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Sample records for cecal vascular ectasia

  1. Erythropoietin resistance in end-stage renal disease patient with gastric antral vascular ectasia

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    Desiree Ji Re Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe observed a case of recombinant human erythropoietin resistance caused by Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia in a 40-year-old female with ESRD on hemodialysis. Some associated factors such as autoimmune disease, hemolysis, heart and liver disease were discarded on physical examination and complementary tests. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history and endoscopic appearance of watermelon stomach. The histologic findings are fibromuscular proliferation and capillary ectasia with microvascular thrombosis of the lamina propria. However, these histologic findings are not necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia is a serious condition and should be considered in ESRD patients on hemodialysis with anemia and resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin because GAVE is potentially curable with specific endoscopic treatment method or through surgical procedure.

  2. [Vascular ectasia of the gastric antrum with "watermelon stomach." Report of an interesting case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K

    1997-01-01

    A patient with vascular ectasia of the gastric antrum is presented. This abnormality caused him anemia, treated with packed red cells. He received hormonal treatment during two weeks, but he did not improve. Therefore, an antrectomy with vagectomy, and a gastroduodenal anastomosis Billroth type I were performed. PMID:10997182

  3. Gastric antral vascular ectasia--a cause of refractory anaemia in systemic sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Busteed, S

    2012-02-03

    Recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage is an uncommon manifestation of systemic sclerosis. We report a case of gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) in a patient with systemic sclerosis. Failure to recognise the condition as a cause of gastrointestinal bleeding may delay the instigation of appropriate treatment. GAVE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of anaemia in patients with autoimmune conditions such as systemic sclerosis and primary biliary cirrhosis.

  4. Dural ectasia

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    Neha Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dural ectasia is one of the likely causes of incomplete or failed spinal anaesthesia. Its association with diseases like Marfans syndrome, neurofibromatosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, vertebral fracture, postopertative adhesions, trauma etc., is often overlooked as a reason for inadequate spinal anaesthesia. Greater than normal volume of cerebrospinal fluid in the lumber theca in dural ectasia is postulated to restrict the spread of intrathecally injected Local anaesthetic. Here, we report a case of failed spinal anaesthesia but successful epidural anaesthesia in later setting in a patient with dural ectasia.

  5. Watermelon stomach: clinical aspects and treatment with argon plasma coagulation Ectasia vascular do antro gástrico ("watermelon stomach": aspectos clínicos e tratamento com coagulação com plasma de argônio

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    Dalton M. Chaves

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric antral vascular ectasia is a disorder whose pathogenetic mechanism is unknown. The endoscopic treatment with argon plasma coagulation has been considered one of the best endoscopic therapeutic options. AIM: To analyze the endoscopic and clinical features of gastric antral vascular ectasia and its response to the argon plasma coagulation treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients were studied and classified into two groups: group 1 - whose endoscopic aspect was striped (watermelon or of the diffuse confluent type; group 2 - diffuse spotty nonconfluent endoscopic aspect. RESULTS: Group 1 with eight patients, all having autoimmune antibodies, but one, whose antibodies were not searched for. Three were cirrhotic and three had hypothyroidism. All had gastric mucosa atrophy. In group 2, with 10 patients, all had non-immune liver disease, with platelet levels below 90.000. Ten patients were submitted to argon plasma coagulation treatment, with 2 to 36 months of follow-up. Lesions recurred in all patients who remained in the follow-up program and one did not respond to treatment for acute bleeding control. CONCLUSION: There seem to be two distinct groups of patients with gastric antral vascular ectasia: one related to immunologic disorders and other to non-immune chronic liver disease and low platelets. The endoscopic treatment using argon plasma coagulation had a high recurrence in the long-term evaluation.RACIONAL: "Watermelon stomach" ou ectasia vascular do antro gástrico é uma doença de etiopatogenia desconhecida. O tratamento endoscópico através da coagulação com plasma de argônio é considerado uma das melhores opções terapêuticas. OBJETIVO: Analisar os aspectos clínicos e endoscópicos da ectasia vascular do antro gástrico e a resposta ao tratamento com coagulação com plasma de argônio. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Dezoito pacientes foram estudados e classificados em dois grupos: grupo I - oito pacientes que

  6. [Cecal volvulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abita, T; Lachachi, F; Durand-Fontanier, S; Maisonnette, F; Roudaut, P Y; Valleix, D; Descottes, B

    2005-01-01

    The cecum is the second most common site of colonic volvulus after the sigmoid. The mechanism is torsion or hyperflexion of the enlarged, poorly-fixed, and hypermobile cecum. It presents clinically as an acute bowel obstruction with strangulation. Diagnosis can be made by plain abdominal X-ray in more than half the cases on the basis of cecal distention (with a classical "teardrop" or "comma" appearance), proximal small bowel distention with air-fluid levels, and a gasless distal colon. Barium enema shows lack of filling of the cecum, often with a "beaked" termination of the column of contrast. CT images are pathognomonic when they reveal a cecal "vortex". After surgical reduction of the torsion, ileo-cecal resection is usually the best therapeutic alternative. Cecopexy may be aDDrouriate in older and debilitated Datients if there is no concomitant cecal necrosis. PMID:16335894

  7. Intrastromal crosslinking in post-LASIK ectasia

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    Bernardo Kaplan Moscovici

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso de ectasia de córnea precoce após cirurgia de LASIK, detectado no primeiro semestre pós-operatório. Nós optamos tratar este paciente com "crosslinking" embaixo do "flap" , sem desepitelização com bons resultados. A paciente permaneceu sem progressão da ectasia até o momento atual, dois anos após o procedimento.

  8. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

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    Santhiago MR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marcony R Santhiago,1 Natalia T Giacomin,1 David Smadja,2 Samir J Bechara1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Ophthalmology Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Abstract: This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age, as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue. Corneal topo­graphy patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a

  9. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient's age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  10. Dural ectasia and conventional radiography in the Marfan lumbosacral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine how well conventional radiographic findings can predict the presence of dural ectasia in Marfan patients.Design and patients. Twelve Marfan patients without dural ectasia and 21 Marfan patients with dural ectasia were included in the study. Five radiographic measurements were made of the lumbosacral spine: interpediculate distance, scalloping value, sagittal canal diameter, vertebral body width, and transverse process width.Results. The following measurements were significantly larger in patients with dural ectasia: interpediculate distances at L3-L4 levels (P38.0 mm, sagittal diameter at S1 >18.0 mm, or scalloping value at L5 >5.5 mm.Conclusion. Dural ectasia in Marfan syndrome is commonly associated with several osseous changes that are observable on conventional radiographs of the lumbosacral spine. Conventional radiography can detect dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome with a very high specificity (91.7%) but a low sensitivity (57.1%). (orig.)

  11. Apendicitis retro-cecal

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    Salazar Sánchez, Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Por definición, se llama apendicitis retro-cecal a la inflamación aguda o crónica del apéndice, cuando está situado en posición retrocecal,sea que acompañe a un ciego móvil y en consecuencia esté provisto de meso, o bien que con ciego fijo se encuentre sin meso y en posición retro-peritoneal, hallándose entonces en íntima relación con algunas formaciones anatómicas como el tejido conjuntivo peri-renal, el nervio génito.crural derecho, el fémoro cutáneo, el obsturador y el uréter derecho. Con ...

  12. Dural ectasia and conventional radiography in the Marfan lumbosacral spine

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    Ahn, N.U. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore (United States); Johns Hopkins Outpatient Center, Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Nallamshetty, L.; Ahn, U.M.; Buchowski, J.M.; Kebaish, K.M.; Sponseller, P.D. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore (United States); Rose, P.S. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore (United States); National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Garrett, E.S. [Dept. of Oncology, Division of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Objective. To determine how well conventional radiographic findings can predict the presence of dural ectasia in Marfan patients.Design and patients. Twelve Marfan patients without dural ectasia and 21 Marfan patients with dural ectasia were included in the study. Five radiographic measurements were made of the lumbosacral spine: interpediculate distance, scalloping value, sagittal canal diameter, vertebral body width, and transverse process width.Results. The following measurements were significantly larger in patients with dural ectasia: interpediculate distances at L3-L4 levels (P<0.03); scalloping values at the L1 and L5 levels (P<0.05); sagittal diameters of the vertebral canal at L5-S1 (P<0.03); transverse process to width ratios at L2 (P<0.03). Criteria were developed for diagnosis of dural ectasia in Marfan patients. These included presence of one of the following: interpediculate distance at L4 >38.0 mm, sagittal diameter at S1 >18.0 mm, or scalloping value at L5 >5.5 mm.Conclusion. Dural ectasia in Marfan syndrome is commonly associated with several osseous changes that are observable on conventional radiographs of the lumbosacral spine. Conventional radiography can detect dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome with a very high specificity (91.7%) but a low sensitivity (57.1%). (orig.)

  13. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  14. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

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    Duchesne, N. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: nathalie_duchesne_22@yahoo.ca; Skolnik, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Family Medicine, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bilmer, S. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  15. Risk Factors in Post-LASIK Corneal Ectasia

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    Mehmet Gurkan Tatar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the risk factors for post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK ectasia. Materials and Methods. Medical records of 42 eyes of 28 (10 women, 18 men patients who developed corneal ectasia after LASIK were retrospectively reviewed. Topographical features and surgical parameters of those patients were evaluated. Results. The mean age of patients was 34.73±6.50 (23–48 years and the mean interval from LASIK to the diagnosis of post-LASIK ectasia was 36.0±16.92 (12–60 months. The following factors were determined as a risk factors: deep ablation (>75 μm in 10 eyes, FFK (forme fruste keratoconus in 6 eyes, steep cornea (>47 D in 3 eyes, pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD in 2 eyes, thin cornea (<500 μm in 2 eyes, thin and steep cornea in 2 eyes, thin cornea and deep ablation in 5 eyes, FFK and steep cornea in 2 eyes, and FFK, steep cornea, and deep ablation in 1 eye. However no risk factor has been determined in 9 eyes (21.4%. Conclusion. The findings of our study showed that most of the patients who developed post-LASIK ectasia have a risk factor for post-LASIK ectasia. However, the most common risk factor was deep ablation.

  16. Ectasia of the rete testis: Beware of this masquerader

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    Gadodia, Ankur; Goyal, Ankur; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Cystic/tubular ectasia of the rete testis is a rare benign entity and must be differentiated from testicular neoplasm. We report a case of bilateral rete testis-associated epididymal cyst in patient with abdominal mass. Scrotal swelling clinically was interpreted as testicular neoplasm.

  17. A modified risk assessment scoring system for post laser in situ keratomileusis ectasia in topographically normal patients

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    Mohammad Miraftab

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Our modified ectasia risk scoring system for patients with normal corneal topography can predict post LASIK ectasia risk with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. However, there are still unidentified risk factors for which further studies are required.

  18. Cecal bascule: an unusual pathology of cecal dilation. Case report and brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Oza, Veeral; Johnson, Andrea; Pfeil, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    Patients with multiple comorbidities often develop decreased intestinal motility resulting in abdominal distention. A variety of etiologies such as electrolyte abnormalities, medications, and sometimes unusual anatomical pathologies are responsible for this distention. Cecal bascule represents an exceedingly rare anatomical variance that leads to abdominal distention, and mimics a potentially isolated cecal distention. This rare diagnosis, if missed, can lead to severe complications. We prese...

  19. Dural ectasia as a cause of widening of the internal auditory canals in neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with neurofibromatosis have an increased incidence of acoustic neuroma, which is often bilateral. We present three patients with neurofibromatosis and enlarged internal auditory canals secondary to dural ectasia, without associated acoustic neuromata. Air CT cisternography and Metrizamide CT cisternography was needed in differentiating dural ectasia from acoustic neuroma in two patients. (orig.)

  20. Dural ectasia as a cause of widening of the internal auditory canals in neurofibromatosis

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    Egelhoff, J.C.; Ball, W.S.; Towbin, R.B.; Seigel, R.S.; Eckel, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis have an increased incidence of acoustic neuroma, which is often bilateral. We present three patients with neurofibromatosis and enlarged internal auditory canals secondary to dural ectasia, without associated acoustic neuromata. Air CT cisternography and Metrizamide CT cisternography was needed in differentiating dural ectasia from acoustic neuroma in two patients.

  1. Evaluation of three different measurement methods for dural ectasia in Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Dural ectasia is a major diagnostic criterion for Marfan syndrome using the Ghent nosology. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of three different radiological methods previously proposed for the assessment of dural sac diameter in Marfan syndrome. Methods: Marfan syndrome was diagnosed in our study using the Ghent criteria, disregarding dural ectasia as a criterion. Three proposed radiological methods were applied to measure dural sac diameter, examined for 41 patients (18 patients with and 23 without Marfan syndrome) by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Using Oosterhof's method, 94% of the patients with and 44% of the patients without Marfan syndrome fulfilled the criteria of dural ectasia. According to Villeirs, dural ectasia was diagnosed in 18% of the patients with and in none of the patients without Marfan syndrome. With Ahn's method, dural ectasia was found in 72% of the patients with and in 44% of the patients without Marfan syndrome. In only two patients with Marfan syndrome was dural ectasia diagnosed by all three methods. Conclusion: Our results reveal overt discrepancy between the three methods of assessing dural ectasia. Considering the key role played by dural ectasia in reinforcing the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome according to the Ghent nosology, a standardized and reliable method should be sought

  2. Evaluation of three different measurement methods for dural ectasia in Marfan syndrome

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    Weigang, E.; Ghanem, N.; Chang, X.-C.; Richter, H.; Frydrychowicz, A.; Szabo, G.; Dudeck, O.; Knirsch, W.; Samson, P. von; Langer, M.; Beyersdorf, F

    2006-11-15

    Aim: Dural ectasia is a major diagnostic criterion for Marfan syndrome using the Ghent nosology. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of three different radiological methods previously proposed for the assessment of dural sac diameter in Marfan syndrome. Methods: Marfan syndrome was diagnosed in our study using the Ghent criteria, disregarding dural ectasia as a criterion. Three proposed radiological methods were applied to measure dural sac diameter, examined for 41 patients (18 patients with and 23 without Marfan syndrome) by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Using Oosterhof's method, 94% of the patients with and 44% of the patients without Marfan syndrome fulfilled the criteria of dural ectasia. According to Villeirs, dural ectasia was diagnosed in 18% of the patients with and in none of the patients without Marfan syndrome. With Ahn's method, dural ectasia was found in 72% of the patients with and in 44% of the patients without Marfan syndrome. In only two patients with Marfan syndrome was dural ectasia diagnosed by all three methods. Conclusion: Our results reveal overt discrepancy between the three methods of assessing dural ectasia. Considering the key role played by dural ectasia in reinforcing the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome according to the Ghent nosology, a standardized and reliable method should be sought.

  3. Tubular Ectasia of the Rete testis: Echographic Findings in 43 Patients; Ectasia tubular de la rete testis: hallazgos ecograficos en 43 pacientes

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    Aleixandre, A.; Ruiz, F.; Cugat, A. [Hospital Malva-rosa. Valencia (Spain); Fuster, A. V. [Universidad de Valencia. (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Tubular ectasia of the retetestes is a benign lesion usually associated with epididymal abnormalities. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of intraparenchymatous cystic lesions. Its characteristic echographic image usually allows for a diagnosis without having to perform any other type of exploration. We present a review of 43 patients with tubular ectasia of the rete tests studied ultrasonically during a 7-year period. Intratesticular echographic findings are described, as well as associated extratesticular pathology. (Author) 24 refs.

  4. Carcinoid tumor of the cecal appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carcinoid tumors of the cecal appendix are the most frequent of all appendicular tumors, with no clinical manifestations in general. The general objective of this paper was to present an interesting case of carcinoid tumor found in a 26 years-old woman, whose clinical picture was diagnosed as subacute appendicitis. She was hospitalized and treated with antibiotics with good recovery and discharged 10 days later. She had no abdominal tumors confirmed clinically and echographically at that time. Three months later, the patient was operated on and underwent cecal appendicectomy. The pathological anatomy analysis yielded argentaffinoma in the distal third of the cecal appendix with mucosal infiltration. She was referred to the oncology service to be followed up. She has been free from any complication with good recovery for 10 years. The annual ultrasound and the CT scan show that there is neither regional adenopathy nor hepatic metastasis

  5. The Relation of Serum Pentraxin-3 Levels with Coronary Artery Ectasia

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kurt; Mehmet Fatih Karakaş; Eyup Büyükkaya; Şule Büyükkaya; Esra Karakaş; Sedat Motor; Adnan Burak Akçay; Nihat Şen; Fatih Yalçın

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Coronary artery ectasia is characterized as the dilation of a segment of coronary artery at least 1.5 times the adjacent segment in which inflammation, neurohormonal activity and atherosclerosis are held responsible for the pathogenesis. The association between the coronary artery ectasia and inflammatory markers has been shown, however there is nodata related to Pentraxine 3 (PTX-3).In this study, we investigated the association between serum PTX-3 and high sensitive C-reactive...

  6. Corneal ectasia after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis: a long-term study

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    Spadea L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leopoldo Spadea,1 Emilia Cantera,2 Magdalena Cortes,2 Nicole Evangelista Conocchia,1 Charles WM Stewart11University of L’Aquila, Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Eye Clinic, L’Aquila, 2Villa Stuart Clinic, Department of Ophthalmic Sciences, Rome, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term postoperative incidence of and key factors in the genesis of corneal ectasia after myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK in a large number of cases.Methods: A retrospective review of one surgeon's myopic LASIK database was performed. Patients were stratified into two groups based on date of surgery, ie, group 1 (1313 eyes from 1999 to 2001 and group 2 (2714 eyes from 2001 to 2003. Visual acuity, refraction, pachymetry, and corneal topography data were available for each patient from examinations performed both before and after the refractive procedures.Results: Of the 4027 surgically treated eyes, 23 (0.57% developed keratectasia during the follow-up period, which was a minimum seven years; nine eyes (0.69% were from group 1 and 14 eyes (0.51% were from group 2. The onset of corneal ectasia was at 2.57 ± 1.04 (range 1–4 years and 2.64 ± 1.29 (range 0.5–5 years, respectively, for groups 1 and 2. The most important preoperative risk factors using the Randleman Ectasia Risk Score System were manifest refractive spherical error in group 1 and a thin residual stromal bed in group 2. Each of the cases that developed corneal ectasia had risk factors that were identified.Conclusion: Ectasia was an uncommon outcome after an otherwise uncomplicated laser in situ keratomileusis procedure. The variables present in eyes developing postoperative LASIK ectasia can be better understood using the Randleman Ectasia Risk Score System.Keywords: corneal topography, Ectasia Risk Score System, keratectasia, myopia, LASIK

  7. Cecal bascule after spinal cord injury: A case series report

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    Ishida, Yuichi; McLean, Susan F.; Tyroch, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cecal bascule is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction associated with upward and anterior folding of the ascending colon. We report three patients who presented with spinal cord injury complicated with a cecal bascule. Diagnosis and management of cecal bascule is discussed. Presentation of cases Patient 1: 59-year-old male sustained a traumatic brain injury and cervical spinal cord injury after a motorcycle crash. He had abdominal distension and the diagnosis of cecal bascule was made. Cecopexy was performed. Patient 2: 51-year-old male sustained an unstable C7 vertebral fracture with a cord contusion and quadriplegia after a diving incident. After an unsuccessful medical management of the colonic distension, the patient was taken for a laparotomy and cecal bascule was found. A cecostomy and a cecopexy were performed. Patient 3: 63-year-old male was transferred after a fall. He had diffuse degenerative changes in the thoracic and lumbar spine. He was found to have a perforated cecal bascule. He had a right hemicolectomy with an ileocolic anastomosis. Discussion We suggest the possibility of spinal cord injury being a risk factor for cecal bascule. Currently, right hemicolectomy is recommended for the treatment of cecal bascule. Cecopexy is also acceptable treatment option for a case in which the patient will be undergoing an operation with an insertion of hardware. Conclusion The diagnosis of cecal bascule should be considered for trauma patients with cecal distention without delay in order to prevent disastrous complications. PMID:27077698

  8. Isolated non-hemorrhagic cecal varices

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    Haddad, James D.; Lacey, Brent W.

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic varices (those outside of the gastro-esophageal region) are occasionally found on endoscopy in patients with portal hypertension; however they account for a small minority of all variceal bleeds. Cases of isolated cecal varices are quite rare and, when described, often present with acute hemorrhage or evidence of occult bleeding. We present the case of a 29-year-old male with a history of idiopathic portal vein thrombosis and known esophageal varices, who presented for evaluation of a...

  9. Marsupialization and distal obliteration of a lumbosacral dural ectasia in a nonsyndromic, adult patient

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    Ha Son Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dural ectasia is frequently associated with connective tissue disorders or inflammatory conditions. Presentation in a patient without known risk factors is rare. Moreover, the literature regarding the treatment options for symptomatic dural ectasia is controversial, variable, and limited. A 62-year-old female presents with intractable, postural headaches for years. A lumbar puncture revealed opening pressure 3 cm of water. A computed tomography myelogram of the spine demonstrated erosion of her sacrum due to a large lumbosacral dural ectasia. An initial surgery was attempted to reduce the size of the expansile dura, and reconstruct the dorsal sacrum with a titanium plate (Depuy Synthes, Westchester, PA, USA to prevent recurrence of thecal sac dilatation. Her symptoms initially improved, but shortly thereafter recurred. A second surgery was then undertaken to obliterate the thecal sac distal to the S2 nerve roots. This could not be accomplished through simple ligation of the thecal sac circumferentially as the ventral dura was noted to be incompetent and attempts to develop an extradural tissue plane were unsuccessful. Consequently, an abundance of fibrin glue was injected into the thecal sac distal to S2, and the dural ectasia was marsupialized rostrally, effectively obliterating the distal thecal sac while further reducing the size of the expansile dura. This approach significantly improved her symptoms at 5 months follow-up. Treatment of dural ectasia is not well-defined and has been variable based on the underlying manifestations. We report a rare patient without risk factors who presented with significant lumbosacral dural ectasia. Moreover, we present a novel method to treat postural headaches secondary to dural ectasia, where the thecal sac is obliterated distal to the S2 nerve roots using an abundance of fibrin glue followed by marsupialization of the thecal sac rostally. This method may offer an effective therapy option as it serves to

  10. Prevalence of dural ectasia in Loeys-Dietz syndrome: comparison with Marfan syndrome and normal controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi K Kono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dural ectasia is well recognized in Marfan syndrome (MFS as one of the major diagnostic criteria, but the exact prevalence of dural ectasia is still unknown in Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS, which is a recently discovered connective tissue disease. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of dural ectasia in LDS according by using qualitative and quantitative methods and compared our findings with those for with MFS and normal controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied 10 LDS (6 males, 4 females, mean age 36.3 years and 20 MFS cases (12 males, 8 females, mean age 37.1 years and 20 controls (12 males, 8 females, mean age 36.1 years both qualitatively and quantitatively using axial CT images and sagittal multi-planar reconstruction images of the lumbosacral region. For quantitative examination, we adopted two methods: method-1 (anteroposterior dural diameter of S1> L4 and method-2 (ratio of anteroposterior dural diameter/vertebral body diameter>cutoff values. The prevalence of dural ectasia among groups was compared by using Fisher's exact test and the Tukey-Kramer test. RESULTS: In LDS patients, the qualitative method showed 40% of dural ectasia, the quantitative method-1 50%, and the method-2 70%. In MFS patients, the corresponding prevalences were 50%, 75%, and 85%, and in controls, 0%, 0%, and 5%. Both LDS and MFS had a significantly wider dura than controls. CONCLUSIONS: While the prevalence of dural ectasia varied depending on differences in qualitative and quantitative methods, LDS as well as MFS, showed, regardless of method, a higher prevalence of dural ectasia than controls. This finding should help the differentiation of LDS from controls.

  11. Coronary artery ectasia: new insights into pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitan, Amnon; Roguin, Ariel

    2016-08-01

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is defined as a segment of the coronary artery that has a diameter of more than 1.5 times the normal adjacent segments. It was described many years ago, but many aspects of this phenomenon are still unknown. It can be found in 1.2-2% of patients referred for coronary angiography. Risk factors are similar to atherosclerosis, but not in all patients. Histology shows extensive destruction of the musculoelastic elements, with marked degradation of the medial collagen and elastin fibers with disruption of the internal and external elastic lamina. These patients have abnormal levels of matrix metalloproteinases and other related proteins. Yet, the actual etiology of CAE is still unknown. Advances in new and improved imaging modalities such as CT and magnetic resonance angiography enable easier and more accessible diagnosis and evaluation. Treatment is aimed mostly at common cardiovascular risk factors. In small series, CAE was associated with worse prognosis. Anticoagulation was never examined in large trials. Nitrates worsen the flow and should not be administered. Interventional treatments are also an option, but a challenging one. This review presents an update on the current knowledge on CAE. PMID:27218145

  12. Suppression of Clostridium difficile by Normal Hamster Cecal Flora and Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Cecitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kenneth H.; Silva, Joseph; Fekety, F. Robert

    1981-01-01

    Administration of normal cecal homogenates decreased numbers of viable Clostridium difficile and prevented cecitis in antibiotic-challenged hamsters. Cecal anaerobes appeared to suppress C. difficile.

  13. The Clinical Role of CT-Based Morphologic Description in Severely Calcified Coronary Arteries Ectasia Encountering Acute Coronary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jen-Yuan Kuo; Jiun-Yi Li; Chung-Lieh Hung; Yen-Yu Liu; Jui-Peng Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse coronary arteries ectasia combined with calcification is seldom reported. Acute coronary syndrome, a potentially life-threatening disease, accompanied with coronary ectasia and diffuse calcification, made percutaneous coronary intervention difficult and risky owing to increasing complications rate. Dual-source computed tomography and three-dimensional volume rendering images help cardiovascular surgeon easier to localize the ideal site and facilitate the procedure.

  14. Extracellular matrix turnover in coronary artery ectasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruifeng; Chen, Lianfeng; Wu, Wei; Chen, Houzao; Zhang, Shuyang

    2016-03-01

    Dysregulation of the metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) may contribute to coronary artery ectasia (CAE). This study evaluated the turnover of main ECM components and related proteolytic enzymes activities. In this study, thirty patients with CAE, 30 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 30 subjects with normal coronary arteries (Control) were selected. The following circulating ECM metabolism markers were measured: soluble elastin (sElastin), collagen type I cross-linked telopeptides (ICTP), procollagen type I carboxy terminal peptide (PICP), protocollagen III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), and procollagen a1(III) C-terminal propeptide (PIIICP). Serum total elastase activity and total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were also determined. The level of sElastin was higher in the CAE group than in the CAD and Control groups (P1 = 0.009, P2 = 0.000). There was no difference in ICTP (P = 0.168) or PIIICP (P = 0.079) among the three groups. PICP was significantly elevated in CAE (P1 = 0.001, P2 = 0.002). PIIINP was also significantly increased in CAE (P1 = 0.002, P2 = 0.007). Total elastase activity was higher in the CAE group than in the other two groups (P1 = 0.006, P2 = 0.022). Total MMP activity was significantly higher in the CAE group than the Control group (P2 = 0.013) but not higher than the CAD group (P1 = 0.477). In conclusion, within CAE patients the main changes in ECM metabolism were increased degradation of elastin fibres and the transition of collagen from type III to type I. Elastase and MMPs appear to be associated with this kind of ECM turnover. PMID:25576491

  15. Performance of a new quantitative method for assessing dural ectasia in patients with FBN1 mutations and clinical features of Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a comparison of established methods for measuring dural ectasia with a new quantitative method of assessing this clinical feature. Seventeen patients with an identified mutation in FBN1 were examined for dural ectasia. The results were compared with 17 age- and sex-matched controls. Our images were also evaluated using the two methods of quantifying dural ectasia, namely those of Ahn et al. and of Oosterhof et al. With our method, 80% MFS1 patients and 7% controls fulfilled the criterion for dural ectasia. Using the method of Oosterhof et al., dural ectasia was found in 88% patients with MFS1 and in 47% controls. Using the method of Ahn et al. 76% patients with Marfan syndrome and 29% controls showed dural ectasia. We present a novel quantitative method of evaluating MRT images for dural ectasia, which, in our own patient cohort, performed better than those previously described. (orig.)

  16. Performance of a new quantitative method for assessing dural ectasia in patients with FBN1 mutations and clinical features of Marfan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeylen, Bahar; Schmidtke, Joerg; Arslan-Kirchner, Mine [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Human Genetics, Hannover (Germany); Hinz, Kerstin [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); Vivantes Klinikum Neukoelln, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Prokein, Jana [Hannover Medical School, Institute for Biometrics, Hannover (Germany); Becker, Hartmut [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    This study presents a comparison of established methods for measuring dural ectasia with a new quantitative method of assessing this clinical feature. Seventeen patients with an identified mutation in FBN1 were examined for dural ectasia. The results were compared with 17 age- and sex-matched controls. Our images were also evaluated using the two methods of quantifying dural ectasia, namely those of Ahn et al. and of Oosterhof et al. With our method, 80% MFS1 patients and 7% controls fulfilled the criterion for dural ectasia. Using the method of Oosterhof et al., dural ectasia was found in 88% patients with MFS1 and in 47% controls. Using the method of Ahn et al. 76% patients with Marfan syndrome and 29% controls showed dural ectasia. We present a novel quantitative method of evaluating MRT images for dural ectasia, which, in our own patient cohort, performed better than those previously described. (orig.)

  17. Extensive Microbial and Functional Diversity within the Chicken Cecal Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeant, Martin J.; Chrystala Constantinidou; Tristan A Cogan; Bedford, Michael R.; Penn, Charles W.; Pallen, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Chickens are major source of food and protein worldwide. Feed conversion and the health of chickens relies on the largely unexplored complex microbial community that inhabits the chicken gut, including the ceca. We have carried out deep microbial community profiling of the microbiota in twenty cecal samples via 16S rRNA gene sequences and an in-depth metagenomics analysis of a single cecal microbiota. We recovered 699 phylotypes, over half of which appear to represent previously unknown speci...

  18. Ectasias of the subcapsular sinus in lymph nodes of athymic and euthymic rats, a relation to immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Sainte-Marie, G; Peng, F S; Guay, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a morphologically unusual feature occurring in lymph nodes of some aged euthymic animals but mostly athymic animals. It initially consists of small alveole-like excrescences of the cortical wall of the subcapsular sinus. With dilatation, an excrescence becomes an ectasia which expands into the cortex. Observations suggest that ectasias enlarge under the influence of an increased pressure of the afferent lymph of a node. Such condition conce...

  19. Dural ectasia of the optic nerve sheath: is it always benign?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berker Bakbak

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Berker Bakbak1, Hava Dönmez2, Tülay Kansu3, Hayyam Kiratli41Hacettepe University Institute of Neurological Sciences and Psychiatry, Neuro-ophthalmology Unit, Ankara, Turkey; 2Diskapi Yildirim Beyazid Education and Research Hospital Neurology Clinic, Ankara, Turkey; 3Hacettepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Neurology, Neuro-Ophthalmology Unit, Ankara, Turkey; 4Hacettepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Ophthalmology, Ocular Oncology Unit, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: A 36-year-old woman with a 3-month history of progressive visual loss had papilledema, dilatation of the optic nerve sheaths and normal cerebrospinal fluid pressures. She was diagnosed as dural ectasia of the optic nerve sheaths and surgical decompression was performed. In this case report, severe visual loss is described as a serious complication of this rare disease and the importance of early surgical intervention is emphasized.Keywords: optic nerve, dural ectasia, meningocele

  20. Single-segment and double-segment INTACS for post-LASIK ectasia.

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    Hassan Hashemi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare single segment and double segment INTACS rings in the treatment of post-LASIK ectasia. In this interventional study, 26 eyes with post-LASIK ectasia were assessed. Ectasia was defined as progressive myopia regardless of astigmatism, along with topographic evidence of inferior steepening of the cornea after LASIK. We excluded those with a history of intraocular surgery, certain eye conditions, and immune disorders, as well as monocular, pregnant and lactating patients. A total of 11 eyes had double ring and 15 eyes had single ring implantation. Visual and refractive outcomes were compared with preoperative values based on the number of implanted INTACS rings. Pre and postoperative spherical equivalent were -3.92 and -2.29 diopter (P=0.007. The spherical equivalent decreased by 1 ± 3.2 diopter in the single-segment group and 2.56 ± 1.58 diopter in the double-segment group (P=0.165. Mean preoperative astigmatism was 2.38 ± 1.93 diopter which decreased to 2.14 ± 1.1 diopter after surgery (P=0.508; 0.87 ± 1.98 diopter decrease in the single-segment group and 0.67 ± 1.2 diopter increase in the double-segment group (P=0.025. Nineteen patients (75% gained one or two lines, and only three, who were all in the double-segment group, lost one or two lines of best corrected visual acuity. The spherical equivalent and vision significantly decreased in all patients. In these post-LASIK ectasia patients, the spherical equivalent was corrected better with two segments compared to single segment implantation; nonetheless, the level of astigmatism in the single-segment group was significantly better than that in the double-segment group.

  1. Gamma knife radiosurgery to the trigeminal ganglion for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia secondary to vertebrobasilar ectasia

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Somaza; Wendy Hurtado; Eglee Montilla; Jose Ghaleb

    2014-01-01

    Background: We report the result obtained using Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery on the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in a patient with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) secondary to vertebrobasilar ectasia (VBE). Case Description: Retrospective review of medical records corresponding to one patient with VBE-related trigeminal pain treated with radiosurgery. Because of the impossibility of visualization of the entry zone or the path of trigeminal nerve through the pontine cistern, we proceeded wi...

  2. Corneal ectasia after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis: a long-term study

    OpenAIRE

    Spadea, Leopoldo

    2012-01-01

    Leopoldo Spadea,1 Emilia Cantera,2 Magdalena Cortes,2 Nicole Evangelista Conocchia,1 Charles WM Stewart11University of L’Aquila, Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Eye Clinic, L’Aquila, 2Villa Stuart Clinic, Department of Ophthalmic Sciences, Rome, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term postoperative incidence of and key factors in the genesis of corneal ectasia after myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis ...

  3. A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen: Idiopathic Isolated Cecal Necrosis

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    Ender Özer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic isolated cecal necrosis is a clinical problem characterized by right-sided inferior abdominal pain. It is rarely seen, develops due to decreased blood flow to the colon and, imitates acute appendicitis. Its clinical signs are similar to many illnesses causing sensitivity in the right inferior quadrant and, the diagnosis is generally determined during surgery. An 86-year-old male patient presented with the complaints of abdominal pain, trichiniasis, nausea and vomiting. Surgical intervention was decided when physical examination and laboratory results were taken into consideration. After diagnostic laparoscopy, right hemicolectomy was performed because of cecal necrosis. While the mortality and morbidity rates for ischemic bowel disease are high, prognosis for early diagnosed patients with isolated cecal necrosis is better, provided that timely surgical treatment is decided.

  4. Inhibition of salmonella by cecal bacteria in media supplemented with lactate and succinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to examine the ability of cecal cultures from broilers to inhibit growth of Salmonella Typhimurium in vitro. Cecal contents from commercial broilers were combined, and 0.1 ml of the cecal slurry was added to media containing (g/l), tryptose, 10; yeast extract, 5; sodium ch...

  5. The hOGG1 Ser326Cys Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Coronary Ectasia in the Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chao Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS is related to vascular inflammation possibly, contributing to the development of coronary ectasia (CE. Base excision repair (BER and nucleotide excision repair are the main DNA repair pathways that can help to remove 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine (8-OHdG, a marker of OS. Human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1 is a key enzyme of the BER pathway and catalyzes the removal of 8-OHdG. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between hOGG1 Ser326Cys gene polymorphism and CE in a Chinese population. Five-hundred forty-seven patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography in a tertiary medical center were recruited. The angiographic definition of CE is the diameter of the ectatic segment being more than 1.5 times larger compared with an adjacent healthy reference segment. The gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. The urine 8OHdG concentration was measured using a commercial ELISA kit. The distribution of hOGG1 Ser326Cys genotypes was significantly different between CE and non-CE groups (p = 0.033. The odds ratio of CE development for the Ser to the Cys variant was 1.55 (95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–2.31, p = 0.033. Both univariate and logistic regression analysis showed a significant association of hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism in the dominant model with CE development (p = 0.009 and 0.011, respectively. Urine 8-OHdG levels were significantly higher in subjects carrying the hOGG1 Ser variant than in those with the Cys/Cys genotype (p < 0.03. In conclusion, our study suggests that the hOGG1 Ser326Cys gene variant might play a role in susceptibility to the development of CE.

  6. In utero magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis in the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis (DVSET) in the fetus is a rare condition that can be diagnosed prenatally with the use of fetal MR imaging, yet with limited indication of long-term clinical significance. To describe and evaluate the diagnostic value of fetal MR imaging in the prenatal diagnosis of dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis and its clinical significance. We report a series of nine fetuses with dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis. The mothers, located in four feto-maternal centres, were referred for fetal MR imaging due to space occupying lesions identified on second-trimester antenatal ultrasound. In all but one case the dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis was in the vicinity of the venous confluence (VC) with various extension in the posterior dural sinuses. Antenatal follow-up imaging was performed in seven cases and showed progression in one, stable appearances in one and regression in five cases. Three pregnancies were terminated. In the remaining six cases there was no reported neurological deficit at up to 44 months of clinical follow-up. This is among the largest series of postnatal clinical follow-up in cases of prenatal diagnosis of dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis in the literature. Clinical follow-up suggests a good prognosis when antenatal follow-up shows partial or complete thrombus resolution. (orig.)

  7. In utero magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis in the fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanou, Evgenia Maria [University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Reeves, Mike J.; Griffiths, Paul D. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Howe, David T. [Princess Anne Hospital, Wessex Fetal Medicine Unit, Southampton (United Kingdom); Joy, Harriet [University Hospital of Southampton, Department of Radiology, Southampton (United Kingdom); Morris, Susan [University Hospital of Wales, Radiology Department, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Russell, Sarah [St. Mary' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis (DVSET) in the fetus is a rare condition that can be diagnosed prenatally with the use of fetal MR imaging, yet with limited indication of long-term clinical significance. To describe and evaluate the diagnostic value of fetal MR imaging in the prenatal diagnosis of dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis and its clinical significance. We report a series of nine fetuses with dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis. The mothers, located in four feto-maternal centres, were referred for fetal MR imaging due to space occupying lesions identified on second-trimester antenatal ultrasound. In all but one case the dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis was in the vicinity of the venous confluence (VC) with various extension in the posterior dural sinuses. Antenatal follow-up imaging was performed in seven cases and showed progression in one, stable appearances in one and regression in five cases. Three pregnancies were terminated. In the remaining six cases there was no reported neurological deficit at up to 44 months of clinical follow-up. This is among the largest series of postnatal clinical follow-up in cases of prenatal diagnosis of dural venous sinus ectasia with thrombosis in the literature. Clinical follow-up suggests a good prognosis when antenatal follow-up shows partial or complete thrombus resolution. (orig.)

  8. Coronary artery ectasia in Noonan syndrome: Report of an individual with SOS1 mutation and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Baban, Anwar; De Luca, Enrica; Leonardi, Benedetta; Pongiglione, Giacomo; Digilio, Maria Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is the second most frequent hereditary syndrome with cardiac involvement. Pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are the most prevalent cardiovascular abnormalities. We report on a 14-year-old girl with NS due to SOS1 mutation with pulmonary stenosis and idiopathic coronary ectasia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing coronary ectasia in a patient with NS secondary to a SOS1 mutation. We include a literature review of this rare association. PMID:26686981

  9. Relationship between coronary artery ectasia, cocaine abuse and acute coronary syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendramis, Gregory; Paleologo, Claudia; Piraino, Davide; Assennato, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) often represents a coronary angiography finding casually detected or following the occurrence of an acute coronary syndrome. The pathogenetic role of cocaine abuse in the genesis of CAE is still little known and very few data are available in literature. We describe a case of a 31-year-old male cocaine user admitted to our department for typical acute chest pain. Coronary angiography showed diffuse coronary ectasia with slow flows and without hemodynamically significant stenosis. An increasing of matrix metalloproteinases values and a reduction of their tissue inhibitors was showed both during hospitalization and at one month after discharge. This case report emphasizes the close relationship between cocaine abuse, CAE and acute coronary syndromes in patients without hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis. As reported by Satran et al, cocaine abuse should be considered an important risk factor for CAE and these patients appear to be at increased risk of angina and acute myocardial infarct. Further studies that can strengthen this hypothesis would be useful to deepen and better analyze this interesting association. PMID:27231522

  10. The efficacy of plant extracts on cecal amebiasis in rats

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    Enerst C. Ohanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Treatment failure with specific chemotherapy has been reported suggesting the possibility of drug resistance. This study investigated the anti-amoebic effects of four plant extracts on cecal amebiasis in rats. The cecal amebiasis was induced by the injection of 3.0×105 troph/mL of E. histolytica parasite directly into the rat’s caecum. A total of 137 rats were used for these studies; five rats in each group for both positive and negative control, 15 rats in each group to test the four plant extracts and metronidazole. The infected rats were treated for cecal amebiasis using each of the four plant extracts at graded doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg and with metronidzole at a dose of 62.5 mg/kg,100 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg for five consecutive days. The efficacy of the four plant extracts were evaluated based on Neal’s, 1951 method. The plant extracts of Garlic, Guava, Pawpaw and Pumpkin at 400 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body-weight gave a cure rate of 80%, 100%, 60%, 40% and 40%, 80%, 40%, 0%, respectively. The mean parasite count in the cecal contents of the treated rats at a dose 400 mg/kg were 18.5±1.6, 0.0±0.0, 33.3±1.8 and 49.5±4.0, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. This study has revealed that Guava at a high dosing level (400 mg/kg body weight is as good as the standard drug in reducing the both parasite load (probably with limited side effect.

  11. Vascular gastric anomalies as a cause of relapsing bleeding

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    Golubović Gradimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although relatively rare, gastric vascular anomalies can be recognized as a source of both chronic and acute blood loss, most often presenting as long term iron deficiency anemia, rarely as severe acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Case report. We present five patients with various gastric vascular anomalies, diagnosed during the year of 2003. in the Clinical Hospital Center Zemun. The diagnosis was based on endoscopic appearances, clinical history and characteristic histological findings. Gastric vascular anomalies presented in our review were: portal hypertensive gastropathy, gastric antral vascular ectasia, angiodysplasia, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and Dieulafoy lesion. The used treatment modalities included surgery and various endoscopic techniques (schlerotherapy, argon plasma coagulation. Conclusion. Patients presented with chronic iron deficiency anemia or acute and recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage should be considered as having one of gastric vascular anomalies.

  12. Extensive microbial and functional diversity within the chicken cecal microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Sergeant

    Full Text Available Chickens are major source of food and protein worldwide. Feed conversion and the health of chickens relies on the largely unexplored complex microbial community that inhabits the chicken gut, including the ceca. We have carried out deep microbial community profiling of the microbiota in twenty cecal samples via 16S rRNA gene sequences and an in-depth metagenomics analysis of a single cecal microbiota. We recovered 699 phylotypes, over half of which appear to represent previously unknown species. We obtained 648,251 environmental gene tags (EGTs, the majority of which represent new species. These were binned into over two-dozen draft genomes, which included Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pullorum. We found numerous polysaccharide- and oligosaccharide-degrading enzymes encoding within the metagenome, some of which appeared to be part of polysaccharide utilization systems with genetic evidence for the co-ordination of polysaccharide degradation with sugar transport and utilization. The cecal metagenome encodes several fermentation pathways leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids, including some with novel features. We found a dozen uptake hydrogenases encoded in the metagenome and speculate that these provide major hydrogen sinks within this microbial community and might explain the high abundance of several genera within this microbiome, including Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Megamonas.

  13. Early-onset scleral and corneal ectasias following low-dose mitomycin-C-augmented trabeculectomy in a uveitic glaucoma patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzian, A; O'Halloran, H; Scher, C; Jockin, Y

    2006-01-01

    A case of early-onset sclerolimbal ectasia following low-dose topical mitomycin C application during uveitic glaucoma surgery is reported. Intraoperative and postoperative clinical courses were consistent with sclerolimbal ectasia. Adjunctive utilization of intraoperative low-dose 0.02% mitomycin C for the management of chronic uveitic glaucoma patients who are under concomitant systemic immunosuppressive regimen may enhance the risk of subacute postoperative sclerolimbal ectasia. Mitomycin C concentrations < 0.02%, decreased scleral exposure time, and a strict informed consent policy are strongly recommended in this subset of uveitic patients. PMID:17095889

  14. Corneal crossed links: a new alternative in the treatment of ectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maygret Alberro Hernández

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linking a technique that allows increasing the creation of covalent links through the process of photo-oxidation among the collagen fibers and enhance the corneal biomechanical stabilization. The main objective of this procedure is to stop the development of ectasia. The indications include the Keratoconus and Pellucid Marginal Degeneration. This can reduce the necessity for permanent keratoplasty and is highly efficient in the treatment and prophylaxis of keratectasia after ablation caused by laser. Many reviewed articles prove the security and efficacy of this treatment. The confocal microscopy techniques have shown significant swelling and resistance of corneal stroma after this procedure. Density of endothelial cell and transparency of the cornea and crystallin remain unchanged. This is a simple, safe and non-invasive technique with promising results. Since this is not expensive it could be particularly useful in developing countries where corneal transplant and other procedures are very expensive.

  15. A Rare Finding of Coexisting Fibroadenoma and Duct Ectasia in Axillary Ectopic Breast Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic breast tissue (EBT can present anywhere along the milk line from axilla to groin. It can harbor all the pathological conditions as that of the normal breast though incidence is very low. Fibroadenoma is rare in accessory breast and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a 30-year-old female presented with a firm and freely mobile right axillary lump measuring 6 cm and times; 4 cm. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed it as accessory breast tissue. However, the excision biopsy of the same showed fibroadenoma along with duct ectasia in EBT. This case has been reported due to its rarity and for consideration of fibroadenoma in differential diagnoses of axillary swellings. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(3.000: 110-112

  16. Rate of ectasia and incidence of irregular topography in patients with unidentified preoperative risk factors undergoing femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar,1 Jared G Smedley,2 Valliammai Muthappan,1 Allison Jarsted,3 Erik M Ostler1 1John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA Purpose: To report the rate of postoperative ectasia after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK with femtosecond laser-assisted flap creation, in a population of patients with no identified preoperative risk factors. Methods: A retrospective case review of 1,992 eyes (1,364 patients treated between March 2007 and January 2009 was conducted, with a follow up of over 4 years. After identifying cases of ectasia, all the patient charts were examined retrospectively for preoperative findings suggestive of forme fruste keratoconus (FFKC. Results: Five eyes of four patients with post-LASIK ectasia were identified. All eyes passed preoperative screening and received bilateral LASIK. One of the five patients developed ectasia in both eyes. Three patients retrospectively revealed preoperative topography suggestive of FFKC, while one patient had no identifiable preoperative risk factors. Upon review of all the charts, a total 69 eyes, including four of the five eyes with ectasia, were retrospectively found to have topographies suggestive of FFKC. Conclusion: We identified four cases of post-LASIK ectasia that had risk factors for FFKC on reexamination of the chart and one case of post-LASIK ectasia with no identifiable preoperative risk factors. The most conservative screening recommendations would not have precluded this patient from LASIK. The rate of purely iatrogenic post-LASIK ectasia at our center was 0.05% (1/1,992, and the total rate of post-LASIK ectasia for our entire study was 0.25% (1/398. The rate of eyes with unrecognized preoperative FFKC that developed post-LASIK ectasia was 5.8% (1/17. Keywords

  17. Successful laparoscopic treatment of ileo-cecal endometriosis producing bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, A; Osuga, Y; Tsutsumi, O; Fujii, T; Okagaki, R; Taketani, Y

    2001-08-01

    Bowel endometriosis manifesting with ileus is difficult to diagnose, often requiring laparotomy for diagnosis and treatment. We report here a case of ileo-cecal endometriosis causing bowel obstruction. A diagnosis of intestinal endometriosis with menstruation-associated bowel symptoms was made, and the patient was successfully treated by laparoscopic ileo-cecal resection. PMID:11721734

  18. Inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium by Anaerobic Cecal Bacteria in Media Supplemented with Lactate and Succinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of anaerobic cecal microflora of broilers to inhibit growth of Salmonella Typhimurium in media supplemented with lactate and succinate was examined. Cecal cultures were prepared by collecting ceca of processed broilers from a commercial processing facility, inoculating broth media with 1...

  19. Optic pathway glioma associated with orbital rhabdomyosarcoma and bilateral optic nerve sheath dural ectasia in a child with neurofibromatosis-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) is a multisystem disorder presenting with a variety of clinical and imaging manifestations. Neural and non-neural tumours, and unusual benign miscellaneous conditions, separately or combined, are encountered in variable locations. We present a 21/2-year-old boy with NF-1 who demonstrated coexisting optic pathway glioma with involvement of the chiasm and optic nerve, orbital alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and bilateral optic nerve sheath dural ectasia. (orig.)

  20. Optic pathway glioma associated with orbital rhabdomyosarcoma and bilateral optic nerve sheath dural ectasia in a child with neurofibromatosis-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikas, Ioannis; Theofanopoulou, Maria; Lampropoulou, Penelope; Hadjigeorgi, Christiana [Aghia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Kosmidis, Helen [Children' s Hospital, A. Kyriakou, Department of Oncology, Athens (Greece)

    2006-11-15

    Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) is a multisystem disorder presenting with a variety of clinical and imaging manifestations. Neural and non-neural tumours, and unusual benign miscellaneous conditions, separately or combined, are encountered in variable locations. We present a 21/2-year-old boy with NF-1 who demonstrated coexisting optic pathway glioma with involvement of the chiasm and optic nerve, orbital alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and bilateral optic nerve sheath dural ectasia. (orig.)

