public engagement in polar science. Through the PolarTREC website (www.polartrec.com) teachers connect from the field through the use of online journals and forums, photo galleries, podcasts, and learning resources. "Live from IPY," a key activity of PolarTREC, is a free, interactive, distance-learning experience that virtually transports students and the public to unique and remote polar locations through a live Internet interface. Rather than relying solely on the asynchronous elements of online journals, forums, photo albums, and podcasts, "Live from IPY" allows real-time interaction by adding elements including live voice, video, chat, application sharing, polling, and whiteboards, but requires only telephone and/or Internet access for participants and presenters to connect. "Live from IPY" and the online outreach elements of PolarTREC convey the excitement of polar research experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers, allowing anyone to join a global network of scientists, teachers, students, and communities and actively participate in the

  15. Is there a diurnal variation in repeated sprint ability on a non-motorised treadmill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullinger, Samuel A; Brocklehurst, Emma L; Iveson, Reece P; Burniston, Jatin G; Doran, Dominic A; Waterhouse, James M; Edwards, Ben J

    2014-04-01

    In active males, muscle force production and short-term (RSA), as would be relevant to football, for example. A controlled laboratory protocol using a non-motorised treadmill has been used to investigate whether daily variation in RSA is present in highly motivated athletes. Twenty active males (mean ± SD: age, 21.0 ± 2.2 yrs; maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] max), 60.8 ± 4.8 ml kg min(-1); body mass, 77.02 ± 10.5 kg and height, 1.79 ± 0.07 m) volunteered and completed two sessions counterbalanced in order of administration (separated by >48 h): a morning (M, 07:30 h) and evening (E, 17:30 h) session. Both sessions included a 5-min active warm-up on a motorised treadmill at 10 km h(-1) followed by three task-specific warm-up sprints at 50%, 70% and 80%, respectively, on a non-motorised treadmill. During each trial, 10 × 3 s repeated sprints with 30 s recoveries were performed on the non-motorised treadmill. Rectal (Trec) and muscle temperature measurements (Tm) were taken after subjects had reclined for 30 min at the start of the protocol, and again after the active warm-up. Values of heart rate, thermal comfort (TC), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and effort were measured throughout. Blood samples were taken at rest, after the sprints and 5-min post sprints. Data were analysed using a GLM with repeated measures. Trec and Tm values were higher at rest in the evening than the morning (0.46 °C and 0.57 °C, respectively, p p > 0.05). All subjects reported maximal values for "effort" for each sprint. There were significant positive correlations between Trec and Tm, Trec and RPE, TC and all measures of RSA performance. However, there was no correlation between fatigue index for peak power output or peak velocity and Trec. In summary, in this population of motivated subjects, time-of-day effects were seen in resting Trec and Tm values and all performance measures of RSA, in partial agreement with past research. The diurnal variation in Trec and Tm

  16. Impact of growth hormone (GH deficiency and GH replacement upon thymus function in adult patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Morrhaye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite age-related adipose involution, T cell generation in the thymus (thymopoiesis is maintained beyond puberty in adults. In rodents, growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and GH secretagogues reverse age-related changes in thymus cytoarchitecture and increase thymopoiesis. GH administration also enhances thymic mass and function in HIV-infected patients. Until now, thymic function has not been investigated in adult GH deficiency (AGHD. The objective of this clinical study was to evaluate thymic function in AGHD, as well as the repercussion upon thymopoiesis of GH treatment for restoration of GH/IGF-1 physiological levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-two patients with documented AGHD were enrolled in this study. The following parameters were measured: plasma IGF-1 concentrations, signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC frequency, and sj/beta TREC ratio. Analyses were performed at three time points: firstly on GH treatment at maintenance dose, secondly one month after GH withdrawal, and thirdly one month after GH resumption. After 1-month interruption of GH treatment, both plasma IGF-1 concentrations and sjTREC frequency were decreased (p<0.001. Decreases in IGF-1 and sjTREC levels were correlated (r = 0.61, p<0.01. There was also a decrease in intrathymic T cell proliferation as indicated by the reduced sj/beta TREC ratio (p<0.01. One month after reintroduction of GH treatment, IGF-1 concentration and sjTREC frequency regained a level equivalent to the one before GH withdrawal. The sj/beta TREC ratio also increased with GH resumption, but did not return to the level measured before GH withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AGHD under GH treatment, GH withdrawal decreases thymic T cell output, as well as intrathymic T cell proliferation. These parameters of thymus function are completely or partially restored one month after GH resumption. These data indicate that the functional

  17. Insights into the impact and use of research results in a residential long-term care facility: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cranley Lisa A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging end-users of research in the process of disseminating findings may increase the relevance of findings and their impact for users. We report findings from a case study that explored how involvement with the Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC study influenced management and staff at one of 36 TREC facilities. We conducted the study at ‘Restwood’ (pseudonym nursing home because the Director of Care engaged actively in the study and TREC data showed that this site differed on some areas from other nursing homes in the province. The aims of the case study were two-fold: to gain a better understanding of how frontline staff engage with the research process, and to gain a better understanding of how to share more detailed research results with management. Methods We developed an Expanded Feedback Report for use during this study. In it, we presented survey results that compared Restwood to the best performing site on all variables and participating sites in the province. Data were collected regarding the Expanded Feedback Report through interviews with management. Data from staff were collected through interviews and observation. We used content analysis to derive themes to describe key aspects related to the study aims. Results We observed the importance of understanding organizational routines and the impact of key events in the facility’s environment. We gleaned additional information that validated findings from prior feedback mechanisms within TREC. Another predominant theme was the sense that the opportunity to engage in a research process was reaffirming for staff (particularly healthcare aides—what they did and said mattered, and TREC provided a means of having one’s voice heard. We gained valuable insight from the Director of Care about how to structure and format more detailed findings to assist with interpretation and use of results. Conclusions Four themes emerged regarding staff engagement with

  18. Case-control study to determine whether river water can spread tetracycline resistance to unexposed impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Kruger National Park (South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, V; McCrindle, C M E; Cenci-Goga, B; Picard, J A

    2009-01-01

    A case-control study was performed in the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, to find out whether impala (Aepyceros melampus) were more likely to harbor tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli (TREC) in their feces when they drank from rivers that contained these bacteria than when they drank from rivers that were uncontaminated with TREC. The following five perennial rivers were selected: the Crocodile, the Letaba, the Olifants, the Sabie, and the Sand. Samples of river water (n = 33) and feces (n = 209), collected at 11 different sites, were cultured for E. coli. The resulting colonies were screened for tetracycline resistance by use of the Lederberg replica plating method (breakpoint, 4 mg/liter). A resistant and/or a susceptible isolate was then selected from each sample and subjected to the CLSI MIC broth microdilution test for tetracyclines. Among the 21 water specimens contaminated by E. coli, 19.05% (n = 4) were found to be resistant by the MIC method (breakpoint, >/=8 mg/liter). This led to the Crocodile, Olifants, and Letaba rivers being classified as TREC positive. Among the 209 impala feces sampled, 191 were positive for the presence of E. coli (91.38%). Within these (n = 191), 9.95% (n = 19) of the isolates were shown to be TREC by the MIC method. It was found that 1.11% (n = 1) of the E. coli isolates cultured from the feces of the control group (n = 90) were TREC, in comparison with 17.82% (n = 18) of those in feces from the exposed group (n = 101). The calculation of the odds ratio showed that impala drinking from TREC-contaminated rivers were 19.3 (2.63 to 141.69) times more likely to be infected with TREC than were unexposed impala. This is a significant finding, indicating that surface water could be a possible source of antimicrobial resistance in naïve animal populations and that impala could act as sentinels for antimicrobial resistance.

  19. Challenge: Reframing, communicating, and finding relevance. Solution: Teachers on the research team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.

    2013-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a program in which K-12 teachers spend 2-6 weeks participating in hands-on field research experiences in the polar regions. The goal of PolarTREC is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together. Program data has illuminated a crucial dynamic that increases the potential for a successful climate change science campaign. We contend that the inclusion of a teacher into the field research campaign can tackle challenges such as reframing climate change science to better address the need for a particular campaign, as well as garnering the science project the necessary support through effective, authentic, and tangible communication efforts to policymakers, funders, students, and the public. The program evaluation queried researchers on a.) the teachers' primary roles in the field b.) the impact teachers on the team's field research, and c.) the teachers' role conducting outreach. Additionally, researchers identified the importance of the facilitator, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS), as an integral component to the challenge of providing a meaningful broader impact statement to the science proposal. Researchers reported the value of explaining their science, in-situ, allowed them to reframe and rework the objectives of the science project to attain meaningful outcomes. More than half of the researchers specifically noted that one of the strengths of the PolarTREC project is its benefit to the scientific process. The researchers also viewed PolarTREC as an essential outreach activity for their research project. Other researchers said that the outreach provided by their teacher also improved the research project's public image and articulated complex ideas to the public at large. This presentation will speak to the practices within the PolarTREC program and how researchers can meet outreach expectations, impact

  20. A study of T cell recombination excision circles levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of systemic lupus erythematosus patients%系统性红斑狼疮患者外周血单个核细胞T细胞受体重组删除环水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜臻雁; 冷晓梅; 唐福林

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the T cell receptor recombination excision cycle (TREC) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with normal age- and gender- matched controls. To investigate the correlations between TREC levels of SLE patients and their clinical features. Methods We studied TREC levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 21 SLE patients and 22 normal age- and sex- matched controls. TREC concentration was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) as the number of TREC copies/1000 PBMCs. The clinical features of the SLE patients such as systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) , ESR, C reaction protein (CRP) , ANA, anti-dsDNA and complement levels and organ involvement were recorded and assessed. Results SLE patients had lower TREC levels [ (9.6 ± 7.5 )copies/1000 PBMC] than controls[ (16.1 ±11.1) copies/1000 PBMC,P = 0.033]. There was an inverse correlation between age and TREC levels in controls (r =- 0. 614, P = 0. 002) but not in SLE patients.There was an inverse correlation between SLEDAI and TREC levels in SLE patients(r =-0. 656, P =0. 001) and TREC levels seemed to have relations to skin lesions ( r = - 0. 620, P = 0. 003 ). No other clinical association was observed between TREC levels and clinical and laboratory SLE manifestations.Conclusion SLE patients had lower TREC levels than normal controls and there is a tendency that TREC level is reversely correlated with disease activity. The decrease PBMC TREC level is indicative of a low proportion of recent thymic emigrant (RTE) in SLE and could be caused by decreased RTE output and/or by increased peripheral T cell proliferation in this disease. The under-representation of RTE in the peripheral T cell pool may play a role in the immune tolerance abnormalities observed in SLE.%目的 通过检测系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者外周血单个核细胞(PBMC)T细胞受体重组

  1. Plantas de ocorrência espontânea como substratos alternativos para fitoseídeos (Acari, Phytoseiidae em cultivos de seringueira Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae Weeds as alternative substrates to phytoseiids (Acari, Phytoseiidae in rubber tree Hevea brasilienis, Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Bellini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de plantas espontâneas em áreas de cultivo de seringueira que poderiam servir com reservatório de ácaros predadores. O trabalho foi conduzido em Olímpia, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em dois cultivos de seringueira. A cada três meses, cerca de 1.000 cm³ de folhas de cada uma das cinco espécies de plantas espontâneas dominantes em cada cultivo foi tomada para determinar os fitoseídeos. Como as plantas espontâneas dominantes variaram durante o estudo, um total de 20 espécies foi verificado. Somente Cecropia sp. foi dominante em todo estudo, em ambos os cultivos. Um total de 336 fitoseídeos pertencentes às seguintes espécies foi encontrado: Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, E. concordis (Chant, 1959, Galendromus annectens (DeLeon, 1958, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972, Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965 e N. tunus (DeLeon, 1967. E. citrifolius (189 espécimes e N. tunus (138 espécimes foram os mais abundantes. A maior abundância (231espécimes e diversidade (5 espécies foram observadas sobre Cecropia sp. Sobre esta planta foi encontrado o maior número de ácaros por amostra (29 espécimes, seguida por Piper duncum Linnaeus (22, Guarea sp. (18 e Ageratum conyzoides Linnaeus (12. E. citrifolius tem sido determinado como um dos ácaros predadores mais abundantes sobre seringueiras cultivadas na região onde este trabalho foi conduzido. Cecropia sp. parece ser uma das plantas espontâneas mais importantes consideradas como reservatório de E. citrifolius porque está continuamente presente nos cultivos. Estudos complementares poderiam indicar a viabilidade de se manejar esta planta nas áreas de cultivo de seringueira para permitir o controle biológico dos ácaros-praga desta cultura.The objective of this study was to determine weed species of rubber tree cultivation areas that could serve as reservoirs of predatory mites. The work was conducted in Ol

  2. Should we feed back research results in the midst of a study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estabrooks Carole A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report is an introduction to a series of three research papers that describe the evolution of the approaches taken by the Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC research team during its first four years to feed back the research findings to study participants. TREC is an observational multi-method health services research project underway in 36 nursing homes in the prairie provinces of Canada. TREC has actively involved decision makers from the sector in all stages from initial planning, through data collection to dissemination activities. However, it was not planned as a fully integrated knowledge translation project. These three papers describe our progress towards fully integrated knowledge translation—with respect to timely and requested feedback processes. The first paper reports on the process and outcomes of creating and evaluating the feedback of research findings to healthcare aides (unregulated health professionals. These aides provide over 80% of the direct care in our sample and actively requested the feedback as a condition of their continued cooperation in the data acquisition process. The second paper describes feedback from nursing home administrators on preliminary research findings (a facility annual report and evaluation of the reports’ utility. The third paper discusses an approach to providing a more in-depth form of feedback (expanded feedback report at one of the TREC nursing homes. Findings Survey and interview feedback from healthcare aides is presented in the first paper. Overall, healthcare aides’ opinions about presentation of the feedback report and the understand ability, usability, and usefulness of the content were positive. The second paper describes the use of telephone interviews with facility administrators and indicates that the majority of contextual areas (e.g., staff job satisfaction addressed in facility annual report to be useful, meaningful, and understandable. More than

  3. Alfa-glucosidase-inhibiting activity of some Mexican plants used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Becerra-Jiménez, Jaime; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2008-02-28

    Type 2 diabetes is an endocrine disease, which accounts for 9% of deaths worldwide. The aim of oral therapy is to reach normoglycemia to prevent later complications. Among glucose-lowering medications, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors delay the absorption of ingested carbohydrates, reducing the postprandial glucose and insulin peaks. In the present study, we tested the butanolic extracts of four Mexican plants with respect to their alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity, without excluding other possible mechanisms of action. The plants Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol., Equisetum myriochaetum Schlecht & Cham, Acosmium panamense (Benth.) Yacolev and Malmea depressa (Baill) R.E. Fries are used in traditional medicine to treat type 2 diabetes. In previous studies, we have demonstrated these plants' hypoglycemic activity and determined the phytochemical composition of their extracts. Our results in n-STZ diabetic rats loaded with maltose showed that Malmea and Acosmium extracts decreased plasma glucose significantly from 30 min on resembling the effect of acarbose. Cecropia extract produced the highest reduction of plasma glucose, and at 90 min, the glucose level was lower than the fasting level, which suggests another mechanism of action. Equisetum did not exert any effect. In vitro assays of alpha-glucosidase activity showed an IC(50) of 14 microg/ml for Cecropia, 21 microg/ml for Malmea, and 109 microg/ml for Acosmium, which were lower than that of acarbose (128 microg/ml). Equisetum did not show any significant effect on this assay, either. These results contribute to understand the mechanism of action of these plants on glucose metabolism.

  4. Caterpillars and fungal pathogens: two co-occurring parasites of an ant-plant mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Roux

    Full Text Available In mutualisms, each interacting species obtains resources from its partner that it would obtain less efficiently if alone, and so derives a net fitness benefit. In exchange for shelter (domatia and food, mutualistic plant-ants protect their host myrmecophytes from herbivores, encroaching vines and fungal pathogens. Although selective filters enable myrmecophytes to host those ant species most favorable to their fitness, some insects can by-pass these filters, exploiting the rewards supplied whilst providing nothing in return. This is the case in French Guiana for Cecropia obtusa (Cecropiaceae as Pseudocabima guianalis caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae can colonize saplings before the installation of their mutualistic Azteca ants. The caterpillars shelter in the domatia and feed on food bodies (FBs whose production increases as a result. They delay colonization by ants by weaving a silk shield above the youngest trichilium, where the FBs are produced, blocking access to them. This probable temporal priority effect also allows female moths to lay new eggs on trees that already shelter caterpillars, and so to occupy the niche longer and exploit Cecropia resources before colonization by ants. However, once incipient ant colonies are able to develop, they prevent further colonization by the caterpillars. Although no higher herbivory rates were noted, these caterpillars are ineffective in protecting their host trees from a pathogenic fungus, Fusarium moniliforme (Deuteromycetes, that develops on the trichilium in the absence of mutualistic ants. Therefore, the Cecropia treelets can be parasitized by two often overlooked species: the caterpillars that shelter in the domatia and feed on FBs, delaying colonization by mutualistic ants, and the fungal pathogen that develops on old trichilia. The cost of greater FB production plus the presence of the pathogenic fungus likely affect tree growth.

  5. Palynological reconstruction of the rain forest in French Guiana during the past 3000 years; Reconstitution palynologique de la foret guyanaise au cours des 3000 dernieres annees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledru, M.P.; Fournier, M.; Martin, L. [ORSTOM, 93 - Bondy (France); Charles-Dominique, P.; Riera, B. [Laboratoire d`ecologie generale, URA, CNRS, 91 - Brunoy (France); Tardy, Ch. [Laboratoire de paleobotanique, URA, CNRS, Institut de botanique 34 - Montpellier (France)

    1997-03-01

    Pollen analysis has been carried out on a core drilled in a peaty palm swamp forest in the rain forest of French Guiana. This has brought new data on the variations of the forest cover during the past 3000 years. Momentary peaks of the pioneer species Cecropia frequency give evidence of two phases of relatively open vegetation: on between 2124 - 1679 and 1525 - 1375 calibrated years B.P. and another shorter one around 658-424 yrs B.P. cal. The first one appears to be due to the combined incidence of a dry climatic period and of forest fires of human origins. (authors). 13 refs.

  6. Germinação de sementes após a passagem pelo trato gastrointestinal de morcegos (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Karla Rossaneis

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de sementes espécies vegetais dos gêneros Piper, Solanum, Cecropia e Ficusapós sua passagem pelo trato gastrointes-tinal dos morcegos frugívoros Artibeus lituratus, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspi-cillata e Sturnira lilium. Os morcegos foram capturados no Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, na cidade de Londrina (PR). Para cada espécie vegetal foram considerados o controle e quatro tratamentos, formados pelas sementes obtidas das fezes ...

  7. ORDINAL REGRESSION FOR INFORMATION RETRIEVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This letter presents a new discriminative model for Information Retrieval (IR), referred to as Ordinal Regression Model (ORM). ORM is different from most existing models in that it views IR as ordinal regression problem (i.e. ranking problem) instead of binary classification. It is noted that the task of IR is to rank documents according to the user information needed, so IR can be viewed as ordinal regression problem. Two parameter learning algorithms for ORM are presented. One is a perceptron-based algorithm. The other is the ranking Support Vector Machine (SVM). The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been evaluated on the task of ad hoc retrieval using three English Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) sets and two Chinese TREC sets. Results show that ORM significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art language model approaches and OKAPI system in all test sets; and it is more appropriate to view IR as ordinal regression other than binary classification.

  8. History and Current Status of Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Antonia; Puck, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of a T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay utilizing dried blood spots in universal newborn screening has allowed the early detection of T cell lymphopenia in newborns. Diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in affected infants in the neonatal period while asymptomatic permits early treatment and restoration of a functional immune system. SCID was the first immunodeficiency disease to be added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel of Core Conditions in the United States in 2010, and is now implemented in 26 states in the U.S. This review covers the development of newborn screening for SCID, the biology of the TREC test, its current implementation in the U.S., new findings for SCID in the newborn screening era, and future directions. PMID:25937517

  9. History and current status of newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Antonia; Puck, Jennifer M

    2015-04-01

    The development of a T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay utilizing dried blood spots in universal newborn screening has allowed the early detection of T-cell lymphopenia in newborns. Diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in affected infants in the neonatal period, while asymptomatic, permits early treatment and restoration of a functional immune system. SCID was the first immunodeficiency disease to be added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel of Core Conditions in the United States in 2010, and it is now implemented in 26 states in the U.S. This review covers the development of newborn screening for SCID, the biology of the TREC test, its current implementation in the U.S., new findings for SCID in the newborn screening era, and future directions.

  10. Impaired progenitor cell function in HIV-negative infants of HIV-positive mothers results in decreased thymic output and low CD4 counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Jeppesen, D L; Kolte, L

    2001-01-01

    and fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOCs). Lower naive CD4 counts (459.3 +/- 68.9 vs 1128.9 +/- 146.8 cells/microL, P cells with TRECs was 3.6% +/- 0.7% compared with 14.3% +/- 2.2% in controls, P ... cytometric determination of lymphocyte subsets, including the naive CD4 count. Furthermore, to determine thymic output, cord blood mononuclear cells were used for determination of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). Evaluation of progenitor cell function was done by means of colony-forming cell assay......). In combination with lower red blood cell counts in infants of HIV-positive mothers, this finding suggested impairment of progenitor cell function. Indeed, progenitors from infants of HIV-positive mothers had decreased cloning efficiency (15.7% +/- 2.6% vs 55.8% +/- 15.9%, P =.009) and seemed to generate fewer T...

  11. Graph-based term weighting for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Roi; Lioma, Christina

    2012-01-01

    A standard approach to Information Retrieval (IR) is to model text as a bag of words. Alternatively, text can be modelled as a graph, whose vertices represent words, and whose edges represent relations between the words, defined on the basis of any meaningful statistical or linguistic relation......, flow and density during retrieval. We experimentally show that this type of ranking performs comparably to BM25, and can even outperform it, across different TREC (Voorhees and Harman in TREC: Experiment and evaluation in information retrieval, MIT Press, 2005) datasets and evaluation measures. © 2011...... weights and (2) integrating discourse aspects into retrieval. Given a text graph, whose vertices denote terms linked by co-occurrence and grammatical modification, we use graph ranking computations (e.g. PageRank Page et al. in The pagerank citation ranking: Bringing order to the Web. Technical report...

  12. Probabilistic Aspects in Spoken Document Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macherey Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessing information in multimedia databases encompasses a wide range of applications in which spoken document retrieval (SDR plays an important role. In SDR, a set of automatically transcribed speech documents constitutes the files for retrieval, to which a user may address a request in natural language. This paper deals with two probabilistic aspects in SDR. The first part investigates the effect of recognition errors on retrieval performance and inquires the question of why recognition errors have only a little effect on the retrieval performance. In the second part, we present a new probabilistic approach to SDR that is based on interpolations between document representations. Experiments performed on the TREC-7 and TREC-8 SDR task show comparable or even better results for the new proposed method than other advanced heuristic and probabilistic retrieval metrics.

  13. Reduced thymic output in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Hinojosa, Adria; Knight, Andrea; Compton, Claude; Gleeson, Michael; Travers, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    Athletes undergoing intensive training schedules have chronic exposure to stress-induced hormones such as cortisol that can depress immune function. We compared the circulating levels of T cell receptor excision circles (TREC), a marker of recent thymic emigrants, as well as the levels of naïve and memory subsets in a group of elite endurance athletes and in controls. The athletes showed a reduction in absolute numbers of naïve T cells, particularly in CD4 T cells. In contrast, memory cells were increased. TREC levels in the athletes were significantly reduced compared to age-matched controls. Such changes resemble premature ageing of the T cell component of the immune system. Since thymic production of T cells naturally decline with age, these results raise the concern that prolonging high intensity exercise into the 4th decade of life may have deleterious consequences for athletes' health.

  14. Introduction to the Text Retrieval Conference%文本检索会议简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立德; 黄萱菁

    2002-01-01

    Text Retrieval Conference (TREC), which is sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Tech-nology as well as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, is the most authoritative international evaluationconference about text retrieval. This paper describes the Ninth Text Retrieval Conference held in 2000 and its fourmain tracks, which are Question Answering, Web Retrieval, Cross Language Information Retrieval and Text Filter-ing, from the aspects of test topics, corpus, evaluation metrics and results.

  15. Macromolecule Mass Spectrometry: Citation Mining of User Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    Conference), Home Page, http://trec.nist.gov/. 23. Swanson, D.R. Fish Oil, Raynauds Syndrome , and Undiscovered Public Knowledge. Perspect Biol Med, .30...AUTHOR( S ) Ronald Kostoff; Clifford Bedford ; Jesus Del Rio; Hector Cortes; George Karypis; 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Office of Naval Research,800 N. Quincy St.,Arlington,VA,22217, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  16. Search Engines Comparison on the Basis of Session Duration and Click Hits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Goutam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of search engines has greatly diversified in recent years. Evaluation campaigns are required to continuously re-consider their tasks and updating evaluation function in order to satisfy the users. We presented two user action dependent approaches to rank the results, namely Session duration time and Click Hits. Furthermore, we have conducted an experiment with 25 TREC queries to do comparison of five popular search engines.

  17. A Multiplex Immunoassay Using the Guthrie Specimen to Detect T-Cell Deficiencies Including Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, David K.; Lindau-Shepard, Barbara; Comeau, Anne Marie; Pass, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) fulfills many of the requirements for addition to a newborn screening panel. Two newborn screening SCID pilot studies are now underway using the T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay, a molecular technique. Here we describe an immunoassay with CD3 as a marker for T cells and CD45 as a marker for total leukocytes that can be used with the Guthrie specimen. METHODS The multiplexing capabilities of the Luminex platform were used. Antibody pairs were used to capture and detect CD3 and CD45 from a single 3-mm punch of the Guthrie specimen. The assay for each bio-marker was developed separately in identical buffers and then combined to create a multiplex assay. RESULTS Using calibrators made from known amounts of leukocytes, a detection limit of 0.25 × 106 cells/mL for CD3 and 0.125 × 106 cells/mL for CD45 was obtained. Affinity tests showed no cross-reactivity between the antibodies to CD3 and CD45. The multiplex assay was validated against 8 coded specimens of known clinical status and linked to results from the TREC assay that had identified them. All were correctly identified by the CD345 assay. CONCLUSIONS The performance parameters of the CD345 assay met the performance characteristics generally accepted for immunoassays. Our assay classifications of positive specimens concur with previous TREC results. This CD345 assay warrants evaluation as a viable alternative or complement to the TREC assay as a primary screening tool for detecting T-cell immunodeficiencies, including SCID, in Guthrie specimens. PMID:20660143

  18. T-cell receptor and K-deleting recombination excision circles in newborn screening of T- and B-cell defects: review of the literature and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Chiarini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction as a public health programme in the United States in the early 1960s, newborn blood screening (NBS has evolved from the detection of phenylalanine levels on filter paper to the application of DNA-based technologies to identify T-cell lymphopenia in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency. This latter use of NBS has required the development of an assay for T-cell lymphopenia based on the quantification of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs that could be performed on dried blood spots routinely collected from newborn infants. The TREC-based NBS was developed six years ago, and there have already been 7 successful pilot studies since then. Similarly, efforts are now being made to establish a screen for B-cell defects, in particular agammaglobulinaemia, taking advantage of the introduction of the method for the quantification of K-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs. A further achievement of NBS could be the simultaneous recognition of T- and B-cell defects using the combined quantification of TRECs and KRECs from Guthrie card blood spots. This approach may help the early identification of infants with T- and B-cell deficiencies so that they can then be referred to specialised paediatric centres, where a precise diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency and agammaglobulinaemia can be performed, and where then they can immediately receive specific therapy. Simultaneous TREC and KREC quantification should also allow classification of patients into subgroups and help identify children with less serious primary immunodeficiencies. This would help avoid the opportunistic infections and frequent hospitalisations that result from a late or lack of diagnosis.

  19. Overcoming Vocabulary Limitations in Twitter Microblogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    eliminating document length normalization [4]. Louvan et al. also modified the built-in Lucene scor - ing function to use binary term weighting in...content when left in. Indeed, when the @ username mentions and URLs were stripped from the tweets, search results improved in prelim- inary tests with the...Effects of each individual component on TREC 2011 dataset. † indicates a significant (p < 0.05) difference using the two-tailed paired t- test compared to

  20. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    included factoid questions grouped around a set of target entities. For example, for the target entity “ Franz Kafka ”, associated questions included: “Where...from Franz Schubert. A year later he did on Dec 5th.”). Depending on the task, an answer extractor may identify very small, factoid candidates which...IWP): Paraphrase Ac- quisition and Applications, 2003. [55] A. Ittycheriah, M. Franz , and S. Roukos. Ibm’s statistical question answering system - trec

  1. Combining Opinion Profile Modeling with Complex Context Filtering for Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    pub, theaters, music venues and avoid venues that are closed at night, e.g. brunch restaurants. For day trip, in contrast we avoid hotel, bar, pub...participated three years TRECs in a row, it is worthy to analyze more about our method since the main idea is highly consistent. One important statistic...We further analyze the advantage and disadvantage of our method in order to provide more investigation results to the research community. References

  2. Pre-existing T- and B-cell defects in one progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Sottini

    Full Text Available Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML usually occurs in patients with severe immunosuppression, hematological malignancies, chronic inflammatory conditions or receiving organ transplant. Recently, PML has also been observed in patients treated with monoclonal antibodies. By taking advantage of the availability of samples from a multiple sclerosis (MS patient treated with natalizumab, the antibody anti-α4 integrin, who developed PML and was monitored starting before therapy initiation, we investigated the fate of T and B lymphocytes in the onset of PML. Real-time PCR was used to measure new T- and B-cell production by means of T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC and K-deleting recombination excision circle (KREC analysis and to quantify transcripts for CD34, terminal-deoxynucleotidyltransferase, and V pre-B lymphocyte gene 1. T- and B-cell subsets and T-cell heterogeneity were measured by flow cytometry and spectratyping. The data were compared to those of untreated and natalizumab-treated MS patients and healthy donors. Before therapy, a patient who developed PML had a low TREC and KREC number; TRECs remained low, while KRECs and pre-B lymphocyte gene 1 transcripts peaked at 6 months of therapy and then decreased at PML diagnosis. Flow cytometry confirmed the deficient number of newly produced T lymphocytes, counterbalanced by an increase in TEMRA cells. The percentage of naive B cells increased by approximately 70% after 6 months of therapy, but B lymphocyte number remained low for the entire treatment period. T-cell heterogeneity and immunoglobulins were reduced. Although performed in a single patient, all results showed that an immune deficit, together with an increase in newly produced B cells a few months after therapy initiation, may predispose the patient to PML. These findings indicate the TREC/KREC assay is a potential tool to identify patients at risk of developing PML and may provide insights into the immunological

  3. Tradable renewable energy credits in California: the struggle with implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, Seth D.; Marriott, Chad T.

    2010-07-15

    On Mar. 11, 2010, the California Public Utilities Commission authorized the use of tradable renewable energy credits to satisfy at least a portion of the obligations imposed by California's Renewables Portfolio Standard. The decision allows California's largest investor-owned utilities and other retail providers to purchase TRECs to meet up to 25 percent of their annual RPS compliance obligations, but implementation has raised a series of questions. (author)

  4. Pioneering the Transdisciplinary Team Science Approach: Lessons Learned from National Cancer Institute Grantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Amanda L; Stipelman, Brooke A; Hall, Kara L; Nebeling, Linda; Stokols, Daniel; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute has been a leader in supporting transdisciplinary (TD) team science. From 2005-2010, the NCI supported Transdisciplinary Research on Energetic and Cancer I (TREC I), a center initiative fostering the TD integration of social, behavioral, and biological sciences to examine the relationships among obesity, nutrition, physical activity and cancer. In the final year of TREC I, we conducted qualitative in-depth-interviews with 31 participating investigators and trainees to learn more about their experiences with TD team science, including challenges, facilitating factors, strategies for success, and impacts. Five main challenges emerged: (1) limited published guidance for how to engage in TD team science, when TREC I was implemented; (2) conceptual and scientific challenges inherent to efforts to achieve TD integration; (3) discipline-based differences in values, terminology, methods, and work styles; (4) project management challenges involved in TD team science; and (5) traditional incentive and reward systems that do not recognize or reward TD team science. Four main facilitating factors and strategies for success emerged: (1) beneficial attitudes and beliefs about TD research and team science; (2) effective team processes; (3) brokering and bridge-building activities by individuals holding particular roles in a research center; and (4) funding initiative characteristics that support TD team science. Broad impacts of participating in TD team science in the context of TREC I included: (1) new positive attitudes about TD research and team science; (2) new boundary-crossing collaborations; (3) scientific advances related to research approaches, findings, and dissemination; (4) institutional culture change and resource creation in support of TD team science; and (5) career advancement. Funding agencies, academic institutions, and scholarly journals can help to foster TD team science through funding opportunities, institutional policies on

  5. Modelling Psychological Needs for User-dependent Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    to 320,000 meters which is calculated by assuming an average driving speed of 40 mph in 5 hours. To perform Text Search, we enumerated based on common...Suggestion track of 2014 Text REtrieval Conference (TREC). The task aims to provide recommendations on points of interests (POI) for various kinds of users...Extraction, intelligent information systems, support vector machines, text mining, machine learning 1. Introduction With the advancement of mobile and

  6. To the Extremes! A Teacher Research Experience Program in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2014-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a teacher professional development program, began with the International Polar Year in 2004 and continues today in the United States. In 2007, the National Science Foundation designated PolarTREC as potentially transformative, meaning that the "research results often do not fit within established models or theories and may initially be unexpected or difficult to interpret; their transformative nature and utility might not be recognized until years later." PolarTREC brings U.S. K-12 educators and polar researchers together through an innovative teacher research experience model. Teachers spend three to six weeks in remote arctic and Antarctic field camps. Since 2007, over 100 teachers have been placed in field experiences throughout the Arctic and Antarctic and with half of them participating in field experiences in Antarctica. During their experience, teachers become research team members filling a variety of roles on the team. They also fulfil a unique role of public outreach officer, conducting live presentations about their field site and research as well as journaling, answering questions, and posting photos. Evaluation data collected over the past eight years on program participants shows that PolarTREC has clearly achieved it goals and strongly suggests programs that link teachers and researchers can have the potential to transform the nature of science education. By giving teachers the content knowledge, pedagogical tools, confidence, understanding of science in the broader society, and experiences with scientific inquiry, participating teachers are using authentic scientific research in their classrooms. Not surprisingly this has also led to increases in student interest and knowledge about the Polar Regions. In this presentation, we will highlight the best practices of teacher research experiences as well as discuss why it is vital to have teachers and researchers work together to communicate

  7. Using Stream Features for Instant Document Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how event processing technologies can be employed for real-time text stream processing and information filtering in the context of the TREC 2012 microblog task. After introducing basic characteristics of stream and event processing, the technical architecture of our text stream analysis engine is presented. Employing well-known term weighting schemes from document-centric text retrieval for temporally dynamic text streams is discussed next, giving details of the ESPE...

  8. Data fusion according to the principle of polyrepresentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birger; Ingwersen, Peter; Lund, Berit

    2009-01-01

    We report data fusion experiments carried out on the four best-performing retrieval models from TREC 5. Three were conceptually/algorithmically very different from one another; one was algorithmically similar to one of the former. The objective of the test was to observe the performance of the 11...... in IR. Data fusion improves retrieval performance over their constituent IR models only if the models all are quite conceptually/algorithmically dissimilar and equally and well performing, in that order of importance....

  9. Atomic force microscopy-based antibody recognition imaging of proteins in the pathological deposits in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creasey, Rhiannon [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University of SA, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Sharma, Shiwani [School of Medicine, Ophthalmology, Flinders University of SA, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Gibson, Christopher T. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University of SA, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Craig, Jamie E. [School of Medicine, Ophthalmology, Flinders University of SA, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Ebner, Andreas [Institute for Biophysics, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, Altenbergerstr. 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Becker, Thomas [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, 6845 WA (Australia); Hinterdorfer, Peter [Institute for Biophysics, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, Altenbergerstr. 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Voelcker, Nicolas H., E-mail: nico.voelcker@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University of SA, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    The phenomenon of protein aggregation is of considerable interest to various disciplines, including the field of medicine. A range of disease pathologies are associated with this phenomenon. One of the ocular diseases hallmarked by protein aggregation is the Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) Syndrome. This condition is characterized by the deposition of insoluble proteinaceous material on the anterior human lens capsule. Genomic and proteomic analyses have revealed an association of specific genetic markers and various proteins, respectively, with PEX syndrome. However, the ultrastructure of the protein aggregates is poorly characterized. This study seeks to build capacity to determine the molecular nature of PEX aggregates on human lens capsules in their native state by AFM-based antibody recognition imaging. Lysyl oxidase-Like 1 (LOXL1), a protein identified as a component of PEX aggregates, is detected by an antibody-modified AFM probe. Topographical AFM images and antibody recognition images are obtained using three AFM-based techniques: TREC, phase and force-volume imaging. LOXL1 is found to be present on the lens capsule surface, and is localized around fibrous protein aggregates. Our evaluation shows that TREC imaging is best suited for human tissue imaging and holds significant potential for imaging of human disease tissues in their native state. -- Highlights: {yields} Atomic force microscopy techniques were applied to diseased human tissues. {yields} LOXL1 protein was detected on the small fibers of Pseudoexfoliation deposits. {yields} PicoTREC was the optimum technique for investigating protein aggregates.

