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Sample records for cecal neoplasms

  1. Apendicitis retro-cecal

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Sánchez, Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Por definición, se llama apendicitis retro-cecal a la inflamación aguda o crónica del apéndice, cuando está situado en posición retrocecal,sea que acompañe a un ciego móvil y en consecuencia esté provisto de meso, o bien que con ciego fijo se encuentre sin meso y en posición retro-peritoneal, hallándose entonces en íntima relación con algunas formaciones anatómicas como el tejido conjuntivo peri-renal, el nervio génito.crural derecho, el fémoro cutáneo, el obsturador y el uréter derecho. Con ...

  2. Apendicitis retro-cecal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Salazar Sánchez

    1948-03-01

    Full Text Available Por definición, se llama apendicitis retro-cecal a la inflamación aguda o crónica del apéndice, cuando está situado en posición retrocecal,sea que acompañe a un ciego móvil y en consecuencia esté provisto de meso, o bien que con ciego fijo se encuentre sin meso y en posición retro-peritoneal, hallándose entonces en íntima relación con algunas formaciones anatómicas como el tejido conjuntivo peri-renal, el nervio génito.crural derecho, el fémoro cutáneo, el obsturador y el uréter derecho. Con la mayor frecuencia y cuando el diagnóstico de apendicitis no se ha comprobado previamente por medio de los rayos X la situación retro-cecal es un hallazgo operatorio, que por no haber sido pre visto puede ocasionar dificultades técnicas más o menos grandes y prolongar, a veces por mucho tiempo el acto quirúrgico. Es importante, conocer la sintomatologíade la apendicitis retrocecal, puesto que es posible confundir esta afección, con otras que están situadas en órganos ajenos al tractus digestivo, como son (Bockus, Duplay, la litiasis renal, la pielitis derecha o los abscesos peri-nefríticos, confusiones éstas que son muy graves porque o bien pueden demorar la intervención quirúrgica, o bien la indican de inmediato cuando está formalmente contraindicada, como ocurre en las dos primeras afecciones mencionadas.

  3. Colon neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura F, K.

    1991-01-01

    The main aspects of colon neoplasms are described, including several factors that predispose the disease, the occurrence, the main biomedical radiography and the evaluation after the surgery. (C.G.C.)

  4. Adrenal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, G.; Dhliwayo, H.; Lomas, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Adenoma, myelolipoma, phaeochromocytoma, metastases, adrenocortical carcinoma, neuroblastoma, and lymphoma account for the majority of adrenal neoplasms that are encountered in clinical practice. A variety of imaging methods are available for evaluating adrenal lesions including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine techniques such as meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy and positron-emission tomography (PET). Lipid-sensitive imaging techniques such as unenhanced CT and chemical shift MRI enable detection and characterization of lipid-rich adenomas based on an unenhanced CT attenuation of ≤10 HU and signal loss on opposed-phase compared to in-phase T1-weighted images, respectively. In indeterminate cases, an adrenal CT washout study may differentiate adenomas (both lipid-rich and lipid-poor) from other adrenal neoplasms based on an absolute percentage washout of >60% and/or a relative percentage washout of >40%. This is based on the principle that adenomas show rapid contrast washout while most other adrenal neoplasms including malignant tumours show slow contrast washout instead. 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose–PET ( 18 FDG-PET) imaging may differentiate benign from malignant adrenal neoplasms by demonstrating high tracer uptake in malignant neoplasms based on the increased glucose utilization and metabolic activity found in most of these malignancies. In this review, the multi-modality imaging appearances of adrenal neoplasms are discussed and illustrated. Key imaging findings that facilitate lesion characterization and differentiation are emphasized. Awareness of these imaging findings is essential for improving diagnostic confidence and for reducing misinterpretation errors.

  5. Myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roaldsnes, Christina; Holst, René; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and myelofibrosis (MF) are clonal disorders collectively named as myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Published data on epidemiology of MPN after the discovery of the JAK2 mutation and the 2008 WHO classifications are scarce. We...

  6. Carcinoid tumor of the cecal appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazo Mauri, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    The carcinoid tumors of the cecal appendix are the most frequent of all appendicular tumors, with no clinical manifestations in general. The general objective of this paper was to present an interesting case of carcinoid tumor found in a 26 years-old woman, whose clinical picture was diagnosed as subacute appendicitis. She was hospitalized and treated with antibiotics with good recovery and discharged 10 days later. She had no abdominal tumors confirmed clinically and echographically at that time. Three months later, the patient was operated on and underwent cecal appendicectomy. The pathological anatomy analysis yielded argentaffinoma in the distal third of the cecal appendix with mucosal infiltration. She was referred to the oncology service to be followed up. She has been free from any complication with good recovery for 10 years. The annual ultrasound and the CT scan show that there is neither regional adenopathy nor hepatic metastasis

  7. Cecal Volvulus Following Laparoscopic Nephrectomy and Renal Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Kadiyala

    2009-01-01

    Cecal volvulus is a rare cause of bowel obstruction that carries a high mortality. Recent surgery is known to be a risk factor for the development of cecal volvulus. We present a case of cecal volvulus following laparoscopic nephrectomy and renal transplantation. PMID:20202405

  8. Utility of CT Findings in the Diagnosis of Cecal Volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Bari; Hindman, Nicole; Johnson, Evan; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2017-10-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the utility of CT features in the diagnosis of cecal volvulus. Forty-three patients undergoing CT for cecal volvulus and with surgical or clinical follow-up were included. Two radiologists (11 years and 1 year of experience) evaluated CT examinations for the following: whirl sign, abnormal cecal position, "bird beak" sign, severe cecal distention, mesenteric engorgement, a newly described "central appendix" sign (defined as abnormal appendix position near midline), and overall impression for cecal volvulus. Univariable and multivariable assessments were performed. Patients with CT examinations in which the appendix was not visible were excluded from calculations involving the central appendix sign. Fifty-one percent (n = 22) of patients had cecal volvulus. All CT findings were significantly more common in patients with cecal volvulus (p volvulus versus in 37.5 and 31.1% of patients without volvulus. The whirl sign exhibited a sensitivity for cecal volvulus of 90.9% for reader 1 and 95.5% for reader 2, and a specificity of 61.9% for both readers. Abnormal cecal position exhibited a sensitivity of 90.0% for reader 1 and 100.0% for reader 2 and a specificity of 66.7% and 38.1%. The bird beak sign exhibited a sensitivity of 86.4% for reader 1 and 100.0% for reader 2 and a specificity of 85.7% and 71.4%. Severe cecal distention exhibited a sensitivity of 100.0% for both readers and a specificity of 81.0% and 61.9%. Mesenteric engorgement exhibited a sensitivity of 40.9% for reader 1 and 100.0% for reader 2 and a specificity of 76.2% and 71.4%. The central appendix sign exhibited a sensitivity of 92.9% for reader 1 and 92.3% for reader 2 and a specificity of 62.5% and 68.8%. Overall impression exhibited a sensitivity of 100.0% for both readers and a specificity of 76.2% and 57.1%. At multivariable analysis, the AUC for cecal volvulus ranged from 0.787 to 0.931, and the whirl sign was an independent predictor of volvulus for both

  9. The neoplasms imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, M.; Pilizzari, CH.

    1996-01-01

    New devices of NMR imaging and computed tomography give three-dimensional images of the human body and automatically interpret the anatomical pictures. These new techniques are useful for the detection and the treatment of neoplasms. They are explained into details. (O.M.)