  1. Diagnosis of a cecal tumour with virtual colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors presented a 75-year-old female patient at high risk, suspected of a cecal cancer (CC) due to discomfort in the inguinal fossa, microcytic anemia (although she was postmenopausal), liquid stools and a positive faecal occult blood test. A standard examination of the large intestine was undertaken. Conventional colonoscopy was not completed and the results of barium enema were questionable. Therefore, virtual colonoscopy (VC) was performed, which helped to localize an accurate operation site. As a result, the patient underwent right hemicolectomy. Postoperative histopathological assessment confirmed an advanced cecal cancer. Traditionally, double-contrast barium enema is used to evaluate the colon in patients after incomplete colonoscopy. However, the accuracy of this test is lower in comparison to endoscopy or VC. An incomplete colonoscopy examination may occur in up to 10% of patients. Tortuous course of the colon, diverticulosis, strictures, obstructing mass and fixation of colonic loops due to adhesions after surgery are the most common causes of incomplete examinations. To sum up, VC can be an alternative method of evaluation of the large bowel in patients after an incomplete colonoscopy examination, as follows from the presented case and the available literature. (authors)

  2. Widening of the spinal canal and dural ectasia in Marfan's syndrome: assessment by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a method for diagnosing dural ectasia (DE) and spinal canal widening (SCW) using CT. We examined 23 patients with Marfan's syndrome (MFS), 17 with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and 29 normal subjects, using six axial slices at the level of the L1-S1 pedicles. Transverse diameters of the vertebral bodies, spinal canal and dural sac were measured and indices were defined to differentiate patients with DE and SCW from normal. Statistical significance was assessed using Student's t -test, χ 2-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. DE and SCW occurred in 69.6 % and 60.9 % of cases of MFS and in 23.5 % and 35.3 % of EDS respectively. In MFS, prevalence was significantly higher than in the control group. DE was significantly more frequent in MFS than in EDS. A strong correlation existed between DE and SCW in MFS and the control group, but not in EDS. Our system enables quantitative assessment of SCW and DE. The latter is particularly important in subjects suspected of having MFS, in whom it is a common and characteristic sign. (orig.)

  3. Prevalence and morphology of coronary artery ectasia with dual-source CT coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the prevalence and morphological characteristics of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) with CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in comparison to conventional catheterangiography (CCA). Dual-source CTCA examinations from 677 consecutive patients (223 women; median age 57 years) were retrospectively evaluated by two blinded observers for the presence of CAE defined as a diameter enlargement ≥1.5 times the diameter of adjacent normal coronary segments. Vessel diameters and contrast attenuation within and proximal to ectatic segments were measured. CCA was used to compare measurements obtained from CTCA with the coronary flow velocity by using the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count. CTCA identified CAE in 20 of 677 (3%) patients. CCA was performed in ten of these patients. CAE diameter measurements with CTCA (10.0 ± 5.4 mm) correlated significantly (r = 0.92, p < 0.001) with the CCA measurements (8.8 ± 4.9 mm), but had higher diameters (levels of agreement: -1.0 to 3.4 mm). Contrast attenuation was significantly lower in the ectatic (343 ± 63 HU) than in the proximal (394 ± 60 HU) segments (p < 0.01). The attenuation difference significantly correlated with the CAE ratio (r = 0.67, p < 0.01) and the TIMI frame count (r = 0.58, p < 0.05). The prevalence of CAE in a population examined by CTCA is around 3%. Contrast attenuation measurements with CTCA correlate well with the flow alterations assessed with CCA. (orig.)

  4. Vascular Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  5. Case report of idiopathic cecal perforation presenting as acute appendicitis on ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calista Harbaugh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cecal perforation is an uncommon phenomenon in a pediatric population. It has been linked to a number of underlying medical conditions, which may result in focal inflammation or relative ischemia including hematologic malignancy, infection, and inflammatory bowel disease. We present an otherwise healthy 16-year-old male diagnosed with acute uncomplicated appendicitis on ultrasound, who was found to have cecal perforation with normal appendix intraoperatively, ultimately requiring ileocectomy. With this report, we aim to present the numerous pathophysiologic etiologies of cecal perforation, and to promote a comprehensive differential diagnosis despite the clinical and radiologic findings consistent with uncomplicated appendicitis.

  6. Cecal lipoma with pseudomalignant features: A case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panagiotis Katsinelos; Grigoris Chatzimavroudis; Christos Zavos; Ioannis Pilpilidis; Georgia Lazaraki; Basilis Papaziogas; George Paroutoglou; Jannis Kountouras; Dimitris Paikos

    2007-01-01

    Colonic lipoma is a well-documented benign neoplasia,endoscopically appearing as a smooth round yellowish polyp with a thick stalk or broad-based attachment. We describe a 63-year old woman with persistent abdominal pain, in whom colonoscopy revealed a cecal mass with malignant features. Based on the colonoscopy findings,right hemicolectomy was laparoscopically performed for a presumptive diagnosis of a cecal adenocarcinoma, but histological examination revealed a colonic lipoma with overlying mucosal ulceration.

  7. Influence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection on the composition of chicken cecal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Videnska, Petra; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Faldynova, Marcela; Rychlik, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Background Infection of newly hatched chicks with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) results in an inflammatory response in the intestinal tract which may influence the composition of gut microbiota. In this study we were therefore interested whether S. Enteritidis induced inflammation results in changes in the cecal microbiota. To reach this aim, we compared the cecal microbiota of non-infected chickens and those infected by S. Enteritidis by pyrosequencing the V3/V4 va...

  8. Effect of mannan oligosaccharides on the ileal morphometry and cecal fermentation of growing rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, V.M; Alves, A; Mourão, J.L.; Guedes, C.M.; Pinto, L; Spring, P; Kocher, A

    2004-01-01

    A common problem in rabbits is the occurrence of digestive disorders just after weaning. This problem is usually associated with instability of the cecal microflora and characterized by diarrhea, loss of appetite and increased mortality. In the current study the effects of a mannan oligosaccharide (MOS, Bio-MOS ® , Alltech Inc. USA) was compared to a commonly used antibiotic (AGP, Zn-Bacitracin). The current study investigated the effects of MOS and AGP on intestinal morphometry and cecal VF...

  9. Cecal infusion of nutrients improves nutritional status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, E; Raina, N; Allard, J P

    1995-11-01

    The role of colonic fermentation in providing energy was investigated in rats with small bowel transection (T) or 80% resection (SBR). Rats were randomized to receive for 12 d either saline (S) or the enteral solution (E) through a cecostomy to meet 30% of energy requirement; the rest (70%) was provided by parenteral nutrition. Although SBR-S rats lost weight significantly compared with d 1 of the study, SBR-E rats gained. Significantly greater carcass wet weight and fat were found in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. SBR-E and T-E rats had significantly greater colonic mucosal dry weight and protein compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents were also significantly higher in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. There was no significant effect of surgery (T vs. SBR) on any of the variables studied. These results suggest that the products of fermentation of an enteral solution infused through a cecostomy contribute substantially to energy requirement, maintenance of body composition and nutritional status of rats. PMID:7472670

  10. Two-dimensional echocardiographic and RI angiographic features of aneurysm of the ascending aorta in patients with annuloaortic ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of two-dimensional echocardiography with that of other methods in the detection and localization of aneurysm involving the ascending aorta in patients with annuloaortic ectasia. Two-dimensional echocardiography, RI angiography, CT scan and aortography were performed in 19 patients (12 patients with Marfan's syndrome, 4 with aortitis syndrome and 3 with postoperative perivalvular aneurysm). Eight of 12 patients with Marfan's syndrome had dissection in the ascending aorta which was confirmed at surgery or autopsy. The following observations were obtained. 1) Dissection of the ascending aorta was clearly demonstrated on the two-dimensional echocardiogram in 7 patients by recording the intinal tear and flap, and in these cases the short axis two-dimensional echocardiogram of the ascending aorta was more useful in identifying the site and extent of dissection. 2) In patients with postoperative perivalvular aneurysms, RI angiography proved to be a more useful and sensitive technique in differentiating a leakage into the aneurysm from clots in the aneurysm. 3) CT scanning proved to be an insensitive technique to detect dissection of the ascending aneurysm and to differentiate a leakage from clots in the perivalvular aneurysm. From these observations, we concluded that two-dimensional echocardiography and RI angiography proved to be sensitive techniques in detecting dissection of the ascending aneurysm and evaluating a postoperative aneurysm in patients with annuloaortic ectasia. (author)

  11. Two-dimensional echocardiographic and RI angiographic features of aneurysm of the ascending aorta in patients with annuloaortic ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, S.; Satomi, G. (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan). Heart Inst. and Hospital)

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of two-dimensional echocardiography with that of other methods in the detection and localization of aneurysm involving the ascending aorta in patients with annuloaortic ectasia. Two-dimensional echocardiography, RI angiography, CT scan and aortography were performed in 19 patients (12 patients with Marfan's syndrome, 4 with aortitis syndrome and 3 with postoperative perivalvular aneurysm). Eight of 12 patients with Marfan's syndrome had dissection in the ascending aorta which was confirmed at surgery or autopsy. The following observations were obtained. 1) Dissection of the ascending aorta was clearly demonstrated on the two-dimensional echocardiogram in 7 patients by recording the intinal tear and flap, and in these cases the short axis two-dimensional echocardiogram of the ascending aorta was more useful in identifying the site and extent of dissection. 2) In patients with postoperative perivalvular aneurysms, RI angiography proved to be a more useful and sensitive technique in differentiating a leakage into the aneurysm from clots in the aneurysm. 3) CT scanning proved to be an insensitive technique to detect dissection of the ascending aneurysm and to differentiate a leakage from clots in the perivalvular aneurysm. From these observations, we concluded that two-dimensional echocardiography and RI angiography proved to be sensitive techniques in detecting dissection of the ascending aneurysm and evaluating a postoperative aneurysm in patients with annuloaortic ectasia.

  12. Reversible vascular calcifications associated with hypervitaminosis D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Massimo; Bilancio, Giancarlo; Cirillo, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    A 64-year-old man was hospitalized in 2002 with symptoms of stupor, weakness, and renal colic. The clinical examination indicated borderline hypertension, small masses in the glutei, and polyuria. Laboratory tests evidenced high serum concentrations of creatinine, calcium, and phosphate. Imaging assessments disclosed widespread vascular calcifications, gluteal calcifications, and pelvic ectasia. Subsequent lab tests indicated suppressed serum parathyroid hormone, extremely high serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, and normal serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. Treatment was started with intravenous infusion of saline and furosemide due to the evidence of hypercalcemia. Prednisone and omeprazole were added given the evidence of hypervitaminosis D. The treatment improved serum calcium, kidney function, and consciousness. The medical history disclosed recent treatment with exceptionally high doses of slow-release intra-muscular cholecalciferol and the recent excretion of urinary stones. The patient was discharged when it was possible to stop the intravenous treatment. The post-discharge treatment included oral hydration, furosemide, prednisone and omeprazole for approximately 6 months up to complete resolution of the hypercalcemia. The patient came back 12 years later because of microhematuria. Lab tests were normal for calcium/phosphorus homeostasis and kidney function. Imaging tests indicated only minor vascular calcifications. This is the first evidence of reversible vascular calcifications secondary to hypervitaminosis D. PMID:26318020

  13. Assessing ectasia susceptibility prior to LASIK: the role of age and residual stromal bed (RSB in conjunction to Belin-Ambrósio deviation index (BAD-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ambrósio Jr

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the ability to detect preoperative ectasia risk among LASIK candidates using classic ERSS (Ectasia Risk Score System and Pentacam Belin-Ambrósio deviation index (BAD-D, and to test the benefit of a combined approach including BAD-D and clinical data. Methods: A retrospective nonrandomized study involved preoperative LASIK data from 23 post-LASIK ectasia cases and 266 stable-LASIK (follow up > 12 months. Preoperative clinical and Pentacam (Oculus; Wetzlar, Germany data were obtained from all cases. Mann-Whitney's test was performed to assess differences between groups. Stepwise logistic regression was used for combining parameters.The areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves (AUC were calculated for all parameters and combinations, with pairwise comparisons of AUC (DeLong's method. Results: Statistically significant differences were found for age, residual stromal bed (RSB, central corneal thickness and BAD-D (p0.05. ERSS was 3 or more on 12/23 eyes from the ectasia group (sensitivity = 52.17% and 48/266 eyes from the stable LASIK group (18% false positive. BAD-D had AUC of 0.931 (95% CI: 0.895 to 0.957, with cut-off of 1.29 (sensitivity = 87%; specificity = 92.1%. Formula combining BAD-D, age and RSB provided 100% sensitivity and 94% specificity, with better AUC (0.989; 95% CI: 0.969 to 0.998 than all individual parameters (p>0.001. Conclusion: BAD-D is more accurate than ERSS. Combining clinical data and BAD-D improved ectasia susceptibility screening. Further validation is necessary. Novel combined functions using other topometric and tomographic parameters should be tested to further enhance accuracy.

  14. Evaluation of intrastromal corneal ring segments for treatment of post-LASIK ectasia patients with a mechanical implantation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Tunc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of Keraring segment implantation in patients with post- laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK ectasia, using a mechanical implantation technique. Materials and Methods: Twelve eyes of 10 patients with post-LASIK ectasia were enrolled. Intracorneal ring segments (ICRS were implanted after dissection of the tunnel using Tunc′s specially designed dissector under suction. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, including uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, spherical equivalent, keratometric (K readings, inferosuperior asymmetry index (ISAI, and ultrasound pachymetry. All 3, 6, and 12-month follow-ups were completed, and statistical analysis was performed. Results: The mean preoperative UDVA for all eyes was 1.28 ± 0.59 logMAR. At 12 months, the mean UDVA was 0.36 ± 0.19 logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR (P=0.002, and the mean preoperative CDVA was 0.58 ± 0.3 logMAR, which improved to 0.15 ± 0.12 (P=0.002 at 1 year. There was a significant reduction in cylindrical refractive and spherical equivalent refractive error from -5.29 ± 2.47 diopters (D and -5.54 ± 5.04 D preoperatively to -1.47 ± 0.71 D and -0.74 ± 1.07 D (P=0.001, P=0.002, respectively, at 1 year. In the same period, the mean K- readings improved from 47.93 ± 4.84 D to 40.87 ± 2.36 D (P=0.002, and the mean ISAI improved from 5.34 ± 3.05 to 2.37 ± 1.68 (P=0.003. No significant changes in mean central corneal thickness were observed postoperatively. There were no major complications during or after surgery. Conclusion: ICRS implantation using a unique mechanical dissection technique is a safe and effective treatment for post-LASIK ectasia. All parameters showed improvement at 1-year follow-up.

  15. In vitro fermentation response of laying hen cecal bacteria to combinations of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) prebiotic with alfalfa and layer ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of combining a prebiotic with an alfalfa molting diet on fermentation by laying hen cecal bacteria. Cecal contents from laying hens were diluted to a 1:3000 concentration with an anaerobic dilution solution and added to serum tubes fi...

  16. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of small bowel mesentery in associated with cecal cancer: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Sun; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choog Ki; Park, Dong Woo [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Wook; Oh, Young Ha [Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare disease that is histopathologically defined as a solitary tumor composed of a monoclonal proliferation of cells with plasmacytic differentiation in an extramedullary site. Most of these tumors occur in the submucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, and they rarely occur in the small bowel mesentery. We report here on a case of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the small bowel mesentery that was in association with a cecal cancer. Abdominal ultrasound and CT revealed a lobulated soft tissue mass with a cystic portion and peripheral calcification. In this case, the preoperative radiological diagnosis was difficult due to accompanying cecal cancer.

  17. Extrusão do anel intra-estromal corneano e vascularização do túnel Extrusion and vascularization of the intrastromal corneal ring tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Casteluber

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar e discutir os aspectos de um caso clínico em que foi observada a formação de neovascularização no túnel do anel intra-estromal corneano. Trata-se de paciente com ectasia corneana 4 anos após LASIK, comprovada pela paquimetria e topografia, e submetido ao implante de anel intra-estromal corneano. No terceiro ano de acompanhamento após implante do anel intraestromal, com o paciente em uso de lente de contato gelatinosa, verificou-se extrusão de um segmento e neovascularização no túnel. Removeu-se o segmento afetado, realizou-se fotocoagulação vascular, observando-se regressão completa do quadro neovascular.The purpose of this paper is to describe the clinical aspects of one case with deep corneal vascularization after corneal ring implantation to treat corneal ectasia due to LASIK 4 years before. The corneal ectasia diagnostic was performed by corneal pachimetry and topography. Intrastromal corneal ring segment was implanted. On the third year of follow-up, extrusion of one segment was noted and deep corneal neovascularization was found. The segment was removed, laser photocoagulation was applied and complete vascular regression was observed.

  18. Correlation of Cecal Microflora of HLA-B27 Transgenic Rats with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Onderdonk, Andrew B; Richardson, James A.; Hammer, Robert E.; Taurog, Joel D.

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic rats with a high level of expression of the human major histocompatibility complex class I molecule HLA-B27 develop chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and arthritis. Assessment of the cecal microflora showed a rise in numbers of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., corresponding to the presence and severity of IBD in these rats.

  19. Liquid enteral diets induce bacterial translocation by increasing cecal flora without changing intestinal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskel, Y; Udassin, R; Freund, H R; Zhang, J M; Hanani, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of intestinal motility and cecal bacterial overgrowth to liquid diet-induced bacterial translocation (BT). Three different commercially available liquid diets were offered to mice for 1 week. BT to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), spleen, and liver were examined as well as cecal bacterial counts and populations, small bowel length and weight, and histopathologic changes in the ileal and jejunal mucosa. In addition, the effect of the various diets on intestinal motility was measured by the transit index of a charcoal mixture introduced into the stomach. The incidence of BT to the mesenteric lymph nodes was significantly and similarly increased (p Vivonex (30%), Ensure (30%), and Osmolite (33%) compared with chow-fed controls (0%). Compared with chow-fed controls, all three liquid diets were associated with the development of cecal bacterial overgrowth (p < .01). There were no significant changes in the transit index for the three liquid diet groups compared with the chow-fed controls. BT to the MLN was induced by all three liquid diets tested, casting some doubts as to their role in preventing BT in clinical use. BT was associated with a statistically significant increase in cecal bacterial count but was not associated with gut motility changes in this model. In fact, no significant changes in intestinal motility were noted in all groups tested. PMID:11284471

  20. Characterization of host responses induced by Toll-like receptor ligands in chicken cecal tonsil cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C; Shojadoost, Bahram; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    The innate responses of cecal tonsils against invading microorganisms are mediated by conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs expressed by mammalian and avian immune system cells have the capability to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Although, the role of TLR ligands in innate and adaptive responses in chickens has been characterized in spleen and bursa of Fabricius, considerably less is known about responses in cecal tonsils. The aim of the current study was to assess responses of mononuclear cells from cecal tonsils to treatment with the TLR2, TLR4 and TLR21 ligands, Pam3CSK4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), respectively. All three ligands induced significant up-regulation of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and CxCLi2/IL-8, whereas no significant changes were observed in expression of IL-13 or the antimicrobial peptides, avian β-defensin (AvBD) 1, AvBD2 and cathelicidin 3 (CATHL-3). In general, CpG ODN elicited the highest cytokine responses by cecal tonsil mononuclear cells, inducing significantly higher expression compared to LPS and Pam3CSK4, for IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6 and CxCLi2 at various time points. These findings suggest the potential use of TLR21 ligands as mucosal vaccine adjuvants, especially in the context of pathogens of the intestinal tract. PMID:27185259

  1. Effect of Different Oligosaccharides on Immunity, and Cecal Microflora in Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ying; SHAN An-shan

    2004-01-01

    One hundred and forty-four Avin broilers (1 d old) were randomly divided into six treatments, with three replicates of eight birds each to investigate the effect of different oligosaccharides on index of immune organ, cecal weight and microflora in broilers. The control group (Group Ⅰ) was fed with corn-soybean meal as basal diet, and the trial groups (group Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ ) were fed with basal diet plus 0.1% manoligosaccharides (MOS), 0.3% soybean-oligosaccharides (SBOS), 0.3% fructooligosaccharides (FOS), 0.3% α -glucooligosaccharides(α -GOS) and 0.03% chlortetracycline (CTC), respectively. The results showed that oligosaccharides supplementation significantly (P<0.05) increased bifidobacteria concentration ofyoung broilers and did not affect on bifidobacteria or escherichia coli concentration of the birds ( P >0.05). Cecal weights of 21 d old broilers fed with FOS and α -GOS were significantly (P <0.05) increased, higher than those with MOS and SBOS, but addition of oligosaccharides had no effect on the birds. The effect of oligosaccharides on the cecal length was the same as on the cecal weights. Oligosaccharides supplement did not affect on indexes of immune organs.

  2. Effect of lactose on oro-cecal transit in lactose digesters and maldigesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T.; Priebe, M. G.; Welling, G. W.; Vonk, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background The transit time of the small intestine, in addition to lactase activity, may influence lactose digestion and thus play a role in the occurrence of lactose intolerance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of lactose on the oro-cecal transit time (OCTT) in lactose d

  3. Cecal diverticulitis or appendicitis. When should I suspect? A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pastore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to report a case of cecal diverticulitis and point out the differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The clinical manifestations of these pathological conditions are similar, and the accurate diagnosis of cecal diverticulitis before the surgery is difficult. Therefore, most diagnoses are made during the surgery. Moreover, cecal diverticulum is uncommon in western countries, but it is prevalent in Asian people and their descendants. We report a case of a 55-year-old female patient, whose imaging exams (ultrasonography and computed tomography and blood tests were not enough to diagnose the affection, requiring laparotomy and pathological exams for the final diagnosis. Some studies suggesting the best practice in case of diverticulum of the cecum were revised, as the diagnosis usually occurs during the surgery.O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar um caso de diverticulite no ceco e chamar a atenção para o diagnóstico diferencial com apendicite aguda. As manifestações clínicas das duas afecções são semelhantes, dificultando o diagnóstico exato de diverticulite cecal, além de ser incomum, em nosso meio, o aparecimento de divertículo em cólon direito, sendo essa entidade mais comum em asiáticos e em seus descendentes. Relata-se atendimento a uma paciente de 55 anos, cujos exames de imagem (ultrassonografia e tomografia computadorizada e de sangue não foram suficientes para o diagnóstico. Houve necessidade de realizar-se laparotomia exploradora e exames anatomopatológicos para a confirmação. Também foram revisados alguns trabalhos que sugerem qual a melhor conduta a ser tomada quando se encontra divertículo cecal no perioperatório, já que, na maioria das vezes, o diagnóstico é feito neste momento.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of trimetazidine on Tc-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile gated scintigraphy in patients with coronary artery ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is the abnormal dilatation of a segment of the coronary artery to a diameter of at least 1.5 times that of normal adjacent segments. Symptoms are variable, and its prognosis and treatment modalities are unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of trimetazidine (TMZ) on ischemic left ventricular function by rest-stress Tc-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI) myocardial scintigraphy in symptomatic patients with CAE. We included patients with ectasia admitted to our Cardiology Department, Turkey, between 2003 and 2004 in this study. All patients underwent coronary angiography and diagnosed with CAE, before and 4 weeks after TMZ administration. Seventeen patients (9 men, 8 women) underwent gated single-proton emission tomographic (SPECT) using Tc-99m MIBI. We performed quantitative global and regional ventricular functional analysis using quantitative gated SPECT software. The global ejection fraction increased from 59.9%+/-8.9% to 62.6%+/-8.3% after therapy (p=0.033). In addition, the end systolic volume and the end diastolic volume decreased after therapy (101.7+/-23.5 ml to 95.1+/-22.9 ml, p=0.002; from 41.1+/-14.3 to 36.4+/-13.6, p=002). In all segments, we observed significant post-therapy increases in relative tracer uptake. Percentage of MIBI uptake was 71.2+/-15.3 at baseline stress and 73.2+/-15 post-TMZ (p=0.001). As global function parameters, the total wall motion normal areas changed significantly (67-74% p=0.01) after therapy, but the total wall thickness did not changed significantly(49-45%, p=0.21). The results of this study demonstrate that TMZ improves myocardial function by rest-stress Tc-99m MIBI gated SPECT during stress-induced ischemia in patients with CAE. Also, the outcomes revealed improvement in functional parameters, and percentage of MIBI uptake post TMZ administration. We can use this procedure to monitor the effect of TMZ in CAE patients. (author)

  5. Widening of the spinal canal and dural ectasia in Marfan's syndrome: assessment by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeirs, G.M.; Verstraete, K.L.; Kunnen, M.F. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Tongerloo, A.J. van; Paepe, A.M. de [Dept. of Medical Genetics, Univ. Hospital, Gent (Belgium)

    1999-11-01

    We describe a method for diagnosing dural ectasia (DE) and spinal canal widening (SCW) using CT. We examined 23 patients with Marfan's syndrome (MFS), 17 with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and 29 normal subjects, using six axial slices at the level of the L1-S1 pedicles. Transverse diameters of the vertebral bodies, spinal canal and dural sac were measured and indices were defined to differentiate patients with DE and SCW from normal. Statistical significance was assessed using Student's t -test, {chi} {sup 2}-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. DE and SCW occurred in 69.6 % and 60.9 % of cases of MFS and in 23.5 % and 35.3 % of EDS respectively. In MFS, prevalence was significantly higher than in the control group. DE was significantly more frequent in MFS than in EDS. A strong correlation existed between DE and SCW in MFS and the control group, but not in EDS. Our system enables quantitative assessment of SCW and DE. The latter is particularly important in subjects suspected of having MFS, in whom it is a common and characteristic sign. (orig.)

  6. Coprophagous behavior of rabbit pups affects implantation of cecal microbiota and health status

    OpenAIRE

    Combes, Sylvie; Gidenne, Thierry; Cauquil, Laurent; Bouchez, Olivier; Fortun-Lamothe, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    During the first few weeks after delivery, female rabbits excrete fecal pellets, which are ingested by their pups. We hypothesized that maternal excretion of hard fecal pellets and the coprophagous behavior of their pups were involved in cecal microbiota implantation. Four groups were compared: in 1 group (FM), pups had free access to maternal fecal pellets; in a second group, ingestion of feces was prevented (NF); and in 2 additional groups, pups had access only to fecal pellets excreted by ...

  7. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Wen Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg-1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  8. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Feng Mei

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg–1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  9. Prior esophagogastroduodenoscopy does not affect the cecal intubation time at bidirectional endoscopies

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Osman Zekai; Demirci, Rojbin Karakoyun; Gündüz, Umut Rıza; Aslaner, Arif; KOÇ, Ümit; Bülbüller, Nurullah

    2013-01-01

    Bidirectional endoscopy (BE) is often used to assess patients for the reason of anemia or to screen asymptomatic population for malignancy. Limited clinical data favors to perform first the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy, but its effect to the duration of colonoscopy is yet to be determined. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy on the time to achieve cecal intubation during colonoscopy in patients undergoing BE. Pati...

  10. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan. PMID:26468217

  11. Fermentation of carbohydrate in rat ileal excreta is enhanced with cecal inocula compared with fecal inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, D J; Marlett, J A

    1996-02-01

    The differential fermentative capacities of microflora from two regions of the large bowel and how fermentation was altered by prior exposure of the microflora to the substrate to be fermented were studied using an in vitro fermentation system. Bacterial inocula were prepared from cecal contents and feces from three groups of rats fed purified diets containing 100 g/kg dietary fiber from canned peas or psyllium seed husk, or a nonpurified diet containing 170 g/kg dietary fiber. The substrate for all fermentations was ileal excreta from colectomized rats fed a purified diet containing 100 g/kg dietary fiber from canned peas. Anaerobic fermentations were conducted for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h. Sugars of the unfermented polysaccharides were measured by gas chromatography following acid hydrolysis; disappearance was the measure of fermentation. Independent of inoculum source, > 90% of the starch and arabinose and 75% of the uronic acids, but psyllium seed husk fermented starch faster (P < 0.05) and non-starch glucose, arabinose and uronic acids more slowly (P < 0.05) than inocula adapted to peas or nonpurified diet. Bacterial efficiency of carbohydrate utilization, the increase in muramic acid/mole carbohydrate fermented, was greatest (P < 0.05) with cecal inocula adapted to peas. We conclude that using cecal microflora as the inoculum source provides a more accurate index of fermentation during transit through the large bowel and that noncellulosic and storage polysaccharides of the plant cell wall are utilized before cellulose. PMID:8632231

  12. Comparison and Efficacy of LigaSure and Rubber Band Ligature in Closing the Inflamed Cecal Stump in a Rat Model of Acute Appendicitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Chieh Yeh; Chia-Ing Jan; Horng-Ren Yang; Po-Han Huang; Long-Bin Jeng; Wen-Pang Su; Hui-Chen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A) and 7 days (Group B) after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S), 5 mm LigaSure (L), or rubber band (R). Seven days after cecal resection, th...

  13. In vitro anaerobic incubation of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and laying hen cecal bacteria in poultry feed substrates and a fructooligosaccharide prebiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalson, L M; Kim, Woo-Kyun; Chalova, V I; Herrera, P; Woodward, C L; McReynolds, J L; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of combining a prebiotic with poultry feeds on the growth of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (ST) in an in vitro cecal fermentation system. Cecal contents from three laying hens were pooled and diluted to a 1:3000 concentration in an anaerobic dilution solution. The cecal dilution was added to sterile test tubes filled with alfalfa and layer ration with and without fructooligosaccharide (FOS). Two controls containing cecal dilutions and anaerobic dilution solution were used. The samples were processed in the anaerobic hood and incubated at 37 degrees C. Samples were inoculated with Salmonella at 0 and 24h after in vitro cecal fermentation and plated at 0 and 24h after inoculation with ST. Plates were incubated for 24h and colony forming units (CFU) enumerated. The samples immediately inoculated with ST without prior cecal fermentation did not significantly lower ST counts 24h later. However, samples pre-incubated for 24h with cecal microflora prior to ST inoculation exhibited reduced ST CFU by approximately 2 logarithms, with the most dramatic decreases seen in alfalfa and layer ration combined with FOS. The addition of FOS to feed substrate diets in combination with cecal contents acted in a synergistic manner to decrease ST growth only after ST was introduced to 24h cecal incubations. PMID:17588782

  14. Vascular MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project investigates cardiac gated gradient echo pulses sequences for vascular MR imaging. These pulse sequences have been used to acquire and display MR projection angiograms. The authors have applied these methods in two distinct populations of patients for evaluation and comparison with standard angiography. Twenty patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms, and 35 patients with aortoiliac atherosclerotic disease or peripheral vascular disease were investigated using this method and the results are presented

  15. Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alekseyevna Cherdak; O. V. Uspenskaya

    2015-01-01

    Vascular dementia is one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, causing around 15% of cases. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no licensed treatments for vascular dementia. Progress in the specialty has been difficult because of uncertainties over disease classification and diagnostic criteria, controversy over the exact nature of the relation between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment, and the paucity of identifiable tractable treatment ...

  16. Production of amines in equine cecal contents in an in vitro model of carbohydrate overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S R; Rycroft, A; Elliott, J

    2002-10-01

    Acute laminitis can be induced experimentally in horses by the administration of carbohydrate, resulting in fermentation within the cecum and ischemia-reperfusion of the digits. The products of fermentation that trigger acute laminitis are as yet unknown; however, compounds such as amines might play a role due to their potential vasoactive properties. The objectives of this study were to quantify the amines present in equine cecal contents and to use a model of carbohydrate overload in vitro to test the hypothesis that carbohydrate fermentation is associated with increased amine production. Cecal contents from each horse were divided into aliquots and incubated anaerobically with either cornstarch or inulin (a form of fructan carbohydrate; both 1 g/100 mL). The pH was measured and samples were taken at the same time for amine measurement by HPLC at 2-h intervals over a 24-h period. In a second set of experiments, the effects of the antibiotic virginiamycin (1 mg/100 mL), calcium (CaPO4; 0.3 g/100 mL), and plant steroidal saponin (Yucca schidigera extract; 0.1 g/100 mL) were examined on pH and amine concentrations in cecal contents incubated with starch or inulin. Both starch and inulin caused significant time-dependent falls in pH, from 6.7 +/- 0.1 at 0 h to 5.2 +/- 0.1 (starch) and 5.0 +/- 0.1 (inulin) at 24 h. Fermentation of carbohydrate was also associated with increased production of phenylethylamine and isoamylamine (two- to threefold increases) as well as putrescine and cadaverine (1.5- to twofold increases). Virginiamycin inhibited the fall in pH and increases in production of phenylethylamine and isoamylamine, while calcium phosphate moderated the changes in pH only. Yucca schidigera extract was without effect. These data show that fermentation of carbohydrate by equine cecal microbiota may lead to increased production of amines. PMID:12413088

  17. Dietary resistant dextrins positively modulate fecal and cecal microbiota composition in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Libudzisz, Zdzisława; Barczyńska, Renata; Kapuśniak, Janusz; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the effect of dietary resistant dextrins, as potential prebiotics, on the intestinal microflora of young rats. Enzyme-resistant dextrin, prepared by heating of potato starch in the presence of hydrochloric (0.1% dsb) and tartaric (40% dsb) acid at 130ºC for 2 h (CA-dextrin). The experiment was performed on 24 Wistar male rats at 3-wk of age, divided by analogues in three experimental groups (control, starch and dextrin). Analyses determined the overall bacterial counts and the counts of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides and Clostridium strains within the feces and cecal contents of rats using fluorescence in situ hybridization method. CA-dextrin had no effect on primary growth indicators (body weight, body weight gain, dietary consumption) or the mass of the small intestine and the cecum, but dextrins caused a reduction in pH and the concentration of ammonia within the cecal contents. That supplementation of diet with resistant dextrins had a positive effect on composition of intestinal microflora in rats. It increased the counts of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains both in the feces and in the cecum. Moreover, it reduced the counts of Clostridium and Bacteroides strains. These results may suggest that resistant dextrins exerted a prebiotic-like effect in the large intestine. PMID:26610307

  18. Analysis of Resistant Starches in Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Timothy J. [Ames Laboratory; Ai, Yongfeng [Iowa State University; Jones, Roger W. [Ames Laboratory; Houk, Robert S. [Ames Laboratory; Jane, Jay-lin [Iowa State University; Zhao, Yinsheng [Iowa State University; Birt, Diane F. [Iowa State University; McClelland, John F. [Ames Laboratory

    2013-01-29

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) qualitatively and quantitatively measured resistant starch (RS) in rat cecal contents. Fisher 344 rats were fed diets of 55% (w/w, dry basis) starch for 8 weeks. Cecal contents were collected from sacrificed rats. A corn starch control was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. To calibrate the FTIR-PAS analysis, samples from each diet were analyzed using an enzymatic assay. A partial least-squares cross-validation plot generated from the enzymatic assay and FTIR-PAS spectral results for starch fit the ideal curve with a R2 of 0.997. A principal component analysis plot of components 1 and 2 showed that spectra from diets clustered significantly from each other. This study clearly showed that FTIR-PAS can accurately quantify starch content and identify the form of starch in complex matrices.

  19. What Is Vascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  20. Diabetes and Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  1. Efeito da microbiota cecal e do Lactobacillus salivarius inoculados in ovo em aves desafiadas com Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis Effect of cecal microflora and Lactobacillus salivarius in ovo administration used on chicken previously challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Andreatti Filho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Ovos embrionados provenientes de matrizes pesadas foram inoculados na câmara de ar com microbiota cecal total, microbiota cecal diluída e cultura de Lactobacillus salivarius, no 18º dia de incubação. Dois dias após o nascimento, as aves foram desafiadas com Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis (SE e, cinco dias após o desafio, avaliou-se a presença da bactéria no fígado e ceco. O efeito de exclusão competitiva, após o desafio com SE, somente foi observado pela ausência da bactéria no fígado das aves tratadas in ovo com L. salivarius. A inoculação in ovo de microbiota cecal indefinida ou diluída não reduziu a colonização de SE no fígado e no ceco das aves, incluindo, neste último, também o tratamento com L. salivarius. Nenhum dos tratamentos in ovo determinou índice de eclodibilidade superior a 65%.Commercial 18-day-old incubating chicken embryos were inoculated with total or diluted cecal microbiota and Lactobacillus salivarius cultures directly into the inner air sac. Two days after hatching, the chicks were challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE, and five days later the presence of bacteria in cecum and liver was evaluated. The competitive exclusion effect was determined by the search for SE in the liver of chicks treated in ovo with L. salivarius and challenged with SE. The in ovo inoculation of total or diluted cecal microbiota, in addition to the L. salivarius treatment did not significantly decrease the colonization of SE in liver and cecum. All treatments resulted in hatchability of 65% or less.

  2. Characterization of prominent nitrate-reducing and amino acid-utilizing bacteria from nitrotoxin-enriched equine cecal populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, populations of equine cecal microbes enriched for enhanced rates of 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) or nitrate metabolism were diluted and cultured for NPA-metabolizing bacteria on a basal enrichment medium (BEM) or tryptose soy agar (TSA) medium supplemented with either 5 mM NP...

  3. Integrated datasets characterize metabolic interactions between mouse’s colonic mucosa, colonic-cecal contents and feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pattern of metabolites produced by the gut microbiome comprises a phenotype indicative of the means by which that microbiome affects the gut. We characterized that phenotype by conducting metabolomic analyses of the colonic-cecal contents, comparing that to the metabolite patterns of feces and c...

  4. Utilização do Anel de Ferrara na estabilização e correção da ectasia corneana pós PRK Use of Ferrara's ring in the stabilization and correction of corneal ectasia after PRK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Bicalho Dias da Silva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a ação do anel corneano intra-estromal de Ferrara no tratamento da ectasia corneana pós Excimer Laser. Métodos: O anel de Ferrara, que já vem sendo aplicado no tratamento do ceratocone, alta miopia e astigmatismo irregular, foi utilizado para estabilizar e corrigir a ectasia corneana de dois pacientes submetidos à PRK. Resultados: Após o procedimento cirúrgico, foi observado um aplainamento da córnea central de aproximadamente 6 dioptrias no 1º caso e de 10 dioptrias no 2º, com melhora na acuidade visual. Os resultados vêm se mantendo estáveis até o momento. O tempo de seguimento pós-operatório foi de 3 e 8 meses, respectivamente. Conclusões: Anel de Ferrara obteve sucesso no difícil tratamento desta complicação cirúrgica, permitindo que se retarde ou até mesmo se evite a evolução destes casos para um transplante de córnea com todos os seus riscos, lenta recuperação e dependência da agilidade das filas de doações.Purpose: To evaluate the action of Ferrara's Ring in the treatment of corneal ectasia after Excimer Laser. Methods: Ferrara's Ring, that is already being applied in the treatment of keratoconus, high myopia and irregular astigmatism, has been used to stabilize and to correct the corneal ectasia of 2 patients submitted to PRK. Results: After the surgical procedure, a flattening of the central cornea was observed, with approximately 6 D (first case and 10 D in the second, with visual acuity improvement. The results have remained stable until this moment. The postoperative follow-up was of 3 and 8 months, respectively. Conclusions: Ferrara's ring has obtained success in the difficult treatment of this surgical complication, allowing delay of or even avoiding the evolution of these cases to a corneal transplantation with all its risks, slow recovery and dependence on the agility of the donation lines.

  5. Molecular Properties of Guar Gum and Pectin Modify Cecal Bile Acids, Microbiota, and Plasma Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarzadegan, Tannaz; Marungruang, Nittaya; Fåk, Frida; Nyman, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) act as signaling molecules in various physiological processes, and are related to colonic microbiota composition as well as to different types of dietary fat and fiber. This study investigated whether guar gum and pectin-two fibers with distinct functional characteristics-affect BA profiles, microbiota composition, and gut metabolites in rats. Low- (LM) or high-methoxylated (HM) pectin, and low-, medium-, or high-molecular-weight (MW) guar gum were administered to rats that were fed either low- or high-fat diets. Cecal BAs, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and microbiota composition, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) levels were analyzed, by using novel methodologies based on gas chromatography (BAs and SCFAs) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Strong correlations were observed between cecal BA and SCFA levels, microbiota composition, and portal plasma LBP levels in rats on a high-fat diet. Notably, guar gum consumption with medium-MW increased the cecal amounts of cholic-, chenodeoxycholic-, and ursodeoxycholic acids as well as α-, β-, and ω-muricholic acids to a greater extent than other types of guar gum or the fiber-free control diet. In contrast, the amounts of cecal deoxycholic- and hyodeoxycholic acid were reduced with all types of guar gum independent of chain length. Differences in BA composition between pectin groups were less obvious, but cecal levels of α- and ω-muricholic acids were higher in rats fed LM as compared to HM pectin or the control diet. The inflammatory marker LBP was downregulated in rats fed medium-MW guar gum and HM pectin; these two fibers decreased the cecal abundance of Oscillospira and an unclassified genus in Ruminococcaceae, and increased that of an unclassified family in RF32. These results indicate that the molecular properties of guar gum and pectin are important for their ability to modulate cecal BA formation, gut microbiota composition, and high-fat diet induced

  6. Molecular Properties of Guar Gum and Pectin Modify Cecal Bile Acids, Microbiota, and Plasma Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannaz Ghaffarzadegan

    Full Text Available Bile acids (BAs act as signaling molecules in various physiological processes, and are related to colonic microbiota composition as well as to different types of dietary fat and fiber. This study investigated whether guar gum and pectin-two fibers with distinct functional characteristics-affect BA profiles, microbiota composition, and gut metabolites in rats. Low- (LM or high-methoxylated (HM pectin, and low-, medium-, or high-molecular-weight (MW guar gum were administered to rats that were fed either low- or high-fat diets. Cecal BAs, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and microbiota composition, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP levels were analyzed, by using novel methodologies based on gas chromatography (BAs and SCFAs and 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Strong correlations were observed between cecal BA and SCFA levels, microbiota composition, and portal plasma LBP levels in rats on a high-fat diet. Notably, guar gum consumption with medium-MW increased the cecal amounts of cholic-, chenodeoxycholic-, and ursodeoxycholic acids as well as α-, β-, and ω-muricholic acids to a greater extent than other types of guar gum or the fiber-free control diet. In contrast, the amounts of cecal deoxycholic- and hyodeoxycholic acid were reduced with all types of guar gum independent of chain length. Differences in BA composition between pectin groups were less obvious, but cecal levels of α- and ω-muricholic acids were higher in rats fed LM as compared to HM pectin or the control diet. The inflammatory marker LBP was downregulated in rats fed medium-MW guar gum and HM pectin; these two fibers decreased the cecal abundance of Oscillospira and an unclassified genus in Ruminococcaceae, and increased that of an unclassified family in RF32. These results indicate that the molecular properties of guar gum and pectin are important for their ability to modulate cecal BA formation, gut microbiota composition, and high

  7. Comparison and efficacy of LigaSure and rubber band ligature in closing the inflamed cecal stump in a rat model of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Jan, Chia-Ing; Yang, Horng-Ren; Huang, Po-Han; Jeng, Long-Bin; Su, Wen-Pang; Chen, Hui-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A) and 7 days (Group B) after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S), 5 mm LigaSure (L), or rubber band (R). Seven days after cecal resection, the LigaSure (BL) and silk subgroups (BS) had significantly less intra-abdominal adhesion and better laparotomy wound healing than rubber band subgroup (BR). The initial bursting pressure at cecal stump was comparable among the three methods; along with tissue healing process, both BL and BS provided a higher bursting pressure than BR 7 days after appendectomy. BL subgroup had more abundant hydroxyproline deposition than BS and BR subgroup. Furthermore, serum TNF-α in BR group kept persistently increasing along with time after cecal resection. Thus, the finding that LigaSure but not rubber band is safe in sealing off the inflamed cecal stump in rat model of acute appendicitis suggests the possibility of applying LigaSure for appendectomy via single port procedure or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). PMID:25699264

  8. Comparison and Efficacy of LigaSure and Rubber Band Ligature in Closing the Inflamed Cecal Stump in a Rat Model of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A and 7 days (Group B after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S, 5 mm LigaSure (L, or rubber band (R. Seven days after cecal resection, the LigaSure (BL and silk subgroups (BS had significantly less intra-abdominal adhesion and better laparotomy wound healing than rubber band subgroup (BR. The initial bursting pressure at cecal stump was comparable among the three methods; along with tissue healing process, both BL and BS provided a higher bursting pressure than BR 7 days after appendectomy. BL subgroup had more abundant hydroxyproline deposition than BS and BR subgroup. Furthermore, serum TNF-α in BR group kept persistently increasing along with time after cecal resection. Thus, the finding that LigaSure but not rubber band is safe in sealing off the inflamed cecal stump in rat model of acute appendicitis suggests the possibility of applying LigaSure for appendectomy via single port procedure or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES.

  9. Cecal duplication cyst: A rare case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Shyam Raj Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplication cysts of the alimentary tract are very rare congenital anomalies. Out of all these cases, two-thirds of them manifest before the age of 2 years. They are common in ileum, but very rare in cecum. Some of them may remain asymptomatic and present in the adulthood. The lesion may be tubular or cystic. Several theories have been postulated, but true etiology is not known. We hereby report a case of a 10-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain in the pediatric surgery outpatient department. Diagnosis of cecal duplication cyst was confirmed on histopathology. This report implies that although alimentary tract duplications are rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children who presents with acute abdominal pain.

  10. Chromogranin A is a sensitive marker of progression or regression in ileo-cecal neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Højsgaard; Hilsted, Linda; Jensen, Claus Verner;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The correlation between plasma Chromogranin A concentrations and changes in tumor size evaluated by computed tomography (CT) - as a gold standard - was evaluated. Material and methods. One hundred and sixteen patients with CgA-producing ileo-cecal neuroendocrine tumors were...... evaluated by events, which were recorded when a CT was followed by another CT 1 - 12 months later. Change in tumor size was defined as regression, progression, or stable disease using RECIST criteria 1.1. Of 426 events, there were 97 with progression, 279 with stable disease, and 50 with regression. Based...... on the ROC curves a cutoff value of 25% change was selected to discriminate between increased, decreased, or unchanged CgA concentrations in plasma, using a sensitive radioimmunoassay with well-defined epitope specificity. Results. In the 97 events showing tumor progression diagnostic sensitivity and...

  11. Comparison of conventional culture methods and two commercial enzyme immunoassays for detection of Salmonella in porcine fecal samples and cecal contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    1997-01-01

    Two commercial enzyme immunoassays, designated EIA-1 and EIA-2, for the detection of salmonella in feces and cecal contents were compared to conventional culture methods. Out of 362 cecal content samples, 35 were positive by EIA-1 and 30 were positive by EIA-2 and conventional methods. Out of 189...... method is rapid, requiring only 24 hours, and may he more sensitive than the EIA-2 assay and conventional culture techniques. Enzyme immunoassays for the detection elf salmonella in fecal samples or cecal contents provide a reasonable alternative to conventional culture techniques....

  12. Efeito da microbiota cecal e do Lactobacillus salivarius inoculados in ovo em aves desafiadas com Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis Effect of cecal microflora and Lactobacillus salivarius in ovo administration used on chicken previously challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    R.L Andreatti Filho; A.S. Okamoto; E.T. Lima; P.R. Gratão; S.R. DelBem

    2006-01-01

    Ovos embrionados provenientes de matrizes pesadas foram inoculados na câmara de ar com microbiota cecal total, microbiota cecal diluída e cultura de Lactobacillus salivarius, no 18º dia de incubação. Dois dias após o nascimento, as aves foram desafiadas com Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis (SE) e, cinco dias após o desafio, avaliou-se a presença da bactéria no fígado e ceco. O efeito de exclusão competitiva, após o desafio com SE, somente foi observado pela ausência da bactéria no fíga...

  13. Society for Vascular Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and find out! Patient Information Pages from Vascular Medicine August 2016 The Vascular Laboratory More info for ... Learn more. Trending Now: Hot Topics in Vascular Medicine Video Series Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) with Drs. Jeffrey ...

  14. Inhibition of Escherichia coli Translocation from the Gastrointestinal Tract by Normal Cecal Flora in Gnotobiotic or Antibiotic-Decontaminated Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Rodney D.

    1980-01-01

    Escherichia coli C25 maintained population levels of 109 to 1010 per g of cecum and translocated to 100% of the middle mesenteric lymph nodes in gnotobiotic mice monoassociated with E. coli C25. Intragastric inoculation of these mice with the cecal contents from specific-pathogen-free mice reduced the population levels of E. coli C25 to 106 per g of cecum and completely inhibited translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Intragastric inoculation with heat-treated, Formalintreated, or filte...

  15. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolnaya Lydia M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.

  16. Short communication. Effects of purslane extract on performance, immunity responses and cecal microbial population of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Ghorbani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of purslane extract on performance, cecal microflora composition and immune responses of broiler chickens. One hundred and ninety two 1–day old broiler chicks (Ross 308 were allocated randomly in 4 groups with 4 replicates to receive diets supplemented with 0 (control, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of purslane extract for 42 days. Body weight gain, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly and calculated for starter (1-21 d, grower (22-42 d and overall periods (1-42 d. All diets were isocaloric, isonitrogenous and provided ad libitum. Antibody response against sheep red blood cell (SRBC was measured on d-28 and d-42. At the age of 42 d, eight chicks per treatment killed aseptically for enumeration of cecal bacteria. The results of this experiment indicated that FI increased significantly with inclusion of purslane extract in grower and overall period (p≤0.05. Purslane extract did not affect coliform and Escherichia coli populations but increased Lactobacillus population of cecal content significantly (p≤0.05. There were no significant differences in primary and secondary antibody titer against SRBC and no differences among the treatments for relative weight of thymus and spleen (p>0.05. Relative weight of bursa was affected with inclusion of purslane extract in the diet. Therefore, it was concluded that purslane inclusion had a positive significant effect on cecal microflora composition, but had no effect on immune response of broiler chickens.

  17. Molecular Analysis of the Microbial Diversity Present in the Colonic Wall, Colonic Lumen, and Cecal Lumen of a Pig

    OpenAIRE

    Pryde, Susan E.; Anthony J. Richardson; Stewart, Colin S.; Flint, Harry J.

    1999-01-01

    Random clones of 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequences were isolated after PCR amplification with eubacterial primers from total genomic DNA recovered from samples of the colonic lumen, colonic wall, and cecal lumen from a pig. Sequences were also obtained for cultures isolated anaerobically from the same colonic-wall sample. Phylogenetic analysis showed that many sequences were related to those of Lactobacillus or Streptococcus spp. or fell into clusters IX, XIVa, and XI of gram-positive bacteria...