  10. Reeducación cognitiva - emotiva en caso de ansiedad ante los exámenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pedroza Flores

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available La prevalencia de la ansiedad en los estudiantes universitarios va en aumento, esto debido a diversos factores familiares, sociales, culturales y de desempeño académico. Cada vez son más los casos reportados con trastorno de ansiedad ante los exámenes. Existen diversos estudios en el campo de la psicología que se han realizado, aportando test y constructos explicativos. En este artículo nos proponemos abordar la ansiedad ante los exámenes a través de un caso desde el enfoque de la Terapia Racional-Emotiva Conductual (TREC de Albert Ellis. Primero, mostramos la relación que existe entre fracaso escolar y ansiedad; segundo, describimos cómo la TREC conceptualiza el trastorno de ansiedad; y tercero, ofrecemos un estudio de caso, desde el diagnóstico hasta el modelo de intervención;concluyendo con dimensionar la efectividad de la TREC en el tratamiento de la ansiedad ante los exámenes.

  11. PID comes full circle: Applications of V(DJ recombination excision circles in research, diagnostics and newborn screening of primary immunodeficiency disorders

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    Menno C. Van Zelm

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of patients suffering from a primary immunodeficiency (PID have defects in their T- and/or B-cell compartments. Despite advances in molecular diagnostics, in many patients no underlying genetic defect has been identified. B- and T-lymphocytes are unique in their ability to create a receptor by genomic rearrangement of their antigen receptor genes via V(DJ recombination. During this process, stable circular excision products are formed that do not replicate when the cell proliferates. Excision circles can be reliably quantified using real-time quantitative (RQ-PCR techniques. Frequently occurring δREC–ψJα T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs have been used to assess thymic output and intronRSS–Kde recombination excision circles (KREC to quantify B-cell replication history. In this perspective, we describe how TRECs and KRECs are formed during precursor- T and B cell differentiation, respectively. Furthermore, we discuss new insights obtained with TRECs and KRECs and specifically how these excision circles can be applied to support therapy monitoring, patient classification and newborn screening of PID.

  12. Creating a 21st Century Community through the Teacher Research Experience (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, E.; Beine, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the spring of 2009, I participated in PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) funded by the National Science Foundation and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States. I assisted in hands-on research being performed by scientists with OASIS (Ocean, Atmosphere, Sea Ice and Snowpack) during their field campaign in Barrow, Alaska. Although I was in the field for only 3 weeks, it was merely a beginning to a transformation that took place not only in me, but also among all of those involved. The PolarTREC program embodies the principles fundamental to the 21st Century skill-set that we want our students to possess. The job market is changing for graduates, and education is striving to provide students with the skills necessary to thrive in the future. To ensure the success of students the International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) has defined 21st Century Skills. They are incorporated into many educational standards (such as the Arizona Educational Technology Standards) and they are practiced by the teachers, researchers, students and the PolarTREC community. They are: Creativity and Innovation Communication and Collaboration Research and Information Literacy Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making Digital Citizenship Technology Operations and Concepts

  13. T CELL REPERTOIRE COMPLEXITY IN SEVER COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY PATIENTS AFTER BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹水; 李晓静

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To study thymus-dependent T cell development and T cell repertoire in human sever combined immunodeficiency (SCID) patients after HLA-identical or haploidentical T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Methods. Blood samples were obtained from 15 SCID patients before transplantation and at varying intervals thereafter. Quantitative competitive PCR assay and immunoscope analysis of the T cell receptor (TCR) Vβ repertoire were performed. Results. Before and within the first 100 days after transplantation, patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) presented an oligoclonal or polyclonal skewed T cell repertoire, low T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) values and predominance of CD45RO+ T cell. In contrast, the presence of high numbers of CD45RA+ T cells in bone marrow(BM) circulation reconstituted SCID patients (>100 days post-transplantation) correlated with active T cell production by the thymus as revealed by high TREC values, and a polyclonal T cell repertoire demonstrated by a Gaussian distribution of Vβ-specific peaks. Conclusions. Within one year after BMT, a normal T cell repertoire develops in SCID patients as a result of thymic output. The T cell receptor diversity is highly and positively correlated in these patients with TREC levels.

  14. A mid-IR comparative analysis of the Seyfert galaxies NGC 7213 and NGC 1386

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschel-Dutra, Daniel; Pastoriza, Miriani; Riffel, Rogério; Sales, Dinalva A.; Winge, Cláudia

    2014-03-01

    New Gemini mid-infrared spectroscopic observations together with Spitzer Space telescope archival data are used to study the properties of the dusty torus and circumnuclear star formation in the active galaxies NGC 7213 and NGC 1386. Our main conclusions can be summarized as follows. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission is absent in the Thermal-Region Camera and Spectrograph (T-ReCS) nuclear spectra but is ubiquitous in the data from Spitzer at distances above 100 pc. Star formation rates surface densities are estimated from the 12.8 μm [Ne II] line strengths leading to values close to 0.1 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. Analogous estimates based on photometric fluxes of Infrared Array Camera's 8 μm images are higher by a factor of almost 15, which could be linked to excitation of PAH molecules by older stellar populations. T-ReCS high-spatial-resolution data reveal silicate absorption at λ 9.7 μm in the central tens of parsecs of the Seyfert 2 NGC 1386 and silicate emission in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7213. In the case of NGC 1386, this feature is confined to the inner 20 pc, implying that the silicate might be linked to the putative dusty torus. Finally, by fitting CLUMPY models to the T-ReCS nuclear spectra, we estimate the torus physical properties for both galaxies, finding line-of-sight inclinations consistent with the AGN unified model.

  15. Isothermic and fixed-intensity heat acclimation methods elicit equal increases in Hsp72 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, O R; Mee, J A; Taylor, L; Tuttle, J A; Watt, P W; Maxwell, N S

    2015-06-01

    Thermotolerance, to which heat shock protein-72 (Hsp72) contributes, is an acquired state achieved following heat acclimation (HA), eliciting cellular adaption and protection against thermal stress. Optimal HA methods achieving the greatest heat shock response (HSR) are equivocal; therefore, investigation of methods provoking the greatest sustained HSR is required to optimize cellular adaptation. Twenty-four males performed short-term HA (STHA; five sessions) and long-term HA (LTHA; STHA plus further five sessions) utilizing fixed-intensity (FIXED; workload = 50% V ˙ O 2 p e a k ), continuous isothermic HA [ISOCONT ; target rectal temperature (Trec ) = 38.5 °C], or progressive isothermic HA (ISOPROG ; target Trec  = 38.5 °C for STHA then target Trec  = 39.0 °C for LTHA). Leukocyte Hsp72 mRNA was measured pre- and post day 1, day 5, and day 10 of HA via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine the HSR. Hsp72 mRNA increased (P  0.05). The equal Hsp72 mRNA increases occurring from consistent, reduced, or increased endogenous strain following STHA and LTHA suggest that transcription occurs following attainment of sufficient endogenous criteria. These data give confidence that all reported HA methods increase Hsp72 mRNA and are capable of eliciting adaptations toward thermotolerance.

  16. Association between thymic function and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation outcome: results of a pediatric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglio, Francesco; Cena, Silvia; Berger, Massimo; Quarello, Paola; Boccasavia, Viola; Ferrando, Federica; Pittana, Laura; Bruno, Benedetto; Fagioli, Franca

    2015-06-01

    Robust T cell function recovery has been shown to be crucial in determining allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcome, and there is growing evidence that the thymus plays a central role in regulating this process. We performed a long-term analysis of the role of thymic activity recovery in a population of pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT by signal joint T cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC) quantification. In this study, characterized by a long-term follow-up (median, 72 months), we found patients with higher levels of sjTRECs before transplantation had a statistically significant reduced risk of death compared with patients with lower values (relative risk, .31; 95% confidence interval, .30 to .32; P = .02), showing this different outcome was mainly related to a reduction of relapse incidence (14% versus 43%, P = .02). Unlike previous reports, we observed no correlation between sjTREC levels and lymphocyte recovery. Moreover, we confirmed that only graft-versus-host disease influenced thymic activity after transplantation. In conclusion, our results suggest an association between pretransplantation thymic activity and the long-term outcome of pediatric patients undergoing HSCT, mainly through a reduction of relapse opportunities.

  17. Florística e estrutura de fragmento florestal em área de transição na Amazônia Matogrossense no município de Sinop Floristics and structure of a forest fragment at a transitional zone at the Amazon in Mato Grosso State, Municipality of Sinop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia de Aguiar Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A fragmentação do ambiente é intensa na amazônia matogrossense e é esperado como consequência, além do desaparecimento da vegetação original, que a flora dos fragmentos seja transicional, com elementos de floresta amazônica e de cerrado e que já apresentem elevada presença de famílias e espécies pioneiras. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a composição florística e obter parâmetros fitossociológicos de componentes arbóreos presentes em um fragmento urbano no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso com vistas a confirmar sua classificação como vegetação de transição e detectar indícios de perturbação pela fragmentação. A vegetação foi amostrada pela instalação de 25 parcelas permanentes de 20 x 20m, onde foram amostrados os indivíduos com CAP igual ou superior a 15 cm à altura de 1,30m do solo. A densidade total da área foi de 1555 ind./ha, distribuídos em 37 famílias botânicas, 81 gêneros e 113 espécies. A família mais representativa foi Leguminosae com 14 espécies. As espécies que mais contribuíram em abundância e apresentaram maior frequência foram: Cecropia sciadophylla, Cecropia sp., Bellucia grossularioides e Vismia guianensis. O índice de Shannon (H' foi de 3,55, considerado alto para uma floresta de transição. A equabilidade de Pielou foi de 0,75, sugerindo grande dominância de poucas espécies. As espécies que mais se destacaram em ordem decrescente de VI (% foram Cecropia sp., Bellucia grossularioides, Qualea ingens, Cecropia sciadophylla, Vismia guianensis, Miconia prasina, Trattinickia burserifolia, Unonopsis guatterioides e Schefflera vinosa. O remanescente apresenta uma flora mista amazônica e de cerrado, confirmando ser ecótono e a abundância de pioneiras sugere distúrbios. Esta floresta protege espécies madeireiras e frutíferas com grande potencial para uso múltiplo, podendo ser um espaço educativo com vistas a conservação e manejo sustentável.Fragmentation is intense in

  18. A liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC-APPI-MS/MS) method for the determination of triterpenoids in medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobo, Luciana Assis; Viana, Carine; Lameira, Osmar Alves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado

    2016-08-01

    An analytical method using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry with toluene as a dopant was developed for the determination of triterpenes in medicinal plant extracts. The 12 compounds determined have been shown to exhibit biological activity, such as gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-tumor effects. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure photoionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all of the compounds. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.4 to 157.9 µg l(-1) and 1.3 to 526.4 µg l(-1) , respectively. The method was validated and applied to extracts of five medicinal plants species (Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A.H.Gentry, Bauhinia variegata var variegata, Bauhinia variegata var alboflava, Cecropia obtuse Trécul and Cecropia palmate Willd) from the Amazonian region. The concentrations of the six triterpenes quantified in the samples ranged from 0.424 mg kg(-1) for ursolic acid to 371.96 mg kg(-1) for β-amyrin, which were quantified by using the standard addition method (n = 3). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Late Holocene paleoenvironments of the floodplain of the Solimões River, Central Amazonia, based on the palynological record of Lake Cabaliana

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    Natália de Paula Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The core PD-67 of 160 cm depth was collected from the delta of Lake Cabaliana situated on the Solimões River. Seventeen samples were removed for palynological and sedimentological analysis and three for radiocarbon analysis. Two dry periods, both in the Late Holocene, were observed (2800-2550 cal yr BP, 1450-550 cal yr BP separated by a wetter phase (2550-1450 cal yr BP. In 2800-2550 cal yr BP, varzea forests of Alchornea, Symmeria, Cecropia, Alternanthera and Asteraceae were predominant. Beginning in 2,550-1450 cal yr BP, the varzea was characterized by pioneer elements, such as Cassia, Laetia, Mabea, Symmeria and Cecropia, and by the expansion of Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Sagittaria, Montrichardia and Asteraceae. In 1450-550 cal yr BP the succession of varzea continued with Pseudobombax, Laetia, Luehea/Lueheopsis and Ryanaea increasing simultaneously with the terra firme vegetation of Rutaceae, Sapotaceae, Styrax, Scleronema, Anthurium, Araceae, pteridophytes and Pariana. The successional dynamics at Lake Cabaliana indicated that the local varzea had become established recently, and is composed of a mosaic of different successional stages of vegetation influenced mainly by flood pulse and variation in rainfall. It is therefore possible to propose that the recent climate history of Central Amazonia reflects changes in rainfall patterns in the basin.

  20. Walk the Talk: Teachers as Leaders in Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.; Larson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The notion of teachers as leaders and communicators is not new but rather it has been limited in scope. Teachers have long served as team leaders, department chairs, and curriculum developers. But what happens when you go beyond these typical roles in professional development? Can teachers become lead communicators beyond the classroom? Can they become leaders of change on important topics like the climate? For nearly a decade, PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating), funded by the National Science Foundation, has been teaming teachers with research projects in all fields of polar science. Teachers participate in hands-on field research experiences in the polar regions which focus heavily on climate change and climate science. Administrated by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, the goal of PolarTREC is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together. The program fosters a teacher and researcher network, which accelerates the cross-pollination of knowledge in science practices, findings, and classroom implementation throughout disciplines. Evaluation data exposes a crucial dynamic that increases the potential for a successful climate change science campaign. Data indicates that teachers can tackle challenges such as reframing climate change science to better address the need for a particular campaign, as well as garnering the science project the necessary support through effective, authentic, and tangible communication efforts to policymakers, funders, students, and the public. Researchers reported the value of explaining their science, in-situ, allowed them to reframe and rework the objectives of the science project to attain meaningful outcomes. More than half of the researchers specifically noted that one of the strengths of the PolarTREC project is its benefit to the scientific process. The researchers also viewed PolarTREC as an essential outreach

  1. Revolutionizing Climate Science: Using Teachers as Communicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Crowley, S.; Wood, J.

    2012-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded program in which K-12 teachers participate in hands-on field research experiences in the Polar Regions. Teachers are the dynamic conduits for communicating climate science. In the PolarTREC final report, researchers found that teachers were vital in refining the language of their science and have shaped the goals of the scientific project. Program data demonstrates that science in classrooms is better understood when teachers have a full-spectrum grasp of project intricacies from defining the project, to field data collection, encountering situations for creativity and critical thinking, as well as participating in data and project analysis. Teachers' translating the authentic scientific process is integral in communicating climate science to the broader public. Teachers playing a major role in polar science revolutionize the old paradigm of "in-school learning". Through daily online journaling and forums, social media communication, live webinars with public, and professional development events, these teachers are moving beyond classrooms to communicate with society. Through teachers, climate policy can be shaped for the future by having scientifically literate students as well as assessable science. New paradigms come as teachers attain proficient levels of scientific understanding paired with the expert abilities for communication with years of experience. PolarTREC teachers are a model for new interactions peer-to-peer learning and mentorship for young scientists. Our programmatic goal is to expand the opportunities for PolarTREC teachers to share their involvement in science with additional formal and informal educators. 'Teaching the teachers' will reach exponential audiences in media, policy, and classrooms. Modeling this program, we designed and conducted a teacher training on climate science in Denali National Park. Utilizing expert university

  2. Long-range correlations in rectal temperature fluctuations of healthy infants during maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette Stern

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Control of breathing, heart rate, and body temperature are interdependent in infants, where instabilities in thermoregulation can contribute to apneas or even life-threatening events. Identifying abnormalities in thermoregulation is particularly important in the first 6 months of life, where autonomic regulation undergoes critical development. Fluctuations in body temperature have been shown to be sensitive to maturational stage as well as system failure in critically ill patients. We thus aimed to investigate the existence of fractal-like long-range correlations, indicative of temperature control, in night time rectal temperature (T(rec patterns in maturing infants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured T(rec fluctuations in infants every 4 weeks from 4 to 20 weeks of age and before and after immunization. Long-range correlations in the temperature series were quantified by the correlation exponent, alpha using detrended fluctuation analysis. The effects of maturation, room temperature, and immunization on the strength of correlation were investigated. We found that T(rec fluctuations exhibit fractal long-range correlations with a mean (SD alpha of 1.51 (0.11, indicating that T(rec is regulated in a highly correlated and hence deterministic manner. A significant increase in alpha with age from 1.42 (0.07 at 4 weeks to 1.58 (0.04 at 20 weeks reflects a change in long-range correlation behavior with maturation towards a smoother and more deterministic temperature regulation, potentially due to the decrease in surface area to body weight ratio in the maturing infant. alpha was not associated with mean room temperature or influenced by immunization CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the quantification of long-range correlations using alpha derived from detrended fluctuation analysis is an observer-independent tool which can distinguish developmental stages of night time T(rec pattern in young infants, reflective of maturation of

  3. Espessura corneana central e densidade das células endoteliais corneanas centrais após trabeculectomia com e sem mitomicina C Central corneal thickness and central corneal endothelial cells density after trabeculectomy with and without mitomycin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vidal Mérula

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a espessura corneana central (ECC, a densidade (DCEC e a área média (ACM das células endoteliais corneanas centrais após trabeculectomia (TREC com e sem mitomicina C (MMC. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo. Foram avaliados 29 olhos divididos em dois grupos: TREC com e sem MMC. Realizaram-se os seguintes exames pré-operatoriamente e três e seis meses após a TREC: paquimetria ultra-sônica e microscopia especular de não-contato. RESULTADOS: As variações da ECC, DCEC e ACM dos olhos submetidos a TREC com MMC foram, respectivamente: - 11,9±25,7 µm, -169,5±145,3 células/mm² e 42,5±33,4 µm² (três meses; - 7,5±28,1 µm, - 220,6±200,2 células/mm² e 31,5±65,3 µm² (seis meses. As variações da ECC, DCEC e ACM dos olhos submetidos a TREC sem MMC foram, respectivamente: - 13,9±16,7 µm, 200,8±155,4 células/mm² e 34,6±52,4 µm² (três meses; - 10,2±15,6 µm, - 277,6±195,7 células/mm² e 34,3±41,0 µm² (seis meses. CONCLUSÃO: TREC realizada com MMC, quando comparada a TREC sem MMC, não acarretou maior redução da DCEC central.Também não houve variação na ECC e na ACM nos dois grupos, após seis meses de seguimento.PURPOSE: To assess comparatively the central corneal thickness (CCT, the central corneal endothelial cells density (CECD and mean area (CECAA, of patients who underwent trabeculectomy (Trab with or without mytomicyn C (MMC. METHODS: Prospective study. Twenty-nine eyes were divided in two groups: Trab with or without MMC. Ultrasonic pachymetry and non-contact specular microscopy were performed pre-operatively and three and six months after Trab. The mean value of the CECD and the low value of the CCT were used. RESULTS: In the group of Trab with MMC, the variations of the CCT, CECD and CECAA values were, respectively: - 11.9±25.7 µm, - 169.5±145.3 cells/mm² and 42.5±33.4 µm² (three months; - 7.5±28.1 µm, - 220.6±200.2 cells/mm² and 31.5±65.3 µm² (six months. In the group of Trab

  4. Quality Climate Change Professional Development Translates into Quality Climate Change Education (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Perhaps one of the reasons we have so many climate change deniers in the United States is that to them climate change is not occurring. This is a valid claim about climate change deniers considering that the effects of climate change in the mid-latitudes are quite subtle as compared to those found in low-latitude and high-latitude regions. A mid-latitude classroom teacher is saddled with the challenge of enlightening students about our changing climate and empowering students to assist in making necessary lifestyle changes, all the while the students don't understand the urgency in doing so. Quality climate change data and resources from the Polar Regions and low latitudes, as well as connections to researchers from these regions help to bridge the understanding of our changing climate from the extreme latitudes to the mid-latitudes. Connecting science teachers with data, resources, and researchers is one way of ensuring our mid-latitude students understand the urgency in taking appropriate actions to adapt, mitigate, and show resilience. This presentation will highlight a few of the many impacts of an authentic research experience for teachers that not only provides teachers with data, resources, and researchers, but changes the way a science teacher teaches where the methods they use mirror the methods used by scientists. National projects like PolarTREC connect educators with the science of climate change as well as the reality of impacts of climate change. For example, research expeditions in the Arctic and in Antarctica connect teachers with the content and practices of climate change science preparing them to replicate their experiences with their students. A PolarTREC experience does not end with the close of the expedition. Teachers continue their connections with the program through their educator network, the integration of PolarTREC resources into their curriculums, and communications with their principal investigators either virtually or with school

  5. Improving Broader Impacts through Researcher-Educator Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Warburton, J.; Larson, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Since 1998, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) has designed and implemented successful Teacher Research Experience (TRE) programs enabling teachers to work directly with polar scientists in the field and bring their experience back to their classrooms and communities. The PolarTREC TRE model, administered during the International Polar Year (2007-2009), is most effective, exhibiting far-reaching broader impacts when ideas are shared, each partners’ expertise is respected, and both work toward the common goal of delivering high-quality information. Between 2004 and 2009, ARCUS has selected, trained, and supported 77 teachers on polar teacher research experiences. Although a limited number of teachers are able to participate in a field experience, selected teachers have expertise in translating research approaches and results into widely shared learning tools and programs. Between 2007-2009, PolarTREC teachers have constructed nearly 100 classroom lesson plans and activities as a result of their experience. Selected teachers are usually well connected within their schools, communities, and professions, bringing the science to numerous followers during their expedition. Live events with teachers and researchers in the field have attracted over 11,000 participants, primarily K-12 students. The PolarTREC TRE Model includes numerous methods to support outreach activities while teachers and researchers are in the field. These include web-based communications, journals, discussion forums, multimedia, and live events—all easily replicable activities with the potential to affect large numbers of people. In addition, the TRE experience continues to produce broader impacts far into the future of the teacher and researcher’s careers through ongoing communications, presentations at professional conferences, and continued support of each other’s work through activities including classroom visits, joint proposal development, and much more

  6. Direct analysis of thymic function in children with Down's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meschiari Liviana

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down's syndrome (DS is characterized by several immunological defects, especially regarding T cell compartment. DS is considered the best example of accelerated ageing in humans. Direct observations of the thymus have shown that in DS this organ undergoes severe histological and morphological changes. However, no data on its capacity to generate T cells are present in the literature. Here, using a new technology based upon real time PCR, we have investigated the capacity of the thymus to produce and release newly generated T lymphocytes (the so called "recent thymic emigrants", RTE in children with DS. Methods We studied 8 children affected by DS, aged 2–7 years, compared with 8 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Flow cytometry was used to determine different lymphocytes subsets. Real time PCR with the Taqman system was used to quantify the amount of RTE, i.e. peripheral blood lymphocytes that express the T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (TREC. Results In comparison with control children, those with DS had a significant lower number of TREC+ peripheral blood cells. Moreover, in DS children but not in controls, a strong negative correlation between age and the levels of TREC+ cells was found. Conclusions The direct measure of thymic output indicates that the impairment of the organ results in a reduced production of newly generated T cells. This observation could suggest that cytokines able to modulate thymic function, such as interleukins, could be useful to improve the functionality of the organ and to treat the immunodeficiency present in DS subjects.

  7. Direct analysis of thymic function in children with Down's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Nicole; Nasi, Milena; Troiano, Leonarda; Roat, Erika; Pinti, Marcello; Nemes, Elisa; Lugli, Enrico; Ferraresi, Roberta; Ciacci, Luigi; Bertoni, Davide; Biagioni, Ornella; Gibertoni, Milena; Cornia, Cristina; Meschiari, Liviana; Gramazio, Elisabetta; Mariotti, Mauro; Consolo, Ugo; Balli, Fiorella; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Background Down's syndrome (DS) is characterized by several immunological defects, especially regarding T cell compartment. DS is considered the best example of accelerated ageing in humans. Direct observations of the thymus have shown that in DS this organ undergoes severe histological and morphological changes. However, no data on its capacity to generate T cells are present in the literature. Here, using a new technology based upon real time PCR, we have investigated the capacity of the thymus to produce and release newly generated T lymphocytes (the so called "recent thymic emigrants", RTE) in children with DS. Methods We studied 8 children affected by DS, aged 2–7 years, compared with 8 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Flow cytometry was used to determine different lymphocytes subsets. Real time PCR with the Taqman system was used to quantify the amount of RTE, i.e. peripheral blood lymphocytes that express the T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (TREC). Results In comparison with control children, those with DS had a significant lower number of TREC+ peripheral blood cells. Moreover, in DS children but not in controls, a strong negative correlation between age and the levels of TREC+ cells was found. Conclusions The direct measure of thymic output indicates that the impairment of the organ results in a reduced production of newly generated T cells. This observation could suggest that cytokines able to modulate thymic function, such as interleukins, could be useful to improve the functionality of the organ and to treat the immunodeficiency present in DS subjects. PMID:15715912

  8. Application of Multi-Scale Tracking Radar Echoes Scheme in Quantitative Precipitation Nowcasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gaili; WONG Waikin; LIU Liping; WANG Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    A new radar echo tracking algorithm known as multi-scale tracking radar echoes by cross-correlation (MTREC) was developed in this study to analyze movements of radar echoes at different spatial scales.Movement of radar echoes,particularly associated with convective storms,exhibits different characteristics at various spatial scales as a result of complex interactions among meteorological systems leading to the formation of convective storms.For the null echo region,the usual correlation technique produces zero or a very small magnitude of motion vectors.To mitigate these constraints,MTREC uses the tracking radar echoes by correlation (TREC) technique with a large "box" to determine the systematic movement driven by steering wind,and MTREC applies the TREC technique with a small "box" to estimate small-scale internal motion vectors.Eventually,the MTREC vectors are obtained by synthesizing the systematic motion and the small scale internal motion.Performance of the MTREC technique was compared with TREC technique using case studies:the Khanun typhoon on 11 September 2005 observed by Wenzhou radar and a squall-line system on 23 June 2011 detected by Beijing radar.The results demonstrate that more spatially smoothed and continuous vector fields can be generated by the MTREC technique,which leads to improvements in tracking the entire radar reflectivity pattern.The new multi-scale tracking scheme was applied to study its impact on the performance of quantitative precipitation nowcasting.The location and intensity of heavy precipitation at a 1-h lead time was more consistent with quantitative precipitation estimates using radar and rain gauges.

  9. Guidelines for Screening, Early Diagnosis and Management of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkaikar, Manisha; Aluri, Jahnavi; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-05-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is one of the most severe and fatal forms of inherited primary immunodeficiency. Early diagnosis of SCID improves the outcome of life before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). SCID fulfills the internationally-established criteria for a condition to be screened for at birth. T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay is commonly used in western countries as part of newborn blood spot screening (NBS) program as the assay has high sensitivity and specificity to identify SCID infants, allowing early intervention and curative bone marrow (BM) transplantation. In India, the blood spot based screening programs are yet to mature into a full-fledged national program. Moreover, TREC assay, a PCR based test, is not widely available and may cost USD 5-7 per test; thus limiting its applicability for screening newborns in Indian scenario. Most of the SCID patients have lymphopenia at birth and routine evaluation for absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) on cord blood samples can help in pre-symptomatic detection and early intervention for neonates with SCID. Although ALC count lacks the sensitivity and specificity of TREC assay; its lower cost and widespread availability makes it an attractive option for identifying newborns with lymphopenia during the post-partum hospital stay. BCG vaccine and other live attenuated vaccines (e.g., oral polio vaccine) should be withheld in lymphopenic infants until SCID is excluded by clinical and/or immunological work-up. A diagnosis of SCID warrants immediate care to prevent and treat infections and wherever feasible, early stem cell transplantation for disease free survival.

  10. IL-7 and SCF Levels Inversely Correlate with T Cell Reconstitution and Clinical Outcomes after Cord Blood Transplantation in Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Politikos

    Full Text Available Recovery of thymopoiesis is critical for immune reconstitution after HSCT. IL-7 and SCF are two major thymotropic cytokines. We investigated whether the kinetics of circulating levels of these cytokines might provide insight into the prolonged immunodeficiency after double umbilical cord blood transplantation (dUCBT in adults. We examined plasma levels of IL-7 and SCF, T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle (TREC levels and T cell subsets in 60 adult patients undergoing dUCBT. Median levels of IL-7 increased by more than 3-fold at 4 weeks and remained elevated through 100 days after dUCBT. SCF showed a less than 2-fold increase and more protracted elevation than IL-7. IL-7 levels inversely correlated with the reconstitution of various T cell subsets but not with TRECs. SCF levels inversely correlated with reconstitution of CD4+T cells, especially the naïve CD4+CD45RA+ subset, and with TRECs suggesting that SCF but not IL-7 had an effect on thymic regeneration. In Cox models, elevated levels of IL-7 and SCF were associated with higher non-relapse mortality (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01 and worse overall survival (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001. Elevated IL-7 but not SCF was also associated with development of GvHD (p = 0.03. Thus, IL-7 and SCF are elevated for a prolonged period after dUCBT and persistently high levels of these cytokines may correlate with worse clinical outcomes.

  11. New Meliolaceae from the Brazilian Atlantic forest 2: species on host families Annonaceae, Cecropiaceae, Meliaceae, Piperaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae and Tiliaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Danilo Batista; Firmino, André Luiz; Ferreira-Junior, Walnir Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini

    2013-01-01

    Continuing the study of black mildews in fragments of the Atlantic forest, three new species and five new records are described herein. Irenopsis luheae-grandiflorae, Meliola vicosensis and Meliola xylopia-sericiae are new species. Cecropia hololeuca, Piper gaudichaudianum and Trichilia lepidota are new hosts for Asteridiella leucosykeae, Asteridiella glabroides and Meliola trichiliae respectively. Asteridiella obesa and Meliola psychotriae var. chiococcae are reported for the first time from Brazil. The new species are described and illustrated based on light and scanning electron microscopy and tables with main characteristics of morphologically similar specimens with species collected in Viçosa are provided. Other species belonging to Meliolaceae collected on hosts belonging to the Annonaceae, Meliaceae and Tiliaceae in Brazil also were studied.

  12. Mexican plants with hypoglycaemic effect used in the treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Heinrich, Michael

    2005-07-14

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome which affects more and more people in all countries over the world. In México, it is commonly treated with herbal extracts. Such treatment may be of considerable benefit especially during the early stages of the illness. In this review, we discuss species commonly used in México in the treatment of diabetes. A total of 306 species have records of a popular use in the treatment of this syndrome in México. Seven of these species--Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. (Cecropiaceae), Equisetum myriochaetum Schlecht & Cham (Equisetaceae), Acosmium panamense (Benth.) Yacolev (Fabaceae), Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché (Cucurbitaceae), Agarista mexicana (Hemsl.) Judd. (Ericaeae), Brickellia veronicaefolia (Kunth) A. Gray (Asteraceae), Parmentiera aculeata (Kunth) Seem. (Bignoniaceae)--are discussed in greater detail, highlighting our current knowledge about these botanicals, but also the enormous gaps in our knowledge, most notably as it relates to the species' toxicology, the pharmacokinetics of its active constituents and their metabolism.

  13. The relative importance of above- versus belowground competition for tree growth during early succession of a tropical moist forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breugel, Michiel van; van Breugel, Paulo; Jansen, Patrick A.;

    2012-01-01

    Competition between neighboring plants plays a major role in the population dynamics of tree species in the early phases of humid tropical forest succession. We evaluated the relative importance of above-versus below-ground competition during the first years of old-field succession on soil with low...... on the diameter growth of Cecropia saplings and stem slenderness of Trichospermum saplings. We conclude that competition for light was more important than below-ground competition in this initial phase of moist tropical forest successional, despite the low soil fertility....... and Trichospermum mexicanum, two pioneer species that dominate the secondary forests in the study region, varied with the abundance and size of neighboring trees in 1-2 year old secondary vegetation. We found that local neighborhood basal area varied 10-fold (3 to 30 cm(2) m(-2)) and explained most of the variation...

  14. Resistance of particleboard panels made of agricultural residues and bonded with synthetic resins or PVC plastic to wood-rotting fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divino Eterno Teixeira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the resistance of three types of particleboard panel to biodeterioration, two of which bonded with synthetic resins and one bonded with PVC plastic. Composite panels were made using sugar cane straw particles as raw material which were bonded together with urea-formaldehyde (UF, tannin-formaldehyde (TANI and PVC plastic (PVC resins. Decay tests were performed following procedures outlined in the ASTM D2017-81/1994 standard, whereby sample specimens were subjected to attack by white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum using pine (Pinus sp. and embaúba (Cecropia sp. as reference timber. Panels bonded with PVC resin were rated ‘resistant’ to attack by both fungi while those bonded with UF and TANI resins were rated ‘slightly resistant’ to their attack.

  15. Efeito da temperatura e a participação do fitocromo no controle da germinação de sementes de embaúba

    OpenAIRE

    Godoi,Simone; Takaki,Massanori

    2005-01-01

    A embaúba é considerada uma espécie pioneira que ocorre na mata Atlântica, principalmente em borda da mata ou em matas secundárias. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a análise da influência da temperatura e do modo de ação da luz através de curva de fluência resposta, para a melhor compreensão do comportamento das sementes desta espécie. Através de incubações isotérmicas foi determinada que a temperatura ótima de germinação de sementes de Cecropia glaziovi, situa-se entre 25 e 30ºC e a s...

  16. Avaliação da atividade leishmanicida in vitro de plantas medicinais Evaluation of the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeamile L. Bezerra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Na busca de novos agentes leishmanicidas, avaliamos em culturas de promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis o efeito dos extratos hidroalcoólicos das folhas de Tephrosia cinerea (L. Pers. (Fabaceae, Dichorisandra sp (Commelinaceae, Syzygium jambolanum DC. (Myrtaceae, Julocroton triqueter (Lam. Didr. var. triqueter (Euphorbiaceae, Passiflora edulis Sims(Passifloraceae, Cecropia sp (Cecropiaceae, Chenopodium ambrosioides L.(Chenopodiaceae, Pedilanhus tithymaloides (L. Poit (Euphorbiaceae, Peristrophe angustifolia Nees(Acanthaceae e o extrato aquoso do mesocarpo de Orbignya phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae. As promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis foram cultivadas em presença de 31,3; 63,5; 125,0; 250,0 e 500,0 µg/mL dos extratos por 24 horas. Ao final desse período foi calculada a concentração inibitória do crescimento (CI50 em relação às culturas não tratadas com os extratos. Os extratos das espécies J. triqueter, Dichorisandra sp e T. cinerea apresentaram maior eficácia em induzir a morte das promastigotas, com CI50 de 29,5; 32,9 e 43,6 µg/mL, respectivamente. P. edulis, C. ambrosioides e S. jambolanum apresentaram eficácia moderada com CI50 de 150,1; 151,9 e 166,6 µg/mL, respectivamente. P. tithymaloides e O. phalerata apresentaram baixo efeito leishmanicida com CI50 >500 µg/mL, enquanto Peristrophe angustifolia e Cecropia spnão apresentaram efeito. Dessa forma, dos dez extratos testados, três apresentaram uma expressiva atividade leishmanicida in vitro.Searching for new leishmanicidal agents, promastigotes forms of L. amazonensis were cultured with the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from the Tephrosia cinerea (L. Pers. (Fabaceae, Dichorisandra sp (Commelinaceae, Syzygium jambolanum DC. (Myrtaceae, Julocroton triqueter (Lam. Didr. var. triqueter (Euphorbiaceae, Passiflora edulis Sims(Passifloraceae, Cecropia sp (Cecropiaceae, Chenopodium ambrosioides L.(Chenopodiaceae, Pedilanhus tithymaloides (L. Poit (Euphorbiaceae

  17. Automatic Question Answering from Web Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; HU Dawei; LI Huan; HAO Tianyong; CHEN Enhong; LIU Wenyin

    2007-01-01

    A passage retrieval strategy for web-based question answering (QA) systems is proposed in our QA system. It firstly analyzes the question based on semantic patterns to obtain its syntactic and semantic information and then form initial queries. The queries are used to retrieve documents from the World Wide Web (WWW) using the Google search engine. The queries are then rewritten to form queries for passage retrieval in order to improve the precision. The relations between keywords in the question are employed in our query rewrite method. The experimental result on the question set of the TREC-2003 passage task shows that our system performs well for factoid questions.

  18. Instability and Transition on the HIFiRE-5 in a Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    relation [96]: Nu = C +D ·Rend (9.2) The Nusselt number Nu is related to the convection of heat away from the hot wire : Nu = q̇ πlk(Twire − Trec... anemometry in compressible flows. AGARDograph 24, AGARD, November 1956. [94] P. C. Stainback and K. A. Nagabushana. Review of hot - wire anemometry ...pressure probe. AIAA Paper 72-1003, September 1972. [96] A. J. Smits, H. Hayakawa, and K. C. Muck. Constant-temperature hot - wire anemometry practice in

  19. Assimilation of radar-based nowcast into HIRLAM NWP model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, David Getreuer; Petersen, Claus; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study introduces a nowcast scheme that assimilates radar extrapolation data (RED) into a nowcasting version of the high resolution limited area model (HIRLAM) numerical weather prediction (NWP) model covering the area of Denmark. The RED are based on the Co-TREC (tracking radar echoes...... by correlation) methodology and are generated from cleaned radar mosaics from the Danish weather radar network. The assimilation technique is a newly developed method that increases model precipitation by increasing low-level convergence and decreasing convergence aloft in order to increase the vertical velocity...