  10. A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen: Idiopathic Isolated Cecal Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Özer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic isolated cecal necrosis is a clinical problem characterized by right-sided inferior abdominal pain. It is rarely seen, develops due to decreased blood flow to the colon and, imitates acute appendicitis. Its clinical signs are similar to many illnesses causing sensitivity in the right inferior quadrant and, the diagnosis is generally determined during surgery. An 86-year-old male patient presented with the complaints of abdominal pain, trichiniasis, nausea and vomiting. Surgical intervention was decided when physical examination and laboratory results were taken into consideration. After diagnostic laparoscopy, right hemicolectomy was performed because of cecal necrosis. While the mortality and morbidity rates for ischemic bowel disease are high, prognosis for early diagnosed patients with isolated cecal necrosis is better, provided that timely surgical treatment is decided.

  11. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Non-obstructive cecal dilatation and perforation after cesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Schantz, A L; Toftager-Larsen, K

    1990-01-01

    A case of non-obstructive cecal dilatation and perforation after cesarean section is reported, with a review of the literature on the diagnosis and management of this entity. Fifteen cases have been described. Attention is called to this rare complication and to the accompanying pseudo...

  13. Cecal Intubation Rate During Colonoscopy at a Tertiary Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-14

    Jun 14, 2016 ... diseases, and for colorectal cancer screening program. Complete colonoscopy is therefore crucial for the success of any screening program. One important measure of the quality of colonoscopy is the cecal intubation rate (CIR). Aim: This was to assess the CIR at our endoscopy unit and evaluate the factors ...

  14. Cecal intubation rate during colonoscopy at a tertiary hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colonoscopy is useful in the diagnosis, treatment of colorectal diseases, and for colorectal cancer screening program. Complete colonoscopy is therefore crucial for the success of any screening program. One important measure of the quality of colonoscopy is the cecal intubation rate (CIR). Aim: This was to ...

  15. Oro-cecal transit time : influence of a subsequent meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, MG; Wachters-Hagedoorn, RE; Stellaard, F; Heiner, AM; Elzinga, H; Vonk, RJ

    Background Small intestinal and oro-cecal transit time (OCTT) is determined for clinical diagnostics and research purposes. Experimental protocols used vary with respect to the inclusion of a subsequent meal during the test period. This study was conducted to elucidate whether the ingestion of a

  16. Cecal volvulus caused by endometriosis in a young woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daisuke; Kaneko, Susumu; Morita, Kouji; Seiichiro, Shimizu; Teruya, Masanori; Kaminishi, Michio

    2015-06-24

    Cecal volvulus is relatively rare. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, a case of cecal volvulus caused by endometriosis has not yet been reported. A 41-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 14-day history of subacute intermittent right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Simple abdominal radiography and abdominal computed tomography findings were suggestive of sigmoid volvulus, and she underwent an emergency colonoscopy. Following colonoscopic reduction, the patient's symptoms resolved quickly, and elective laparoscopic surgery was scheduled 2 weeks after admission. Intraoperative examination revealed a significantly distended cecum and ascending colon, which was twisted around a short rope-like adhesion that connected the cecum and the mesentery of the transverse colon, whereas the sigmoid colon was neither twisted nor extended. We laparoscopically performed an ileocecal resection. The postsurgery histopathological examination revealed the presence of endometrial tissue in the short rope-like adhesion. This finding confirmed that cecal volvulus in this patient was caused by endometriosis. Cecal volvulus should be considered in relatively young women who present with atypical right lower abdominal pain. Whenever possible, secondary factors should be evaluated preoperatively, especially in relatively young patients.

  17. Hypogonadism alters cecal and fecal microbiota in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Hanada, Kazuki; Izawa, Takeshi; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-11-01

    Low testosterone levels increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in men and lead to shorter life spans. Our recent study showed that androgen deprivation via castration altered fecal microbiota and exacerbated risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including obesity, impaired fasting glucose, excess hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and thigh muscle weight loss only in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed male mice. However, when mice were administered antibiotics that disrupted the gut microbiota, castration did not increase cardiovascular risks or decrease the ratio of dried feces to food intake. Here, we show that changes in cecal microbiota (e.g., an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and number of Lactobacillus species) were consistent with changes in feces and that there was a decreased cecal content secondary to castration in HFD mice. Castration increased rectal body temperature and plasma adiponectin, irrespective of diet. Changes in the gut microbiome may provide novel insight into hypogonadism-induced cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Cecal volvulus as a complication of gastric banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhro, Abdulla; O'Riordan, James M; Lawler, Leo P; O'Connell, P Ronan

    2009-12-01

    Surgery is an increasingly important management option for patients with obesity. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is a procedure employed to treat morbid obesity refractory to medical therapy. It works by reducing the capacity of the stomach and promoting early satiety. We report the unusual case of a 33-year-old female who presented acutely 2 years following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding with cecal volvulus and closed loop obstruction caused by displacement of the connecting tube.

  19. Laparoscopic Approach for Metachronous Cecal and Sigmoid Volvulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Alexander J.; Zisman, Sharon R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Metachronous colonic volvulus is a rare event that has never been approached laparoscopically. Methods: Here we discuss the case of a 63-year-old female with a metachronous sigmoid and cecal volvulus. Results: The patient underwent 2 separate successful laparoscopic resections. Discussion and Conclusion: The following is a discussion of the case and the laparoscopic technique, accompanied by a brief review of colonic volvulus. In experienced hands, laparoscopy is a safe approach for acute colonic volvulus. PMID:21605523

  20. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demas, B.E.; Hricak, H.; Braga, C.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four women with suspected gestational trophoblastic neoplasms were evaluated prospectively to identify imaging algorithms optimal for treatment planning. All underwent chest radiography, chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. Ten also underwent pelvic CT, 13 pelvic US. The most sensitive imaging combination was chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. However, correct assignment to ACOG therapeutic categories was achieved by means of history, physical examination, beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin measurements, and chest radiography in 81% of patients. Hepatic and cranial imaging defined the need for radiation therapy. Chest CT was needed only when chest radiographs were negative. Pelvic imaging aided diagnosis but did not assist in treatment planning

  1. A case of cecal volvulus presenting with chronic constipation in lissencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Yun-Young; Kim, Saeyoon; Choi, Kwang Hea

    2013-06-01

    Cecal volvulus is uncommon in pediatric patients and there are few reports of cecal volvulus with cerebral palsy. Here, we report the case of a 19-year-old male patient who presented with abdominal distension, a history of cerebral palsy, refractory epilepsy due to lissencephaly, and chronic constipation. An abdominal x-ray and computed tomography without contrast enhancement showed fixed dilated bowel intensity in the right lower abdomen. Despite decompression with gastric and rectal tube insertion, symptoms did not improve. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy that revealed cecal volvulus. Cecal volvulus usually occurs following intestinal malrotation or previous surgery. In this patient, however, intestinal distension accompanying mental disability and chronic constipation resulted in the development of cecal volvulus. We suggest that cecal and proximal large bowel volvulus should be considered in patients presenting with progressive abdominal distension combined with a history of neuro-developmental delay and constipation.