  18. Cecal ligation and puncture followed by MRSA pneumonia increases mortality in mice and blunts production of local and systemic cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E.; Liang, Zhe; Elise R Breed; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Fox, Amy C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Burd, Eileen M.; Farris, Alton B.; Richard S Hotchkiss; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2012-01-01

    Mortality in the ICU frequently results from the synergistic effect of two temporally-distinct infections. This study examined the pathophysiology of a new model of intraabdominal sepsis followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy followed three days later by an intratracheal injection of MRSA or saline. Both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice had 100% survival while animals with CLP followed by MRSA ...

  19. Pathological study on the effect of vitamin D3 on sepsis experimentally induced in rats by cecal ligation and punctures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Saidya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Vitamin D3 on the rats with sepsis that experimentally induced by cecal ligation and puncture. 100 Rats were divided into 5 groups, these include untreated control group, sham-operated group, CLP group and 2 treated groups pretreated daily a Subcutaneous injections of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 100 ng/kg for 3 days, then one of the pretreated groups subjected to sepsis accomplished by abdominal surgery comprising a cecal ligation and puncture. The following parameters were recorded: survival rate, hematological examinations and histopathological changes of the liver and heart were examined. It was found that vitamin D3 pretreated showed improvement in the survival rats and enhancement in the blood leukocyte count, also protect the rats from thrombocytopenia and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC, but vitamin D3 pretreated show slight improvement in the histopathological lesions in the liver and heart due to cecal ligation and puncture sepsis.

  20. Anthocyanins in Strawberry Polyphenolic Extract Enhance the Beneficial Effects of Diets with Fructooligosaccharides in the Rat Cecal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Jurgoński, Adam; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Milala, Joanna; Kosmala, Monika; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2016-01-01

    The administration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) beneficially modulates gastrointestinal functions and may enhance the metabolism of polyphenols. However, different polyphenolic components in the diet may have different influences on the activities of the digestive enzymes and microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, a 4-week study of forty-eight male Wistar rats was conducted to investigate the physiological response of the rat cecal environment to diets without and with FOS that contained two different strawberry polyphenolic extracts, specifically EP (polyphenolic profile 60, 35, 5, and 0% ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, anthocyanins, respectively) and EPA (polyphenolic profile: 50, 35, 6, and 9%, respectively). When combined with FOS, both extracts beneficially enhanced the acidification of the cecal digesta (P≤0.05 vs the groups without extracts), but the dietary combination of EPA and FOS elicited the greatest reduction in putrefactive short-chain fatty acid production and the lowest fecal β-glucuronidase activity in the cecum (P≤0.05 vs group EP). Moreover, the addition of dietary FOS elevated the metabolism of the examined strawberry extracts in the cecum and thereby increased the concentrations of the metabolites in the cecal digesta and urine (P≤0.05 vs the group with cellulose). Overall, both strawberry extracts modulated the effects of FOS in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the combination with EPA extract that contained anthocyanins exhibited greater beneficial effects in the lower gut environment than the EP extract. PMID:26882456

  1. Campylobacter inoculation and quantification from broiler cecal samples to compare two plate counting methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderlise Borsoi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis, a disease transmitted to humans from animals or animal products. The primarily source of Campylobacter infection in human is believed to be the handling and/or consumption of contaminated meat, especially poultry meat. Although in humans such infections are generally self-limiting, complications can arise and may include bacteraemia, Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis and abortion. In this study, 32 birds were divided in 2 groups: a control (C group and an inoculated (I group, with 16 birds each. The I group was inoculated orally with 108 CFU/mL of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33291, whereas the C group was inoculated with a saline solution. Four chicks per group were euthanized by cervical dislocation at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days post-inoculation (pi. Cecum samples were collected for microbiological analyses. The samples were processed by two plate count methodologies, one developed by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture in 2011 (B method and the other a serial dilution direct count method (A method. All birds from the C group remained negative until day 21. For the I group, the B method was found to be statistically superior to the A method for counting the recovered cells from the cecal contents at 7, 14 and 21 days pi. The microbiological direct plating counting method is a cost effective and rapid method to determine the level of contamination in broilers to help risk assessment programs at the industry level.

  2. Alteration of the rat cecal microbiome during colonization with the helminth Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Erin A; Williamson, Lauren; Yoder, Anne D; Rawls, John F; Bilbo, Staci D; Parker, William

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome is now widely recognized as being important in health and disease, and makes up a substantial subset of the biome within the ecosystem of the vertebrate body. At the same time, multicellular, eukaryotic organisms such as helminths are being recognized as an important component of the biome that shaped the evolution of our genes. The absence of these macroscopic organisms during the early development and life of humans in Western culture probably leads to a wide range of human immunological diseases. However, the interaction between the microbiome and macroscopic components of the biome remains poorly characterized. In this study, the microbiome of the cecum in rats colonized for 2 generations with the small intestinal helminth Hymenolepis diminuta was evaluated. The introduction of this benign helminth, which is of considerable therapeutic interest, led to several changes in the cecal microbiome. Most of the changes were within the Firmicutes phylum, involved about 20% of the total bacteria, and generally entailed a shift from Bacilli to Clostridia species in the presence of the helminth. The results point toward ecological relationships between various components of the biome, with the observed shifts in the microbiome suggesting potential mechanisms by which this helminth might exert therapeutic effects. PMID:25942385

  3. Eyes wide shut - unusual two stage repair of pectus excavatum and annuloaortic ectasia in a 37 year old marfan patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barriuso Clemente

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report about a 37 year old male patient with a pectus excavatum. The patient was in NYHA functional class III. After performed computed tomography the symptoms were thought to be related to the severity of chest deformation. A Ravitch-procedure had been accomplished in a district hospital in 2009. The crack of a metal bar led to a reevaluation 2010, in which surprisingly the presence of an annuloaortic ectasia (root 73 × 74 mm in direct neighborhood of the formerly implanted metal-bars was diagnosed. Echocardiography revealed a severe aortic valve regurgitation, the left ventricle was massively dilated presenting a reduced ejection fraction of 45%. A marfan syndrome was suspected and the patient underwent a valve sparing aortic root replacement (David procedure in our institution with an uneventful postoperative course. A review of the literature in combination with discussion of our case suggests the application of stronger recommendations towards preoperative cardiovascular assessment in patients with pectus excavatum.

  4. Desempenho produtivo e atividade microbiana cecal de coelhos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de amido Performance and cecal microbial activity of growing rabbits fed diets with different starch levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do amido dietético sobre o rendimento produtivo e a atividade microbiana cecal de coelhos em crescimento, quatro dietas experimentais foram elaboradas de forma a conter níveis crescentes de amido (23, 28, 33 e 38% de amido total na base da MS, os quais foram fornecidos a 32 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, distribuídos em gaiolas de engorda individuais, seguindo um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Houve efeito linear decrescente para consumo e conversão alimentar, em que valores de 108,67 g/d e 3,216, respectivamente, foram obtidos para os animais alimentados com 38% de amido dietético. No entanto, o ganho de peso e o rendimento de carcaça não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. Por outro lado, os valores de pH, as concentrações totais e as proporções molares dos ácidos graxos voláteis não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos, porém, para o ácido propiônico, houve efeito linear decrescente, sendo a maior proporção molar (12,06% verificada no conteúdo cecal de coelhos alimentados com 23% de amido dietético. O milho-grão apresentou maior influência sobre a atividade microbiana cecal que o amido de milho purificado, porém, sem alterar o desempenho e rendimento de carcaça.With the objective to evaluate the effect of dietary starch on the productive yield and cecal microbial activity for rabbits in the growing, four experimental diets were formulated to contain increasing corn starch levels (23, 28, 33 and 38 % total starch levels in dry matter basis. A total of 32 White New Zealand rabbits were allotted to finishing cages in a completely randomized block design. The results showed a decreasing linear effect for the feed intake and feed:gain ratio, where values of 108.67g/d and 3.216, respectively, were recorded for animals fed 38% dietary starch. However, no difference was observed for the weight gain and carcass yield. Regarding to cecal microbial activity, pH and

  5. Effect of dietary levan fructan supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, relative organ weight, cecal microflora, and excreta noxious gas emission in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P Y; Wang, J P; Kim, I H

    2013-11-01

    A total of 720 1-d-old male Ross broilers (BW of 48.0±0.3 g) were used to evaluate the effects of dietary levan fructan supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, relative organ weight, cecal microflora, and excreta noxious gas emission in broilers. This experiment lasted 31 d. Broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: 1) CON, basal diet, 2) CON+0.25% fructan (FC1), and 3) CON+0.50% fructan (FC2). Each treatment contained 16 pens with 15 chicks per pen. Broilers on levan fructan supplementation treatments (FC1+FC2) had a lower (P=0.005 for d 15 to 31) ADFI and greater (P=0.005 for d 15 to 31 and P=0.022 for d 1 to 31) G:F than those on the CON. A decreased (P=0.031) relative spleen weight was observed with levan fructan supplementation treatments compared with the CON. Cecal E. coli and C. perfringens concentrations in levan fructan treatments were decreased, while cecal Lactobacillus, as well as Bifidobacteria, concentrations in levan fructan treatments were increased compared with the CON. However, excreta NH3 concentrations were decreased (P=0.013) in levan fructan treatments compared with the CON. In conclusion, fructan supplementation improved later stage growth performance, increased cecal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria concentrations, and decreased cecal E. coli and C. perfringens concentrations, as well as excreta NH3 concentrations, in broilers. PMID:24045474

  6. Behavioral deficits in sepsis-surviving rats induced by cecal ligation and perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barichello

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis and its complications are the leading causes of mortality in intensive care units, accounting for 10-50% of deaths. Intensive care unit survivors present long-term cognitive impairment, including alterations in memory, attention, concentration, and/or global loss of cognitive function. In the present study, we investigated behavioral alterations in sepsis-surviving rats. One hundred and ten male Wistar rats (3-4 months, 250-300 g were submitted to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP, and 44 were submitted to sham operation. Forty-four rats (40% survived after CLP, and all sham-operated animals survived and were used as control. Twenty animals of each group were used in the object recognition task (10 in short-term memory and 10 in long-term memory, 12 in the plus-maze test and 12 in the forced swimming test. Ten days after surgery, the animals were submitted individually to an object recognition task, plus-maze and forced swimming tests. A significant impairment of short- and long-term recognition memory was observed in the sepsis group (recognition index 0.75 vs 0.55 and 0.74 vs 0.51 for short- and long-term memory, respectively (P < 0.05. In the elevated plus-maze test no difference was observed between groups in any of the parameters assessed. In addition, sepsis survivors presented an increase in immobility time in the forced swimming test (180 vs 233 s, P < 0.05, suggesting the presence of depressive-like symptoms in these animals after recovery from sepsis. The present results demonstrated that rats surviving exposure to CLP, a classical sepsis model, presented recognition memory impairment and depressive-like symptoms but not anxiety-like behavior.

  7. Collagen vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many of many ...

  8. Heart and vascular services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... branch of medicine that focuses on the cardiovascular system. ... Circulatory system; Vascular system; Cardiovascular system ... to diagnose, monitor or treat diseases of the circulatory and vascular system include: Cardiac CT for calcium scoring Cardiac MRI ...

  9. PD-L1 Blockade Attenuated Sepsis-Induced Liver Injury in a Mouse Cecal Ligation and Puncture Model

    OpenAIRE

    Weimin Zhu; Rui Bao; Xiaohua Fan; Tianzhu Tao; Jiali Zhu; Jiafeng Wang; Jinbao Li; Lulong Bo; Xiaoming Deng

    2013-01-01

    Liver plays a major role in hypermetabolism and produces acute phase proteins during systemic inflammatory response syndrome and it is of vital importance in host defense and bacteria clearance. Our previous studies indicated that programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are crucial modulators of host immune responses during sepsis. Our current study was designed to investigate the role of PD-L1 in sepsis-induced liver injury by a mouse cecal ligation and pun...

  10. Digestibilidad in vitro Prececal y Cecal de plantas forrajeras tropicales para la nutrición en cerdos

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal Tapia, Juliana Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Con el objetivo de evaluar nutricionalmente el follaje de leguminosas tropicales Canavalia (C. brasiliensis), Desmodium (D. velutinum), Caupi (V. unguiculata), Stylosanthes (S. guianensis), Cratylia (C argentea), Lablab (L purpureus), Centrosema (C. molle) y Centrocema brasilianum mediante pruebas de composición química, digestibilidad in vitro prececal de materia seca,(DIMS) energía (DIVE) y proteína (DIVP) y fermentación in vitro cecal. Se encontró C. molle y V. unguiculata tuvieron valores...

  11. Effects of probiotic inclusion levels in broiler nutrition on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, plasma immunoglobulins, and cecal microflora composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountzouris, K C; Tsitrsikos, P; Palamidi, I; Arvaniti, A; Mohnl, M; Schatzmayr, G; Fegeros, K

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of inclusion levels of a 5-bacterial species probiotic in broiler nutrition. Five hundred twenty-five 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were allocated in 5 experimental treatments for 6 wk. The experimental treatments received a corn-soybean coccidiostat-free basal diet and depending on the addition were labeled as follows: no addition (C), 10(8) cfu probiotic/kg of diet (P1), 10(9) cfu probiotic/kg of diet (P2), 10(10) cfu probiotic/kg of diet (P3), and 2.5 mg of avilamycin/kg of diet (A). Each treatment had 3 replicates of 35 broilers each. Treatment effects on broiler growth performance and biomarkers such as ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility, plasma Ig concentration, and cecal microflora composition were determined. Differences among treatments were considered significant when P feed conversion ratio values were similar and significantly better for P1 (1.80) and A (1.80) compared with P2 (1.87), C (1.89), and P3 (1.92). Ileal apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of CP and ether extract were higher in A. Generally, treatments A and P1 showed an improved total tract ADC for DM, organic matter, ash, ether extract, and AME(n) values. The total tract ADC of CP was higher in P1, C, and P2. There were no differences between treatments regarding plasma Ig in 14- and 42-d-old broilers. Treatments P2 and P3 were effective at beneficially modulating cecal microflora composition. In particular, the lower cecal coliform concentration (log cfu/g of wet digesta) was seen in P2 (6.12) and P3 (4.90) in 14- and 42-d-old broilers, respectively, whereas at 42 d, P3 and P2 had the highest Bifidobacterium (8.31; 8.08) and Lactobacillus concentrations (8.20; 7.86), respectively. It is concluded that probiotic inclusion level had a significant effect on broiler growth responses, nutrient ADC, AME(n), and cecal microflora composition. PMID:20008803

  12. Comparison of conventional culture methods and two commercial enzyme immunoassays for detection of Salmonella in porcine fecal samples and cecal contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    1997-01-01

    Two commercial enzyme immunoassays, designated EIA-1 and EIA-2, for the detection of salmonella in feces and cecal contents were compared to conventional culture methods. Out of 362 cecal content samples, 35 were positive by EIA-1 and 30 were positive by EIA-2 and conventional methods. Out of 189...... fecal samples, 41 were positive by EIA-1, 30 were positive by EIA-2, and 24 were positive by conventional culture methods. The EIA-1 assay method detected more positive samples overall, although only comparison of the fecal samples was statistically significant. The results indicate that the EIA-1...... method is rapid, requiring only 24 hours, and may he more sensitive than the EIA-2 assay and conventional culture techniques. Enzyme immunoassays for the detection elf salmonella in fecal samples or cecal contents provide a reasonable alternative to conventional culture techniques....

  13. How to Prevent Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  14. Metabolomic Analyses of Brain Tissue in Sepsis Induced by Cecal Ligation Reveal Specific Redox Alterations-Protective Effects of the Oxygen Radical Scavenger Edaravone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hara, Naomi; Chijiiwa, Miyuki; Yara, Miki;

    2015-01-01

    analyzing the preventive effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on sepsis-induced brain alterations. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and the mice were divided into three groups-CLP vehicle (CLPV), CLP and edaravone (MCI-186, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) (CLPE), and...... induced by cecal ligation alters cerebral redox status and supports a proapoptotic phenotype. The free radical scavenger edavarone reduces mortality of septic mice and protects against sepsis-induced neuronal cell death....

  15. Western diet enhances hepatic inflammation in mice exposed to cecal ligation and puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houghton Jeff

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese patients display an exaggerated morbidity during sepsis. Since consumption of a western-style diet (WD is a major factor for obesity in the United States, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of chronic WD consumption on hepatic inflammation in mice made septic via cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Feeding mice diets high in fat has been shown to enhance evidence of TLR signaling and this pathway also mediates the hepatic response to invading bacteria. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combined effects of sepsis and feeding WD on TRL-4 signaling would exacerbate hepatic inflammation. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed purified control diet (CD or WD that was enriched in butter fat (34.4% of calories for 3 weeks prior to CLP. Intravital microscopy was used to evaluate leukocyte adhesion in the hepatic microcirculation. To demonstrate the direct effect of saturated fatty acid on hepatocytes, C3A human hepatocytes were cultured in medium containing 100 μM palmitic acid (PA. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4 and interleukin-8 (IL-8. Results Feeding WD increased firm adhesion of leukocytes in the sinusoids and terminal hepatic venules by 8-fold six hours after CLP; the increase in platelet adhesion was similar to the response observed with leukocytes. Adhesion was accompanied by enhanced expression of TNF-α, MCP-1 and ICAM-1. Messenger RNA expression of TLR-4 was also exacerbated in the WD+CLP group. Exposure of C3A cells to PA up-regulated IL-8 and TLR-4 expression. In addition, PA stimulated the static adhesion of U937 monocytes to C3A cells, a phenomenon blocked by inclusion of an anti-TLR-4/MD2 antibody in the culture medium. Conclusions These findings indicate a link between obesity-enhanced susceptibility to sepsis and

  16. Use of an electromagnetic colonoscope to assess maneuvers associated with cecal intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leighton Jonathan A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and effective colonoscopy is aided by the use of endoscopic techniques and maneuvers (ETM during the examination including patient repositioning, stiffening of the endoscope and abdominal pressure. Aim To better understand the use and value of ETM during colonoscopy by using a device that allows real-time imaging of the colonoscope insertion shaft. Methods The use of ETM during colonoscopy and their success was recorded. Experienced colonoscopists and endoscopy assistants used a commercially available electromagnetic (EM transmitter and a special adult variable stiffness instrument with 12 embedded sensors to examine 46 patients. In 5 of these a special EM probe passed through the instrument channel of a standard pediatric variable stiffness colonoscope was used instead of the EM colonoscope. Results Thirty-nine men and 7 women with a mean age of 64 years (range 33–90 were studied. The cecum was intubated in 93.5% (43/46. The mean time to reach the cecum was 10.6 minutes (range 3–25. ETM were used a total of 174 times in 41 of the patients to assist with cecal intubation. When ETM were required to reach the cecum, and the cecum was intubated, an average of 3.82 ETM/patient was used. While ETM were used most often when the tip of the colonoscope was in the left side of the colon (rectum 5.0%, sigmoid colon 20.7%, descending colon 5.0%, and splenic flexure 11.6%, when the instrument was in the transverse colon (14.8%, hepatic flexure (20.7% and ascending colon (19.8% the use of ETM was also required. When the colonoscope tip was in the transverse colon, hepatic flexure and ascending colon, ETM success rates were less (61.1%, 52.0%, and 41.7% respectively compared to the left colon success rates (rectum 83.3%, sigmoid colon 84.0%, descending colon 100%, and splenic flexure 85.7%. Conclusion The EM colonoscope allows imaging of the insertion shaft without fluoroscopy and is a useful device for evaluating the efficacy of

  17. Probiotic level effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, cecal microbiota, and immune response of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourakbari, Mohammadreza; Seidavi, Alireza; Asadpour, Leila; Martínez, Andrés

    2016-05-31

    Probiotic effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, cecal microbiota, and immune response of broilers were studied. Two hundred one-day-old male chickens were allocated to one of five treatments (four replicates of 10 birds per treatment): control, and the same control diet supplemented with 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.015% and 0.02% probiotics. Probiotics in feed at 0.01% or higher levels of supplementation improved body weight gain (+12%) and feed conversion rate (-5%) compared with the control. There were no effects on carcass traits, but the relative weights of drumsticks and wings showed increasing and decreasing linear responses, respectively, to probiotic supplementation level. Blood plasma glucose and albumin contents linearly increased (from 167.1 to 200.5 mg dl-1, and from 1.70 to 3.25 g dl-1) with increasing probiotic supplementation. Triglycerides and cholesterol contents were lower in probiotic supplemented treatments (average contents 71.3 and 125.3 mg dl-1 vs. 92.6 and 149.9 mg dl-1 in the control). Probiotics decreased cecal Escherichia coli counts, but had no effects on immunity related organs or immune response. The linear trends, either positive or negative, observed in many of the parameters studied, suggest that more studies are needed to establish the optimal concentration of probiotics in broiler feed. PMID:27254451

  18. Effects of natural blend of essential oil on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, F; Ronchi, A; Castelli, P; Sparks, N

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of a novel commercial preparation of natural blend of essential oils from basil, caraway, laurel, lemon, oregano, sage, tea, and thyme (Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL) on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broilers. Six nutritionally adequate wheat and soybean-based diets were generated by the addition of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 g/t of feed. The diets were fed as crumbs in the starter phase (d 0-10) and as pellets during the grower (d 10-24) and finisher (d 24-42) phases. Nine hundred sixty 1-d-old chicks were allocated to the 6 dietary treatments each having 8 replicate pens with 20 birds per pen. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA with a P feed to gain ratio compared with the control group during grower phase and overall performance. The blood biochemistry results showed no differences (P > 0.05) between treatments. The carcass weight, breast weight, and relative percentage of breast meat increased (P feed was optimum for enhancing breast meat yield and nutrient utilization as indicated by increased (P < 0.05) cecal villus surface area. PMID:24570432

  19. Effect of propolis alcoholic extract on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Alves Ferreira Zanato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of different rates of propolis alcoholic extract (PAE on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits. Forty White New Zealand rabbits were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments and ten replicates per treatment. The rabbits were allocated individually in wire cages containing a nipple drinker and a semi-automatic feeder. The treatments were: T1 = control, T2 = 1ml of ethanol, T3 = 0.8ml of PAE, and T4 = 1.5ml of PAE. Commercial feed and water were provided ad libitum to the animals, and the treatment with cereal alcohol and PAE was administered orally using a 2ml syringe. It was concluded that the addition of PAE to the rabbits’ feeding resulted in weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH similar to those of animals which received the diets with ethanol without any addition, except for the paw weight, that was higher in the rabbits which were given PAE, and for the gastric system, that had a higher weight in the rabbits which received no addition to their diet.

  20. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  1. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Krakowski, Andrew C; Naheedy, John H; Kruk, Peter G; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2015-12-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  2. Vascularity in thyroid neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjaer; Andersen, Niels Frost; Melsen, Flemming;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of four different methods (vascular grading, Chalkley count, microvessel density (MVD) and stereological estimation) for quantifying intratumoral microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms, by comparing the variability within and between...... count should be the preferred method for assessing microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms. The diagnostic evaluation revealed a tendency towards higher degree of vascularity in FA compared to both FC and PC for all methods. No statistically significant association was seen between vascular density and...

  3. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results Principal Component Analysis (PCA of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks, while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa, as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals. Conclusions Our findings show that consumption of apple pectin (7% in the diet increases the population of butyrate- and β-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.

  4. Rat cecal inocula produce different patterns of short-chain fatty acids than fecal inocula in in vitro fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, D J; Marlett, J A

    1995-10-01

    The effects of bacterial collection site, bacterial adaption to substrate and duration of fermentation on short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were studied using an in vitro fermentation system. Cecal and fecal inocula from rats fed purified diets containing 100 g/kg dietary fiber from canned peas or psyllium seed husk, or a nonpurified diet containing 170 g/kg dietary fiber fermented ileal excreta from colectomized rats fed a purified diet containing 100 g/kg dietary fiber from canned peas. The SCFA concentration, measured by gas chromatography, in anaerobic fermentations of 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, increased (P psyllium seed husk at most time points. We conclude that collection site, adaptation of bacteria to the substrate to be fermented and duration of fermentation significantly influence the results of in vitro fermentation studies. PMID:7562080

  5. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed......-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, puree or pomace....

  6. Differential responses of cecal microbiota to fishmeal, Eimeria and Clostridium perfringens in a necrotic enteritis challenge model in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dragana; Wu, Shu-Biao; Rodgers, Nicholas; Swick, Robert A; Moore, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens causes enteric diseases in animals and humans. In poultry, avian-specific C. perfringens strains cause necrotic enteritis, an economically significant poultry disease that costs the global industry over $2 billion annually in losses and control measures. With removal of antibiotic growth promoters in some countries this disease appears to be on the rise. In experimental conditions used to study disease pathogenesis and potential control measures, reproduction of the disease relies on the use of predisposing factors such as Eimeria infection and the use of high protein diets, indicating complex mechanisms involved in the onset of necrotic enteritis. The mechanisms by which the predisposing factors contribute to disease progression are not well understood but it has been suggested that they may cause perturbations in the microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract. We inspected changes in cecal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) induced by Eimeria and fishmeal, in birds challenged or not challenged with C. perfringens. C. perfringens challenge in the absence of predisposing factors did not cause significant changes in either the alpha or beta diversity of the microbiota nor in concentrations of SCFA. Moreover, there was no C. perfringens detected in the cecal microbiota 2 days post-challenge without the presence of predisposing factors. In contrast, both fishmeal and Eimeria caused significant changes in microbiota, seen in both alpha and beta diversity and also enabled C. perfringens to establish itself post challenge. Eimeria had its strongest influence on intestinal microbiota and SCFA when combined with fishmeal. Out of 6 SCFAs measured, including butyric acid, none were significantly influenced by C. perfringens, but their levels were strongly modified following the use of both predisposing factors. There was little overlap in the changes caused following Eimeria and fishmeal treatments, possibly indicating multiple routes for

  7. Differential responses of cecal microbiota to fishmeal, Eimeria and Clostridium perfringens in a necrotic enteritis challenge model in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Stanley

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens causes enteric diseases in animals and humans. In poultry, avian-specific C. perfringens strains cause necrotic enteritis, an economically significant poultry disease that costs the global industry over $2 billion annually in losses and control measures. With removal of antibiotic growth promoters in some countries this disease appears to be on the rise. In experimental conditions used to study disease pathogenesis and potential control measures, reproduction of the disease relies on the use of predisposing factors such as Eimeria infection and the use of high protein diets, indicating complex mechanisms involved in the onset of necrotic enteritis. The mechanisms by which the predisposing factors contribute to disease progression are not well understood but it has been suggested that they may cause perturbations in the microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract. We inspected changes in cecal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA induced by Eimeria and fishmeal, in birds challenged or not challenged with C. perfringens. C. perfringens challenge in the absence of predisposing factors did not cause significant changes in either the alpha or beta diversity of the microbiota nor in concentrations of SCFA. Moreover, there was no C. perfringens detected in the cecal microbiota 2 days post-challenge without the presence of predisposing factors. In contrast, both fishmeal and Eimeria caused significant changes in microbiota, seen in both alpha and beta diversity and also enabled C. perfringens to establish itself post challenge. Eimeria had its strongest influence on intestinal microbiota and SCFA when combined with fishmeal. Out of 6 SCFAs measured, including butyric acid, none were significantly influenced by C. perfringens, but their levels were strongly modified following the use of both predisposing factors. There was little overlap in the changes caused following Eimeria and fishmeal treatments, possibly indicating

  8. Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy L

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65 year old lady presented with generalised pruritus and discolouration of skin and mucous membranes of 5 years duration. The histopathology from the cutaneous lesions revealed features suggestive of poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans (PVA. Investigations did not reveal any underlying connective tissue disease,lymphoma or systemic disease. A diagnosis of idiopathic poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans was made.

  9. Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy L; Prasad PVS; Prasanna K; Rao L

    1994-01-01

    A 65 year old lady presented with generalised pruritus and discolouration of skin and mucous membranes of 5 years duration. The histopathology from the cutaneous lesions revealed features suggestive of poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans (PVA). Investigations did not reveal any underlying connective tissue disease,lymphoma or systemic disease. A diagnosis of idiopathic poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans was made.

  10. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bak, M; Vach, W; Rose, C

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... had clinical impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  11. [Vascular factors in glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottet, B; Aptel, F; Geiser, M; Romanet, J P; Chiquet, C

    2015-12-01

    The exact pathophysiology of glaucoma is not fully understood. Understanding of the vascular pathophysiology of glaucoma requires: knowing the techniques for measuring ocular blood flow and characterizing the topography of vascular disease and the mechanisms involved in this neuropathy. A decreased mean ocular perfusion pressure and a loss of vascular autoregulation are implicated in glaucomatous disease. Early decrease in ocular blood flow has been identified in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal pressure glaucoma, contributing to the progression of optic neuropathy. The vascular damage associated with glaucoma is present in various vascular territories within the eye (from the ophthalmic artery to the retina) and is characterized by a decrease in basal blood flow associated with a dysfunction of vasoregulation. PMID:26597554

  12. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  13. Pediatric vascular access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, James S. [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, Children' s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  14. Congenital Vascular Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clots, obstruction of major vessels, causing progressive limb asymmetry by overgrowth, and for cosmetic indications or because ... t he Vascular Disease Foundation (VDF) develops educational information and initiatives for patients, their families and friends, ...

  15. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for short-term use. [ Top ] What is an arteriovenous fistula? An AV fistula is a connection, made by ... to remove and return blood during hemodialysis. An arteriovenous (AV) fistula is a connection, made by a vascular surgeon, ...

  16. Heart and vascular services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Repair of aneurysms (dilated/enlarged portions) of the aorta and its branches Procedures may also be used ... Nutrition and lifestyle counseling, including smoking cessation and diabetes education Supervised exercise Alternative Names Circulatory system; Vascular ...

  17. Management of Vascular Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanori Akita, MD, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: Treatment of vascular malformations is an integral part of multidisciplinary approaches. Venous malformations are more frequent in combination surgery, and if there are fewer complications, the patients’ satisfaction increases.

  18. Vascular Effects of Histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeigbe, Anthony B; Talabi, Olufunke O

    2014-01-01

    Four subtypes of receptors (H1, H2, H3 and H4) mediate the actions of histamine. In the vascular wall, the effects of histamine are mediated via H1 and H2 receptors and the actions are modulated by H3 receptor subtype located on presynaptic neurones. Alterations in vascular responses to histamine are associated with experimental as well as a human form of hypertension, suggesting a role for histanine in cardiovascular regulation. PMID:26196559

  19. Digital vascular imaging (DVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digitization of the video signals from an image intensifier/TV chain, followed by subtraction, contrast enchancement and reconversion to analogue signals, enables high quality angiographic images to be obtained from an intravenous injection of contrast medium. As the examination is basically noninvasive it can be used in outpatients. The possibilities of Digital Vascular Imaging are demonstrated by images obtained from the various vascular regions using a triple-mode 14 in. image intensifier with a Plumbicon. TV tube. (Auth.)

  20. Thrombolysis in vascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Linn

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Thrombolysis is in common use in the treatment of acute forms of vascular disease. It may be used both systemically and locally, in the latter case through an endovascular approach, socalled catheter-directed thrombolysis. The aims of this thesis were to investigate how thrombolysis affects performance-related outcomes pertaining to vascular patency after thrombolysis, and how it affects patient safety and the development of complications. Metho...

  1. Prevalência de helmintíases em apêndices cecais Prevalence of helmintiasis in cecal appendices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Beatriz Gehlen Ferrari

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar a prevalência do diagnóstico de helmintíases em apêndices cecais removidos por procedimentos cirúrgicos em municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e enviados para o Instituto de Patologia de Passo Fundo. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de prevalência. Analisados 3.646 laudos de apêndices cecais do Instituto de Patologia de Passo Fundo, no período de 01 de maio de 1995 a 24 de abril de 2001. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de helmintos nas peças cirúrgicas foi de 3,07 % (n=112, com a enterobíase perfazendo 66,07% (n=74 dos casos, seguidos por angiostrongilíase 20,54 % 9 (n=23, multiparasitose 5,35% (n=6, teníase 4,47% (n=5, ascaridíase 2,68 % (n=3 e um caso de ovo de helminto não identificado. O diagnóstico histopatológico de apendicite aguda, ocorreu em 75,09% dos casos associados à helmintíase. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência do diagnóstico histopatológico de helmintíases em apêndices cecais ressecados, por provável diagnóstico clínico de apendicite ou abdômen agudo, encontrados em nosso meio foi semelhante aos descritos mundialmente. O exame histopatológico pode revelar helmintos ou ovos durante ou após a intervenção.BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of the helmintíases in cecal appendices surgically removed. METHOD: Transversal study of prevalence. Analyzed 3.646 reports of cecal appendices from the Instituto de Pathologia de Passo Fundo, from May 01, 1995 to April 24, 2001. RESULTS: The prevalence of helmints on the surgical speciments was 3.07% (n=112, with the enterobiases present in 66.07% (n=74 of the cases, followed by angiostrongyliasis in 20.54% (n=23, multiparasitosis 5.35% (n=6, teniasis 4.47% (n=5, ascariadiasis 2.68% (n=3 and one case of an unidentified worm's egg. Males were 53.57% and 46.43% were females, with mean age of 19 ± 12 years. The histopatological diagnosis of acute appendicitis, occurred in 75.09% of the cases associated to helmint

  2. [Zaidemberg's vascularized radial graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cast, Y

    2010-12-01

    In 1991, Carlos Zaidemberg described a new technique to repair scaphoid non-unions with a vascularized bone graft harvested from the radial styloid process. An anatomic study based on 30 dissections after colorized latex injection established the constancy of the radial styloid process's artery, while showing that its origin, course and length were subject to variations. In a retrospective series of 38 cases over a period of 10 years, the vascularized bone graft was indicated for: (1) scaphoid non-union with the presence of avascular changes of the proximal fragment (23 cases); (2) failed prior reconstruction with bone graft and internal fixation (nine cases); (3) degenerative styloid-scaphoid arthritis (three cases); (4) fracture on Preiser dystrophy (three cases). The five steps of the simplified operative technique without dissection of the vascular pedicle include: (1) longitudinal dorso-radial approach, identification of the periosteal portion of the radial styloid process artery; (2) incision of the first and second compartments, longitudinal arthrotomy under the second compartment; (3) styloidectomy and transversal resection of the scaphoid non-union and sclerotic bone; (4) elevation of the vascularized bone graft; (5) transversal and radial insertion of the vascularized bone graft, osteosynthesis by two or three K-wire touching the scaphoid's radial edge. Scaphoid union was obtained in 33 cases out of 38. The only postoperative complications were two transient radial paresthesia. The standardized surgical procedure using vascularized bone graft harvested from the radial styloid process provides an efficient scaphoid reconstruction. PMID:21087882

  3. Molecular identification and characterization of ileal and cecal fungus communities in broilers given probiotics, specific essential oil blends, and under mixed Eimeria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Michael E; Hernandez, Charles A; Barbosa, Nei A; Sakomura, Nilva K; Dowd, Scott E; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O

    2012-09-01

    Broiler digestive tract fungal communities have gained far less scrutiny than that given corresponding bacterial communities. Attention given poultry-associated fungi have focused primarily on feed-associated toxin-producers, yeast, and yeast products. The current project focused on the use of pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to identify and monitor broiler digestive fungal communities. Eight different treatments were included. Four controls were an Uninfected-Unmedicated Control, an Unmedicated-Infected Control, the antibiotic bacitracin methylene disalicylate plus the ionophore monensin as Positive Control, and the ionophore monensin alone as a Negative Control. Four treatments were two probiotics (BC-30 and Calsporin) and two specific essential oil blends (Crina Poultry Plus and Crina Poultry AF). All chickens except the Unmedicated-Uninfected Control were given, at 15 days of age, a standard oral Eimeria inoculum of sporulated oocysts. Ileal and cecal digesta were collected at pre-Eimeria infection at 14 days of age and at 7 days post-Eimeria infection at 22 days of age. Extracted cecal DNA was analyzed by pyrosequencing to examine the impact of diet supplements and Eimeria infection on individual constituents in the fungal community, while DGGE was used to compare more qualitative changes in ileal and cecal communities. Pyrosequencing identified three phyla, seven classes, eight orders, 13 families, 17 genera, and 23 fungal species. Ileal and cecal DGGE patterns showed fungal communities were clustered mainly into pre- and post-infection patterns. Post-infection Unmedicated-Uninfected patterns were clustered with pre-infection groups demonstrating a strong effect of Eimeria infection on digestive fungal populations. These combined techniques offered added versatility towards unraveling the effects of enteropathogen infection and performance enhancing feed additives on broiler digestive microflora. PMID:22779701

  4. Absorptive activity of calcium in the isolated cecal epithelium adaptively increased by 2 week's feeding of difructose anhydride III in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Mineo, Hitoshi; Amano, Midori; Chiji, Hideyuki; Shigematsu, Norihiro; Tomita, Fusao; Hara, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    We compared net Ca absorption and Lucifer Yellow (LY), a paracellular passage dye, permeability in the epithelium isolated from the rat small intestine, cecum, and colon after feeding with control and difructose anhydride (DFA) III diets for 14 days using the Ussing chamber system. Feeding of DFA III increased net Ca transport and LY passage in the cecal but not in small intestinal or colonic epithelium. Ability of paracellular Ca passage via Tight-junction (TJ) in the cecum was changed adapt...

  5. Effect of lactulose supplementation on growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbial population, and short-chain fatty acid composition of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Ali; Ergün, Ahmet

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary lactulose supplementation on broiler growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, cecal microflora, and cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations. A total of 245 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 5 different treatments, with 7 replicates including 7 birds each. The birds received the same basal diet based on corn--soybean meal, and lactulose was included in the diet at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8% at the expense of corn and/or soybean meal. The body weight gain (linear, P=0.027) and feed conversion (linear, P=0.003) from 0 to 21 d showed significant improvement as dietary lactulose was increased from 0.2 to 0.8%. However, dietary lactulose did not affect broiler performance at the end of the experiment (42 d). Furthermore, intestinal measurements and the goblet cell count of broilers fed a lactulose-containing diet differed from those of birds fed a diet that did not contain lactulose. In addition, a significant quadratic response in the Lactobacillus count (P≤0.001) was observed at 42 d on increasing the level of lactulose. The cecal coliform bacterial population was not affected by the dietary treatments. Supplementation with lactulose significantly increased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA measured on d 7 and d 42. In conclusion, inclusion of lactulose in the diet can enhance broiler performance and intestinal morphology by selectively stimulating intestinal microflora and increasing cecal SCFA concentrations. PMID:26188035

  6. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and sup...

  7. Successional changes in the chicken cecal microbiome during 42 days of growth are independent of organic acid feed additives

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, Brian B; Buhr, R Jeff; Ritz, Casey W; Kiepper, Brian H; Berrang, Mark E.; Seal, Bruce S.; Cox, Nelson A

    2014-01-01

    Background Poultry remains a major source of foodborne bacterial infections. A variety of additives with presumed anti-microbial and/or growth-promoting effects are commonly added to poultry feed during commercial grow-out, yet the effects of these additives on the gastrointestinal microbial community (the GI microbiome) as the bird matures remain largely unknown. Here we compared temporal changes in the cecal microbiome to the effects of formic acid, propionic acid, and medium-chain fatty ac...

  8. Maximizing the general success of cecal intubation during propofol sedation in a multi-endoscopist academic centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donà Barbara M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving the target of 95% colonoscopy completion rate at centres conducting colorectal screening programs is an important issue. Large centres and teaching hospitals employing endoscopists with different levels of training and expertise risk achieving worse results. Deep sedation with propofol in routine colonoscopy could maximize the results of cecal intubation. Methods The present study on the experience of a single centre focused on estimating the overall completion rate of colonoscopies performed under routine propofol sedation at a large teaching hospital with many operators involved, and on assessing the factors that influence the success rate of the procedure and how to improve this performance, analyzing the aspects relating to using of deep sedation. Twenty-one endoscopists, classified by their level of specialization in colonoscopic practice, performed 1381 colonoscopies under deep sedation. All actions needed for the anaesthesiologist to restore adequate oxygenation or hemodynamics, even for transient changes, were recorded. Results The "crude" overall completion rate was 93.3%. This finding shows that with routine deep sedation, the colonoscopy completion rate nears, but still does not reach, the target performance for colonoscopic screening programs, at centers where colonoscopists of difference experience are employed in such programs. Factors interfering with cecal intubation were: inadequate colon cleansing, endoscopists' expertise in colonoscopic practice, patients' body weight under 60 kg or age over 71 years, and the need for active intervention by the anaesthesiologist. The most favourable situation - a patient less than 71 years old with a body weight over 60 kg, an adequate bowel preparation, a "highly experienced specialist" performing the test, and no need for active anaesthesiological intervention during the procedure - coincided with a 98.8% probability of the colonoscopy being completed

  9. Physical Activity Differentially Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Ovariectomized Female Rats Selectively Bred for High and Low Aerobic Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Wen Liu

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is considered a relevant factor in obesity and associated metabolic diseases, for which postmenopausal women are particularly at risk. Increasing physical activity has been recognized as an efficacious approach to prevent or treat obesity, yet the impact of physical activity on the microbiota remains under-investigated. We examined the impacts of voluntary exercise on host metabolism and gut microbiota in ovariectomized (OVX high capacity (HCR and low capacity running (LCR rats. HCR and LCR rats (age = 27 wk were OVX and fed a high-fat diet (45% kcal fat ad libitum and housed in cages equipped with (exercise, EX or without (sedentary, SED running wheels for 11 wk (n = 7-8/group. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would hinder weight gain, increase metabolic health and shift the microbiota of LCR rats, resulting in populations more similar to that of HCR rats. Animals were compared for characteristic metabolic parameters including body composition, lipid profile and energy expenditure; whereas cecal digesta were collected for DNA extraction. 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed, followed by analysis using QIIME 1.8.0 to assess cecal microbiota. Voluntary exercise decreased body and fat mass, and normalized fasting NEFA concentrations of LCR rats, despite only running one-third the distance of HCR rats. Exercise, however, increased food intake, weight gain and fat mass of HCR rats. Exercise clustered the gut microbial community of LCR rats, which separated them from the other groups. Assessments of specific taxa revealed significant (p<0.05 line by exercise interactions including shifts in the abundances of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Relative abundance of Christensenellaceae family was higher (p = 0.026 in HCR than LCR rats, and positively correlated (p<0.05 with food intake, body weight and running distance. These findings demonstrate that exercise differentially

  10. Effects of a probiotic, Enterococcus faecium, on growth performance, intestinal morphology, immune response, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli K88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, G T; Zeng, X F; Chen, A G; Zhou, L; Zhang, L; Xiao, Y P; Yang, C M

    2013-11-01

    The effects of feeding dehydrated Enterococcus faecium on growth performance, immune response, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli K88 were investigated. Two hundred eighty-eight 1-d-old birds were randomly assigned to 4 treatments: negative control birds (N-con) fed a basal diet and not challenged with E. coli K88; positive control birds (P-con) fed a basal diet and challenged with E. coli K88; birds fed a basal diet including dehydrated E. faecium (Ef) at 1 × 10(9) cfu/kg of feed and challenged with E. coli K88; and birds fed a basal diet including the antibiotic colistine sulfate (Anti) at 10 mg/kg of feed and challenged with E. coli K88. Birds fed E. faecium had greater (P Clostridium perfringens on d 28, greater Lactobacillus counts on d 14 and 21, and greater (P < 0.05) Bifidobacterium in their cecal contents on d 21 than did the P-con birds. These results suggest that E. faecium can promote growth performance, improve intestinal morphology, and beneficially manipulate the cecal microflora in broilers challenged with E. coli K88. PMID:24135599

  11. Metagenomic analysis reveals a functional signature for biomass degradation by cecal microbiota in the leaf-eating flying squirrel (Petaurista alborufus lena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Hsiao-Pei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animals co-evolve with their gut microbiota; the latter can perform complex metabolic reactions that cannot be done independently by the host. Although the importance of gut microbiota has been well demonstrated, there is a paucity of research regarding its role in foliage-foraging mammals with a specialized digestive system. Results In this study, a 16S rRNA gene survey and metagenomic sequencing were used to characterize genetic diversity and functional capability of cecal microbiota of the folivorous flying squirrel (Petaurista alborufus lena. Phylogenetic compositions of the cecal microbiota derived from 3 flying squirrels were dominated by Firmicutes. Based on end-sequences of fosmid clones from 1 flying squirrel, we inferred that microbial metabolism greatly contributed to intestinal functions, including degradation of carbohydrates, metabolism of proteins, and synthesis of vitamins. Moreover, 33 polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and 2 large genomic fragments containing a series of carbohydrate-associated genes were identified. Conclusions Cecal microbiota of the leaf-eating flying squirrel have great metabolic potential for converting diverse plant materials into absorbable nutrients. The present study should serve as the basis for future investigations, using metagenomic approaches to elucidate the intricate mechanisms and interactions between host and gut microbiota of the flying squirrel digestive system, as well as other mammals with similar adaptations.

  12. Effect of dietary inclusion of sorghum milling waste on growth response, nutrient utilisation, gut characteristics and cecal microflora of weaner rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oso, Oladele A; Sobayo, Richard; Jegede, Vincent; Fafiolu, Adeboye; Iyasere, Oluwaseun Serah; Dele, Peter; Bamgbose, Adeyemi; Cecilia, Adesida

    2011-06-01

    Growth response, nutrient digestibility and cecal microflora of 80 male, mixed breed weaner rabbits fed with varying dietary inclusions of sorghum milling waste (SMW) was investigated. Four experimental diets were formulated such that SMW was included at 0 (control), 100, 200 and 300 g/kg, respectively. Each dietary treatment was performed on 20 rabbits. Feed intake increased (P < 0.05) while final live weight and feed conversion ratio of rabbits decreased (P < 0.05) following increased dietary inclusion of SMW. Rabbits fed with 100 and 200 g/kg SMW had similar feed conversion ratios, weight gain, crude fiber, dry matter and crude protein digestibility values. Rabbits fed with 300 g/kg SMW recorded the lowest (P < 0.05) hot carcass weight, dressing percentage and rack weight. Similar dressing percentage and rack weight were recorded for rabbits fed with control diet, 100 and 200 g/kg SMW. The weight of cecal content increased (P < 0.05) with increased dietary inclusion levels of SMW. Rabbits fed with 300 g/kg SMW recorded the lowest (P < 0.05) coliform and lactobaccillus counts. Dietary inclusion of up to 200 g/kg SMW supported improved growth response and carcass yield without imposing any detrimental effect on cecal microflora. PMID:21615842

  13. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies. PMID:26585821

  14. Simultaneous malignancies consisting of cecal cancer, sigmoid colon cancer and pleomorphic sarcoma around the left iliac bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 71-year-old woman, who had surgery and subsequent irradiation for uterine canner 29 years prior, developed pain around her left hip and leg. Computed tomography showed a soft tissue density mass around the left iliac bone measuring 13 cm in diameter. An incisional biopsy revealed a pleomorphic sarcoma. On positron emission tomography and colonoscopy, a cecal cancer a sigmoid colon cancer were detected. These two colonic cancers were surgically removed to prevent bowel obstruction. Both of the tumors presented as bulky masses with well-defined margins invading the proper muscle layers and the surrounding colonic wall; they exhibited dysplasia, foamy cells, and thickened arterial walls that showed hyalinization, indicating radiation-induced colitis. Namely, all these tumors including the pleomorphic sarcoma around the iliac bone were considered to be radiation-induced tumors. Radiation-induced cancer is a late complication of irradiation and when diagnosed is often advanced. Both patients and clinicians should be cognizant of the potential consequences of irradiation; appropriate follow-up should be instituted. (author)

  15. Responses in ileal and cecal bacteria to low and high amylose/amylopectin ratio diets in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu-Heng; Yang, Can; Wright, André-Denis G; He, Jun; Chen, Dai-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Dietary starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation in the distal intestine. This study aimed to compare the bacterial community in the ileal and cecal digesta of growing pigs fed diets with low (0.14, LR pigs) and high (0.43, HR pigs) amylose/amylopectin ratio. Pyrosequencing based on MiSeq 2000 platform showed that in ileum digesta, Bacteroidetes of LR pigs was markedly higher than that in HR pigs (P Halomonas pacifica, Escherichia fergusonii, and Actinobacillus minor which belong to class Gammaproteobacteria were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in HR pigs with a significant increase (P < 0.01) of Lactobacillus acetotolerans-like bacteria. Therefore, the changed bacterial community may lead to a transformation of microbial function, such as the alteration of fermentation mode which is showed on the change of microbial metabolites like the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), to a response to the switch of dietary composition, and in turn, to help host absorb and utilize nutrients efficiently. The increase of dietary amylose induced the reduction of conditioned pathogens which may probably be due to the increase of some probiotics such as Lactobacillus, thus reducing the risk of intestinal disease. PMID:26318448

  16. PD-L1 Blockade Attenuated Sepsis-Induced Liver Injury in a Mouse Cecal Ligation and Puncture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver plays a major role in hypermetabolism and produces acute phase proteins during systemic inflammatory response syndrome and it is of vital importance in host defense and bacteria clearance. Our previous studies indicated that programmed death-1 (PD-1 and its ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1 are crucial modulators of host immune responses during sepsis. Our current study was designed to investigate the role of PD-L1 in sepsis-induced liver injury by a mouse cecal ligation and puncture (CLP model. Our results indicated that there was a significant increase of PD-L1 expression in liver after CLP challenge compared to sham-operated controls, in terms of levels of mRNA transcription and immunohistochemistry. Anti-PD-L1 antibody significantly alleviated the morphology of liver injury in CLP mice. Anti-PD-L1 antibody administration decreased ALT and AST release in CLP mice, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA in liver after sepsis challenge. Thus, anti-PD-L1 antibody might have a therapeutic potential in attenuating liver injury in sepsis.