  20. Ellis y el Constructivismo: una perspectiva crítica sobre la Terapia Racional Emotivo Conductual

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El presente artículo de reflexión tuvo como objetivo abordar desde una postura crítica dos aspectos funda- mentales de la Terapia Racional Emotivo Conductual (TREC): la postura constructivista asumida por Ellis en sus últimos años y las nociones de irracionalidad según el modelo racionalista tradicional en psicotera- pia. Se tomó por lo tanto una posición en contra de las afirmaciones del padre de esta psicoterapia, quien sus- tentado en las nociones constructivistas radicales que afir...

  1. Random walk term weighting for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, R.; Lioma, Christina

    2007-01-01

    We present a way of estimating term weights for Information Retrieval (IR), using term co-occurrence as a measure of dependency between terms.We use the random walk graph-based ranking algorithm on a graph that encodes terms and co-occurrence dependencies in text, from which we derive term weights...... that represent a quantification of how a term contributes to its context. Evaluation on two TREC collections and 350 topics shows that the random walk-based term weights perform at least comparably to the traditional tf-idf term weighting, while they outperform it when the distance between co-occurring terms...

  2. Nursing home administrators’ perspectives on a study feedback report: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boström Anne-Marie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This project is part of the Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC program of research, a multi-level and longitudinal research program being conducted in 36 nursing homes in three Canadian Prairie Provinces. The overall goal of TREC is to improve the quality of care for older persons living in nursing homes and the quality of work life for care providers. The purpose of this paper is to report on development and evaluation of facility annual reports (FARs from facility administrators’ perspectives on the usefulness, meaningfulness, and understandability of selected data from the TREC survey. Methods A cross sectional survey design was used in this study. The feedback reports were developed in collaboration with participating facility administrators. FARs presented results in four contextual areas: workplace culture, feedback processes, job satisfaction, and staff burnout. Six weeks after FARs were mailed to each administrator, we conducted structured telephone interviews with administrators to elicit their evaluation of the FARs. Administrators were also asked if they had taken any actions as a result of the FAR. Descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as content analysis for open-ended questions, were used to summarize findings. Results Thirty-one facility administrators (representing thirty-two facilities participated in the interviews. Six administrators had taken action and 18 were planning on taking action as a result of FARs. The majority found the four contextual areas addressed in FAR to be useful, meaningful, and understandable. They liked the comparisons made between data from years one and two and between their facility and other TREC study sites in their province. Twenty-two indicated that they would like to receive information on additional areas such as aggressive behaviours of residents and information sharing. Twenty-four administrators indicated that FARs contained enough information, while eight

  3. Rhetorical relations for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    -called discourse structure has been applied successfully to several natural language processing tasks. This work studies the use of rhetorical relations for Information Retrieval (IR): Is there a correlation between certain rhetorical relations and retrieval performance? Can knowledge about a document’s rhetorical...... relations be useful to IR? We present a language model modification that considers rhetorical relations when estimating the relevance of a document to a query. Empirical evaluation of different versions of our model on TREC settings shows that certain rhetorical relations can benefit retrieval effectiveness...

  4. Cirurgia combinada de catarata e glaucoma com ponto escleral perilímbico: técnica cirúrgica e resultados a longo prazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Sólia Násser

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados da cirurgia combinada de catarata e glaucoma (FACO-TREC e apresentar a técnica com o ponto escleral perilímbico. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo por levantamento de prontuários com informações sobre a pressão intraocular, acuidade visual, medicação hipotensora antes e depois da cirurgia e descrição do ato cirúrgico combinado (FACO-TREC, com acompanhamento mínimo de seis meses. Foram selecionados 10 pacientes com glaucoma e catarata (15 olhos, acompanhados de janeiro de 2005 a junho de 2007, no Departamento de Glaucoma da Santa Casa Olhos de Montes Claros (MG. A cirurgia de TREC utilizada foi a de base fórnix, sem uso de Mitomicina C, com a incisão principal da cirurgia de catarata realizada no mesmo sítio da TREC. A confecção do ponto escleral perilímbico se dá como uma sutura que se inicia na esclera nua, passa por cima do retalho escleral e é ancorada na esclera do outro lado do retalho. A conjuntiva é suturada com pontos simples por sobre o ponto. RESULTADOS: A acuidade visual, após seis meses da cirurgia mostrou-se melhor em 86,6% (13 dos olhos, inalterada em 6,66% (1 olho e pior em 6,66%. A pressão intraocular média pré-operatória foi de 18,02 mmHg, a pós-operatória após 6 meses foi de 15,06 mmHg. Cinquenta por cento dos olhos operados ficaram livres dos colírios. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que o ponto escleral perilímbico apresentou resultados favoráveis na obtenção de uma melhora na acuidade visual, redução da pressão intraocular e uma diminuição significativa no uso de drogas hipotensoras à custa de um número muito pequeno de complicações.

  5. PolarTREC—A Model Program for Taking Polar Literacy into the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Timm, K.; Larson, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Polar TREC—Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, is a three-year (2007-2009) NSF-funded International Polar Year (IPY) teacher professional development program that advances Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education by improving teacher content knowledge and instructional practices through Teacher Research Experiences (TRE) in the Arctic and Antarctic. Leveraging profound changes and fascinating science taking place in the polar regions, PolarTREC broadly disseminates activities and products to students, educators, researchers, and the public, connecting them with the Arctic and Antarctica and sustaining the widespread interest in the polar regions and building on the enthusiasm that was generated through IPY. Central to the PolarTREC Teacher Research Experience Model, over 40 teachers have spent two to eight weeks participating in hands-on research in the polar regions and sharing their experiences with diverse audiences via live events, online multimedia journals, and interactive bulletin boards. The Connecting Arctic/Antarctic Researchers and Educators (CARE) Network unifies learning community members participants, alumni, and others, developing a sustainable association of education professionals networking to share and apply polar STEM content and pedagogical skills. Educator and student feedback from preliminary results of the program evaluation has shown that PolarTREC’s comprehensive program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes in key areas including amount of time spent in school exploring research activities, importance of understanding science for future work, importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today’s world, as well as increased self-reported knowledge and interest in numerous science content areas. Building

  6. Análisis comparativo del "inventario de actitudes y creencias" (ABI) y la "escala de actitudes disfuncionales" (DAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Rodríguez, José; Fusté Escolano, Adela

    2012-01-01

    De acuerdo con los planteamientos de la Terapia Cognitiva (TC) de Aaron Beck y la terapia Racional Emotivo Conductual (TREC) de Albert Ellis, el mantenimiento de creencias rígidas y actitudes disfuncionales constituyen factores de vulnerabilidad a los trastornos psicológicos. En base a estos planteamientos, la adecuada evaluación de las creencias y actitudes disfuncionales es fundamental, no sólo para saber cuáles están en el origen y mantenimiento de la perturbación emocional que puede aquej...

  7. Citogenética de Angiospermas coletadas em Pernambuco: V Cytogenetics of Angiosperms collected in the State of Pernambuco: V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pedrosa

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 33 espécies, entre nativas e introduzidas, pertencentes a 20 famílias de angiospermas ocorrentes no Estado de Pernambuco. A caracterização cariotípica da maioria das espécies foi baseada no número e morfologia cromossômica, padrão de condensação de cromossomos profásicos e estrutura de núcleo interfásico. Cinco espécies tiveram seus números cromossômicos determinados pela primeira vez, sendo elas: Cereus jamacaru (2n=22, Clitoria fairchildiana (2n=22, Eugenia luschnathiana (2n=22, Licania tomentosa (2n=22 e Spondias tuberosa (n=16. No caso de Licania tomentosa esta é a primeira citação de número cromossômico para o gênero. Das outras 28 espécies, três (Cecropia cf. palmata, 2n=26; Crinum erubescens, 2n=70; e Schinus terebentifolius, 2n=28 apresentaram números cromossômicos diferentes dos registrados previamente na literatura.Thirty three native and introduced species from 20 families of angiosperms collected in the State of Pernambuco were analysed. The karyotype description of the majority of the species was based on chromosome number and morphology, condensation pattern of prophase chromosomes as well as interphase nuclear structure. In five species (Cereus jamacaru, 2n=22; Clitoria fairchildiana, 2n=22; Eugenia luschnathiana, 2n=22; Licania tomentosa, 2n=22; and Spondias tuberosa, n=16 the chromosome number is reported here for the first time. In the case of Licania tomentosa, this is also the first report for the genus. Among the other 28 species, three (Cecropia cf. palmata, 2n=26; Crinum erubescens, 2n=70; and Schinus terebentifolius, 2n=28 showed chromosome numbers different from what has previously been reported.

  8. Plantas utilizadas na medicina popular brasileira com potencial atividade antifúngica Plants with potencial antifungal activity employed in Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Fenner

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico etnobotânico sobre plantas utilizadas pela população brasileira no tratamento de sinais e sintomas relacionados às infecções fúngicas. Foram citadas 409 espécies, distribuídas em 98 famílias, com maior concentração em Fabaceae e Asteraceae. Para as dez espécies mais citadas, foi realizada uma busca relativa a estudos de atividade antifúngica na base de dados MEDLINE-PubMed. Somente foram encontrados estudos para Phytolacca americana L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mirabilis jalapa L., Schinus molle L. Entre as dez espécies mais utilizadas, seis correspondem a espécies nativas: Anacardium occidentale L., Cecropia peltata L., Schinus molle L., Schinus terebinthinfolius Raddi, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville e Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo.The aim of this work was to draw up a list of plants used by Brazilian population for the treatment of signs and symptoms related to fungal infections and to verify the existence of scientific data related to the antifungal activity in the databasis MEDLINE-PubMed. Four hundread and nine species were listed, which are distributed in ninety eight families, mainly Fabaceae and Asteraceae. Among the more frequently mentioned species (10, only four were evaluated regarding to the antifungal activity: Phytolacca americana L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mirabilis jalapa L. and Schinus molle L. From those ten species, six are native (Anacardium occidentale L., Cecropia peltata L., Schinus molle L., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville e Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo.

  9. Fruits as unusual food items of the carnivorous bat Chrotopterus auritus (Mammalia, Phyllostomidae from southeastern Brazil Frutos como item alimentar não habitual do morcego carnívoro Chrotopterus auritus (Mammalia, Phyllostomidae da região sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Uieda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We record here the occurrence of seeds of several plant species in feces found inside the day roost of Chrotoperus auritus, at the Estação Experimental de Itirapina, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in July 2001. The roost was used by only one adult female, non pregnant, during about a month. In the feces, fur of rodent (Muridae, bone fragments, fragments of Scarabaeidae and other beetles and insects, leaves (not determined and many seeds of Piperaceae (Piper sp., Urticaceae (Cecropia sp. and Solanaceae (Solanum spp. and Cestrum sp. were found. In the gut content, insect fragments, fur of rodent (Muridae and plant remains were found. It was discussed why this carnivorous bat would be consuming plant items.Relatamos aqui a ocorrência de sementes de diversas espécies de plantas em fezes encontradas num abrigo diurno de C. auritus, localizado na Estação Experimental de Itirapina, São Paulo, em julho de 2001. O abrigo era utilizado por apenas uma fêmea adulta não grávida durante cerca de um mês. Nas fezes, foram encontrados pêlos de roedor (Muridae, fragmentos de ossos, fragmentos de Scarabaeidae e de outros Coleópteros e insetos, folhas (não identificáveis e muitas sementes de Piperaceae (Piper sp., Urticaceae (Cecropia sp. e Solanaceae (Solanum spp. e Cestrum sp.. No trato digestivo foram encontrados fragmentos de insetos, pêlos de roedores (Muridae e restos de vegetais. Discute-se porque esse morcego carnívoro poderia estar consumindo itens vegetais.

  10. Botanical profile of bee pollen from the southern coastal region of Bahia, Brazil Perfil botânico do pólen apícola proveniente do litoral sul da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos da Costa Dórea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the botanical origin of pollen loads collected by Apis mellifera L. in Canavieiras municipality, Bahia state. It provides a list of polliniferous plant species from the Atlantic Forest biome that are important for the development of regional apiculture. Using the acetolysis method, 35 bee-pollen samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results showed that pollen types Elaeis (23.99%, Mimosa pudica (22.78% and Cecropia (13.68% were the most abundant among the samples. These also showed the highest relative frequencies of the material studied and were important pollen sources for bees in the study area.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a origem botânica das bolotas de pólen coletadas pelas abelhas Apis mellifera L. no município de Canavieiras, Bahia, gerando uma lista de plantas poliníferas pertencentes ao bioma Mata Atlântica e importantes para o desenvolvimento da apicultura regional. Foram analisadas palinologicamente 35 amostras de pólen apícola, utilizando-se o processo de acetólise para, em seguida, serem feitas análises qualitativas e quantitativas. Os resultados revelaram que os tipos polínicos Elaeis (23,99%, Mimosa pudica (22,78% e Cecropia (13,68% foram os mais abundantes no pólen apícola analisado. Estes tipos polínicos também apresentaram as maiores frequências relativas de todo o material estudado e representam importantes plantas fontes de pólen para as abelhas na área estudada.

  11. The role of minerals in food selection in a black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) population in Belize following a major hurricane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behie, Alison M; Pavelka, Mary S M

    2012-11-01

    As plants may contain low levels of some minerals including sodium, copper, and phosphorous, herbivores may become deficient in these nutrients. In 2001, Hurricane Iris hit the Monkey River Forest in Belize causing substantial damage to the food supply of the black howler monkey population (Alouatta pigra) living there. This included an 18-month absence in fruit production and a complete loss of figs that are high in calcium. In this article, we describe the post-hurricane diet of this monkey population and compare the mineral content of food items to each other and to recommendations for non-human primates [NRC 2003]. We also investigate food selection in relation to potentially limiting minerals. Behavioral data from four groups of howlers (2002-2006) and samples of all ingested food items were collected and a sample of 99 plant from 18 food species was analyzed for mineral content. Unexpectedly, the post-hurricane diet contained more mature leaves than new leaves despite the availability of new leaves. Leaves contained higher amounts of minerals than reproductive parts and with the exception of Cecropia peltata stems, plant parts were low in sodium. Cecropia peltata is a pioneer species that grows following habitat disturbance thus the ingestion of these stems may be a potential mechanism to avoid sodium deficiency in this damaged forest. Calcium and zinc were found above recommended values in most food items; however, both positively predicted food selection, which may reflect a difference between their abundance and their bioavailability. However, as mature leaves contained more calcium than other plant parts, their high post-hurricane consumption may also be a response to the absence of figs and the need to find an alternate calcium source. This study highlights how habitat disturbance may affect mineral abundance and the dietary choices of primates.

  12. Uremia causes premature ageing of the T cell compartment in end-stage renal disease patients

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    Meijers Ruud WJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background End-stage renal disease (ESRD patients treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT have premature immunologically aged T cells which may underlie uremia-associated immune dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether uremia was able to induce premature ageing of the T cell compartment. For this purpose, we examined the degree of premature immunological T cell ageing by examining the T cell differentiation status, thymic output via T cell receptor excision circle (TREC content and proliferative history via relative telomere length in ESRD patients not on RRT. Results Compared to healthy controls, these patients already had a lower TREC content and an increased T cell differentiation accompanied by shorter telomeres. RRT was able to enhance CD8+ T cell differentiation and to reduce CD8+ T cell telomere length in young dialysis patients. An increased differentiation status of memory CD4+ T cells was also noted in young dialysis patients. Conclusion Based on these results we can conclude that uremia already causes premature immunological ageing of the T cell system and RRT further increases immunological ageing of the CD8+ T cell compartment in particular in young ESRD patients.

  13. Exploiting salient semantic analysis for information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Meng, Bo; Quan, Changqin; Tu, Xinhui

    2016-11-01

    Recently, many Wikipedia-based methods have been proposed to improve the performance of different natural language processing (NLP) tasks, such as semantic relatedness computation, text classification and information retrieval. Among these methods, salient semantic analysis (SSA) has been proven to be an effective way to generate conceptual representation for words or documents. However, its feasibility and effectiveness in information retrieval is mostly unknown. In this paper, we study how to efficiently use SSA to improve the information retrieval performance, and propose a SSA-based retrieval method under the language model framework. First, SSA model is adopted to build conceptual representations for documents and queries. Then, these conceptual representations and the bag-of-words (BOW) representations can be used in combination to estimate the language models of queries and documents. The proposed method is evaluated on several standard text retrieval conference (TREC) collections. Experiment results on standard TREC collections show the proposed models consistently outperform the existing Wikipedia-based retrieval methods.

  14. Ellis y el Constructivismo: una perspectiva crítica sobre la Terapia Racional Emotivo Conductual

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    Ronald Toro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo de reflexión tuvo como objetivo abordar desde una postura crítica dos aspectos funda- mentales de la Terapia Racional Emotivo Conductual (TREC: la postura constructivista asumida por Ellis en sus últimos años y las nociones de irracionalidad según el modelo racionalista tradicional en psicotera- pia. Se tomó por lo tanto una posición en contra de las afirmaciones del padre de esta psicoterapia, quien sus- tentado en las nociones constructivistas radicales que afirman que la realidad es subjetiva e imposible de co- nocer, y las repercusiones que esto ha tenido en otros autores como Mahoney o Meichenbaum, afirmó que dejaba atrás las posiciones lógico-positivistas iniciales de sus trabajos. El desenlace del problema en discusión se presentó usando las nociones del realismo crítico, una postura en la cual la realidad es objetiva pero se presenta al ser humano de forma distorsionada e im- precisa, debido a las limitaciones del aparato cognitivo y las necesidades adaptativas de supervivencia. Se ana- lizaron las posibilidades de errores epistemológicos en la postura de Ellis, y otras implicaciones del modelo TREC en la labor psicoterapéutica.

  15. Physical activity and transcutaneous oxygen pressure in men with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Crespo-Ruiz, MSc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study proposed a method for assessing the status of vascular flow measured by transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2 in the area of the ischium in people with spinal cord injury (SCI. In a sample of 38 men (two groups: 12 physically active and 26 sedentary with thoracic SCI, the distribution of the physiological response of the tissues under load during sitting was assessed through analysis of ischium TcPO2 values obtained by an oximeter. TcPO2 baseline, recovery time of TcPO2 after sitting (Trec, the percentage of TcPO2 (%TcPO2 of maximum pressure TcPO2, and mechanic maximal pressure (Pmax were evaluated. Trec in the physically active group was significantly lower (p < 0.05 than in the sedentary group. Likewise, significant differences in %TcPO2 between groups (p < 0.05 were also found. We concluded that the physiological response of the tissues under an individual with SCI’s own weight resulting from prolonged sitting is better in those who are physically active.

  16. A DYNAMIC FEATURE SELECTION METHOD FOR DOCUMENT RANKING WITH RELEVANCE FEEDBACK APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Latha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ranking search results is essential for information retrieval and Web search. Search engines need to not only return highly relevant results, but also be fast to satisfy users. As a result, not all available features can be used for ranking, and in fact only a small percentage of these features can be used. Thus, it is crucial to have a feature selection mechanism that can find a subset of features that both meets latency requirements and achieves high relevance. In this paper we describe a 0/1 knapsack procedure for automatically selecting features to use within Generalization model for Document Ranking. We propose an approach for Relevance Feedback using Expectation Maximization method and evaluate the algorithm on the TREC Collection for describing classes of feedback textual information retrieval features. Experimental results, evaluated on standard TREC-9 part of the OHSUMED collections, show that our feature selection algorithm produces models that are either significantly more effective than, or equally effective as, models such as Markov Random Field model, Correlation Co-efficient and Count Difference method

  17. Ex Vivo γ-Retroviral Gene Therapy of Dogs with X-linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and the Development of a Thymic T Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Douglas R.; Hartnett, Brian J.; Kennedy, Jeffrey S.; Vernau, William; Moore, Peter F.; O’Malley, Thomas; Burkly, Linda C.; Henthorn, Paula S.; Felsburg, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that in vivo γ-retroviral gene therapy of dogs with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) results in sustained T cell reconstitution and sustained marking in myeloid and B cells for up to 4 years with no evidence of any serious adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ex vivo γ-retroviral gene therapy of XSCID dogs results in a similar outcome. Eight of 12 XSCID dogs treated with an average of dose of 5.8 × 106 transduced CD34+ cells/kg successfully engrafted producing normal numbers of gene-corrected CD45RA+ (naïve) T cells. However, this was followed by a steady decrease in CD45RA+ T cells, T cell diversity, and thymic output as measured by T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) resulting in a T cell lymphopenia. None of the dogs survived past 11 months post treatment. At necropsy, few gene-corrected thymocytes were observed correlating with the TREC levels and one of the dogs was diagnosed with a thymic T cell lymphoma that was attributed to the gene therapy. This study highlights the outcome differences between the ex vivo and in vivo approach to γ-retroviral gene therapy and is the first to document a serious adverse event following gene therapy in a canine model of a human genetic disease. PMID:21536334

  18. Long-Lasting Production of New T and B Cells and T-Cell Repertoire Diversity in Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency Who Had Undergone Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single-Centre Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Valotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs, T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs, and T-cell repertoire diversity were evaluated in 1038 samples of 124 children with primary immunodeficiency, of whom 102 (54 with severe combined immunodeficiency and 48 with other types of immunodeficiency underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Twenty-two not transplanted patients with primary immunodeficiency were used as controls. Only data of patients from whom at least five samples were sent to the clinical laboratory for routine monitoring of lymphocyte reconstitutions were included in the analysis. The mean time of the follow-up was 8 years. The long-lasting posttransplantation kinetics of KREC and TREC production occurred similarly in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and with other types of immunodeficiency and, in both groups, the T-cell reconstitution was more efficient than in nontransplanted children. Although thymic output decreased in older transplanted patients, the degree of T-cell repertoire diversity, after an initial increase, remained stable during the observation period. However, the presence of graft-versus-host disease and ablative conditioning seemed to play a role in the time-related shaping of T-cell repertoire. Overall, our data suggest that long-term B- and T-cell reconstitution was equally achieved in children with severe combined immunodeficiency and with other types of primary immunodeficiency.

  19. Long-lasting production of new T and B cells and T-cell repertoire diversity in patients with primary immunodeficiency who had undergone stem cell transplantation: a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotti, Monica; Sottini, Alessandra; Lanfranchi, Arnalda; Bolda, Federica; Serana, Federico; Bertoli, Diego; Giustini, Viviana; Tessitore, Marion Vaglio; Caimi, Luigi; Imberti, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Levels of Kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs), T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), and T-cell repertoire diversity were evaluated in 1038 samples of 124 children with primary immunodeficiency, of whom 102 (54 with severe combined immunodeficiency and 48 with other types of immunodeficiency) underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Twenty-two not transplanted patients with primary immunodeficiency were used as controls. Only data of patients from whom at least five samples were sent to the clinical laboratory for routine monitoring of lymphocyte reconstitutions were included in the analysis. The mean time of the follow-up was 8 years. The long-lasting posttransplantation kinetics of KREC and TREC production occurred similarly in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and with other types of immunodeficiency and, in both groups, the T-cell reconstitution was more efficient than in nontransplanted children. Although thymic output decreased in older transplanted patients, the degree of T-cell repertoire diversity, after an initial increase, remained stable during the observation period. However, the presence of graft-versus-host disease and ablative conditioning seemed to play a role in the time-related shaping of T-cell repertoire. Overall, our data suggest that long-term B- and T-cell reconstitution was equally achieved in children with severe combined immunodeficiency and with other types of primary immunodeficiency.

  20. Novel compound heterozygous DNA ligase IV mutations in an adolescent with a slowly-progressing radiosensitive-severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shinobu; Higuchi, Kohei; Tamaki, Masaharu; Inoue, Chizuko; Awazawa, Ryoko; Mitsuki, Noriko; Nakazawa, Yuka; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kenzo; Kondo, Osamu; Imai, Kohsuke; Morio, Tomohiro; Ohara, Osamu; Ogi, Tomoo; Furukawa, Fukumi; Inoue, Masami; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Kanazawa, Nobuo

    2015-10-01

    We herein describe a case of a 17-year-old boy with intractable common warts, short stature, microcephaly and slowly-progressing pancytopenia. Simultaneous quantification of T-cell receptor recombination excision circles (TREC) and immunoglobulin κ-deleting recombination excision circles (KREC) suggested very poor generation of both T-cells and B-cells. By whole exome sequencing, novel compound heterozygous mutations were identified in the patient's DNA ligase IV (LIG4) gene. The diagnosis of LIG4 syndrome was confirmed by delayed DNA double-strand break repair kinetics in γ-irradiated fibroblasts from the patient and their restoration by an introduction of wild-type LIG4. Although the patient received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from his haploidentical mother, he unfortunately expired due to an insufficiently reconstructed immune system. An earlier definitive diagnosis using TREC/KREC quantification and whole exome sequencing would thereby allow earlier intervention, which would be essential for improving long-term survival in similar cases with slowly-progressing LIG4 syndrome masked in adolescents.

  1. Characterizing T Cells in SCID Patients Presenting with Reactive or Residual T Lymphocytes

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    Atar Lev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID may present with residual circulating T cells. While all cells are functionally deficient, resulting in high susceptibility to infections, only some of these cells are causing autoimmune symptoms. Methods. Here we compared T-cell functions including the number of circulating CD3+ T cells, in vitro responses to mitogens, T-cell receptor (TCR repertoire, TCR excision circles (TREC levels, and regulatory T cells (Tregs enumeration in several immunodeficinecy subtypes, clinically presenting with nonreactive residual cells (MHC-II deficiency or reactive cells. The latter includes patients with autoreactive clonal expanded T cell and patients with alloreactive transplacentally maternal T cells. Results. MHC-II deficient patients had slightly reduced T-cell function, normal TRECs, TCR repertoires, and normal Tregs enumeration. In contrast, patients with reactive T cells exhibited poor T-cell differentiation and activity. While the autoreactive cells displayed significantly reduced Tregs numbers, the alloreactive transplacentally acquired maternal lymphocytes had high functional Tregs. Conclusion. SCID patients presenting with circulating T cells show different patterns of T-cell activity and regulatory T cells enumeration that dictates the immunodeficient and autoimmune manifestations. We suggest that a high-tolerance capacity of the alloreactive transplacentally acquired maternal lymphocytes represents a toleration advantage, yet still associated with severe immunodeficiency.

  2. Efficient and Effective Spam Filtering and Re-ranking for Large Web Datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Cormack, Gordon V; Clarke, Charles L A

    2010-01-01

    The TREC 2009 web ad hoc and relevance feedback tasks used a new document collection, the ClueWeb09 dataset, which was crawled from the general Web in early 2009. This dataset contains 1 billion web pages, a substantial fraction of which are spam --- pages designed to deceive search engines so as to deliver an unwanted payload. We examine the effect of spam on the results of the TREC 2009 web ad hoc and relevance feedback tasks, which used the ClueWeb09 dataset. We show that a simple content-based classifier with minimal training is efficient enough to rank the "spamminess" of every page in the dataset using a standard personal computer in 48 hours, and effective enough to yield significant and substantive improvements in the fixed-cutoff precision (estP10) as well as rank measures (estR-Precision, StatMAP, MAP) of nearly all submitted runs. Moreover, using a set of "honeypot" queries the labeling of training data may be reduced to an entirely automatic process. The results of classical information retrieval ...

  3. Thymic involvement in immune recovery during antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection in adults; comparison of CT and sonographic findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Lilian; Strandberg, Charlotte; Dreves, Anne-Mette;

    2002-01-01

    In adult HIV-infected patients, thymic size evaluated from CT scans seems to be important to the degree of immune reconstitution obtainable during treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To examine whether ultrasound is as reliable as CT for estimating thymic size...... and predicting immune recovery, CT and ultrasound scans were performed in 25 adult HIV-infected patients and 10 controls. CD4 counts and naive CD4 counts were measured in order to determine immune reconstitution. Furthermore, the CD4+ T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) frequency and T-cell receptor (TCR...... count (r = 0.083, p = 0.706), naive CD4 count (r = 0.067, p = 0.762), CD4 + TREC frequency (r = 0.028, p = 0.900) and CD4 + TCR repertoire (r = -0.057, p = 0.828). These findings show that CT remains superior for assessing thymic size in adults and is preferable to ultrasound when evaluating...

  4. Integrating image data into biomedical text categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatkay, Hagit; Chen, Nawei; Blostein, Dorothea

    2006-07-15

    Categorization of biomedical articles is a central task for supporting various curation efforts. It can also form the basis for effective biomedical text mining. Automatic text classification in the biomedical domain is thus an active research area. Contests organized by the KDD Cup (2002) and the TREC Genomics track (since 2003) defined several annotation tasks that involved document classification, and provided training and test data sets. So far, these efforts focused on analyzing only the text content of documents. However, as was noted in the KDD'02 text mining contest-where figure-captions proved to be an invaluable feature for identifying documents of interest-images often provide curators with critical information. We examine the possibility of using information derived directly from image data, and of integrating it with text-based classification, for biomedical document categorization. We present a method for obtaining features from images and for using them-both alone and in combination with text-to perform the triage task introduced in the TREC Genomics track 2004. The task was to determine which documents are relevant to a given annotation task performed by the Mouse Genome Database curators. We show preliminary results, demonstrating that the method has a strong potential to enhance and complement traditional text-based categorization methods.

  5. Mid-infrared interferometry of the massive young stellar object NGC3603 - IRS 9A

    CERN Document Server

    Vehoff, S; Monnier, J D; Tuthill, P; Nuernberger, D E A; Siebenmorgen, R; Chesneau, O; Duschl, W J

    2010-01-01

    We present observations and models for one of these MYSO candidates, NGC3603 IRS 9A. Our goal is to investigate with infrared interferometry the structure of IRS 9A on scales as small as 200AU, exploiting the fact that a cluster of O and B stars has blown away much of the obscuring foreground dust and gas. Observations in the N-band were carried out with the MIDI beam combiner attached to the VLTI. Additional interferometric observations which probe the structure of IRS 9A on larger scales were performed with an aperture mask installed in the T-ReCS instrument of Gemini South. The spectral energy distribution (SED) is constrained by the MIDI N-band spectrum and by data from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our efforts to model the structure and SED of IRS 9A range from simple geometrical models of the brightness distribution to one- and two-dimensional radiative transfer computations. The target is resolved by T-ReCS, with an equivalent (elliptical) Gaussian width of 330mas by 280mas (2300 AU by 2000 AU). Despite...

  6. A Mid-IR comparative analysis of the Seyfert galaxies NGC 7213 and NGC 1386

    CERN Document Server

    Ruschel-Dutra, Daniel; Riffel, Rogério; Sales, Dinalva A; Winge, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    New Gemini mid-infrared spectroscopic observations together with Spitzer Space telescope archival data, are used to study the properties of the dusty torus and circumnuclear star formation in the active galaxies NGC 7213 and NGC 1386. Our main conclusions can be summarised as follows. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission is absent in the T-ReCS nuclear spectra but is ubiquitous in the data from Spitzer at distances above 100 pc. Star formation rates surface densities are estimated from the 12.8 $\\mu m$ [Ne{\\sc ii}] line strengths leading to values close to 0.1M$_\\odot\\,\\,{\\rm yr}^{-1}\\,\\,{\\rm kpc}^{-2}$. Analogous estimates based on photometric fluxes of IRAC's 8 $\\mu m$ images are higher by a factor of almost 15, which could be linked to excitation of PAH molecules by older stellar populations. T-ReCS high spatial resolution data reveal silicate absorption at $\\lambda$ 9.7 $\\mu m$ in the central tens of parsecs of the Seyfert 2 NGC 1386, and silicate emission in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7213. In th...

  7. Relieving thermal discomfort: Effects of sprayed L-menthol on perception, performance, and time trial cycling in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, M J; Corbett, J; Thomas, K; Twentyman, P

    2015-06-01

    L-menthol stimulates cutaneous thermoreceptors and induces cool sensations improving thermal comfort, but has been linked to heat storage responses; this could increase risk of heat illness during self-paced exercise in the heat. Therefore, L-menthol application could lead to a discrepancy between behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory drivers. Eight male participants volunteered. They were familiarized and then completed two trials in hot conditions (33.5 °C, 33% relative humidity) where their t-shirt was sprayed with CONTROL-SPRAY or MENTHOL-SPRAY after 10 km (i.e., when they were hot and uncomfortable) of a 16.1-km cycling time trial (TT). Thermal perception [thermal sensation (TS) and comfort (TC)], thermal responses [rectal temperature (Trec ), skin temperature (Tskin )], perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate, pacing (power output), and TT completion time were measured. MENTHOL-SPRAY made participants feel cooler and more comfortable and resulted in lower RPE (i.e., less exertion) yet performance was unchanged [TT completion: CONTROL-SPRAY 32.4 (2.9) and MENTHOL-SPRAY 32.7 (3.0) min]. Trec rate of increase was 1.40 (0.60) and 1.45 (0.40) °C/h after CONTROL-SPRAY and MENTHOL-SPRAY application, which were not different. Spraying L-menthol toward the end of self-paced exercise in the heat improved perception, but did not alter performance and did not increase heat illness risk.

  8. Fitossociologia do estrato arbóreo em uma toposeqüência alternada de mata atlântica, no munícipio de Silva Jardim-RJ,Brasil Phytosociology of the wood stratum of a modified atlantic forest toposequence in Silva Jardim-RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Alves Tristão Borém

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica pertencente à fazenda Biovert, no município de Silva Jardim, Rio de Janeiro. Teve como objetivos a caracterização da vegetação e a análise da estrutura da comunidade arbórea que ocorre ao longo de uma toposseqüência de um trecho de Floresta Atlântica bastante alterado antropicamente, de forma a estabelecer critérios adequados para seu manejo e sua recuperação. Para o estudo foi empregado o método de amostragem por parcelas de área fixa, distribuídas de forma sistemática, na toposseqüência. Os dados foram coletados de parcelas amostrais de 600 m², alocadas nos terços inferior, médio e superior de uma toposseqüência. Foram registrados, por espécie, os nomes vulgares e científicos e a circunferência do tronco a 1,30 m (CAP. No levantamento da composição florística foram constatadas 43 famílias, 95 gêneros e 129 espécies, obtendo-se um índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' de 4,137 nats/indivíduo. As espécies mais importantes (VI foram Euterpe edulis, Cecropia glaziovii, Astrocaryum aculeatissimum e Piptadenia gonoacantha.This work was developed in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest, owned by Biovert Farm in Silva Jardim-RJ, Brazil to characterize and analyze the arboreous community structure occurring along an anthropically modified toposequence, to determine adequate criteria for its management and recuperation. The floristic composition and the phytosociological structure of the forest covering were studied. Data were collected from sample plots of 600 m², which were divided according to the topography into lower, middle, and upper slope, located in a soil toposequence. The common and scientif names and the diameter at breast height (DBH were recorded for every individual. In the floristic composition survey, 43 families, 95 genera and 129 species were determined. Shannon diversity index (H' was 4.137 nats/individual. The most important species

  9. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  10. Rasgos de historia de vida de especies pioneras en la Reserva Natural Ibanasca (Ibagué, Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Ruíz, Pilar Angélica

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Los rasgos de historia de vida (RHV son cualidades o atributos propios de cada individuo que representan
    respuestas en aspectos fisiológicos, morfológicos, anatómicos y ecológicos ante las condiciones ambientales
    presentes. En la Reserva Natural Ibanasca se seleccionaron 17 especies de plantas leñosas pioneras y en cada una se evaluaron 18 rasgos relacionados con las fases de dispersión, establecimiento y persistencia con el fin de establecer agrupaciones entre las especies. Con base en un Análisis de Conglomerados se obtuvieron cinco
    grupos en los análisis general y morfológico y cuatro grupos en el análisis de semilla. Además, se estableció
    las correlaciones entre algunas variables obteniendo que altura-área foliar y número de semillas por fruto-área
    foliar se correlacionaban positivamente. Solanum sycophanta, Croton magdalenesis y Brunellia colombiana se agruparon por ser las especies de mayor altura mientras que Inga sp. y Citharexylum subflavecens son las especies de semillas más grandes y pesadas, también están Montanoa quadrangularis y Bocconia frutescens como las especies de mayor tase relativa de crecimiento al tener las mayores áreas específicas foliares y siempre aparte se encontró a Cecropia cf. mutisiana por ser de las más altas, mayor área foliar y mayor producción de semillas. Con
    base en los resultados obtenidos se considera que los rasgos que mejor caracterizan a este grupo de especies son: abundante producción de semillas de fácil dispersión, tasa de crecimiento rápida representada en un área específica foliar grande, tamaños de hoja grandes manifestados en áreas foliares grandes, capacidad de
    regeneración vegetativa, abundante producción de hojarasca y ser heliófilas (tolerantes a la luz. Con base en
    lo anterior pueden proponerse las siguientes especies para una futura restauración ecológica de la Reserva:
    Cecropia cf. mutisiana, Bocconia

  11. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Apis mellifera L., coletadas na Bahia Pollen spectrum of samples of Apis mellifera L., honey collected in Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AUGUSTA CAROLINA DE CAMARGO CARMELLO MORETI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico encontrado em amostras de mel provenientes de seis municípios do Estado da Bahia foi analisado com o objetivo de contribuir para o conhecimento da flora visitada por Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: ApidaeA identificação dos tipos polínicos foi feita por meio de literatura especializada e de informações de campo. Foram encontrados 43 tipos de pólen, sendo consideradas como dominantes as espécies Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae, Mimosa verrucosa Benth. (Mimosaceae, M. scabrella Benth. (Mimosaceae e Bauhinia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae. Os tipos acessórios foram Alternanthera ficoidea R.Br. (Amaranthaceae, tipo Compositae (Asteraceae e Cecropia sp. (Moraceae. Destacou-se a participação de Mimosa sp. (Mimosaceae e de outras espécies silvestres na composição dos méis nos municípios considerados, registrando-se ainda a espécie Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae como uma das principais fontes de alimento das abelhas dessa região.Pollen spectrum found in honey samples from six localities of Bahia State, Brazil, was analyzed with the objective to contribute for the knowledge of the plants used by Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae. The identification of the pollen types was made by specialized literature and by field information. Two hundred pollen grains were studied in order to determine the percentage and the occurrence of each type. Forty three pollen types were identified, being considered as the predominant types Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae, Mimosa verrucosa Benth. (Mimosaceae, M. scabrella Benth. (Mimosaceae and Bauhinia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae. The accessory pollen types were Alternanthera ficoidea R.Br. (Amaranthaceae, Compositae type (Asteraceae and Cecropia sp. (Moraceae. It is intense the participation of Mimosa sp. (Mimosaceae and other wild species in the honey composition of the six localities considered. Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae is one of the dominant sources of bee food in some regions of Bahia State.