  2. Myeloproliferative neoplasm stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Adam J; Mullally, Ann

    2017-03-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) arise in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment as a result of the acquisition of somatic mutations in a single HSC that provides a selective advantage to mutant HSC over normal HSC and promotes myeloid differentiation to engender a myeloproliferative phenotype. This population of somatically mutated HSC, which initiates and sustains MPNs, is termed MPN stem cells. In >95% of cases, mutations that drive the development of an MPN phenotype occur in a mutually exclusive manner in 1 of 3 genes: JAK2 , CALR , or MPL The thrombopoietin receptor, MPL, is the key cytokine receptor in MPN development, and these mutations all activate MPL-JAK-STAT signaling in MPN stem cells. Despite common biological features, MPNs display diverse disease phenotypes as a result of both constitutional and acquired factors that influence MPN stem cells, and likely also as a result of heterogeneity in the HSC in which MPN-initiating mutations arise. As the MPN clone expands, it exerts cell-extrinsic effects on components of the bone marrow niche that can favor the survival and expansion of MPN stem cells over normal HSC, further sustaining and driving malignant hematopoiesis. Although developed as targeted therapies for MPNs, current JAK2 inhibitors do not preferentially target MPN stem cells, and as a result, rarely induce molecular remissions in MPN patients. As the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the clonal dominance of MPN stem cells advances, this will help facilitate the development of therapies that preferentially target MPN stem cells over normal HSC. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  3. Intussusception due to a cecal duplication cyst: a rare cause of acute abdomen. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corroppolo, M; Zampieri, N; Erculiani, E; Cecchetto, M; Camoglio, F S

    2007-01-01

    Duplications of the alimentary tract are rare congenital anomalies. The ileum is the most common site, whereas rectal, duodenal, gastric and cecal duplications are extremely rare. Duplication cysts of the cecum, in a neonate, are even rarer, with only 19 cases reported in medical literature to date. We report a case of intestinal intussusception due to a cecal duplication cyst.

  4. Different clinical presentations, diagnostic difficulties, and management of cecal duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Abdulkerim; Oğuzkurt, Pelin; Ezer, Semire Serin; İnce, Emine; Gezer, Hasan Özkan; Hiçsönmez, Akgün

    2013-03-01

    Cecal duplications (CDs) are very rare, representing 0.4% of all gastrointestinal duplications. This study evaluates the variable clinical presentations, imaging workup, and surgical management of CDs. The records of 7 patients who underwent surgery between April 2001 and December 2011 for CD were retrospectively reviewed. Sex, age, duration of complaints, diagnostic studies, surgical intervention, and pathologic findings were recorded. The median age was 8 months, and mean age was 1.65 ± 2.88 years. Complaints were abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, vomiting, cough and dyspnea, and a prenatally detected cystic mass. The patients were referred with the diagnosis of appendicular abscess, necrotizing enterocolitis, gastrointestinal lymphoma, and intraabdominal cystic mass. Abdominal distention, signs of peritonitis, substernal retraction, fullness at right lower quadrant, and normal findings were detected on physical examination. Diagnostic imaging included plain abdominal radiography (7), ultrasonography (7), computed tomography (3), and magnetic resonance imaging (2). A cystic mass was reported on radiologic studies in 6 patients and appendicular abscess in 1. Cyst and cecum were resected, ileocolostomy was performed in 6 patients, and cyst excision was performed in 1. The diagnosis of duplication cyst was made by pathologic examination in all patients. Cecal duplications may be detected incidentally; however, they may mimic appendicular abscess, a tumor mass, or necrotizing enterocolitis. Whether cystic lesions are symptomatic, they should be excised when detected because of possible complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dendritic cell neoplasms: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairouz, Sebastien; Hashash, Jana; Kabbara, Wadih; McHayleh, Wassim; Tabbara, Imad A

    2007-10-01

    Dendritic cell neoplasms are rare tumors that are being recognized with increasing frequency. They were previously classified as lymphomas, sarcomas, or histiocytic neoplasms. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies dendritic cell neoplasms into five groups: Langerhans' cell histiocytosis, Langerhans' cell sarcoma, Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma/tumor, Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma/tumor, and Dendritic cell sarcoma, not specified otherwise (Jaffe, World Health Organization classification of tumors 2001; 273-289). Recently, Pileri et al. provided a comprehensive immunohistochemical classification of histiocytic and dendritic cell tumors (Pileri et al., Histopathology 2002;59:161-167). In this article, a concise overview regarding the pathological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of follicular dendritic, interdigitating dendritic, and Langerhans' cell tumors is presented.

  6. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  7. Cecal intubation rates in different eras of endoscopic technological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyja, Maciej; Pasternak, Artur; Szura, Mirosław; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Major, Piotr; Rembiasz, Kazimierz

    2018-03-01

    Colonoscopy plays a critical role in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and has been widely regarded as the gold standard. Cecal intubation rate (CIR) is one of the well-defined quality indicators used to assess colonoscopy. To assess the impact of new technologies on the quality of colonoscopy by assessing completion rates. This was a dual-center study at the 2 nd Department of Surgery at Jagiellonian University Medical College and at the Specialist Center "Medicina" in Krakow, Poland. The CIR and cecal intubation time (CIT) in three different eras of technological advancement were determined. The study enrolled 27 463 patients who underwent colonoscopy as part of a national CRC screening program. The patients were divided into three groups: group I - 3408 patients examined between 2000 and 2003 (optical endoscopes); group II - 10 405 patients examined between 2004 and 2008 (standard electronic endoscopes); and group III - 13 650 patients examined between 2009 and 2014 (modern endoscopes). There were statistically significant differences in the CIR between successive eras. The CIR in group I (2000-2003) was 69.75%, in group II (2004-2008) was 92.32%, and in group III (2009-2014) was 95.17%. The mean CIT was significantly reduced in group III. Our study shows that the technological innovation of novel endoscopy devices has a great influence on the effectiveness of the CRC screening program. The new era of endoscopic technological development has the potential to reduce examination-related patient discomfort, obviate the need for sedation and increase diagnostic yields.

  8. Case report of idiopathic cecal perforation presenting as acute appendicitis on ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calista Harbaugh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cecal perforation is an uncommon phenomenon in a pediatric population. It has been linked to a number of underlying medical conditions, which may result in focal inflammation or relative ischemia including hematologic malignancy, infection, and inflammatory bowel disease. We present an otherwise healthy 16-year-old male diagnosed with acute uncomplicated appendicitis on ultrasound, who was found to have cecal perforation with normal appendix intraoperatively, ultimately requiring ileocectomy. With this report, we aim to present the numerous pathophysiologic etiologies of cecal perforation, and to promote a comprehensive differential diagnosis despite the clinical and radiologic findings consistent with uncomplicated appendicitis.

  9. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langabeer, S. E.; Andrikovics, H.; Asp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been...

  11. LaPlace's law revisited: Cecal perforation as an unusual presentation of pancreatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cason Frederick D

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer is often locally and distally aggressive, but initial presentation as cecal perforation is uncommon. Case presentation We describe a patient presenting with pneumoperitoneum, found at initial exploration to have a cecal perforation believed to be secondary to a large cecal adenoma, after palpation of the remainder of the colon revealed hard stool but no distal obstruction. Postoperatively, however, the patient progressed to large bowel obstruction and upon reexploration, a mass could now be delineated, encompassing the splenic flexure, splenic hilum, and distal pancreas. Histological evaluation determined this was locally invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and therefore the true etiology of the original cecal perforation. Conclusion Any perforation localized to the cecum must be highly suspicious for a distal obstruction, as dictated by the law of LaPlace.

  12. Large particles increase viscosity and yield stress of pig cecal contents without changing basic viscoelastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toru; Sakata, Takashi

    2002-05-01

    The viscosity of gut contents should influence digestion and absorption. Earlier investigators measured the viscosity of intestinal contents after the removal of solid particles. However, we previously found that removal of solid particles from pig cecal contents dramatically lowered the viscosity of the contents. Accordingly, we examined the contribution of large solid particles to viscoelastic parameters of gut contents in the present study. We removed large particles from pig cecal contents by filtration through surgical gauze. Then, we reconstructed the cecal contents by returning all, one half or none of the original amount of the large particles to the filtrate. We measured the viscosity, shear stress and shear rate of these reconstructed cecal contents using a tube-flow viscometer. The coefficient of viscosity was larger when the large-particle content was higher (P Bingham plastic nature irrespective of large-particle content. We calculated the yield stress of these fluids assuming that the fluids behave as Bingham plastic. The yield stress of the cecal contents was greater (P Bingham plastic characteristics to pig cecal contents.