  17. Plant vascular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybel, De Bert; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Helariutta, Yrjö; Weijers, Dolf

    2016-01-01

    Vascular tissues in plants are crucial to provide physical support and to transport water, sugars and hormones and other small signalling molecules throughout the plant. Recent genetic and molecular studies have identified interconnections among some of the major signalling networks that regulate

  18. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  19. Cecal ligation and puncture followed by MRSA pneumonia increases mortality in mice and blunts production of local and systemic cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E.; Liang, Zhe; Breed, Elise R.; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Fox, Amy C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Burd, Eileen M.; Farris, Alton B.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality in the ICU frequently results from the synergistic effect of two temporally-distinct infections. This study examined the pathophysiology of a new model of intraabdominal sepsis followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy followed three days later by an intratracheal injection of MRSA or saline. Both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice had 100% survival while animals with CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia had 67% seven-day survival. Animals subjected to CLP/MRSA had increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) concentrations of MRSA compared to sham/MRSA animals. Animals subjected to sham/MRSA pneumonia had increased BAL levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and G-CSF compared to those given intratracheal saline while CLP/MRSA mice had a blunted local inflammatory response with markedly decreased cytokine levels. Similarly, animals subjected to CLP/saline had increased peritoneal lavage levels of IL-6 and IL-1β compared to those subjected to sham laparotomy while this response was blunted in CLP/MRSA mice. Systemic cytokines were upregulated in both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice, and this was blunted by the combination of CLP/MRSA. In contrast, no synergistic effect on pneumonia severity, white blood cell count or lymphocyte apoptosis was identified in CLP/MRSA mice compared to animals with either insult in isolation. These results indicate that a clinically relevant model of CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia causes higher mortality than could have been predicted from studying either infection in isolation, and this was associated with a blunted local (pulmonary and peritoneal) and systemic inflammatory response and decreased ability to clear infection. PMID:21937950

  20. A new oral formulation for the release of sodium butyrate in the ileo-cecal region and colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aldo Roda; Patrizia Simoni; Maria Magliulo; Paolo Nanni; Mario Baraldini; Giulia Roda; Enrico Roda

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To develop a new formulation with hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose and Shellac coating for extended and selective delivery of butyrate in the ileo-caecal region and colon.METHODS:One-gram sodium butyrate coated tablets containing 13C-butyrate were orally administered to 12 healthy subjects and 12 Crohn's disease patients and the rate of 13C-butyrate absorption was evaluated by 13CO2 breath test analysis for eight hours.Tauroursodeoxycholic acid(500 mg)was co-administered as a biomarker of oro-ileal transit time to determine also the site of release and absorption of butyrate by the time of its serum maximum concentration.RESULTS:The coated formulation delayed the 13C-butyrate release by 2-3 h with respect to the uncoated tablets.Sodium butyrate was delivered in the intestine of all subjects and a more variable transit time was found in Crohn's disease patients than in healthy subjects.The variability of the peak 13CO2 in the kinetic release of butyrate was explained by the inter-subject variability in transit time.However,the coating chosen ensured an efficient release of the active compound even in patients with a short transit time.CONCLUSION:Simultaneous evaluation of breath 13CO2 and tauroursodeoxycholic acid concentrationtime curves has shown that the new oral formulation consistently releases sodium butyrate in the ileo-cecal region and colon both in healthy subjects and Crohn's disease patients with variable intestinal transit time.This formulation may be of therapeutic value in inflammatory bowel disease patients due to the appropriate release of the active compound.

  1. Vascular manifestations of Behcet's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Georgiyeva Goloeva

    2010-04-01

    Conclusion. Vascular disorders in BD were diagnosed in one fourth of the patients, mainly in young male patients. Severe thromboses with the development of chronic venous insignificance, Budd-Chiari syndrome, pulmonary and iliac artery aneurysms, and arterial thromboses were observed in male patients only. Vascular events were associated with erythema nodosum and epididymitis; in these concomitances, the vascular risk was substantially increased. Vascular death rates were 2,2%.

  2. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  3. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  4. Pathophysiology of vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzo Claudia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept of Vascular Dementia (VaD has been recognized for over a century, but its definition and diagnostic criteria remain unclear. Conventional definitions identify the patients too late, miss subjects with cognitive impairment short of dementia, and emphasize consequences rather than causes, the true bases for treatment and prevention. We should throw out current diagnostic categories and describe cognitive impairment clinically and according to commonly agreed instruments that document the demographic data in a standardized manner and undertake a systematic effort to identify the underlying aetiology in each case. Increased effort should be targeted towards the concept of and criteria for Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Post-Stroke Dementia as well as for genetic factors involved, especially as these categories hold promise for early prevention and treatment.

  5. Pathophysiology of vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo Claudia; Duro Giovanni; Iemolo Francesco; Castiglia Laura; Hachinski Vladimir; Caruso Calogero

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The concept of Vascular Dementia (VaD) has been recognized for over a century, but its definition and diagnostic criteria remain unclear. Conventional definitions identify the patients too late, miss subjects with cognitive impairment short of dementia, and emphasize consequences rather than causes, the true bases for treatment and prevention. We should throw out current diagnostic categories and describe cognitive impairment clinically and according to commonly agreed instruments th...

  6. Update on Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ayesha; Kalaria, Raj N; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a major contributor to the dementia syndrome and is described as having problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, and memory caused by impaired blood flow to the brain and damage to the blood vessels resulting from events such as stroke. There are a variety of etiologies that contribute to the development of vascular cognitive impairment and VaD, and these are often associated with other dementia-related pathologies such as Alzheimer disease. The diagnosis of VaD is difficult due to the number and types of lesions and their locations in the brain. Factors that increase the risk of vascular diseases such as stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking also raise the risk of VaD. Therefore, controlling these risk factors can help lower the chances of developing VaD. This update describes the subtypes of VaD, with details of their complex presentation, associated pathological lesions, and issues with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:27502303

  7. Vascular Cambium Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Kaisa; Blomster, Tiina; Helariutta, Ykä; Mähönen, Ari Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Secondary phloem and xylem tissues are produced through the activity of vascular cambium, the cylindrical secondary meristem which arises among the primary plant tissues. Most dicotyledonous species undergo secondary development, among them Arabidopsis. Despite its small size and herbaceous nature, Arabidopsis displays prominent secondary growth in several organs, including the root, hypocotyl and shoot. Together with the vast genetic resources and molecular research methods available for it, this has made Arabidopsis a versatile and accessible model organism for studying cambial development and wood formation. In this review, we discuss and compare the development and function of the vascular cambium in the Arabidopsis root, hypocotyl, and shoot. We describe the current understanding of the molecular regulation of vascular cambium and compare it to the function of primary meristems. We conclude with a look at the future prospects of cambium research, including opportunities provided by phenotyping and modelling approaches, complemented by studies of natural variation and comparative genetic studies in perennial and woody plant species. PMID:26078728

  8. Vascular barrier protective effects of baicalin, baicalein and wogonin in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Soyoung [College of Pharmacy, CMRI, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Sae-Kwang [Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan 712-715 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Min-Su [Laboratory for Arthritis and Bone Biology, Fatima Research Institute, Fatima Hospital, Daegu 701-600 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jong-Sup, E-mail: baejs@knu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, CMRI, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Inhibition of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and restoration of endothelial integrity is emerging as an attractive therapeutic strategy in the management of sepsis. Here, three structurally related polyphenols found in the Chinese herb Huang Qui, baicalin (BCL), baicalein (BCN), and wogonin (WGN), were examined for their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated release of HMGB1 and on modulation of HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses. According to our data, BCL, BCN, and WGN inhibited the release of HMGB1 and down-regulated HMGB1-dependent inflammatory responses in human endothelial cells. BCL, BCN, and WGN also inhibited HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability and leukocyte migration in mice. In addition, treatment with BCL, BCN, and WGN reduced CLP-induced release of HMGB1 and sepsis-related mortality and pulmonary injury in mice. These results indicate that BCL, BCN, and WGN could be candidate therapeutic agents for various severe vascular inflammatory diseases owing to their inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • HMGB1 is an inflammatory mediator for vascular inflammation. • Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin inhibited HMGB1-induced hyperpermeability in vitro and in vivo. • Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin inhibited HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses. • Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin suppressed the activation of NF-κB and ERK1/2 and production of TNF-α and IL-6. • Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin prevent CLP-induced septic mortality.

  9. [How Treatable is Vascular Dementia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Etsuro

    2016-04-01

    Vascular dementia is an umbrella term, encompassing the pathological changes in the brain due to cerebrovascular disease that result in dementia. Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia, after Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, I outline the concept of vascular dementia, the key aspects of the disease that are yet to be clarified, and the current status of clinical trials. Assessing these factors, I discuss how treatable vascular dementia presently is. Use of the term'vascular dementia'is riddled with uncertainties regarding disease classification, and non-standardized diagnostic criteria. There are difficulties in determining the exact relationship between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment. The comorbid effects of Alzheimer's pathology in some individuals also present an obstacle to reliable clinical diagnosis, and hinder research into effective management approaches. Vascular dementia is preventable and treatable, as there are established primary and secondary prevention measures for the causative cerebrovascular diseases, such as vascular risk factor intervention, antiplatelet therapy, and anticoagulation, amongst others. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no established symptomatic treatments for vascular dementia. Clinical trials of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine indicate that they produce small cognitive benefits in patients with vascular dementia, though the exact clinical significance of these is uncertain. Data are insufficient to support the widespread use of these drugs in vascular dementia. Rehabilitation and physical and cognitive exercise may be beneficial, but evidence of cognitive benefit and relief of neuropsychiatric symptoms due to exercise is lacking. PMID:27056862

  10. The Vascular Depression Hypothesis: Mechanisms Linking Vascular Disease with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Warren D.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘Vascular Depression’ hypothesis posits that cerebrovascular disease may predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate some geriatric depressive syndromes. This hypothesis stimulated much research that has improved our understanding of the complex relationships between late-life depression (LLD), vascular risk factors, and cognition. Succinctly, there are well-established relationships between late-life depression, vascular risk factors, and cerebral hyperintensities, the radiological hallmark o...

  11. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (pessential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (pessential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  12. Abdominal Vascular Catastrophes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Koyfman, Alex; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal vascular catastrophes are among the most challenging and time sensitive for emergency practitioners to recognize. Mesenteric ischemia remains a highly lethal entity for which the history and physical examination can be misleading. Laboratory tests are often unhelpful, and appropriate imaging must be quickly obtained. A multidisciplinary approach is required to have a positive impact on mortality rates. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm likewise may present in a cryptic fashion. A specific type of ruptured aneurysm, the aortoenteric fistula, often masquerades as the more common routine gastrointestinal bleed. The astute clinician recognizes that this is a more lethal variant of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:27133247

  13. Microfluidic Technology in Vascular Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. van der Meer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular cell biology is an area of research with great biomedical relevance. Vascular dysfunction is involved in major diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. However, when studying vascular cell biology in the laboratory, it is difficult to mimic the dynamic, three-dimensional microenvironment that is found in vivo. Microfluidic technology offers unique possibilities to overcome this difficulty. In this review, an overview of the recent applications of microfluidic technology in the field of vascular biological research will be given. Examples of how microfluidics can be used to generate shear stresses, growth factor gradients, cocultures, and migration assays will be provided. The use of microfluidic devices in studying three-dimensional models of vascular tissue will be discussed. It is concluded that microfluidic technology offers great possibilities to systematically study vascular cell biology with setups that more closely mimic the in vivo situation than those that are generated with conventional methods.

  14. MRI evaluation of vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yicheng Liu; Hongxing Zhang; Wei Huang; Wenjun Wan; Hongfen Peng

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTTVE: To explain the association between vascular dementia and the cranial MRI manifestations, and recognize the value of cranial MRI in the early diagnosis of vascular dementia and the assessment of disease conditions.DATA SOURCES: Pubmed database was searched to identify articles about the cranial MRI manifestations of patients with vascular dementia published in English from January 1992 to June 2006 by using the key words of "MRI, vascular dementia". Others were collected by searching the name of journals and title of articles in the Chinese full-text journal database.STUDY SELECTTON: The collected articles were primarily checked, those correlated with the cranial MRI manifestations of patients with vascular dementia were selected, while the obviously irrelative ones were excluded, and the rest were retrieved manually, the full-texts were searched.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 255 articles were collected, 41 of them were involved, and the other 214 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: MRI can be taken as one of the effective methods for the early diagnosis and disease evaluation of vascular dementia. White matter lesions are the important risk factors of vascular dementia.Vascular dementia is accompanied by the atrophy of related brain sites, but further confirmation is needed to investigate whether there is significant difference. MRI can be used to quantitatively investigate the infarcted sites and sizes of patients with vascular dementia after infarction, but there is still lack of systematic investigation on the association of the infarcted sites and sizes with the cognitive function of patients with vascular dementia.CONCLUSTON: Cranial MRI can detect the symptoms of vascular dementia at early period, so that corresponding measures can be adopted to prevent and treat vascular dementia in time.

  15. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  16. Spinal vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Timo [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany); Mull, Michael; Thron, Armin [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Gilsbach, Joachim M. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Spinal vascular malformations are rare diseases that consist of true inborn cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (including perimedullary fistulae, glomerular and juvenile AVMs) and presumably acquired dural arteriovenous fistulae. This review article gives an overview of the imaging features both on MRI and angiography, the differential diagnoses, the clinical symptomatology and the potential therapeutic approaches to these diseases. It is concluded that MRI is the diagnostic modality of first choice in suspected spinal vascular malformation and should be complemented by selective spinal angiography. Treatment in symptomatic patients offers an improvement in the prognosis, but should be performed in specialized centers. Patients with spinal cord cavernomas and perimedullary fistulae type I are surgical candidates. Dural arteriovenous fistulae can either be operated upon or can be treated by an endovascular approach, the former being a simple, quick and secure approach to obliterate the fistula, while the latter is technically demanding. In spinal arteriovenous malformations, the endovascular approach is the method of first choice; in selected cases, a combined therapy might be sensible. (orig.)

  17. Spinal vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal vascular malformations are rare diseases that consist of true inborn cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (including perimedullary fistulae, glomerular and juvenile AVMs) and presumably acquired dural arteriovenous fistulae. This review article gives an overview of the imaging features both on MRI and angiography, the differential diagnoses, the clinical symptomatology and the potential therapeutic approaches to these diseases. It is concluded that MRI is the diagnostic modality of first choice in suspected spinal vascular malformation and should be complemented by selective spinal angiography. Treatment in symptomatic patients offers an improvement in the prognosis, but should be performed in specialized centers. Patients with spinal cord cavernomas and perimedullary fistulae type I are surgical candidates. Dural arteriovenous fistulae can either be operated upon or can be treated by an endovascular approach, the former being a simple, quick and secure approach to obliterate the fistula, while the latter is technically demanding. In spinal arteriovenous malformations, the endovascular approach is the method of first choice; in selected cases, a combined therapy might be sensible. (orig.)

  18. Pulmonary vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélot, C; Naeije, R

    2011-04-01

    Diseases of the pulmonary vasculature are a cause of increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and pulmonary arterial hypertension or decreased PVR in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations on hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, portal hypertension, or cavopulmonary anastomosis. All these conditions are associated with a decrease in both arterial PO2 and PCO2. Gas exchange in pulmonary vascular diseases with increased PVR is characterized by a shift of ventilation and perfusion to high ventilation-perfusion ratios, a mild to moderate increase in perfusion to low ventilation-perfusion ratios, and an increased physiologic dead space. Hypoxemia in these patients is essentially explained by altered ventilation-perfusion matching amplified by a decreased mixed venous PO2 caused by a low cardiac output. Hypocapnia is accounted for by hyperventilation, which is essentially related to an increased chemosensitivity. A cardiac shunt on a patent foramen ovale may be a cause of severe hypoxemia in a proportion of patients with pulmonary hypertension and an increase in right atrial pressure. Gas exchange in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations is characterized by variable degree of pulmonary shunting and/or diffusion-perfusion imbalance. Hypocapnia is caused by an increased ventilation in relation to an increased pulmonary blood flow with direct peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation by shunted mixed venous blood flow. PMID:23737196

  19. Delayed Treatment with Sodium Hydrosulfide Improves Regional Blood Flow and Alleviates Cecal Ligation and Puncture (CLP)-Induced Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akbar; Druzhyna, Nadiya; Szabo, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis is a serious medical condition, caused by a severe systemic infection resulting in a systemic inflammatory response. Recent studies have suggested the therapeutic potential of donors of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel endogenous gasotransmitter and biological mediator in various diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of H2S supplementation in sepsis, with special reference to its effect on the modulation of regional blood flow. We infused sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a compound that produces H2S in aqueous solution (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg/h, for 1 h at each dose level) in control rats or rats 24 h after CLP, and measured blood flow using fluorescent microspheres. In normal control animals, NaHS induced a characteristic redistribution of blood flow, and reduced cardiac, hepatic, and renal blood flow in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, in rats subjected to CLP, cardiac, hepatic, and renal blood flow was significantly reduced; infusion of NaHS (1 mg/kg/h and 3 mg/kg/h) significantly increased organ blood flow. In other words, the effect of H2S on regional blood flow is dependent on the status of the animals (i.e., a decrease in blood flow in normal controls, but an increase in blood flow in CLP). We have also evaluated the effect of delayed treatment with NaHS on organ dysfunction and the inflammatory response by treating the animals with NaHS (3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 24 h after the start of the CLP procedure; plasma levels of various cytokines and tissue indicators of inflammatory cell infiltration and oxidative stress were measured 6 h later. After 24 h of CLP, glomerular function was significantly impaired, as evidenced by markedly increased (over 4-fold over baseline) blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels; this increase was also significantly reduced by treatment with NaHS. NaHS also attenuated the CLP-induced increases in malondialdehyde levels (an index of

  20. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-01-01

    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  1. Effects of Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli K88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Cao, G T; Zeng, X F; Zhou, L; Ferket, P R; Xiao, Y P; Chen, A G; Yang, C M

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricumon growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli K88. Three hundred sixty 1-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into 4 treatments: negative control (NC) birds were fed a basal diet and not challenged with E. coli K88; positive control (PC) birds were fed a basal diet and challenged with E. coli K88; C. butyricum treatment (CB) birds were fed a diet containing 2 × 10(7) cfu C. butyricum/kg of diet and challenged with E. coli K88; and colistin sulfate treatment (CS) birds were fed a diet containing 20 mg of colistin sulfate/kg of diet and challenged with E. coli K88. Birds fed CB had greater (P Clostridium perfringens counts at 21 d postchallenge compared with the PC birds. The CB treatment increased (P chickens. PMID:24570422

  2. Effects of Dietary Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT(®)) on Growth Performance, Relative Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, Tibia Bone Characteristics, and Meat Qualities in Pekin Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S T; Zheng, L; Kwon, H J; Choo, Y K; Lee, K W; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2015-01-01

    Fermented Chlorella vulgaris was examined for its effects on growth performance, cecal microflora, tibia bone strength, and meat qualities in commercial Pekin ducks. A total of three hundred, day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into three groups with five replicates (n = 20 ducklings per replicate) and offered diets supplemented with commercial fermented C. vulgaris (CBT(®)) at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 6 wks. The final body weight was linearly (p = 0.001) increased as the addition of fermented C. vulgaris into diets increased. Similarly, dietary C. vulgaris linearly increased body weight gain (p = 0.001) and feed intake (p = 0.001) especially at the later days of the feeding trial. However, there was no C. vulgaris effect on feed efficiency. Relative weights of liver were significantly lowered by dietary fermented C. vulgaris (linear effect at p = 0.044). Dietary fermented C. vulgaris did not affect total microbes, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms in cecal contents. Finally, meat quality parameters such as meat color (i.e., yellowness), shear force, pH, or water holding capacity were altered by adding fermented C. vulgaris into the diet. In our knowledge, this is the first report to show that dietary fermented C. vulgaris enhanced meat qualities of duck meats. In conclusion, our study indicates that dietary fermented C. vulgaris exerted benefits on productivity and can be employed as a novel, nutrition-based strategy to produce value-added duck meats. PMID:25557680

  3. Retina vascular network recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascini, Guido; Passerini, Giorgio; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

    1993-09-01

    The analysis of morphological and structural modifications of the retina vascular network is an interesting investigation method in the study of diabetes and hypertension. Normally this analysis is carried out by qualitative evaluations, according to standardized criteria, though medical research attaches great importance to quantitative analysis of vessel color, shape and dimensions. The paper describes a system which automatically segments and recognizes the ocular fundus circulation and micro circulation network, and extracts a set of features related to morphometric aspects of vessels. For this class of images the classical segmentation methods seem weak. We propose a computer vision system in which segmentation and recognition phases are strictly connected. The system is hierarchically organized in four modules. Firstly the Image Enhancement Module (IEM) operates a set of custom image enhancements to remove blur and to prepare data for subsequent segmentation and recognition processes. Secondly the Papilla Border Analysis Module (PBAM) automatically recognizes number, position and local diameter of blood vessels departing from optical papilla. Then the Vessel Tracking Module (VTM) analyses vessels comparing the results of body and edge tracking and detects branches and crossings. Finally the Feature Extraction Module evaluates PBAM and VTM output data and extracts some numerical indexes. Used algorithms appear to be robust and have been successfully tested on various ocular fundus images.

  4. Abdominopelvic vascular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriussadaporn, S

    2000-01-01

    The clinical records of 25 patients with 32 abdominopelvic vascular injuries were reviewed. Sixty per cent of patients sustained blunt trauma and 40 per cent sustained penetrating trauma. Nineteen patients (76%) were in shock on arrival, 2 of them underwent ER thoracotomy when they first arrived in the emergency room. Nine patients (36%) had signs of lower extremity ischemia. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) ranged from 16-50, mean 29 +/- 10.0. Nineteen patients (76%) had 35 associated injuries. Of the 32 injured vessels; 8 were external iliac artery, 5 were renal vein, 4 were abdominal aorta, 3 were common iliac artery, common iliac vein, external iliac vein and inferior vena cava, and 1 was superior mesenteric artery, superior mesenteric vein and median sacral artery. Treatments included: 13 lateral repair, 4 prosthetic grafting, 4 nephrectomy, 3 ligation, 3 reversed saphenous vein grafting, 2 end to end anastomosis, 1 internal iliac artery grafting, 1 intravascular shunt and packing and 1 perihepatic packing. Nine patients (36%) died. High mortality was observed in injuries to the abdominal aorta (75%), inferior vena cava (66.7%), common iliac vein (66.7%) and associated major pelvic fractures (50%). Factors significantly associated with mortality were the presence of shock on arrival, associated injuries and high Injury Severity Score. The author concludes that short prehospital time, effective resuscitation and proper surgical decision making are important for survival in these critically injured patients. PMID:10710864

  5. Ultrasound in vascular disease & introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Deane, C; S.Castellani; B. Brkljacic

    2012-01-01

    Il capitolo descrive i prin cipi generali fondamentali delle tecniche per la valutazione ultrasonografica con doppler vascolare The chapter describes the fundamental principles underlying the use of ultrasonographic techniques of vascular doppler

  6. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.

  7. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J;

    1995-01-01

    laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis that...... the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  8. The relationships of vascular plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenrick, P

    2000-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic research indicates that vascular plants evolved from bryophyte-like ancestors and that this involved extensive modifications to the life cycle. These conclusions are supported by a range of systematic data, including gene sequences, as well as evidence from comparative morphology and the fossil record. Within vascular plants, there is compelling evidence for two major clades, which have been termed lycophytes (clubmosses) and euphyllophytes (seed plants, ferns, horsetails)...

  9. The pathobiology of vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Iadecola, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment defines alterations in cognition, ranging from subtle deficits to full-blown dementia, attributable to cerebrovascular causes. Often coexisting with Alzheimer’s disease, mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. Central to the disease mechanism is the crucial role that cerebral blood vessels play in brain health, not only for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, but also for the trophic si...

  10. Calcium dynamics in vascular smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Gregory C.; Navedo, Manuel F.

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are ultimately responsible for determining vascular luminal diameter and blood flow. Dynamic changes in intracellular calcium are a critical mechanism regulating vascular smooth muscle contractility. Processes influencing intracellular calcium are therefore important regulators of vascular function with physiological and pathophysiological consequences. In this review we discuss the major dynamic calcium signals identified and characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells....

  11. Obesity in Indian subjects with Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    CHANDRA, Mina; Anand, Kuljeet Singh Anand

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Obesity is considered a public health challenge in South Asia. Obesity is an independent risk factor in vascular dementia. It also contributes to other risk factors of vascular dementia like hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidaemia and diabetes. As the rate of obesity in Indian subjects with vascular dementia is not known, we decided to assess obesity in subjects with vascular dementia. Methods: Subjects with vascular dementia presenting to Mem...

  12. Características do líquido peritoneal de eqüinos normais após punção cecal percutânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valadão Carlos Augusto Araújo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados 10 eqüinos da raça Manga Larga, machos, inteiros clinicamente sadios, submetidos à punção cecal percutânea. Analisou-se a resposta clínica, celular, bioquímica e microbiológica do líquido peritoneal por um período de 24 horas após a punção cecal, nos tempos T0, T6, T12 e T24. Foi observada elevação na freqüência respiratória em T6 e na temperatura retal entre T6 e T12. Decorridas 24 horas da punção cecal, ocorreu aumento na concentração de proteínas totais do líquido peritoneal e na atividade da fosfatase alcalina. Tanto a atividade da ALT quanto os níveis de hemoglobina apresentaram diminuição em T6. Não foram registradas alterações na celularidade do plasma ou do líquido peritoneal e obteve-se resultado negativo para a cultura microbiológica do líquido. Considerando a inexistência de efeitos adversos, além das poucas alterações descritas, conclui-se que a punção cecal percutânea é um procedimento seguro e factível, se praticada criteriosamente.

  13. Decreased IgA+ B Cells Population and IgA, IgG, IgM Contents of the Cecal Tonsil Induced by Dietary High Fluorine in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangping Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in humans and animals. The cecal tonsil is an important component of the mucosal immune system and performs important and unique immune functions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on the quantities of IgA+ B cells in the cecal tonsil by immunohistochemistry, and the immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM contents in the cecal tonsil by ELISA. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg or the same diet supplemented with 400, 800 and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II and III in the form of sodium fluoride, respectively, throughout a 42-day experimental period. The results showed that the quantities of IgA+ B cells were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 and the IgA, IgG, and IgM contents were decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 in high fluorine groups II and III in comparison with those of control group. It was concluded that dietary fluorine, in the 800–1,200 mg/kg range, could reduce the numbers of the IgA+ B cells and immunoglobulin contents in the cecal tonsil, implying the local mucosal immune function was ultimately impacted in broilers.

  14. Vascular calcification: Inducers and inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Donghyun, E-mail: dhlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Types of vascular calcification processes. {center_dot} Inducers of vascular calcification. {center_dot} Inhibitors of vascular calcifications. {center_dot} Clinical utility for vascular calcification therapy. {center_dot} Implications for the development of new tissue engineering strategies. - Abstract: Unlike the traditional beliefs, there are mounting evidences suggesting that ectopic mineral depositions, including vascular calcification are mostly active processes, many times resembling that of the bone mineralization. Numbers of agents are involved in the differentiation of certain subpopulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into the osteoblast-like entity, and the activation and initiation of extracellular matrix ossification process. On the other hand, there are factors as well, that prevent such differentiation and ectopic calcium phosphate formation. In normal physiological environments, activities of such procalcific and anticalcific regulatory factors are in harmony, prohibiting abnormal calcification from occurring. However, in certain pathophysiological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes, such balances are altered, resulting in abnormal ectopic mineral deposition. Understanding the factors that regulate the formation and inhibition of ectopic mineral formation would be beneficial in the development of tissue engineering strategies for prevention and/or treatment of such soft-tissue calcification. Current review focuses on the factors that seem to be clinically relevant and/or could be useful in developing future tissue regeneration strategies. Clinical utilities and implications of such factors are also discussed.

  15. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  16. Vascular Injury in Orthopedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Panagopoulos, George N; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Koulouvaris, Panayiotis; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Igoumenou, Vasilios; Mantas, George; Moulakakis, Konstantinos G; Sfyroeras, George S; Lazaris, Andreas; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2016-07-01

    Vascular injury in orthopedic trauma is challenging. The risk to life and limb can be high, and clinical signs initially can be subtle. Recognition and management should be a critical skill for every orthopedic surgeon. There are 5 types of vascular injury: intimal injury (flaps, disruptions, or subintimal/intramural hematomas), complete wall defects with pseudoaneurysms or hemorrhage, complete transections with hemorrhage or occlusion, arteriovenous fistulas, and spasm. Intimal defects and subintimal hematomas with possible secondary occlusion are most commonly associated with blunt trauma, whereas wall defects, complete transections, and arteriovenous fistulas usually occur with penetrating trauma. Spasm can occur after either blunt or penetrating trauma to an extremity and is more common in young patients. Clinical presentation of vascular injury may not be straightforward. Physical examination can be misleading or initially unimpressive; a normal pulse examination may be present in 5% to 15% of patients with vascular injury. Detection and treatment of vascular injuries should take place within the context of the overall resuscitation of the patient according to the established principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols. Advances in the field, made mostly during times of war, have made limb salvage the rule rather than the exception. Teamwork, familiarity with the often subtle signs of vascular injuries, a high index of suspicion, effective communication, appropriate use of imaging modalities, sound knowledge of relevant technique, and sequence of surgical repairs are among the essential factors that will lead to a successful outcome. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on a subject that generates significant controversy and confusion among clinicians involved in the care of trauma patients. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):249-259.]. PMID:27322172

  17. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  18. Plant Vascular Biology and Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William J.Lucas

    2010-01-01

    @@ The evolution of animal and plant vascular systems played a pivotal role in the advancement from simple to complex organisms,through the provision of a delivery system for the distribution of components essential for both metabolism and growth.Interestingly,although these two vascular systems conform to the same generel rules of fluid dynamics(Murray1926;McCulloh et al.2003),the developmental mechanisms adopted by plants and animals,to generate these long-distance transport systems.have little in common.

  19. Vascular Function in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Hisatsugu; Washida, Kazuo; Kowa, Hisatomo; Kanda, Fumio; Toda, Tatsushi

    2016-08-01

    We investigated vascular functioning in patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD) and examined a possible relationship between vascular function and cognitive status. Twenty-seven patients with AD, 23 patients with VaD, and 26 healthy control patients underwent measurements of flow-mediated dilation (FMD), ankle-brachial index (ABI), cardioankle vascular index (CAVI), and intima-media thickness (IMT). The FMD was significantly lower in patients with AD or VaD compared to controls. There were no significant differences in ABI, CAVI, or IMT among the 3 groups. A significant correlation was found between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and FMD. Furthermore, a multiple regression analysis revealed that FMD was significantly predicted by MMSE scores. These results suggest that endothelial involvement plays a role in AD pathogenesis, and FMD may be more sensitive than other surrogate methods (ABI, CAVI, and IMT) for detecting early-stage atherosclerosis and/or cognitive decline. PMID:27284205

  20. Pomegranate protects liver against cecal ligation and puncture-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rats through TLR4/NF-κB pathway inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makled, Mirhan N; El-Awady, Mohammed S; Abdelaziz, Rania R; Atwan, Nadia; Guns, Emma T; Gameil, Nariman M; Shehab El-Din, Ahmed B; Ammar, Elsayed M

    2016-04-01

    Acute liver injury secondary to sepsis is a major challenge in intensive care unit. This study was designed to investigate potential protective effects of pomegranate against sepsis-induced acute liver injury in rats and possible underlying mechanisms. Pomegranate was orally given (800mg/kg/day) for two weeks before sepsis induction by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Pomegranate improved survival and attenuated liver inflammatory response, likely related to downregulation of mRNA expression of toll like recptor-4, reduced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB subunit p65, decreased mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduction in myeloperoxidase activity and mRNA expression. Pomegranate also decreased CLP-induced oxidative stress as reflected by decreased malondialdehyde content, and increased reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity. These results confirm the antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects of pomegranate in CLP-induced acute liver injury mediated through inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB pathway, lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration. PMID:27011232

  1. Effects of Fructooligosaccharides,compared with Direct-Fed Microbial Bacteria,and Zinc Bacitracin on Cecal Microbial Populations and Performance of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructooligosaccharides(FOS),compared with direct-fed microbial bacteria (DFM),and zinc bacitracin ,on cecal microbial populations and performance of broiler Chickens. One hundred and ninety-two broilers (Avian) were randomly assigned to four groups,with four replicates of 12 birds each. The control group was fed with the basal diet,without any drug additive. FOS,DFM and zine bacitracin was respectively added to the basal diet at the level of 1.5% ,800 mg@kg-1 and 300 mg@ kg-1 to form the experimental diets. Body weight ,feed intake and feed efficiency were measured weekly. The feeding trial started at 1 d and ended at 21 d. At day 14 and day 21 ,four broilers per group were killed and cecum waa taken to determined microflors and pH. The results showed that dietary FOS increased bifidobactrial concentration by 1. 75-fold( P <0. 05) at 14 d of age and 1.45-fold( P <0. 05) at 21 d of age compared with control. FOS had no effect on concnetrations of E. coli and pH. There were no dietary effects of FOS,DFM,and zinc bacitracin on weight gain,feed intake,feed conversion( P >0. 05).

  2. Cystathionine-γ-lyase gene silencing with siRNA in monocytes/ macrophages attenuates inflammation in cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in the mouse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Badiei; ST Chambers; RR Gaddam; M Bhatia

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen sulphide is an endogenous inflammatory mediator produced by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in macrophages. To determine the role of H2S and macrophages in sepsis, we used small interference RNA (siRNA) to target the CSE gene and investigated its effect in a mouse model of sepsis. Cecal ligation puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis is characterized by increased levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, morphological changes in liver and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the liver and lung. SiRNA treatment attenuated inflammation in the liver and lungs of mice following CLP-induced sepsis. Liver MPO activity increased in CLP-induced sepsis and treatment with siRNA significantly reduced this. Similarly, lung MPO activity increased following induction of sepsis with CLP while siRNA treatment significantly reduced MPO activity. Liver and lung cytokine and chemokine levels in CLP-induced sepsis reduced following treatment with siRNA. These findings show a crucial pro-inflammatory role for H2S synthesized by CSE in macrophages in sepsis and suggest CSE gene silencing with siRNA as a potential therapeutic approach for this condition.

  3. Metabolic changes at the early stage of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in rats and the interventional effects of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yufen; Gao, Na; Zhang, Zhongxiao; Zu, Xianpeng; Hu, Zhenlin; Zhang, Weidong; Yin, Jun; Liu, Xinru

    2016-07-15

    Sepsis is a disease with high mortality that requires rapid diagnosis and treatment. This study used a metabolomic approach to profile the metabolic changes at the early stage of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rats and investigated the interventional effects of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT). Male SD rats were intragastrically administered 270mg/kg HLJDT 2h prior to CLP, serum extracts were profiled by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-Q-TOF-MS) and multivariate analytical (MVA) methods were employed to evaluate the metabolic changes of extracts. A Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) score plot indicated that septic rats undergo significant metabolic changes 2h after CLP, and HLJDT administration could reverse the metabolic changes induced by CLP. Sixteen biomarkers involved in amino acid metabolism, unsaturated fatty acid metabolism, purine metabolism, and lipid metabolism were identified after Orthogonal Partial Least-Squares Analysis (OPLS). Among the 16 metabolites, 10 were regulated by HLJDT. This study established the foundation for further research of the early diagnosis biomarkers and therapeutic evaluation biomarkers discovery of sepsis. PMID:26365787

  4. Vascular complications in glioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rhun, Emilie; Perry, James R

    2016-01-01

    Vascular complications in patients with glioma most commonly include venous and arterial thromboembolism; however, treatment-induced vasculopathies are also problematic, especially in long-term survivors. The interactions between treatment such as radiation and chemotherapy, the coagulation cascade, endothelium, and regulators of angiogenesis are complex, drive glioma growth and invasion, and create common management problems in the clinic. We review the incidence of thrombotic complications in glioma, the biology of the coagulome as related to glioma progression, prevention and treatment of thrombosis, the role of anticoagulants as anticancer therapy, and vascular complications such as ischemic stroke and intracranial bleeding. The coagulation cascade is intimately involved in cancer-related thrombosis, glioma progression, and vascular complications of glioma therapy. Tissue factor is the principal initiator of coagulation and is upregulated in a glioma subtype-specific fashion. Short-term (perioperative) antithrombotic prophylaxis is effective, but long-term anticoagulation, although attractive, is not routinely indicated. Most patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism can be safely anticoagulated, including those on anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapeutics such as bevacizumab. Initial therapy should include low-molecular-weight heparin, and protracted anticoagulant treatment, perhaps indefinitely, is indicated. Many complex interactions resulting in vessel wall injury can lead to ischemic stroke, intracranial and intratumoral hemorrhage, and long-term sequelae such as cognitive impairment. PMID:26948359

  5. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  6. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  7. Dealing with vascular conundrums with MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angthong, Wirana; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a robust imaging modality for evaluation of vascular diseases. Technological advances have made MR imaging widely available for accurate and time-efficient vascular assessment. In this article the clinical usefulness of MR imaging techniques and their application are reviewed, using examples of vascular abnormalities commonly encountered in clinical practice, including abdominal, pelvic, and thoracic vessels. Common pitfalls and problem solving in interpretation of vascular findings in body MR imaging are also discussed. PMID:24889175

  8. MicroRNAs in Vascular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Munekazu Yamakuchi

    2012-01-01

    Vascular inflammation is an important component of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aneurysms. All vascular cells, including endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and infiltrating cells, such as macrophages, orchestrate a series of pathological events. Despite dramatic improvements in the treatment of atherosclerosis, the molecular basis of vascular inflammation is not well understood. In the last decade, mi...

  9. Diagnosis advances in vascular cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhou; Zhong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment(VCI) encompasses the entire range of cognitive deficits associated with cerebrovascular disease(CVD), from mild deficits with little or no functional impairment, such as vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia(VCIND), to full-blown vascular dementia(VaD). Accurate diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment is important but may be difficult. In this review we report advances in VCI in the following areas: etiology, subtypes, neuropsychology, biomarkers, neuroimaging, and diagnostic criteria.

  10. Congenital vascular malformations in scintigraphic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Pilecki, Stanisław; Gierach, Marcin; Gierach, Joanna; Świętaszczyk, Cyprian; Junik, Roman; Lasek, Władysław

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Congenital vascular malformations are tumour-like, non-neoplastic lesions caused by disorders of vascular tissue morphogenesis. They are characterised by a normal cell replacement cycle throughout all growth phases and do not undergo spontaneous involution. Here we present a scintigraphic image of familial congenital vascular malformations in two sisters. Material/Methods A 17-years-old young woman with a history of multiple hospitalisations for foci of vascular anomalies a...

  11. Near-infraread spectroscopy during peripheral vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Torben Veith; Eiberg, Jonas Peter; Vogt, Katja; Secher, Niels Henry

    Original,Near-infraread spectroscopy,Vascular disease,Vascular by-pass surgery,Perioperative oxymetry......Original,Near-infraread spectroscopy,Vascular disease,Vascular by-pass surgery,Perioperative oxymetry...

  12. Identification of molecular processes needed for vascular formation through transcriptome analysis of different vascular systems

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Peng; Kong, Yimeng; Li, Xuan; Li, Laigeng

    2013-01-01

    Background Vascular system formation has been studied through molecular and genetic approaches in Arabidopsis, a herbaceous dicot that is used as a model system. Different vascular systems have developed in other plants such as crops and trees. Uncovering shared mechanisms underlying vascular development by transcriptome analysis of different vascular systems may help to transfer knowledge acquired from Arabidopsis to other economically important species. Results Conserved vascular genes and ...

  13. Vascularized osseous graft for scaphoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used technique for treatment of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid is osteo-synthesis with Kirschnet wires and cortical sponge grafts. Results reported by different teams using this procedure show no more than 90% osseous consolidation, especially in cases where vascularisation of the proximal fragment of the scaphoid is compromised. Here we present a series of ten cases of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid, treated using a new surgical technique involving a vascularized osseous graft of the distal radius. Using this procedure we obtained 100% consolidation, with no complications either during the procedure or immediately post-operatively. Patients returned to work in week 15 on average. In 4 cases we observed discomfort in the area of the scar, which was successfully treated using local cortisone injection. The results obtained are very similar to those seen in the literature on the different techniques for vascularized osseous grafts for pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid

  14. Cellular mechanisms during vascular development

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    The vascular system is an essential organ in vertebrate animals and provides the organism with enough oxygen and nutrients. It is composed of an interconnected network of blood vessels, which form using a number of different morphogenetic mechanisms. Angiogenesis describes the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels. A number of molecular pathways have been shown to be essential during angiogenesis. However, cellular architecture of blood vessels as well as cellular mechanisms...

  15. Fascia and Primo Vascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Yang; Yi-kuan Du; Jian-bin Wu; Jun Wang; Ping Luan; Qin-lao Yang; Lin Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical basis for the concept of acupuncture points/meridians in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has not been resolved. This paper reviews the fascia research progress and the relationship among acupuncture points/meridians, primo vascular system (PVS), and fascia. Fascia is as a covering, with common origins of layers of the fascial system despite diverse names for individual parts. Fascia assists gliding and fluid flow and holds memory and is highly innervated. Fascia is intimatel...

  16. Quantitative analysis of vascular calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Joh, Jin Hyun; Kim, Dong Ik

    2013-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a prominent feature of atherosclerosis. The mineral composition and quantity within calcified arterial plaques remains unelucidated; therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the mineral composition of such plaques. Calcified arterial plaques were obtained from patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and carotid artery stenoses. Calcified aneurysmal plaques were obtained during the routine open repair of AAAs, while calcified carotid plaques were collec...

  17. Vascular instruction of pancreas development

    OpenAIRE

    Cleaver, Ondine; Dor, Yuval

    2012-01-01

    Blood vessels course through organs, providing them with essential nutrient and gaseous exchange. However, the vasculature has also been shown to provide non-nutritional signals that play key roles in the control of organ growth, morphogenesis and homeostasis. Here, we examine a decade of work on the contribution of vascular paracrine signals to developing tissues, with a focus on pancreatic β-cells. During the early stages of embryonic development, blood vessels are required for pancreas spe...

  18. NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta; Tomasz J. Guzik

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of “kindling radicals,” which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the ...

  19. Tbx1 regulates brain vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Sara; Martucciello, Stefania; Fulcoli, Filomena Gabriella; Bilio, Marchesa; Ferrentino, Rosa; Nusco, Edoardo; Illingworth, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor TBX1 is the major gene involved in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Using mouse models of these diseases, we have previously shown that TBX1 activates VEGFR3 in endothelial cells (EC), and that this interaction is critical for the development of the lymphatic vasculature. In this study, we show that TBX1 regulates brain angiogenesis. Using loss-of-function genetics and molecular approaches, we show that TBX1 regulates the VEGFR3 and DLL4 genes in brain ECs. In mice, loss of TBX1 causes global brain vascular defects, comprising brain vessel hyperplasia, enhanced angiogenic sprouting and vessel network disorganization. This phenotype is recapitulated in EC-specific Tbx1 conditional mutants and in an EC-only 3-dimensional cell culture system (matrigel), indicating that the brain vascular phenotype is cell autonomous. Furthermore, EC-specific conditional Tbx1 mutants have poorly perfused brain vessels and brain hypoxia, indicating that the expanded vascular network is functionally impaired. In EC-matrigel cultures, a Notch1 agonist is able to partially rescue microtubule hyperbranching induced by TBX1 knockdown. Thus, we have identified a novel transcriptional regulator of angiogenesis that exerts its effect in brain by negatively regulating angiogenesis through the DLL4/Notch1-VEGFR3 regulatory axis. Given the similarity of the phenotypic consequences of TBX1 mutation in humans and mice, this unexpected role of TBX1 in murine brain vascularization should stimulate clinicians to search for brain microvascular anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients and to evaluate whether some of the anatomical and functional brain anomalies in patients may have a microvascular origin. PMID:23945394

  20. Cocaine-related vascular headaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhuna, A; Pascual-Leone, A; Belgrade, M

    1991-01-01

    The records of 21 patients admitted to hospital from January 1985 to December 1988 for acute headache associated with cocaine intoxication were reviewed. Fifteen patients were identified who experienced headaches with migrainous features in the absence of neurological or systemic complications. None of them had a history of cocaine-unrelated headaches or a family history of migraine, and all had a favourable outcome. Three possible mechanisms of cocaine-related vascular headaches are discusse...

  1. Hydrogen sulfide and vascular relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan; TANG Chao-shu; DU Jun-bao; JIN Hong-fang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To review the vasorelaxant effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in arterial rings in the cardiovascular system under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the possible mechanisms involved.Data sources The data in this review were obtained from Medline and Pubmed sources from 1997 to 2011 using the search terms "hydrogen sulfide" and ""vascular relaxation".Study selection Articles describing the role of hydrogen sulfide in the regulation of vascular activity and its vasorelaxant effects were selected.Results H2S plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular tone.The vasomodulatory effects of H2S depend on factors including concentration,species and tissue type.The H2S donor,sodium hydrosulfide (NarS),causes vasorelaxation of rat isolated aortic rings in a dose-dependent manner.This effect was more pronounced than that observed in pulmonary arterial rings.The expression of KATP channel proteins and mRNA in the aortic rings was increased compared with pulmonary artery rings.H2S is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases.Downregulation of the endogenous H2S pathway is an important factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.The vasorelaxant effects of H2S have been shown to be mediated by activation of KATP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells and via the induction of acidification due to activation of the CI/HCO3 exchanger.It is speculated that the mechanisms underlying the vasoconstrictive function of H2S in the aortic rings involves decreased NO production and inhibition of cAMP accumulation.Conclusion H2S is an important endogenous gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and acts as a modulator of vascular tone in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure.

  2. Vascular parameters from angiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper measures geometric and dynamic vascular parameters using digital angiographic image sequences: An image analysis system for neuroangiography is being developed by the Medical Imaging Division and Endovascular Therapy section of our department. Angiographic images are obtained from a GE Digital Fluoricon 5000 system. The image sets are analyzed on a Stellar GS2000 graphics mini-supercomputer using software modules written for use with the Application Visualization System (AVS). Flow phantoms are used to evaluate analysis routines and bolus injection techniques

  3. Vascular gene expression: a hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Navarro, Angélica C.; Galván-Gordillo, Santiago V.; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular ti...

  4. Endangered vascular plants in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    IWATSUKI, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can ...

  5. Radiology of peripheral vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume provides a comprehensive account of the use of modern imaging procedures for the diagnosis of arterial and venous diseases. Each imaging modality is separately considered and applications in individual diseases are then explained with the aid of excellent illustrations. In addition, vascular interventions such as balloon angioplasty, local thrombolysis, and stent implantation are discussed and appraised. Special attention is devoted to the problem of radiation burden for patients. The authors are all recognized experts in angiology, phlebology, and interventional radiology. (orig.)

  6. Involvement of Central Endothelin ETA and Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors and Arginine Vasopressin Release in Sepsis Induced by Cecal Ligation and Puncture in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Avalca, Mariane C G; Lomba, Luis A; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda L; Brito, Haissa O; Fraga, Daniel; Zampronio, Aleksander R

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that endothelin-1 (ET-1) reduced the frequency of spontaneous excitatory currents in vasopressinergic magnocellular cells through the activation of endothelin ETA receptors in rat brain slices. This effect was abolished by a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, suggesting the involvement of endocannabinoids. The present study investigated whether the blockade of ETA or CB1 receptors during the phase of increased levels of ET-1 after severe sepsis increases the survival rate of animals concomitantly with an increase in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels. Sepsis was induced in male Wistar rats by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Treatment with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (Rim; 10 and 20 mg/kg, orally) 4 h after CLP (three punctures) significantly increased the survival rate compared with the CLP per vehicle group. Intracerebroventricular treatment with the ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 (100 pmol) or with Rim (2 μg) 4 and 8 h after CLP but not the ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 (100 pmol), also significantly improved the survival rate. Sham-operated and CLP animals that were treated with Rim had significantly lower core temperature than CLP animals. However, oral treatment with Rim did not change bacterial count in the peritoneal exudate, neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity, leucopenia or increased plasma interleukin-6 levels induced by CLP. Both Rim and BQ123 also increased AVP levels 12 h after CLP. The blockade of central CB1 and ETA receptors in the late phase of sepsis increased the survival rate, reduced body temperature and increased the circulating AVP levels. PMID:26925810

  7. Cecal ligation and puncture followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia increases mortality in mice and blunts production of local and systemic cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E; Liang, Zhe; Breed, Elise R; Dominguez, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Fox, Amy C; Dunne, W Michael; Burd, Eileen M; Farris, Alton B; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2012-01-01

    Mortality in the intensive care unit frequently results from the synergistic effect of two temporally distinct infections. This study examined the pathophysiology of a new model of intra-abdominal sepsis followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy followed 3 days later by an intratracheal injection of MRSA or saline. Both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice had 100% survival, whereas animals with CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia had 67% 7-day survival. Animals subjected to CLP/MRSA had increased bronchoalveolar lavage concentrations of MRSA compared with sham/MRSA animals. Animals subjected to sham/MRSA pneumonia had increased bronchoalveolar lavage levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor compared with those given intratracheal saline, whereas CLP/MRSA mice had a blunted local inflammatory response with markedly decreased cytokine levels. Similarly, animals subjected to CLP/saline had increased peritoneal lavage levels of IL-6 and IL-1β compared with those subjected to sham laparotomy, whereas this response was blunted in CLP/MRSA mice. Systemic cytokines were upregulated in both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice, and this was blunted by the combination of CLP/MRSA. In contrast, no synergistic effect on pneumonia severity, white blood cell count, or lymphocyte apoptosis was identified in CLP/MRSA mice compared with animals with either insult in isolation. These results indicate that a clinically relevant model of CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia causes higher mortality than could have been predicted from studying either infection in isolation, and this was associated with a blunted local (pulmonary and peritoneal) and systemic inflammatory response and decreased ability to clear infection. PMID:21937950

  8. Synchronous cecal adenocarcinoma and multiple colonic in situ carcinomas in hamartomatous polyps in a case of isolated Peutz–Jeghers syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia Z Gad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Yahia Z Gad1, Doaa H Bakr1, Mohammad G El-Ebeidy21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Mansoura Specialized Medical Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptBackground: Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (PJS is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation and hamartomatous polyps of the entire gastrointestinal tract. A Peutz–Jeghers polyp (PJP in a patient without pigmentation or a family history of the disease is called an isolated or solitary PJP. Individuals with PJS carry a very high risk of developing gastrointestinal (GI as well as extra-GI malignancies. This case report documents lesion multiplicity and their malignant potential in a young patient with PJS presenting in a serious condition for the first time.Case report: An 18-year-old female Egyptian patient was admitted with hematochezia and remarkable anemia. After appropriate resuscitation and consent, colonoscopic evaluation revealed seven pedunculated colonic polyps at the ascending and the transverse colon, and numerous variable-sized sessile polyps were scattered all over the colon. To establish hemostasis, endoscopic polypectomy for pedunculated polyps and argon plasma photocoagulation for the bleeding sessile polyps were performed. Histopathological examination revealed cecal adenocarcinoma in one specimen and two simultaneous in situ carcinoma at the transverse and the sigmoid colon in the mucosae of the excised histologically proven hamartomatous polyps. Additionally, one focal in situ carcinoma in the resected colon was detected.Conclusions: When considering the family history, serious GI neoplastic lesions may be unmasked in young patients with PJS who present with hematochezia, even in the absence of its characteristic mucocutaneous pigmented lesions. GI endoscopic surveillance programs should be adopted for diagnosed cases of PJS and their families. Genetic prenatal screening for early detection is the best option for

  9. The Effects of Sub-Chronic Treatment with Pioglitazone on the Septic Mice Mortality in the Model of Cecal Ligation and Puncture: Involvement of Nitric Oxide Pathway

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    Hamed Shafaroodi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by an infection and remains as a major challenge in health care. Many studies have reported that pioglitazone may display anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of subchronic treatment with pioglitazone on high-grade septic mice survival and nitrergic system involvement. Diffused sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP surgery in male NMRI mice (20-30 g. Pioglitazone (5,10 and 20 mg/kg was administered by gavage daily for 5 days prior to surgery. Nitric oxide involvement was assessed by sub-chronic administration of a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME and a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aminoguanidine. TNF-α  and IL-1β plasma levels were measured by ELISA. Pioglitazone (10 and 20 mg/kg significantly improved survival rate in septic mice. The chronic intraperitoneally co-administration of L-NAME (0.5 mg/kg, daily or aminoguanidine (1 mg/kg, daily with a daily dose of pioglitazone, 5 mg/kg, significantly increased the survival rate. This survival improving effect was accompanied by a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β plasma levels. In conclusion, sub-chronic pioglitazone treatment can improve survival in mouse sepsis model by CLP. Inhibition of nitric oxide release, probably through inducible nitric oxide synthase at least in part is responsible for this effect. Suppression of TNF-α and IL-1β could be another mechanism in pioglitazone-induced survival improving effect in septic mice.