  12. Connecting Arctic/Antarctic Researchers and Educators (CARE): Supporting Teachers and Researchers Beyond the Research Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Warnick, W. K.; Breen, K.; Fischer, K.; Wiggins, H.

    2007-12-01

    Teacher research experiences (TREs) require long-term sustained support for successful transfer of research experiences into the classroom. Specifically, a support mechanism that facilitates focused discussion and collaboration among teachers and researchers is critical to improve science content and pedagogical approaches in science education. Connecting Arctic/Antarctic Researchers and Educators (CARE) is a professional development network that utilizes online web meetings to support the integration of science research experiences into classroom curriculum. CARE brings together teachers and researchers to discuss field experiences, current science issues, content, technology resources, and pedagogy. CARE is a component of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) education program PolarTREC--Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating. PolarTREC is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program celebrating the International Polar Year (IPY) that advances polar science education by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic. Currently in its second year, the program fosters the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science. The CARE network was established to develop a sustainable learning community through which teachers and researchers will further their work to bring polar research into classrooms. Through CARE, small groups of educators are formed on the basis of grade-level and geographic region; each group also contains a teacher facilitator. Although CARE targets educators with previous polar research experiences, it is also open to those who have not participated in a TRE but who are interested in bringing real-world polar science to the classroom

  13. Thymic involvement in immune recovery during antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection in adults; comparison of CT and sonographic findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Lilian; Strandberg, Charlotte; Dreves, Anne-Mette;

    2002-01-01

    In adult HIV-infected patients, thymic size evaluated from CT scans seems to be important to the degree of immune reconstitution obtainable during treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To examine whether ultrasound is as reliable as CT for estimating thymic size and predict......In adult HIV-infected patients, thymic size evaluated from CT scans seems to be important to the degree of immune reconstitution obtainable during treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To examine whether ultrasound is as reliable as CT for estimating thymic size...... and predicting immune recovery, CT and ultrasound scans were performed in 25 adult HIV-infected patients and 10 controls. CD4 counts and naive CD4 counts were measured in order to determine immune reconstitution. Furthermore, the CD4+ T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) frequency and T-cell receptor (TCR...

  14. A New Indexing Method Based on Word Proximity for Chinese Text Retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Lin; SUN Yufang

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel text representation and matching scheme for Chinese text retrieval. At present, the indexing methods of Chinese retrieval systems are either character-based or word-based. The character-based indexing methods, such as bi-gram or tri-gram indexing, have high false drops due to the mismatches between queries and documents. On the other hand, it's difficult to efficiently identify all the proper nouns, terminology of different domains, and phrases in the word-based indexing systems. The new indexing method uses both proximity and mutual information of the word pairs to represent the text content so as to overcome the high false drop, new word and phrase problems that exist in the character-based and word-based systems. The evaluation results indicate that the average query precision of proximity-based indexing is 5.2% higher than the best results of TREC-5.

  15. Search Result Diversification Based on Query Facets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡莎; 窦志成; 王晓捷; 继荣

    2015-01-01

    In search engines, different users may search for different information by issuing the same query. To satisfy more users with limited search results, search result diversification re-ranks the results to cover as many user intents as possible. Most existing intent-aware diversification algorithms recognize user intents as subtopics, each of which is usually a word, a phrase, or a piece of description. In this paper, we leverage query facets to understand user intents in diversification, where each facet contains a group of words or phrases that explain an underlying intent of a query. We generate subtopics based on query facets and propose faceted diversification approaches. Experimental results on the public TREC 2009 dataset show that our faceted approaches outperform state-of-the-art diversification models.

  16. California Energy Incentive Programs: An Annual Update on Key Energy Issues and Financial Opportunities for Federal Sites in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-01

    A spate of recently enacted energy legislation and associated program changes is providing numerous opportunities to help California federal energy managers cut costs and meet their renewables, energy efficiency and GHG emissions goals. In April 2011, Governor Jerry Brown approved the nation’s most ambitious renewable portfolio standard (RPS), which requires 33% of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. Policy changes that will support the RPS include expanded eligibility rules that fill previous gaps in incentives for certain sizes of on-site renewable energy systems. Program updates described in this document include: $200 million more in funding for California Solar Initiative rebates to commercial and industrial customers; an increase in the eligible system size for the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) from 1.5MW to 3MW; and pending changes that may allow customer-side systems to sell tradable renewable energy credits (TRECs) to entities with RPS compliance obligations in California.

  17. WORKLOAD CHARACTERIZATION OF SPAM EMAIL FILTERING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Luo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Email systems have suffered from degraded quality of service due to rampant spam, phishing and fraudulent emails. This is partly because the classification speed of email filtering systems falls far behindthe requirements of email service providers. We are motivated to address this issue from the perspective of computer architecture support. In this paper, as the first step towards novel architecture designs, we present extensive performance data collected from measurement and profiling experiments using representative email filtering systems including CRM114, DSPAM, SpamAssassin and TREC Bogofilter. We provide detailed analysis of the time consuming functions in the systems under study. We also show how the processor architecture parameters affect the performance of these email filters through simulation experiments.

  18. Semantic Content Filtering with Wikipedia and Ontologies

    CERN Document Server

    Malo, Pekka; Ahlgren, Oskar; Wallenius, Jyrki; Korhonen, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    The use of domain knowledge is generally found to improve query efficiency in content filtering applications. In particular, tangible benefits have been achieved when using knowledge-based approaches within more specialized fields, such as medical free texts or legal documents. However, the problem is that sources of domain knowledge are time-consuming to build and equally costly to maintain. As a potential remedy, recent studies on Wikipedia suggest that this large body of socially constructed knowledge can be effectively harnessed to provide not only facts but also accurate information about semantic concept-similarities. This paper describes a framework for document filtering, where Wikipedia's concept-relatedness information is combined with a domain ontology to produce semantic content classifiers. The approach is evaluated using Reuters RCV1 corpus and TREC-11 filtering task definitions. In a comparative study, the approach shows robust performance and appears to outperform content classifiers based on ...

  19. Cluster-based query expansion using external collections in medical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heung-Seon; Jung, Yuchul

    2015-12-01

    Utilizing external collections to improve retrieval performance is challenging research because various test collections are created for different purposes. Improving medical information retrieval has also gained much attention as various types of medical documents have become available to researchers ever since they started storing them in machine processable formats. In this paper, we propose an effective method of utilizing external collections based on the pseudo relevance feedback approach. Our method incorporates the structure of external collections in estimating individual components in the final feedback model. Extensive experiments on three medical collections (TREC CDS, CLEF eHealth, and OHSUMED) were performed, and the results were compared with a representative expansion approach utilizing the external collections to show the superiority of our method.

  20. Control software and user interface for the Canarias Infrared Camera Experiment (CIRCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Franch, Antonio; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Charcos-Llorens, Miguel V.; Edwards, Michelle L.; Varosi, Frank; Hon, David B.; Raines, Steven N.; Warner, Craig D.; Rashkin, David

    2006-06-01

    The Canarias InfraRed Camera Experiment (CIRCE) is a near-infrared visitor instrument for the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). This document shows CIRCE software. It will have two major functions: instrument control and observatory interface. The instrument control software is based on the UFLIB library, currently used to operate FLAMINGOS-1 and T-ReCS (as well as the CanariCam and FLAMINGOS-2 instruments under development in the University of Florida). The software interface with the telescope will be based on a CORBA server-client architecture. Finally, the user interface will consist of two java-based interfaces for the mechanism/detector control, and for quick look and analysis of data.

  1. The silicate absorption profile in the ISM towards the heavily obscured nucleus of NGC 4418

    CERN Document Server

    Roche, P F; Gonzalez-Martin, O

    2015-01-01

    The 9.7-micron silicate absorption profile in the interstellar medium provides important information on the physical and chemical composition of interstellar dust grains. Measurements in the Milky Way have shown that the profile in the diffuse interstellar medium is very similar to the amorphous silicate profiles found in circumstellar dust shells around late M stars, and narrower than the silicate profile in denser star-forming regions. Here, we investigate the silicate absorption profile towards the very heavily obscured nucleus of NGC 4418, the galaxy with the deepest known silicate absorption feature, and compare it to the profiles seen in the Milky Way. Comparison between the 8-13 micron spectrum obtained with TReCS on Gemini and the larger aperture spectrum obtained from the Spitzer archive indicates that the former isolates the nuclear emission, while Spitzer detects low surface brightness circumnuclear diffuse emission in addition. The silicate absorption profile towards the nucleus is very similar to...

  2. Efficient Diversification of Web Search Results

    CERN Document Server

    Capannini, Gabriele; Perego, Raffaele; Silvestri, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the efficiency of various search results diversification methods. While efficacy of diversification approaches has been deeply investigated in the past, response time and scalability issues have been rarely addressed. A unified framework for studying performance and feasibility of result diversification solutions is thus proposed. First we define a new methodology for detecting when, and how, query results need to be diversified. To this purpose, we rely on the concept of "query refinement" to estimate the probability of a query to be ambiguous. Then, relying on this novel ambiguity detection method, we deploy and compare on a standard test set, three different diversification methods: IASelect, xQuAD, and OptSelect. While the first two are recent state-of-the-art proposals, the latter is an original algorithm introduced in this paper. We evaluate both the efficiency and the effectiveness of our approach against its competitors by using the standard TREC Web diversification track test...

  3. Re-ranking with context for high-performance biomedical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaoshi; Huang, Jimmy Xiangji; Li, Zhoujun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a context-sensitive approach to re-ranking retrieved documents for further improving the effectiveness of high-performance biomedical literature retrieval systems. For each topic, a two-dimensional positive context is learnt from the top N retrieved documents and a group of negative contexts are learnt from the last N' documents in initial retrieval ranked list. The contextual space contains lexical context and conceptual context. The probabilities that retrieved documents are generated within the contextual space are then computed for document re-ranking. Empirical evaluation on the TREC Genomics full-text collection and three high-performance biomedical literature retrieval runs demonstrates that the context-sensitive re-ranking approach yields better retrieval performance.

  4. A new approach to query expansion in information retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Weijiang; Zhao Tiejun; Wang Xiangang

    2008-01-01

    To eliminate the mismatch between words of relevant documents and user's query and more serious negative effects it has on the performance of information retrieval,a method of query expansion on the basis of new terms co-occurrence representation was put forward by analyzing the process of producing query. The expansion terms were selected according to their correlation to the whole query. At the same time, the position information between terms were considered. The experimental result on test retrieval conference (TREC) data collection shows that the method proposed in the paper has made an improvement of 5%~19% all the time than the language modeling method without expansion. Compared to the popular approach of query expansion, pseudo feedback, the precision of the proposed method is competitive.

  5. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    Casting experiments have been performed with eutectic and hypereutectic castings with plate thick¬nesses from 2 to 8 mm involving both temperature measurements during solidification and micro¬structural examination afterwards. The nodule count was the same for the eutectic and hypereutectic...... castings in the thin plates ( 4.3 mm) while in the 8 mm plate the nodule count was higher in the hypereutectic than in the eutectic castings. The minimum temperature prior to the eutectic recalescence (Tmin) was 15 to 20C lower for the eutectic than the hypereutectic castings. This is due to nucleation...... of graphite nodules which begins at a lover temperature in the eutectic than in the hypereutectic castings The recalescence (Trec) was however also larger for the eutectic casting and in the thin plates the maximum temperature after recalescence (Tmax) was the same in the eutectic and hypereutectic plates...

  6. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    Casting experiments have been performed with eutectic and hypereutectic castings with plate thicknesses from 2 to 8 mm involving both temperature measurements during solidification and microstructural examination afterwards. The nodule count was the same for the eutectic and hypereutectic castings...... in the thin plates (≤4.3 mm) while in the 8 mm plate the nodule count was higher in the hypereutectic than in the eutectic castings. The minimum temperature before the eutectic recalescence (Tmin) was 15 to 20ºC lower for the eutectic than for the hypereutectic castings. This is due to nucleation of graphite...... nodules which begins at a lower temperature in the eutectic than in the hypereutectic castings. The recalescence ∆Trec was however also larger for the eutectic casting and in the thin plates the maximum temperature after recalescence (Tmax) was the same in the eutectic and hypereutectic plates...

  7. Spam Filtering of Chinese Text Email Via Lasso%基于套索(Lasso)的中文垃圾邮件过滤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐征; 刘遵雄; 张贤龙

    2014-01-01

    Text email data depicted with vector space model are of high dimensionality and sparsity, which are not suitable for establishing email filtering classification model. Generally, such data should be reduced before classifi-er training. Lasso regression is a multivariate linear model based on l1 regularization, which can estimate model pa-rameters while selecting the variables simultaneously. In this paper, the approaches to email classification based on Lasso are proposed. Also, the Lasso classification model and the logistical model with the selected term are es-tablished. Besides, simulation experiments with TREC06C are carried out, and the results show that logistic regres-sion model plus the term selected with Lasso achieves better performances.%使用向量空间模型表示的文本邮件数据高维而稀疏,不利于邮件过滤分类模型的建立,通常需在分类器训练前进行维数约减。Lasso回归是一种基于l1正则化的多元线性模型,其在模型参数估计的同时实现了变量选择。提出使用Lasso回归进行垃圾邮件过滤,建立Lasso回归邮件分类模型、Lasso回归词条选择结合逻辑回归的分类模型,结合中文文本垃圾邮件数据集TREC06C进行垃圾邮件过滤实验。实验结果表明Lasso回归词条选择结合逻辑回归的邮件分类模型性能更佳。

  8. The effect of a silicone swim cap on swimming performance in tropical conditions in pre-adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Olivier; Galy, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether the silicone swim caps (SC) worn by young swimmers in a tropical climate negatively influence aerobic performance. Nine trained pre- adolescents [11.8 (± 0.8) years] swam randomized 800-m trials (water: 32.9°C, outdoors: shade, 29.2 ± 0.2 °C, 74 ± 0.3 % rh) with a SC or a nude head (NH). Performance times and heart rate (HR) were monitored continuously. Rectal temperature (Trec) was measured before and after trials. The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed. Stroke frequency (SF), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) were measured every 50-m. The SC trial was significantly longer than NH (799 ± 16 and 781 ± 16 seconds, respectively). Mean delta Trec was significantly greater in SC (0.2 ± 0.1°C vs. -0.1 ± 0.1°C in SC vs. NH), mean SI was significantly different in SC versus NH (1.83 ± 0.07 vs 1.73 ± 0.06); but RPE and mean HR, SF and SL showed no change. We conclude that a silicone swim cap worn in tropical environment significantly decreased 800-m crawl performance without affecting HR or RPE. Silicone swim caps worn by young swimmers in a tropical environment may also have negative effects on training capacity. Key pointsSwimming in tropical climate represents a physiological stressSwimming with swim cap in warm water could induce thermal stressThermoregulation processes have to be used in order to make training in tropical climate safer.

  9. Collaborative Approaches to Increase the Utility of Spatial Data for the Wildfire Management Community Through NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Blevins, B.; Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Prados, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    The utility of spatial data products and tools to assess risk and effectively manage wildfires has increased, highlighting the need for communicating information about these new capabilities to decision makers, resource managers, and community leaders. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) program works directly with agencies and policy makers to develop in-person and online training courses that teach end users how to access, visualize, and apply NASA Earth Science data in their profession. The expansion of ARSET into wildfire applications began in 2015 with a webinar and subsequent in-person training hosted in collaboration with Idaho State University's (ISU) GIS Training and Research Center (TReC). These trainings featured presentations from the USDA Forest Service's Remote Sensing Training and Applications Center, the Land Processes DAAC, Northwest Nazarene University, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and ISU's GIS TReC. The webinar focused on providing land managers, non-governmental organizations, and international management agencies with an overview of 1) remote sensing platforms for wildfire applications, 2) products for pre- and post-fire planning and assessment, 3) the use of terrain data, 4) new techniques and technologies such as Unmanned Aircraft Systems and the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP), and 5) the RECOVER Decision Support System. This training highlighted online tools that engage the wildfire community through collaborative monitoring and assessment efforts. Webinar attendance included 278 participants from 178 organizations in 42 countries and 33 US states. The majority of respondents (93%) from a post-webinar survey indicated they displayed improvement in their understanding of specific remote-sensing data products appropriate for their work needs. With collaborative efforts between federal, state, and local agencies and academic institutions, increased use of NASA Earth Observations may lead to improved near real

  10. Condicionamento térmico primário de instalações rurais por meio de diferentes tipos de cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa A. Carneiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o conforto térmico proporcionado por diferentes tipos de cobertura, com base nas análises térmicas e nos índices de conforto térmico humano e zootécnico. A pesquisa foi realizada no período de 20 de março a 29 de maio de 2014, na UFRPE, no município de Recife, PE. Os tipos de cobertura analisados foram: telha de fibrocimento (Tfib, telha reciclada (Trec, telhado verde, grama, Zoysia japonica (Tgra e telhado verde, amendoim, Arachis repens (Tame, com quatro repetições cada um; as variáveis meteorológicas foram registradas interna e externamente aos modelos. A análise térmica das coberturas foi realizada por meio de imagens termográficas e o conforto térmico das instalações foi obtido por meio dos índices de conforto, carga térmica radiante, índice de temperatura de globo negro e umidade, índice de conforto humano, índice de temperatura e umidade e temperatura efetiva. Os telhados verdes (Tame; Tgra reduziram a temperatura da superfície interna das coberturas (5,3 e 4,4 ºC, promoveram maior atenuação da temperatura dos ambientes (1,37 e 1,35 ºC e, consequentemente, promoveram também maior conforto térmico, em comparação com a Tfib e Trec.

  11. Vaccine-associated varicella and rubella infections in severe combined immunodeficiency with isolated CD4 lymphocytopenia and mutations in IL7R detected by tandem whole exome sequencing and chromosomal microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, D K; Martinez, C A; Sorte, H S; Forbes, L R; Demmler-Harrison, G J; Hanson, I C; Pearson, N M; Noroski, L M; Zaki, S R; Bellini, W J; Leduc, M S; Yang, Y; Eng, C M; Patel, A; Rodningen, O K; Muzny, D M; Gibbs, R A; Campbell, I M; Shaw, C A; Baker, M W; Zhang, V; Lupski, J R; Orange, J S; Seeborg, F O; Stray-Pedersen, A

    2014-01-01

    In areas without newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), disease-defining infections may lead to diagnosis, and in some cases, may not be identified prior to the first year of life. We describe a female infant who presented with disseminated vaccine-acquired varicella (VZV) and vaccine-acquired rubella infections at 13 months of age. Immunological evaluations demonstrated neutropenia, isolated CD4 lymphocytopenia, the presence of CD8+ T cells, poor lymphocyte proliferation, hypergammaglobulinaemia and poor specific antibody production to VZV infection and routine immunizations. A combination of whole exome sequencing and custom-designed chromosomal microarray with exon coverage of primary immunodeficiency genes detected compound heterozygous mutations (one single nucleotide variant and one intragenic copy number variant involving one exon) within the IL7R gene. Mosaicism for wild-type allele (20–30%) was detected in pretransplant blood and buccal DNA and maternal engraftment (5–10%) demonstrated in pretransplant blood DNA. This may be responsible for the patient's unusual immunological phenotype compared to classical interleukin (IL)-7Rα deficiency. Disseminated VZV was controlled with anti-viral and immune-based therapy, and umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation was successful. Retrospectively performed T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) analyses completed on neonatal Guthrie cards identified absent TREC. This case emphasizes the danger of live viral vaccination in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) patients and the importance of newborn screening to identify patients prior to high-risk exposures. It also illustrates the value of aggressive pathogen identification and treatment, the influence newborn screening can have on morbidity and mortality and the significant impact of newer genomic diagnostic tools in identifying the underlying genetic aetiology for SCID patients. PMID:25046553

  12. Chapter 27: Approach to primary immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzaman, Ashraf; Fuleihan, Ramsay L

    2012-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) are inherited defects of the innate or adaptive arms of the immune system that lead to an increase in the incidence, frequency, or severity of infections. There may be defects in the adaptive arm of the immune system that include combined immunodeficiency and antibody deficiency syndromes or by abnormalities in innate immunity such as disorders of phagocytes, the complement pathway, or Toll-Like receptor (TLR) mediated signaling. Recurrent sinopulmonary infections with encapsulated bacteria such as Haemophilus influenza type B or Streptococcus pneumoniae may be characteristic of an IgG antibody deficiency or dysfunction. Frequent viral, fungal, or protozoal infections may suggest T lymphocyte dysfunction. Multiple staphylococcal skin infections and fungal infections may imply neutrophil dysfunction or the hyper-IgE syndrome, and recurrent neisserial infection is a characteristic manifestation of late complement component (C5-9, or the membrane attack complex) defects. Recurrent viral or pyogenic bacterial infections often without the presence of a significant inflammatory response suggest a defect in TLR signaling. Mycobacterial infections are characteristic of defects in interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN) gamma, or their receptors. Screening of newborns for T-cell lymphopenia using a polymerase chain reaction to amplify T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), which are formed when a T cell rearranges the variable region of its receptor, serves as a surrogate for newly synthesized naïve T cells. Because of very low numbers of TRECs, severe combined immunodeficiency, DiGeorge syndrome, and other causes of T-cell lymphopenia have been identified in newborns.

  13. Measuring subcutaneous temperature and differential rates of rewarming from hibernation and daily torpor in two species of bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Shannon E; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged and remote measurement of body temperature (Tb) in undisturbed small hibernators was not possible in the past because of technological limitations. Although passive integrated transponders (PITs) have been used previously to measure subcutaneous temperature (Tsub) during daily torpor in a small marsupial, no study has attempted to use these devices at Tbs below 10°C. Therefore, we investigated whether subcutaneous interscapular PITs can be used as a viable tool for measuring Tb in a small hibernating bat (Nyctophilus gouldi; Ng) and compared it with measurements of Tb during daily torpor in a heterothermic bat (Syconycteris australis; Sa). The precision of transponders was investigated as a function of ambient temperature (Ta) and remote Tsub readings enabled us to quantify Tsub-Tb differentials during steady-state torpor and arousal. Transponders functioned well outside the manufacturer's recommended range, down to ~5°C. At rest, Tsub and rectal Tb (Trec) were strongly correlated for both bat species (Ng r(2)=0.88; Sa r(2)=0.95) and this was also true for N. gouldi in steady-state torpor (r(2)=0.93). During induced rewarming Tsub increased faster than Trec in both species. Our results demonstrate that transponders can be used to provide accurate remote measurement of Tb in two species of bats during different physiological states, both during steady-state conditions and throughout dynamic phases such as rewarming from torpor. We show that, at least during rewarming, regional heterothermy common to larger hibernators and other hibernating bats is also present in bats capable of daily torpor.

  14. Mapping molecular adhesion sites inside SMIL coated capillaries using atomic force microscopy recognition imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Michael [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Stock, Lorenz G. [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Molecular Biology, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Traxler, Lukas [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Leclercq, Laurent [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM, UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier), Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Bonazza, Klaus; Friedbacher, Gernot [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Cottet, Hervé [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM, UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier), Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Stutz, Hanno [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Molecular Biology, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Ebner, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.ebner@jku.at [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria)

    2016-08-03

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is a powerful analytical technique for fast and efficient separation of different analytes ranging from small inorganic ions to large proteins. However electrophoretic resolution significantly depends on the coating of the inner capillary surface. High technical efforts like Successive Multiple Ionic Polymer Layer (SMIL) generation have been taken to develop stable coatings with switchable surface charges fulfilling the requirements needed for optimal separation. Although the performance can be easily proven in normalized test runs, characterization of the coating itself remains challenging. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for topographical investigation of biological and analytical relevant surfaces with nanometer resolution and yields information about the surface roughness and homogeneity. Upgrading the scanning tip to a molecular biosensor by adhesive molecules (like partly inverted charged molecules) allows for performing topography and recognition imaging (TREC). As a result, simultaneously acquired sample topography and adhesion maps can be recorded. We optimized this technique for electrophoresis capillaries and investigated the charge distribution of differently composed and treated SMIL coatings. By using the positively charged protein avidin as a single molecule sensor, we compared these SMIL coatings with respect to negative charges, resulting in adhesion maps with nanometer resolution. The capability of TREC as a functional investigation technique at the nanoscale was successfully demonstrated. - Highlights: • SMIL coating allows generation of homogeneous ultra-flat surfaces. • Molecular electrostatic adhesion forces can be determined in the inner wall of CZE capillary with picoNewton accuracy. • Topographical images and simultaneously acquired adhesion maps yield morphological and chemical information at the nanoscale.

  15. Vaccine-associated varicella and rubella infections in severe combined immunodeficiency with isolated CD4 lymphocytopenia and mutations in IL7R detected by tandem whole exome sequencing and chromosomal microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, D K; Martinez, C A; Sorte, H S; Forbes, L R; Demmler-Harrison, G J; Hanson, I C; Pearson, N M; Noroski, L M; Zaki, S R; Bellini, W J; Leduc, M S; Yang, Y; Eng, C M; Patel, A; Rodningen, O K; Muzny, D M; Gibbs, R A; Campbell, I M; Shaw, C A; Baker, M W; Zhang, V; Lupski, J R; Orange, J S; Seeborg, F O; Stray-Pedersen, A

    2014-12-01

    In areas without newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), disease-defining infections may lead to diagnosis, and in some cases, may not be identified prior to the first year of life. We describe a female infant who presented with disseminated vaccine-acquired varicella (VZV) and vaccine-acquired rubella infections at 13 months of age. Immunological evaluations demonstrated neutropenia, isolated CD4 lymphocytopenia, the presence of CD8(+) T cells, poor lymphocyte proliferation, hypergammaglobulinaemia and poor specific antibody production to VZV infection and routine immunizations. A combination of whole exome sequencing and custom-designed chromosomal microarray with exon coverage of primary immunodeficiency genes detected compound heterozygous mutations (one single nucleotide variant and one intragenic copy number variant involving one exon) within the IL7R gene. Mosaicism for wild-type allele (20-30%) was detected in pretransplant blood and buccal DNA and maternal engraftment (5-10%) demonstrated in pretransplant blood DNA. This may be responsible for the patient's unusual immunological phenotype compared to classical interleukin (IL)-7Rα deficiency. Disseminated VZV was controlled with anti-viral and immune-based therapy, and umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation was successful. Retrospectively performed T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) analyses completed on neonatal Guthrie cards identified absent TREC. This case emphasizes the danger of live viral vaccination in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) patients and the importance of newborn screening to identify patients prior to high-risk exposures. It also illustrates the value of aggressive pathogen identification and treatment, the influence newborn screening can have on morbidity and mortality and the significant impact of newer genomic diagnostic tools in identifying the underlying genetic aetiology for SCID patients.

  16. A Mid-Infrared View of the High Mass Star Formation Region W51A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C. L.; Blum, R. D.; Damineli, A.; Conti, P. S.; Gusmão, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present the results of a mid-infrared study of G49.5-0.4, or W51A, part of the massive starbirth complex W51. Combining public data from the Spitzer IRAC camera, and Gemini mid-infrared camera T-ReCS at 7.73, 9.69, 12.33, and 24.56 μm, with a spatial resolution of ˜0.″5, we have identified the mid-infrared counterparts of eight ultracompact H ii regions, showing that two radio sources are deeply embedded in molecular clouds and another is a cloud of ionized gas. From the T-ReCS data we have unveiled the central core of the W51 region, revealing massive young stellar candidates. We modeled the spectral energy distribution of the detected sources. The results suggest that the embedded objects are sources with spectral types ranging from B3 to O5, but the majority of the fits indicate stellar objects with B1 spectral types. We also present an extinction map of IRS 2, showing that a region with lower extinction corresponds to the region where a proposed jet of gas has impacted the foreground cloud. From this map, we also derived the total extinction toward the enigmatic source IRS 2E, which amounts to ˜60 mag in the V band. We calculated the color temperature due to thermal emission of the circumstellar dust of the detected sources; the temperatures are in the interval of ˜100-150 K, which corresponds to the emission of dust located at 0.1 pc from the central source. Finally, we show a possible mid-infrared counterpart of a detected source at millimeter wavelengths that was found by Zapata et al. to be a massive young stellar object undergoing a high accretion rate.

  17. Progressive activation of CD127+132- recent thymic emigrants into terminally differentiated CD127-132+ T-cells in HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Sasson

    Full Text Available AIM: HIV infection is associated with distortion of T-cell homeostasis and the IL-7/IL7R axis. Progressive infection results in loss of CD127+132- and gains in CD127-132+ CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. We investigated the correlates of loss of CD127 from the T-cell surface to understand mechanisms underlying this homeostatic dysregulation. METHODS: Peripheral and cord blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs; CBMC from healthy volunteers and PBMC from patients with HIV infection were studied. CD127+132-, CD127+132+ and CD127-132+ T-cells were phenotyped by activation, differentiation, proliferation and survival markers. Cellular HIV-DNA content and signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTRECs were measured. RESULTS: CD127+132- T-cells were enriched for naïve cells while CD127-132+ T-cells were enriched for activated/terminally differentiated T-cells in CD4+ and CD8+ subsets in health and HIV infection. HIV was associated with increased proportions of activated/terminally differentiated CD127-132+ T-cells. In contrast to CD127+132- T-cells, CD127-132+ T-cells were Ki-67+Bcl-2(low and contained increased levels of HIV-DNA. Naïve CD127+132- T-cells contained a higher proportion of sjTRECs. CONCLUSION: The loss of CD127 from the T-cell surface in HIV infection is driven by activation of CD127+132- recent thymic emigrants into CD127-132+ activated/terminally differentiated cells. This process likely results in an irreversible loss of CD127 and permanent distortion of T-cell homeostasis.

  18. EFFECTS OF PALM VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION ON EXERCISE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN THE HEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chee Keong

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and endurance performance in the heat. In a double blind, cross-over study, eighteen healthy, male recreational athletes completed two endurance running trials, until exhaustion, on a motorized treadmill at 70% VO2max on two separate occasions following a 6-week supplementation regimen of either tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E (E or placebo (P. Both trials were conducted in the heat (31oC, 70% relative humidity. During the trials, rectal temperature (Trec, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and oxygen uptake (VO2 were recorded. Blood samples were collected for the determination of plasma volume changes (PVC, malondialdehyde (MDA, creatine kinase (CK, total antioxidant status (TAS and vitamin E. After the supplementation regimen, serum alpha-tocopherol increased ~33% but serum concentrations of tocotrienols were negligible. No significant differences were evident in mean Trec, RPE, VO2 or in the time to exhaustion between the E-supplemented and the placebo- supplemented groups. Similarly, mean PVC, CK and TAS were also not different between the two groups. Resting plasma mean MDA concentration in the E-supplemented group was significantly lower than that in the placebo-supplemented group. At exhaustion, plasma mean MDA was higher than the resting values in both groups. Although tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation decreased lipid peroxidation at rest and, to some extent, during exercise in the heat, as evident from the lower MDA levels, it however did not enhance endurance running performance or prevent exercise-induced muscle damage or influenced body core temperature or plasma volume changes during exercise in the heat

  19. Patients with T⁺/low NK⁺ IL-2 receptor γ chain deficiency have differentially-impaired cytokine signaling resulting in severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sebastian; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Erlacher, Miriam; Vraetz, Thomas; Hartjes, Lara; Janda, Ales; Rizzi, Marta; Lorenz, Myriam R; Gilmour, Kimberly; de Saint-Basile, Geneviève; Roifman, Chaim M; Cheuk, Steven; Gennery, Andrew; Thrasher, Adrian J; Fuchs, Ilka; Schwarz, Klaus; Speckmann, Carsten; Ehl, Stephan

    2014-10-01

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) leads to a T(-) NK(-) B(+) immunophenotype and is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the IL-2 receptor γ-chain (IL2RG). IL2RG(R222C) leads to atypical SCID with a severe early onset phenotype despite largely normal NK- and T-cell numbers. To address this discrepancy, we performed a detailed analysis of T, B, and NK cells, including quantitative STAT phosphorylation and functional responses to the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-15, and IL-21 in a patient with the IL2RG(R222C) mutation. Moreover, we identified nine additional unpublished patients with the same mutations, all with a full SCID phenotype, and confirmed selected immunological observations. T-cell development was variably affected, but led to borderline T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) levels and a normal repertoire. T cells showed moderately reduced proliferation, failing enhancement by IL-2. While NK-cell development was normal, IL-2 enhancement of NK-cell degranulation and IL-15-induced cytokine production were absent. IL-2 or IL-21 failed to enhance B-cell proliferation and plasmablast differentiation. These functional alterations were reflected by a differential impact of IL2RG(R222C) on cytokine signal transduction, with a gradient IL-4TREC analysis.

  20. Multicorrelator techniques for robust mitigation of threats to GPS signal quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelts, Robert Eric

    2001-10-01

    Many applications that utilize the Global Positioning System (GPS) demand highly accurate positioning information. Safety-critical applications such as aircraft navigation require position solutions with not only high accuracy but also with high integrity. Two significant threats to GPS signal quality exist which can make meeting both of these requirements a difficult task. Satellite signal anomalies, or "evil waveforms," can result from soft failures of the signal generating hardware onboard the GPS satellite. These subtle anomalies cause distortions of the signal, which if undetected may pose an integrity risk to an aircraft relying on GPS. Signal Quality Monitoring (SQM) is required to reliably detect these anomalies and thereby protect airborne users from this integrity threat. Multipath, or undesired reflected signals from the ground or other obstacles, also distorts the desired GPS signal. In addition to making evil waveforms more difficult to detect, multipath---an ever-present error source---also degrades nominal performance. Multipath mitigation techniques attempt to reduce or eliminate this threat. This thesis introduces novel signal processing techniques for addressing these twin concerns. First, a comprehensive method for designing a robust signal quality monitor to detect evil waveforms in the presence of multipath is described. This method is used to specify a practical multiple-correlator configuration for the SQM receiver that satisfies the requirements for Category I precision approaches for landing aircraft. Second, a new multipath mitigation approach is introduced that leverages "multipath invariant" properties of the GPS signals. A real-time Tracking Error Compensator (TrEC) algorithm is experimentally shown to provide significant accuracy improvements over existing techniques for low-end (or "narrowband") receivers. Additionally, it is shown that TrEC may have at least comparable multipath mitigation performance to that of a high-end (or

  1. Predation and aggressiveness in host plant protection: a generalization using ants from the genus Azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Grangier, Julien; Leroy, Céline; Orivel, Jerôme

    2009-01-01

    In studying the ant genus Azteca, a Neotropical group of arboreal species, we aimed to determine the extent to which the ants use predation and/or aggressiveness to protect their host plants from defoliating insects. We compared a territorially dominant, carton-nester, Azteca chartifex, and three plant-ant species. Azteca alfari and Azteca ovaticeps are associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) and their colonies shelter in its hollow branches; whereas Azteca bequaerti is associated with Tococa guianensis (Melastomataceae) and its colonies shelter in leaf pouches situated at the base of the laminas. Whereas A. bequaerti workers react to the vibrations transmitted by the lamina when an alien insect lands on a leaf making it unnecessary for them to patrol their plant, the workers of the three other species rather discover prey by contact. The workers of all four species use a predatory behaviour involving spread-eagling alien insects after recruiting nestmates at short range, and, in some cases, at long range. Because A. alfari and A. ovaticeps discard part of the insects they kill, we deduced that the workers’ predatory behaviour and territorial aggressiveness combine in the biotic defence of their host tree.