  13. Ileocolic intussusception due to a cecal endometriosis: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Rivkine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cecal endometriosis and ileocolic intussusception due to a cecal endometriosis is extremely rare. We report a case of a woman who presented an ileocecal intussusception due to a cecal endometriosis. The patient gave two months history of chronic periombilical pain requiring regular hospital admission and analgesia. The symptoms were not related to menses. A laparotomy was performed and revealed an ileocolic intussusception. The abdominal exploration did not find any endometriosis lesion. Ileocaecal resection was performed. Microscopic examination showed a cystic component, lined by a regular cylindric epithelium. Foci of endometrial tissu were oberved in the cecal subserosa and muscularis mucosal, with irregular endometrial glands lined by cylindric epithelium without atypia immunostained with CK7, and characteristic endometrial stroma immunostained with CD10. Cecal endometriosis and ileocolic intussusception due to a cecal endometriosis is extremely rare. Diagnose of etiology remains challenging due to the absence of clinical and radiological specific characteristics. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2975867306869166

  14. Cardiac effects of noncardiac neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, F.J.; Berger, B.M.; Guerina, N.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities may occur as secondary manifestations of noncardiac neoplasms. The principal cardiac effects of noncardiac tumors include the direct results of metastases to the heart or lungs, the indirect effects of circulating tumor products (causing nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, myeloma-associated amyloidosis, pheochromocytoma-associated cardiac hypertrophy and myofibrillar degeneration, and carcinoid heart disease), and the undesired cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 89 references

  15. Influence of different litter materials on cecal microbiota colonization in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, V A; Hughes, R J; Ophel-Keller, K; Ali, M; Macalpine, R

    2009-12-01

    A chicken growth study was conducted to determine if litter type influenced gut microbiota and performance in broilers. Seven bedding materials were investigated and included soft and hardwood sawdust, softwood shavings, shredded paper, chopped straw, rice hulls, and reused softwood shavings. Microbial profiling was done to investigate changes in cecal bacterial communities associated with litter material and age. Cecal microbiota were investigated at 14 and 28 d of age (n = 12 birds/litter material). At both ages, the cecal microbiota of chickens raised on reused litter was significantly (P litter materials, except softwood shavings at d 28. Cecal microbiota was also significantly different between birds raised on shredded paper and rice hulls at both ages. Age had a significant influence on cecal microbiota composition regardless of litter material. Similarity in cecal microbial communities among birds raised on the same litter treatment was greater at 28 d of age (29 to 40%) than at 14 d of age (25 to 32%). Bird performance on the different litter materials was measured by feed conversion ratio, live weight, and feed intake. Significant (P litter materials. However, no significant (P > 0.05) differences were observed in feed conversion ratio among birds raised on any of the 7 different litter materials at either 14 or 28 d of age. The type of litter material can influence colonization and development of cecal microbiota in chickens. Litter-induced changes in the gut microbiota may be partially responsible for some of the significant differences observed in early rates of growth; therefore, litter choice may have an important role in poultry gut health particularly in the absence of in-feed antibiotics.

  16. Gastrointestinal Surgery of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and should always be considered as the first-line treatment if radical resection can be achieved. Even in cases where radical surgery is not possible, palliative resection may...... be performed to reduce local or hormone-induced symptoms and to improve quality of life. The surgical procedures for GEP-NENs are accordingly described below. In most patients life-long follow-up is required, even following radical surgery, as recurrence may occur several years later....

  17. Tumor carcinoide de la apéndice cecal: Reporte de cuatro casos en la Clínica Carlos Ardila Lülle, Floridablanca, Colombia Carcinoid tumor of the cecal appendix: A report of four cases in the Clinica Carlos Ardila Lulle, Floridablanca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Mantilla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los tumores carcinoides son las neoplasias más frecuentes del apéndice cecal, se caracterizan por un crecimiento lento y curso clínico asintomático, su incidencia se calcula en 1-2 casos por cada 100,000 habitantes, se encuentran en menos del 1% de las apendicetomías y se presentan con mayor frecuencia en mujeres entre la cuarta a quinta época de la vida. Por lo general se trata de lesiones pequeñas que se diagnostican luego de la apendicetomía. Metodología El presente trabajo corresponde a una descripción de casos de tumor carcinoide del apéndice cecal, realizado en el laboratorio de patología MEGA, de la Clínica Ardila Lulle (CAL que incluye revisión de protocolos de especímenes quirúrgicos analizados entre enero 1 de 2000 y diciembre 31 de 2010. Resultados: Durante el periodo propuesto se encuentran cuatro casos de tumor carcinoide confinado al apéndice cecal en cuatro mujeres jóvenes. Tres de las lesiones presentan patrón histológico tipo A o insular y el restante un patrón tipo B o trabecular, en todos los casos se documentó reactividad con las sales de plata con la coloración de Fontana Masson y en los cuatro se encontró positividad con el marcador neuroendocrino cromogranina. Conclusión: Los tumores carcinoides de apéndice son lesiones de origen neuroendocrino, la mayoría circunscritas a la punta del órgano y de curso clínico indolente, sin embargo algunos de estos tumores tienen un comportamiento agresivo, que depende de su tamaño y de la actividad mitótica de sus células, por lo que se recomienda incluir en la evaluación diagnostica la cromogranina y el Ki67, marcadores neuroendocrino y de proliferación celular. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (2: 203-210Introduction: The carcinoids tumours are the most common neoplasm of the cecal appendix, are characterized by a slow growth and asymptomatic clinical course, its incidence is estimated at 1-2 cases per 100.000 inhabitants, are less than 1% of

  18. Prenatal ultrasound findings of fetal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2002-01-01

    A variety of neoplasms can develop in each tetal organ. Most fetal neoplasms can be detected by careful prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Some neoplosms show specific ultrasonographic findings suggesting the differential diagnosis, but others do not. Knowledge of the presence of a neoplasm in the fetus may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitates immediate postnatal treatment. During the last five years, we experienced 32 cases of fetal neoplasms in a variety of organs. We describe their typical and ultrasonographic findings with correlating postnatal CT, MRI, and pathologic findings

  19. Dietary Broccoli Alters Rat Cecal Microbiota to Improve Glucoraphanin Hydrolysis to Bioactive Isothiocyanates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoji Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli consumption brings many health benefits, including reducing the risk of cancer and inflammatory diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify global alterations in the cecal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and glucoraphanin (GRP hydrolysis to isothiocyanates ex vivo by the cecal microbiota, following different broccoli diets. Rats were randomized to consume AIN93G (control or different broccoli diets; AIN93G plus cooked broccoli, a GRP-rich powder, raw broccoli, or myrosinase-treated cooked broccoli. Feeding raw or cooked broccoli for four days or longer both changed the cecal microbiota composition and caused a greater production of isothiocyanates ex vivo. A more than two-fold increase in NAD(PH: quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity of the host colon mucosa after feeding cooked broccoli for seven days confirmed the positive health benefits. Further studies revealed that dietary GRP was specifically responsible for the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo, whereas changes in the cecal microbial communities were attributed to other broccoli components. Interestingly, a three-day withdrawal from a raw broccoli diet reversed the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo. Findings suggest that enhanced conversion of GRP to bioactive isothiocyanates by the cecal microbiota requires four or more days of broccoli consumption and is reversible.