  10. NF-κB Inhibition after Cecal Ligation and Puncture Reduces Sepsis-Associated Lung Injury without Altering Bacterial Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since the NF-κB pathway regulates both inflammation and host defense, it is uncertain whether interventions targeting NF-κB would be beneficial in sepsis. Based on the kinetics of the innate immune response, we postulated that selective NF-κB inhibition during a defined time period after the onset of sepsis would reduce acute lung injury without compromising bacterial host defense. Methods. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. An NF-κB inhibitor, BMS-345541 (50 µg/g mice, was administered by peroral gavage beginning 2 hours after CLP and repeated at 6 hour intervals for 2 additional doses. Results. Mice treated with BMS-345541 after CLP showed reduced neutrophilic alveolitis and lower levels of KC in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared to mice treated with CLP+vehicle. In addition, mice treated with CLP+BMS had minimal histological evidence of lung injury and normal wet-dry ratios, indicating protection from acute lung injury. Treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor did not affect the ability of cultured macrophages to phagocytose bacteria and did not alter bacterial colony counts in blood, lung tissue, or peritoneal fluid at 24 hours after CLP. While BMS-345541 treatment did not alter mortality after CLP, our results showed a trend towards improved survival. Conclusion. Transiently blocking NF-κB activity after the onset of CLP-induced sepsis can effectively reduce acute lung injury in mice without compromising bacterial host defense or survival after CLP.

  11. Vascular Complications of Cancer Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Alan C; Touyz, Rhian M; Lang, Ninian N

    2016-07-01

    Development of new anticancer drugs has resulted in improved mortality rates and 5-year survival rates in patients with cancer. However, many of the modern chemotherapies are associated with cardiovascular toxicities that increase cardiovascular risk in cancer patients, including hypertension, thrombosis, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. These limitations restrict treatment options and might negatively affect the management of cancer. The cardiotoxic effects of older chemotherapeutic drugs such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, and anticancer antibiotics have been known for a while. The newer agents, such as the antiangiogenic drugs that inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor signalling are also associated with cardiovascular pathology, especially hypertension, thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, and proteinuria. Exact mechanisms by which vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors cause these complications are unclear but impaired endothelial function, vascular and renal damage, oxidative stress, and thrombosis might be important. With increasing use of modern chemotherapies and prolonged survival of cancer patients, the incidence of cardiovascular disease in this patient population will continue to increase. Accordingly, careful assessment and management of cardiovascular risk factors in cancer patients by oncologists and cardiologists working together is essential for optimal care so that prolonged cancer survival is not at the expense of increased cardiovascular events. PMID:26968393

  12. [Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael

    2009-04-20

    Vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited disease with an autosomal dominant trait. The mutation of the COL3A1 gene which encodes type III collagen, is responsible of early vascular (spontaneous arterial rupture or dissection), digestive (perforation) and obstetrical events (uterine and arterial rupture). Diagnosis of the disease is primarily clinical, especially in case of characteristic morphologic features. Diagnostic certainty is obtained by evidencing the mutation of the COL3A1 gene. Some arterial lesions are suggestive of the disease, as dissecting aneurysms of the internal carotid, of the iliac arteries, and of the anterior visceral aortic branches, fusiform aneurisms of the splenic artery, and the occurrence of a non traumatic direct carotid-cavernous fistula. The occurrence of a spontaneous peritonitis or of an extensive perineal tear after delivery should also draw physician's attention. Because of the unpredictability of arterial or organ rupture, any patient diagnosed with vascular type EDS presenting with an acute pain syndrome should be considered as a trauma situation and be investigated straightaway by CT-scan or MRI testing, in order to eliminate a life threatening complication. PMID:19462862

  13. Changing demographics in patients with vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek, Christopher J; Clagett, G Patrick

    2009-02-01

    The United States population with vascular disease has changed dramatically during the past 2 decades, with large increases in the proportion of Hispanic, African American, and other minority patients. Not only has the number of these patients increased, but the types and distribution of vascular disease in minority populations is also different from that encountered in non-Hispanic whites. Although genetic makeup accounts for some of these differences, access to vascular care is also an important determinant, with many minority patients presenting late in the course of the disease process. These factors create significant challenges for the vascular specialists caring for these patients. The vascular surgery workforce is composed of >90% white men and does not currently represent the changes in the population of patients with vascular disease. In addition, women with vascular disease comprise up to 50% of many vascular surgery practices. In many parts of the country, Hispanics and African Americans outnumber non-Hispanic whites with vascular disease. Yet, women and minority physicians are still significantly under-represented in the field of vascular surgery. This year's E. Stanley Crawford Critical Issues Forum at the Society for Vascular Surgery meeting addressed the disconnect between the vascular surgery workforce and the patients whom we serve. This article reviews the projected demographic changes in the population of the United States, which supports the need for training a vascular surgery workforce that is more diverse. This article also reviews the current status of minority and female representation in medical schools, surgical training programs, and vascular surgery programs in the United States. PMID:19216973

  14. The Use of Steered Ileo-cecal Valve Cannulated Pigs to Evaluate the Effects of Adding Phytase or Beta-mannanase to the Diet on Amino Acid, Mineral and Energy Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Radcliffe, John Scott

    2000-01-01

    Forty-six barrows fitted with steered ileo-cecal valve cannulas were used in four experiments to evaluate the effects of supplementing swine diets with microbial phytase or beta-mannanase on the apparent ileal (AID) and/or apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of amino acids, N, Ca, P, DM and energy. In Exp. 1, the addition of phytase to low CP corn-soybean meal based diets increased the AID of Ca (P < .01), P (P < .001), and all amino acids (P < .10) measured except Leu, Ser, Pro, Met, ...

  15. Atividade microbiana cecal e contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes fontes de fibra e níveis de amido

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda Alex Martins Varela de; Lopes Darci Clementino; Ferreira Walter Motta; Rostagno Horacio Santiago; Queiroz Augusto Cesar de; Pereira Elzânia Sales; Silva José Francisco da; Jham Gulab Newandram

    2003-01-01

    Objetivou-se neste estudo a avaliação da atividade microbiana cecal e a contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de amido (22 a 32% em média) mediante a inclusão de milho grão e diferentes fontes de fibra (feno de alfafa ou casca de soja), em esquema fatorial 2x2. No primeiro experimento, 40 coelhos alojados em gaiolas de engorda individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados à vontade dos 45 aos 85 dias de idade,...

  16. Cell-based strategies for vascular regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tongqiang; Fan, Jiabing; Fartash, Armita; Liu, Haifeng; Fan, Yubo

    2016-05-01

    Vascular regeneration is known to play an essential role in the repair of injured tissues mainly through accelerating the repair of vascular injury caused by vascular diseases, as well as the recovery of ischemic tissues. However, the clinical vascular regeneration is still challenging. Cell-based therapy is thought to be a promising strategy for vascular regeneration, since various cells have been identified to exert important influences on the process of vascular regeneration such as the enhanced endothelium formation on the surface of vascular grafts, and the induction of vessel-like network formation in the ischemic tissues. Here are a vast number of diverse cell-based strategies that have been extensively studied in vascular regeneration. These strategies can be further classified into three main categories, including cell transplantation, construction of tissue-engineered grafts, and surface modification of scaffolds. Cells used in these strategies mainly refer to terminally differentiated vascular cells, pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, and unipotent stem cells. The aim of this review is to summarize the reported research advances on the application of various cells for vascular regeneration, yielding insights into future clinical treatment for injured tissue/organ. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1297-1314, 2016. PMID:26864677

  17. Clinical pharmacology and vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrelli, G; Corea, F; Micheli, S; Lanari, A

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment and several drugs of abuse have been associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). However, there is a paucity of data on the independent risk of vascular disease (VD) associated with pharmacological treatment and no controlled trials demonstrating a reduction in risk with abstinence. Information about IHD and CVD-related drug abuse is mainly limited to epidemiological studies focused on urban populations. The potential link between some pharmacological treatments (estrogen, some oncologic drugs and some atypical antipsychotics) and cerebrovascular adverse events was analyzed, but disagreement about an association persists. Drugs of abuse, including cocaine, amphetamines and heroin, have been associated with an increased vascular risk. These drugs can cause abrupt changes in blood pressure, vasculitic-type changes, lead to embolization caused by infective endocarditis, and hemostatic and hematologic abnormalities that can result in increased blood viscosity and platelet aggregation. Long-term treatment strategies based on medication, psychological support, and outreach programs play an important role in treatment of drug dependency. In these last years public interest in risk factors for VD has been constantly increasing and the successful identification and management of pharmacological treatment and drug abuse can be challenging. One of the major public health issues for the future will be to focus more on new vascular risk factor recognition and management. The objective of this chapter is to review the relevance of IHD and CVD associated with various pharmacological treatments and drug abuse with focusing on ischemic disease. This chapter reports the clinical evidence of this association and analyzes the experimental role of new drugs as a growing risk factor of VD with the hypothetical new association. In conclusion, in this chapter great attention is paid to evaluating the scientific and real

  18. Spinal vascular malformations; Spinale Gefaessmalformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Spinal vascular malformations are a group of rare diseases with different clinical presentations ranging from incidental asymptomatic findings to progressive tetraplegia. This article provides an overview about imaging features as well as clinical and therapeutic aspects of spinal arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas and capillary telangiectasia. (orig.) [German] Spinale Gefaessmalformationen sind eine Gruppe seltener Erkrankungen mit unterschiedlichen klinischen Praesentationen, die vom asymptomatischen Zufallsbefund bis zur progredienten Tetraparese reichen. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Ueberblick ueber radiologische Befunde sowie klinische und therapeutische Aspekte von spinalen arteriovenoesen Malformationen, Kavernomen und kapillaeren Teleangiektasien. (orig.)

  19. DNA Damage and Repair in Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uryga, Anna; Gray, Kelly; Bennett, Martin

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage affecting both genomic and mitochondrial DNA is present in a variety of both inherited and acquired vascular diseases. Multiple cell types show persistent DNA damage and a range of lesions. In turn, DNA damage activates a variety of DNA repair mechanisms, many of which are activated in vascular disease. Such DNA repair mechanisms either stall the cell cycle to allow repair to occur or trigger apoptosis or cell senescence to prevent propagation of damaged DNA. Recent evidence has indicated that DNA damage occurs early, is progressive, and is sufficient to impair function of cells composing the vascular wall. The consequences of persistent genomic and mitochondrial DNA damage, including inflammation, cell senescence, and apoptosis, are present in vascular disease. DNA damage can thus directly cause vascular disease, opening up new possibilities for both prevention and treatment. We review the evidence for and the causes, types, and consequences of DNA damage in vascular disease. PMID:26442438

  20. Extraordinary Vessels Needling for Vascular Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin; LAI Xin-sheng; HUANG Qiu-tang; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To observe the clinical efficacy of extraordinary vessels needling in treating vascular dementia. Method 39 cases vascular dementia were treated by acupoints selected from the eight extraordinary meridians and the time needling techniques such as eight methods of spiritual turtle, in accordance with time period and pattern identifition. Results 2 cases were cured, 30 cases improved and 7 cases failed; the total effective rate was 82.1%. Conclusion Extraordinary vessels needling has positive effects in treating vascular dementia.

  1. Vascular Risk Factors: Imaging and Neuropathologic Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Knopman, David S; Roberts, Rosebud

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease plays an important role in cognitive disorders in the elderly. Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease interact on several levels, one important level being the overlap in risk factors. The major vascular risk factors such as diabetes and impaired glycemic control, hypertension, obesity and hyper- or dyslipidemia have been associated both with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The purpose of this review is to consider the context in which vascular deme...

  2. Blood Flow Restricted Exercise and Vascular Function

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Horiuchi; Koichi Okita

    2012-01-01

    It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular str...

  3. Gene deletion of P-Selectin and ICAM-1 does not inhibit neutrophil infiltration into peritoneal cavity following cecal ligation-puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Karen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophil infiltration is one of the critical cellular components of an inflammatory response during peritonitis. The adhesion molecules, P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, mediate neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions and the subsequent neutrophil transendothelial migration during the inflammatory response. Despite very strong preclinical data, recent clinical trials failed to show a protective effect of anti-adhesion therapy, suggesting that the length of injury might be a critical factor in neutrophil infiltration. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the role of P-selectin and ICAM-1 in neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity during early and late phases of peritonitis. Methods Peritonitis was induced in both male wild-type and P-selectin/ICAM-1 double deficient (P/I null mice by cecal ligation-puncture (CLP. Peripheral blood and peritoneal lavage were collected at 6 and 24 hours after CLP. The total leukocyte and neutrophil contents were determined, and neutrophils were identified with the aid of in situ immunohistochemical staining. Comparisons between groups were made by applying ANOVA and student t-test analysis. Results CLP induced a severe inflammatory response associated with a significant leukopenia in both wild-type and P/I null mice. Additionally, CLP caused a significant neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity that was detected in both groups of mice. However, neutrophil infiltration in the P/I null mice at 6 hours of CLP was significantly lower than the corresponding wild-type mice, which reached a similar magnitude at 24 hours of CLP. In contrast, in peritonitis induced by intraperitoneal inoculation of 2% glycogen, no significant difference in neutrophil infiltration was observed between the P/I null and wild-type mice at 6 hours of peritonitis. Conclusions The data suggest that alternative adhesion pathway(s independent of P-selectin and ICAM

  4. Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates brain injury in mice with cecal ligation and puncture via inhibiting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingling; Xie, Keliang; Chen, Hongguang; Dong, Xiaoqing; Li, Yuan; Yu, Yang; Wang, Guolin; Yu, Yonghao

    2014-11-17

    During the development of sepsis, the complication in central nervous system (CNS), appearing early and frequently relative to other systems, can obviously increase the mortality of sepsis. Moreover, sepsis survivors also accompany long-term cognitive dysfunction, while the ultimate causes and effective therapeutic strategies of brain injury in sepsis are still not fully clear. We designed this study to investigate the effects of 2% hydrogen gas (H2) on brain injury in a mouse model of sepsis. Male ICR mice were underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation. 2% H2 was inhaled for 60min beginning at both 1 and 6h after sham or CLP operation, respectively. H2 concentration in arterial blood, venous blood and brain tissue was detected after H2 inhalation separately. The survival rate was observed and recorded within 7 days after sham or CLP operation. The histopathologic changes and neuronal apoptosis were observed in hippocampus by Nissl staining and TUNEL assay. The permeability of brain-blood barrier (BBB), brain water content, inflammatory cytokines, activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and oxidative products (MDA and 8-iso-PGF2α) in serum and hippocampus were detected at 24h after sham or CLP operation. The expressions of nucleus and total nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and cytoplasmic heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) in hippocampus were measured at 24h after sham or CLP operation. We assessed their cognitive function via Y-maze and Fear Conditioning test on day 3, 5, 7 and 14 after operation. H2 treatment markedly improved the survival rate and cognitive dysfunction of septic mice. CLP mice showed obvious brain injury characterized by aggravated pathological damage, BBB disruption and brain edema at 24h after CLP operation, which was markedly alleviated by 2% H2 treatment. Furthermore, we found that the beneficial effects of H2 on brain injury in septic mice were linked to the decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines and

  5. VASCULAR MALFORMATION OF CHEEK: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vascular lesions are among the most common congenital and neonatal abnormalities. Most of the congenital vascular malformations are often misdiagnosed and left untreated. These lesions are the result of an embryonic abnormality of the vascular system. This is a case report of 13 year male patient who came with a chief complaint of swelling on the right side of face since birth. It was diagnosed as vascular malformations of buccal mucosa of right side. It is emphasized that the management of these cases requ ires a multidisciplinary approach. Laser therapy, embolization followed by surgical excision is the favourable treatment modalities.

  6. Vascular endothelium - Gatekeeper of vessel health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Paul A; Redmond, Eileen M

    2016-05-01

    The vascular endothelium is an interface between the blood stream and the vessel wall. Changes in this single cell layer of the artery wall are believed of primary importance in the pathogenesis of vascular disease/atherosclerosis. The endothelium responds to humoral, neural and especially hemodynamic stimuli and regulates platelet function, inflammatory responses, vascular smooth muscle cell growth and migration, in addition to modulating vascular tone by synthesizing and releasing vasoactive substances. Compromised endothelial function contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease; endothelial 'dysfunction' is associated with risk factors, correlates with disease progression, and predicts cardiovascular events. Therapies for atherosclerosis have been developed, therefore, that are directed towards improving endothelial function. PMID:26994427

  7. Proatherogenic pathways leading to vascular calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzini, Michael J. [Department of Cardiology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Schulze, P. Christian [Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: christian.schulze@bmc.org

    2006-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and atherosclerosis is the major common underlying disease. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves local vascular injury, inflammation and oxidative stress as well as vascular calcification. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as a degenerative process leading to mineral deposition in the vascular wall characteristic for late stages of atherosclerosis. However, recent studies identified vascular calcification in early stages of atherosclerosis and its occurrence has been linked to clinical events in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its degree correlates with local vascular inflammation and with the overall impact and the progression of atherosclerosis. Over the last decade, diverse and highly regulated molecular signaling cascades controlling vascular calcification have been described. Local and circulating molecules such as osteopontin, osteoprogerin, leptin and matrix Gla protein were identified as critical regulators of vascular calcification. We here review the current knowledge on molecular pathways of vascular calcification and their relevance for the progression of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Vascular grafting strategies in coronary intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Darryl; Gillies, Elizabeth; Mequanint, Kibret

    2014-06-01

    With the growing need for coronary revascularizations globally, several strategies to restore blood flow to the heart have been explored. Bypassing the atherosclerotic coronary arteries with autologous grafts, synthetic prostheses and tissue-engineered vascular grafts continue to be evaluated in search of a readily available vascular graft with clinically acceptable outcomes. The development of such a vascular graft including tissue engineering approaches both in situ and in vitro is herein reviewed, facilitating a detailed comparison on the role of seeded cells in vascular graft patency.

  9. Orthopedic issues in vascular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Samantha A; Sorger, Joel

    2014-08-01

    Vascular malformations impact the musculoskeletal system depending on the tissue involved (skin, subcutis, muscle, cartilage, or bone), the extent of involvement, and the type of anomalous vessels (arteries, capillaries, veins, or lymphatics). These malformations can cause a multitude of musculoskeletal problems for the patient and their Orthopedic Surgeon to manage. Leg-length discrepancy, intra-articular involvement, muscular lesions, and primary or secondary scoliosis are just to name a few. All of these problems can cause pain, deformity, and a range of functional limitations. Surgical and nonsurgical treatment plans both have a role in the care of these patients. Patients with vascular malformations may also suffer from life-threatening cardiovascular and hematologic abnormalities. For those patients who undergo surgery, thromboembolic risk is elevated, wound breakdown and infection are much more common, and bleeding risk continues well into the postoperative course. Because of the complex nature of these disorders, the clinician must have a full understanding of the types of lesions, their natural history, appropriate diagnostic studies, associated medical problems, indications for treatment, and all the treatment options. For severe malformations, especially syndromes such as CLOVES and Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, interdisciplinary team management is essential for the best outcomes. PMID:25241103

  10. Diffuse and vascular hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to focal liver lesions, diffuse and vascular disorders of the liver represent a wide spectrum of liver diseases which are from the radiological point of view often difficult or nearly impossible to diagnose. Classical diagnostic methods are computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in addition to ultrasound. Diffuse parenchymal damage caused by diseases of various etiologies is therefore difficult to evaluate because it often lacks characteristic morphological features. For hepatic steatosis, hemochromatosis/siderosis as an example of a diffuse storage disease and sarcoidosis and candidiasis as infectious/inflammatory diseases, an image-based diagnosis is appropriate in some cases. For most diffuse liver diseases, however only nonspecific changes are visualized. Vascular pathologies of the liver, such as the Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis, however, can usually be diagnosed very clearly using radiology and there is also a very effective interventional radiological treatment. Chronic diseases very often culminate in liver cirrhosis which is highly associated with an increased risk of liver cancer. (orig.)

  11. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  12. Neuroradiological findings in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, Ali; Miaux, Yves; Suhy, Joyce; Pauls, Jon; Lopez, Ria [Synarc, Inc., Department of Radiology Services, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rovira-Canellas, Alex [Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Unita de Resonancia Magnetica, Barcelona (Spain); Posner, Holly [Eisai, Inc., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    2007-01-15

    There are multiple diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia (VaD) that may define different populations. Utilizing the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) has provided improved consistency in the diagnosis of VaD. The criteria include a table listing brain imaging lesions associated with VaD. The different neuroradiological aspects of the criteria are reviewed based on the imaging data from an ongoing large-scale clinical trial testing a new treatment for VaD. The NINDS-AIREN criteria were applied by a centralized imaging rater to determine eligibility for enrollment in 1,202 patients using brain CT or MRI. Based on the above data set, the neuroradiological features that are associated with VaD and that can result from cerebral small-vessel disease with extensive leukoencephalopathy or lacunae (basal ganglia or frontal white matter), or may be the consequence of single strategically located infarcts or multiple infarcts in large-vessel territories, are illustrated. These features may also be the consequence of global cerebral hypoperfusion, intracerebral hemorrhage, or other mechanisms such as genetically determined arteriopathies. Neuroimaging confirmation of cerebrovascular disease in VaD provides information about the topography and severity of vascular lesions. Neuroimaging may also assist with the differential diagnosis of dementia associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus, chronic subdural hematoma, arteriovenous malformation or tumoral diseases. (orig.)

  13. Phylum Level Change in the Cecal and Fecal Gut Communities of Rats Fed Diets Containing Different Fermentable Substrates Supports a Role for Nitrogen as a Factor Contributing to Community Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kalmokoff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation differs between the proximal and distal gut but little is known regarding how the bacterial communities differ or how they are influenced by diet. In order to investigate this, we compared community diversity in the cecum and feces of rats by 16S rRNA gene content and DNA shot gun metagenomics after feeding purified diets containing different fermentable substrates. Gut community composition was dependent on the source of fermentable substrate included in the diet. Cecal communities were dominated by Firmicutes, and contained a higher abundance of Lachnospiraceae compared to feces. In feces, community structure was shifted by varying degrees depending on diet towards the Bacteroidetes, although this change was not always evident from 16S rRNA gene data. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis (PCoA comparing cecal and fecal metagenomes grouped by location within the gut rather than by diet, suggesting that factors in addition to substrate were important for community change in the distal gut. Differentially abundant genes in each environment supported this shift away from the Firmicutes in the cecum (e.g., motility towards the Bacteroidetes in feces (e.g., Bacteroidales transposons. We suggest that this phylum level change reflects a shift to ammonia as the primary source of nitrogen used to support continued microbial growth in the distal gut.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 grown in vitro in the sterile-filtrated cecal content of human gut microbiota associated rats reveals an adaptive expression of metabolic and virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Guillaume; Jubelin, Grégory; Garneau, Philippe; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Martin, Christine; Beaudry, Francis; Harel, Josée

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a leading cause of bloody diarrhea and renal failures in human. Understanding strategies employed by EHEC to colonize the intestine is of major importance since to date no cure exists to eradicate the pathogen. In this study, the adaptive response of EHEC to the intestinal milieu conditioned by a human microbiota was examined. A transcriptomic analysis was performed on the EHEC strain EDL933 incubated in vitro in the sterile-filtrated cecal content of human microbiota-associated rats (HMC) compared with EDL933 incubated in the sterile-filtrated cecal content of germ-free rat (GFC). EDL933 switches from a glycolytic metabolic profile in the GFC to an anaplerotic metabolic profile in HMC. The expression of several catabolism genes was strongly affected such as those involved in the utilization of sugars, glycerol, N-acetylneuraminic acid, amino acids and secondary metabolites. Interestingly, expression level of critical EHEC O157:H7 virulence genes including genes from the locus of enterocyte effacement was reduced in HMC. Altogether, these results contribute to the understanding of EHEC adaptive response to a digestive content and highlight the ability of the microbiota to repress EHEC virulence gene expression. PMID:25290220

  15. Advance in molecular imaging research of vascular smooth muscle cells in the vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the primary cells within the vascular wall structure and maintain the tension of blood vessels, playing a key role in the restenosis, atherosclerosis and some other vascular diseases. With the development of molecular imaging, VSMCs cellular level of imaging studies is becoming more and more attention. The phenotype modulation, proliferation, migration and molecular imaging research progress of VSMCs in pathologic state were reviewed, to improve the management of vascular restenosis and atherosclerosis. (authors)

  16. Diabetes and ageing-induced vascular inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assar, Mariam El; Angulo, Javier; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2016-04-15

    Diabetes and the ageing process independently increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since incidence of diabetes increases as people get older, the diabetic older adults represent the largest population of diabetic subjects. This group of patients would potentially be threatened by the development of CVD related to both ageing and diabetes. The relationship between CVD, ageing and diabetes is explained by the negative impact of these conditions on vascular function. Functional and clinical evidence supports the role of vascular inflammation induced by the ageing process and by diabetes in vascular impairment and CVD. Inflammatory mechanisms in both aged and diabetic vasculature include pro-inflammatory cytokines, vascular hyperactivation of nuclear factor-кB, increased expression of cyclooxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, imbalanced expression of pro/anti-inflammatory microRNAs, and dysfunctional stress-response systems (sirtuins, Nrf2). In contrast, there are scarce data regarding the interaction of these mechanisms when ageing and diabetes co-exist and its impact on vascular function. Older diabetic animals and humans display higher vascular impairment and CVD risk than those either aged or diabetic, suggesting that chronic low-grade inflammation in ageing creates a vascular environment favouring the mechanisms of vascular damage driven by diabetes. Further research is needed to determine the specific inflammatory mechanisms responsible for exacerbated vascular impairment in older diabetic subjects in order to design effective therapeutic interventions to minimize the impact of vascular inflammation. This would help to prevent or delay CVD and the specific clinical manifestations (cognitive decline, frailty and disability) promoted by diabetes-induced vascular impairment in the elderly. PMID:26435167

  17. Thyroid Hormone and Vascular Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiki, Toshihiro

    2016-03-01

    Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism affect the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is known to be associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. The accelerated atherosclerosis in the hypothyroid state has been traditionally ascribed to atherogenic lipid profile, diastolic hypertension, and impaired endothelial function. However, recent studies indicate that thyroid hormone has direct anti-atherosclerotic effects, such as production of nitric oxide and suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation. These data suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits atherogenesis through direct effects on the vasculature as well as modification of risk factors for atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the basic and clinical studies on the role of thyroid hormone in vascular remodeling. The possible application of thyroid hormone mimetics to the therapy of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis is also discussed. PMID:26558400

  18. Vascular malformations of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vascular malformations of the spine and spinal cord are rare diseases. Possible symptoms may consist in a transient neurological deficit, a progressive sensorimotor transverse lesion or an acute para- or tetraplegia. Damage to the spinal cord occurs by bleeding, space-occupying effects and venous congestion, rarely by steal effects. Classification of the true inborn malformations differentiates between arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), cavernomas and capillary teleangiectasias. The more frequent spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) of the elderly patient is a probably acquired lesion which is presented in a separate paper. Capillary teleangiectasias are mostly incidental findings but may cause differential diagnostic problems. Cavernomas are important causes of hemorrhage and may initially be obscured within the bleeding. MRI is the most relevant imaging procedure in the early diagnostic workup. In case of an AVM selective spinal angiography is required to define the type of the lesion and to decide about the appropriate therapy which may be endovascular-interventional, neurosurgical, combined or attentive. (orig.)

  19. Megadolicho vascular malformation of the intracranial arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, J; Janevski, B; van der Lugt, P J

    1981-01-01

    A patient is presented suffering a hemiparesis. Megadolicho-vascular malformation of the intracranial part of the internal carotid arteries and some of its branches and of the basilar artery was suggested by CT and confirmed by angiography. The value of CT compared with angiography in relation to intracranial megadolicho vascular malformations is discussed. PMID:6273040

  20. Multinephron dynamics on the renal vascular network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Donald J; Wexler, Anthony S; Brazhe, Alexey;

    2012-01-01

    ensemble. Ensembles may synchronize. Smooth muscle cells in the ensemble depolarize periodically, generating electrical signals that propagate along the vascular network. We developed a mathematical model of a nephron-vascular network, with 16 versions of a single nephron model containing representations...

  1. Vascular surgery and diabetic foot revascularization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yong-quan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased incidence of atherosclerotic vascular disease and infection involving the lower extremities.Lower limb arterial disease is more common among patients with diabetes, and lower limb atherosclerosis is the main cause of lower limb ischemia for these patients.Two types of vascular disease are seen in patients with diabetes.

  2. Covariance of lichen and vascular plant floras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    The geographic relationships among taxonomic groups are important to study to determine patterns of biodiversity and whether or not associations occur between large groups, e.g., birds and vascular plants. This study was undertaken to determine relationships between higher plants and lower plants, specifically vascular plant and lichen floras in nine national parks of the Great Lakes region. No significant relationship was found between vascular plant floras and lichen floras in this area, which spans 1200 km longitudinally, or between an additional 19 areas from North America that were less than 1000 km(2) in area. For areas larger than 1000 km(2), however, a significant positive relationship existed for 33 areas that span one to approximately 150 million km(2). The ratio of numbers of vascular plants to lichens appeared to average just over 6 across the 33 areas. In the Great Lakes parks, between 28-30% of either the vascular plant or lichen species were singletons (occurring in only one park), but the parks that contained the most singletons were not congruent: Isle Royale had the most singleton lichens, while Indiana Dunes had the most vascular plant singletons. Fewer lichen species (2%) than vascular plants (4%) occurred in all nine parks. Latitude appeared to explain some of the variation between the two groups: vascular plants decreased with increasing latitude, while lichens increased.

  3. Biomarkers of drug-induced vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In pre-clinical safety studies, drug-induced vascular injury is an issue of concern because there are no obvious diagnostic markers for pre-clinical or clinical monitoring and there is an intellectual gap in our understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. While vasodilatation and increased shear stress appear to play a role, the exact mechanism(s) of injury to the primary targets, smooth muscle and endothelial cells are unknown. However, evaluation of novel markers for potential clinical monitoring with a mechanistic underpinning would add value in risk assessment and management. This mini review focuses on the progress to identify diagnostic markers of drug-induced vascular injury. Von Willebrand factor (vWF), released upon perturbation of endothelial cells, is transiently increased in plasma prior to morphological evidence of damage in dogs or rats treated with vascular toxicants. Therefore, vWF might be a predictive biomarker of vascular injury. However, vWF is not an appropriate biomarker of lesion progression or severity since levels return to baseline values when there is morphological evidence of injury. A potential mechanistically linked biomarker of vascular injury is caveolin-1. Expression of this protein, localized primarily to smooth muscle and endothelial cells, decreases with the onset of vascular damage. Since vascular injury involves multiple mediators and cell types, evaluation of a panel rather than a single biomarker may be more useful in monitoring early and severe progressive vascular injury

  4. What "helps" tumors evade vascular targeting treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zhi-chao; LIU Jie

    2008-01-01

    Objective To throw a light on the possible factors which might induce resistance of vascular targeting treatment in tumors by reviewing the recent publications in the field of tumor angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed for relevant English language articles published from 1971 to January 2008. The search terms were "angiogenesis", "vascular targeting treatment" and "endothelial progenitor cells".Study selection Articles involved in the possible influence factors during angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment were selected, including angiogenic or anti-angiogenic mechanism, tumor vasculature, tumor cells, cancer stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells.Results As a promising strategy vascular targeting treatment still has experimental and clinical setbacks which may term tumor vasculature's resistance to anti-angiogenesis agents. There are several possible explanations for such a resistance that might account for clinical and preclinical failures of anti-angiogenic treatment against tumor.Proangiogenic effect of hypoxia, normal tumor vasculature, escape of tumor cells and tumor vasculogenesis are included.This review reveals some clues which might be helpful to direct future research in order to remove obstacles to vascular targeting treatment.Conclusions Generally and undoubtedly vascular targeting treatment remains a promising strategy. But we still have to realize the existence of a challenging future. Further research is required to enhance our knowledge of vascular targeting treatment strategy before it could make a more substantial success.

  5. Mechanics of Vascular Smooth Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSM; see Table 1 for a list of abbreviations) is a heterogeneous biomaterial comprised of cells and extracellular matrix. By surrounding tubes of endothelial cells, VSM forms a regulated network, the vasculature, through which oxygenated blood supplies specialized organs, permitting the development of large multicellular organisms. VSM cells, the engine of the vasculature, house a set of regulated nanomotors that permit rapid stress-development, sustained stress-maintenance and vessel constriction. Viscoelastic materials within, surrounding and attached to VSM cells, comprised largely of polymeric proteins with complex mechanical characteristics, assist the engine with countering loads imposed by the heart pump, and with control of relengthening after constriction. The complexity of this smart material can be reduced by classical mechanical studies combined with circuit modeling using spring and dashpot elements. Evaluation of the mechanical characteristics of VSM requires a more complete understanding of the mechanics and regulation of its biochemical parts, and ultimately, an understanding of how these parts work together to form the machinery of the vascular tree. Current molecular studies provide detailed mechanical data about single polymeric molecules, revealing viscoelasticity and plasticity at the protein domain level, the unique biological slip-catch bond, and a regulated two-step actomyosin power stroke. At the tissue level, new insight into acutely dynamic stress-strain behavior reveals smooth muscle to exhibit adaptive plasticity. At its core, physiology aims to describe the complex interactions of molecular systems, clarifying structure-function relationships and regulation of biological machines. The intent of this review is to provide a comprehensive presentation of one biomachine, VSM. PMID:26756629

  6. The Vascular Microenvironment and Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Frech

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the vascular microenvironment in the pathogenesis Systemic Sclerosis (SSc is appreciated clinically as Raynaud's syndrome with capillary nail bed change. This manifestation of vasculopathy is used diagnostically in both limited and diffuse cutaneous subsets of SSc, and is thought to precede fibrosis. The degree of subsequent fibrosis may also be determined by the vascular microenvironment. This paper describes why the vascular microenvironment might determine the degree of end-organ damage that occurs in SSc, with a focus on vascular cell senescence, endothelial progenitor cells (EPC including multipotential mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, pericytes, and angiogenic monocytes. An explanation of the role of EPC, pericytes, and angiogenic monocytes is important to an understanding of SSc pathogenesis. An evolving understanding of the vascular microenvironment in SSc may allow directed treatment.

  7. Vascular Stiffness in Insulin Resistance and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghong eJia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes are associated with a substantially increased prevalence of vascular fibrosis and stiffness, with attendant increased risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Although the underlying mechanisms and mediators of vascular stiffness are not well understood, accumulating evidence supports the role of metabolic and immune dysregulation related to increased adiposity, activation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system, reduced bioavailable nitric oxide, increased vascular extracellular matrix (ECM and ECM remodeling in the pathogenesis of vascular stiffness. This review will give a brief overview of the relationship between obesity, insulin resistance and increased vascular stiffness to provide a contemporary understanding of the proposed underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies.

  8. Geometry optimization of branchings in vascular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamassi, Jamel; Bierwisch, Claas; Pelz, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Progress has been made in developing manufacturing technologies which enable the fabrication of artificial vascular networks for tissue cultivation. However, those networks are rudimentary designed with respect to their geometry. This restricts long-term biological functionality of vascular cells which depends on geometry-related fluid mechanical stimuli and the avoidance of vessel occlusion. In the present work, a bioinspired geometry optimization for branchings in artificial vascular networks has been conducted. The analysis could be simplified by exploiting self-similarity properties of the system. Design rules in the form of two geometrical parameters, i.e., the branching angle and the radius ratio of the daughter branches, are derived using the wall shear stress as command variable. The numerical values of these parameters are within the range of experimental observations. Those design rules are not only beneficial for tissue engineering applications. Moreover, they can be used as indicators for diagnoses of vascular diseases or for the layout of vascular grafts.

  9. PanVascular medicine. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzer, Peter (ed.) [Health Care Center Bitterfeld (Germany). Division of Cardiovascular Disease

    2015-06-01

    Vascular management and care has become a truly multidisciplinary enterprise as the number of specialists involved in the treatment of patients with vascular diseases has steadily increased. While in the past, treatments were delivered by individual specialists, in the twenty-first century a team approach is without doubt the most effective strategy. In order to promote professional excellence in this dynamic and rapidly evolving field, a shared knowledge base and interdisciplinary standards need to be established. Pan Vascular Medicine, 2nd edition has been designed to offer such an interdisciplinary platform, providing vascular specialists with state-of-the art descriptive and procedural knowledge. Basic science, diagnostics, and therapy are all comprehensively covered. In a series of succinct, clearly written chapters, renowned specialists introduce and comment on the current international guidelines and present up-to-date reviews of all aspects of vascular care.

  10. Hypertensive organ damage in patients with vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vlek, A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common vascular risk factors, and is an important cause of development of different vascular diseases. The main aim of this thesis was to determine the burden of hypertension-associated vascular diseases and end-organ damage in patients with manifest vascular disease. Patients with manifest vascular diseases are at high risk for recurrent vascular diseases. We studied the effect of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus on the occurrence of cardiov...

  11. Bypass materials in vascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stephan N.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arteriosclerotic changes can lead to circulatory disturbances in various areas of the human vascular system. In addition to pharmacological therapy and the management of risk factors (e. g. hypertension, diabetes, lipid metabolism disorders, and lifestyle, surgical interventions also play an important role in the treatment of arteriosclerosis. Long-segment arterial occlusions, in particular, can be treated successfully with bypass sur-gery. A number of different materials are available for this type of operation, such as autologous vein or pros-thetic grafts comprised of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Dacron®. Prosthetic materials are used especially in the treatment of peripheral artery disease, such as in aortoiliac or femoropopliteal bypass surgery. The present report will thus focus on this area in order to examine the effectiveness of different bypass materials. Among the efforts being made to refine the newly introduced DRG system in Germany, analysing the different bypass materials used in vascular surgery is particularly important. Indeed, in its current version the German DRG system does not distinguish between bypass materials in terms of reimbursement rates. Differences in cost structures are thus of especial interest to hospitals in their budget calculations, whereas both private and statutory health insurance funds are primarily interested in long-term results and their costs. Objectives: The goal of this HTA is to compare the different bypass materials used in vascular surgery in terms of their medical efficiency and cost-effectiveness, as well as with regard to their ethical, social and legal implications. In addition, this report aims to point out the areas in which further medical, epidemiological and health economic research is still needed. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information

  12. Adverse Outcome Pathway for Embryonic Vascular Disruption and Alternative Methods to Identify Chemical Vascular Disruptors During Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemically induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development can result in a wide range of adverse prenatal outcomes. We used information from genetic mouse models linked to phenotypic outcomes and a vascular toxicity knowledge base to construct an embryonic vascular disrupt...

  13. Assessment of vascular invasion in pancreatic carcinoma by MDCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hassanen

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Assessment of vascular invasion is crucial in the evaluation of resectability for pancreatic cancer. MDCT is an accurate diagnostic tool for peripancreatic vascular invasion in cancer pancreas.

  14. [A new specialty is born: Vascular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, J-P

    2016-05-01

    On the 4th of December 2015, the French authorities officially recognized the birth of a specialty in vascular medicine entitled CO-DES cardiology-vascular/vascular Medicine. France is the 7th country to obtain this specialty after Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia, six countries in the EEC. It has taken years to achieve a long but exciting experience: we went from hopes to disappointments, sometimes with the blues, but lobbying helping… with sustained confidence. This article tells the story of 30 years of struggle to achieve this vascular medicine specialty. Gaston Bachelard wrote: "Nothing is obvious, nothing is given, all is built." For the construction of vascular medicine, we had to overcome many obstacles, nothing was given to us, everything was conquered. Beware "The specialist is one who knows more and more things about an increasingly restricted field, up to 'knowing everything about nothing"' recalled Ralph Barton Ferry, philosopher; so there is room for modesty and humility but also convictions. The physical examination will remain the basis of our exercise. But let us recall the contributions of all those vascular physicians who practiced in the past, together with those currently active, who built day after day, year after year, a vascular medicine of quality. It is because of the trust of our colleagues and our patients that we can occupy the place that is ours today. PMID:27090098

  15. Vascular Biomarkers in Asthma and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakakos, Petros; Patentalakis, George; Papi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain a global health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. The changes in bronchial microvasculature that occurin asthma and COPD contribute to airway wall remodeling. Angiogenesis seems to be more prevalent in asthma and vasodilatation seemsmore relevant in COPD while vascular leak is present in both diseases. Recently, there has been increased interest in the vascular component of airway remodeling in chronic bronchial inflammation of asthma and COPD although its role in the progression of the diseases has not been fully elucidated. Various cells andmediators are involved in the vascular remodeling in asthma and COPD while proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors exert angiogenic and antiangiogenic effects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of blood vessel growth mainly in asthma but also in COPD. In asthmatic airways VEGF promotes proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and induces vascular leakage and permeability. It has also been involved in enhanced allergic sensitization, upregulated subsequent T-helper-2 type inflammatory responses, chemotaxis for monocytes and eosinophils, and airway oedema. Impaired VEGF signaling has been associated with emphysema in animal models. Studies on lung biopsies have shown a decreasing effect of anti-asthma drugs to the vascular component of airway remodeling. There is less available evidence on the effect of the currently used drugs on airway microvascular network in COPD. This review article explores the current knowledge regarding vascular biomarkers in asthma and COPD as well as the therapeutic implications of these mediators. PMID:26420364

  16. Modeling of angioadaptation: insights for vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Axel R; Reglin, Bettina; Secomb, Timothy W

    2011-01-01

    Vascular beds are generated by vasculogenesis and sprouting angiogenesis, and these processes have strong stochastic components. As a result, vascular patterns exhibit significant heterogeneity with respect to the topological arrangement of the individual vessel segments and the characteristics (length, number of segments) of different arterio-venous pathways. This structural heterogeneity tends to cause heterogeneous distributions of flow and oxygen availability in tissue. However, these quantities must be maintained within tolerable ranges to allow normal tissue function. This is achieved largely through adjustment of vascular flow resistance by control of vessel diameters. While short-term diameter control by changes in vascular tone in arterioles and small arteries plays an important role, in the long term an even more important role is played by structural adaptation (angioadaptation), occurring in response to metabolic and hemodynamic signals. The effectiveness, stability and robustness of this angioadaptation depend sensitively on the nature and strength of the vascular responses involved and their interactions with the network structure. Mathematical models are helpful in understanding these complex interactions, and can be used to simulate the consequences of failures in sensing or signal transmission mechanisms. For the tumor microcirculation, this strategy of combining experimental observations with theoretical models, has led to the hypothesis that dysfunctional information transport via vascular connexins is a major cause of the observed vascular pathology and increased heterogeneity in oxygen distribution. PMID:21858766

  17. Vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Jinyang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of vascular elasticity can help detect thrombosis and prevent life-threatening conditions such as acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Here, we propose vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography (VE-PAT) to measure vascular elasticity in humans. VE-PAT was developed by incorporating a linear-array-based photoacoustic computed tomography system with a customized compression stage. By measuring the deformation of blood vessels under uniaxial loading, VE-PAT was able to quantify the vascular compliance. We first demonstrated the feasibility of VE-PAT in blood vessel phantoms. In large vessel phantoms, VE-PAT detected a decrease in vascular compliance due to simulated thrombosis, which was validated by a standard compression test. In small blood vessel phantoms embedded 3 mm deep in gelatin, VE-PAT detected elasticity changes at depths that are difficult to image using other elasticity imaging techniques. We then applied VE-PAT to assess vascular compliance in a human subject and detected a decrease in vascular compliance when an occlusion occurred downstream from the measurement point, demonstrating the potential of VE-PAT in clinical applications such as detection of deep venous thrombosis.

  18. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  19. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal [MLC 5031 Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Adams, Denise M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics and Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Gupta, Anita [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Pediatric Surgery and Fetal Center of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  20. Oral vascular malformations: laser treatment and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, U.; Rocchetti, F.; Gaimari, G.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Lo Giudice, G.

    2016-03-01

    Vascular malformations are a very heterogeneous group of circulatory system's diseases that can involve different kind of vessels: arterial, venous or lymphatic ones. Many treatments, such as conventional surgery, embolization, steroid therapy and laser therapy, are available for vascular lesions. The laser approach relies more therapeutic techniques: the transmucosal thermophotocoagulation, intralesional photocoagulation, the excisional biopsy. Today laser is demonstrated to be the gold standard technique to treat vascular lesions that allows a safe and efficient treatment and a lower post-operative healing time. The only disadvantage is the risk of carbonization that could be avoided by using the multiple-spot single pulsed wave technique.

  1. Dynamics of nephron-vascular network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry; Postnov, D E; Marsh, D J; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a modeling study of the spatial dynamics of a nephro-vascular network consisting of individual nephrons connected via a tree-like vascular branching structure. We focus on the effects of nonlinear mechanisms that are responsible for the formation of synchronous patterns in order...... to learn about processes not directly amenable to experimentation. We demonstrate that: (i) the nearest nephrons are synchronized in-phase due to a vascular propagated electrical coupling, (ii) the next few branching levels display a formation of phase-shifted patterns due to hemodynamic coupling and...

  2. Vascular inflammatory cells in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DavidG.Harrison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disorder with uncertain etiology. In the last several years, it has become evident that components of both the innate and adaptive immune system play an essential role in hypertension. Macrophages and T cells accumulate in the perivascular fat, the heart and the kidney of hypertensive patients and in animals with experimental hypertension. Various immunosuppressive agents lower blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage. Mice lacking lymphocytes are protected against hypertension, and adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells in the animals restores their blood pressure response to stimuli such as angiotensin II or high salt. Recent studies have shown that mice lacking macrophages have blunted hypertension in response to angiotensin II and that genetic deletion of macrophages markedly reduces experimental hypertension. Dendritic cells have also been implicated in this disease. Many hypertensive stimuli have triggering effects on the central nervous system and signals arising from the circumventricular organ seem to promote inflammation. Studies have suggested that central signals activate macrophages and T cells, which home to the kidney and vasculature and release cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-17, which in turn cause renal and vascular dysfunction and lead to blood pressure elevation. These recent discoveries provide a new understanding of hypertension and provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treatment of this serious disease.

  3. Pseudoaneurisma de arteria renal principal asociado a fistula cecal tras nefrectomia radical: caso clínico y revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hernando Arteche; C. Alpuente Roman; R. Martin del Toro; A. Pérez-Piqueras Gómez; F. Sainz González; JA. Cabrera Cabrera

    2014-01-01

    Las complicaciones vasculares secundarias al tratamiento quirúrgico del cáncer de riñón localizado son más frecuentes cuando se realiza una cirugía conservadora de nefronas. Sin embargo, la nefrectomía radical no está exenta de ellas. Presentamos el caso de un pseudoaneurisma de la arteria renal principal con comunicación fistulosa a colon ascendente tras nefrectomía radical. El paciente debutó con un episodio de shock hipovolémico debido a hemorragia digestiva baja.