  2. Arboreal ants use the "Velcro(R principle" to capture very large prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Dejean

    Full Text Available Plant-ants live in a mutualistic association with host plants known as "myrmecophytes" that provide them with a nesting place and sometimes with extra-floral nectar (EFN and/or food bodies (FBs; the ants can also attend sap-sucking Hemiptera for their honeydew. In return, plant-ants, like most other arboreal ants, protect their host plants from defoliators. To satisfy their nitrogen requirements, however, some have optimized their ability to capture prey in the restricted environment represented by the crowns of trees by using elaborate hunting techniques. In this study, we investigated the predatory behavior of the ant Azteca andreae which is associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia obtusa. We noted that up to 8350 ant workers per tree hide side-by-side beneath the leaf margins of their host plant with their mandibles open, waiting for insects to alight. The latter are immediately seized by their extremities, and then spread-eagled; nestmates are recruited to help stretch, carve up and transport prey. This group ambush hunting technique is particularly effective when the underside of the leaves is downy, as is the case for C. obtusa. In this case, the hook-shaped claws of the A. andreae workers and the velvet-like structure of the underside of the leaves combine to act like natural Velcro that is reinforced by the group ambush strategy of the workers, allowing them to capture prey of up to 13,350 times the mean weight of a single worker.

  3. Wood litter consumption by three species of Nasutitermes termites in an area of the Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Moura, Flávia Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Termites constitute a considerable fraction of the animal biomass in tropical forest, but little quantitative data are available that indicates their importance in the processes of wood decomposition. This study evaluated the participation of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) (Isoptera: Termitidae), N. ephratae (Holmgren), and N. macrocephalus (Silvestri) in the consumption of the wood litter in a remnant area of Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil. The populations of this species were quantified in nests and in decomposing tree trunks, while the rate of wood consumption was determined in the laboratory using wood test-blocks of Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Fabales: Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. (Urticales: Cecropiaceae), and Protium heptaphyllum (Aublet) Marchand (Sapindales: Burseraceae). The abundance of the three species of termites varied from 40.8 to 462.2 individuals/m(2). The average dry wood consumption for the three species was 9.4 mg/g of termites (fresh weight)/day, with N. macrocephalus demonstrating the greatest consumption (12.1 mg/g of termite (fresh weight)/day). Wood consumption by the three species of Nasutitermes was estimated to be 66.9 kg of dry wood /ha/year, corresponding to approximately 2.9% of the annual production of wood-litter in the study area. This consumption, together with that of the other 18 exclusively wood-feeders termite species known to occur in the area, indicates the important participation of termites in removing wood-litter within the Atlantic Coastal Forest domain.

  4. Correlação entre as atividades antiradical, antiacetilcolinesterase e teor de fenóis totais de extratos de plantas medicinais de farmácias vivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a correlação entre o conteúdo de fenóis de extratos de 18 plantas medicinais comuns nas Farmácias Vivas com a atividade sequestradora do radical livre DPPH e com a inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase. Maiores conteúdos de fenóis totais foram encontrados nas plantas: Eugenia uniflora, Lippia alba, Lippia microphylla, Mentha x villosa, Ocimum gratissimum e Ocimum selloi. As espécies que apresentaram maior atividade antioxidante, semelhante a quercetina, foram: Spondias mombim, Malphigia glabra, L. alba e Croton zenhtneri,. As plantas Cecropia pachystachia, L. alba, L. microphylla, M. glabra, O. gratissimum e Plectranthus ornatus mostraram maiores halos de inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase. Combinando as duas ações, as plantas mais ativas foram a M. glabra e a L. alba e somente a segunda correlaciona-se diretamente com o maior teor de fenóis totais. Através deste estudo, M. glabra e L. alba foram consideradas as plantas mais promissoras para estudos subsequentes a fim de encontrar novos compostos com ação potencial contra a doença de Alzheimer.

  5. Catálogo sistemático dos polens das plantas arbóreas do Brasil meridional: XXIII. Moraceae Catalogue of southern Brazilian pollen grains: XXIII. Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortrud Monika Barth

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a morfologia polínica de espécies pertencentes a oito gêneros. Os diferentes tipos polínicos econtrados, correspondendo aos gêneros, bem como as variações das estruturas dentro de alguns deles, confirmam as relações filogenéticas nesta família. Os de morfologia mais simples correspondem a árvores ou arbustos dos gêneros Brosimum, Cecropia, Chlorophora e Coussapoa, seguindo-se Ficus, Pourouma e Sorocea; os grãos do gênero herbáceo Dorstenia apresentam uma complexa morfologia polínica. A estrutura dos esporodermas e das aberturas dos grãos de pólen comprova o seu relacionamento com outras famílias das Urticales.The pollen morphology from some species of eight genera of Moraceae has been studied. The different pollen types found, corresponding to the genera, as well as the structural variations in some of them, confirm the phylogenetic relations in this family. The specimens with a less complex pollen morphology were the trees or shrubs from the genera Brosimum, Cepropia, Chlorophora and Coussapoa, followed by Ficus, Pourouma and Sorocea; the pollen grains from the herbaceous Dorstenia show a complex pollen morphology. The structures of the sporoderm and the apertures of the pollen grains point out the relationship between these genera and other families from the Urticales.

  6. Dieta de murciélagos filostómidos del valle de Kosñipata, San Pedro, Cusco - Perú

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    Rossana Maguiña

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la dieta de murciélagos filostómidos de los bosques montanos del valle de Kosñipata (San Pedro, Cusco. Las especies evaluadas pertenecieron a los géneros Carollia, Sturnira y Anoura. Se analizó la dieta en base a la presencia de polen y semillas en muestras fecales. Se realizó un análisis de la importancia de las plantas consumidas, la amplitud del nicho alimenticio y el nivel de superposición del nicho alimenticio. Los resultados mostraron que la dieta de los murciélagos está compuesta en su mayoría por frutos y néctar-polen de las plantas. Los principales recursos registrados pertenecieron a los géneros Piper (registrado en 23,08% de las muestras, Cecropia (en 21,15% y Abutilon (en 13,46%, los cuales fueron los recursos más importantes para la comunidad de murciélagos evaluada. La amplitud de nicho alimenticio para las 6 especies analizadas indicó que son especialistas en su dieta en el área de estudio. Por otro lado, los mayores niveles de superposición de nicho alimenticio ocurre entre las especies C. brevicauda, C. perspicillata y S. erythromos.

  7. Dieta de Traupíneos (Passeriformes, Emberizidae no Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brasil Diet of Tanagers (Passeriformes, Emberizidae in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Marco A. Manhães

    Full Text Available Eleven species of tanagers in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, were studied for 12 months and the birds diet was described. Fruits of 52 plant species were the main item consumed for all tanagers, representing 59.70% of all items in 1330 events, although different proportions in the use of this resource have been found among the bird species. The main plant families found were Myrtaceae with eight species accounting for 22.29% (n=177, and Melastomataceae with seven species accounting for 22.29% (n=177 of fruit intake. The most frequent plant species in the diet was Cecropia glaziovi Snethl. (Cecropiaceae, which made up 17.76% (n=141 of fruit intake of all species of tanagers. Arthropod consumption came second with 22.63% (n=301, but flowers, leaves, nectar, food remains left by tourists and galls were also represented. Several environmental features influenced diet composition. An Asteraceae, Vanillosmopsis erythropappa Schultz, very common in the park, was important for some birds as its flowers attracted arthropods and its branches and leaves were used as a substrate for insectivory. Fruit intake rate, some bird-plant interaction and features of food-handling were also discussed, pointing to the importance of these birds for the structure of the heterogeneous local landscape, possibly through the spread of seeds of different plant species.

  8. MANEJO VETERINÁRIO E READAPTAÇÃO ALIMENTAR DE PREGUIÇA-REAL (CHOLOEPUS SP. COM FRATURA DE MANDÍBULA E NECROSE NA LÍNGUA

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    Marcela Miranda Luppi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The case of an adult female of two-toed-sloth (Choloepus sp., victim of running over is described. The animal had jaw fracture and loss of part of the tongue, which hampered their food. Remained under care for ten months, during which treatment with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory were needed and whose doses used were effective. After clinical recovery of the initial condition, the animal still refused any solid food and for three months was fed daily with a liquid diet based on fruits, vegetables, yogurt, ground flaxseed, eggs, flowers and leaves. Gradually came to try to eat sprouts Cecropia sp. and only after eight months spent to feed relatively well alone. Although sloths are considered folivores, the individual has adapted well to the liquid diet, since during the whole process had normal stool consistency and good clinical condition. Despite having spent eight months to readjust to the absence of part of the tongue, it is concluded that all veterinary and feeding management was successful.

  9. Diet specialization selects for an unusual and simplified gut microbiota in two- and three-toed sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Weimer, Paul J; Pauli, Jonathan N; Peery, M Zachariah; Suen, Garret

    2016-05-01

    Symbiotic microbial communities are critical to the function and survival of animals. This relationship is obligatory for herbivores that engage gut microorganisms for the conversion of dietary plant materials into nutrients such as short-chain organic acids (SCOAs). The constraint on body size imposed by their arboreal lifestyle is thought to make this symbiosis especially important for sloths. Here, we use next-generation sequencing to identify the bacteria present in the fore and distal guts of wild two- and three-toed sloths, and correlate these communities with both diet and SCOAs. We show that, unlike other mammalian herbivores, sloth gut communities are dominated by the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Specifically, three-toed sloths possess a highly conserved, low-diversity foregut community with a highly abundant Neisseria species associated with foregut lactate. In contrast, two-toed sloths have a more variable and diverse foregut microbiota correlated with a variety of SCOAs. These differences support the hypothesis that feeding behaviour selects for specific gut bacterial communities, as three-toed sloths subsist primarily on Cecropia tree leaves while two-toed sloths have a more generalist diet. The less diverse diet and gut microbiota of three-toed sloths may render them more susceptible to habitat loss and other diet-altering conditions.

  10. Tropical rainforest biome of Biosphere 2. Structure, composition and results of the first 2 years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Linda S. [Systems Ecology and Energy Analysis Program, Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Burgess, Tony; Marino, Bruno D.V.; Wei, Yong Dan [Biosphere 2 Center, Inc. P.O. Box 689, Oracle, AZ (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The tropical rainforest biome in the Biosphere 2 mesocosm was managed with rainfall and temperature conditions to simulate a natural rainforest typical of the new world tropics. The establishment of the biome was based on the introduction of excessive numbers of species allowing self-organization of an ecologically unique rainforest. Over 282 species of plants from rainforest areas were planted within the topographically diverse rainforest biome (area of 1900 m{sup 2}, volume of 35,000 m{sup 3}), just before the Biosphere 2 closure in 1991. Approximately 61% of these species survived when counted in 1993, representing a plant species richness reduction to 172 species in 0.19 hectare. Rank order graphs show that a high diversity community resulted not unlike insular rainforests. The plants of the rainforest mesocosm, however, grew under anomalous conditions of soil (amended desert grassland soil), atmospheric composition (CO{sub 2} up to 4500 ppm by volume (ppmv)) and rainwater composition (high salinity and nutrients). Stem growth rates of a dominant canopy tree, Cecropia, were up to four times higher but had reduced diameter at breast height compared to natural counterparts. Human intervention in plant succession was also an important factor in shaping the ecology of the rainforest biome of Biosphere 2

  11. Holocene Amazon rainforest-savanna dynamics and climatic implications: high-resolution pollen record from Laguna Loma Linda in eastern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; Hooghiemstra, Henry

    2000-10-01

    We present a high-resolution pollen record of a 695-cm-long sediment core from Laguna Loma Linda, located at an altitude of 310 m in the transitional zone between the savannas of the Llanos Orientales and the Amazonian rainforest, about 100 km from the Eastern Cordillera. Based on eight AMS 14C ages, the record represents the last 8700 14C yr BP. During the period from 8700 to 6000 14C yr BP the vegetation was dominated by grass savanna with only a few woody taxa, such as Curatella and Byrsonima, present in low abundance. Gallery forest along the drainage system apparently was poorly developed. Compared with today, precipitation must have been significantly lower and seasonality stronger. During the period from 6000 to 3600 14C yr BP, rainforest taxa increased markedly, reflecting an increase in precipitation. Rainforest and gallery forest taxa such as Moraceae/Urticaceae, Melastomataceae, Alchornea, Cecropia and Acalypha, were abundant, whereas Poaceae were reduced in frequency. From 3600 to 2300 14C yr BP rainforest taxa continued to increase; Moraceae/Urticaceae became very frequent, and Myrtaceae and Myrsine became common. Savanna vegetation decreased continuously. We infer that precipitation was still increasing, and that the length of the annual dry period possibly shortened. From 2300 14C yr BP onwards, grass savanna (mainly represented by Poaceae) expanded and Mauritia palms became frequent. This reflects increased human impact on the vegetation.

  12. Late Quaternary Vegetation and Climate Change in the Amazon Basin Based on a 50,000 Year Pollen Record from the Amazon Fan, ODP Site 932

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Simon G.; Maslin, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Hemipelagic sediments from the Amazon deep-sea fan, ODP Site 932 (5° 12.7‧N, 47° 1.8‧W), and continental shelf provide a 50,000-yr-long pollen record of Amazon Basin vegetation. The age model for Hole 932A is constrained by eight magnetic remanence intensity features, one paleomagnetic excursion, and three AMS14C dates.Alchornea,Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, and Moraceae/Urticaceae are dominant taxa in the pollen record between 40,200 and 19,800 cal yr B.P. Andean taxa, such asPodocarpusandHedyosmum,increase in abundance between 19,800 and 11,000 cal yr B.P. and prior to 40,200 cal yr B.P. The Holocene pollen assemblage, derived from Amazon River and continental shelf sediments, is dominated by secondary growth taxa, such asCecropia.Climatic factors influencing the development of glacial and interglacial tropical vegetation are considered by comparing marine with terrestrial records of vegetation change. This comparison shows that the Amazon Basin forests were not extensively replaced by savanna vegetation during the glacial period, contradicting the refugia hypothesis.

  13. Palynological Origin, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Properties of Honeybee-Collected Pollen from Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. R. Santos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the palynological origin, phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant properties of twenty-five samples of bee pollen harvested during a nine-month period (February–November from the Canavieiras municipality (northeastern Brazil. Of the 25 samples analyzed, only two (February 01 and 02 were heterofloral. The predominant pollens in the samples analyzed during that month were: Cecropia, Eucalyptus, Elaeis, Mimosa pudica, Eupatorium, and Scoparia. Ethyl acetate fractions were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The flavonoids isoquercetin, myricetin, tricetin, quercetin, luteolin, selagin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were detected. The flavonoid present in all 22 samples was isolated and identified as isorhamnetin 3-O-b-neohesperidoside. The total phenolic contents determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent ranged from 41.5 to 213.2 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activities based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, and Fe2+ ion chelating activity assays were observed for all extracts, and correlated with the total phenolic content.

  14. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  15. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of full-length mariner elements isolated from the Indian tasar silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta (Lepidoptera: saturniidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Dharma Prasad; J Nagaraju

    2003-06-01

    Mariner like elements (MLEs) are widely distributed type II transposons with an open reading frame (ORF) for transposase. We studied comparative phylogenetic evolution and inverted terminal repeat (ITR) conservation of MLEs from Indian saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta with other full length MLEs submitted in the database. Full length elements from A. mylitta were inactive with multiple mutations. Many conserved amino acid blocks were identified after aligning transposase sequences. Mariner signature sequence, DD(34)D was almost invariable although a few new class of elements had different signatures. A. mylitta MLEs (Anmmar) get phylogenetically classified under cecropia subfamily and cluster closely with the elements from other Bombycoidea superfamily members implying vertical transmission from a common ancestor. ITR analysis showed a conserved sequence of AGGT(2-8N)ATAAGT for forward repeat and AGGT(2-8N)ATGAAAT for reverse repeat. These results and additional work may help us to understand the dynamics of MLE distribution in A. mylitta and construction of appropriate vectors for mariner mediated transgenics.

  16. A novel cluster of mariner-like elements belonging to mellifera subfamily from spiders and insects: implications of recent horizontal transfer on the South-West Islands of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kaori; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Yamada, Akinori; Tokuda, Gaku; Gurung, Raj Deep; Sasaki, Takeshi; Nakajima, Yumiko; Maekawa, Hideaki

    2014-04-01

    Mariner-like elements (MLEs) have been isolated from various eukaryotic genomes and they are divided into 15 subfamilies, including main five subfamilies: mauritiana, cecropia, mellifera/capitata, irritans, and elegans/briggsae. In the present study, MLEs belonging to mellifera subfamily were isolated from various spiders and insects (Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera) inhabiting the South-West Islands of Japan and neighboring regions. MLEs isolated from 15 different species formed a distinct novel cluster in mellifera subfamily. MLEs obtained from three different species [i.e., the bee Amegilla senahai subflavescens (Amsmar1), the wasp Campsomeris sp. (Casmar1), and the swallowtail butterfly Pachliopta aristolochiae (Paamar1)] contained an intact open reading frame that encoded a putative transposase. These transposases exhibited high similarity of 97.9% among themselves. In case of Casmar1, the presence of an intact ORF was found in high frequencies (i.e., 11 out of 12 clones). In addition, these transposases also showed the presence of a terminal inverted repeat-binding motif, DD(34)D and two highly conserved amino acid motifs, (W/L)(I/L)PHQL and YSP(D/N)L(A/S)P. These two motifs differed from previously known motifs, WVPHEL and YSPDLAP. MLEs isolated from these three different species may have been inserted into their genomes by horizontal transfer. Furthermore, the presence of an intact ORF suggests that they are still active in habitats along these isolated islands.

  17. Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botsaris Alexandros S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs.

  18. Banco de sementes de remanescentes naturais e de áreas reflorestadas em uma várzea do Rio Mogi-Guaçu - SP Seed bank of natural forest remainders and reforestation areas in a Mogi-Guaçu river floodplain, Luiz Antônio County, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assíria Maria Ferreira da Nóbrega

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou qualitativa e quantitativamente o banco de sementes de dois remanescentes florestais, de um povoamento de Eucalyptus robusta e de três áreas de reflorestamento com espécies nativas, localizados em uma várzea do rio Mogi-Guaçu, Luiz Antônio (21°31´S e 47°55´W, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram usadas 12 parcelas de 10 x 10 m distribuídas sistematicamente em cada área de estudo. Em cada parcela foram distribuídas aleatoriamente quatro subparcelas de 0,5 m x 0,5 m. Duas subparcelas foram usadas para coletar a serapilheira e duas para coletar o solo a 0-5 cm de profundidade. A amostragem foi realizada em setembro de 2001, nos remanescentes naturais e no povoamento de eucalipto e, em setembro de 2002, nas áreas reflorestadas. As amostras foram acondicionadas em vasos de plástico e incubadas com irrigações periódicas para a germinação das sementes por um período de sete meses, em dois ambientes de casa de vegetação: um a 100% de luz solar e outro sob tela com 70% de redução de luz solar. Na composição do banco de sementes de todas as áreas amostradas, houve predominância de espécies pioneiras dos primeiros estádios de sucessão. As espécies arbóreas mais importantes foram Aloysia virgata e Cecropia hololeuca. Os reflorestamentos com espécies nativas proporcionaram um banco de sementes com maior diversidade de espécies arbóreas nativas do que o povoamento de eucalipto. Este estudo indicou que a similaridade entre as florestas plantadas e as nativas deverá aumentar ao longo do tempo.The objective of this study was to evaluate qualitative and quantitatively the seed bank of two natural forest remainders, one Eucalyptus robusta plantation and three reforestation areas with native species, located in a riparian area of Mogi-Guaçu River floodplain, in Luiz Antonio County (21°31´S and 47°55´W, São Paulo State, Brazil. The evaluation was carried out in 12 plots of 10 x 10 m systematically

  19. Relating Diet and Capture Time Between two Species of Frugivorous Bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Stenodermatinae Relacionando dieta e horários de captura entre duas espécies de morcegos frugívoros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Stenodermatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ribeiro Sartore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 are phyllostomid bats that often coexist in the same local and consume the same feed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain data about feeding habits of the two species, relating to their capture times, in the land where is the Universidade Estadual de Londrina, northern Paraná. The samples were attained among September 2010 and May 2011, with 12 960 m2 h of sampling effort. The results analysis contemplated the Shannon Index, Pielou Index and Schoener Index. 250 A. lituratus e 46 P. lineatus were captured, and while the first one consumed fruits from ten vegetable species, the second fed just three species, both preferring the Cecropia spp. and Ficus spp. genus. A. lituratus showed the higher capture peak 30 minutes after the sunset and was collected throughout the period. P. lineatus had its higher peak 01h 45min after nightfall and was captured in short periods. With these outcomes, is possible to imply that P. lineatus has a foraging peak, in the study place, 75 minutes after A. lituratus, avoiding straight competition. A. lituratus showed larger food diversity, indicating higher adaptative potential for this specie than for the other.Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 são morcegos filostomídeos que frequentemente coexistem num mesmo local e consomem o mesmo alimento. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi obter dados sobre os hábitos alimentares das duas espécies, relacionando-os com seus horários de captura, na região onde se encontra o campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina no norte do Paraná. As coletas foram realizadas entre Setembro de 2010 e Maio de 2011, com um esforço amostral de 12 960 m2 h. A análise dos resultados contemplou o uso do Índice de Shannon, Índice de Pielou e Índice de Schoener. Capturaram-se 250 A. lituratus e 46 P. lineatus, e o primeiro consumiu frutos de dez espécies vegetais

  20. Revision of the Neotropical spider genus Gephyroctenus (Araneae: Ctenidae: Calocteninae Revisão do gênero de aranhas neotropicais Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão (Araneae: Ctenidae: Calocteninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Polotow

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1936 (type species G. philodromoides Mello-Leitão, 1936 is revised. Three species formerly described in this genus are synonymized with species from other genera: G. kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947, with Acanthoctenus spinipes Keyserling, 1877, G. parvus Caporiacco, 1947, with Phymatoctenus comosus Simon, 1897, and G. vachoni Caporiacco, 1955, with Caloctenus gracilitarsis Simon, 1897. Eight new species are described: G. portovelho sp. nov., from the States of Rondônia and Amazonas, Brazil; G. divisor sp. nov. and G. acre sp. nov., from the State of Acre, Brazil; G. atininga sp. nov., G. esteio sp. nov. and G. mapia sp. nov., from the State of Amazonas, Brazil; G. juruti sp. nov., from the Department of Loreto, Peru and the State of Pará, Brazil; G. panguana sp. nov., from the Department of Huanuco, Peru. The genus can be distinguished by the presence of a cymbial retrolateral groove, retrolateral origin of embolus, embolus long and thin, median apophysis with a subdistal hook, and hyaline projection close to the embolus base in the male palp and by the fused median and lateral fields in a single epigynal plate, copulatory opening located dorsally in an atrium, and elongated copulatory ducts surrounding the spermathecae in the female epigynum. Field observations on the hunting behavior on ants in trumpet trees (Cecropia are provided for two species, G. philodromoides and G. mapia sp. nov.Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1936 (espécie-tipo G. philodromoides Mello-Leitão, 1936, é revisado. Três espécies descritas neste gênero são sinonimizadas com espécies de outros gêneros: G. kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947, com Acanthoctenus spinipes Keyserling, 1877, G. parvus Caporiacco, 1947, com Phymatoctenus comosus Simon, 1897, e G. vachoni Caporiacco, 1955, com Caloctenus gracilitarsis Simon, 1897. Oito novas espécies são descritas: G. portovelho sp. nov., dos Estados de Rondônia e Amazonas, Brasil; G. divisor sp. nov. e G

  1. Epífitas vasculares como indicadores de regeneración en bosques intervenidos de la Amazonía colombiana Vascular Epiphytes as Regeneration Indicators of Disturbed Forests of theColombian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana-Moreno Luz Amparo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de comparar cómo varía la distribución y composición de epífitas vasculares en tres bosques intervenidos con diferentes tiempos de recuperación y de com-probar si estos factores pueden ser indicadores del estado de regeneración, se seleccio-naron tres rastrojos o chagras abandonadas con 12, 18 y 22 años de edad cerca de la ciudad de Leticia (Amazonas, Colombia. En cada rastrojo se seleccionaron siete forófitos de la especie Cecropia sciadophylla (Cecropiaceae y en ellos se realizó un muestreo de las epífitas encontradas en los primeros 3 m. El número de especies, su abundancia yco-bertura se usaron como criterios de comparación entre los tres rastrojos, ya que en estas variables se manifiesta la sensibilidad de las epífitas a las condiciones del entorno. Los resultados muestran que los factores evaluados son útiles para la caracterización de los rastrojos de chagra en diferentes etapas de regeneración. Aunque el número de especies en los tres rastrojos fue similar, la composición varió de modo que cerca de la mitad de las especies de cada rastrojo eran exclusivas. En los tres rastrojos fue evidente la dominancia de Monstera oblicua (Araceae que constituyó más del 80% de la cobertura epifítica de todo el muestreo. El rastrojo más joven presentó una alta cobertura y un alto índice de diversidad, mientras que en los rastrojos más viejos estos valores disminuyeron drásticamente, lo que sugiere que en los estados de regeneración más avanzados hay un menor establecimiento de epífitas en los estratos bajos por cambios en las condiciones del entorno, tales como la baja incidencia lumínica.In order to compare how the distribution and composition of vascular epiphytes varies, in three disturbed forests with different recovery times, and to verify whether these factors can
    indicate the regeneration state, three stubbles that had been abandoned during 12, 18 and 22 years were selected in the

  2. 改进的向量质心模型在实时信息检索中的应用研究%ON APPLYING IMPROVED VECTOR CENTROID MODEL IN REAL-TIME INFORMATION RETRIEVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绍翰; 王箭; 黄志球

    2011-01-01

    Applying relevant feedback technology to information retrieval is one of the effective means to improve the effect of information retrieval in which users' information demand can be learnt and determined and the retrieved results can conduct information filtration. Apart from the accuracy and recall, the adaptability and speed of filtration algorithm also impacts the experience of the user in employing the information retrieval system directly. The authors used vector space model to represent the content of document. It is less workload in pre-treatment and simple in computation and is adapted to real-time information retrieval. In combination of the rationale with least deviation, in the paper they apply the improved centroid of feedback document to information rearrangement. The simulation of the applying scene of rearrangement is executed on TREC Filtering Task dataset, and the test comparison is made between it with the keyword-based retrieval and the class-centroid based retrieval means.%将相关反馈技术应用于信息检索中可以学习和明确用户的信息需求,并对检索结果进行信息过滤,是提高信息检索效果的有效手段之一.除了准确率和召回率之外,过滤算法的适应性、速度也直接影响用户使用信息检索系统的体验.采用向量空间模型表示文档的内容预处理工作少,计算简单,适用于实时信息检索.结合偏差最小的基本原理,将改进的反馈文档向量的质心应用于信息重排.以重排的应用场景,在TREC Filtering Task数据集上进行仿真,并与基于关键词检索和类质心的检索方式进行了试验比较.

  3. Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in 11 Screening Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Antonia; Abraham, Roshini S.; Currier, Robert; Brower, Amy; Andruszewski, Karen; Abbott, Jordan K.; Baker, Mei; Ballow, Mark; Bartoshesky, Louis E.; Bonagura, Vincent R.; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Brokopp, Charles; Brooks, Edward; Caggana, Michele; Celestin, Jocelyn; Church, Joseph A.; Comeau, Anne Marie; Connelly, James A.; Cowan, Morton J.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dasu, Trivikram; Dave, Nina; De La Morena, Maria T.; Duffner, Ulrich; Fong, Chin-To; Forbes, Lisa; Freedenberg, Debra; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Hale, Jaime E.; Celine Hanson, I.; Hay, Beverly N.; Hu, Diana; Infante, Anthony; Johnson, Daisy; Kapoor, Neena; Kay, Denise M.; Kohn, Donald B.; Lee, Rachel; Lehman, Heather; Lin, Zhili; Lorey, Fred; Abdel-Mageed, Aly; Manning, Adrienne; McGhee, Sean; Moore, Theodore B.; Naides, Stanley J.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Orange, Jordan S.; Pai, Sung-Yun; Porteus, Matthew; Rodriguez, Ray; Romberg, Neil; Routes, John; Ruehle, Mary; Rubenstein, Arye; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos A.; Scott, Ginger; Scott, Patricia M.; Secord, Elizabeth; Seroogy, Christine; Shearer, William T.; Siegel, Subhadra; Silvers, Stacy K.; Stiehm, E. Richard; Sugerman, Robert W.; Sullivan, John L.; Tanksley, Susan; Tierce, Millard L.; Verbsky, James; Vogel, Beth; Walker, Rosalyn; Walkovich, Kelly; Walter, Jolan E.; Wasserman, Richard L.; Watson, Michael S.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Weiner, Leonard B.; Wood, Heather; Yates, Anne B.; Puck, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) using assays to detect T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) began in Wisconsin in 2008, and SCID was added to the national recommended uniform panel for newborn screened disorders in 2010. Currently 23 states, the District of Columbia, and the Navajo Nation conduct population-wide newborn screening for SCID. The incidence of SCID is estimated at 1 in 100 000 births. OBJECTIVES To present data from a spectrum of SCID newborn screening programs, establish population-based incidence for SCID and other conditions with T-cell lymphopenia, and document early institution of effective treatments. DESIGN Epidemiological and retrospective observational study. SETTING Representatives in states conducting SCID newborn screening were invited to submit their SCID screening algorithms, test performance data, and deidentified clinical and laboratory information regarding infants screened and cases with nonnormal results. Infants born from the start of each participating program from January 2008 through the most recent evaluable date prior to July 2013 were included. Representatives from 10 states plus the Navajo Area Indian Health Service contributed data from 3 030 083 newborns screened with a TREC test. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Infants with SCID and other diagnoses of T-cell lymphopenia were classified. Incidence and, where possible, etiologies were determined. Interventions and survival were tracked. RESULTS Screening detected 52 cases of typical SCID, leaky SCID, and Omenn syndrome, affecting 1 in 58 000 infants (95%CI, 1/46 000-1/80 000). Survival of SCID-affected infants through their diagnosis and immune reconstitution was 87%(45/52), 92%(45/49) for infants who received transplantation, enzyme replacement, and/or gene therapy. Additional interventions for SCID and non-SCID T-cell lymphopenia included immunoglobulin infusions, preventive antibiotics, and avoidance of live vaccines. Variations in

  4. Measuring the Interestingness of Articles in a Limited User Environment Prospectus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, Raymond K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2007-04-18

    Search engines, such as Google, assign scores to news articles based on their relevancy to a query. However, not all relevant articles for the query may be interesting to a user. For example, if the article is old or yields little new information, the article would be uninteresting. Relevancy scores do not take into account what makes an article interesting, which would vary from user to user. Although methods such as collaborative filtering have been shown to be effective in recommendation systems, in a limited user environment there are not enough users that would make collaborative filtering effective. I present a general framework for defining and measuring the ''interestingness'' of articles, called iScore, incorporating user-feedback including tracking multiple topics of interest as well as finding interesting entities or phrases in a complex relationship network. I propose and have shown the validity of the following: 1. Filtering based on only topic relevancy is insufficient for identifying interesting articles. 2. No single feature can characterize the interestingness of an article for a user. It is the combination of multiple features that yields higher quality results. For each user, these features have different degrees of usefulness for predicting interestingness. 3. Through user-feedback, a classifier can combine features to predict interestingness for the user. 4. Current evaluation corpora, such as TREC, do not capture all aspects of personalized news filtering systems necessary for system evaluation. 5. Focusing on only specific evolving user interests instead of all topics allows for more efficient resource utilization while yielding high quality recommendation results. 6. Multiple profile vectors yield significantly better results than traditional methods, such as the Rocchio algorithm, for identifying interesting articles. Additionally, the addition of tracking multiple topics as a new feature in iScore, can improve i

  5. Measuring the Interestingness of Articles in a Limited User Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, Raymond K. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Search engines, such as Google, assign scores to news articles based on their relevancy to a query. However, not all relevant articles for the query may be interesting to a user. For example, if the article is old or yields little new information, the article would be uninteresting. Relevancy scores do not take into account what makes an article interesting, which varies from user to user. Although methods such as collaborative filtering have been shown to be effective in recommendation systems, in a limited user environment, there are not enough users that would make collaborative filtering effective. A general framework, called iScore, is presented for defining and measuring the 'interestingness' of articles, incorporating user-feedback. iScore addresses various aspects of what makes an article interesting, such as topic relevancy, uniqueness, freshness, source reputation, and writing style. It employs various methods to measure these features and uses a classifier operating on these features to recommend articles. The basic iScore configuration is shown to improve recommendation results by as much as 20%. In addition to the basic iScore features, additional features are presented to address the deficiencies of existing feature extractors, such as one that tracks multiple topics, called MTT, and a version of the Rocchio algorithm that learns its parameters online as it processes documents, called eRocchio. The inclusion of both MTT and eRocchio into iScore is shown to improve iScore recommendation results by as much as 3.1% and 5.6%, respectively. Additionally, in TREC11 Adaptive Filter Task, eRocchio is shown to be 10% better than the best filter in the last run of the task. In addition to these two major topic relevancy measures, other features are also introduced that employ language models, phrases, clustering, and changes in topics to improve recommendation results. These additional features are shown to improve recommendation results by iScore by

  6. INVASIVE WEEDS IN BOGOR BOTANIC GARDENS, INDONESIA AND ITS IMPLICATION ON SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation areas with the objective for collection and exchange plant materials have been speculated as weed bank for surrounding areas. Objective of this study was to identify and characterize ruderal invasive weeds in the Bogor Botanic Gardens (BBG. Observations were conducted in all vak (collection blocks in the BBG in order to identify the weeds species, determine their invasiveness, dominance and distribution. Weeds associations with host plants were observed. Current weed control program and data of dead trees collection were analyzed in relevant to weed. Distribution of weeds outside BBG was observed by transects method following river and road directions. Results showed that there were seven invasive weeds, i.e., Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae, Cissus nodosa Blume (Vitaceae, Cissus sicyoides Blume (Vitaceae, Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae, Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae, Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen (Fabaceae. These seven weeds species invaded 41 out of 215 plant families in BBG. Six species of weeds, i.e., C. adenopus, C. nodosa Blume., C. sicyoides Blume., D. bulbifera L., M. micrantha H.B.K. and P. falcataria (L. Nielsen, were introduced as BBG collections for the first time while the F. elastica Roxb was considered as native. It is most likely that the weeds dispersal agents are the wind, birds, bats, visitors, and waters. All of these weeds existed in surrounding areas outside BBG. Given the detrimental impact of invasive weeds on the plant collection in BBG, it is necessary to develop long–term comprehensive control measures both inside and neighboring areas by involving other government authorities beyond BBG.

  7. Biodiversidad florística del Jardín Botánico de la Universidad Nacional de Ucayali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Araujo Abanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue la clasificación taxonómica y descripciones botánicas de 36 especies (23 familias y 33 géneros, árboles, arbustos, lianas y hierbas en el Jardín Botánico y Campus de la Universidad Nacional de Ucayali. De las 36 especies, 6 son ornamentales: Sanchezia tigrina, Crinum augustum, Sansevieria trifasciata, Dracaena fragans, Costus guanaiensis y Vitex cymosa; Rhynchosia phaseoloides cuyas semillas son cotizadas como artesanal; 7 podrían tener uso ornamental: Tabernaemontana heteropylla, Sparattosperma leucanthum, Cayaponia ophthalmica, Gurania eriantha, Gurania spinulosa, Stigmaphyllon florosum y Capirona decorticans; 3 son medicinales: Euphorbia umbellata (tratamiento del cáncer y otros males, Uncaria guianensis (refuerza el sistema inmunológico y Pilocarpus peruvianus contiene Pilocarpina de uso oftalmológico; Pourouma guianensis tiene fuerte olor a mentol; 3 con frutos alimenticios Tamarindus indica, Bunchosia armeniaca y Physalis angulata, conteniendo este último alto contenido en pro vitamina A; 10 son maderables: Dipteryx odorata, Vitex cymosa, Tectona grandis, Ocotea bofo, Perebea xanthochyma, Virola pavonis, Calycophyllum spruceanum, Capirona decorticans, Guazuma ulmifolia y Bambusa arundinacea; Pueraria phaseoloides usado como forraje, en el Jardín Botánico está como maleza al igual que Davilla nítida y Urena lobata, que podría servir como ornamental, su corteza tiene propiedades similares al yute verdadero; Cecropia membranácea, C. concolor, C. sciadophylla y Gouania lupuloides que pueden servir como alimento de la fauna silvestre.

  8. Molecular characterization and expression of prothoracicotropic hormone during development and pupal diapause in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Qi-Rui; Kang, Le; Xu, Wei-Hua; Denlinger, David L

    2005-06-01

    Using a strategy of rapid amplification of cDNA ends, the cDNA encoding prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was cloned from the brain of Helicoverpa armigera (Hearm). The Hearm-PTTH cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a 226-amino acid preprohormone, which shows high identity with the closely related noctuid moths, Helicoverpa zea (98%) and Heliothis virescens (94%), and low identity with five species of Bombycoidea: Bombyx mori (57%), Manduca sexta (55%), Hyalophora cecropia (52%), Samia cynthia ricini (49%) and Antheraea peryni (48%). Hearm-PTTH cDNA shares important structural characterization known from other PTTHs, such as seven cysteine residues, proteolytic cleavage site, glycosylation site, and hydrophobic regions within the mature peptides. Northern blot analysis indicated a 0.9kb transcript present only in the brain. Using the more sensitive technique of RT-PCR, PTTH mRNA was also detected in the subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglion, abdominal ganglion, midgut and fat body. During the pupal stage, PTTH mRNA in the brain remained at a constant high level in nondiapausing individuals, was low in diapausing pupae, but increased again at diapause termination. The PTTH protein was detected only in the brain by Western blot analysis. Immunocytochemical results revealed that Hearm-PTTH is localized in two pairs of dorsolateral neurosecretory cells within the brain. Recombinant Hearm-PTTH was successfully expressed in E. coli, and purified recombinant-PTTH was effective in breaking pupal diapause. The results are consistent with a role for PTTH in the regulation of diapause in this species.