  20. Dietary Broccoli Alters Rat Cecal Microbiota to Improve Glucoraphanin Hydrolysis to Bioactive Isothiocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoji; Wang, Yanling; Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Neme, Bárbara P; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Miller, Michael J

    2017-03-10

    Broccoli consumption brings many health benefits, including reducing the risk of cancer and inflammatory diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify global alterations in the cecal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and glucoraphanin (GRP) hydrolysis to isothiocyanates ex vivo by the cecal microbiota, following different broccoli diets. Rats were randomized to consume AIN93G (control) or different broccoli diets; AIN93G plus cooked broccoli, a GRP-rich powder, raw broccoli, or myrosinase-treated cooked broccoli. Feeding raw or cooked broccoli for four days or longer both changed the cecal microbiota composition and caused a greater production of isothiocyanates ex vivo. A more than two-fold increase in NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity of the host colon mucosa after feeding cooked broccoli for seven days confirmed the positive health benefits. Further studies revealed that dietary GRP was specifically responsible for the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo, whereas changes in the cecal microbial communities were attributed to other broccoli components. Interestingly, a three-day withdrawal from a raw broccoli diet reversed the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo. Findings suggest that enhanced conversion of GRP to bioactive isothiocyanates by the cecal microbiota requires four or more days of broccoli consumption and is reversible.

  1. Effect of fiber source on cecal fermentation and nitrogen recycled through cecotrophy in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J; Carabaño, R; Pérez-Alba, L; de Blas, J C

    2000-03-01

    The influence of fiber source on fiber digestion in rabbits was investigated. Six fibrous feedstuffs with wide differences in chemical composition and particle size were selected: paprika meal, olive leaves, alfalfa hay, soybean hulls, sodium hydroxide-treated barley straw, and sunflower hulls. Six diets were formulated to contain one of these ingredients as the sole source of fiber. To avoid nutrient imbalances, fiber sources were supplemented with different proportions of a fiber-free concentrate, based on soy protein isolate, wheat flour, lard, and a vitamin and mineral mix, to obtain diets containing at least 3% nitrogen and 5% starch. Daily soft feces excretion, and its NDF, and total and microbial nitrogen content were determined in 60 fattening rabbits (10 per diet). Seven days after the last cecotrophy control, the same animals were used to determine weight of stomach, cecum and their contents, and cecal fermentation traits (pH, VFA and ammonia concentrations, and buffer properties of cecal contents). Stepwise regression analysis showed a positive effect (P 1.25 mm). Degree of lignification of NDF decreased total nitrogen concentration in soft feces and cecal VFA concentration (P lignification of NDF, and base-buffering capacity of dry cecal contents (r = -.52, -.37, and -.49, respectively). From these results, we conclude that pectic constituent concentration, degree of lignification of NDF, and particle size are the variables that best characterize the influence of the source of fiber on soft feces excretion and cecal fermentation traits in rabbits.

  2. The Spindle Cell Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are defined as neoplasms that consist of spindle-shaped cells in the histopathology. Spindle cell neoplasms can affect the oral cavity. In the oral cavity, the origin of the spindle cell neoplasms may be traced to epithelial, mesenchymal and odontogenic components. This article aims to review the spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity with emphasis on histopathology.

  3. Anal channel neoplasm: a neoplasm radio chemo curable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Lopez, M.; Avondet, I.; Vazquez, J.; Santini Blasco, A.

    1997-01-01

    Presently work is made an exhaustive revision of the anatomy of the region, the history of the treatments and of the current treatments of channel cancer anal. It makes emphasis in the importance of the conservative treatment with radiochemotherapy (RQT). The present is a prospective study,longitudinal and descriptive. Material and method: between January of 1989 and December of 1994 20 patients attended with cancer of anal channel with an illness metastasis. An average age it was of 62.4 years.The sex, 16 men and 4 women. The performance status 0,1 or 2 of the scale of the ECOQ. In the pathological anatomy: 15 patient epidermic neoplasm, 5 patient basal neoplasm. State I: 2 patients, II: 12 patients, III: 6 patients, IV: 0 patients.Treatment: the radiotherapy one carries out with cobalt 60 and it irradiates the primary tumour and the ganglion structures region, pelvic and inguinal. It surrendered to Gy/dia from Monday to Friday up to 50 Gy. The chemotherapy one carries out with mitomicine C 10 mg/ previous day to the radiotherapy and 5-UGH 1 intravenous g/my in infusion the days from 1 to 4 and from 29 to 32 after the radiotherapy.Results: to) control locorregional patient RC-16 (80%) ,RP 2 patients (10%) , without answer or with progression lesional a patient (5%) .b) State vital: living 15 patients, died 5 patients(continuation 12 to 60 months) .e)Tolerance: there were not deaths for the gastrointestinal treatment and haematological with toxicity moderate.To conclude:1) The radiochemotherapy is the treatment of elect.2)A feasible treatment of being carried out in our environment.3)Required of a good relationship predictable interdisciplinary.4)Toxicity and tolerable.5)Results of conservation of the sphincter in 80%(AU) [es

  4. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of small bowel mesentery in associated with cecal cancer: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Sun; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choog Ki; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Yong Wook; Oh, Young Ha

    2005-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare disease that is histopathologically defined as a solitary tumor composed of a monoclonal proliferation of cells with plasmacytic differentiation in an extramedullary site. Most of these tumors occur in the submucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, and they rarely occur in the small bowel mesentery. We report here on a case of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the small bowel mesentery that was in association with a cecal cancer. Abdominal ultrasound and CT revealed a lobulated soft tissue mass with a cystic portion and peripheral calcification. In this case, the preoperative radiological diagnosis was difficult due to accompanying cecal cancer

  5. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of small bowel mesentery in associated with cecal cancer: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Sun; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choog Ki; Park, Dong Woo [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Wook; Oh, Young Ha [Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare disease that is histopathologically defined as a solitary tumor composed of a monoclonal proliferation of cells with plasmacytic differentiation in an extramedullary site. Most of these tumors occur in the submucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, and they rarely occur in the small bowel mesentery. We report here on a case of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the small bowel mesentery that was in association with a cecal cancer. Abdominal ultrasound and CT revealed a lobulated soft tissue mass with a cystic portion and peripheral calcification. In this case, the preoperative radiological diagnosis was difficult due to accompanying cecal cancer.

  6. Adenocarcinoma primario del apéndice cecal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Galano Urgellés

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal y prospectivo de 5 pacientes operados de cáncer del apéndice cecal, atendidos en una consulta de seguimiento habilitada para pacientes intervenidos de cáncer colorrectal. El análisis destacó que la edad más frecuente se halló por encima de la 5ta. década de la vida, y que hubo predominio del sexo masculino. Se practicó una reintervención durante el seguimiento; como terapéutica se utilizó el 5-fluoracilo; hubo un predominio absoluto del adenocarcinoma como variedad histológica; el diagnóstico de la entidad siempre se confirmó por Anatomía Patológica. La muestra representa el 1,2 % del total de casos de nuestra consulta y el 0,4 % de los pacientes apendicectomizados en nuestro Centro durante el período de estudio. Se recomienda insistir en el pesquisaje masivo de aquellos grupos de riesgo por parte del nivel primario de atención, para detectar precozmente la entidad y, por ende, mejorar los resultados quirúrgicos y de seguimiento posoperatorio, así como aplicar terapéutica de Sieracki en esta entidadA lengthwise and prospective study of 5 patients operated from appendix ceci cancer, who were attended in the follow-up consultation room for patients operated from colo-rectal cancer was performed. The analysis underlined that the most frequent age was over 50 years-old and males were predominant. During the follow-up period, one of the patients was operated again and treated with 5-fluoroacyl; adenocarcinoma prevailed as hystological variant and its diagnosis was always confirmed by the Pathological Anatomy Department. The sample of 5 patients represented 1.2 % of the cases attending our consultation room and 0.4 % of appendectomy-operated patients in our hospital during the studied period. The massive continuos screening of risk groups at the primary care level is recommended so as to early detect adenocarcinoma and thus improve the surgical and posoperative follow-up results and apply the