  4. Pseudoaneurisma de arteria renal principal asociado a fistula cecal tras nefrectomia radical: caso clínico y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernando Arteche

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Las complicaciones vasculares secundarias al tratamiento quirúrgico del cáncer de riñón localizado son más frecuentes cuando se realiza una cirugía conservadora de nefronas. Sin embargo, la nefrectomía radical no está exenta de ellas. Presentamos el caso de un pseudoaneurisma de la arteria renal principal con comunicación fistulosa a colon ascendente tras nefrectomía radical. El paciente debutó con un episodio de shock hipovolémico debido a hemorragia digestiva baja.

  5. Atherectomy: Treatment for Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Atherectomy: Treatment for Peripheral Vascular Disease You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy ...

  6. Visualization of vascular disease with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of preliminary studies with MR imaging-angiography in patients with vascular diseases (stenoses, occlusions) are presented. The method is based on a bipolar gradient motion refocusing technique in combination with spin-echo sequences or gradient-echo sequences and a two-dimensional or three-dimensional acquisition technique, respectively. Isotropic three-dimensional resolution of about 1.2 mm facilitates identification of vascular structure. However, the discrimination of vascular abnormalities is still better on two-dimensional images with highest in-plane resolution. Vessels and vascular diseases are clearly delineated on subtraction images of flow-enhanced and flow-suppressed sequences with a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm. The potential of MR imaging-angiography is demonstrated in 20 patients who underwent correlative x-ray studies (conventional angiography, digital subtraction angiography)

  7. Vascular training and endovascular practice in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liapis, C.D.; Avgerinos, E.D.; Sillesen, H.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the status of vascular surgery (VS) training paradigms on the actual practice of endovascular therapy among the European countries. METHODS: An email-based survey concerning vascular surgery training models and endovascular practices of different clinical...... specialties was distributed to a VS educator within 14 European countries. European Vascular and Endovascular Monitor (EVEM) data also were processed to correlate endovascular practice with training models. RESULTS: Fourteen questionnaires were gathered. Vascular training in Europe appears in 3 models: 1....... Mono-specialty (independence): 7 countries, 2. Subspecialty: 5 countries, 3. An existing specialty within general surgery: 2 countries. Independent compared to non-independent certification shortens overall training length (5.9 vs 7.9 years, p=0.006), while increasing overall training devoted...

  8. Lower limb vascular dysfunction in cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ayala Melo Di Alencar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related vascular insufficiency affecting the lower limbs is uncommon, and early signs and symptoms can be confused with musculoskeletal injuries. This is also the case among professional cyclists, who are always at the threshold between endurance and excess training. The aim of this review was to analyze the occurrence of vascular disorders in the lower limbs of cyclists and to discuss possible etiologies. Eighty-five texts, including papers and books, published from 1950 to 2012, were used. According to the literature reviewed, some cyclists receive a late diagnosis of vascular dysfunction due to a lack of familiarity of the medical team with this type of dysfunction. Data revealed that a reduced blood flow in the external iliac artery, especially on the left, is much more common than in the femoral and popliteal arteries, and that vascular impairment is responsible for the occurrence of early fatigue and reduced performance in cycling.

  9. Extracellular Matrix Molecules Facilitating Vascular Biointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K.C. Ng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available All vascular implants, including stents, heart valves and graft materials exhibit suboptimal biocompatibility that significantly reduces their clinical efficacy. A range of biomolecules in the subendothelial space have been shown to play critical roles in local regulation of thrombosis, endothelial growth and smooth muscle cell proliferation, making these attractive candidates for modulation of vascular device biointegration. However, classically used biomaterial coatings, such as fibronectin and laminin, modulate only one of these components; enhancing endothelial cell attachment, but also activating platelets and triggering thrombosis. This review examines a subset of extracellular matrix molecules that have demonstrated multi-faceted vascular compatibility and accordingly are promising candidates to improve the biointegration of vascular biomaterials.

  10. Molecular signal transduction in vascular cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Apoptosis is a form of genetically programmed cell death, which plays a key role in regulation of cellularity in a variety of tissue and cell types including the cardiovascular tissues. Under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions, various biophysiological and biochemical factors, including mechanical forces, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, cytokines, growth factors, oxidized lipoproteins, etc., may influence apoptosis of vascular cells. The Fas/Fas ligand/caspase death-signaling pathway, Bcl-2 protein family/mitochondria, the tumor suppressive gene p53, and the proto-oncogene c-myc may be activated in atherosclerotic lesions, and mediates vascular apoptosis during the development of atherosclerosis. Abnormal expression and dysfunction of these apoptosis-regulating genes may attenuate or accelerate vascular cell apoptosis and affect the integrity and stability of atherosclerotic plaques. Clarification of the molecular mechanism that regulates apoptosis may help design a new strategy for treatment of atherosclerosis and its major complication, the acute vascular syndromes.

  11. Hydrogels for Engineering of Perfusable Vascular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are commonly used biomaterials for tissue engineering. With their high-water content, good biocompatibility and biodegradability they resemble the natural extracellular environment and have been widely used as scaffolds for 3D cell culture and studies of cell biology. The possible size of such hydrogel constructs with embedded cells is limited by the cellular demand for oxygen and nutrients. For the fabrication of large and complex tissue constructs, vascular structures become necessary within the hydrogels to supply the encapsulated cells. In this review, we discuss the types of hydrogels that are currently used for the fabrication of constructs with embedded vascular networks, the key properties of hydrogels needed for this purpose and current techniques to engineer perfusable vascular structures into these hydrogels. We then discuss directions for future research aimed at engineering of vascularized tissue for implantation.

  12. Amplatzer vascular plug as an embolic agent in different vascular pathologies: A pictorial essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresley, Jonathan; Bhatia, Shivank; Kably, Issam; Poozhikunnath Mohan, Prasoon; Salsamendi, Jason; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2016-01-01

    The Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) is a cylindrical plug made of self-expanding nitinol wire mesh with precise delivery control, which can be used for a variety of vascular pathologies. An AVP is an ideal vascular occlusion device particularly in high-flow vessels, where there is high risk of migration and systemic embolization with traditional occlusion devices. We performed 28 embolizations using the AVP from 2009 to 2014 and achieved complete occlusion without complications.

  13. Drinking Citrus Fruit Juice Inhibits Vascular Remodeling in Cuff-Induced Vascular Injury Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-no, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Cit...

  14. Evidence for a vascular factor in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammad S; Hansen, Adam E; Amin, Faisal Mohammad;

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that migraine is caused by neural dysfunction without involvement of vasodilatation. Because dismissal of vascular mechanisms seemed premature, we examined diameter of extra- and intracranial vessels in migraine without aura patients.......It has been suggested that migraine is caused by neural dysfunction without involvement of vasodilatation. Because dismissal of vascular mechanisms seemed premature, we examined diameter of extra- and intracranial vessels in migraine without aura patients....

  15. Viral vectors for vascular gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Lukas; Preis, Meir; Weisz, Anat; Koren, Belly; Lewis, Basil S; Flugelman, Moshe Y

    2002-01-01

    Vascular gene therapy is the focus of multiple experimental and clinical research efforts. While several genes with therapeutic potential have been identified, the best method of gene delivery is unknown. Viral vectors have the capacity to transfer genes at high efficiency rates. Several viral-based vectors have been used in experimental vascular gene therapy for in vivo and ex vivo gene transfer. Adenoviral-based vectors are being used for the induction of angiogenesis in phase 1 and 2 clini...

  16. Review: Interventional radiology in peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral vascular diseases (PVD) are referred to as diseases affecting the blood vessels other than the heart and the brain. Interventional endovascular treatment whenever feasible has become the first line of management in the treatment of PVD. Interventions may be aimed at either revascularization or deliberate occlusion of a diseased vessel(s). This article reviews the various peripheral vascular diseases with their appropriate endovascular management

  17. Cardiac tumours simulating collagen vascular disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, A. P.; Lanham, J. G.; Doyle, D V

    1986-01-01

    Cardiac tumours can mimic collagen vascular disease and they are often accompanied by profound systemic upset. Both benign and malignant tumours may present in this way. Three cases of cardiac tumour, two malignant and one benign, are reported with just such a presentation. A review of fifteen similar case reports showed that a spectrum of different collagen vascular diseases was diagnosed and treated before the true diagnosis emerged. In half of these cases the cardiac tumour was only diagno...

  18. Pattern formation by vascular mesenchymal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Garfinkel, Alan; Tintut, Yin; Petrasek, Danny; Boström, Kristina; Demer, Linda L.

    2004-01-01

    In embryogenesis, immature mesenchymal cells aggregate and organize into patterned tissues. Later in life, a pathological recapitulation of this process takes place in atherosclerotic lesions, when vascular mesenchymal cells organize into trabecular bone tissue within the artery wall. Here we show that multipotential adult vascular mesenchymal cells self-organize in vitro into patterns that are predicted by a mathematical model based on molecular morphogens interacting in a reaction-diffusion...

  19. New polymeric materials for vascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Cortecchia, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic impact that vascular diseases have on human life quality and expectancy nowadays is the reason why both medical and scientific communities put great effort in discovering new and effective ways to fight vascular pathologies. Among the many different treatments, endovascular surgery is a minimally-invasive technique that makes use of X-ray fluoroscopy to obtain real-time images of the patient during interventions. In this context radiopaque biomaterials, i.e. materials able to abs...

  20. Vascular progenitor cells in arterial remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grudzinska, Monika K.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of global mortality and physical disability mainly due to the complications such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Physiological healing reaction takes place in the diseased vessel wall aimed to repair the vessel after an injury. There are two factors essentially important for clinical improvement of vascular diseases. The first one is protection of the vascular damage, and the second one is repair of injured, ischemic and regenerating tissues to ...

  1. How to Measure Peripheral Pulmonary Vascular Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Chesler, Naomi C; Argiento, Paola; Vanderpool, Rebecca; D’Alto, Michele; Naeije, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is initially a disease of the small, peripheral resistance arteries. Changes in these vessels are best assessed by measurement of pulmonary artery pressure at several levels of flow to generate multi-point pressure-flow curves. This approach is superior to the traditional single-point measurement of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) because it allows a flow-independent definition of the resistive properties of that portion of the pulmonary vascular bed and also p...

  2. The Vascular Plants of Losap Atoll

    OpenAIRE

    MANNER, Harley I.; SANA, Dickson

    1995-01-01

    Prior to 1988, studies and observations on Losap Atoll (Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia) indicated a vascular flora of 43 species. A recent collection and observations of the flora of Losap Atoll indicated the presence of 101 species of vascular plants, of which 70 are indigenous and 31 are introduced species. Of these, 34 indigenous and 22 introduced species can be considered new records. An implication of these increases in numbers of species is that the floras of most atolls in the P...

  3. Review: Interventional radiology in peripheral vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cherian, Mathew P; Mehta, Pankaj; Tejas M Kalyanpur; Gupta, Prashanth

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral vascular diseases (PVD) are referred to as diseases affecting the blood vessels other than the heart and the brain. Interventional endovascular treatment whenever feasible has become the first line of management in the treatment of PVD. Interventions may be aimed at either revascularization or deliberate occlusion of a diseased vessel(s). This article reviews the various peripheral vascular diseases with their appropriate endovascular management.

  4. HIF and pulmonary vascular responses to hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Shimoda, Larissa A.; Steven S Laurie

    2013-01-01

    In the lung, acute reductions in oxygen lead to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, whereas prolonged exposures to hypoxia result in sustained vasoconstriction, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and the development of pulmonary hypertension. Data from both human subjects and animal models implicate a role for hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), oxygen-sensitive transcription factors, in pulmonary vascular responses to both acute and chronic hypoxia. In this review, we discuss work from our laborat...

  5. Vascular risk factors, cognitve decline, and dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Hanon, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    E Duron, Olivier HanonBroca Hospital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly. Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of degenerative (Alzheimer’s disease) and vascular dementia, leading to a devastating loss of autonomy. In view of the increasing longevity of populations worldwide, prevention of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. In the past decade, several vascular ...

  6. Airway vascular damage in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, André; Palmares, Carmo; Lopes, Cristina; Delgado, Luís

    2011-11-01

    We postulated that high level swimming can promote airway inflammation and thus asthma by enhancing local vascular permeability. We aimed to test this hypothesis by a cross-sectional study comparing swimmers (n = 13, 17 ± 3 years, competing 7 ± 4 years, training 18 ± 3 h per week), asthmatic-swimmers (n = 6, 17 ± 2 years, competing 8 ± 3 years, training 16 ± 4 h per week), and asthmatics (n = 19, 14 ± 3 years). Subjects performed induced sputum and had exhaled nitric oxide, lung volumes, and airway responsiveness determined. Airway vascular permeability index was defined as the ratio of albumin in sputum and serum. Results from the multiple linear regression showed each unit change in airway vascular permeability index was associated with an increase of 0.97% (95%CI: 0.02 to 1.92; p = 0.047) in sputum eosinophilis, and of 2.64% (95%CI:0.96 to 4.31; p = 0.006) in sputum neutrophils after adjustment for confounders. In a general linear model no significant differences between airway vascular permeability between index study groups existed, after controlling for sputum eosinophilis and neutrophils. In conclusion, competitive swimmers training in chlorine-rich pools have similar levels of airway vascular permeability than asthmatics. Although competitive swimming has been associated with asthma, airway inflammation and airway hyperesponsiveness do not seem to be dependent on increased airway vascular permeability. PMID:21669516

  7. Lymphangiosarcoma complicating extensive congenital mixed vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dhaybi, Rola; Agoumi, Mehdi; Powell, Julie; Dubois, Josée; Kokta, Victor

    2010-09-01

    Pediatric hepatic angiosarcoma is a very rare malignant vascular tumor. A few cases have shown pediatric hepatic angiosarcoma occurring on a background of preexisting vascular lesions. We report the case of a newborn girl who presented extensive limbs and upper trunk cutaneous mixed vascular malformations at birth. These malformations were associated with thrombocytopenia. Cutaneous biopsies revealed complex vascular malformations with a significant lymphatic component. Compressive body suit therapy led to regression of the limbs' cutaneous vascular malformations. At the age of 9 months, the patient presented multiple heterogeneous hepatosplenic nodules. Aggressive treatment with prednisone, vincristine, and hepatosplenic embolizations resulted in initial improvement of the hepatosplenic lesions for few months, followed by an increase of the lesions with failure of response to treatment despite adding alpha-interferon-2b to treatment. The patient died at the age of 19 months. The autopsy's pathological examination revealed a hepatic-based angiosarcoma with plurimetastatic dissemination to the spleen, lungs, peritoneum, pleura, mesenteric linings as well as the serosa of the stomach and small intestine. Multiple cutaneous and visceral complex capillaro-lymphatico-venous malformations were also identified. We hypothesize that these multiple extensive mixed vascular malformations were associated with chronic lymphedema which probably predisposed to the development of the angiosarcoma in our patient. PMID:20863270

  8. Vascular Adventitia Calcification and Its Underlying Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available Previous research on vascular calcification has mainly focused on the vascular intima and media. However, we show here that vascular calcification may also occur in the adventitia. The purpose of this work is to help elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. The calcified lesions were examined by Von Kossa staining in ApoE-/- mice which were fed high fat diets (HFD for 48 weeks and human subjects aged 60 years and older that had died of coronary heart disease, heart failure or acute renal failure. Explant cultured fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMCswere obtained from rat adventitia and media, respectively. After calcification induction, cells were collected for Alizarin Red S staining. Calcified lesions were observed in the aorta adventitia and coronary artery adventitia of ApoE-/-mice, as well as in the aorta adventitia of human subjects examined. Explant culture of fibroblasts, the primary cell type comprising the adventitia, was successfully induced for calcification after incubation with TGF-β1 (20 ng/ml + mineralization media for 4 days, and the phenotype conversion vascular adventitia fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was identified. Culture of SMCs, which comprise only a small percentage of all cells in the adventitia, in calcifying medium for 14 days resulted in significant calcification.Vascular calcification can occur in the adventitia. Adventitia calcification may arise from the fibroblasts which were transformed into myofibroblasts or smooth muscle cells.

  9. Strategic Plan for Lung Vascular Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzurum, Serpil; Rounds, Sharon I.; Stevens, Troy; Aldred, Micheala; Aliotta, Jason; Archer, Stephen L.; Asosingh, Kewal; Balaban, Robert; Bauer, Natalie; Bhattacharya, Jahar; Bogaard, Harm; Choudhary, Gaurav; Dorn, Gerald W.; Dweik, Raed; Fagan, Karen; Fallon, Michael; Finkel, Toren; Geraci, Mark; Gladwin, Mark T.; Hassoun, Paul M.; Humbert, Marc; Kaminski, Naftali; Kawut, Steven M.; Loscalzo, Joseph; McDonald, Donald; McMurtry, Ivan F.; Newman, John; Nicolls, Mark; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Shizuru, Judy; Oka, Masahiko; Polgar, Peter; Rodman, David; Schumacker, Paul; Stenmark, Kurt; Tuder, Rubin; Voelkel, Norbert; Sullivan, Eugene; Weinshilboum, Richard; Yoder, Mervin C.; Zhao, Yingming; Gail, Dorothy; Moore, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    The Division of Lung Diseases of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, with the Office of Rare Diseases Research, held a workshop to identify priority areas and strategic goals to enhance and accelerate research that will result in improved understanding of the lung vasculature, translational research needs, and ultimately the care of patients with pulmonary vascular diseases. Multidisciplinary experts with diverse experience in laboratory, translational, and clinical studies identified seven priority areas and discussed limitations in our current knowledge, technologies, and approaches. The focus for future research efforts include the following: (1) better characterizing vascular genotype–phenotype relationships and incorporating systems biology approaches when appropriate; (2) advancing our understanding of pulmonary vascular metabolic regulatory signaling in health and disease; (3) expanding our knowledge of the biologic relationships between the lung circulation and circulating elements, systemic vascular function, and right heart function and disease; (4) improving translational research for identifying disease-modifying therapies for the pulmonary hypertensive diseases; (5) establishing an appropriate and effective platform for advancing translational findings into clinical studies testing; and (6) developing the specific technologies and tools that will be enabling for these goals, such as question-guided imaging techniques and lung vascular investigator training programs. Recommendations from this workshop will be used within the Lung Vascular Biology and Disease Extramural Research Program for planning and strategic implementation purposes. PMID:20833821

  10. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N.; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25–30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood–brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  11. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25-30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood-brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  12. Treatment of subclavian vascular injuries in 15 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-ming; WANG Ai-min; SUN Hong-zhen; DU Quan-yin; GUO Qing-shan; YIN Liang-jun; WU Si-yu; TANG Ying

    2006-01-01

    @@ Subclavian vascular injury accounts for 1%-5 % of all vascular injuries. If not found in time or managed swiftly, subclavian vascular injury is likely to cause hemorrhagic shock and even death. From March of 1998 through August of 2003, a total of 15 cases with subclavian vascular injury were treated in our department. The details are described in this report.

  13. Vascular associated gene variants in patients with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Bare, Lance A; Olsen, Jørn; Lagier, Robert; Tong, Carmen; Arellano, Andre; Paidas, Michael J; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia has been linked to subsequent vascular disease with many shared predisposing factors. We investigated the association between severe preeclampsia, and its subtypes, and specific vascular-related polymorphisms.......Preeclampsia has been linked to subsequent vascular disease with many shared predisposing factors. We investigated the association between severe preeclampsia, and its subtypes, and specific vascular-related polymorphisms....

  14. 谷氨酰胺对饲喂高精料奶山羊盲肠黏膜形态及炎症因子 mRNA 表达的影响%Effects of Glutamine on Cecal Mucosal Morphology and Inflammatory Cytokine mRNA Expressions of Dairy Goats Fed a High Concentrate Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉洁; 刘军花; 许婷婷; 毛胜勇

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of glutamine ( Gln) on cecal mucosa morphology and inflammatory cytokine mRNA expressions of dairy goats fed a high concentrate diet.Twelve healthy dairy goats were randomly assigned to control group ( n =6, fed a high concentrate diet) and Gln group ( n=6 , supplemental level of Gln was 50 g/d) .After a 28-day experimental period, four goats in each group were slaughtered to collect cecal mucosa.The changes of tissue morphology of cecal mucosa, the mR-NA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in cecal mucosa and the concentrations of volatile fatty acids in cecal contents were measured.The results showed as follows: Gln supplementation did not affect the concen-trations of volatile fatty acids, lactic acid and endotoxin contents in cecal (P>0.05); the supplementation of Gln played roles in keeping the integrity and enhancing tight junction of cecal mucosa; the supplementation of Gln significantly decreased the mRNA expression level of tumor necrosis factorα( P0 .05 ) .It is suggested that Gln supplementation can enhance cecal mucosa tight junctions release cecal mucosal inflammatory response, to a certain extent, which is benefit for maintenance of mucosal barrier function of hindgut under the condition of the high concentrate diet.%本试验旨在研究谷氨酰胺对饲喂高精料奶山羊盲肠黏膜形态及炎症因子mRNA表达的影响。采用随机区组设计,将12头健康奶山羊随机分为对照组( n=6,饲喂高精料)和谷氨酰胺组( n=6,谷氨酰胺添加量为50 g/d)。试验期28 d。每组各选取4头山羊进行屠宰,取盲肠黏膜,观察组织形态学变化,检测盲肠黏膜炎症因子mRNA的表达量、盲肠内容物挥发性脂肪酸浓度。结果表明:添加谷氨酰胺对盲肠食糜中挥发性脂肪酸、乳酸及内毒素浓度无显著影响(P>0.05);添加谷氨酰胺保持了盲肠黏膜的完整性,紧密连

  15. In situ caecal degradation of roughages in horses Degradação cecal in situ de alimentos volumosos em equinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pimentel Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the in situ degradation of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and crude protein (CP in roughages by the in situ caecal digestion technique in horses. The roughages evaluated were: Lucerne hay (Medicago sativa, peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo, desmodio(Desmodium ovalifolium, stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, lime-yellow pea (Macrotyloma axillare and coastcross hay (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross. The assay was conducted in a complete randomized design with seven roughages and three replications. One mare with a cannula fitted in the caecum was used, fed diet consisting of coastcross hay (80% and concentrate (20% at 2.0% BW, four times a day. Nylon 6.5 × 20 cm bags were used with 45 μ/pore, containing 5.2 g DM/bag, inserting 3 or 4 bags in the caecum at the times of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours incubation. The caecum in situ degradability parameters of nutrients were obtained by Ørskov model. The DM degradability parameters of all the roughages were significant. There was no fit to the model for pigeon pea for CP and NDF and desmodio. Peanut, stylo and lime-yellow pea presented larger potentially degradable DM with values of 53, 46.5 and 40%, respectively, and higher values for the soluble fraction of 20, 21, 28.6%, with high degradability rates of 10.36, 20.26 and 14.8% h-1. Higher NDF degradation rates were observed in these foodstuffs with values of 9.1 and 11.3, 11.2% h-1, high potentially degradable fraction with values of 55, 51.8 and 47.2%, and greater CP degradation at 48 hours with values of 87, 95, and 94.8%. Peanut, stylo and lime-yellow pea presented potential for use in horses diets.Objetivou-se avaliar a degradação da matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e proteína bruta de alimentos volumosos pela técnica da digestão cecal in situ em equinos. Avaliaram-se as forrageiras: feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa

  16. Congenital vascular malformations in scintigraphic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital vascular malformations are tumour-like, non-neoplastic lesions caused by disorders of vascular tissue morphogenesis. They are characterised by a normal cell replacement cycle throughout all growth phases and do not undergo spontaneous involution. Here we present a scintigraphic image of familial congenital vascular malformations in two sisters. A 17-years-old young woman with a history of multiple hospitalisations for foci of vascular anomalies appearing progressively in the upper and lower right limbs, chest wall and spleen. A Parkes Weber syndrome was diagnosed based on the clinical picture. Due to the occurrence of new foci of malformations, a whole-body scintigraphic examination was performed. A 12-years-old girl reported a lump in the right lower limb present for approximately 2 years, which was clinically identified as a vascular lesion in the area of calcaneus and talus. Phleboscintigraphy visualized normal radiomarker outflow from the feet via the deep venous system, also observed in the superficial venous system once the tourniquets were released. In static and whole-body examinations vascular malformations were visualised in the area of the medial cuneiform, navicular and talus bones of the left foot, as well as in the projection of right calcaneus and above the right talocrural joint. People with undiagnosed disorders related to the presence of vascular malformations should undergo periodic follow-up to identify lesions that may be the cause of potentially serious complications and to assess the results of treatment. Presented scintigraphic methods may be used for both diagnosing and monitoring of disease progression

  17. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevostyanova, V. V.; Khodyrevskaya, Y. I.; Glushkova, T. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S.

    2015-10-01

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  18. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevostyanova, V. V., E-mail: sevostyanova.victoria@gmail.com; Khodyrevskaya, Y. I.; Glushkova, T. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S. [Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  19. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts

  20. Design and development of multilayer vascular graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Krishna

    2011-07-01

    Vascular graft is a widely-used medical device for the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm as well as for the use of vascular access and pediatric shunt, which are major causes of mortality and morbidity in this world. Dysfunction of vascular grafts often occurs, particularly for grafts with diameter less than 6mm, and is associated with the design of graft materials. Mechanical strength, compliance, permeability, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. To address these issues, we have designed a biodegradable, compliant graft made of hybrid multilayer by combining an intimal equivalent, electrospun heparin-impregnated poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers, with a medial equivalent, a crosslinked collagen-chitosan-based gel scaffold. The intimal equivalent is designed to build mechanical strength and stability suitable for in vivo grafting and to prevent thrombosis. The medial equivalent is designed to serve as a scaffold for the activity of the smooth muscle cells important for vascular healing and regeneration. Our results have shown that genipin is a biocompatible crosslinker to enhance the mechanical properties of collagen-chitosan based scaffolds, and the degradation time and the activity of smooth muscle cells in the scaffold can be modulated by the crosslinking degree. For vascular grafting and regeneration in vivo, an important design parameter of the hybrid multilayer is the interface adhesion between the intimal and medial equivalents. With diametrically opposite affinities to water, delamination of the two layers occurs. Physical or chemical modification techniques were thus used to enhance the adhesion. Microscopic examination and graft-relevant functional characterizations have been performed to evaluate these techniques. Results from characterization of microstructure and functional properties, including burst strength, compliance, water permeability and suture

  1. Arteriographic evaluation, in the perispheric vascular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    136 patients were angiographically studied under the suspicion of perispheric vascular lesion submitted to the radiology department of the San Vicente de Paul University Hospital (H.U.S.VP.) Medellin Colombia. The majority of the patients were young with wounds caused by gunshots (79.4%). the must frequent angiographic indication was the proximity of the wound to a vascular path (44.5%). 63% of the patients with angiography indicative of abnormality needed surgery from which 21% were because of the proximity of the wound to a vascular path and 76% because of the mayor findings when admitted to the hospital. the possible complications as a result of the angiographic procedure were revised only find inc two mayor reactions to the contrast media. there were no late complications. Angiography is highlighting sensitive (100%) specific (98.5%) and secure in the evaluation of patients with perispheric vascular trauma. Due to the high number of false negatives when the physical examination is performed, every patient with a wound near a vascular path must be evaluated angiographically

  2. Cytoskeleton, cytoskeletal interactions, and vascular endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jingli Wang,1 Michael E Widlansky1,21Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, 2Department of Pharmacology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USAAbstract: Far from being inert, the vascular endothelium is a critical regulator of vascular function. While the endothelium participates in autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine signaling, it also transduces mechanical signals from the cell surface involving key cell structural elements. In this review, we discuss the structure of the vascular endothelium and its relationship to traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical cardiovascular events. Further, we review the emerging evidence that cell structural elements, including the glycocalyx, intercellular junctions, and cytoskeleton elements, help the endothelium to communicate with its environment to regulate vascular function, including vessel permeability and signal transduction via nitric oxide bioavailability. Further work is necessary to better delineate the regulatory relationships between known key regulators of vascular function and endothelial cell structural elements.Keywords: endothelium, shear stress, eNOS, cardiovascular risk factors, glycocalyx

  3. Blood Flow Restricted Exercise and Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Horiuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular strength with advancing age; thus, resistance training is recommended to prevent sarcopenia. Recently, several lines of study have provided compelling data showing that exercise and training with blood flow restriction (BFR leads to muscle hypertrophy and strength increase. As such, BFR training might be a novel means of overcoming the contradiction between aerobic and high-intensity resistance training. Although it is not enough evidence to obtain consensus about impact of BFR training on vascular function, available evidences suggested that BFR training did not change coagulation factors and arterial compliance though with inconsistence results in endothelial function. This paper is a review of the literature on the impact of BFR exercise and training on vascular function, such as endothelial function, arterial compliance, or other potential factors in comparison with those of aerobic and resistance training.

  4. The vascular pattern in the flower of some Mesembryanthemaceae: Aptenia cordifolia and Dorotheanthus bellidiformis. The effect of an ontogenetical shifting on the vascular pattern and vascular conservatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen-Bruijns, van der C.

    1976-01-01

    1. The vascular pattern in the flower at various stages of maturity of Aptenia cordifolia and Dorotheanthus bellidiformis is examined. 2. The vascular pattern of Dorotheanthus has been compared with that of Aptenia: typologically, Dorotheanthus is derived from Aptenia. 3. The vascular pattern of Apt

  5. Evaluation of vascular pathologies with MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow sensitivity of MR imaging methods can be used to visualize vascular structures (MR angiography). In this paper the method of flow-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography will be presented. This technique makes use of the signal enhancement due to inflow of unsaturated spins into the imaging volume in combination with flow-compensated three-dimensional Fourier transform gradient-echo sequences. Projective images are calculated from the measured data by means of a maximum-intensity algorithm. The procedure was optimized for the visualization of the intra-and extracranial vasculature. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential of this MR angiographic procedure to evaluate vascular disease in a clinical situation. Prospective studies in patients with vascular disease including aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, arterial occlusion, and stenosis are shown in correlation with conventional procedures

  6. Serelaxin: A Novel Therapeutic for Vascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Chen Huei; Jelinic, Maria; Ng, Hooi Hooi; Tare, Marianne; Parry, Laura J

    2016-06-01

    Vascular dysfunction is an important hallmark of cardiovascular disease. It is characterized by increased sensitivity to vasoconstrictors, decreases in the endothelium-derived vasodilators nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH). Serelaxin (recombinant human relaxin) has gained considerable attention as a new vasoactive drug, largely through its beneficial therapeutic effects in acute heart failure. In this review we first describe the contribution of endogenous relaxin to vascular homeostasis. We then provide a comprehensive overview of the novel mechanisms of serelaxin action in blood vessels that differentiate it from other vasodilator drugs and explain how this peptide could be used more widely as a therapeutic to alleviate vascular dysfunction in several cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27130518

  7. Vascular corrosion casting of human heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vasudeva Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the morphological pattern of coronary arteries and their major branches is an important factor in the assessment and treatment of coronary heart disease. Detailed knowledge of the blood supply of the heart is necessary today because of the wider practice of cardiac surgery, and also for better understanding of the anomalous branches, anastomosis and dominance pattern in circulation caused by coronary vasculature. We utilized 80 human heart specimens and found right dominance in 69 specimens, left dominance in 9 specimens and balanced type of circulation in 2 specimens. We observed anastomosis between the major arteries in arteriogram but in vascular corrosion method we did not found because cast substance interpretation to minor vessels is too difficult. The present study acknowledges about Coronary vascular pattern, circulatory dominance of the arteries and by using the vascular corrosion method. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 237-239

  8. Circadian pattern in cerebro vascular disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, various studies have been reported to evaluate the circadian pattern of cardiovascular and cerebro-vascular diseases. The data from Indian population is lacking. We undertook this prospective observational study to evaluate the circadian variation in disorders like cerebro-vascular accidents and transient ischemic attacks. Total of 146 patients (events were studied. Only 10 patients had TIA′s. 55% had hemorrhage and 45% had infarction. The 24 hours period was divided into 6 equal portions of 4 hours each. The maximum events were seen between 4 am to 8 am and 12 noon to 4 pm (23.28% each. Minimum events were seen between 12 midnight to 4 am 14/146 - 9.58%. The circadian variation in occurrence of cerebro-vascular disorders was present with two equal peaks.

  9. Effects of vascularization on cancer nanochemotherapy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, L. R.; Ferreira, S. C.; Martins, M. L.

    2016-08-01

    Cancer therapy requires anticancer agents capable of efficient and uniform systemic delivery. One promising route to their development is nanotechnology. Here, a previous model for cancer chemotherapy based on a nanosized drug carrier (Paiva et al., 2011) is extended by including tissue vasculature and a three-dimensional growth. We study through computer simulations the therapy against tumors demanding either large or small nutrient supplies growing under different levels of tissue vascularization. Our results indicate that highly vascularized tumors demand more aggressive therapies (larger injected doses administrated at short intervals) than poorly vascularized ones. Furthermore, nanoparticle endocytic rate by tumor cells, not its selectivity, is the major factor that determines the therapeutic success. Finally, our finds indicate that therapies combining cytotoxic agents with antiangiogenic drugs that reduce the abnormal tumor vasculature, instead of angiogenic drugs that normalize it, can lead to successful treatments using feasible endocytic rates and administration intervals.

  10. Modulation of hydrogen sulfide by vascular hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmond JM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jessica M Osmond, Nancy L KanagyVascular Physiology Group, Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM, USAAbstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has emerged as a key regulator of cardiovascular function. This gasotransmitter is produced in the vasculature and is involved in numerous processes that promote vascular homeostasis, including vasodilation and endothelial cell proliferation. Although H2S plays a role under physiological conditions, it has become clear in recent years that hypoxia modulates the production and action of H2S. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that H2S is cytoprotective in the face of hypoxic insults. This review focuses on the synthesis and signaling of H2S in hypoxic conditions in the vasculature, and highlights recent studies providing evidence that H2S is a potential therapy for preventing tissue damage in hypoxic conditions.Keywords: H2S, cystathionine γ-lyase, vascular smooth muscle, endothelium

  11. VESGEN Software for Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis is an automated software that maps and quantifies effects of vascular regulators on vascular morphology by analyzing important vessel parameters. Quantification parameters include vessel diameter, length, branch points, density, and fractal dimension. For vascular trees, measurements are reported as dependent functions of vessel branching generation. VESGEN maps and quantifies vascular morphological events according to fractal-based vascular branching generation. It also relies on careful imaging of branching and networked vascular form. It was developed as a plug-in for ImageJ (National Institutes of Health, USA). VESGEN uses image-processing concepts of 8-neighbor pixel connectivity, skeleton, and distance map to analyze 2D, black-and-white (binary) images of vascular trees, networks, and tree-network composites. VESGEN maps typically 5 to 12 (or more) generations of vascular branching, starting from a single parent vessel. These generations are tracked and measured for critical vascular parameters that include vessel diameter, length, density and number, and tortuosity per branching generation. The effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on vascular morphology and branching tested in human clinical or laboratory animal experimental studies are quantified by comparing vascular parameters with control groups. VESGEN provides a user interface to both guide and allow control over the users vascular analysis process. An option is provided to select a morphological tissue type of vascular trees, network or tree-network composites, which determines the general collections of algorithms, intermediate images, and output images and measurements that will be produced.

  12. Pain management in patients with vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seretny, M; Colvin, L A

    2016-09-01

    Vascular disease covers a wide range of conditions, including arterial, venous, and lymphatic disorders, with many of these being more common in the elderly. As the population ages, the incidence of vascular disease will increase, with a consequent increase in the requirement to manage both acute and chronic pain in this patient population. Pain management can be complex, as there are often multiple co-morbidities to be considered. An understanding of the underlying pain mechanisms is helpful in the logical direction of treatment, particularly in chronic pain states, such as phantom limb pain or complex regional pain syndrome. Acute pain management for vascular surgery presents a number of challenges, including coexisting anticoagulant medication, that may preclude the use of regional techniques. Within the limited evidence base, there is a suggestion that epidural analgesia provides better pain relief and reduced respiratory complications after major vascular surgery. For carotid endarterectomy, there is again some evidence supporting the use of local anaesthetic analgesia, either by infiltration or by superficial cervical plexus block. Chronic pain in vascular disease includes post-amputation pain, for which well-known risk factors include high pain levels before amputation and in the immediate postoperative period, emphasizing the importance of good pain control in the perioperative period. Complex regional pain syndrome is another challenging chronic pain syndrome with a wide variety of treatment options available, with the strongest evidence being for physical therapies. Further research is required to gain a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in pain associated with vascular disease and the best analgesic approaches to manage it. PMID:27566812

  13. Statistical modeling of the arterial vascular tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Thomas; Godenschwager, Christian; Bauer, Miriam; Bernhardt, Dominik; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2011-03-01

    Automatic examination of medical images becomes increasingly important due to the rising amount of data. Therefore automated methods are required which combine anatomical knowledge and robust segmentation to examine the structure of interest. We propose a statistical model of the vascular tree based on vascular landmarks and unbranched vessel sections. An undirected graph provides anatomical topology, semantics, existing landmarks and attached vessel sections. The atlas was built using semi-automatically generated geometric models of various body regions ranging from carotid arteries to the lower legs. Geometric models contain vessel centerlines as well as orthogonal cross-sections in equidistant intervals with the vessel contour having the form of a polygon path. The geometric vascular model is supplemented by anatomical landmarks which are not necessarily related to the vascular system. These anatomical landmarks define point correspondences which are used for registration with a Thin-Plate-Spline interpolation. After the registration process, the models were merged to form the statistical model which can be mapped to unseen images based on a subset of anatomical landmarks. This approach provides probability distributions for the location of landmarks, vessel-specific geometric properties including shape, expected radii and branching points and vascular topology. The applications of this statistical model include model-based extraction of the vascular tree which greatly benefits from vessel-specific geometry description and variation ranges. Furthermore, the statistical model can be applied as a basis for computer aided diagnosis systems as indicator for pathologically deformed vessels and the interaction with the geometric model is significantly more user friendly for physicians through anatomical names.

  14. Total knee arthroplasty in vascular malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Bhende

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome, vascular malformations are not only in skin and superficial soft tissues but also in deep tissues like muscles bones and joints. It is well documemted that these recurrent intraarticular bleeds can cause early arthritis and joint pain. Performing arthroplasty in such patients is difficult and fraught with complications. We describe such a case where navigated total knee arthroplasty was performed with success to avoid the problems of intra medullary alignment used in the presence of intra medullary vascular malformations. We also suggest certain measures when knee arthroplasty is considered in such patients.

  15. Prediction of Major Vascular Events after Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovbiagele, Bruce; Goldstein, Larry B.; Amarenco, Pierre;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identifying patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) at high risk of major vascular events (MVEs; stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death) may help optimize the intensity of secondary preventive interventions. We evaluated the relationships between the...... baseline Framingham Coronary Risk Score (FCRS) and a novel risk prediction model and with the occurrence of MVEs after stroke or TIA in subjects enrolled in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Level (SPARCL) trial. METHODS: Data from the 4731 subjects enrolled in the SPARCL study...

  16. Angiogenesis and vascular targeting: Relevance for hyperthermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    The creation of a functional blood supply from the normal tissue vasculature via the process of angiogenesis is critical for the continued growth and development of solid tumours. This importance has led to the concept of targeting the tumour vasculature as a therapeutic strategy, and two major...... types of vascular targeting agents (VTAs) have developed; those that inhibit the angiogenic process-angiogenesis inhibiting agents (AIAs)-and those that specifically damage the already established neovasculature-vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). The tumour vasculature also plays a critical role in...

  17. Macroevolución en plantas vasculares

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión García, José Sebastián; Guerra Montes, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Macroevolución en plantas vasculares. Se revisan los sistemas jerarquizados de evolución vegetal, desde una perspectiva paleoecológica y con énfasis en los controles del nivel superior para las plantas vasculares. Este nivel supone la existencia de breves episodios de intensa radiación, seguidos por largas fases de estabilización y declive taxonómico. El registro fósil sugiere que no han existido extinciones masivas entre las plantas terrestres, en el sentido en que ésta expresión se emplea p...

  18. Vascular injuries during total hip revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although most patients undergoing a revision total hip replacement (THR) will have an uneventful procedure, in others the potential of serous vascular injuries is real. Migrating prosthesis or excessive cement may be in compromising positions adjacent or adherent to vessels and pose a particular danger at surgery with inadvertent lacerations of vessels such as the internal and external iliac arteries. In out study of 20 patients with THR, CT with two-dimensional reconstructions is used to define vessel position. In eight of these patients, the hip prosthesis or displaced cement lies within 5 mm of major vessels. In patients with dislocation of the acetabular cup, the potential of vascular injury is highest

  19. Oscillation of Angiogenesis and Vascular Dropout in Progressive Human Vascular Disease. [Vascular Pattern as Useful Read-Out of Complex Molecular Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    When analyzed by VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software, vascular patterns provide useful integrative read-outs of complex, interacting molecular signaling pathways. Using VESGEN, we recently discovered and published our innovative, surprising findings that angiogenesis oscillated with vascular dropout throughout progression of diabetic retinopathy, a blinding vascular disease. Our findings provide a potential paradigm shift in the current prevailing view on progression and treatment of this disease, and a new early-stage window of regenerative therapeutic opportunities. The findings also suggest that angiogenesis may oscillate with vascular disease in a homeostatic-like manner during early stages of other inflammatory progressive diseases such as cancer and coronary vascular disease.

  20. Audit of the Danish national vascular database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Jensen, L P; Schroeder, T V

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy of data contained in the Danish vascular database was compared with the case notes. A total of 100 case notes were reviewed for 11 pertinent variables in the database. A high error rate ranging from 2 to 34% was found. Also, approximately 10% of patients had never been entered into t...

  1. Diacylglycerol Kinase Inhibition and Vascular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyehun; Allahdadi, Kyan J; Tostes, Rita C A; Webb, R Clinton

    2009-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), a family of lipid kinases, convert diacylglycerol (DG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). Acting as a second messenger, DG activates protein kinase C (PKC). PA, a signaling lipid, regulates diverse functions involved in physiological responses. Since DGK modulates two lipid second messengers, DG and PA, regulation of DGK could induce related cellular responses. Currently, there are 10 mammalian isoforms of DGK that are categorized into five groups based on their structural features. These diverse isoforms of DGK are considered to activate distinct cellular functions according to extracellular stimuli. Each DGK isoform is thought to play various roles inside the cell, depending on its subcellular localization (nuclear, ER, Golgi complex or cytoplasm). In vascular smooth muscle, vasoconstrictors such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1 and norepinephrine stimulate contraction by increasing inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)), calcium, DG and PKC activity. Inhibition of DGK could increase DG availability and decrease PA levels, as well as alter intracellular responses, including calcium-mediated and PKC-mediated vascular contraction. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate a role of DGK in vascular function. Selective inhibition of DGK isoforms may represent a novel therapeutic approach in vascular dysfunction. PMID:21547002

  2. Lectinas : 1. Plantas vasculares y celulares

    OpenAIRE

    Elola, María Teresa; Fink, Nilda

    1995-01-01

    En la presente revisión se brinda información sobre lectinas de plantas celulares y vasculares. En particular se discute la defmición de lectinas, su estructura, especificidad sacarídica, localización y funciones biológicas.

  3. Electrotonic vascular signal conduction and nephron synchronization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, D.J.; Toma, I.; Sosnovtseva, Olga;

    2009-01-01

    smooth muscle cells. The depolarization spread to the cortical radial artery and other afferent arterioles and declined with distance from the perfused juxtaglomerular apparatus, consistent with electrotonic vascular signal propagation. With a mathematical model of two coupled nephrons, we estimated the...

  4. Urticarial Reactions: Vascular Erythema, Urticaria, Vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbald, R. Gary

    1987-01-01

    Vascular erythemas, including urticaria and vasculitis, represent diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. A careful systemic approach to history and physical examination should be followed by appropriate investigations to rule out systemic disease. Chronic urticaria patients should be physically tested to identify cholinergic, dermagraphic, and cold-induced responses. Food diaries and careful drug history may be important to identify exacerbating factors in chronic urticaria.

  5. Poldip2 sustains vascular structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Roy L.; Hilenski, Lula L.; Amanso, Angélica M.; Parastatidis, Ioannis; Dikalova, Anna E.; Hansen, Laura; Datla, Srinivasa Raju; Long, James S.; El-Ali, Alexander M.; Joseph, Giji; Gleason, Rudolph L.; Taylor, W. Robert; Hart, C. Michael; Griendling, Kathy K.; Lassègue, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Objective Based on previous evidence that polymerase delta interacting protein 2 (Poldip2) increases NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) activity in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), we hypothesized that in vivo knockdown of Poldip2 would inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and alter vascular function. Approach and Results Because homozygous Poldip2 deletion is lethal, Poldip2+/− mice were employed. Poldip2 mRNA and protein levels were reduced by about 50% in Poldip2+/− aorta, with no change in p22phox, Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 mRNAs. NADPH oxidase activity was also inhibited in Poldip2+/− tissue. Isolated aortas from Poldip2+/− mice demonstrated impaired phenylephrine and potassium chloride-induced contractions, increased stiffness and reduced compliance, associated with disruption of elastic lamellae and excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Collagen I secretion was elevated in cultured VSMC from Poldip2+/− mice and restored by H2O2 supplementation, suggesting that this novel function of Poldip2 is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, Poldip2+/− mice were protected against aortic dilatation in a model of experimental aneurysm, an effect consistent with increased collagen secretion. Conclusions Poldip2 knockdown reduces H2O2 production in vivo, leading to increases in extracellular matrix, greater vascular stiffness and impaired agonist-mediated contraction. Thus, unaltered expression of Poldip2 is necessary for vascular integrity and function. PMID:23825363

  6. Noninvasive blood flow tests in vascular disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, O.K.; Cole, C W

    1993-01-01

    Noninvasive testing is now routine for assessing vascular conditions. Many noninvasive tests are available for obtaining physiologic and anatomic information that is both precise and reproducible. This paper discusses noninvasive testing with plethysmography, Doppler ultrasonography, and duplex scanning for carotid artery occlusive disease, deep venous thrombosis, and peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

  7. Calcium handling by vascular myocytes in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.A. Tostes

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium ions (Ca2+ trigger the contraction of vascular myocytes and the level of free intracellular Ca2+ within the myocyte is precisely regulated by sequestration and extrusion mechanisms. Extensive evidence indicates that a defect in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ plays a role in the augmented vascular reactivity characteristic of clinical and experimental hypertension. For example, arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR have an increased contractile sensitivity to extracellular Ca2+ and intracellular Ca2+ levels are elevated in aortic smooth muscle cells of SHR. We hypothesize that these changes are due to an increase in membrane Ca2+ channel density and possibly function in vascular myocytes from hypertensive animals. Several observations using various experimental approaches support this hypothesis: 1 the contractile activity in response to depolarizing stimuli is increased in arteries from hypertensive animals demonstrating increased voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel activity in hypertension; 2 Ca2+ channel agonists such as Bay K 8644 produce contractions in isolated arterial segments from hypertensive rats and minimal contraction in those from normotensive rats; 3 intracellular Ca2+ concentration is abnormally increased in vascular myocytes from hypertensive animals following treatment with Ca2+ channel agonists and depolarizing interventions, and 4 using the voltage-clamp technique, the inward Ca2+ current in arterial myocytes from hypertensive rats is nearly twice as large as that from myocytes of normotensive rats. We suggest that an alteration in Ca2+ channel function and/or an increase in Ca2+ channel density, resulting from increased channel synthesis or reduced turnover, underlies the increased vascular reactivity characteristic of hypertension

  8. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma with uncommon vascular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. Materials and Methods: From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Results: Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14% had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty; the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. Conclusion: There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis.

  9. Observations on the vegetation and vascular plants of Hopen

    OpenAIRE

    Skye, Erik

    1986-01-01

    The vascular plant flora of the small arctic island of Hopen, located in the Barents Sea. was inventoried during a visit in the summer of 1982. Eighteen vascular plant species were observed and mapped. and the vegetation described.

  10. Vascular oxidative stress: the common link in hypertensive and diabetic vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Richard A.; Tong, XiaoYong

    2010-01-01

    Vascular disease in hypertension and diabetes is associated with increased oxidants. The oxidants arise from NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and mitochondria. Superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide are produced by both leukocytes and vascular cells. Nitric oxide is produced in excess by inducible nitric oxide synthase, and the potent oxidant, peroxynitrite, is formed from superoxide and nitric oxide. The damage to proteins caused by oxidants is selective, affecting specific oxidant-sensitive...

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor regulates angiogenesis and vascular permeability in Kaposi's sarcoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Cornali, E.; Zietz, C; Benelli, R; Weninger, W.; Masiello, L.; Breier, G; Tschachler, E; Albini, A; Stürzl, M

    1996-01-01

    Abundant vasculature with increased permeability is a prominent histological feature of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a multifocal, cytokine-regulated tumor. Here we report on the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in AIDS-KS angiogenesis and vascular permeability. We demonstrate that different cytokines, which were previously shown to be active in KS development, modulate VEGF expression in KS spindle cells and cooperate with VEGF on the functional level. Northern blot analysis as we...

  12. Stimulation of vascular cells by extracellular signals - A biophysical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Biela, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    Stimulation of vascular cells by extracellullar signals Treatment of vascular diseases often requires the selective addressing of endothelial (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The two vascular cell types are important for the wound healing after stent implantation. Recent research designs new materials and coatings for stents to improve the complex healing process. The aim of my work was to find and investigate different reactions in the two vascular cell types (ECs and SMCs) through surf...

  13. Organisation of vascular surgical services: evolution or revolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Michaels, J. A.; Galland, R B; Morris, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    The trend towards subspecialisation in hospital services is likely to lead to the development of vascular surgery as a separate specialty. If vascular surgery is to emerge as a high quality service then vascular emergencies--a substantial component of the workload--should be dealt with by surgeons with adequate training, and all patients should have equal access to the service. A specialist vascular surgical unit would have to be large enough to make efficient use of other services that it ne...

  14. Molecular regulation of vascular cambium identity and activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kucukoglu, Melis

    2015-01-01

    In plants, secondary development and wood formation originates from the cell divisions within the vascular meristem, where the vascular stem cells are located. This thesis work presents my results on the molecular regulation of vascular cambium stem cell identity and activity. I have investigated the role of the receptor-like kinase PXC1 during vascular development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutant analysis revealed that in the absence of PXC1, plants display a pendant phenotype and reduced...