  9. Cardiovascular responses to locomotor activity and feeding in unrestrained three-toed sloths, Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P.F. Duarte

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate (HR and systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP and mean (MBP blood pressure were recorded by biotelemetry in nine conscious unrestrained sloths for 1 min every 15 min over a 24-h period. The animals were allowed to freely move in an acoustically isolated and temperature-controlled (24 ± 1ºC experimental room with light-dark cycle (12/12 h. Behavior was closely monitored through a unidirectional visor and classified as resting (sitting or suspended, feeding (chewing and swallowing embauba leaves, Cecropia adenops, or locomotor activity around the tree trunk or on the room floor. Locomotor activity caused statistically significant increases in SBP (+8%, from 121 ± 22 to 131 ± 18 mmHg, DBP (+7%, from 86 ± 17 to 92 ± 10 mmHg, MBP (+8%, from 97 ± 19 to 105 ± 12 mmHg, and HR (+14%, from 84 ± 15 to 96 ± 15 bpm compared to resting values, indicating a possible major influence of the autonomic nervous system on the modulation of cardiac function during this behavior. During feeding, the increase in blood pressure was even higher (SBP +27%, from 119 ± 21 to 151 ± 21 mmHg; DBP +21%, from 85 ± 16 to 103 ± 15 mmHg; MBP +24%, from 96 ± 17 to 119 ± 17 mmHg, while HR remained at 14% (from 84 ± 15 to 96 ± 10 bpm above resting values. The proportionally greater increase in blood pressure than in HR during feeding suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance as part of the overall response to this behavior.

  10. Modern pollen-rain characteristics of tall terra firme moist evergreen forest, southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, William D.; Mayle, Francis E.; Tate, Nicholas J.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2005-11-01

    The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34'50″S, 60°49'48″W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ≥10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ≥10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ≥10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.

  11. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  12. Spiracle activity in moth pupae--the role of oxygen and carbon dioxide revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Thomas D; Hetz, Stefan K

    2010-05-01

    After decades of intensive research, the actual mechanism behind discontinuous gas exchange in insects has not been fully understood. One open question concerns the actual way (closed, flutter, and open) of how spiracles respond to tracheal gas concentrations. As the results of a classic paper [Burkett, B.N., Schneiderman, H.A., 1974. Roles of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the control of spiracular function in cecropia pupae. Biological Bulletin 147, 274-293] allow ambiguous interpretation, we thus reexamined the behavior of the spiracles in response to fixed, controlled endotracheal gas concentrations. The tracheal system of diapausing pupae of Attacus atlas (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera) was flushed with gas mixtures varying in P(O(2)) and P(CO(2)) while the behavior of the spiracles was monitored using changes in the pressure signal. This novel pressure based technique proved to be superior to classic visual observation of single spiracles. A two-dimensional map of the spiracle behavior in response to endotracheal P(O(2)) and P(CO(2)) was established. Typically, it contained two distinct regions only, corresponding to "closed" and "open" spiracles. A separate "flutter" region was missing. Because fluttering is commonly observed in moth pupae, we suggest that the intermittent spiracle opening during a flutter phase is an effect of non-steady-state conditions within the tracheal system. For low P(CO(2)) the minimum P(O(2)) resulting in open spiracles was linearly dependent upon P(CO(2)). Above a threshold of 1-1.5 kPa CO(2) the spiracles were open irrespective of P(O(2)). We propose a hypothetical spiracular control model, which is simple and explains the time course of endotracheal partial pressures during all phases of discontinuous gas exchange.

  13. Beneficial effect of medicinal plants on the contractility of post-hypoxic isolated guinea pig atria - Potential implications for the treatment of ischemic-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipat, Robbert; Toelsie, Jerry R; Magali, Indira; Soekhoe, Rubaina; Stender, Karin; Wangsawirana, Angelique; Oedairadjsingh, Krishan; Pawirodihardjo, Jennifer; Mans, Dennis R A

    2016-08-01

    Context Ischemic-reperfusion injury is accompanied by a decreased contractility of the myocardium. Positive-inotropic agents have proven useful for treating this condition but may exert serious side-effects. Objective In this study, aqueous preparations from Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Malvaceae), Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae), Cecropia peltata L. (Moraceae), Erythrina fusca Lour. (Fabaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) were evaluated for their ability to improve the decreased contractility of isolated guinea pig atria after hypoxic stress. Materials and methods Guinea pig atria isolated in Ringer-Locke buffer gassed with 100% O2 at 30 °C were exposed for 5 min to hypoxia, then allowed to recover in oxygenated buffer alone or containing a single plant extract (0.001-1 mg/mL). The contractility (g/s) and beating frequency (beats/min), as well as troponin C contents of the bathing solution (ng/mL), were determined and expressed as means ± SDs. Results The extracts of A. muricata, B. orellana, C. peltata and T. catappa caused an increase in the contractility compared to untreated atria of 340 ± 102%, 151 ± 13%, 141 ± 14% and 238 ± 44%, respectively. However, the latter two preparations increased the troponin C contents of the bathing solution to 36 ± 11 and 69 ± 33, compared to the value of 11 ± 3 ng/mL found with untreated atria. Conclusions Preparations from A. muricata and B. orellana may possess positive-inotropic properties which may improve the contractility of the post-hypoxic myocardium. Studies to assess their usefulness in ischemic-reperfusion injury are warranted.

  14. ORIGEN GEOGRÁFICO Y BOTÁNICO DE MIELES DE Apis mellifera (APIDAE EN CUATRO DEPARTAMENTOS DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUIOMAR NATES-PARRA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar marcadores palinológicos que permitieran caracterizar el origen geográfico y botánico de mieles provenientes de los departamentos de Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander y Magdalena. Se realizaron análisis meli- sopalinológicos de 184 muestras de miel procedentes de 131 apiarios. Se determinaron diferencias significativas entre tipos de mieles mediante un análisis discriminante y comparando la composición de especies entre las muestras. En total se encontraron 297 especies distribuidas en 69 familias, dentro de las cuales las más representativas fueron Mimosa sp., Cecropia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Piper sp. y Quercus humboldtii. Las familias más importantes fueron Fabaceae, Asteraceae,Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Fagaceae, y Melastomataceae. Se lograron determinar seis grupos de mieles diferenciadas por su origen geográfico: altiplano Cundiboyacense, Medio Chicamocha, Sumapaz, Bajo Chicamocha, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta y provincia Comunera; también se encontraron diferencias entre las mieles de las regiones andinas y subandinas. Dentro de los tipos de mieles diferenciadas por origen botánico predominaron las mieles monoflorales de Trifolium pratense, Coffea arabica, Eucalyptus sp., Inga sp. y Heliocarpus americanus, mieles oligoflorales de asteráceas y mezclas de mielato de Q. humboldtii y néctar floral (Eucalyptus sp. tipo Brassicaceae, asteráceas. La información de este trabajo junto con la obtenida en análisis fisicoquímicos y sensoriales servirá de base para que los apicultores puedan solicitar la denominación de origen de estas mieles.

  15. ORIGEN GEOGRÁFICO Y BOTÁNICO DE MIELES DE Apis mellifera (APIDAE EN CUATRO DEPARTAMENTOS DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiomar Nates Parra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar marcadores palinológicos que permitieran caracterizar el origen geográfico y botánico de mieles provenientes de los departamentos de Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander y Magdalena. Se realizaron análisis melisopalinológicos de 184 muestras de miel procedentes de 131 apiarios. Se determinaron diferencias significativas entre tipos de mieles mediante un análisis discriminante y comparando la composición de especies entre las muestras. En total se encontraron 297 especies distribuidas en 69 familias, dentro de las cuales las más representativas fueron Mimosa sp., Cecropia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Piper sp. y Quercus humboldtii. Las familias más importantes fueron Fabaceae, Asteraceae,Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Fagaceae, y Melastomataceae. Se lograron determinar seis grupos de mieles diferenciadas por su origen geográfico: Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Medio Chicamocha, Sumapaz, Bajo Chicamocha, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta y Provincia Comunera; también se encontraron diferencias entre las mieles de las regiones andinas y subandinas. Dentro de los tipos de mieles diferenciadas por origen botánico predominaron las mieles monoflorales de Trifolium pratense, Coffea arabica, Eucalyptus sp., Inga sp.y Heliocarpus americanus, mieles oligoflorales de asteráceas y mezclas de mielato de Q. humboldtii y néctar floral (Eucalyptus sp. tipo Brassicaceae, asteráceas. La información de este trabajo junto con la obtenida en análisis fisicoquímicos y sensoriales servirá de base para que los apicultores puedan solicitar la denominación de origen de estas mieles.

  16. ROLE OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS COINFECTION IN VIOLATION OF PRODUCTIVE THYMIC FUNCTION IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS UNDER IMMUNOLOGICALLY INEFFICIENT ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Saidakova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection in violation of restoring CD4+T cells in HIVinfected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART was investigated. Seventy eight patients with effective virological response to ART (viral load < 50 copies/ml who either had or had no good immunological CD4+Tcell response after two years of treatment were recruited. Twenty one relatively healthy volunteers served as controls. The numbers of main T-lymphocyte populations and their apoptosis rates were determined. Thymus productive function was assessed by the number of αTREC-positive CD4+ and CD8+T cells. It is shown that HIV/HCV co-infection is characterized by lower numbers of CD4+T-lymphocytes in patients’ blood compared with HIV-monoinfection. This is not associated with the cells’ increased death rates. We also demonstrate that HCV coinfection reduces the production of CD4+, but not CD8+T-lymphocytes, by the thymus.

  17. Efficient dynamic pruning on largest scores first (LSF) retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun JIANG; Yue-xiang YANG

    2016-01-01

    Inverted index traversal techniques have been studied in addressing the query processing performance challenges of web search engines, but still leave much room for improvement. In this paper, we focus on the inverted index traversal on document-sorted indexes and the optimization technique called dynamic pruning, which can efficiently reduce the hardware computational resources required. We propose another novel exhaustive index traversal scheme called largest scores first (LSF) retrieval, in which the candidates are first selected in the posting list of important query terms with the largest upper bound scores and then fully scored with the contribution of the remaining query terms. The scheme can effectively reduce the memory consumption of existing term-at-a- time (TAAT) and the candidate selection cost of existing document-at-a-time (DAAT) retrieval at the expense of revisiting the posting lists of the remaining query terms. Preliminary analysis and implementation show comparable performance between LSF and the two well-known baselines. To further reduce the number of postings that need to be revisited, we present efficient rank safe dynamic pruning techniques based on LSF, including two important optimizations called list omitting (LSF_LO) and partial scoring (LSF_PS) that make full use of query term importance. Finally, experimental results with the TREC GOV2 collection show that our new index traversal approaches reduce the query latency by almost 27% over the WAND baseline and produce slightly better results

  18. Cognitiva (TC de Beck en una muestra costarricense

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    Hannia Cabezas Pizarro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se explora una posible relación empírica entre la terapia racional emotivoconductual (TREC de Ellis y la terapia cognitiva (TC de Beck, dos de los modelos más conspicuos en el campo de la psicoterapia cognitiva actual. Si bien este modelo utiliza el término “cognitivo” en forma tal que se encuentra asociado con el afecto, la fisiología y la conducta (Dobson, 1986, sostiene que las perturbaciones emocionales, en esencia, son causadas por el proceso cognitivo del individuo. En esta investigación, se trabajó con una muestra de 200 estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica de diferentes áreas a quienes se les aplicaron las escalas de: Attitudes and Beliefs Inventory (ABI [Escala de Actitudes y Creencias], y el Beck Depression Inventory, 2ª edición (BDI-II [Inventario de Depresión de Beck], escalas que fueron adaptadas al español. El análisis estadístico de los datos confirma empíricamente la relación entre ambos modelos.

  19. A Memetic-Based Approach for Web-Based Question Answering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Khodadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed an evolutionary approach for answering open-domain factoid questions, which include searching among sentences that are candidate for the final answer with Memetic Algorithm (MA, and using lexical and syntactic features for calculating fitness of the sentences. Our main purpose is making a search engine with accurate answering ability, or a web-based Question Answering (QA system. The Text Retrieval Conference (TREC QA Tracks data are used to develop and evaluate the approach. The answering process begins with retrieving related documents from a search engine. Then, MA searches among all the sentences of these documents and finds the best one. Finally, one or more words will be extracted based on our hand-made patterns. The results of different approaches for local search, mutation, and crossover, and also different values for number of reproduction and retrieved documents are investigated in the empirical study section. The results are promising with sufficient retrieved documents, and we have obtained a threshold value for this variable. Using MA instead of examining all the sentences is a trade-off between lowering the process time and sacrificing the accuracy, but the results show that the Mametic-based approach is more efficient.

  20. Information retrieval for OCR documents: a content-based probabilistic correction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Zhai, ChangXiang; Hauptmann, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The difficulty with information retrieval for OCR documents lies in the fact that OCR documents contain a significant amount of erroneous words and unfortunately most information retrieval techniques rely heavily on word matching between documents and queries. In this paper, we propose a general content-based correction model that can work on top of an existing OCR correction tool to "boost" retrieval performance. The basic idea of this correction model is to exploit the whole content of a document to supplement any other useful information provided by an existing OCR correction tool for word corrections. Instead of making an explicit correction decision for each erroneous word as typically done in a traditional approach, we consider the uncertainties in such correction decisions and compute an estimate of the original "uncorrupted" document language model accordingly. The document language model can then be used for retrieval with a language modeling retrieval approach. Evaluation using the TREC standard testing collections indicates that our method significantly improves the performance compared with simple word correction approaches such as using only the top ranked correction.

  1. Query Performance Prediction for Information Retrieval Based on Covering Topic Score

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Lang; Bin Wang; Gareth Jones; Jin-Tao Li; Fan Ding; Yi-Xuan Liu

    2008-01-01

    We present a statistical method called Covering Topic Score (CTS) to predict query performance for information retrieval. Estimation is based on how well the topic of a user's query is covered by documents retrieved from a certain retrieval system. Our approach is conceptually simple and intuitive, and can be easily extended to incorporate features beyond bag-of-words such as phrases and proximity of terms. Experiments demonstrate that CTS significantly correlates with query performance in a variety of TREC test collections, and in particular CTS gains more prediction power benefiting from features of phrases and proximity of terms. We compare CTS with previous state-of-the-art methods for query performance prediction including clarity score and robustness score. Our experimental results show that CTS consistently performs better than, or at least as well as, these other methods. In addition to its high effectiveness, CTS is also shown to have very low computational complexity, meaning that it can be practical for real applications.

  2. Monitoring every last trace

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is set to reach a record energy of 6.5 TeV per beam next year and will therefore be producing high energy radiation, as will the injectors supplying it. When exposed to this radiation, some equipment could potentially become radioactive and must therefore be carefully identified and monitored... this is where TREC comes in: software developed by CERN and currently being deployed in our accelerators.   If it becomes slightly radioactive, some of the equipment that makes up CERN’s accelerators may potentially become a hazard to the people who handle or work near it. Even though the risk is usually very low, CERN is obliged to record the location of this equipment, identify it and deal with it in an appropriate manner. During LS1 for example, almost 30,000 radiation protection checks were carried out on more than 2,500 tonnes of equipment! In 2009, going one step further in monitoring this equipment and making the Laboratory even safer, Luca Bruno, then the Radiation Safety Of...

  3. New Retrieval Method Based on Relative Entropy for Language Modeling with Different Smoothing Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Hua; Liu Junqiang; Feng Boqin

    2006-01-01

    A language model for information retrieval is built by using a query language model to generate queries and a document language model to generate documents. The documents are ranked according to the relative entropies of estimated document language models with respect to the estimated query language model. Two popular and relatively efficient smoothing methods, the JelinekMercer method and the absolute discounting method, are used to smooth the document language model in estimation of the document language. A combined model composed of the feedback document language model and the collection language model is used to estimate the query model. A performacne comparison between the new retrieval method and the existing method with feedback is made,and the retrieval performances of the proposed method with the two different smoothing techniques are evaluated on three Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) data sets. Experimental results show that the method is effective and performs better than the basic language modeling approach; moreover, the method using the Jelinek-Mercer technique performs better than that using the absolute discounting technique, and the perfomance is sensitive to the smoothing paramters.

  4. Warm dusty discs: Exploring the A star 24um debris population

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, R

    2010-01-01

    (Abridged) Studies of debris discs have shown that most systems are analogous to the EKB. In this study we aim to determine how many IRAS 25um excesses towards A stars are real, and investigate where the dust lies. We observe with TIMMI2, VISIR, Michelle and TReCS a sample of A and B-type main sequence stars reported as having mid-IR excess. We constrain the location of the debris through combined modelling of the emission spectrum and a modelling technique designed to constrain the radial extent of emission in mid-IR imaging. We independently confirm the presence of warm dust around 3 of the candidates: HD3003, HD80950 and eta Tel. For the binary HD3003 a stability analysis indicates the dust is either circumstellar and lying at ~4 AU with the binary orbiting at >14AU, or the dust lies in an unstable location; there is some evidence for temporal evolution of its excess emission on a ~20 year timescale. For 7 of the targets we present quantitative limits on the location of dust around the star. We demonstrate...

  5. Spatially-resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy of IC 5063

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    S. Young

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available N-band spectroscopy of the radio strong Seyfert 2 active galaxy IC 5063 (z=0.0110 was obtained using Gemini South in conjunc- tion with the Thermal-Region Camera Spec- trograph (T-ReCS; Telesco et al. 1998. T- ReCS uses a Raytheon 320x240 pixel SiAs IBC array, at a plate scale of 0.08900 pixel-1. The observations were conducted on the nights of UT 2005 July 7 and 9 using the standard chop-nod technique to remove the time-variable sky background, telescope ther- mal emission, and the so-called 1/f detector noise. A 0.6700 wide slit was used aligned along the position angle of the radio axis at 305o(Morganti et al. 1998 and close to the extended narrow line emission region (ENLR axis at 303_(Colina et al. 1991. The total on- source integration time was 1212 seconds.

  6. Mining Sequential Update Summarization with Hierarchical Text Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of unexpected news events such as large human accident or natural disaster brings about a new information access problem where traditional approaches fail. Mostly, news of these events shows characteristics that are early sparse and later redundant. Hence, it is very important to get updates and provide individuals with timely and important information of these incidents during their development, especially when being applied in wireless and mobile Internet of Things (IoT. In this paper, we define the problem of sequential update summarization extraction and present a new hierarchical update mining system which can broadcast with useful, new, and timely sentence-length updates about a developing event. The new system proposes a novel method, which incorporates techniques from topic-level and sentence-level summarization. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, we apply it to the task of sequential update summarization of temporal summarization (TS track at Text Retrieval Conference (TREC 2013 to compute four measurements of the update mining system: the expected gain, expected latency gain, comprehensiveness, and latency comprehensiveness. Experimental results show that our proposed method has good performance.

  7. 对几种倒排文件压缩技术的研究与分析%Research and Analysis on Five Inverted Files Compression Techiques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎; 王潜平

    2006-01-01

    要提高文件检索系统的性能,需要对倒排文件压缩技术进行研究与对比,以使文件检索系统在最大压缩比和最快的解压速度间寻找均衡,以到达最大的吞吐量.对Golomb,Elias gamma,Elias delta,Variable Byte Encoding和Binary Interpolative Coding五种压缩技术通过在Windows操作系统下对the TREC Wall Street Journal collection文件系统进行存取与压缩,从CPU时钟周期角度来对比各个算法的压缩比、压缩与解压缩的时间和对文件的读取和查询所花费的时间,并对它们进行了一个综合的评测.

  8. Anaerobic performance when rehydrating with water or commercially available sports drinks during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coso, Juan Del; Estevez, Emma; Baquero, Raúl Antonio; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2008-04-01

    The effects that rehydrating drinks ingested during exercise may have on anaerobic exercise performance are unclear. This study aimed to determine which of four commercial rehydrating drinks better maintains leg power and force during prolonged cycling in the heat. Seven endurance-trained and heat-acclimatized cyclists pedaled for 120 min at 63% maximum oxygen consumption in a hot, dry environment (36 degrees C; 29% humidity, 1.9 m.s-1 airflow). In five randomized trials, during exercise, subjects drank 2.4 +/- 0.1 L of (i) mineral water (WAT; San Benedetto), (ii) 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (Gatorade lemon), (iii) 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (Powerade Citrus Charge), (iv) 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution with lower sodium concentration than other sports drinks (Aquarius orange), or (v) did not ingest any fluid (DEH). Fluid balance, rectal temperature (Trec), maximal cycling power (Pmax), and leg maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) were measured. During DEH, subjects lost 3.7 +/- 0.2% of initial body mass, whereas subjects lost only 0.8% +/- 0.1% in the other trials (p rehydration with commercially available sports drinks during prolonged exercise in the heat preserves leg force, whereas rehydrating with water does not. However, low sodium concentration in a sports drink seems to preclude its ergogenic effects on force.

  9. A mid-infrared exploration of the dusty environments of active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena

    2013-01-01

    We present the first results from a mid-infrared survey of local Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) using the CanariCam (CC) instrument on the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). We are obtaining sub-arcsecond angular resolution (0.3-0.6 arcsec) mid-IR imaging and spectroscopic observations of a sample of 100 local AGN, which are complemented with data taken with T-ReCS, VISIR, and Michelle. The full sample contains approximately 140 AGN, covers nearly six orders of magnitude in AGN luminosity, and includes low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN), Seyfert 1s and 2s, QSO, radio galaxies, and (U)LIRGs. The main goals of this project are: (1) to test whether the properties of the dusty tori of the AGN Unified Model depend on the AGN type, (2) to study the nuclear star formation activity and obscuration of local AGN, and (3) to explore the role of the dusty torus in LLAGN.

  10. Lenalidomide consolidation and maintenance therapy after autologous stem cell transplant for multiple myeloma induces persistent changes in T-cell homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clave, Emmanuel; Douay, Corinne; Coman, Tereza; Busson, Marc; Bompoint, Caroline; Moins-Teisserenc, Helene; Glauzy, Salomé; Carmagnat, Maryvonnick; Gorin, Norbert Claude; Toubert, Antoine; Garderet, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    Whether the efficacy of lenalidomide in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) is due to direct tumor toxicity only or to additional immunomodulatory effects is unclear. We studied the effect of lenalidomide treatment on T-cell immune reconstitution in patients with MM who had undergone autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant (ASCT). Twenty-nine newly diagnosed patients with MM received induction therapy followed by high-dose melphalan and ASCT. After ASCT, 11 patients received lenalidomide consolidation therapy for 2 months followed by maintenance therapy until disease progression. The remaining 18 patients received no treatment. Serial analysis of thymic output, as given by numbers of T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTRECs), and T-cell phenotyping was performed until 18 months post-ASCT. Lenalidomide impaired long-term thymic T-cell reconstitution, decreased CD4 + and CD8 + CD45RA + CCR7 - effector-terminal T-cell absolute counts and increased CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - /low regulatory T-cells. Lenalidomide consolidation and long-term maintenance therapy, administered post-ASCT, may have a potentially negative impact on immune surveillance.

  11. The case for mandatory newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, H B; Hammarström, L; Mahlaoui, N; Borte, M; Borte, S

    2014-05-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most severe form of inherited primary immunodeficiency and is a paediatric emergency. Delay in recognising and detecting SCID can have fatal consequences and also reduces the chances of a successful haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Screening for SCID at birth would prevent children from dying before HSCT can be attempted and would increase the success of HSCT. There is strong evidence to show that SCID fulfills the internationally-established criteria for a condition to be screened for at birth. There is also a test (the T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay) that is now being successfully used in an increasing number of US states to screen for SCID in routine newborn Guthrie samples. Concerted lobbying efforts have highlighted the need for newborn screening (NBS) for SCID, and its implementation is being discussed in Europe both at EU and individual country level, but as yet there is no global mandate to screen for this rare and frequently lethal condition. This paper summarizes the current evidence for, and the success of SCID NBS, together with a review of the practical aspects of SCID testing and the arguments in favour of adding SCID to the conditions screened for at birth.

  12. The Mineralogy and Structure of the Inner Debris Disk of {\\beta} Pictoris

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dan; Wright, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    We observed the edge-on, planet-bearing disk of {\\beta} Pictoris using T-ReCS at Gemini to clarify and extend previous observations and conclusions about this unique system. Our spectroscopy and spectral modeling of the 10-micron silicate feature constrain the spatial distributions of three representative dust components (0.1-micron/2.0-micron glassy olivine and crystalline forsterite) across the inner 20-AU of the disk. We confirm that the 2.0-micron glassy olivine is strongly peaked in the disk center and that the 0.1-micron glassy olivine does not show this concentration, but rather is double peaked, with the peaks on either side of the star. However, we do not see the strong difference in brightness between those two peaks reported in a previous study. Although the spatial distribution of the 0.1-micron dust is consistent with the scenario of a dust-replenishing planetesimal belt embedded in the disk, we note an alternative interpretation that can explain the spatial distributions of the 0.1-micron and 2....

  13. A Possible Icy Kuiper Belt around HD 181327

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Christine H; Smith, Paul S

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained a Gemini South T-ReCS Qa-band (18.3 micron) image and a Spitzer MIPS SED-mode observation of HD181327, an F5/F6V member of the ~12 Myr old beta Pictoris moving group. We resolve the disk in thermal-emission for the first time and find that the northern arm of the disk is 1.4x brighter than the southern arm. In addition, we detect a broad peak in the combined Spitzer IRS and MIPS spectra at 60 - 75 micron that may be produced by emission from crystalline water ice. We model the IRS and MIPS data using a size distribution of amorphous olivine and water ice grains (dn/da proportional to a^{-2.25} with a_{min} consistent with the minimum blow out size and a_{max} = 20 micron) located at a distance of 86.3 AU from the central star, as observed in previously published scattered-light images. Since the photo-desorption lifetime for the icy particles is ~1400 yr, significantly less than the estimated ~12 Myr age of the system, we hypothesize that we have detected debris that may be steadily replenish...

  14. Can POCIS be used in Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) monitoring networks? A study focusing on pesticides in a French agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulier, Gaëlle; Lissalde, Sophie; Charriau, Adeline; Buzier, Rémy; Delmas, François; Gery, Kéwin; Moreira, Aurélie; Guibaud, Gilles; Mazzella, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the main current limitations in the application of the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) in regulatory monitoring programmes were evaluated. POCIS were exposed from March to December by successive periods of 14 days in the River Trec (Lot et Garonne, France) and analysed for 34 pesticides. The study of the uncertainty related to the POCIS data was performed and we concluded that it might be up to 138%, which is higher than European Union requirements but this issue was adequately counterbalanced by the gain of temporal representativeness. Comparison with data from the official monitoring programme from the French Water Agency showed that the POCIS is already suitable for both operational and investigative monitoring. The sampled fraction issue, and then compliance with Environmental Quality Standards, was also addressed. It was confirmed that POCIS samples only the dissolved fraction of dimethenamid and showed that for compounds like atrazine, desethylatrazine and metolachlor, the POCIS concentration is equivalent to the whole water concentration. For dimethenamid, which exhibited a tendency to adsorb on suspended matter, a method was suggested to assess the raw water concentration from the POCIS measure. Finally, an innovative procedure for using passive sampler data for compliance checks in the framework of surveillance monitoring is proposed.

  15. Concentrating on Solar Power in a Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieb, F.; Kronshage, S.; Knies, G.

    2004-12-01

    Combining the large demand of clean electricity in Europe (EU) with the large potential of solar electricity generation from concentrating solar power stations (CSP) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) can provide both climate protection and development for both regions and lead to environmental, economical and social sustainability. The presentation will address the concept of solar cogeneration of electricity and desalted water and the scope of generating clean power for MENA and Europe while providing large quantities of freshwater for the MENA countries. Costs and benefits of the concept will be quantified, and the first steps to realisation within the Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation TREC are presented. After running through the technology learning curve within about 10-15 years, concentrated solar electricity will be generated at a cost of roughly 4 ct/kWh. Importing solar power from North Africa to Europe, will add 1 ct/kWh, thus being competitive with new fuel fired plants. The total initial support of about 1 billion € needed to trigger CSP market introduction and to achieve forever low electricity costs in the EU and MENA, equals 25 % of the German annual coal subsidies, 1 month of EU agronomic-subsidies or 1 day of US military expenses and could be provided in form of public investment, soft loans or feed-in guaranties like the German Renewable Energy Act.

  16. What Can Pictures Tell Us About Web Pages? Improving Document Search Using Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vaamonde, Sergio; Torresani, Lorenzo; Fitzgibbon, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Traditional Web search engines do not use the images in the HTML pages to find relevant documents for a given query. Instead, they typically operate by computing a measure of agreement between the keywords provided by the user and only the text portion of each page. In this paper we study whether the content of the pictures appearing in a Web page can be used to enrich the semantic description of an HTML document and consequently boost the performance of a keyword-based search engine. We present a Web-scalable system that exploits a pure text-based search engine to find an initial set of candidate documents for a given query. Then, the candidate set is reranked using visual information extracted from the images contained in the pages. The resulting system retains the computational efficiency of traditional text-based search engines with only a small additional storage cost needed to encode the visual information. We test our approach on one of the TREC Million Query Track benchmarks where we show that the exploitation of visual content yields improvement in accuracies for two distinct text-based search engines, including the system with the best reported performance on this benchmark. We further validate our approach by collecting document relevance judgements on our search results using Amazon Mechanical Turk. The results of this experiment confirm the improvement in accuracy produced by our image-based reranker over a pure text-based system.

  17. Semantic Question Generation Using Artificial Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim E. Fattoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes an automatic question generation model for evaluating the understanding of semantic attributes in a sentence. The Semantic Role Labeling and Named Entity Recognition are used as a preprocessing step to convert the input sentence into a semantic pattern. The Artificial Immune System is used to build a classifier that will be able to classify the patterns according to the question type in the training phase. The question types considered here are the set of WH-questions like who, when, where, why, and how. A pattern matching phase is applied for selecting the best matching question pattern for the test sentence. The proposed model is tested against a set of sentences obtained from many sources such as the TREC 2007 dataset for question answering, Wikipedia articles, and English book of grade II preparatory. The experimental results of the proposed model are promising in determining the question type with classification accuracy reaching 95%, and 87% in generating the new question patterns.

  18. Real-time PCR based on SYBR-Green I fluorescence: An alternative to the TaqMan assay for a relative quantification of gene rearrangements, gene amplifications and micro gene deletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puisieux Alain

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR is increasingly being adopted for RNA quantification and genetic analysis. At present the most popular real-time PCR assay is based on the hybridisation of a dual-labelled probe to the PCR product, and the development of a signal by loss of fluorescence quenching as PCR degrades the probe. Though this so-called 'TaqMan' approach has proved easy to optimise in practice, the dual-labelled probes are relatively expensive. Results We have designed a new assay based on SYBR-Green I binding that is quick, reliable, easily optimised and compares well with the published assay. Here we demonstrate its general applicability by measuring copy number in three different genetic contexts; the quantification of a gene rearrangement (T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells; the detection and quantification of GLI, MYC-C and MYC-N gene amplification in cell lines and cancer biopsies; and detection of deletions in the OPA1 gene in dominant optic atrophy. Conclusion Our assay has important clinical applications, providing accurate diagnostic results in less time, from less biopsy material and at less cost than assays currently employed such as FISH or Southern blotting.

  19. Infrared Observations of the Quintuplet Proper Members using SOFIA/FORCAST and Gemini/TReCS

    CERN Document Server

    Hankins, Matthew J; Morris, Mark R; Sanchez-Bermudez, Joel; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Adams, Joseph D; Herter, Terry L

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, the Quintuplet proper members (QPMs) have been somewhat mysterious in nature. Originally dubbed the "cocoon stars" due to their cool featureless spectra, high-resolution near-infrared imaging observations have shown that at least two of the objects exhibit "pinwheel" nebulae consistent with binary systems with a carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet star and O/B companion. In this paper, we present 19.7, 25.2, 31.5, and 37.1 $\\mu$m observations of the QPMs (with an angular resolution of 3.2-3.8") taken with the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) in conjunction with high-resolution ($\\sim$0.1-0.2") images at 8.8 and 11.7 $\\mu$m from the Thermal-Region Camera Spectrograph (TReCS). DUSTY models of the thermal dust emission of two of the four detected QPMs, Q2 and Q3, are fitted by radial density profiles which are consistent with constant mass loss rates ($\\rho_d \\propto r^{-2}$). For the two remaining sources, Q1 and Q9, extended structures ($\\sim$ 1") are detected around the...

  20. A multiple relevance feedback strategy with positive and negative models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Ma

    Full Text Available A commonly used strategy to improve search accuracy is through feedback techniques. Most existing work on feedback relies on positive information, and has been extensively studied in information retrieval. However, when a query topic is difficult and the results from the first-pass retrieval are very poor, it is impossible to extract enough useful terms from a few positive documents. Therefore, the positive feedback strategy is incapable to improve retrieval in this situation. Contrarily, there is a relatively large number of negative documents in the top of the result list, and it has been confirmed that negative feedback strategy is an important and useful way for adapting this scenario by several recent studies. In this paper, we consider a scenario when the search results are so poor that there are at most three relevant documents in the top twenty documents. Then, we conduct a novel study of multiple strategies for relevance feedback using both positive and negative examples from the first-pass retrieval to improve retrieval accuracy for such difficult queries. Experimental results on these TREC collections show that the proposed language model based multiple model feedback method which is generally more effective than both the baseline method and the methods using only positive or negative model.

  1. From the field to the classroom: Connecting climate research to classroom lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, R.; Steiner, S. M.; Coleman, L.

    2015-12-01

    Improving scientific literacy is a goal in the United States. Scientists from the United States are often expected to present research findings in ways that are meaningful and accessible to the general public, including K-12 students. PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program funded by the National Science Foundation, partners teachers with scientists in the Arctic and Antarctica. Teachers communicate the research to general audiences on a regular basis. After the field experience, they then create classroom-ready lessons to relay the science exploration into science curriculum. In this presentation, secondary level educators, will share their experiences with being part of field research teams in the Arctic and Antarctica, and their strategies for bringing current science research into the classroom and aligning lessons with Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Topics include an overview on using polar science to teach about climate change, application of field research techniques to improve students' understanding of scientific investigation methodology, phenology observations, soil porosity and permeability, litter decomposition, effect of sunlight on release of carbon dioxide from thawing permafrost, and understanding early life on Earth by studying stromatolites in Antarctica.

  2. Computation on Sentence Semantic Distance for Novelty Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Ping Zhang; Jian Sun; Bing Wang; Shuo Bai

    2005-01-01

    Novelty detection is to retrieve new information and filter redundancy from given sentences that are relevant to a specific topic. In TREC2003, the authors tried an approach to novelty detection with semantic distance computation.The motivation is to expand a sentence by introducing semantic information. Computation on semantic distance between sentences incorporates WordNet with statistical information. The novelty detection is treated as a binary classification problem: new sentence or not. The feature vector, used in the vector space model for classification, consists of various factors, including the semantic distance from the sentence to the topic and the distance from the sentence to the previous relevant context occurring before it. New sentences are then detected with Winnow and support vector machine classifiers,respectively. Several experiments are conducted to survey the relationship between different factors and performance. It is proved that semantic computation is promising in novelty detection. The ratio of new sentence size to relevant size is further studied given different relevant document sizes. It is found that the ratio reduced with a certain speed (about 0.86).Then another group of experiments is performed supervised with the ratio. It is demonstrated that the ratio is helpful to improve the novelty detection performance.

  3. A novel deletion mutation in IL2RG gene results in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency with an atypical phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Wenjun; He, Jianxin; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Hui; Ren, Xiaoya; Wu, Xunyao; Ni, Xin; Xu, Baoping; Gui, Jingang

    2017-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most serious disorder among primary immunodeficiency diseases threatening children's life. Atypical SCID variant, presenting with mild reduced T cells subsets, is often associated with infection susceptibility but poor clinical diagnosis. The atypical X-SCID patient in the present study showed a mild clinical presentation with a T(low)NK(+)B(+) immunophenotype. The patient has reduced T- cell subpopulations with a subdued thymic output measured by sjTRECs. Further analysis showed that T cells maintained a normal proliferation and a broad Vβ repertoire. NK cells, however, exhibited a skewed development toward immature CD3(-)CD16(+)CD56(-) cells. Genetic analysis revealed a novel deletion at nucleotide 52 in exon 1 of IL2RG gene. Sequence alignment predicted a truncated IL2RG protein missing signal peptide derived from a possible alternative reading frame. The novel mutation in IL2RG gene identified in our study may help the early diagnosis of atypical X-SCID.

  4. INFORMATION RETRIEVAL FOR SHORT DOCUMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Haoliang; Li Mu; Gao Jianfeng; Li Sheng

    2006-01-01

    The major problem of the most current approaches of information models lies in that individual words provide unreliable evidence about the content of the texts. When the document is short, e.g. only the abstract is available, the word-use variability problem will have substantial impact on the Information Retrieval (IR) performance. To solve the problem, a new technology to short document retrieval named Reference Document Model (RDM) is put forward in this letter. RDM gets the statistical semantic of the query/document by pseudo feedback both for the query and document from reference documents. The contributions of this model are three-fold: (1) Pseudo feedback both for the query and the document; (2) Building the query model and the document model from reference documents; (3) Flexible indexing units, which can be any linguistic elements such as documents, paragraphs, sentences, n-grams, term or character. For short document retrieval, RDM achieves significant improvements over the classical probabilistic models on the task of ad hoc retrieval on Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) test sets. Results also show that the shorter the document, the better the RDM performance.