  7. Neurological Findings in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Paydas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN arise from genetic deficiencies at the level of pluripotent stem cells. Each of these neoplasms is a clonal stem cell disorder with specific phenotypic, genetic and clinical properties. Age is one of the most important factors in the development of symptoms and complications associated with MPNs.High white blood cell counts in chronic myelocytic leukemia also known as leukocytosis may lead to central nervous system findings. Tumors developing outside the bone marrow named as extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMT could be detected at the initial diagnosis or during the prognosis of the disease, which may cause neurological symptoms due to pressure of leukemic cell mass on various tissues along with spinal cord. Central nervous system involvement and thrombocytopenic hemorrhage may lead to diverse neurological symptoms and findings.Transient ischemic attack and thrombotic stroke are the most common symptoms in polycythemia vera. Besides thrombosis and hemorrage, transformation to acute leukemia can cause neurological symptoms and findings. Transient ischemic attack, thrombotic stroke and specifically hemorrage can give rise to neurological symptoms similar to MPN in essential thrombocytosis.Extramedullary hematopoiesis refers to hematopoietic centers arise in organ/tissues other than bone marrow in myelofibrosis. Extramedullar hematopoietic centers may cause intracranial involvement, spinal cord compression, seizures and hydrocephalia. Though rare, extramedullary hematopoiesis can be detected in cranial/spinal meninges, paraspinal tissue and intracerebral regions. Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been reported in peripheral neurons, choroid plexus, pituitary, orbits, orbital and lacrimal fossa and in sphenoidal sinuses. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 157-169

  8. Marek’s disease virus induced transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although bursal and thymic atrophy associated with Marek’s disease (MD) is well established and characterized, the effect of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection on lymphoid aggregates within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is not known. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the two largest lympho...

  9. Integrating Multiple Analytical Datasets to Compare Metabolite Profiles of Mouse Colonic-Cecal Contents and Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Grapov, Dmitry; Jackson, Matthew I; Fahrmann, Johannes; Fiehn, Oliver; Combs, Gerald F

    2015-09-11

    The pattern of metabolites produced by the gut microbiome comprises a phenotype indicative of the means by which that microbiome affects the gut. We characterized that phenotype in mice by conducting metabolomic analyses of the colonic-cecal contents, comparing that to the metabolite patterns of feces in order to determine the suitability of fecal specimens as proxies for assessing the metabolic impact of the gut microbiome. We detected a total of 270 low molecular weight metabolites in colonic-cecal contents and feces by gas chromatograph, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF). Of that number, 251 (93%) were present in both types of specimen, representing almost all known biochemical pathways related to the amino acid, carbohydrate, energy, lipid, membrane transport, nucleotide, genetic information processing, and cancer-related metabolism. A total of 115 metabolites differed significantly in relative abundance between both colonic-cecal contents and feces. These data comprise the first characterization of relationships among metabolites present in the colonic-cecal contents and feces in a healthy mouse model, and shows that feces can be a useful proxy for assessing the pattern of metabolites to which the colonic mucosum is exposed.

  10. Integrating Multiple Analytical Datasets to Compare Metabolite Profiles of Mouse Colonic-Cecal Contents and Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of metabolites produced by the gut microbiome comprises a phenotype indicative of the means by which that microbiome affects the gut. We characterized that phenotype in mice by conducting metabolomic analyses of the colonic-cecal contents, comparing that to the metabolite patterns of feces in order to determine the suitability of fecal specimens as proxies for assessing the metabolic impact of the gut microbiome. We detected a total of 270 low molecular weight metabolites in colonic-cecal contents and feces by gas chromatograph, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF. Of that number, 251 (93% were present in both types of specimen, representing almost all known biochemical pathways related to the amino acid, carbohydrate, energy, lipid, membrane transport, nucleotide, genetic information processing, and cancer-related metabolism. A total of 115 metabolites differed significantly in relative abundance between both colonic-cecal contents and feces. These data comprise the first characterization of relationships among metabolites present in the colonic-cecal contents and feces in a healthy mouse model, and shows that feces can be a useful proxy for assessing the pattern of metabolites to which the colonic mucosum is exposed.

  11. Effect of lactose on oro-cecal transit in lactose digesters and maldigesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T.; Priebe, M. G.; Welling, G. W.; Vonk, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background The transit time of the small intestine, in addition to lactase activity, may influence lactose digestion and thus play a role in the occurrence of lactose intolerance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of lactose on the oro-cecal transit time (OCTT) in lactose

  12. Cecal Carcinoid Tumor in a Nigerian Man: A Case Report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-10

    Oct 10, 2016 ... a case of a 56-year-old Nigerian man with a cecal carcinoid tumor that was surgically removed. ... per 100,000.[3,4]. Other studies have found carcinoid ... with symptoms of pain, anorexia, or weight loss.[8]. Approximately ...

  13. Brain and spinal cord neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Bragg, D.G.; Youker, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional means of detecting CNS neoplasms include plain film studies, isotope brain scans, angiography, pneumoencephalography, and myelography. Computed tomography (CT) scanning has replaced nearly all of these studies in both the initial detection and follow-up of brain tumors. Air studies (pneumoencephalography and ventriculography) have been virtually eliminated, except in certain unusual circumstances when two positions need to be checked, or hydrocephalus followed. The nuclear brain scan has a very limited role at present, being useful primarily for detecting skull or meningeal metastases. Myelography, however, remains a valuable imaging tool for the assessment of tumors of the spinal canal. CT scanning has not only improved our ability to detect smaller brain tumors, but also CT guided stereotactic biopsy techniques provide a safer means of obtaining tissue from these smaller lesions, regardless of location. Surgical techniques, guided by CT sterotactic techniques, show promise as well, but the impact of these therapeutic techniques on survival statistics remains to be defined. CT has revolutionized the approach to the detection and diagnosis of space-occupying lesions in the brain. Tumors can be detected at a smaller site

  14. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, Stephen E; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Asp, Julia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Carillo, Serge; Haslam, Karl; Kjaer, Lasse; Lippert, Eric; Mansier, Olivier; Oppliger Leibundgut, Elisabeth; Percy, Melanie J; Porret, Naomi; Palmqvist, Lars; Schwarz, Jiri; McMullin, Mary F; Schnittger, Susanne; Pallisgaard, Niels; Hermouet, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been identified. These discoveries have been rapidly incorporated into evolving molecular diagnostic algorithms. Whilst many of these mutations appear to have prognostic implications, establishing MPN diagnosis is of immediate clinical importance with selection, implementation and the continual evaluation of the appropriate laboratory methodology to achieve this diagnosis similarly vital. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in identifying and quantitating the common MPN-associated mutations are considered herein with particular regard to their clinical utility. The evolution of molecular diagnostic applications and platforms has occurred in parallel with the discovery of MPN-associated mutations, and it therefore appears likely that emerging technologies such as next-generation sequencing and digital PCR will in the future play an increasing role in the molecular diagnosis of MPN. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  16. Cecal parameters of rats fed diets containing grapefruit polyphenols and inulin as single supplements or in a combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Estrella, Isabel