  15. Immune activation caused by vascular oxidation promotes fibrosis and hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jing; Saleh, Mohamed A; Kirabo, Annet; Itani, Hana A.; Montaniel, Kim Ramil C.; Xiao, Liang; Chen, Wei; Mernaugh, Raymond L.; Cai, Hua; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Goronzy, Jörg J.; Weyand, Cornelia M.; Curci, John A.; Barbaro, Natalia R.; Moreno, Heitor

    2015-01-01

    Vascular oxidative injury accompanies many common conditions associated with hypertension. In the present study, we employed mouse models with excessive vascular production of ROS (tgsm/p22phox mice, which overexpress the NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox in smooth muscle, and mice with vascular-specific deletion of extracellular SOD) and have shown that these animals develop vascular collagen deposition, aortic stiffening, renal dysfunction, and hypertension with age. T cells from tgsm/p22phox m...

  16. Oral encapsulated vascular malformation: An undescribed presentation in the mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Márcio-Américo; Dias, Pedro-de Souza; Martínez-Martínez, Marisol; Sena-Filho, Marcondes; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

    2016-01-01

    Vascular lesions have been classified in two broad categories, hemangiomas and malformations. Encapsulated vascular lesions have not been reported in the oral cavity, but they were described in other sites, mainly in the orbit. Herein, we present a case of an oral encapsulated vascular lesion located in the right buccal mucosa of a 69-year-old male, including histological and immunohistochemical description and a literature review. Key words:Buccal mucosa, hemangioma, vascular malformation, oral cavity. PMID:26855712

  17. Vascular injuries after bear attacks: Incidence, surgical challenges and outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Wani Mohd; Ahangar Abdul; Lone Gh; Lone Reyaz; Ashraf Hakeem; Dar Abdul; Bhat M; Singh Shyam; Bijli Akram; Irshad Ifat

    2011-01-01

    Background : Bear mauling is rarely reported in medical literature due to its rare occurrence. Present study was undertaken to describe the pattern and management of bear maul vascular injuries in Kashmir. Methods : Study of patients with bear maul vascular injury from 1st Jan 2004 to 31st Dec. 2008. Fifteen patients with bear maul vascular injury were studied. All patients of bear maul without vascular injury were excluded from the study. Results : Most of the patients were treated by revers...

  18. Diagnosis and Treatment of Vascular Surgery Related Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong-Gan; Guo, Xue-Li; Song, Yan; Miao, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Chuang; Chen, Ning-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is an important component of infections acquired from hospital. The most significant feature of vascular surgery different from other surgeries is frequent application of artificial grafts. Once SSI occurs after vascular operations with grafts, it might results in a serious disaster. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus are the most common pathogenic bacteria for SSI after vascular surgery. Although SSI in vascular surgery often lacks of ty...

  19. Vascular risk factors and dementia: How to move forward?

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Anand; Rocca, Walter A.; Tzourio, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, accumulating evidence has suggested that vascular risk factors contribute to Alzheimer disease (AD). Vascular dementia had been traditionally considered secondary to stroke and vascular disease. It has been traditionally distinguished from AD, considered to be a purely neurodegenerative form of dementia. However, in light of this more recent literature, it appears that there is a spectrum: ranging from patients with pure vascular dementia to patients with pure AD and includin...

  20. Advances in the Management of Cerebral Vascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Imran Qadir; Hina Kanwal

    2015-01-01

    A cerebral vascular disease occurred with the arteries of brain due to the less supply of blood.  Stroke is mostly caused by cerebral vascular disease and it is also a common cause of vascular dementia due to reduced oxygen supply and blood flow to the brain. In industrialized countries, neurologic disability is most frequently caused by cerebeovascular disease. Individuals with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and high blood pressure etc are at higher possibility for cerebral vascular diseas...

  1. Molecular Mechanisms for Vascular Development and Secondary Cell Wall Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jung Hyun; Wang, Huanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Vascular tissues are important for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant and as physical support of upright growth. The primary constituents of vascular tissues, xylem, and phloem, are derived from the meristematic vascular procambium and cambium. Xylem cells develop secondary cell walls (SCWs) that form the largest part of plant lignocellulosic biomass that serve as a renewable feedstock for biofuel production. For the last decade, research on vascular development and SCW bio...

  2. Using biplanar fluoroscopy to guide radiopaque vascular injections: a new method for vascular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley D O'Brien

    Full Text Available Studying vascular anatomy, especially in the context of relationships with hard tissues, is of great interest to biologists. Vascular studies have provided significant insight into physiology, function, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary patterns. Injection of resin or latex into the vascular system has been a standard technique for decades. There has been a recent surge in popularity of more modern methods, especially radiopaque latex vascular injection followed by CT scanning and digital "dissection." This technique best displays both blood vessels and bone, and allows injections to be performed on cadaveric specimens. Vascular injection is risky, however, because it is not a standardizable technique, as each specimen is variable with regard to injection pressure and timing. Moreover, it is not possible to view the perfusion of injection medium throughout the vascular system of interest. Both data and rare specimens can therefore be lost due to poor or excessive perfusion. Here, we use biplanar video fluoroscopy as a technique to guide craniovascular radiopaque latex injection. Cadaveric domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were injected with radiopaque latex under guidance of fluoroscopy. This method was found to enable adjustments, in real-time, to the rate, location, and pressure at which latex is injected in order to avoid data and specimen loss. In addition to visualizing the injection process, this technique can be used to determine flow patterns, and has facilitated the development of consistent markers for complete perfusion.

  3. Accelerated Vascular Aging as a Paradigm for Hypertensive Vascular Disease: Prevention and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Matthias; Husmann, Marc; Meyer, Matthias R

    2016-05-01

    Aging is considered the most important nonmodifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death after age 28 years. Because of demographic changes the world population is expected to increase to 9 billion by the year 2050 and up to 12 billion by 2100, with several-fold increases among those 65 years of age and older. Healthy aging and prevention of aging-related diseases and associated health costs have become part of political agendas of governments around the world. Atherosclerotic vascular burden increases with age; accordingly, patients with progeria (premature aging) syndromes die from myocardial infarctions or stroke as teenagers or young adults. The incidence and prevalence of arterial hypertension also increases with age. Arterial hypertension-like diabetes and chronic renal failure-shares numerous pathologies and underlying mechanisms with the vascular aging process. In this article, we review how arterial hypertension resembles premature vascular aging, including the mechanisms by which arterial hypertension (as well as other risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, or chronic renal failure) accelerates the vascular aging process. We will also address the importance of cardiovascular risk factor control-including antihypertensive therapy-as a powerful intervention to interfere with premature vascular aging to reduce the age-associated prevalence of diseases such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypertensive nephropathy, and vascular dementia due to cerebrovascular disease. Finally, we will discuss the implementation of endothelial therapy, which aims at active patient participation to improve primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27118295

  4. VASCULAR AGING IN WOMEN: IS ESTROGEN THE FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarlosHermenegildo

    2012-06-01

    In this review, we discuss clinical and experimental data on the effects of aging, estrogens and hormonal replacement therapy on vascular function of females to delve into how menopause and aging contribute jointly to vascular aging and how estrogen modulates the vascular responses at different ages.

  5. Insight into 144 patients with ocular vascular events during VEGF antagonist injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Shahin, Maha; Kofoed, Peter K;

    2012-01-01

    To record ocular vascular events following injections of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) antagonists.......To record ocular vascular events following injections of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) antagonists....

  6. Protein Kinase C Inhibitors as Modulators of Vascular Function and Their Application in Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf A. Khalil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is regulated by multiple neuronal, hormonal, renal and vascular control mechanisms. Changes in signaling mechanisms in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM and extracellular matrix cause alterations in vascular tone and blood vessel remodeling and may lead to persistent increases in vascular resistance and hypertension (HTN. In VSM, activation of surface receptors by vasoconstrictor stimuli causes an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, which forms a complex with calmodulin, activates myosin light chain (MLC kinase and leads to MLC phosphorylation, actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. Vasoconstrictor agonists could also increase the production of diacylglycerol which activates protein kinase C (PKC. PKC is a family of Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent isozymes that have different distributions in various blood vessels, and undergo translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, cytoskeleton or the nucleus during cell activation. In VSM, PKC translocation to the cell surface may trigger a cascade of biochemical events leading to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and MAPK kinase (MEK, a pathway that ultimately increases the myofilament force sensitivity to [Ca2+]i, and enhances actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. PKC translocation to the nucleus may induce transactivation of various genes and promote VSM growth and proliferation. PKC could also affect endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in the extracellular matrix further affecting vascular reactivity and remodeling. In addition to vasoactive factors, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic factors could affect PKC activity. Increased PKC expression and activity have been observed in vascular disease and in certain forms of experimental and human HTN. Targeting of vascular PKC using PKC inhibitors may function in

  7. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Gerecht, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The ability to grow stem cells in the laboratory and to guide their maturation to functional cells allows us to study the underlying mechanisms that govern vasculature differentiation and assembly in health and disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that early stages of vascular growth are exquisitely tuned by biophysical cues from the microenvironment, yet the scientific understanding of such cellular environments is still in its infancy. Comprehending these processes sufficiently to manipulate them would pave the way to controlling blood vessel growth in therapeutic applications. This book assembles the works and views of experts from various disciplines to provide a unique perspective on how different aspects of its microenvironment regulate the differentiation and assembly of the vasculature. In particular, it describes recent efforts to exploit modern engineering techniques to study and manipulate various biophysical cues. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly provides an inter...

  8. Carbon dioxide in vascular imaging and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaoming [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Manninen, H. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Soimakallio, S. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Kuopio (Finland)

    1995-07-01

    Angiography with iodinated contrast agents is bound up with the risks of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity and hypersensitivity, which led to the idea of using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas as a negative contrast medium to eliminate these drawbacks. During the last decade, refinements and experiences have proved carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO{sub 2}-DSA) to be an accurate, safe, and clinically promising vascular imaging modality, with the advantages of no hypersensitivity and no nephrotoxicity as well as minimal patient discomfort. In this article, we have reviewed the history, physical and chemical aspects, techniques, and pathophysiologic changes with the use of CO{sub 2}-DSA as well as some clinical trials. Applications of CO{sub 2} gas in vascular interventions and other imagings, and the advantages and limitations of using CO{sub 2} gas in DSA are also discussed. (orig.).

  9. Carbon dioxide in vascular imaging and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Manninen, H; Soimakallio, S

    1995-07-01

    Angiography with iodinated contrast agents is bound up with the risks of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity and hypersensitivity, which led to the idea of using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as a negative contrast medium to eliminate these drawbacks. During the last decade, refinements and experiences have proved carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO2-DSA) to be an accurate, safe, and clinically promising vascular imaging modality, with the advantages of no hypersensitivity and no nephrotoxicity as well as minimal patient discomfort. In this article, we have reviewed the history, physical and chemical aspects, techniques, and pathophysiologic changes with the use of CO2-DSA as well as some clinical trials. Applications of CO2 gas in vascular interventions and other imagings, and the advantages and limitations of using CO2 gas in DSA are also discussed. PMID:7619608

  10. Mitochondria in vascular health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromparis, Peter; Michelakis, Evangelos D

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryote's mitochondrial network is perhaps the cell's most sophisticated and dynamic responsive sensing system. Integrating metabolic, oxygen, or danger signals with inputs from other organelles, as well as local and systemic signals, mitochondria have a profound impact on vascular function in both health and disease. This review highlights recently discovered aspects of mitochondrial function (oxygen sensing, inflammation, autophagy, and apoptosis) and discusses their role in diseases of both systemic and pulmonary vessels. We also emphasize the role of mitochondria as therapeutic targets for vascular disease. We highlight the intriguing similarities of mitochondria-driven molecular mechanisms in terms of both pathogenesis and therapies in very diverse diseases, such as atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, and cancer, to support the foundation of a new field in medicine: mitochondrial medicine. PMID:23157555

  11. Vascular endothelium receptors and transduction mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Gillis, C; Ryan, Una; Proceedings of the Advanced Studies Institute on "Vascular Endothelium: Receptors and Transduction Mechanisms"

    1989-01-01

    Beyond their obvious role of a barrier between blood and tissue, vascular endothelial cells are now firmly established as active and essential participants in a host of crucial physiological and pathophysiological functions. Probably the two most important factors responsible for promoting the current knowledge of endothelial functions are 1) observations in the late sixties-early seventies that many non-ventilatory properties of the lung could be attributed to the pulmonary endothelium and 2) the establishment, in the early and mid-seventies of procedures for routine culture of vascular endothelial cells. Many of these endothelial functions require the presence of receptors on the surface of the plasma membrane. There is now evidence for the existence among others of muscarinic, a-and /3-adrenergic, purine, insulin, histamine, bradykinin, lipoprotein, thrombin, paf, fibronectin, vitronectin, interleukin and albumin receptors. For some of these ligands, there is evidence only for the existence of endothelial ...

  12. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard

    2010-01-01

    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally....... Similar, in order to be able to train with relevant case mix and numbers, and in order always to have both complex open and endovascular skills on call 24 hours per day, 365 days a year, centralisation into larger units is necessary. The WFVS is important simply looking at the huge demographic differences...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed....

  13. Carbon dioxide in vascular imaging and intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiography with iodinated contrast agents is bound up with the risks of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity and hypersensitivity, which led to the idea of using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as a negative contrast medium to eliminate these drawbacks. During the last decade, refinements and experiences have proved carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO2-DSA) to be an accurate, safe, and clinically promising vascular imaging modality, with the advantages of no hypersensitivity and no nephrotoxicity as well as minimal patient discomfort. In this article, we have reviewed the history, physical and chemical aspects, techniques, and pathophysiologic changes with the use of CO2-DSA as well as some clinical trials. Applications of CO2 gas in vascular interventions and other imagings, and the advantages and limitations of using CO2 gas in DSA are also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Perioperative smoking cessation in vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, M.; Heesemann, Sabine; Tonnesen, H.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of intensive smoking cessation programs on postoperative complications has never before been assessed in soft tissue surgery when smoking cessation is initiated on the day of surgery. Methods: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial conducted at two vascular surgery...... departments in Denmark. The intervention group was offered the Gold Standard Program (GSP) for smoking cessation intervention. The control group was offered the departments' standard care. Inclusion criteria were patients with planned open peripheral vascular surgery and who were daily smokers. According to...... intervention and 21 as controls. There was no difference in 30-day complication rates or 6-week abstinence rates between the two groups. Conclusions: A trial assessing the effect of smoking cessation on postoperative complications on the day of soft tissue surgery is still needed. If another trial is to be...

  15. AUTOMATIC REGISTRATION OF CEREBRAL VASCULAR STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa HERMASSI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a registration method for cerebral vascular structures in the 2D MRA images. The method is based on bifurcation structures. The usual registration methods, based on point matching, largely depend on the branching angels of each bifurcation point. This may cause multiple feature correspondence due to similar branching angels. Hence, bifurcation structures offer better registration. Each bifurcation structure is composed of a master bifurcation point and its three connected neighbors. The characteristic vector of each bifurcation structure consists of the normalized branching angle and length, and it is invariant against translation, rotation, scaling, and even modest distortion. The validation of the registration accuracy is particularly important. Virtual and physical images may provide the gold standard for validation. Also, image databases may in the future provide a source for the objective comparison of different vascular registration methods.

  16. Vascular anomalies of the upper limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular anomalies of the upper extremity are a surgical challenge to the hand surgeons. The treatment modality varies with respect to the presentation, extent of the lesion, progression and their complications. Based on our experience in treating patients with vascular malformations, a protocol has been formulated for their management, which we have found to be very useful and successful. With the use of the tumescent technique and good planning, haemangiomas are best excised in infancy or early childhood. Investigations like contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been found to be a useful tool in the diagnosis and planning of surgery for venous malformations. Embolisation seems to be a safe option in arteriovenous malformations.

  17. Renovascular hypertension causes cerebral vascular remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yamei Tang; Xiangpen Li; Yi Li; Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Ruxun Huang; Ying Peng

    2011-01-01

    Renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRs) were developed using the 2-kidney, 2-clip method. All RHRs at 10 weeks displayed high permeability of the cerebral surface blood vessels. Vascular casts of the RHRs showed that the vascular network was sparse. The arterioles of the RHRs at 10 weeks had smaller lumen diameters, but thicker vessel walls with hyalinosis formation compared with control animals. The endothelial cell membrane appeared damaged, and microthrombus formed. After ischemia, the infarction size was larger in RHRs than in control animals. These results suggest that cerebral arterioles in RHRs underwent structural remodeling. High blood pressure may aggravate the severity of brain injury in cerebral ischemia and affect the recovery of ischemia.

  18. Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) in Vascular Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tehrai

    2007-01-01

    In the evaluation of trauma patients, computed tomo-graphy and CT angiography (CTA) are powerful non-invasive tools that provide a large amount of informa-tion in so little time that they have virtually replaced plain film radiography and catheter angiography. In our hospital, CTA has replaced catheter angiogra-phy for diagnosing most vascular injuries, resulting from penetrating and blunt trauma to head, neck, thorax, abdomen and extremities. This lecture will cover current imaging protocols...

  19. Temporary intravascular shunts for peripheral vascular trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain A

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinylchloride (PVC disposable endotracheal suction catheters were successfully used as temporary intravascular shunts in 5 patients of popliteal artery trauma. These simple shunts should be used routinely in such conditions to immediately re-establish blood supply to the ischaemic limb particularly in patients of polytrauma where systemic anticoagulation is contraindicated. This avoids the inherent delay prior to vascular repair and reduces the incidence of irreversible ischemia.

  20. Engineering vascular development for tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Rivron, Nicolas Clemens

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine aim at restoring a damaged tissue by recreating in vitro or promoting its regeneratin in vovo. The vasculature is central to these therapies for the irrigation of the defective tissue (oxygen, nutrients or circulating regenerative cells) and as an inductive, trophic embedded organ. This thesis describes the in vitro formation of biological vascular networks for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. In a first part, we show the ...

  1. Elastic and Collagenous Networks in Vascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Gayraud, Barbara; Ramirez, Francesco

    2000-01-01

    Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS), Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS IV) are three clinical entities characterized by vascular abnormalities that result from mutations of structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Analyses of naturally occurring human mutations and of artificially generated deficiencies in the mouse have provided insights into the pathogenesis of these heritable disorders of the connective tissue. SVAS is associated with haploinsuf...

  2. Arsenic Induced Decreases in the Vascular Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Allison M.; Lantz, R. Clark; Rodgers, Laurel S.; Sollome, James J.; Vaillancourt, Richard R.; Andrew, Angeline S; Hamilton, Joshua W.; Camenisch, Todd D.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of arsenic is associated with increased incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the role of arsenic in early events in vascular pathology, C57BL/6 mice ingested drinking water with or without 50 ppb sodium arsenite (AsIII) for four, five or eight weeks. At five and eight weeks, RNA from the lungs of control and AsIII exposed animals was processed for microarray. Sixty-five genes were significantly and differentially expressed. Differential expres...

  3. Vascularized networks with two optimized channel sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the development of optimal vascularization for supplying self-healing smart materials with liquid that fills and seals the cracks that may occur throughout their volume. The vascularization consists of two-dimensional grids of interconnected orthogonal channels with two hydraulic diameters (D1, D2). The smallest square loop is designed to match the size (d) of the smallest crack. The network is sealed with respect to the outside and is filled with pressurized liquid. In this work, the crack site is modelled as a small spherical volume of diameter d. When a crack is formed, fluid flows from neighbouring channels to the crack site. This volume-to-point flow is optimized using two formulations: (1) incompressible liquid from steady constant-strength sources located in every node of the grid and from sources located equidistantly on the perimeter of the vascularized body of length scale L and (2) slightly compressible liquid from an initially pressurized grid discharging in time-dependent fashion into one crack site. The flow in every channel is laminar and fully developed. The objectives are (a) to minimize the global resistance to the flow from the grid to the crack site and (b) to minimize the time of discharge from the pressurized grid to the crack site. It is shown that methods (a) and (b) yield similar results. There is an optimal ratio of channel diameters D2/D1 1 D2). The optimized ratio of diameters and the minimized global resistance depend on how the grid intersects the crack site: this effect is minor and stresses the robustness of the vascularized design

  4. The vascular depression hypothesis: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Sneed, Joel R.; Culang-Reinlieb, Michelle E.

    2011-01-01

    Since being proposed as a unique subtype of late-life depression (LLD), the vascular depression hypothesis has received considerable research attention. Although this effort has generated considerable empirical support for the validity of the subtype, fundamental questions remain including how the illness is defined, whether cerebrovascular disease and executive dysfunction (ED) define two separate entities or one underlying subtype, and whether ED is responsible for poor response to antidepr...

  5. Laser Treatment of Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Patrick D.; Sonabend, Michael L.; Levy, Moise L.

    2007-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1967, laser therapy has benefited patients and physicians alike. After the first clinical application by Goldman (Anderson RR, Parrish JA. Science 1983;220:524–527), laser therapy has become indispensable in the management of vascular birthmarks. In selecting a proper balance of wavelength, pulse duration, and energy density (fluence), the physician can mold laser energy to effectively manage lesions once considered untreatable. Now, the vast array of lesions amenabl...

  6. A work atlas of vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a practical, atlas of technique - ideal as a single source reference for radiologists, radiology residents, and internists and surgeons interested in vascular disease. It aids in the performance and interpretation of peripheral angiography, and of patient care for the procedure. In addition it provides a cross-reference between angiographic findings and disease entities, and helps reader to correlate angiography, DSA, CT, ultrasound and nuclear medicine for the most efficient and productive management of the patient

  7. Analgesics and sedatives in vascular interventionist radiologic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventionist radiology routinely requires the use of different drugs (analgesics and sedatives) in the course of a procedure. Aside from their therapeutic action, these drugs can produce secondary or undesirable effects, making necessary an in-depth knowledge of them to assure their safe and efficient management. The aim of this work is to provide the vascular interventionist radiologist with additional information on the management of those drugs that contribute to minimizing patient discomfort and pain in interventionist procedures. Author

  8. Connexins in Vascular Physiology and Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Brisset, Anne C.; Isakson, Brant E; Kwak, Brenda R.

    2009-01-01

    Cellular interaction in blood vessels is maintained by multiple communication pathways, including gap junctions. They consist of intercellular channels ensuring direct interaction between endothelial and smooth muscle cells and the synchronization of their behavior along the vascular wall. Gap-junction channels arise from the docking of two hemichannels or connexons, formed by the assembly of six connexins, and achieve direct cellular communication by allowing the transport of small metabolit...

  9. European red list of vascular plants

    OpenAIRE

    Abeli, Th.; Acevedo Rodríguez, A.; Aguiar, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The European Red List is a review of the conservation status of c. 6,000 European species (mammals, reptiles, amphibians, dragonflies, butterflies, freshwater fishes, and selected groups of beetles, molluscs, and vascular plants) according to IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines. It identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the regional level – in order that appropriate conservation action can be taken to improve their status. This Red List public...

  10. Extraperitoneal approach for vascular operations: retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumacker, H B

    1982-12-01

    Various extraperitoneal approaches for vascular operations have been developed since the external iliac artery was first exposed and ligated in this manner in 1796. By now a considerable number, each capable of modification and extension, have been devised. It is now possible to operate extraperitoneally upon any portion of the abdominal aorta, the iliac arteries, and most of the important aortic visceral branches. PMID:6755736

  11. Vascular malformations of the mandible (intraosseous haemangiomas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibert-Tranier, F.; Piton, J.; Caille, J.M.; Riche, M.C.; Merland, J.J.

    1982-11-01

    Haemangiomas of the mandible are relatively rare arteriovenous malformations: 85 cases have been described since 1849. The severe risk of bleeding during tooth extraction or biopsy led us to describe the radiological and angiographic features of this condition. The afferent vessles are the inferior dental, the lingual and the facial arteries. Preoperative embolization reduces the risk of bleeding at operation. Surgical treatment must assure the complete removal of the lesion. Radiotherapy and vascular ligatures are useless and dangerous.

  12. Vascular malformations of the mandible (intraosseous haemangiomas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemangiomas of the mandible are relatively rare arteriovenous malformations: 85 cases have been described since 1849. The severe risk of bleeding during tooth extraction or biopsy led us to describe the radiological and angiographic features of this condition. The afferent vessles are the inferior dental, the lingual and the facial arteries. Preoperative embolization reduces the risk of bleeding at operation. Surgical treatment must assure the complete removal of the lesion. Radiotherapy and vascular ligatures are useless and dangerous. (orig.)

  13. The Vascular Endothelium and Human Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan; Thangavel, Jayakumar; Nishigaki, Yutaka; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal; Sethi, Gautam; Nishigaki, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Alterations of endothelial cells and the vasculature play a central role in the pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of the most dreadful of human diseases, as endothelial cells have the key function of participating in the maintenance of patent and functional capillaries. The endothelium is directly involved in peripheral vascular disease, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, insulin resistance, chronic kidney failure, tumor growth, metastasis, venous thrombosis, and severe viral infectious diseases...

  14. Preserved saphenous vein allografts for vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccone, V A; Sika, J; Ahmed, N; LeVeen, H H; DiScala, V

    1978-09-01

    Preserved venous allografts were used as an alternate access procedure in 70 patients receiving dialysis during a three year period. The clinical experience with allograft fistulas revealed an extremely high initial patency rate; absence of infection postoperatively and during three years of dialysis; suitability for dialysis a week after implantation, thus greatly obviating the need for Silastic shunts; a low long term thrombosis rate and the weakly antigenic allograft veins produced no accelerated rejection of subsequently transplanted kidneys. Surviving patients average 172 dialysis treatments per allograft. Allograft fistulas constituted 45 per cent of the last 100 vascular procedures, an indication of the extent of usage. Microscopic examination of grafts retrieved from patients who died during the late follow-up period demonstrated that structural components of the wall of the vein were still identifiable. Allograft venous fistulas offer dependable, safe vascular access, especially in the infection prone patient with diabetes who is receiving dialysis treatment. The clinical results of allograft fistulas suggests a major role for this technique in vascular access operations. PMID:684591

  15. Exercise training improves vascular mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Rossman, Matthew J; Gifford, Jayson R; Bharath, Leena P; Bauersachs, Johann; Richardson, Russell S; Abel, E Dale; Symons, J David; Riehle, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Exercise training is recognized to improve cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity; however, the impact of chronic exercise on vascular mitochondrial respiratory function is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise training concomitantly increases both vascular mitochondrial respiratory capacity and vascular function. Arteries from both sedentary (SED) and swim-trained (EX, 5 wk) mice were compared in terms of mitochondrial respiratory function, mitochondrial content, markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and vessel function. Mitochondrial complex I and complex I + II state 3 respiration and the respiratory control ratio (complex I + II state 3 respiration/complex I state 2 respiration) were greater in vessels from EX relative to SED mice, despite similar levels of arterial citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA content. Furthermore, compared with the SED mice, arteries from EX mice displayed elevated transcript levels ofperoxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ coactivator-1αand the downstream targetscytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1,isocitrate dehydrogenase(Idh)2, andIdh3a, increased manganese superoxide dismutase protein expression, increased endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation (Ser(1177)), and suppressed reactive oxygen species generation (allPrespiratory capacity and evidence of improved redox balance, which may, at least in part, be attributable to elevated NO bioavailability, have the potential to protect against age- and disease-related challenges to arterial function. PMID:26825520

  16. VASCULAR REMODELING IN HYPERTENSION: ANGIOGENESIS FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Haisheva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim — cross-sectional study of changes in various segments of the vascular bed in arterial hypertension (AH, defining the role of inducers and inhibitors of angiogenesis in these processes.Materials and methods. The study included 99 patients with arterial hypertension of I–II degree, average age of 63.2 ± 2.6 years, diseaseduration 9.2 ± 7.2 years.Results. It was found that patients with arterial hypertension have disorders in all segments of vascular bed: endothelial dysfunction (highvWF, microcirculatory disorders, and increased pulse wave velocity (PWV of elastic-type vessels. The level of angioginesis factors doesnot depend on such parameters as gender, age, body mass index. Smoking and duration of hypertension influence on vascular endothelialgrowth factor raise and endostatin levels are higher in patients with family history of cardiovascular diseases. Duration of disease is directlycorrelated with microcirculatory disorders and the PWV, correlation between microcirculatory disorders and pulse wave velocity indicatetheir common processes.

  17. Gasotransmitters in Vascular Complications of Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Born, Joost C; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Greffrath, Wolfgang; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2016-02-01

    In the past decades three gaseous signaling molecules-so-called gasotransmitters-have been identified: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). These gasotransmitters are endogenously produced by different enzymes in various cell types and play an important role in physiology and disease. Despite their specific functions, all gasotransmitters share the capacity to reduce oxidative stress, induce angiogenesis, and promote vasorelaxation. In patients with diabetes, a lower bioavailability of the different gasotransmitters is observed when compared with healthy individuals. As yet, it is unknown whether this reduction precedes or results from diabetes. The increased risk for vascular disease in patients with diabetes, in combination with the extensive clinical, financial, and societal burden, calls for action to either prevent or improve the treatment of vascular complications. In this Perspective, we present a concise overview of the current data on the bioavailability of gasotransmitters in diabetes and their potential role in the development and progression of diabetes-associated microvascular (retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy) and macrovascular (cerebrovascular, coronary artery, and peripheral arterial diseases) complications. Gasotransmitters appear to have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects in the course of vascular disease development. This Perspective concludes with a discussion on gasotransmitter-based interventions as a therapeutic option. PMID:26798119

  18. Multimodality vascular imaging phantom for calibration purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Guy; Soulez, Gilles; Teppaz, Pierre; Qanadli, Salah D.; Qin, Zhao; Durand, Louis-Gilles

    2003-05-01

    The objective of the project was to design a vascular phantom compatible with X-ray, ultrasound and MRI. Fiducial markers were implanted at precise known locations in the phantom to facilitate identification and orientation of plane views from the 3D reconstructed images. They also allowed optimizing image fusion and calibration. A vascular conduit connected to tubing at the extremities of the phantom ran through an agar-based gel filling it. A vessel wall in latex was included to avoid diffusion of contrast agents. Using a lost-material casting technique based on a low melting point metal, complex realistic geometries of normal and pathological vessels were modeled. The fiducial markers were detectable in all modalities without distortion. No leak of gadolinium through the vascular wall was observed on MRI for 5h of scan. The potential use of the phantom for calibration, rescaling, and fusion of 3D images obtained from the different modalities as well as its use for the evaluation of intra and inter-modality comparative studies of imaging systems were recently demonstrated by our group (results published in SPIE-2003). Endovascular prostheses were also implanted into the lumen of the phantom to evaluate the extent of metallic imaging artifacts (results submitted elsewhere). In conclusion, the phantom can allow accurate calibration of radiological imaging devices and quantitative comparisons of the geometric accuracy of each radiological imaging method tested.

  19. Pancreatic transplantation: Radiologic evaluation of vascular complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transplantation of the pancreas is an increasingly common therapeutic option for preventing or delaying complications of type I diabetes mellitus. The authors studied the relative roles of various radiologic examinations in diagnosing vascular complications in these grafts including arterial and venous thrombosis, stenosis, and anastomotic leak (the most common vascular factors that necessitate pancreatectomy of the transplant), as defined with pathologic or arteriographic data. The results of 78 scintigraphic flow studies, 40 abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scans, 27 sonograms, and eight color Doppler studies were evaluated in 52 patients who received a total of 27 cadaveric and 26 living-donor grafts over a 12-year period. These results were correlated with the data from 45 gross and microscopic pathologic studies and 37 arteriograms to determine their relative value in enabling detection of graft thrombosis and other vascular complications. Scintigraphy, CT, sonography, and color Doppler were all sensitive in detection of generalized graft abnormalities but lacked specificity in defining the underlying etiologic factors

  20. Vulvar vascular tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 85 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalas, John A; Sangueza, Omar P; Puri, Puja K; Robboy, Stanley J; Selim, Maria A

    2013-02-01

    The subepidermal hormonally sensitive tissue of the vulva is anatomically unique and may give rise to a wide variety of vascular tumors. As a consequence, classifying vulvar vascular lesions has been challenging due both to the wide variety of lesions that may be encountered and the heterogeneity in reporting across several disciplines. The purpose of this study is to present an institutional experience of vulvar vascular lesions. Overall, 85 patients were identified over a 26-year period. Vascular lesions belonging to the following classes included (n, %total) benign vascular tumors (32, 38%), dilatations of preexisting vessels (31, 36%), hyperplasia/reactive (7, 8%), tumors with significant vascular component (11, 13%), malformations (3, 4%), and malignant vascular tumors (1, 1%). Two reaction patterns based on vulvar lymphatic pathology were identified: one is a stromal dominant pattern and the other is a vascular dominant pattern. Vulvar vascular malformations and true vascular malignancies, although rare, may have associated high morbidity. To accurately classify vulvar lymphatic lesions, the pathologist must carefully consider the patient's clinical history taking into account features such as preexisting lymphedema. PMID:23348141

  1. Tratamiento quirúrgico de las malformaciones vasculares Surgical treatment of vascular malformations

    OpenAIRE

    L. Fernández-Alonso

    2004-01-01

    A pesar de los numerosos avances experimentados en las dos últimas décadas, el manejo de las malformaciones vasculares congénitas continúa siendo uno de los mayores enigmas de la medicina moderna sin que existan criterios claros en cuanto a las indicaciones para tratar, y mucho menos en cuanto a los procedimientos terapéuticos más apropiados para cada tipo de lesión. Los resultados del abordaje estrictamente quirúrgico son desalentadores y hoy se admite que las malformaciones vasculares congé...

  2. Neuropathological diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia with implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-05-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is recognised as a neurocognitive disorder, which is explained by numerous vascular causes in the general absence of other pathologies. The heterogeneity of cerebrovascular disease makes it challenging to elucidate the neuropathological substrates and mechanisms of VaD as well as vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Consensus and accurate diagnosis of VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychometric and neuroimaging measures with subsequent pathological confirmation. Pathological diagnosis of suspected clinical VaD requires adequate postmortem brain sampling and rigorous assessment methods to identify important substrates. Factors that define the subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes. Atherosclerotic and cardioembolic diseases appear the most common substrates of vascular brain injury or infarction. Small vessel disease characterised by arteriolosclerosis and lacunar infarcts also causes cortical and subcortical microinfarcts, which appear to be the most robust substrates of cognitive impairment. Diffuse WM changes with loss of myelin and axonal abnormalities are common to almost all subtypes of VaD. Medial temporal lobe and hippocampal atrophy accompanied by variable hippocampal sclerosis are also features of VaD as they are of Alzheimer's disease. Recent observations suggest that there is a vascular basis for neuronal atrophy in both the temporal and frontal lobes in VaD that is entirely independent of any Alzheimer pathology. Further knowledge on specific neuronal and dendro-synaptic changes in key regions resulting in executive dysfunction and other cognitive deficits, which define VCI and VaD, needs to be gathered. Hereditary arteriopathies such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy or CADASIL have provided insights into the mechanisms of

  3. Infecções parasitárias do apêndice cecal e suas relações com apendicite aguda Parasitic infection of the appendix and its possible relationship to acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fernandes da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a prevalência de infecções parasitárias do apêndice cecal e suas relações com a apendicite. Dos 1.600 apêndices estudados 24 (1,5% apresentaram infecção parasitária. Enterobius vermicularis foi encontrado em 23 casos (95,8% e Taenia sp em apenas um (4,2%. Dezesseis pacientes (66,7% eram menores de 10 anos; 15 eram masculinos e 9 femininos. A análise histopatológica demonstrou inflamação aguda supurativa em 12 casos (50%, eosinofilia em 13 (54,2% e hiperplasia linfóide em 10 (41,7%. Complicações como peritonite ocorreram em 11 e gangrena em 3 casos. As infecções parasitárias do apêndice são causa pouco freqüente de apendicite aguda em crianças e adolescentes.From 1,600 surgically removed appendices, 24 (1.5% were found to have helminths. Enterobius vermicularis was observed in 23 of the 24 specimens (95.8% and Taenia sp was detected in only 1 (4.2% case. Sixteen patients (66.7% were less than 10 year-old; 15 patients were male and 9 female. Pathologic analysis disclosed acute neutrophilic inflammation in 12 cases and lymphoid hyperplasia in 10 of the 24 appendices. Gangrenous appendicitis was diagnosed in 3 cases and peritonitis was found in 11 of the 24 infested appendices. Parasitic infection of the appendix is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis in children and adolescents.

  4. Digestibilidade in vitro de leguminosas do semiárido com inóculo cecal de avestruzes In vitro digestibility of legumes from semi-arid with caecal inoculum liquor of ostriches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a digestibilidade in vitro de leguminosas do semiárido nordestino usando inóculo cecal de avestruzes por meio da técnica Tilley e Terry Reversa, usou-se o feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa como referência aos fenos de canafístula (Senna multijuga, de cunhã (Clitoria ternatea, de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, de mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia e de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia. Verificou-se, pelo teste de Duncan (PTo evaluate the in vitro digestibility of forage legume from semi-arid northeast region using caecal inoculum liquor of ostriches with Reverse Tilley and Terry technique, the alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa was used as reference food for comparison between hays of canephori (Senna multijuga, clitoria (Clitoria ternatea, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, kills pasture (Senna obtusifolia and thrush (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia. There was, by Duncan test (P<0.05, significant difference to in vitro digestibility of the nutritional fractions among the legume hays resulting in general mean value of 49.62% for dry matter (DIVMS, of 23.38% for crude protein (DIVPB, of 17.88% for insoluble protein in neutral detergent fiber (DIVPIDN, of 34.52% for neutral detergent fiber (DIVFDN and of 42.07% for neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (DIVFDNcp. The nutritional composition of feedstuffs influenced the fermentative activity of microorganisms from cecum-colon of ostriches in these in vitro incubations, and the better digestibility values were observed for alfalfa hay, followed by kills pasture and leucaena hays, wich were higher than other legumes from semi-arid.

  5. Vascular lesions secondary to osteotomy by corticotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Francesco; Spinelli, Renato; Stilo, Francesco; De Caridi, Giovanni; Mirenda, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Management of vascular traumas is frequently delayed. Vascular injuries after elective operation for bone lengthening or correction of a deformity are very'rare situations. We describe 3 cases. Case 1: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for bone lengthening; immediately presented acute limb ischaemia due to a partial lesion of the popliteal artery, documented by U.S. After 7 h, direct reconstruction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 2: male, aged 27, undergoing directional osteotomy for genu varus correction. For 30 days, constant increase in leg volume and decrease in function. US showed an important haematoma at the popliteal level; arteriography documented a partial lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and a voluminous false aneurysm. Direct correction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 3: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for leg lengthening; immediately presented leg pain with decreased distal pulses. After 4h, there was an increase in leg volume, and arteriography showed a total lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and an arteriovenous fistula. Popliteo-tibial bypass with the contralateral greater saphenous vein and fasciotomies were performed. After 1 month endovascular closure of the fistula was obtained. All patients had recovered after two months with only minor leg insufficiency. Patency of the bypass and absence of infections or delayed false aneurysms were achieved. Vascular injuries after elective orthopaedic procedures are very rare situations. Such lesions are caused by an osteotomy via corticotomy performed percutaneously. The variety of clinical presentations accounts for the difficulty in diagnosing such lesions and for the delays in implementing treatment. It is very important to obtain an early diagnosis complete with an arteriography. PMID:17966782

  6. T cells in vascular inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas L Lintermans

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the human vasculature is a manifestation of many different diseases ranging from systemic autoimmune diseases to chronic inflammatory diseases, in which multiple types of immune cells are involved. For both autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases several observations support a key role for T lymphocytes in these disease pathologies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous studies in several autoimmune diseases have demonstrated a significant role for a specific subset of CD4+ T cells termed effector memory T cells. This expanded population of effector memory T cells may contribute to tissue injury and disease progression. These cells exert multiple pro-inflammatory functions through the release of effector cytokines. Many of these cytokines have been detected in the inflammatory lesions and participate in the vasculitic reaction, contributing to recruitment of macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, NK cells, B cells and T cells. In addition, functional impairment of regulatory T cells paralyzes anti-inflammatory effects in vasculitic disorders. Interestingly, activation of effector memory T cells in uniquely dependent on the voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channel providing an anchor for specific drug targeting. In this review, we focus on the CD4+ T cells in the context of vascular inflammation and describe the evidence supporting the role of different T cell subsets in vascular inflammation. Selective targeting of pathogenic effector memory T cells might enable a more tailored therapeutic approach that avoids unwanted adverse side effects of generalized immunosuppression by modulating the effector functions of T cell responses to inhibit the development of vascular inflammation.

  7. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism. PMID:14988915

  8. Percutaneous Cryotherapy of Vascular Malformation: Initial Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes a case of percutaneous cryotherapy in a 36-year-old woman with a large and painful pectoral venous malformation. Cryoablation was performed in a single session for this 9-cm mass with 24 h hospitalisation. At 2- and 6-month follow-up, the pain had completely disappeared, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a significant decrease in size. Percutaneous cryoablation shows promise as a feasible and apparently safe method for local control in patients with symptomatic venous vascular malformations.

  9. Quality Estimation for Vascular Pattern Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Daniel; Martin, Sophie; Busch, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The quality of captured samples is a critical aspect in biometric systems. In this paper we present a quality estimation algorithm for vascular images, which uses global and local features based on a Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and optionally available metadata. An evaluation of the...... algorithm using different processing methods and vein sample databases shows convincing results: disregarding low estimated quality sample images helps to increase the performance. Moreover, metadata gives accurate indications on sample quality. The algorithm works on low level raw images, it is fast and...

  10. Water Movement in Vascular Plants: A Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Sane, Sanjay P.; Singh, Amit K.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of land plants was one of the most important events in evolutionary history of earth in terms of its broad impact on metazoan life and the biotic environment. Because vascular tissues enabled land plants to meet the challenges of terrestrial life, it is important to understand the mechanistic basis of water transport through these tissues from soil to the canopy of trees, in some cases almost 100 meters high. The answers to these questions involve not only the biology of plant vasc...

  11. Percutaneous Cryotherapy of Vascular Malformation: Initial Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelis, F., E-mail: francoiscornelis@hotmail.com [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Neuville, A. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Pathology (France); Labreze, C. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Pediatric Dermatology (France); Kind, M. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Bui, B. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Oncology (France); Midy, D. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (France); Palussiere, J. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology (France)

    2013-06-15

    The present report describes a case of percutaneous cryotherapy in a 36-year-old woman with a large and painful pectoral venous malformation. Cryoablation was performed in a single session for this 9-cm mass with 24 h hospitalisation. At 2- and 6-month follow-up, the pain had completely disappeared, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a significant decrease in size. Percutaneous cryoablation shows promise as a feasible and apparently safe method for local control in patients with symptomatic venous vascular malformations.

  12. Acute cerebral vascular accident associated with hyperperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral radionuclide angiography can demonstrate decreased or normal radioactivity in the affected region during the arterial phase in patients who have sustained a cerebral vascular accident and thus enhances the diagnostic specificity of the static brain image. In an occasional patient, however, a seemingly paradoxical pattern of regional hyperperfusion with a return to normal or subnormal perfusion following the acute phase has been observed. This phenomenon, called luxury perfusion, has been defined using intra-arterial 133Xe for semiquantitative cerebral blood flow measurements and should be kept in mind as a potentially misleading cerebral imaging pattern

  13. Endogenous pancreatic polypeptide in different vascular beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Schwartz, Tania; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    The plasma concentration of pancreatic polypeptide (PP-like immunoreactivity) was measured in different vascular beds in order to determine regional kinetics of endogenous PP in fasting, supine subjects with normal or moderately decreased kidney function. Patients with kidney disease (n = 10) had a...... concentration (r = 0.70, P less than 0.01). Hepatic venous PP was significantly higher than systemic PP in both controls and patients with kidney disease (P less than 0.001, n = 15). The values were positively correlated (r = 0.98, P less than 0.001; slope = 1.37 +/- 0.05, P less than 0.001), indicating a...

  14. Angiogenesis: the genetic regulation of vascular development

    OpenAIRE

    Haasdijk, Remco Anton

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ For centuries, many scientists are fascinated by the organisation of the vascular network. The Greek philosopher and polymath Aristotle (384 BC) was one of the first man who described the vasculature. He wrote: “the system of blood vessels in the body may be compared to those of water-courses which are constructed in gardens: they start from one source, or spring, and branch off into numerous channels, and then into still more, and so on progressively, so as to ca...

  15. Advances in the Management of Cerebral Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Qadir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cerebral vascular disease occurred with the arteries of brain due to the less supply of blood.  Stroke is mostly caused by cerebral vascular disease and it is also a common cause of vascular dementia due to reduced oxygen supply and blood flow to the brain. In industrialized countries, neurologic disability is most frequently caused by cerebeovascular disease. Individuals with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and high blood pressure etc are at higher possibility for cerebral vascular disease. After malignancy and heart disease, cerebral vascular disease is the third leading of death and estimated that an average 500,000 new stroke occurred in each year. Advance techniques such as Carotid Endarterectomy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Angiography and Single photon emission computed tomography etc are used for management of cerebral vascular disease.

  16. Characterization of vascular tree architecture using the Tokunaga taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarreta-Valverde, Miguel A.; Zoghbi, Jihan M.; Pereira, Fabricio; Beregi, Jean-Paul; Mekkaoui, Choukri; Jackowski, Marcel P.

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of cardiovascular disease is usually assisted by resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA) imaging. The identification of abnormal vascular architecture from angiographic three-dimensional images is therefore crucial to the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Automated detection and quantification of vascular structure and architecture thus holds significant clinical value. In this work, we employ a Lindenmayer system to represent vascular trees from angiographic images and describe a quantitative measure based on the Tokunaga taxonomy to differentiate vascular architectures. Synthetic vessel architectures with varying bifurcation patterns were compared and results showed that this architectural measure is proportional to the level of branching. In real MRA images, this measure was able to differentiate between normal and abnormal intracerebral vasculature containing an aneurysm. Hence, this methodology not only allows for compact representation of vascular architectures but also provides a quantitative metric of bifurcation complexity, which has the potential to characterize different types of vascular abnormalities.

  17. Local Augmented Angiotensinogen Secreted from Apoptotic Vascular Endothelial Cells Is a Vital Mediator of Vascular Remodelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Jong Wu

    Full Text Available Vascular remodelling is a critical vasculopathy found in atheromatous diseases and allograft failures. The local renin angiotensin system (RAS has been implicated in vascular remodelling. However, the mechanisms by which the augmented local RAS is associated with the initial event of endothelial cell apoptosis in injured vasculature remain undefined. We induced the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs through serum starvation (SS. After the cells were subjected to SS, we found that the mRNA expression of angiotensinogen (AGT was increased by >3-fold in HUVECs and by approximately 2.5-fold in VSMCs. In addition, the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE mRNA was increased in VSMCs but decreased to 50% in HUVECs during the same apoptotic process. Increases in the expression of AGT protein and angiotensin II (Ang II were found in a serum-free medium conditioned by HUVECs (SSC. The increased Ang II was suppressed using lisinopril (an ACE inhibitor treatment. Moreover, the activation of ERK1/2 induced by the SSC in VSMCs was also suppressed by losartan. In conclusion, we first demonstrated that the augmented AGT released from apoptotic endothelial cells acts as a vital progenitor of Ang II to accelerate vascular remodelling, and we suggest that blocking local augmented Ang II might be an effective strategy for restraining intimal hyperplasia.

  18. Whole-body MR vascular screening detects unsuspected concomitant vascular disease in coronary heart disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) patients often show atherosclerotic vascular disease in other vascular territories. We evaluated how often whole-body MR imaging detects concomitant arterial pathologies in CHD patients, and how often these pathologies were not known to the patients previously. Of 4,814 participants in the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, 327 reported CHD (i.e., previous coronary bypass surgery, angioplasty); of those, 160 patients (mean age 66.4 years) were examined using MR of the brain, the heart (excluding the coronary arteries), and whole-body MR angiography. The prevalence of each vascular pathology was assessed, correlated to the others and compared to patients' histories. Of the 160 CHD patients, 16 (10%) showed MR signs of stroke, and 77 (48.1%) had a stenosis >50% in at least one extracerebral peripheral artery (other than the coronaries), including 28 (17.5%) with relevant renal artery stenoses, and 20 (12.5%) with relevant extracerebral internal carotid artery stenoses. False negative histories were reported in 12 of 81 cases with myocardial infarctions, and in 11 of 16 cases with cerebrovascular infarctions. This whole-body atherosclerosis MR screening program allows previously unknown concomitant vascular disease to be detected in coronary heart disease patients. Its prospective value should be assessed in further studies. (orig.)

  19. Whole-body MR vascular screening detects unsuspected concomitant vascular disease in coronary heart disease patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, Susanne C.; Nuefer, Michael; Gizewski, Elke; Wanke, Isabel; Ladd, Mark E.; Forsting, Michael [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Debatin, Joerg F. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Stang, Andreas [Martin-Luther University, Medical Faculty, Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biometry and Informatics, Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Bromen, Katja [DG INFSO, European Commission, Brussels (Belgium); Moebus, Susanne; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz [University Hospital, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Essen (Germany); Doerfler, Arnd [University of Erlangen Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Benemann, Jens [University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Essen (Germany); Erbel, Raimund; Schmermund, Axel [University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Essen (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) patients often show atherosclerotic vascular disease in other vascular territories. We evaluated how often whole-body MR imaging detects concomitant arterial pathologies in CHD patients, and how often these pathologies were not known to the patients previously. Of 4,814 participants in the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, 327 reported CHD (i.e., previous coronary bypass surgery, angioplasty); of those, 160 patients (mean age 66.4 years) were examined using MR of the brain, the heart (excluding the coronary arteries), and whole-body MR angiography. The prevalence of each vascular pathology was assessed, correlated to the others and compared to patients' histories. Of the 160 CHD patients, 16 (10%) showed MR signs of stroke, and 77 (48.1%) had a stenosis >50% in at least one extracerebral peripheral artery (other than the coronaries), including 28 (17.5%) with relevant renal artery stenoses, and 20 (12.5%) with relevant extracerebral internal carotid artery stenoses. False negative histories were reported in 12 of 81 cases with myocardial infarctions, and in 11 of 16 cases with cerebrovascular infarctions. This whole-body atherosclerosis MR screening program allows previously unknown concomitant vascular disease to be detected in coronary heart disease patients. Its prospective value should be assessed in further studies. (orig.)