  5. Resolved Imaging of the HD191089 Debris Disc

    CERN Document Server

    Churcher, Laura J; Smith, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Two thirds of the F star members of the 12 Myr old Beta Pictoris Moving Group (BPMG) show significant excess emission in the mid-infrared, several million years after the expected dispersal of the protoplanetary disc. Theoretical models of planet formation suggest that this peak in the mid-infrared emission could be due to the formation of Pluto-sized bodies in the disc, which ignite the collisional cascade and enhance the production of small dust. Here we present resolved mid-infrared imaging of the disc of HD191089 (F5V in the BPMG) and consider its implications for the state of planet formation in this system. HD191089 was observed at 18.3 microns using T-ReCS on Gemini South and the images were compared to models of the disc to constrain the radial distribution of the dust. The emission observed at $18.3\\umu m$ is shown to be significantly extended beyond the PSF at a position angle of 80 degrees. This is the first time dust emission has been resolved around HD191089. Modelling indicates that the emission...

  6. Decreases in thymopoiesis of astronauts returning from space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Cara L.; Stowe, Raymond P.; St. John, Lisa; Sams, Clarence F.; Mehta, Satish K.; Crucian, Brian E.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2016-01-01

    Following the advent of molecular assays that measure T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) present in recent thymic emigrants, it has been conclusively shown that thymopoiesis persists in most adults, but that functional output decreases with age, influencing the maintenance of a diverse and functional T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Space flight has been shown to result in a variety of phenotypic and functional changes in human T cells and in the reactivation of latent viruses. While space flight has been shown to influence thymic architecture in rodents, thymopoiesis has not previously been assessed in astronauts. Here, we assessed thymopoiesis longitudinally over a 1-year period prior to and after long-term space flight (median duration, 184 days) in 16 astronauts. While preflight assessments of thymopoiesis remained quite stable in individual astronauts, we detected significant suppression of thymopoiesis in all subjects upon return from space flight. We also found significant increases in urine and plasma levels of endogenous glucocorticoids coincident with the suppression of thymopoiesis. The glucocorticoid induction and thymopoiesis suppression were transient, and they normalized shortly after return to Earth. This is the first report to our knowledge to prospectively demonstrate a significant change in thymopoiesis in healthy individuals in association with a defined physiologic emotional and physical stress event. These results suggest that suppression of thymopoiesis has the potential to influence the maintenance of the TCR repertoire during extended space travel. Further studies of thymopoiesis and endogenous glucocorticoids in other stress states, including illness, are warranted. PMID:27699228

  7. Augmenting performance feedback does not affect 4 km cycling time-trials in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mark; Villerius, Vincent; Murphy, Aron

    2015-01-01

    We compared the effects of (1) accurate and (2) surreptitiously augmented performance feedback on power output and physiological responses to a 4000 m time-trial in the heat. Nine cyclists completed a baseline (BaseL) 4000 m time-trial in ambient temperatures of 30°C, followed by two further 4000 m time-trials at the same temperature, randomly assigning the participants to an accurate (ACC; accurate feedback of baseline) or deceived (DEC; 2% increase above baseline) feedback group. The total power output (PO) and aerobic (Paer) and anaerobic (Pan) contributions were determined at 0.4 km stages during the time-trials, alongside measurements of rectal (Trec) and skin (Tskin) temperatures. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in any of the variables between BaseL, ACC and DEC, despite increases (P 0.05) between feedback condition and time-trial stage. Providing surreptitiously augmented performance feedback to well-trained cyclists did not alter their performance or physiological responses to a 4000 m time-trial in a hot environment. The assumed influence of augmented performance feedback was nullified in the heat, perhaps reflecting a central down-regulation of exercise intensity in response to an increased body temperature.

  8. Thermal Dust Emission from Proplyds, Unresolved Disks, and Shocks in the Orion Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, N; Shuping, R Y; Morris, M; Kassis, M; Smith, Nathan; Bally, John; Shuping, Ralph Y.; Morris, Mark; Kassis, Marc

    2005-01-01

    We present a new 11.7 micron mosaic image of the Orion nebula obtained with T-ReCS on Gemini South. The map includes the BN/KL region, the Trapezium, and OMC-1 South. Excluding BN/KL, we detect 91 point sources, with 27 known proplyds and over 30 ``naked'' stars showing no extended structure in HST images. Within the region we surveyed, 80 percent of known proplyds show detectable emission, almost 40 percent of naked stars are detected at 11.7 micron, and the fraction of all visible sources with IR excess emission is roughly 50 percent. Thermal dust emission from stars with no extended structure in HST images means that they have dust disks comparable to the size of our solar system. Proplyds and stars with IR excess show a clear anti-correlation in their spatial distribution, with proplyds clustered close to theta1C, and other infrared sources found farther away. We suspect that the clustered proplyds trace the youngest 0.5 Myr age group associated with the Trapezium, while the more uniformly-distributed sou...

  9. Dust in the SN1987A-analog SBW1 in Carina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2009-02-01

    Last year Smith et al. (2007) reported the discovery of a new equatorial ring nebula, called SBW1, around a blue supergiant seen in the Carina Nebula. It has morphology and physical dimensions almost identical to the ring around SN1987A and it surrounds an early B supergiant that is a virtual twin ofthe progenitor of SN1987A. However, it is more than 20 times closer than SN1987A, and therefore shows the detailed structure of this unusual type of ring nebula in much greater detail, before the star explodes. Resolving the structure in this nebula will inform our understanding of non-spherical mass loss from supernova progenitor stars in general, and will constrain models of SN1987A as its blast wave continues to interact with its circumstellar ring. This proposal aims to obtain mid-IR images and spectroscopy of SBW1 with T-ReCS on Gemini South in order to determine the dust properties in the nebula, such as its physical location, temperature, mass, and composition, for comparison with the dust properties of SN1987A's ring and also with the circumstellar dust properties of other blue supergiants like B[e] stars. These IR data are also needed to understand the relationship between warm dust and the ionized gas structures that will be resolved in our accepted program to obtain WFC3 and STIS data with HST.

  10. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2007-02-15

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  11. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  12. Eukaryotic expression system Pichia pastoris affects the lipase catalytic properties: a monolayer study.

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    Madiha Bou Ali

    Full Text Available Recombinant DNA methods are being widely used to express proteins in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells for both fundamental and applied research purposes. Expressed protein must be well characterized to be sure that it retains the same properties as the native one, especially when expressed protein will be used in the pharmaceutical field. In this aim, interfacial and kinetic properties of native, untagged recombinant and tagged recombinant forms of a pancreatic lipase were compared using the monomolecular film technique. Turkey pancreatic lipase (TPL was chosen as model. A kinetic study on the dependence of the stereoselectivity of these three forms on the surface pressure was performed using three dicaprin isomers spread in the form of monomolecular films at the air-water interface. The heterologous expression and the N-His-tag extension were found to modify the pressure preference and decrease the catalytic hydrolysis rate of three dicaprin isomers. Besides, the heterologous expression was found to change the TPL regioselectivity without affecting its stereospecificity contrary to the N-tag extension which retained that regioselectivity and changed the stereospecificity at high surface pressures. The study of parameters, termed Recombinant expression Effects on Catalysis (REC, N-Tag Effects on Catalysis (TEC, and N-Tag and Recombinant expression Effects on Catalysis (TREC showed that the heterologous expression effects on the catalytic properties of the TPL were more deleterious than the presence of an N-terminal tag extension.

  13. Paclitaxel stimulates chromosomal fusion and instability in cells with dysfunctional telomeres: Implication in multinucleation and chemosensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong-Eun [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Seon Rang [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang-Mo [Laboratory of Cytogenetics and Tissue Regeneration, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Juhn, Kyoung-Mi; Ju, Yeun-Jin; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Park, Eun Ran; Park, In-chul; Hong, Sung Hee; Hwang, Sang-Gu [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Kee [Department of Life Science and Genetic Engineering, Paichai University, Daejeon 302-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Kwon [Department of Biotechnology, Seoul Woman' s University, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung-Haing [Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-74-2 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Gil Hong [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kee-Ho, E-mail: khlee@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Paclitaxel serves as a stimulator of chromosomal fusion in cells in which telomeres are dysfunctional. {yields} Typical fusions involve p-arms, but paclitaxel-induced fusions occur between both q- and p-arms. {yields} Paclitaxel-stimulated fusions in cells in which telomeres are dysfunctional evoke prolonged G2/M cell cycle arrest and delay multinucleation. {yields} Upon telomere erosion, paclitaxel promotes chromosomal instability and subsequent apoptosis. {yields} Chromosomal fusion enhances paclitaxel chemosensitivity under telomere dysfunction. -- Abstract: The anticancer effect of paclitaxel is attributable principally to irreversible promotion of microtubule stabilization and is hampered upon development of chemoresistance by tumor cells. Telomere shortening, and eventual telomere erosion, evoke chromosomal instability, resulting in particular cellular responses. Using telomerase-deficient cells derived from mTREC-/-p53-/- mice, here we show that, upon telomere erosion, paclitaxel propagates chromosomal instability by stimulating chromosomal end-to-end fusions and delaying the development of multinucleation. The end-to-end fusions involve both the p- and q-arms in cells in which telomeres are dysfunctional. Paclitaxel-induced chromosomal fusions were accompanied by prolonged G2/M cell cycle arrest, delayed multinucleation, and apoptosis. Telomere dysfunctional cells with mutlinucleation eventually underwent apoptosis. Thus, as telomere erosion proceeds, paclitaxel stimulates chromosomal fusion and instability, and both apoptosis and chemosensitization eventually develop.

  14. Preparation of High Modulus Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate: Influence of Molecular Weight, Extrusion, and Drawing Parameters

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    Jian Min Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET which is one of the most commercially important polymers, has for many years been an interesting candidate for the production of high performance fibres and tapes. In current study, we focus on investigating the effects of the various processing variables on the mechanical properties of PET produced by a distinctive process of melt spinning and uniaxial two-stage solid-state drawing (SSD. These processing variables include screw rotation speed during extrusion, fibre take-up speed, molecular weight, draw-ratio, and drawing temperature. As-spun PET production using a single-screw extrusion process was first optimized to induce an optimal polymer microstructure for subsequent drawing processes. It was found that less crystallization which occurred during this process would lead to better drawability, higher draw-ratio, and mechanical properties in the subsequent SSD process. Then the effect of drawing temperature (DT in uniaxial two-stage SSD process was studied to understand how DT (Trec would affect the crystallization, draw-ratio, and final mechanical properties of PET. The designed process in current work is simulated to an industrial production process for PET fibres; therefore, results and analysis in this paper have significant importance for industrial production.

  15. Mid-infrared sub-arcsecond spectroscopy of active galaxy nuclei

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    Patrick F. Roche

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Presento observaciones espectroscópicas recientes de AGN cercanos obtenidas en 8-13 m con TReCS en Gemini-S. Las observaciones revelan variaciones en la profundidad de absorción en escalas de subsegundos de arco en Circinus y NGC 5506 y delinean las regiones de gas ionizado y la región de emisión PAH en Circinus. Varias galaxias activas cercanas muestran evidencias estructuras circunnucleares de polvo, resueltas con tamaños de decenas de parsecs. Los perfiles de absorción de silicato hacia los núcleos más fuertemente oscurecidos son más angostos que aquellos de las galaxias con (9:7_m < 3, reejando posiblemente tamaños de los granos en promedio mayores que los de estas últimas, como resultado de la destrucción de los granos más pequeños por el AGN.

  16. LEAF LITTER BREAKDOWN RATES AND ASSOCIATED FAUNA OF NATIVE AND EXOTIC TREES USED IN NEOTROPICAL RIPARIA REFORESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Gutiérrez Isaza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A signature of globalization is the prevalence of exotic trees along reforested urban and rural riparian zones in the Neotropics, but little is known about the instream processing of its leaf litter. In this study, leaf litter breakdown rates were measured during 35 days using mesh bags within a reference headwater stream for seven exotic and three native tree species commonly used in urban and rural reforestation. Artocarpus altilis, Schefflera actinophylla and Terminalia catappa scored the highest mass loss rates (>85 %; mean life: t50 85 %; vida media: t50 <15 d, mientras que las menores tasas las obtuvieron Cecropia sp. y Cespedesia macrophylla (pérdida de masa =36 y 15 %; t50 =58 y 153 d, respectivamente. Sin embargo, se observó una amplia gama de tasas de pérdida de masa entre las diez especies estudiadas. La proporción carbono:fósforo (C:P y la dureza de la hojarasca fueron los mejores predictores de las tasas de pérdida de masa. Sin embargo, estas características no se correlacionaron con los muy bajos valores de abundancia y diversidad de macroinvertebrados, y la escasez de morfotipos de insectos clasificados como fragmentadores. Por lo tanto, los controles físicos parecen ser más importantes que los biológicos para explicar la variabilidad de las tasas de pérdida de masa; y, las especies con tasas más bajas podrían estar proveyendo hábitat, más que alimento para las especies de insectos acuáticos, principalmente los recolectores. Este estudio sugiere que la reforestación ribereña propagará efectos específicos sobre los procesos dentro del cauce dependiendo de las especies de árbol plantadas mediados por la calidad de la hojarasca, los cuales deberían ser considerados para mejorar las estrategias de reforestación. Estudios futuros deben someter a prueba si existen diferencias en las tasas de fragmentación y colonización de macroinvertebrados entre especies de hojarasca de diferente origen (nativa vs. exótica.

  17. Fatores edáficos e as variações florísticas de um trecho de Mata Ciliar do Rio Gualaxo do Norte, Mariana, MG

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    Iolanda de Sena Gonçalves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a correlação entre a distribuição de espécies arbóreas ciliares do rio Gualaxo do Norte (S20°16'31,9" W43°26'15,3" e S20°16'30,6" W43°26'07,3" com fatores edáficos, assim como se existem espécies de ocorrência restrita à área de depleção ciliar que possam ser indicadas para recuperação de matas ciliares. As parcelas foram alocadas em 1 ha dividido em três blocos com declividades distintas. Todos os indivíduos com circunferência do tronco a 1,30 m do solo igual ou superior a 15 cm foram registrados e identificados. Foram coletadas cinco amostras simples de solo em cada parcela para análises químicas de fertilidade. A ordenação dos dados de solo e vegetação foi realizada pela análise de correspondência canônica (CCA, que indicou que variações na fertilidade, na acidez do solo e na altitude estavam influenciando a distribuição da vegetação arbórea ao longo do gradiente topográfico. Albizia hassleri, Bathysa meridionalis, Cariniana estrelensis, Casearia gossypiosperma, Casearia sp., Cecropia hololeuca, Himatanthus lancifolius, Luehea grandiflora, Picramnia sp., Platypodium elegans, Pseudopiptadenia contorta, Tibouchina candoleana e Virola oleifera são espécies adaptadas a condições edáficas com elevada acidez e fertilidade muito baixa, apresentando potencial para utilização em projetos de recuperação de áreas degradadas, principalmente de encostas e topo de morros. Já Casearia sylvestris, Dalbergia villosa, Dendropanax cuneatus, Machaerium aculeatum, Machaerium stiptatum, Ocotea odorifera, Ocotea pulchella, Rollinea longifolia, Schinus terebinthifolius, Tibouchina granulosa, Vernonia piptocarphoides e Vismia sp. estavam correlacionadas com solos menos ácidos, mais férteis e mais próximos ao rio, apresentando potencial para a restauração florestal em áreas ciliares.

  18. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Oscar; Vaughan, Christopher; Herrera, Geovanny; Guries, Raymond

    2011-12-01

    The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao), pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age) varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%), Coussapoa villosa (25.6%), Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%), Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8%) and Samanea saman (5.4%). However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%), S. saman (18.5%) and N. salicifolia (16.7%). The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches.

  19. Production of transgenic medaka with increased resistance to bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmasik, Aliye; Warr, Gregory; Chen, Thomas T

    2002-06-01

    Cecropins, first identified in silk moth (Hyalophora cecropia), are a group of antimicrobial peptides with bactericidal activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria. In this study we investigated whether (1) this group of antimicrobial peptides could exhibit bactericidal activity toward known fish bacterial pathogens and (2) expression of cecropin transgenes in transgenic medaka (Oryzias latipas) could result in increasing resistance of the transgenic fish to infection by fish bacterial pathogens. Cecropin gene construct containing silk moth preprocecropin B, procecropin B and cecropin B, and porcine cecropin P1 driven by a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter were transfected into chinook salmon embryonic cells (CHSE-214) by lipofection, and the resulting permanent transformants were collected. In an "inhibition zone" assay medium isolated from each transformant exhibited strong bactericidal activity toward known fish bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Vibrio anguillarum. The same cecropin transgene constructs were introduced into newly fertilized medaka eggs by electroporation to produce transgenic fish. About 40% to 60% of the embryos survived from electroporation, and about 5% to 11% of the surviving fish were shown to contain cecropin transgenes by polymerase chain reaction analysis of genomic DNA samples isolated from presumptive transgenic fish. These P1 transgenic fish were used as founder stocks, and following generations of successive breeding, a total of 20 F2 families of transgenic fish were established. Expression of cecropin transgenes was detected in the F2 transgenics by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA isolated from different F2 fish showed that cecropin transgenes were integrated into the genomes of F2 transgenic fish. To determine whether transgenic fish carrying cecropin transgenes could exhibit resistance to infection by known fish bacterial

  20. Bosques montanos-relictos en Kañaris (Lambayeque, Perú

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    Santos Llatas-Quiroz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En Kañaris (Lambayeque se encuentran grandes bosques relictos, probablemente los mayores de la vertiente occidental de los Andes peruanos. Actualmente están muy bien conservados, pero al mismo tiempo es la zona botánicamente menos estudiada de todos los bosques relictos de la zona. Estos bosques se ubican en las alturas de Upaypiteq y adyacentes a los flancos de la cordillera occidental de los Andes en la vertiente del Atlántico: Shin Shin, San Lorenzo, Huacapampa, Pandachí, Gramalote, Walte, Mollepampa; entre los 1500 a 3000 m sobre el nivel del mar, en el distrito de Kañaris (2300 m y los bosques de Chiñama y Luto en la vertiente del Pacífico. La presente investigación se emprendió con el objeto de estudiar científicamente, mediante muestreos florísticos, la vida y estructura de los componentes de los bosques de Upaypiteq. Las muestras conducen a un avance de la investigación, determinando que los principales componentes arbóreos corresponden a las Lauráceas: Persea, Ocotea y Nectandra, Cunoniáceas: Weinmannia, Podocarpáceas: Podocarpus, Cecropiáceas: Cecropia, Mirtáceas: Myrcianthes, Moráceas: Ficus, Rubiáceas: Cinchona, Bignoniáceas: Tabebuia, Arecáceas: Ceroxylon y, helechos arborescentes del género Nephelea. Circundantes a la masa boscosa se encuentran varias especies de arbustos, de los géneros Miconia, Munnozia, Baccharis, Senna, Colignonia, Gaiadendron, Oreopanax, etc.; también en la estructura es muy frecuente las epífitas y lianas ascendentes: Bromeliáceas, Orquídeas, Heliconias, Aráceas, musgos. Los helechos herbáceos, hongos, líquenes gelatinosos, hepáticas, Balanoforáceas y Begonias, tapizan por completo el piso boscoso. La composición florística es similar al bosque de Cutervo y los bosques de la Vertiente Oriental de los Andes, que a los demás bosques relictos en la Vertiente Occidental. La presencia de estos bosques se debe preservar, por su importancia en los procesos ecológicos para la

  1. LEAF LITTER MASS LOSS RATES AND ASSOCIATED FAUNA OF TREE SPECIES COMMONLY USED IN NEOTROPICAL RIPARIAN REFORESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN F. BLANCO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las señales más evidentes de la globalización es la prevalencia de especies de árboles exóticos a lo largo de las zonas ribereñas urbanas y rurales del Neotrópico, pero poco se sabe sobre el procesamiento de su hojarasca dentro de las quebradas. En este estudio se midieron las tasas de pérdida de masa de la hojarasca usando bolsas de angeo en una quebrada de referencia durante 35 días, para siete especies exóticas y tres nativas comúnmente usadas en la reforestación urbana y rural. Artocarpus altilis, Schefflera actinophylla y Terminalia catappa obtuvieron las mayores tasas de pérdida de masa (>85 %; vida media: t50 <15 d, mientras que las menores tasas las obtuvieron Cecropia sp. y Cespedesia macrophylla (pérdida de masa =36 y 15 %; t50 =58 y 153 d, respectivamente. Sin embargo, se observó una amplia gama de tasas de pérdida de masa entre las diez especies estudiadas. La proporción carbono:fósforo (C:P y la dureza de la hojarasca fueron los mejores predictores de las tasas de pérdida de masa. Sin embargo, estas caracte- rísticas no se correlacionaron con los muy bajos valores de abundancia y diversidad de macroinvertebrados, y la escasez de morfotipos de insectos clasificados como fragmenta- dores. Por lo tanto, los controles físicos parecen ser más im- portantes que los biológicos para explicar la variabilidad de las tasas de pérdida de masa; y, las especies con tasas más bajas podrían estar proveyendo hábitat, más que alimento para las especies de insectos acuáticos, principalmente los recolectores. Este estudio sugiere que la reforestación ribe- reña propagará efectos específicos sobre los procesos dentro del cauce dependiendo de las especies de árbol plantadas, mediados por la calidad de la hojarasca, los cuales deberían ser considerados para mejorar las estrategias de refores- tación. Estudios futuros deben someter a prueba si existen diferencias en las tasas de fragmentación y colonización de

  2. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections

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    Ocampo Saul A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, and one yeast (Candida albicans. These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. Methods Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 μg/ml, clindamycin (0.3 μg/ml and nystatin (1.0 μg/ml were used as positive controls. Results The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8g/ml. Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively compared to nystatin (0.6 μg/ml. Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 μg/ml than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 μg/ml. Conclusion This in vitro study

  3. SKIMMR: facilitating knowledge discovery in life sciences by machine-aided skim reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Nováček

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Unlike full reading, ‘skim-reading’ involves the process of looking quickly over information in an attempt to cover more material whilst still being able to retain a superficial view of the underlying content. Within this work, we specifically emulate this natural human activity by providing a dynamic graph-based view of entities automatically extracted from text. For the extraction, we use shallow parsing, co-occurrence analysis and semantic similarity computation techniques. Our main motivation is to assist biomedical researchers and clinicians in coping with increasingly large amounts of potentially relevant articles that are being published ongoingly in life sciences.Methods. To construct the high-level network overview of articles, we extract weighted binary statements from the text. We consider two types of these statements, co-occurrence and similarity, both organised in the same distributional representation (i.e., in a vector-space model. For the co-occurrence weights, we use point-wise mutual information that indicates the degree of non-random association between two co-occurring entities. For computing the similarity statement weights, we use cosine distance based on the relevant co-occurrence vectors. These statements are used to build fuzzy indices of terms, statements and provenance article identifiers, which support fuzzy querying and subsequent result ranking. These indexing and querying processes are then used to construct a graph-based interface for searching and browsing entity networks extracted from articles, as well as articles relevant to the networks being browsed. Last but not least, we describe a methodology for automated experimental evaluation of the presented approach. The method uses formal comparison of the graphs generated by our tool to relevant gold standards based on manually curated PubMed, TREC challenge and MeSH data.Results. We provide a web-based prototype (called ‘SKIMMR’ that

  4. Resultados da associação trabeculotomia-trabeculectomia em pacientes não idosos Results of trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy in not elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Ferreira Passos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados da associação trabeculotomia-trabeculectomia (Tro-Trec em pacientes de 12 a 50 anos, com glaucoma moderado ou avançado. Métodos: estudo prospectivo de 19 olhos de 13 pacientes, de 12 a 50 anos (média de 33,77 ± 11,43, submetidos à Tro-Trec e seguidos por 21,6 ± 7,2 (5,1 a 29,7 meses. Resultados: A pressão intraocular, (PIO média inicial de 32,03 ± 10,01 mmHg (variando de 12 a 50, foi reduzida para 9,42 mmHg ± 3,50 (2 e 16, com redução da medicação tópica de 1,47 ± 1,54 (0 a 4 para 0,16 ± 0,37 (0 a 1 medicamentos. A PIO alvo foi atingida em 15 (78,94% olhos. Houve acentuada redução da PIO mesmo em olhos sem bolhas significativas. O procedimento resultou em hipotonia persistente em três olhos. Conclusão: A cirurgia proposta foi eficaz. A acentuada redução da PIO em olhos sem bolhas significativas sugere que, na faixa etária analisada, a trabeculotomia isolada pode ser suficiente para controle da PIO em alguns pacientes. A incidência de hipotonia foi significativa, porém não superior à relacionada à trabeculectomia isolada, para a mesma faixa etária.Purpose: To evaluate the results of the trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy combined procedure in 12 to 50 years old patients with moderate and advanced glaucoma. Methods: Nineteen eyes of thirteen patients underwent a trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy procedure and were prospectively analyzed and followed up for 21,6 ± 7,2 (5,1 a 29,7 months. Results: IOP was reduced from 32,03 ± 10,01 (12 to 50 mmHg to 9,42 ± 3,50 (2 e 16 mmHg with the number of topical medications being reduced from 1,47 ± 1,54 (0 a 4 to 0,16 ± 0,37 (0 a 1. The target IOP was obtained in 15 of the eyes (78,94%. A great IOP reduction was obtained in eyes without significant blebs. Three eyes developed persistent hipotony. Conclusion: The procedure proved to be effective. The IOP reduction in eyes without significant blebs make us to infer that isolated trabeculotomy should be

  5. Efficient dynamic pruning on largest scores fi rst (LSF) retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun JIANG; Yue-xiang YANG

    2016-01-01

    Inverted index traversal techniques have been studied in addressing the query processing performance challenges of web search engines, but still leave much room for improvement. In this paper, we focus on the inverted index traversal on document-sorted indexes and the optimization technique called dynamic pruning, which can efficiently reduce the hardware computational resources required. We propose another novel exhaustive index traversal scheme called largest scores fi rst (LSF) retrieval, in which the candidates are fi rst selected in the posting list of important query terms with the largest upper bound scores and then fully scored with the contribution of the remaining query terms. The scheme can effectively reduce the memory consumption of existing term-at-a-time (TAAT) and the candidate selection cost of existing document-at-a-time (DAAT) retrieval at the expense of revisiting the posting lists of the remaining query terms. Preliminary analysis and implementation show comparable performance between LSF and the two well-known baselines. To further reduce the number of postings that need to be revisited, we present efficient rank safe dynamic pruning techniques based on LSF, including two important optimizations called list omitting (LSF_LO) and partial scoring (LSF_PS) that make full use of query term importance. Finally, experimental results with the TREC GOV2 collection show that our new index traversal approaches reduce the query latency by almost 27% over the WAND baseline and produce slightly better results compared with the MaxScore baseline, while returning the same results as exhaustive evaluation.

  6. IceBridge: Bringing a Field Campaign Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J.; Beck, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2015-12-01

    IceBridge, a six-year NASA mission, is the largest airborne survey of Earth's polar ice ever flown. It will yield an unprecedented three-dimensional view of Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets, ice shelves and sea ice. These flights will provide a yearly, multi-instrument look at the behavior of the rapidly changing features of the Greenland and Antarctic ice. Data collected during IceBridge will help scientists bridge the gap in polar observations between NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) -- in orbit since 2003 -- and ICESat-2, planned for 2017. ICESat stopped collecting science data in 2009, making IceBridge critical for ensuring a continuous series of observations. IceBridge will use airborne instruments to map Arctic and Antarctic areas once a year at a minimum, with new campaigns being developed during the Arctic melt season. IceBridge flights are conducted in the spring and summer for the Arctic and in the fall over Antarctica. Other smaller airborne surveys around the world are also part of the IceBridge campaign. IceBridge actively engages the public and educators through a variety of outlets ranging from communications strategies through social media outlets, to larger organized efforts such as PolarTREC. In field activities include blog posts, photo updates, in flight chat sessions, and more intensive live events to include google hangouts, where field team members can interact with the public during a scheduled broadcast. The IceBridge team provides scientists and other team members with the training and support to become communicators in their own right. There is an exciting new initiative where IceBridge will be collaborating with Undergraduate and Graduate students to integrate the next generation of scientists and communicators into the Science Teams. This will be explored through partnerships with institutions that are interested in mentoring through project based initiatives.

  7. A new approach to sensitivity climatologies: the DTS-MEDEX-2009 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jansa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive observation is an approach to improving the quality of numerical weather forecasts through the optimization of observing networks. It is sometimes referred to as Data Targeting (DT. This approach has been applied to high impact weather during specific field campaigns in the past decade. Adaptive observations may involve various types of observations, including either specific research observing platforms or routine observing platforms employed in an adaptive way. The North-Atlantic TReC 2003 and the EURORISK-PREVIEW 2008 exercises focused on the North-Atlantic and Western Europe areas using mainly routine observing systems. These campaigns also included Mediterranean cases.

    The most recent campaign, DTS-MEDEX-2009, is the first campaign in which the DT method has been used to address exclusively Mediterranean high impact weather events. In this campaign, which is an important stage in the MEDEX development, only operational radiosonde stations and commercial aircraft data (AMDAR have provided additional observations. Although specific diagnostic studies are needed to assess the impact of the extra-observations on forecast skill and demonstrate the effectiveness of DTS-MEDEX-2009, some preliminary findings can be deduced from a survey of this targeting exercise.

    After a description of the data targeting system and some illustrations of particular cases, this paper attempts some comparisons of additional observation needs (through effectively deployed radio-soundings with sensitivity climatologies in the Mediterranean. The first step towards a sensitivity climatology for Mediterranean cases of high impact weather is indirectly given by the frequency of extra-soundings launched from the network of radiosonde stations involved in the DTS-MEDEX-2009 campaign.

  8. Ressecção de bolsa hiperfuncionante para tratamento de hipotonia ocular crônica: relato de casos Resection of overfiltration bleb for the treatment of chronic ocular hypotony: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Cronemberger

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Relatar os resultados obtidos com a ressecção de bolsa hiperfuncionante pós-trabeculectomia (TREC com mitomicina C (MMC para o tratamento da hipotonia ocular crônica. Cinco pacientes portadores de hipotonia ocular crônica causada por hiperfunção de bolsa fistulante pós- trabeculectomia com mitomicina foram tratados pela ressecção da bolsa. O diagnóstico de hiperfunção da bolsa foi feito com base em critérios estabelecidos pelos autores. A hipotonia ocular foi revertida nos cinco pacientes, sem medicação num seguimento mínimo de cinco e máximo de 26 meses (média de 14,0 ± 7,9 meses. A ressecção da bolsa foi procedimento eficaz para reverter a hipotonia ocular crônica causada pela hiperfunção da mesma pós-trabeculectomia com mitomicina.To present the results of bleb resection for the treatment of overfiltering bleb after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC associated with chronic ocular hypotony. Five patients with chronic ocular hypotony caused by overfiltering bleb underwent bleb resection. The authors established the criteria for the diagnosis of overfiltering bleb. Ocular hypotony was reversed in all patients without medication. The mean follow-up was 14.0 ± 7.9 months. Bleb resection is a good approach for the treatment of chronic ocular hypotony secondary to overfiltering bleb.

  9. A Semantic Searching Scheme in Heterogeneous Unstructured P2P Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Cheng Huang; Xiu-Qi Li; and Jie Wu

    2011-01-01

    Semantic-based searching in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks has drawn significant attention recently.A number of semantic searching schemes,such as GES proposed by Zhu Y et al.,employ search models in Information Retrieval (IR).All these IR-based schemes use one vector to summarize semantic contents of all documents on a single node.For example,GES derives a node vector based on the IR model:VSM (Vector Space Model).A topology adaptation algorithm and a search protocol are then designed according to the similarity between node vectors of different nodes.Although the single semantic vector is suitable when the distribution of documents in each node is uniform,it may not be efficient when the distribution is diverse.When there are many categories of documents at each node,the node vector representation may be inaccurate.We extend the idea of GES and present a new class-based semantic searching scheme (CSS) specifically designed for unstructured P2P networks with heterogeneous single-node document collection.It makes use of a state-of-the-art data clustering algorithm,online spherical k-means clustering (OSKM),to cluster all documents on a node into several classes.Each class can be viewed as a virtual node.Virtual nodes are connected through virtual links.As a result,the class vector replaces the node vector and plays an important role in the class-based topology adaptation and search process.This makes CSS very efficient.Our simulation using the IR benchmark TREC collection demonstrates that CSS outperforms GES in terms of higher recall,higher precision,and lower search cost.

  10. Is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jimmy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the growing availability of full-text articles online, scientists and other consumers of the life sciences literature now have the ability to go beyond searching bibliographic records (title, abstract, metadata to directly access full-text content. Motivated by this emerging trend, I posed the following question: is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts? This question is answered by comparing text retrieval algorithms on MEDLINE® abstracts, full-text articles, and spans (paragraphs within full-text articles using data from the TREC 2007 genomics track evaluation. Two retrieval models are examined: bm25 and the ranking algorithm implemented in the open-source Lucene search engine. Results Experiments show that treating an entire article as an indexing unit does not consistently yield higher effectiveness compared to abstract-only search. However, retrieval based on spans, or paragraphs-sized segments of full-text articles, consistently outperforms abstract-only search. Results suggest that highest overall effectiveness may be achieved by combining evidence from spans and full articles. Conclusion Users searching full text are more likely to find relevant articles than searching only abstracts. This finding affirms the value of full text collections for text retrieval and provides a starting point for future work in exploring algorithms that take advantage of rapidly-growing digital archives. Experimental results also highlight the need to develop distributed text retrieval algorithms, since full-text articles are significantly longer than abstracts and may require the computational resources of multiple machines in a cluster. The MapReduce programming model provides a convenient framework for organizing such computations.

  11. A Comprehensive Dust Model Applied to the Resolved Beta Pictoris Debris Disk from Optical to Radio Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballering, Nicholas P.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H.; Gáspár, András

    2016-06-01

    We investigate whether varying the dust composition (described by the optical constants) can solve a persistent problem in debris disk modeling—the inability to fit the thermal emission without overpredicting the scattered light. We model five images of the β Pictoris disk: two in scattered light from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph at 0.58 μm and HST/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC 3) at 1.16 μm, and three in thermal emission from Spitzer/Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) at 24 μm, Herschel/PACS at 70 μm, and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 870 μm. The WFC3 and MIPS data are published here for the first time. We focus our modeling on the outer part of this disk, consisting of a parent body ring and a halo of small grains. First, we confirm that a model using astronomical silicates cannot simultaneously fit the thermal and scattered light data. Next, we use a simple generic function for the optical constants to show that varying the dust composition can improve the fit substantially. Finally, we model the dust as a mixture of the most plausible debris constituents: astronomical silicates, water ice, organic refractory material, and vacuum. We achieve a good fit to all data sets with grains composed predominantly of silicates and organics, while ice and vacuum are, at most, present in small amounts. This composition is similar to one derived from previous work on the HR 4796A disk. Our model also fits the thermal spectral energy distribution, scattered light colors, and high-resolution mid-IR data from T-ReCS for this disk. Additionally, we show that sub-blowout grains are a necessary component of the halo.

  12. Investigation of the viscous reconnection phenomenon of two vortex tubes through spectral simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsell, Guillaume; Dufresne, Louis; Dumas, Guy

    2016-09-01

    This paper aims to shed further light on the viscous reconnection phenomenon. To this end, we propose a robust and efficient method in order to quantify the degree of reconnection of two vortex tubes. This method is used to compare the evolutions of two simple initial vortex configurations: orthogonal and antiparallel. For the antiparallel configuration, the proposed method is compared with alternative estimators and it is found to improve accuracy since it can account properly for the formation of looping structures inside the domain. This observation being new, the physical mechanism for the formation of those looping structures is discussed. For the orthogonal configuration, we report results from simulations that were performed at a much higher vortex Reynolds number (ReΓ ≡ circulation/viscosity = 104) and finer resolution (N3 = 10243) than previously presented in the literature. The incompressible Navier-stokes equations are solved directly (Direct Numerical Simulation or DNS) using a Fourier pseudospectral algorithm with triply periodic boundary conditions. The associated zero-circulation constraint is circumvented by solving the governing equations in a proper rotating frame of reference. Using ideas similar to those behind our method to compute the degree of reconnection, we split the vorticity field into its reconnected and non-reconnected parts, which allows to create insightful visualizations of the evolving vortex topology. It also allows to detect regions in the vorticity field that are neither reconnected nor non-reconnected and thus must be associated to internal looping structures. Finally, the Reynolds number dependence of the reconnection time scale Trec is investigated in the range 500 ≤ ReΓ ≤ 10 000. For both initial configurations, the scaling is generally found to vary continuously as ReΓ is increased from T rec ˜ R eΓ - 1 to T rec ˜ R eΓ - 1 / 2 , thus providing quantitative support for previous claims that the reconnection

  13. Expression of recombination-activating genes and T cell receptor gene recombination in the human T cell leukemia cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Hong-yun; MA Li; MENG Min-jie; YAO Xin-sheng; LIN Ying; WU Zhen-qiang; HE Xiao-wei; WANG Ju-fang; WANG Xiao-ning

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that mature T cells can change their specificity through reexpression of recombination-activating genes (RAG) and RAG-mediated V(D)J recombination. This process is named receptor revision and has been observed in mature peripheral T cells from transgenic mice and human donors. However, whether the receptor revision in mature T cells is a random or orientated process remains poorly understood. Here we used the Jurkat human T cell line, which represents a mature stage of T cell development, as a model to investigate the regulation of T cell receptor (TCR) gene recombination.Methods TCR Dβ-Jβ signal joint T cell receptor excision DNA circles (sjTRECs) were determined by nested and seminested PCR. Double-strand DNA breaks at recombination signal sequences (RSSs) in the TCRVβ chain locus were detected by ligation-mediated-PCR. Further analysis of the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) size of the TCRVβ chain was examined by the TCR GeneScan technique.Results RAG1, RAG2, and three crucial components of the nonhomologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ) pathway were readily detected in Jurkat. Characteristics of junctional diversity of Dβ2-Jβ2 signal joints and ds RSS breaks associated with the Dβ25' and Dβ 23' sites were detected in DNA from Jurkat cells. CDR3 size and the gene sequences of the TCRVβ chain did not change during cell proliferation.Conclusions RAG1 and RAG2 and ongoing TCR gene recombination are coexpressed in Jurkat cells, but the ongoing recombination process may not play a role in modification of the TCR repertoire. However, the results suggest that Jurkat could be used as a model for studying the regulation of RAGs and V(D)J recombination and as a "special" model of the coexistence of TCR gene rearrangements and "negative" receptor revision.