    2006-09-01

    We compared the effects of grapefruit flavonoids and inulin, as single dietary components or in a combination, on cecal fermentation in rats adapted to a semipurified diet. The experimental diets contained 0.3% flavonoid extract and 5% or 10% inulin and a combination of both supplements. The large bowel metabolism assessment was based on cecal parameters: bulk effect, pH, microbial enzymes activity, and short-chain fatty acid production. Both supplements induced significant enlargement of the cecal digesta weight. Acidification of cecal digesta was more pronounced, with a higher inulin addition to the diet. Cecal pH was the highest with the flavonoid-rich diets and lowest in the case of a simultaneous addition of flavonoids and a high content of inulin. The flavonoid extract applied as a single dietary supplement was observed to decrease the activity of bacterial beta-glucosidase and beta- and alpha-galactosidases in the cecal digesta. In contrast, addition of the grapefruit extract to inulin-containing diets increased the activity of alpha-glucosidase, alpha-galactosidase, and beta-galactosidase. Great accumulation of cecal digesta in rats consuming the flavonoid-diet caused a considerable increase in the short-chain fatty acid pool, mainly acetic acid. Inulin added to the diet decreased the excessive enlargement of digesta caused by dietary flavonoids. Dietary addition of inulin to the flavonoid-diet also normalized hydration of cecal digesta and significantly decreased the pH of digesta. The presence of polyphenols in the inulin-containing diets did not change total short-chain fatty acid production in the cecum of rats. Our results suggested that simultaneous intake of inulin and polyphenols can decrease the detrimental effects of the latter on cecal fermentation.

  17. Bone morbidity in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Sarah; Ocias, Lukas Frans; Vestergaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the classical Philadelphia chromosome-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms including essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis often suffer from comorbidities, in particular, cardiovascular diseases and thrombotic events. Apparently, there is also...

  18. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenner, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  19. Clinico-roentgenological characteristic of early stomach neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Peculiarities of clinic and roentgenosemiotics of early stomach neoplasms in patients were analyzed. Roentgenological picture of early stomach neoplasms depends on anatomic growth shape and size of neoplasms, its localization and on manifestation of inflammatory and functional chages accompanying the neoplasm. Application of complex of gastrological examination including roentgenological diagnostic method, gastrofibroscopy and morphological examination of the tissue permits to diagnose early stomach neoplasm in 95,4 % of patients. 8 refs

  20. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Lavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph− myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF. At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review.

  1. Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.M.; Sheikh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

  2. Influence of Pasture Rearing on the Cecal Bacterial Microbiota in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čermák L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Differences in quantity of cecal microbiota in broiler chickens from conventional and pasture rearing were investigated by cultivation. Rearing on pasture brings stress reduction and increases comfort and bird welfare, which leads to products with better taste and flavour compared to conventionally produced broiler chickens. A difference in cecal settlement of general anaerobes, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, and campylobacters and salmonellas in the two different rearing systems was addressed. Whereas numbers of total anaerobes and lactic acid bacteria were not affected, those of coliforms were significantly reduced in pasture rearing. Campylobacters were found only in pasture-reared chickens (in 28% of animals. Salmonellas were not detected in any of the systems.

  3. Diet-dependent modular dynamic interactions of the equine cecal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Camilla; Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Avershina, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on dynamic interactions in microbiota is pivotal for understanding the role of bacteria in the gut. We herein present comprehensive dynamic models of the horse cecal microbiota, which include short-chained fatty acids, carbohydrate metabolic networks, and taxonomy. Dynamic models were...... diets. We observed marked differences in the microbial dynamic interaction patterns for Fibrobacter succinogenes, Lachnospiraceae, Streptococcus, Treponema, Anaerostipes, and Anaerovibrio between the two diet groups. Fluctuations and microbiota interactions were the most pronounced for the starch rich...... sugars for the starch-rich diet and monosaccharides for the fiber-rich diet. In conclusion, diet may not only affect the composition of the cecal microbiota, but also dynamic interactions and metabolic cross-feeding....

  4. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Wen Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg-1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  5. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Feng Mei

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg–1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  6. Modulation of Rat Cecal Microbiota by Administration of Raffinose and Encapsulated Bifidobacterium breve

    OpenAIRE

    Dinoto, Achmad; Suksomcheep, Akarat; Ishizuka, Satoshi; Kimura, Hanae; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao; Yokota, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effects of administration of raffinose and encapsulated Bifidobacterium breve JCM 1192T cells on the rat cecal microbiota, in a preclinical synbiotic study groups of male WKAH/Hkm Slc rats were fed for 3 weeks with four different test diets: basal diet (group BD), basal diet supplemented with raffinose (group RAF), basal diet supplemented with encapsulated B. breve (group CB), and basal diet supplemented with both raffinose and encapsulated B. breve (group RCB). The bacteri...

  7. Changes in cecal microbiota and mucosal gene expression revealed new aspects of epizootic rabbit enteropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bäuerl

    Full Text Available Epizootic Rabbit Enteropathy (ERE is a severe disease of unknown aetiology that mainly affects post-weaning animals. Its incidence can be prevented by antibiotic treatment suggesting that bacterial elements are crucial for the development of the disease. Microbial dynamics and host responses during the disease were studied. Cecal microbiota was characterized in three rabbit groups (ERE-affected, healthy and healthy pretreated with antibiotics, followed by transcriptional analysis of cytokines and mucins in the cecal mucosa and vermix by q-rtPCR. In healthy animals, cecal microbiota with or without antibiotic pretreatment was very similar and dominated by Alistipes and Ruminococcus. Proportions of both genera decreased in ERE rabbits whereas Bacteroides, Akkermansia and Rikenella increased, as well as Clostridium, γ-Proteobacteria and other opportunistic and pathogenic species. The ERE group displayed remarkable dysbiosis and reduced taxonomic diversity. Transcription rate of mucins and inflammatory cytokines was very high in ERE rabbits, except IL-2, and its analysis revealed the existence of two clearly different gene expression patterns corresponding to Inflammatory and (mucin Secretory Profiles. Furthermore, these profiles were associated to different bacterial species, suggesting that they may correspond to different stages of the disease. Other data obtained in this work reinforced the notion that ERE morbidity and mortality is possibly caused by an overgrowth of different pathogens in the gut of animals whose immune defence mechanisms seem not to be adequately responding.

  8. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan.

  9. Nutritional survey of neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinli; Zhu Shengtao

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In order to know the nutriture of neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy and give nutritional guidance properly, the authors make the following survey. Methods: A dietary survey of twenty-four-hour retrospective method was used; The patients' activity was recorded and their twenty-four hours caloric consumption was calculated. Results: Of all the patients, the intake of protein is more than recommended, percentage of calorific proportion is about 15%-19% of gross caloric. A larger portion of patients' caloric intake, especially female patients, is lower than caloric consumption. Among all the patients, the intake of vegetables is not enough; The consumption of milk and milky products is lower; it is common and serious that neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy have vitamine and mineral's scarcity. Conclusions: Nutriture of neoplasm patients is not optimistic, it is imperative to improve their nutriture

  10. Orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Hitchon, Patrick W; Smoker, Wendy R K; Lee, Andrew G; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to report an orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive orbital neoplasm. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon but can mimic neoplasm. One potential mechanism for the orbital roof destruction is a post-traumatic "growing orbital roof fracture." The growing fracture has been reported mostly in children but can occur in adults. Alternative potential etiologies for the encephalocele are discussed, including Gorham syndrome. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon in adults, and the findings can superficially resemble an orbital neoplasm. Radiographic and clinical features that might suggest the correct diagnosis include a prior history of trauma, overlying frontal lobe encephalomalacia without significant mass effect or edema, and an orbital roof defect. The "growing fracture" mechanism may be a potential explanation for the orbital roof destruction in some cases.