  20. Pathophysiology of Headaches with a Prominent Vascular Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Pareja

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular changes, whether preliminary or secondary, seem to accompany most headaches. The literature concerning pathophysiological mechanisms in headaches where vascular phenomena are a major, integral part, ie, migraine and cluster headache syndrome, is reviewed and the most common forms of headache associated with cerebrovascular disease are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the vascular phenomena and on the abundant hypotheses and theories regarding headache mechanisms. This review also presents alternative explanatory models, and compares the available anatomical, physiological and biochemical results.

  1. Bone Marrow Vascular Niche: Home for Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ningning He; Lu Zhang; Jian Cui; Zongjin Li

    2014-01-01

    Though discovered later than osteoblastic niche, vascular niche has been regarded as an alternative indispensable niche operating regulation on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). As significant progresses gained on this type niche, it is gradually clear that the main work of vascular niche is undertaking to support hematopoiesis. However, compared to what have been defined in the mechanisms through which the osteoblastic niche regulates hematopoiesis, we know less in vascular niche. In this rev...

  2. MR imaging of soft-tissue vascular lesons: pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the evaluation of vascular lesions, MR can be used to distinguish slow- from high- flow lesions on the basis of the observed spin-echo MR signal characteristics. MR imaging can also represent features of the static tissues of the vascular lesions that are composed of fibrofatty components, as well as thromboses, phleboliths and muscle atrophy. This paper illustrates the MR findings of various vascular lesions, correlating them with the pathologic specimen and emphasizing on the static tissues

  3. Comparative vascular audit using the POSSUM scoring system.

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, G P; Jones, D.; Wilcox, A.; Harris, P. L.

    1993-01-01

    Comparative audit using overall mortality and morbidity figures can be misleading as they do not take into account variations in surgical procedure and patient fitness. To examine these effects we have compared vascular surgery in two differing hospitals, during a similar 9-month period, using the POSSUM scoring system. In one unit, 255 patients underwent vascular surgery with an operative mortality of 9.4%, and morbidity of 37.3%. In the other unit, 89 patients underwent vascular procedures ...

  4. Evaluation of vascular rings with digital subtraction angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, I L; Gold, R E; Moser, D; Laster, R E

    1984-06-01

    Seven patients with vascular rings were evaluated over a 2-year period with intravenous digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which was compared with screen-film aortography or cineangiography. The seven patients were also evaluated with barium esophagography. Six of the seven DSA images were totally diagnostic and one study was only partly diagnostic. Six of the seven vascular anomalies were confirmed surgically. DSA is suggested as an alternative to arteriography in evaluating patients with suspected vascular rings. PMID:6372419

  5. Human Vascular Endothelium from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, William James

    2013-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is a dynamic cellular interface that displays a unique phenotypic plasticity. This plasticity is critical for vascular function and when dysregulated is pathogenic in several diseases. The development of new human endothelial genotype-phenotype studies, personalized vascular medicine efforts and cell based regenerative therapies are limited by the unavailability of patient-specific endothelial cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) offer great promise as a new p...

  6. Sox17 is required for normal pulmonary vascular morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Alexander W.; Haitchi, Hans Michael; LeCras, Timothy D.; Sridharan, Anusha; Xu, Yan; Wert, Susan E.; James, Jeanne; Udell, Nicholas; Thurner, Philipp J.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    The SRY-box containing transcription factor Sox17 is required for endoderm formation and vascular morphogenesis during embryonic development. In the lung, Sox17 is expressed in mesenchymal progenitors of the embryonic pulmonary vasculature and is restricted to vascular endothelial cells in the mature lung. Conditional deletion of Sox17 in splanchnic mesenchyme-derivatives using Dermo1-Cre resulted in substantial loss of Sox17 from developing pulmonary vascular endothelial cells and caused pul...

  7. Vascularization of the Pineal Gland in the Crow

    OpenAIRE

    Nasu, Tetsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Murakami, Noboru

    1994-01-01

    The blood vascularization in the pineal gland of the crow was investigated in detail using a vascular corrosion cast technique and by scanning electron microscopy. The pineal gland received two afferent arteries on either side, each artery arising from the A. Cerebra{is Caudalis (CC) which supplied its branches to the hemisphere. The pineal gland of the crow was so highly vascularized as to be suggestive of its high metabolic and endocrine activities. The efferent veins drained into the Sinus...

  8. Current Concepts: Laser Treatment of Adult Vascular Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Tomi L.

    2007-01-01

    Patients frequently seek treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions for both medical and cosmetic reasons. Advances in the use of lasers and light sources enable physicians to effectively treat vascular lesions that were previously untreatable. Given the plethora of devices available, selecting the appropriate laser system and treatment parameters can be confusing for the laser surgeon. This article reviews current concepts in the treatment of adult vascular conditions. It highlights the differe...

  9. Functional Integration of Acute Myeloid Leukemia into the Vascular Niche

    OpenAIRE

    Cogle, Christopher R.; Goldman, Devorah C.; Madlambayan, Gerard J; Leon, Ronald P.; Masri, Azzah Al; Clark, Hilary A.; Asbaghi, Steven A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Dunlap, Jennifer; Fan, Guang; Kovacsovics, Tibor; Liu, Qiuying; Meacham, Amy; Hamlin, Kimberly L.; Hromas, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are a critical component of the hematopoietic microenvironment that regulates blood cell production. Recent studies suggest the existence of functional cross-talk between hematologic malignancies and vascular endothelium. Here, we show that human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) localizes to the vasculature in both patients and in a xenograft model. A significant number of vascular tissue-associated AML cells (V-AML) integrate into vasculature in vivo and can fuse with ...

  10. Role of Endothelin in Uteroplacental Circulation and Fetal Vascular Function

    OpenAIRE

    Paradis, Alexandra; Zhang, Lubo

    2013-01-01

    Endothelins are 21-amino acid peptides involved in vascular homeostasis. Three types of peptide have been identified, with endothelin-1 (ET-1) being the most potent vasoconstrictor currently known. Two endothelin receptor sub-types are found in various tissues, including the brain, heart, blood vessel, lung, and placenta. The ETA-receptor is associated with vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle. Conversely, the ETB-receptor can elicit a vasoconstrictor effect in vascular smooth muscle an...

  11. A new venture with sclerotherapy in an oral vascular lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Sitra, G.; Kayalvizhi, E. B.; Sivasankari, T.; Vishwanath, R.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular malformations are one of the most common lesions of the oral cavity. The lesion may be a congenital malformation observed in neonates or arteriovenous malformation observed in adults. Various surgical and medical managements are possible for vascular lesions which include surgical excision, laser therapy, cryotherapy, selective embolization, intralesional sclerosing agents, β-blockers and steroid therapy. Here we report a case of oral vascular lesion where intralesional injection wit...

  12. Tratamiento quirúrgico de las malformaciones vasculares Surgical treatment of vascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fernández-Alonso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los numerosos avances experimentados en las dos últimas décadas, el manejo de las malformaciones vasculares congénitas continúa siendo uno de los mayores enigmas de la medicina moderna sin que existan criterios claros en cuanto a las indicaciones para tratar, y mucho menos en cuanto a los procedimientos terapéuticos más apropiados para cada tipo de lesión. Los resultados del abordaje estrictamente quirúrgico son desalentadores y hoy se admite que las malformaciones vasculares congénitas deben ser atendidas y tratadas por unidades multidisciplinares aunando los esfuerzos de todos los especialistas implicados en su manejo. En este trabajo se revisan los principios generales del tratamiento quirúrgico de las malformaciones vasculares congénitas sin perder de vista que el papel tradicional de la cirugía aislada en el tratamiento de las malformaciones vasculares congénitas ha sido sustituido por el enfoque multidisciplinar de este tipo de lesiones, permitiendo que la integración de la embolización, la escleroterapia y la cirugía mejoren los resultados. La combinación de estas técnicas reduce el riesgo y las complicaciones que existían cuando eran aplicadas de forma aislada. Por tanto, el tratamiento quirúrgico debe considerarse, no como una herramienta de tratamiento independiente sino como un arma terapéutica integrada en el conjunto de medidas encaminadas a mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente con una malformación vascular congénitaIn spite of the numerous advances made over the last two decades, the treatment of congenital vascular malformations continues to be one of the greatest enigmas facing modern medicine. There are no clear criteria concerning the indications to be followed, and even less concerning the most appropriate therapeutic procedures for each type of lesion. The results of a strictly surgical approach are discouraging and today it is accepted that congenital vascular malformations should be

  13. Atividade microbiana cecal e contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes fontes de fibra e níveis de amido Caecal microbial activity and caecotrophy nutritional contribution in rabbits fed diets with different starch levels and fiber sources

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda; Darci Clementino Lopes; Walter Motta Ferreira; Horacio Santiago Rostagno; Augusto Cesar de Queiroz; Elzânia Sales Pereira; José Francisco da Silva; Gulab Newandram Jham

    2003-01-01

    Objetivou-se neste estudo a avaliação da atividade microbiana cecal e a contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de amido (22 a 32% em média) mediante a inclusão de milho grão e diferentes fontes de fibra (feno de alfafa ou casca de soja), em esquema fatorial 2x2. No primeiro experimento, 40 coelhos alojados em gaiolas de engorda individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados à vontade dos 45 aos 85 dias de idade,...

  14. 3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Perfahl, H.

    2012-11-01

    We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.

  15. Serious Vascular Complications after Nonsurgical Rhinoplasty: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiqing; Liu, Yu; Fan, Dongliang

    2016-04-01

    There has been an increased global demand for dermal filler injections in recent years. Although hyaluronic acid-based dermal fillers generally have a good safety profile, serious vascular complications have been reported. Here we present a typical case of skin necrosis following a nonsurgical rhinoplasty using hyaluronic acid filler. Despite various rescuing managements, unsightly superficial scars were left. It is critical for plastic surgeons and dermatologists to be familiar with the vascular anatomy and the staging of vascular complications. Any patients suspected to experience a vascular complication should receive early management under close monitoring. Meanwhile, the potentially devastating outcome caused by illegal practice calls for stricter regulations and law enforcement. PMID:27200245

  16. The vascular hybrid room--operating room of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Lovricević, Ivo; Zovak, Mario; Schmidt, Sasa

    2010-09-01

    The last two decades have seen a paradigm shift in the treatment of vascular related diseases from once traditional open surgical repairs to the entire vascular tree being amenable to percutaneous interventions. Neither the classic operating room nor the conventional angiography suite is optimal for both open surgery and endovascular procedures. Important issues for the vascular hybrid operating room include quality of the imaging equipment, radiation burden, ease of use of the equipment, need for specially trained personnel, ergonomics, ability to perform both open and percutaneous procedures, sterile environments, as well as quality and efficiency of patient care. The most important feature of working in a dedicated hybrid vascular suite should be the ability to attain best treatment of vascular patients. Whether the interventional radiologist or the vascular surgeon uses the facilities is of less importance. Establishment of an endovascular operating room suite has the benefit of a sterile environment, and the possibility of performing hybrid procedures and conversions when necessary. Moreover, angiography immediately before treatment gives contemporary anatomical information, and after treatment provides quality control. Consequently, better quality and service can be provided to the individual patient. These changes in the treatment of vascular disease require that a new type of vascular specialist, named 'vascular hybrid surgeon', trained to perform both endovascular and open surgical procedures in this highly complex patient group. PMID:21462818

  17. Drinking citrus fruit juice inhibits vascular remodeling in cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arika Ohnishi

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1 Control (water (C, 2 10% Citrus unshiu (CU juice (CU10, 3 40% CU juice (CU40, 4 10% Citrus iyo (CI juice (CI10, and 5 40% CI juice (CI40. After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI.

  18. Drinking citrus fruit juice inhibits vascular remodeling in cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI. PMID:25692290

  19. Vinpocetine suppresses pathological vascular remodeling by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yujun; Knight, Walter E; Guo, Shujie; Li, Jian-Dong; Knight, Peter A; Yan, Chen

    2012-11-01

    Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) activation is associated with various vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, in-stent restenosis, vein graft disease, and transplantation-associated vasculopathy. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. However, its role in pathological vascular remodeling remains unexplored. Herein, we show that systemic administration of vinpocetine significantly reduced neointimal formation in carotid arteries after ligation injury. Vinpocetine also markedly decreased spontaneous remodeling of human saphenous vein explants in ex vivo culture. In cultured SMCs, vinpocetine dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and caused G1-phase cell cycle arrest, which is associated with a decrease in cyclin D1 and an increase in p27Kip1 levels. In addition, vinpocetine dose-dependently inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated SMC migration as determined by the two-dimensional migration assays and three-dimensional aortic medial explant invasive assay. Moreover, vinpocetine significantly reduced PDGF-induced type I collagen and fibronectin expression. It is noteworthy that PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), but not protein kinase B, was specifically inhibited by vinpocetine. Vinpocetine powerfully attenuated intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production, which largely mediates the inhibitory effects of vinpocetine on ERK1/2 activation and SMC growth. Taken together, our results reveal a novel function of vinpocetine in attenuating neointimal hyperplasia and pathological vascular remodeling, at least partially through suppressing ROS production and ERK1/2 activation in SMCs. Given the safety profile of vinpocetine, this study provides insight into the therapeutic potential of vinpocetine in proliferative vascular disorders. PMID:22915768

  20. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and pharmacological treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; Bo; Su

    2015-01-01

    The endothelium exerts multiple actions involving regulation of vascular permeability and tone, coagulation and fibrinolysis, inflammatory and immunological reactions and cell growth. Alterations of one or more such actions may cause vascular endothelial dysfunction. Different risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, homocystinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, smo-king, inflammation, and aging contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction are multiple, including impaired endothelium-derived vasodilators, enhanced endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors, over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, activation of inflammatory and immune reactions, and imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in many cardiovascular diseases, which involves different mechanisms, depending on specific risk factors affecting the disease. Among these mechanisms, a reduction in nitric oxide(NO) bioavailability plays a central role in the development of endothelial dysfunction because NO exerts diverse physiological actions, including vasodilation, anti-inflammation, antiplatelet, antiproliferation and antimigration. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that a variety of currently used or investigational drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT1 receptors blockers, angiotensin-(1-7), antioxidants, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, endothelial NO synthase enhancers, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, sphingosine-1-phosphate and statins, exert endothelial protective effects. Due to the difference in mechanisms of action, these drugs need to be used according to specific mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction of the disease.

  1. Vascular Aging: Lessons From Pediatric Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Feber, Janusz; Ruzicka, Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension (HTN) in children is associated with early vascular aging (EVA) and underlying immunologic-metabolic abnormalities and accelerated biological maturation. Morphologic and functional vascular changes underlying EVA and HTN in children resemble those seen in the elderly including but not limited to an increase in intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction. Although progeria syndrome leading to EVA and the development of clinically manifested cardiovascular (CV) disease in the second decade of life is a rare hereditary disorder, primary HTN, which is also associated with EVA, is much more common (reported in up to 10% in adolescents). EVA associated with HTN in children leads to the premature development of target organ injury in childhood and CV events in early adulthood. Limited evidence from prospective observational studies in children and adolescents indicates that early lifestyle measures (low salt/low sugar intake and exercise) or pharmacologic treatment of HTN, or both, partially reverses morphologic and functional changes underlying EVA such as an increase in carotid IMT and pulse wave velocity, a decrease in flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, and an increase in oxidative stress and visceral fat. Future mechanistic and therapeutic clinical trials are desirable to assess the mechanisms and treatment strategies of EVA in the context of HTN in children and their effect on CV events in early adulthood. PMID:27040097

  2. Vascular hemichorea: case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Martínez Alfonzo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chorea rarely complicates ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebral vascular lesions. Clinical symptoms usually involve one side of the body while the injury is situated on the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Spontaneous remission is the norm, but sometimes symptomatic treatment is required. A 58-year-old male patient who suffers from untreated high blood pressure, type II obesity, smokes 6 packs of cigarettes per year and has a moderate intake of alcohol is presented. The patient’s recent history began three days before he appeared at the Emergency Department. His symptoms were ceaseless, involuntary movements in his left arm and foot during day and night with no restriction of voluntary movements. Physical examination and laboratory tests revealed no other findings. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hyperintensity in the right posterolateral thalamic region consistent with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Symptomatic therapy was indicated and his underlying conditions were addressed. The importance of this case lies on the low prevalence as well as the scarcity of publications regarding vascular causes of hemichorea, including diagnosis, therapy and prognosis.

  3. Morphogeometric Approaches to Non-vascular Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Daniel E; Reeb, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Morphometric analysis of organisms has undergone a dramatic renaissance in recent years, embracing a range of novel computational and imaging techniques to provide new approaches to phenotypic characterization. These innovations have often developed piece-meal, and may reflect the taxonomic specializations and biases of their creators. In this review, we aim to provide a brief introduction to applications and applicability of modern morphometrics to non-vascular land plants, an often overlooked but evolutionarily and ecologically important group. The scale and physiology of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) differ in important and informative ways from more "traditional" model plants, and their inclusion has the potential to powerfully broaden perspectives in plant morphology. In particular we highlight three areas where the "bryophytic perspective" shows considerable inter-disciplinary potential: (i) bryophytes as models for intra-specific and inter-specific phenotypic variation, (ii) bryophyte growth-forms as areas for innovation in architectural modularity, and (iii) bryophytes as models of ecophysiological integration between organs, individuals, and stands. We suggest that advances should come from two-way dialog: the translation and adoption of techniques recently developed for vascular plants (and other organisms) to bryophytes and the use of bryophytes as model systems for the innovation of new techniques and paradigms in morphogeometric approaches. PMID:27446146

  4. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed. PMID:22529137

  5. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao;

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observ......Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case......-controlled observational study investigated whether the brains of human subjects with familial CCM show vascular hyperpermeability by dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, in comparison with CCM cases without familial disease, and whether lesional or brain vascular permeability...... correlates with CCM disease activity. Permeability in white matter far (WMF) from lesions was significantly greater in familial than in sporadic cases, but was similar in CCM lesions. Permeability in WMF increased with age in sporadic patients, but not in familial cases. Patients with more aggressive...

  6. Hypertension in Metabolic Syndrome: Vascular Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Mendizábal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular symptoms: insulin resistance (IR, obesity, dyslipemia. Hypertension and vascular disorders are central to this syndrome. After a brief historical review, we discuss the role of sympathetic tone. Subsequently, we examine the link between endothelial dysfunction and IR. NO is involved in the insulin-elicited capillary vasodilatation. The insulin-signaling pathways causing NO release are different to the classical. There is a vasodilatory pathway with activation of NO synthase through Akt, and a vasoconstrictor pathway that involves the release of endothelin-1 via MAPK. IR is associated with an imbalance between both pathways in favour of the vasoconstrictor one. We also consider the link between hypertension and IR: the insulin hypothesis of hypertension. Next we discuss the importance of perivascular adipose tissue and the role of adipokines that possess vasoactive properties. Finally, animal models used in the study of vascular function of metabolic syndrome are reviewed. In particular, the Zucker fatty rat and the spontaneously hypertensive obese rat (SHROB. This one suffers macro- and microvascular malfunction due to a failure in the NO system and an abnormally high release of vasoconstrictor prostaglandins, all this alleviated with glitazones used for metabolic syndrome therapy.

  7. VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) induced vascular insufficiency in zebrafish as a model for studying vascular toxicity and vascular preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shang; Dang, Yuan Ye; Oi Lam Che, Ginny [State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine and Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao (China); Kwan, Yiu Wa [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Chan, Shun Wan [State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Leung, George Pak Heng [Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lee, Simon Ming Yuen, E-mail: simonlee@umac.mo [State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine and Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao (China); Hoi, Maggie Pui Man, E-mail: maghoi@umac.mo [State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine and Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao (China)

    2014-11-01

    In ischemic disorders such as chronic wounds and myocardial ischemia, there is inadequate tissue perfusion due to vascular insufficiency. Besides, it has been observed that prolonged use of anti-angiogenic agents in cancer therapy produces cardiovascular toxicity caused by impaired vessel integrity and regeneration. In the present study, we used VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) to chemically induce vascular insufficiency in zebrafish in vivo and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro to further study the mechanisms of vascular morphogenesis in these pathological conditions. We also explored the possibility of treating vascular insufficiency by enhancing vascular regeneration and repair with pharmacological intervention. We observed that pretreatment of VRI induced blood vessel loss in developing zebrafish by inhibiting angiogenesis and increasing endothelial cell apoptosis, accompanied by down-regulation of kdr, kdrl and flt-1 genes expression. The VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish could be restored by post-treatment of calycosin, a cardiovascular protective isoflavone. Similarly, VRI induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HUVEC which could be rescued by calycosin post-treatment. Further investigation of the underlying mechanisms showed that the PI3K/AKT/Bad cell survival pathway was a main contributor of the vascular regenerative effect of calycosin. These findings indicated that the cardiovascular toxicity in anti-angiogenic therapy was mainly caused by insufficient endothelial cell survival, suggesting its essential role in vascular integrity, repair and regeneration. In addition, we showed that VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish represented a simple and effective in vivo model for studying vascular insufficiency and evaluating cancer drug vascular toxicities. - Highlights: • In vivo VRI model • Rescue effects of calycosin • Calycosin EC survival pathways.

  8. VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) induced vascular insufficiency in zebrafish as a model for studying vascular toxicity and vascular preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ischemic disorders such as chronic wounds and myocardial ischemia, there is inadequate tissue perfusion due to vascular insufficiency. Besides, it has been observed that prolonged use of anti-angiogenic agents in cancer therapy produces cardiovascular toxicity caused by impaired vessel integrity and regeneration. In the present study, we used VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) to chemically induce vascular insufficiency in zebrafish in vivo and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro to further study the mechanisms of vascular morphogenesis in these pathological conditions. We also explored the possibility of treating vascular insufficiency by enhancing vascular regeneration and repair with pharmacological intervention. We observed that pretreatment of VRI induced blood vessel loss in developing zebrafish by inhibiting angiogenesis and increasing endothelial cell apoptosis, accompanied by down-regulation of kdr, kdrl and flt-1 genes expression. The VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish could be restored by post-treatment of calycosin, a cardiovascular protective isoflavone. Similarly, VRI induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HUVEC which could be rescued by calycosin post-treatment. Further investigation of the underlying mechanisms showed that the PI3K/AKT/Bad cell survival pathway was a main contributor of the vascular regenerative effect of calycosin. These findings indicated that the cardiovascular toxicity in anti-angiogenic therapy was mainly caused by insufficient endothelial cell survival, suggesting its essential role in vascular integrity, repair and regeneration. In addition, we showed that VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish represented a simple and effective in vivo model for studying vascular insufficiency and evaluating cancer drug vascular toxicities. - Highlights: • In vivo VRI model • Rescue effects of calycosin • Calycosin EC survival pathways

  9. Vascular injuries of the upper extremity Lesões vasculares de membros superiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat Shalabi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the causes of injuries, presentations, surgical approaches, outcome and complications of vascular trauma of the upper limbs, in spite of limited hospital resources. METHODS: A 5-year retrospective analysis. From 01/01/2001 to 31/12/2005, 165 patients were operated for vascular injuries at King Fahd Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia. Of all peripheral vascular trauma patients (115, upper limb trauma was present in 58. Diagnosis was made by physical examination and hand-held Doppler alone or in combination with Doppler scan/angiography. Primary vascular repair was performed whenever possible; otherwise, the interposition vein graft was used. Fasciotomy was considered when required. Patients with unsalvageable lower extremity injury requiring primary amputation were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Fifty patients were male (86% and eight were female (14%, aged between 2.5-55 years (mean 23 years. Mean duration of presentation was 8 h after the injury. The most common etiological factor was road traffic accidents, accounting for 50.5% in the blunt trauma group and 33% among all penetrating and stab wound injuries. Incidence of concomitant orthopedic injuries was very high in our study (51%. The brachial artery was the most affected (51%. Interposition vein grafts were used in 53% of the cases. Limb salvage rate was 100%. CONCLUSION: Patients who suffer vascular injuries of the upper extremities should be transferred to vascular surgery centers as soon as possible. Decisive management of peripheral vascular trauma will maximize patient survival and limb salvage. Priorities must be established in the management of associated injuries, and delay must be avoided when ischemic changes are present.OBJETIVO: Este estudo analisa as causas de lesões, apresentação, abordagens cirúrgicas, desfechos e complicações do trauma vascular de membros superiores, apesar de recursos hospitalares limitados. MÉTODOS: An

  10. MRI analysis of vascular compressive trigeminal neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the offending vessels of vascular compressive trigeminal neuralgia by magnetic resonance tomographic angiography (MRTA). Methods: MRTA images of 235 asymptomatic trigeminal nerves and 147 symptomatic trigeminal nerves were analyzed by two radiologists who were blinded to the clinical findings. Judgment was made on if there were some vessels close to the trigeminal nerve. The diameter of the offending vessel, the distance from the offending vessel's contact point to the pons and the direction of the vessel toward the nerve were also recorded at the same time. Group t-test and Chi-Square test were used for statistics. Results: Two hundred and forty-two trigeminal nerves of all 382 nerves can be detected offending vessels on MRTA images, 111 of 242 trigeminal nerves were asymptomatic, the rest 131 were symptomatic. Statistical analysis indicated that the distance from the offending vessel's contact point to the pons in symptomatic group (the median is 2 mm) was shorter than that in the asymptomatic group (the median is 4 mm) (P<0.01). In 89.3% cases (117/131) of the symptomatic group the angle between the vessel and the nerve is larger than 45 degree, but only in 67.6% cases (75/111) in the asymptomatic group the angle is larger than 45 degree. That means significant difference is between the two groups (P<0.01). Vessel-nerve compression can be seen in 1 case of asymptomatic group (0.4%, 1/235) and 45 eases in symptomatic group (30.6%, 45/147). The vessel-nerve compression rate of the symptomatic group was much higher than that of the asymptomatic group (P<0.01). Conclusion: MR is a useful tool to evaluate the offending vessels of vascular compressive trigeminal neuralgia. The distance from the offending vessel's contact point to the pons and the direction of the vessel toward the nerve are related to the onset of vascular compressive trigeminal neuralgia. (authors)

  11. Emergency intervention therapy for renal vascular injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng-yong; WANG Mao-qiang; FAN Qing-sheng; WANG Zhi-jun; DUAN Feng; SONG Peng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the interventional techniques in the treatment of renal vascular injury.Methods: A total of 16 patients with renal vascular injuries were treated by superselective arterial embolization.The renal injuries resulted from renal biopsy in 7 patients,endovascular intervention in 2.percutaneous puncture and pyelostomy in 2.local resection of renal tumor in 1 and trauma in 4.With regards to clinical manifestations,there was hemorrhagic shock in 8 patients,severe flank pain in 14,and hematuria in 14.CT and ultrasonography confmued that 15 Patients had perirenal hematoma.The embolization was performed with microcoils in 13 and standard stainless steel coils in 3 patients,associated with polyvinyl alcohol particles (PVA) in 9,and gelfoam particles in 6 cases.Results: Renal angiogram revealed arteriovenous fistula in renal parenchyma in 9 cases,pseudoaneurysm in 3 and extravasation of contrast media in 4.The arterial embolization was successful in all 16 cases in a single session.The angiography at the end of therapy showed that abnormal vessels had disappeared without other major intrarenal arterial branch occlusion.In 13 patients with hemodynamical compromise,blood loss-related symptoms were immediately relieved after blood transfusion.In 14 patients with severe flank pain,the pain was progressively relieved.Hematuda ceased in 14 patients 2-14 days after the embolization procedures.The renal function was impaired after the procedure in 6 cases,in which preoperative renal insufficiency was exacerbated in 3 and developed new renal dysfunction in 3.2 of whom received hemodialysis.The ultrasonography showed that perirenal hematoma was gradually absorbed within 2.6 mortths after the procedure.A11 patients were followed up in 6-78 months (mean,48 months).Six patients died of primary diseases (5 cases of renal failure and multiple organ failure and 1 case of malignant tumor).Ten patients survived without bleeding and further

  12. [Neurourological signs of chronic cerebral vascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvarts, P G; Dutov, V V; Kadykov, A S; Shvedkov, V V; Popov, S V; Plotnikov, A N

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of urination, along with motor and cognitive disorders, are characteristic of different forms of chronic cerebral vascular diseases (CCVD). Irritation symptoms are more frequent in subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) and multi infarct hypertonic encephalopathy (MIHE). Overactive urine bladder syndrome (OUBS) caused by neurogenic detrusive hyperactivity manifests itself in frequent urination, nocturia and imperative enuresis and thus decreases quality of life and results in disability of patents with CCVD. At the same time, the character of symptoms points indirectly to the localization of lacunar infarction or the extent of severity of leukoareosis. It is the most frequent form of disorders of urination in the first years of disease that significantly aggravates its course and needs timed diagnosis and pharmacological treatment. Competitive antagonists of muscarinic receptors M2, M3 subtypes are the most effective drugs for treatment of OUBS comorbid to CCVD. PMID:23994932

  13. Vascular Growth Factors and Glomerular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Christina S; Jeansson, Marie; Quaggin, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    The glomerulus is a highly specialized microvascular bed that filters blood to form primary urinary filtrate. It contains four cell types: fenestrated endothelial cells, specialized vascular support cells termed podocytes, perivascular mesangial cells, and parietal epithelial cells. Glomerular cell-cell communication is critical for the development and maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier. VEGF, ANGPT, EGF, SEMA3A, TGF-β, and CXCL12 signal in paracrine fashions between the podocytes, endothelium, and mesangium associated with the glomerular capillary bed to maintain filtration barrier function. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of these signaling pathways in the development and maintenance of the glomerulus and the progression of disease. PMID:26863327

  14. Gait and Equilibrium in Subcortical Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcortical vascular dementia is a clinical entity, widespread, even challenging to diagnose and correctly treat. Patients with this diagnosis are old, frail, often with concomitant pathologies, and therefore, with many drugs in therapy. We tried to diagnose and follow up for three years more than 600 patients. Study subjects were men and women, not bedridden, aged 68–94 years, outpatients, recruited from June, 1st 2007 to June, 1st 2010. We examined them clinically, neurologically, with specific consideration on drug therapies. Our aim has been to define gait and imbalance problem, if eventually coexistent with the pathology of white matter and/or with the worsening of the deterioration. Drug intake interference has been detected and considered.

  15. Subclinical pulmonary involvement in collagen vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into alveolar spaces has been reported in patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD) and a normal chest radiograph. These findings defined the concept of subclinical alveolitis (SCA). To determine whether SCA may be associated with CT signs of interstitial lung disease (ILD), the authors of this paper compared bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings and high-resolution (HRCT) scans in 36 patients with CVD and normal chest radiographs (systemic sclerosis [SS, n = 21], rheumatoid arthritis [RA, n = 9], primary Sjogren's syndrome [PS, n = 6]). HRCT scans were obtained in supine and prone positions. Results of BAL revealed SCA in 17/36 patients (47%); lymphocyte SCA in 4/36 (24%); neutrophil SCA in 7/36 (41%); and mixed SCA in 6/36 (35%)

  16. Transluminal angioplasty, fibrinolysis, and newer vascular interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This refresher course presents an overview of the current status of transluminal angioplasty in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, renovascular hypertension, and upper extremity vasculature. Indications for therapy, accepted techniques, and the diagnosis and treatment of complications are major topic areas. Newer areas of increasing application are discussed, particularly popliteal and tibial angioplasty. Newer devices and procedures such as lasers, percutaneous atherectomy, and mechanical recanalization devices are reviewed and their role in the current therapeutic armamentarium discussed. The current status of catheter-directed fibrinolytic techniques is presented, particularly as they relate to the concomitant use of transluminal angioplasty. The choice of lytic agents and newer agents is reviewed. Long-term results and complication rates are discussed by anatomic area

  17. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty after vascular surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was used to treat 32 patients with 80%-95% stenoses in vascular bypass grafts and anastomotic stenoses. Eight lesions were in femoropopliteal, three in femorotibial, and one in femorofemoral crossover grafts. Twenty patients had stenoses at the prosimal or distal graft anastomoses. PTA was successful and enabled surgical intervention to be avoided in 29 of the 32 patients. Postdilation angiography demonstrated a substantial increase in luminal diameter and Doppler ankle-arm indexes were improved in all 29 successful cases. Long-term follow-up was available in 26 patients. After an average of 15 months, the graft was occluded in nine (35%) of the 26. In the other 17 patients (65%), the graft remained patent. The dilation of graft stenoses may be controversial and is difficult due to the diversity of underlying causes, such as intimal thickening, fibrotic reaction, and suture scar. The author's experience indicates that PTA is an efficient and safe treatment

  18. Vascular function in health, hypertension, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann, Lasse; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    , the increase in muscle blood flow required for oxygen supply during exercise is achieved through a substantial increase in vasodilators locally formed in the active muscle tissue that overcome the vasoconstrictor signals. Most of the vasodilator signals are mediated via endothelial cells, which lead......Regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow is a complex process, which involves an integration of multiple mechanisms and a number of vasoactive compounds. Overall, muscle blood flow is regulated through a balance between vasoconstrictor and vasodilator signals. In a healthy cardiovascular system...... the skeletal muscle, which can affect muscle function. Central aspects in the vascular impairments are alterations in the formation of prostacyclin, the bioavailability of NO and an increased formation of vasoconstrictors and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regular physical activity effectively...

  19. Intraoperative neuromonitoring in major vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, V C; Poon, C C M

    2016-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in using intraoperative neuromonitoring to reduce the incidence of stroke and paralysis in major vascular interventions. Electroencephalography, various neurophysiological evoked potential measurements, transcranial Doppler, and near-infrared spectroscopy are some of the modalities currently used to detect neural injuries. A good understanding of these modalities and their interactions with anaesthesia is important to maximize their value and to allow meaningful interpretation of their results. In view of the inter-individual differences in anatomy, physiological reserves, and severity of pathological processes, neuromonitoring may be a valuable method to evaluate the well-being of the nervous system during and after surgical interventions. In this review, we summarize some of their applications, efficacies, and drawbacks in major carotid and aortic surgeries. PMID:27566804

  20. Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans: A distinct clinical entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram K Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a typical case of poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans (PVA in a 48-year-old female. Histologically, the features were suggestive of PVA with the absence of Pautrier′s microabscess or atypical lymphoid cells. The biopsy specimen was positive for cluster of differentiation (CD 8 on immunohistochemical staining. Its exact pathogenesis remains obscure, and it remains unclear whether PVA actually is mycosis fungoides (MF, a forme fruste of MF, or a distinct and benign dermatosis with CD8+ phenotype that can perhaps be labeled as PVA. However, it has a long benign clinical course without progression to tumor stage of MF in most cases, and its status within the spectrum of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma remains poorly understood. Yet it is imperative to distinguish PVA from poikilodermic MF.

  1. Apoptosis and calcification of vascular endothelial cell under hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuaifa; Chen, Zhujun; Liu, Meng; Peng, Jian; Wu, Pingsheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it is found that increase in Hcy level in blood can directly or indirectly cause vascular endothelial cell injury and induce vascular calcification. However, the mechanism of vascular endothelial cell injury and vascular calcification has not been studied thoroughly. This paper carried out experiment for research aiming at discussing the effect and action mechanism of Hhcy on endothelial cells and vascular calcification. Firstly, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and then intervened by Hcy of different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mmol/L) and at different action time (3, 6, 12, 24 h). Then apoptosis rate and reactive oxygen were detected by flow cytometry. At the same time, the model for the culture of rat vascular calcification was set up and induced into Hhcy so as to detect the total plasma Hcy level and judge vascular calcification degree. The results showed that with the increase in Hcy concentration and extension of action period, the apoptosis rate and generation of reactive oxygen of HUVECs all significantly increased, and the differences were all statistically significant (P animal calcification model, mass of black particle deposition was seen after Von Kossa staining of rat vessels in calcification group. Compared with the control group, the vascular calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin content in calcification group all increased (P benefits on clinical prevention works. PMID:25476479

  2. Experimental autologous substitute vascular graft for transplantation surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobori, L; Dallos, G; Gouw, ASH; Nemeth, T; Nemes, B; Fehervari, I; Tegzess, Adam; Slooff, MJH; Perner, F; De Jong, KP

    2000-01-01

    Vascular complications in fiver transplantation are a major cause of graft failure and mortality. The aim of the study was to create autologous vascular graft without risk of rejection. Posterior rectus fascia sheath lined with peritoneum was used for iliac artery replacement in seven mongrel dogs.

  3. Vascular disease and stroke risk in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Lane, Deirdre A;

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease (including myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease) has been proposed as a less well-validated risk factor for stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. We investigated whether vascular disease is an independent risk factor of stroke/thromboembolism in atrial fibri...

  4. Inapparent pulmonary vascular disease in an ex-heroin user

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A severe pulmonary vascular derangement, usually reported in drug addicts, was diagnosed in a 28-year-old asymptomatic ex-heroin user by means of fortuitously performed pulmonary perfusion imaging. Neither physical findings nor pulmonary function tests, aroused suspicion of the diagnosis. A search for asymptomatic pulmonary vascular disease probably should be undertaken in drug addicts

  5. Sensory neuropeptides and nitric oxide in nasal vascular regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rinder, Johan

    1996-01-01

    Sensory neuropeptides and nitric oxide in nasal vascular regulation By Johan Rinder, M.D. Division of Pharmacology, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, S- 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden and Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm, SwedenThe role of sensory neuropeptides and nitric oxide in vascular regulation was investigated in the pig nasal mucosa...

  6. Genetic and hormonal control of vascular tissue proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, Wouter; Rybel, De Bert

    2016-01-01

    The plant vascular system develops from a handful of provascular initial cells in the early embryo into a whole range of different cell types in the mature plant. In order to account for such proliferation and to generate this kind of diversity, vascular tissue development relies on a large numbe

  7. 21 CFR 870.3450 - Vascular graft prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vascular graft prosthesis. 870.3450 Section 870... prosthesis. (a) Identification. A vascular graft prosthesis is an implanted device intended to repair... Prostheses 510(k) Submissions.”...

  8. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor induces vascular leakage via autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ru Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular leakage is an important feature of acute inflammatory shock, which currently has no effective treatment. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that can induce vascular leakage and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of shock. However, the mechanism of MIF-induced vascular leakage is still unclear. In this study, using recombinant MIF (rMIF, we demonstrated that MIF induced disorganization and degradation of junction proteins and increased the permeability of human endothelial cells in vitro. Western blotting analysis showed that rMIF treatment induced LC3 conversion and p62 degradation. Inhibition of autophagy with a PI3K inhibitor (3-MA, a ROS scavenger (NAC or autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine rescued rMIF-induced vascular leakage, suggesting that autophagy mediates MIF-induced vascular leakage. The potential involvement of other signaling pathways was also studied using different inhibitors, and the results suggested that MIF-induced vascular leakage may occur through the ERK pathway. In conclusion, we showed that MIF triggered autophagic degradation of endothelial cells, resulting in vascular leakage. Inhibition of MIF-induced autophagy may provide therapeutic targets against vascular leakage in inflammatory shock.

  9. Convergent evolution of vascular optimization in kelp (Laminariales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnitch, Sarah Tepler; Jensen, Kaare H; Prentice, Paige; Pittermann, Jarmila

    2015-10-01

    Terrestrial plants and mammals, although separated by a great evolutionary distance, have each arrived at a highly conserved body plan in which universal allometric scaling relationships govern the anatomy of vascular networks and key functional metabolic traits. The universality of allometric scaling suggests that these phyla have each evolved an 'optimal' transport strategy that has been overwhelmingly adopted by extant species. To truly evaluate the dominance and universality of vascular optimization, however, it is critical to examine other, lesser-known, vascularized phyla. The brown algae (Phaeophyceae) are one such group--as distantly related to plants as mammals, they have convergently evolved a plant-like body plan and a specialized phloem-like transport network. To evaluate possible scaling and optimization in the kelp vascular system, we developed a model of optimized transport anatomy and tested it with measurements of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, which is among the largest and most successful of macroalgae. We also evaluated three classical allometric relationships pertaining to plant vascular tissues with a diverse sampling of kelp species. Macrocystis pyrifera displays strong scaling relationships between all tested vascular parameters and agrees with our model; other species within the Laminariales display weak or inconsistent vascular allometries. The lack of universal scaling in the kelps and the presence of optimized transport anatomy in M. pyrifera raises important questions about the evolution of optimization and the possible competitive advantage conferred by optimized vascular systems to multicellular phyla. PMID:26423844

  10. Psychosocial and vascular risk factors of depression in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J; Brilman, EI; van den Berg, MD

    2003-01-01

    Background: Research on the aetiology of late-life depression has typically focused on either risk factors from the psychosocial stress-vulnerability domain or degenerative biological changes (for instance, vascular disease). We examined whether vascular risk factors could be interpreted within the

  11. The Severity of Cecal Ligature and Puncture-Induced Sepsis Correlates with the Degree of Encephalopathy, but the Sepsis Does Not Lead to Acute Activation of Spleen Lymphocytes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremias, I C; Victorino, V J; Machado, J L; Barroso, W A; Ariga, S K; Lima, T M; Soriano, F G

    2016-07-01

    Septic encephalopathy represents the most frequently observed form of encephalopathy in intensive care units. Interactions between the immune and nervous systems have been observed in experimental sepsis. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to characterize the effect of different severities of sepsis on encephalopathy and the inflammatory profile of the spleen. We hypothesized that different grades of sepsis severity would lead to variations in encephalopathy and activation of spleen cells. We induced sepsis of different severities in Balb/c mice by cecal ligature and puncture (CLP). Six and 12 h after CLP induction, behavioral impairment was assessed by the SmithKline/Harwell/Imperial College/Royal Hospital/Phenotype Assessment (SHIRPA) test. The animals were then killed, and the plasma, spleen, and hippocampus were removed. Levels of the encephalopathy marker S100β were measured in plasma. Spleens were weighed and then a characterization of splenic lymphocytes was performed by flow cytometry (cytotoxic T lymphocyte, T helper lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T regulatory cells, and Th17 cells). Cytokine levels in the spleen and hippocampus were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and cytokine levels in plasma were performed with MilliPlex® technology. Our results showed that behavioral impairment as measured by the SHIRPA test and elevation in plasma S100β levels were significant in moderate and severe CLP groups compared to those in the sham control group. Regarding immunological alterations, we were unable to observe changes in the weights of the spleen and the profile of lymphocytes 6 h after CLP. However, several cytokines, including IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1β, were increased in spleen and plasma. In conclusion, we observed variations in encephalopathy as measured by plasma S100β, which were mediated by the severity of sepsis; however, we did not observe a different activation of spleen cells 6 h post-CLP, despite evidence of

  12. Synaptic protein levels altered in vascular dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Lindsey I; Tayler, Hannah M; Love, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral ischaemia is the defining pathophysiological abnormality in most forms of vascular dementia (VAD), but the pathogenesis of the dementia remains poorly understood. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is early loss of synaptic proteins, but these have been little studied in VAD. Materials and Methods We measured synaptophysin, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), drebrin, synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in superior temporal cortex from 11 patients with VAD and, initially, 11 non-dementia controls. We corrected for neuronal content by measurement of neuron-specific enolase. A further 11 controls were subsequently used in a validation study. Simulation of post-mortem delay found that PSD-95 was stable at 4°C but declined slightly at RT. SNAP-25 and drebrin showed good post-mortem stability. Previous studies had shown good post-mortem preservation of synaptophysin and VEGF. Results The VAD cases had lower synaptophysin (but P > 0.05 in initial study), significantly lower SNAP-25 (P = 0.024) and significantly higher drebrin (P = 0.020). On comparison with the second control group, the reduction in synaptophysin was significant (P = 0.008), and the other results were confirmed. Conclusion There is probably a reduction in presynaptic proteins in the temporal cortex in VAD, although not as marked as in AD. In VAD, there is also an increase in drebrin, which may be a response to reduced synaptic input. PMID:25559750

  13. Vascular disorders in cerebral reversible ischaemic attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In clinical prectice it is rather frequent to find neurological disorders whose etiology is not clear; in particular, it can be difficult to distinguish a cardiac from a more strictly neurological or vascular cause. In attempting to assess this problem, we have undertaken a study on 675 consecutive patients (387 males and 288 females), aged from 20 to 86 years. All patients, who came to our attention because of transient neurological symptoms or signs, underwent studies with Color Doppler Imaging and Doppler Spectral Analysis techniques applied to supraaortic vessels supplying cerebral regions. Our results show that the highest incidence of obstructive vascular findings (positive Doppler scans) is present in the age interval from 71 to 80 years (75%). The period of maximal incidence of pathologic findings is between 51 and 60 years of age (35% of the total), that is, in an age range where surgical therapy can be undertaken. In this decade 58% of examined patients showed abnormal Doppler scans. Short-lasting parcellar symptoms, such as dysphasia nominum and amaurosis fugax, or symptoms considered non-specific, such as loss of consciousness or dizziness, have given a rather high percentual incidence of positive scans; this is also the case with laterocervical murmurs, even if unaccompanied by symptoms. From the diagnostic viewpoint, Doppler imaging has reached its highest accuracy when applied to arteries very close to each other, as is the case with the carotid artery at its bifurcation. In addition, spectral analysis associated to Doppler imaging allows the detection of the frequency dispersion which results from flow turbulence caused by subcritical lesions in the presence of coiling and kinking of arterial vessel. In conclusion, noninvasive diagnostic methods based on Doppler technology (widely available commercially) can help to discriminate pathological cases in patients who present transient neurological disorders

  14. Vascular Response of the Segments Adjacent to the Proximal and Distal Edges of the ABSORB Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gogas, Bill D; Serruys, Patrick W; Diletti, Roberto; Farooq, Vasim; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Radu, Maria D; Heo, Jung Ho; Onuma, Yoshinobu; van Geuns, Robert-Jan M; Regar, Evelyn; De Bruyne, Bernard; Chevalier, Bernard; Thuesen, Leif; Smits, Pieter C; Dudek, Dariusz; Koolen, Jacques; Windecker, Stefan; Whitbourn, Robert; Miquel-Hebert, Karine; Dorange, Cecile; Rapoza, Richard; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; McClean, Dougal; Ormiston, John A

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate in vivo the vascular response at the proximal and distal edges of the second-generation ABSORB everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS).......This study sought to investigate in vivo the vascular response at the proximal and distal edges of the second-generation ABSORB everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS)....

  15. Intravascular Ultrasound and its Use in Vascular Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intravascular ultrasound has become in invasive vascular radiology in the last decade the important part of diagnostic and also therapeutic procedures in management of vascular diseases. The basic possibilities for the use of IVUS include diagnostic procedures in vascular pathology assessment and therapeutic indications in the field of peripheral vascular interventions (PVI). Unlike other image modalities (CT, MRI, ultrasound) IVUS enables gather unique image in real timeright from the vessel lumen, what helps to add important information regarding vessel wall, plate morphology, thrombi and cross-sectional vessel area. After initial use of intravascular ultrasound in coronary circulation, using IVUS is nowadays widely extended especially in aortic diseases, carotid and renal arteries and arteries of the lower extremities. This review article summarizes possibilities of intravascular ultrasound utilization in diagnostic process and therapy from peripheral vascular diseases up to thoracoabdominal aorta diseases and our experience with this new diagnostic modality. (author)

  16. The Electroretinogram in Patients with Retinal Vascular Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizhou Huang; Lezheng Wu; Taiqing Luo; De-Zheng Wu; Futian Jiang; Guangwei Luo; Juanmei Ma

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: to measure and analyze the electroretinogram (ERG) in patients with retinal vascular occlusion. Method: fifty-eight cases (59 eyes) of retinal vascular occlusion and the fellow eyes of 47 cases were tested with Ganzfeld ERG. The scotopic and photopic ERG, and oscillatory potentials were tested according to the ERG standard of ISCEV. Results: The abnormal rates of Ops and b wave were higher in retinal vascular occlusion. The abnormal ERG appeared mostly in CRVO among four types of retinal vascular occlusion. The comparisons of some amplitudes and latencies between the fellow eyes and the affected eyes showed statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The oscillatory potentials and b waves have important roles in evaluating the retinal function of patients with retinal vascular occlusions. There are some clinical significance for comparing ERG between the affected eye and the fellow eye. Eye Science 2001; 17: 50 ~ 53.

  17. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  18. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-ling Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascularization of acellular nerves has been shown to contribute to nerve bridging. In this study, we used a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect model in rats to determine whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of injured acellular nerves. The rat nerve defects were treated with acellular nerve grafting (control group alone or acellular nerve grafting combined with intraperitoneal injection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (experimental group. As shown through two-dimensional imaging, the vessels began to invade into the acellular nerve graft from both anastomotic ends at day 7 post-operation, and gradually covered the entire graft at day 21. The vascular density, vascular area, and the velocity of revascularization in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves.

  19. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S.; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju [Peoples Dental Academy, Bhopal (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  20. Vascular protection in diabetic stroke: role of matrix metalloprotease-dependent vascular remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Elgebaly, Mostafa M.; Prakash, Roshini; Li, Weiguo; Ogbi, Safia; Maribeth H Johnson; Mezzetti, Erin M.; Fagan, Susan C; Ergul, Adviye

    2010-01-01

    Temporary focal ischemia causes greater hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a model with increased cerebrovascular matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity and tortuosity. The objective of the current study was to test the hypotheses that (1) diabetes-induced cerebrovascular remodeling is MMP dependent and (2) prevention of vascular remodeling by glucose control or MMP inhibition reduces HT in diabetic stroke. Control and GK rats were treated with vehicle, metfor...