  14. Fontes e concentrações de águas de fumaça na germinação de sementes e no vigor de plântulas de tomate Sources and concentrations of smoke-water on the seed germination and seedling vigor of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yêda Maria BC Arruda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A fumaça e a fumaça diluída em água, conhecida como água de fumaça, podem ser utilizadas como estimuladores tanto da germinação das sementes quanto do vigor das plântulas de várias espécies silvestres e cultivadas. O objetivo neste trabalho foi verificar a eficácia de águas de fumaça, oriundas de diferentes matérias-primas e concentrações, na germinação de sementes e vigor de plântulas de tomate. Foram usadas 10 matérias-primas e para cada uma foram testados um controle (água destilada e oito concentrações da água de fumaça (1:5.000, 1:2.500, 1:1.000, 1:100, 1:50, 1:25, 1:10 e 1:2,5 v:v, constituindo nove tratamentos, que foram repetidos oito vezes e distribuídos seguindo o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os testes germinativos foram conduzidos no laboratório e as variáveis foram avaliadas após cinco dias da semeadura. Com a exceção de uma fonte, todas as matérias-primas testadas causaram, com a maior concentração testada (1:2,5, inibição na germinação das sementes de tomate. Efeito estimulador foi observado principalmente em águas de fumaça produzidas com matérias-primas de folhas de palmeira (Euterpe precatoria e de milho (Zea mays, com madeira leve de uma espécie pioneira (Cecropia palmata; serragem de espécies madeireiras amazônicas (Diniziaexcelsa, Sextonia sp., Licania spp. e Aniba spp. e de papel de germinação. Esse efeito foi mais expressivo no comprimento de raiz e no índice de vigor, nas concentrações de 1:25 a 1:5.000, de acordo com a fonte; a concentração de 1:25 sobressaiu na maioria das matérias-primas testadas.Smoke and smoke diluted in water, known as smoke-water, can be used to promote both seed germination and seedling vigor of several wild and cultivated species. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of smoke-water produced with different sources (raw materials and concentrations on seed germination and seedling vigor of tomato

  15. COMPOSIÇÃO E DENSIDADE DO BANCO DE SEMENTES EM UMA FLORESTA DE VÁRZEA, ILHA DO COMBU, BELÉM-PA, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Viana Lau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a composição e densidade do banco de sementes de um trecho de floresta de várzea localizada na Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA Ilha do Combu, no município de Belém, PA, Brasil. Foram alocadas sistematicamente 6 parcelas de 20 x 20m em três áreas da floresta distante 100m uma da outra perfazendo um total de 0,24ha. Em cada parcela foi utilizado um gabarito de madeira medindo 50 x 50 cm para a padronização e coleta de 20 amostras do banco de sementes do solo a 20 cm de profundidade desprezando-se a serapilheira. As 120 amostras foram depositadas em sacos plásticos de 30 litros e transportadas para o Horto Botânico localizado no campus de pesquisa do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG. As amostras foram distribuídas em recipientes plásticos medindo 36 cm x 5 cm de profundidade em um viveiro suspenso com sombrite a 50%. O experimento foi conduzido de maio a agosto de 2013 com a quantificação das plântulas a partir de 10 cm de altura e identificadas em nível de família, gênero, espécie e calculada a densidade média de plântulas. Para comparar a diversidade de espécies foram utilizados o índice de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener (H' e o índice de similaridade de Sorensen (S. Foram registradas 26 famílias, 38 gêneros e 41 espécies. As famílias mais representativas foram Poaceae, Asteraceae e Cyperaceae com quatro espécies cada e as espécies com maiores densidades foram Polybotrya caudata Kunze, Cecropia palmata Willd., Cyperus difformis L., Alternanthera tenella, Clidemia hirta (L. D. Don, Commelina erecta L. e Phyllanthus niruri L. A forma de crescimento herbácea foi dominante em todas as áreas. Foi registrado o índice de H'=0,86 nat-3ind para a área 1; H'=1,91 nats-3ind para a área 2 e H'=1,35 nats-3ind para a área 3 e a similaridade de S'=0,50 para a área 1; S'=0,48 para a área 2 e S'=0,50 para a área 3. A composição florística do banco de sementes foi

  16. Soil and biomass carbon pools in model communities of tropical plants under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, J A; Körner, Ch

    1995-09-01

    plant-derived soil organic matter)-averaged 815 and 910 g m(-2) year(-1) at ambient and elevated CO2, respectively. These NPPs are remarkably similar to those of many natural moist tropical forested ecosystems. At the same time net productivity of soil organic matter reached 7000 g dry matter equivalent per m(2) and year (i.e. 3500 g C m(-2) year(-1)). Very slight yet statistically significant CO2-induced shifts in the abundance of groups of species occurred by the end of the experiment, with one group of species (Elettaria cardamomum, Ficus benjamina, F. pumila, Epipremnum pinnatum) gaining slightly, and another group (Ctenanthe lubbersiana, Heliconia humilis, Cecropia peltata) losing. Our results show that: (1) enormous amounts of C can be deposited in the ground which are normally not accounted for in estimates of NPP and net ecosystem productivity; (2) any enhancement of C sequestration under elevated atmospheric CO2 may be substantially smaller than is believed will occur (yet still very important), especially under growth conditions which permit close to natural NPP; and (3) species dominance in plant communities is likely to change under elevated CO2, but that changes may occur rather slowly.

  17. New technologies of intelligent text search%智能文本搜索新技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占一; 徐蔚然; 郭军

    2012-01-01

    面对当今互联网上海量的信息,以及搜索信息准确、高效、个性化等需求,提出了一套包括信息检索、信息抽取和信息过滤在内的智能文本搜索新技术.首先举荐了与信息检索新技术相关的企业检索、实体检索、博客检索、相关反馈子任务.然后介绍了与信息抽取技术相关的实体关联和实体填充子任务,以及与信息过滤技术相关的垃圾邮件过滤子任务.这些关键技术融合在一起,在多个著名的国际评测中得到应用,如美国主办的文本检索会议评测和文本分析会议评测,并且在互联网舆情、短信舆情和校园网对象搜索引擎等实际系统中得到了检验.%To adapt to the massive amount of information on the internet and the need for accuracy, efficiency, and individualization, a set of technologies of intelligent text search including information retrieval, extraction, and filtering were proposed. First, new technologies of information retrieval were illustrated including the subtasks of enterprise retrieval, entity retrieval, blog retrieval, and relevance feedback. Second, the subtask of entity linking and slot filling related to information extraction was introduced. Finally, the subtask of spam e-mail filtering related to information filtering was described. These technologies were converged for application in many well-known international evaluations. These include the text retrieval conference (TREC) and text analysis conference (TAC) sponsored in the USA, and these technologies of intelligent text search were proven in practical applications such as public opinions on the Internet, short message opinions, and the campus object search engine ( COSE).

  18. Are Brown Barges the Deserts of the Upper Jovian Atmosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn S.; Sinclair, James; Fletcher, Leigh; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma; Rogers, John; Irwin, Patrick; Greathouse, Thomas; Seede, Raiyan; Simon, Jason; Nguyen, Marian; Lai, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Since the descent of the Galileo probe into one of Jupiter’s 5-µm hot spots, these regions have been characterized as the driest and clearest regions on the planet. We are presenting evidence that this generalization could be premature, at least for Jupiter’s upper troposphere. Diffraction-limited mid-infrared images of Jupiter taken from the Subaru Telescope using the COMICS instrument, the Very Large Telescope (UT3) using the VISIR instrument, and the Gemini South Telescope using the T-ReCS instrument resolve regions with the highest brightness anywhere on the planet at wavelengths near 9.8-10.5 µm, a region sensitive to the abundance of ammonia gas above its condensation level. These brightnesses are so high that they require ammonia abundances that are many times lower than anywhere else on the planet. A similar drop of the optical thicknesses of clouds near the ammonia-gas condensation level is required, diagnosed using 8.7-8.9-µm radiances. These features are also detected but not spatially resolved in observations obtained at NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility using the MIRSI imager and the TEXES scanning spectrometer. Most are located along the northern edge of the North Equatorial Belt and are associated with cyclonic features known as “brown barges”. They are not associated with detectable changes in upper-tropospheric temperatures, requiring convective activity to take place at depths with very rapid dynamical readjustment. Regions bright at 8-10 µm are not always bright in the deep 5-µm window, implying that some brown barges are clear of condensate gases and clouds only down to 0.6 bars but others are clear down to 2-3 bars, a possible consequence of observing them in different phases of their “life cycle”. These, other discrete features and broader regions will be the objects of intensive investigations by the Juno mission and associated Earth-based observational support in 2016 to 2018.

  19. Modern Process Studies in Kongsfjord, Svalbard: Arctic Geoscience Research Experience for U.S. Undergraduates (Svalbard REU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. D.; Brigham-Grette, J.

    2011-12-01

    resourceful due to instrumentation failures or weather-related delays. Self-confidence and problem solving skills emerge from both field and laboratory research operations when students draw upon and expand their base of practical knowledge via trial and error. Logistical facilities in Ny Alesund offer an international experience with opportunities for dialog with scientists of a wide variety of disciplines working at research stations representing more than 12 different European and Asian countries. The program is funded by the NSF's Office of Polar Programs and has close ties and collaboration with the Norwegian University in Svalbard (UNIS) and Norsk Polar Institute scientists. NSF also funds a science teacher as a PolarTREC participant.

  20. Antarctica Day: An International Celebration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, A.; Hambrook Berkman, J.; Berkman, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For more than half a century, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty continues to shine as a rare beacon of international cooperation. To celebrate this milestone of peace in our civilization with hope and inspiration for future generations, Antarctica Day is celebrated each year on December 1st , the anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty signing. As an annual event - initiated by the Foundation for the Good Governance of International Spaces (www.internationalspaces.org/) in collaboration with the Association of Polar Early Carer Scientists (www.apecs.is) - Antarctica Day encourages participation from around the world. The Antarctic Treaty set aside 10% of the earth, 'forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes in the interest of mankind.' It was the first nuclear arms agreement and the first institution to govern all human activities in an international region beyond sovereign jurisdictions. In this spirit, Antarctica Day aims to: - Demonstrate how diverse nations can work together peacefully, using science as a global language of cooperation for decision making beyond national boundaries, - Provide strategies for students learning about Antarctica through art, science and history at all school levels, - Increase collaboration and communication between classrooms, communities, researchers and government officials around the world, and - Provide a focus for polar educators to build on each year. Through close collaboration with a number of partners. Antarctica Day activities have included: a Polar Film Festival convened by The Explorers Club; live sessions connecting classrooms with scientists in Antarctica thanks to PolarTREC and ARCUS; an international activity that involved children from 13 countries who created over 600 flags which exemplify Antarctica Day (these were actually flown in Antarctica with signed certificates then returned to the classes); a map where Antarctica Day participants all over the world could share what they were doing; an Antarctic bird count

  1. Using Interdisciplinary research to enrich teachers and classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Timm, K.; Huffman, L. T.; Peart, L. W.; Hammond, J.; McMahon, E.

    2011-12-01

    Imagine being on the stern of a ship in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of New England as the crew dumps thousands of scallops on the deck, searching the Greenland ice sheet for a remote weather station, or uncovering secrets to past climates as you join an ocean sediment drilling team in Antarctica. So you ask yourself, what would you be doing in all of these places? What you would be doing is what hundreds of educators from around the world have done for over 20 years, participating in field-based Teacher Research Experience (TRE) programs. Teacher Research Experiences involve educators from varying grade levels and backgrounds in hands-on research as a member of a scientific research team. The teacher works side by side with actual research scientists, often on tasks similar to a field assistant or graduate student. As an important member of the research team teachers learn more about science content and the process of science. Subsequently, the educators play a key role in digesting and communicating the science to their students and the general public. TRE programs vary in many ways. Programs take place in a variety of settings-from laboratories to field camps, and from university campuses to aircraft or ships. The primary commonality of the TRE programs in this presentation-PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating), ANDRILL (ANtarctic geological DRILLing) Research Immersion for Science Educators (ARISE); Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) School of Rock (SOR); and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Teacher at Sea (TAS) program-is that these programs provide an authentic field-based research experience for teachers outside of a laboratory setting, frequently in harsh, remote, or unusual settings. In addition, each of these programs is federally funded, possess dedicated program management staff, leverage existing scientific and programmatic resources, and are usually national, and sometimes international, in scope

  2. Recuperação inteligente de jurisprudência: uma avaliação do raciocínio baseado em casos aplicado a recuperação de jurisprudências no Tribunal Regional Eleitoral do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symball Rufino de Oliveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa cujo objeto é avaliar a medida de precisão de um sistema de recuperação de informação jurídica (jurisprudência que utiliza técnica de inteligência artificial conhecida como Raciocínio Baseado em Casos (RBC. Nesse modelo as jurisprudências são organizadas sob a forma de casos jurídicos concretos. O raciocínio baseado em casos tem como princípio a idéias de que um caso jurídico passado pode ser útil para resolver um problema atual, desde que exista entre eles algum grau de semelhança. Para estabelecer semelhanças entre casos atuais e passados o modelo estudado propõe o uso de cálculo de similaridade que é realizado com base na comparação de índices temáticos obtidos a partir do processo de indexação realizado por especialistas utilizando-se como apoio um tesauro jurídico. Esta pesquisa utiliza como universo as jurisprudências produzidas pelo Tribunal Regional Eleitoral do Distrito Federal. A amostra foi composta, considerando o recorte dado à pesquisa, por jurisprudências eleitorais produzidas nas eleições gerais de 2006 no Distrito Federal. Para realizar a avaliação do modelo, foi construído um protótipo do sistema de recuperação de informação baseado em casos. Em seguida, avaliou-se o protótipo quanto ao grau de precisão obtido no resultado de um conjunto de buscas. O método adotado para as avaliações foi o mesmo utilizado na Text REtrieval Conference (TREC de 2007, tarefa Legal Track. Após a coleta dos dados foi elaborado um relatório discutindo a possibilidade do sistema de recuperação de informação baseado em casos ser considerado um paradigma para a recuperação de informação jurídica eleitoral.

  3. Deep Web resource selection using topic model%基于主题模型的深层网数据源选择算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋月; 曹巍; 史少晨

    2015-01-01

    联邦搜索是从大规模深层网上获取信息的一种重要技术.给定一个用户查询,联邦搜索系统需要解决的一个主要问题是数据源选择问题,即从海量数据源中选出一组最有可能返回相关结果的数据源.现有的数据源选择算法大多基于数据源的样本文档集和查询之间的关键词匹配,通常无法很好地解决少量样本文档的信息缺失问题.针对这一问题,提出了基于隐含狄利克雷分布(LDA)主题模型进行数据源选择的方法.首先,使用LDA主题模型获得数据源和查询的主题概率分布;然后,通过比较两者主题概率分布的相近性来对所有数据源进行排序.通过将数据源和查询映射到低维的主题空间来解决高维词条空间稀疏性所带来的信息缺失问题.在TREC FedWeb 2013和2014 Track的测试集上分别进行了实验,并和其他参赛方法的结果进行了比较.在FedWeb 2013测试集上的实验结果显示比其他参赛方法的最好结果提高了24%;在FedWeb 2014测试集上的实验结果显示比传统的基于小文档和大文档的关键词匹配方法分别提高了22%和43%.另外,使用文档片段来代替文档还可以大幅提升系统的效率,更增加了此方法的实用性和可行性.

  4. G333.466-0.164, An EGO That Is Not Aligned With Its Disk Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Burton, Michael; Cotera, Angela; Cunningham, Maria; Lo, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    The infrared source G333.466-0.164 (IRAS 16175-5002) was discovered to contain a 4.5 micron emission feature (extended green object, EGO) in images taken with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera in 2004. EGOs appear to define the location of outflows from massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and have been attributed to both emission from molecular hydrogen or CO in the shocked outflow and to scattered light from the outflow cavity. We confirmed that there is a MYSO at the south end of the 15'' long, thin EGO from spectra taken with Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph in 2009 (Simpson et al. 2012, MNRAS, 419, 211). To further characterize G333.466-0.164 we obtained 12.3 and 24.5 micron images with T-ReCS on Gemini South. Although the MYSO itself is not detected at 12.3 micron, we clearly resolve an elongated source at the location of the MYSO at 24.5 micron with the 0.76" FWHM resolution of Gemini. The elongated region has major and minor axes 2.5'' and 1.5'', respectively, where the position angle of the major axis is 147 pm 5 degrees east of north. For a distance of 3.6 kpc, this corresponds to a size of 9000 AU by 5400 AU. We contrast the position angle of the source to that of the EGO, which is approximately -10 degrees east of north measured from the MYSO. Methanol masers have been measured in G333.466-0.164 by Caswell et al. (2011, MNRAS, 417, 1964) and Voronkov et al. (2014, MNRAS, 439, 258). The 6.7 GHz Class II maser is found at the position of the MYSO and the 36 and 44 GHz Class I masers, which are excited by shocks, are found in positions coinciding with the EGO and also in a line perpendicular to the EGO, in an area obscured by an optically thick dust lane. Voronkov et al. suggest that the actual outflow lies between the two lines of Class I masers in the northeast direction; this is in excellent agreement with the northeast-oriented minor axis of the elongated feature that we observe at 24.5 micron. Thus we identify the 24.5 micron source as the disk of the

  5. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and CONICET (Argentina); Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M. [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States); Bosch, G., E-mail: gunth@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mpaguero@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu, E-mail: pgomez@gemini.edu, E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu, E-mail: guille@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET-UNLP) (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  6. Thymic function and T cell parameters in a natural human experimental model of seasonal infectious diseases and nutritional burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Gareth

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study exploits a natural human experimental model of subsistence farmers experiencing chronic and seasonally modified food shortages and infectious burden. Two seasons existed, one of increased deprivation and infections (Jul-Dec, another of abundance and low infections (Jan-Jun; referred to as the hungry/high infection and harvest/low infection seasons respectively. Prior analysis showed a 10-fold excess in infectious disease associated mortality in young adults born in the hungry/high infection versus harvest/low infection season, and reduced thymic output and T cell counts in infancy. Here we report findings on the role of early life stressors as contributors to the onset of T cell immunological defects in later life. Methods We hypothesised that season of birth effects on thymic function and T cell immunity would be detectable in young adults since Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated this to be the time of greatest mortality divergence. T cell subset analyses by flow-cytometry, sjTRECs, TCRVβ repertoire and telomere length by PCR, were performed on samples from 60 males (18-23 y selected to represent births in the hungry/high infection and harvest/low infection Results Total lymphocyte counts were normal and did not differ by birth season. CD3+ and CD4+ but not CD8+ counts were lower for those born during the hungry/high infection season. CD8+ telomere length also tended to be shorter. Overall, CD8+ TCRVβ repertoire skewing was observed with 'public' expressions and deletions seen in TCRVβ12/22 and TCRVβ24, respectively but no apparent effect of birth season. Conclusions We conclude that, although thymic function was unchanged, the CD4+ and CD3+ counts, and CD8+ telomere length results suggested that aspects of adult T cell immunity were under the influence of early life stressors. The endemicity of CMV and HBV suggested that chronic infections may modulate immunity through T cell repertoire development. The

  7. Document Cluster Ensemble Algorithms Based on Matrix Spectral Analysis%基于矩阵谱分析的文本聚类集成算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐森; 卢志茂; 顾国昌

    2009-01-01

    聚类集成技术可有效提高单聚类算法的精度和稳定性,其中的关键问题是如何根据不同的聚类成员组合为更好的聚类结果.文中引入谱聚类算法解决文本聚类集成问题,设计基于正则化拉普拉斯矩阵的谱算法(NLM-SA).该算法基于代数变换,通过求解小规模矩阵的特征值和特征向量间接获得正则化拉普拉斯矩阵的特征向量,并用于后续聚类.进一步研究谱聚类算法的关键思想,设计基于超边转移概率矩阵的谱算法(HTMSA).该算法通过求解超边的低维嵌入间接获得文本的低维嵌入,并用于后续K均值算法.在TREC和Reuters文本集上的实验结果验证NLMSA和HTMSA的有效性,它们都获得比其它基于图划分的集成算法更为优越的结果.HTMSA获得的结果比NLMSA略差,而时间和空间需求则比NLMSA低得多.%Cluster ensemble techniques are effective in improving both the robustness and the stability of the single clustering algorithm. How to combine multiple clusters to yield a final superior clustering result is critical in cluster ensemble. Spectral clustering algorithm is introduced to solve document cluster ensemble problem. Normalized Laplacian matrix-based spectral algorithm (NLMSA) is proposed. According to algebraic transformation, it computes eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a small matrix to obtain the eigenvectors of normalized Laplacian matrix. The key idea of spectral clustering algorithm is further investigated, and hyperedge transition matrix-based spectral algorithm (HTMSA) is proposed. It attains the low dimensional embeddings of documents by those of hyperedges and then the K-means algorithm is used to cluster according to those embedding results of documents. Experimental results on TREC and Reuters document sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. Both NLMSA and HTMSA outperform other cluster ensemble techniques based on graph partitioning. NLMSA obtains better results

  8. A Hybrid Dependency-Based Query Expansion Method%一种基于依赖关系的综合查询扩展方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹均阔; 吴丽华

    2012-01-01

    To express the true intention is more difficult only by a few keywords due to ambiguity and diversity of natural language. Query expansion effectively enhances the understanding of the retrieval system by trying to dig the potential meaning of the original query. Assuming that the words in the returned sentence by the original query are more important as the sentence with high score, sentence weight is applied to calculate candidate expansion items for local context analysis. In the same time, the paper further assume that the candidate words will tied closer with the originally query if they have some position or dependency relationships. So two relation-based query expansion methods are putted forward, the first is Sentence Weight & Position-based Context Analysis, called SWPCA. And the second is Sentence Weight & Dependency-based Context Analysis,called SWDCA. Finally the two methods are used for the definitional question answering of TREC. The experiment data show that both methods are efficient, and SWDCA performs is a little better than SWPCA.%由于自然语言本身的歧义性和多样性,少数几个关键词难以表达真实的信息需求.查询扩展技术通过挖掘原始查询项的潜在信息,有效地增强了检索系统的理解能力.该文在上下文分析方法计算公式中加入了句子权重概念,即假设由原始查询项返回的句子越重要,则其中出现的词与查询项越相关.同时进一步假设,句中的词与查询项的位置关系与依赖关系也是选取扩展词的重要依据.为此,该文分别提出基于句子权重与位置上下文分析方法(Sentence Weight&Position-based Context Analysis,SWPCA),以及基于句子权重与依赖关系上下文分析方法(Sentence Weight&Dependency-based Context Analysis,SWDCA).并将这两种查询扩展技术应用于TREC的定义类问题回答,数据显示这两种方法均取得不错成绩,而SWDCA性能更好.

  9. 跨語言資訊檢索:理論、技術與應用 | Cross-Language Information Retrieval: Theories and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳信希 Hsin-His Chen

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:19-32

    多語性是網路社會的重要特徵之一,如何將網路資源,介紹給不同語言的使用者,同時吸收其他語言所呈現的資訊,都是資訊國際化不能忽略的重要課題。跨語言資訊檢索,提供使用者以某種語言檢索另外一種語言表達的文件,為近年來很活躍的研究題目之一。本文嘗試將這個研究主題相關的理論和技術,介紹給有興趣的讀者。首先探討詢問翻譯、文件翻譯、和不翻譯等三類基本方法。接著考慮翻譯歧義性和目標多義性,以及專有名詞音譯等進階方法。評估是促進技術進步的必要工作,本文最後也介紹跨語言資訊檢索三大評比:TREC CLEF、與 NTCIR

    Multilinguality is one

  10. 2例Omenn综合症患儿临床、免疫学特征及基因突变分析%Clinical and immunological characteristics as well as mutation analysis of two children with Omenn syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛; 吴俊峰; 戴荣欣; 赵晓东

    2013-01-01

    Omenn syndrome has been found to be caused by mutations in RAG1 or RAG2 gene.This study is to seek novel mutation in RAG gene,and improve the clinical doctors' understangding of this disease,in order to reduce the possibility of misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis.This study enrolled 2 cases of suspected severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) from Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in 2012.Firstly,we collected blood samples from children and their parents for RAG1/RAG2 genes PCR amplification.Then the PCR product was used for forward and reverse sequencing,TCR Vβ analysis,as well as TREC content determination.We found that the 2 cases had typical clinical manifestations of Omenn syndrome and T+B-NK+ phenotype,and both of them are compound heterozygosity mutations in RAG1 gene.Furthermore,one novel mutation (3073insA,G1025L) was identified,while the other three mutations (1180C>T,A394T; 1806T>G,C602T; 1949A>G,A650S) have been reported before.Most of the 24 TCR Vβ subfamilies presented monoclonal or oligoclonal peaks in case 1.And TREC content of patients was lower than that of normal individuals clearly.In conclusion,one novel mutation (3073insA,G1025L) was identified in this study,which could expand the RAG1 gene mutation spectrum.Our result may also contribute to early diagnosis of Omenn syndrome,which is extremely important for Omenn syndrome treatment.%目的 Omenn综合征是由于RAG1或RAG2基因突变导致的,本研究是为了寻找RAG基因的新发突变,提高临床工作者对本病的了解,以减少漏诊与延迟诊断.方法 对2012年在重庆医科大学附属儿童医院收治的2例疑似严重联合免疫缺陷(severe combined immunodeficiency,SCID)的患儿及患儿父母收集血标本进行RAG1/RAG2基因PCR扩增、PCR产物的双向序列测定、TCR Vβ亚家族克隆谱型分析、TREC含量检测.结果 2例患儿均有Omenn综合症典型临床表现和T+B-NK+免疫学表型,均为RAG1基因

  11. Existing data sources in clinical epidemiology: the Scandinavian Thrombosis and Cancer Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensvoll H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hilde Jensvoll,1,2 Marianne T Severinsen,3,4 Jens Hammerstrøm,5 Sigrid K Brækkan,1,2 Søren R Kristensen,4,6 Suzanne C Cannegieter,7 Kristine Blix,1,2 Anne Tjønneland,8 Frits R Rosendaal,1,7,9 Olga Dziewiecka,1 Kim Overvad,10,11 Inger Anne Næss,12 John-Bjarne Hansen1,21Department of Clinical Medicine, KG Jebsen – Thrombosis Research and Expertise Center (TREC, UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, 2Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Department of Hematology, Aalborg University Hospital, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 5Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 8Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; 9Department of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 10Department of Cardiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, 11Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 12Department of Hematology, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Although venous thromboembolism (VTE is a known common complication in cancer patients, there is limited knowledge on patient-related and cancer-specific risk factors in the general population. The Scandinavian Thrombosis and Cancer (STAC Cohort was established by merging individual data from three large Scandinavian cohorts (The Tromsø Study, the second Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Here, we present the profile of the STAC cohort and provide age-specific incidence rates of VTE and cancerMethods: The STAC cohort includes 144,952 subjects aged 19–101 years

  12. 中文檢索評估系統可行性研究 | Proposing a Prototype for Chinese Corpus Test Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳美美 Mei-Mei Wu

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:68-87

    本研究主要在探討建置一個中文檢索評估系統的可行性。數位化成為必要的趨勢之後,世界上各重要語言都受到其使用國家的重視與贊助而開始進行研究。1992年起美國國家標準暨技術局(NIST和美國國防部尖端研究企畫署的資訊科技室(DARPA閒始組織一系列的文獻檢索會議(Text Retrieval Conference, TREC,每年舉辦一次評比研討會議,至今已有TREC 9的召開。日本在籌畫五年之後,亦在今年(1999開始推展日文的檢索評比研討活動。本文提出建置一個中文檢索評估系統可行性研究,並期望政府重視支持而能建設一個良好的中文檢索研究環境,以便鼓勵更多的研究者參與中文資訊檢索的研究。

    Chinese language retrieval evaluation has caught the attention of researchers studying cross language retrieval techniques internationally. The importance of Chinese language in information retrieval ( IR has been recognized, however, the evaluation tool and research environment is limited. Given the importance of Networked Information Retrieval (NIR and the accelerating development of Digital Library (DL, a Chinese corpus test collection and a set of evaluation criteria for IR evaluation is

  13. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for X-linked agammaglobulinemia using reduced intensity conditioning as a model of the reconstitution of humoral immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Ikegame

    2016-02-01

    -cells were observed between the patient and healthy control. B-cells in the peripheral blood (PB of the patient on day 279 showed sufficient proliferation after a CD40L and IL-21 or CD40L and CpG stimulation. Effective immunoglobulin production and class switching were also observed after a CD40L and IL-21 or CpG stimulation. Signal joint kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (sjKRECs became positive 16 days post-SCT, increased to 6300 copies/μg DNA at 42 days, and were maintained at a high level thereafter. The recovery of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs was slow, but became detectable 1 year post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT.

  14. Quantitative time- and frequency-domain analysis of the two-pulse COSY revamped by asymmetric Z-gradient echo detection NMR experiment: Theoretical and experimental aspects, time-zero data truncation artifacts, and radiation damping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Stefan; Hull, William E

    2008-07-28

    The two-pulse COSY revamped by asymmetric Z-gradient echo detection (CRAZED) NMR experiment has the basic form 90 degrees -Gdelta-t(rec)-beta-nGdelta-t(rec)-FID, with a phase-encoding gradient pulse G of length delta applied during the evolution time tau for transverse magnetization, readout pulse beta, rephasing gradient nGdelta, and recovery time t(rec) prior to acquisition of the free-induction decay. Based on the classical treatment of the spatially modulated dipolar demagnetizing field and without invoking intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence, a new formulation of the first-order approximation for the theoretical solution of the nonlinear Bloch equations has been developed. The nth-order CRAZED signal can be expressed as a simple product of a scaling function C(n)(beta,tau) and a signal amplitude function A(n)(t), where the domain t begins immediately after the beta pulse. Using a single-quantum coherence model, a generalized rf phase shift function has also been developed, which explains all known phase behavior, including nth-order echo selection by phase cycling. Details of the derivations are provided in two appendices as supplementary material. For n>1, A(n)(t) increases from zero to a maximum value at t=t(max) before decaying and can be expressed as a series of n exponential decays with antisymmetric binomial coefficients. Fourier transform gives an antisymmetric binomial series of Lorentzians, where the composite lineshape exhibits negative wings, zero integral, and a linewidth that decreases with n. Analytical functions are presented for t(max) and A(n)(t(max)) and for estimating the maximal percent error incurred for A(n)(t(max)) when using the first-order model. The preacquisition delay Delta=delta+t(rec) results in the loss of the data points for t=0 to Delta. Conventional Fourier transformation produces time-zero truncation artifacts (reduced negative wing amplitude, nonzero integral, and reduced effective T(2) ( *)), which can be avoided by

  15. Connections in the Field and Beyond: A Case Study of Successful Teacher Research Experiences at the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, D.

    2007-12-01

    Successful and lasting partnerships between scientists and teachers can be established through Teacher Research Experiences (TRE). The documented benefits of the TRE include increased teacher retention in addition to renewed instructional practices in veteran teachers. The reality and excitement of field science is very difficult to convey to students if the teacher has never personally experienced it, and a TRE can transfer this interest into the classroom. With the field research experience as the centerpiece of the TRE relationship, much should be done before, during, and after the TRE to ensure a positive and lasting connection that meets the needs of both the teacher and researcher. This presentation focuses, from a teacher's first-hand perspective, on the critical issues that scientists must consider to ensure successful collaborations with teachers in the field. I have participated in two TRE's and have learned a great deal from both. In 2001, through the National Science Foundation sponsored program Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEA) I was able to participate in biochemical oceanographic science on-board the Icebreaker Oden in the Arctic Ocean. In 2005, I did biogeochemical research at Pony Lake/McMurdo Station in Antarctica as a participant in Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (TREC), a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS). On both research experiences, I was a working member of the science team. I was responsible for numerous teaching and outreach activities including: uploading daily journals and photos to a website, answering email from students and the public, and managing live communications with schools. Both research experiences were very successful and have resulted in lasting relationships with scientists and other teachers interested in polar science. My participation in these experiences also influenced my teaching by increasing student enthusiasm in the classroom and

  16. Behavior and diet of the Critically Endangered Eulemur cinereiceps in Manombo forest, southeast Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Stevens

    2008-12-01

    distribution. Les résultats des études effectuées sur les individus restants de cette espèce, qui est classée comme Gravement Menacée, permettent d’énumérer un total de 54 espèces de plantes appartenant à 24 familles qui sont consommés par l’espèce. D’autre part, deux tiers du régime alimentaire d’E. cinereiceps sont représentés par des fruits mûrs ou non. Le Lémur à collier blanc consomme occasionnellement une quantité assez importante de plantes envahissantes pour assurer ses besoins nutritifs, ce qui n’est pas habituel dans l’histoire naturelle de la vie des lémuriens. La présente etude constitue également la première observation de consummation d’une espèce inconnue de champignon par les représentants d’E. cinereiceps. Dans le présent cas, ledit champignon venait juste de pousser sur un pied mort de Cecropia peltata, une espèce allogène et envahissante de la région. Durant la prise de nourriture, l’animal a arraché des morceaux du champignon sur l’arbre mort avec la main et puis la bouche. La partie consommée a été mâchée par l’animal pendant une période de 0,28 s. Le Lémur à collier blanc consomme aussi des fruits épicés d’une espèce de plante allogène (Aframomum angustifolium qui ne pousse que dans des zones ouvertes et extrêmement dégradées. La prise de nourriture sur cette espèce de plante commence par l’enlèvement de la partie dure du fruit, pour cela l’animal utilise ses dents antérieures très puissantes, puis il tire soigneusement en même temps avec ses dents et sa langue la partie charnue et les graines. Cette prise de nourriture s’effectue pendant une période d’environ 0,22 s. C’était la première fois dans l’histoire des lémuriens de Manombo que des observations ont été effectuées sur un animal en train de manger des espèces de plantes inhabituelles. L’aptitude de manger des espèces de plantes telle que A. angustifolium pourrait permettre à E. cinereiceps d

  17. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Calado Araújo

    2010-07-01

    alternativa (georremediação aditivada, GAD para melhorar substancialmente a degradação da matéria orgânica recalcitrante contida no chorume, associada a uma redução significativa nas concentrações de alguns metais pesados do efluente. O quinto trabalho, elaborado por pesquisadores da UFOPA, discorre sobre os Cepropiais nativos formados pela espécie Cecropia palmata, dentre outras, que, acumulando fósforo (P em tecidos foliares e cascas, podem prestar um serviço ecológico em paisagens amazônicas com deficiência desse elemento químico. De autoria de pesquisadores do IFRN, o artigo de número seis trata do diagnóstico da qualidade sanitária de plantas medicinais comercializadas em Currais Novos/RN. Os resultados mostram contaminações por grupos, contagens de bactérias do grupo dos coliformes totais, e os níveis de contaminação registrados apontam o material analisado como potencialmente danoso à saúde humana. O sétimo artigo, por sua vez, é fruto de uma cooperação entre pesquisadores do IFRN e da UFPE, que apresentam resultados de estudos no controle ambiental de perfuração de poços de petróleo no Campo de Porto Carão, Carnaubais/RN. O trabalho analisa as limitações do Relatório de Controle Ambiental. Voltado para o desenvolvimento sustentável do turismo, o oitavo artigo discute o tema e verifica que a atividade turística de Natal se constitui em alternativa viável de desenvolvimento, observando, no entanto, que o novo poder local deve desempenhar o seu papel de fomentador e protagonista do desenvolvimento socioeconômico. O artigo seguinte traz uma discussão sobre os resíduos eletrônicos de computadores nas Instituições de ensino superior em Natal/RN, observando que sua gestão é incipiente. Os autores são oriundos da UFRN, da UnP e da UNESP. Apresentado por pesquisadores da UFRN, o décimo artigo examinam conceitos e aspectos da Gerência do Conhecimento que possam contribuir no desenvolvimento de ferramentas mais adaptadas para