  11. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  12. Colonic lymphoid follicles associated with colonic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, S.N.; Teplick, S.K.; Ross, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated 62 patients over 40 years old in whom lymphoid follicles were demonstrated on double-contrast enema examinations. Eighteen patients (29%) had no current radiographic evidence of, or history of, colonic neoplasms. Forty-four patients (71%) had an associated neoplasm. Fourteen patients had associated colonic carcinoma, and ten patients had a history of a previously resected colon cancer. One patient had previously undergone resection for ''polyps.'' Twenty-two patients had an associated ''polyp.'' There were no clinical or radiographic features that could reliably distinguish the neoplastic from the nonneoplastic groups. However, lymphoid follicles in the left colon or diffusely involving the colon were more likely to be associated with a colonic neoplasm. Lymphoid follicles were almost always identified near a malignant lesion

  13. Radiology of pancreatic neoplasms: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Santa, Luis Gijón; Retortillo, José Antonio Pérez; Miguel, Ainhoa Camarero; Klein, Lea Marie

    2014-09-15

    Diagnostic imaging is an important tool to evaluate pancreatic neoplasms. We describe the imaging features of pancreatic malignancies and their benign mimics. Accurate detection and staging are essential for ensuring appropriate selection of patients who will benefit from surgery and for preventing unnecessary surgeries in patients with unresectable disease. Ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging can help to do a correct diagnosis. Radiologists should be aware of the wide variety of anatomic variants and pathologic conditions that may mimic pancreatic neoplasms. The knowledge of the most important characteristic key findings may facilitate the right diagnosis.

  14. Determination of pre-cecal phosphorus digestibility of inorganic phosphates and bone meal products in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harn, J; Spek, J W; van Vuure, C A; van Krimpen, M M

    2017-05-01

    A broiler study was performed to determine the pre-cecal phosphorus (P) digestibility of 5 P sources, 3 from animal (Delfos, Calfos, and porcine bone meal) and 2 of inorganic (monocalcium phosphate [MCP] and dicalcium phosphate [DCP]) origin. Delfos is processed from bones resulting in a dicalcium phosphate product, and Calfos is processed from bones in which part of the gelatin is removed but in which the hydroxy-apatite matrix is preserved. During the first 14 d, birds were housed in floor pens bedded with wood shavings and received a commercial starter diet. At d 14, broilers were randomly assigned to pens (0.9 m2, 10 birds/pen) with a slatted floor. From d 14 onwards, one of the 6 experimental diets (a basal diet, and 5 diets containing the P sources) was provided. Test diets were replicated 6 times, and the basal diet 8 times. Electron microscopy images of test products were made in order to verify whether the spatial structure of the test products could be related to the pre-cecal P digestibility of the same products. Diets met or exceeded CVB (2011) requirements for all nutrients except for P and were formulated to contain a calcium to total P ratio of between 1.4 and 1.6 and a minimal amount of phytate P. Diets contained 5 g/kg titanium oxide as a marker to determine digestibility of P. At d 24 all birds were euthanized, after which the content of the terminal part of the ileum was sampled. The P digestibility was calculated by linear regression according to World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) protocol for determination of pre-cecal P digestibility. Pre-cecal P digestibility of MCP, DCP, Delfos, Calfos, and porcine bone meal was 88.5, 82.4, 94.5, 86.9, and 78.2%, respectively. Based on visual inspection of electron microscopy images of test products, the spatial structure of the test products might be related to P digestibility. It is concluded that processing of bone meal increases the pre-cecal P digestibility in broilers. © The Author 2017

  15. The time-course of broiler intestinal microbiota development after administration of cecal contents to incubating eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E. Donaldson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The microbial populations that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract (GIT are known to influence the health and growth performance of the host. Clean hatcheries and machine-based incubation practices in the commercial poultry industry can lead to the acquisition of aberrant microbiota in the GIT of chickens and a very high level of bird-to-bird variation. The lack of microbial profile flock uniformity presents challenges for harnessing and manipulating intestinal bacteria to better serve the host. Methods Cecal contents from high or low performing chickens were used to inoculate the surface of eggs prior to hatching and then the initial gut colonisation was monitored and subsequent changes in gut microbiota composition were followed over time. Two different cecal treatment groups were compared to an untreated control group (n = 32. Bacterial communities were characterised using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques. Results Cecal microbiota transfer via egg surface application did not transfer the performance profile of the donors to the recipient birds. One of the cecal inoculations provided a more uniform gut microbiota, but this was not reproduced in the second group with a different inoculum. Development of the intestinal community was reproducible in all three groups with some genera like Lactobacillus showing no change, others like Faecalibacterium increased in abundance slowly and steadily over time and others like Enterobacter were abundant only in the first days of life. Discussion The cecal treatment reduced bird-to-bird variation in microbiota composition. Although the high FCR performance of donor birds was not transferred with the cecal microbiota, all three groups, including the control, performed better than standard for the breed. The pattern of microbiota development was similar in all three flocks, indicating that the normal processes of microbiota acquisition largely swamped any effect of the cecal

  16. Radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms are presented. The results of combined (surgical and radiation) treatment of tumors are studied. On the whole it is noted that radiation treatment of initial spinal cord tumours is not practised on a large scale because of low radiostability of spinal cord

  17. Benign neoplasms of the trachea : case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Hee; Mun, Kyung Mi; Kim, Bum Soo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital Catholic Univ. Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    Benign tumors of the trachea are rare, accounting for approximately 10% of all primary tracheal neoplasms. They are frequently misdiagnosed and managed as bronchial asthma or chronic bronchitis. We report a lipoma and a leiomyoma of the trachea with emphasis on the clinical, radiographic and CT findings, and review the literature.

  18. Myeloproliferative neoplasms in five multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2013-01-01

    The concurrence of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is unusual. We report five patients from a localized geographic area in Denmark with both MS and MPN; all the patients were diagnosed with MPNs in the years 2007-2012. We describe the patients' history and treatment...

  19. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monill, J.; Pernas, J.; Montserrat, E.; Perez, C.; Clavero, J.; Martinez-Noguera, A.; Guerrero, R.; Torrubia, S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists. Diagnoses were made from biopsy, surgery and/or clinical follow-up findings. Multiple myeloma was found in seven patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in four patients. All patients with multiple myeloma had multifocal disease with involvement of perirenal space (4/7), retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes (3/7), peritoneum (3/7), liver (2/7), subcutaneous tissues (2/7) and kidney (1/7). In three of the four patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma, a single site was involved, namely stomach, vagina and retroperitoneum. In the fourth patient, a double site of abdominal involvement was observed with rectal and jejunal masses. Plasma cell neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of single or multiple enhancing masses in the abdomen or pelvis. Abdominal plasma cell neoplasms were most frequently seen as well-defined enhancing masses (10/11). (orig.)

  20. The new WHO nomenclature: lymphoid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair, Susan J; Rodak, Bernadette F

    2002-01-01

    The development of the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms is a remarkable example of cooperation and communication between pathologists and oncologists from around the world. Joint classification committees of the major hematopathology societies will periodically review and update this classification, facilitating further progress in the understanding and treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  1. Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm is a rare pancreatic tumour predominantly affecting young women. We present two cases in young female patients. Both tumours were surgically removed as abdominal masses, one from the pancreatic tail and the other posterior to the stomach with an unclear organ of origin. On gross ...

  2. Radiologic features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balci, N. Cem; Semelka, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents imaging features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms. Microcystic adenoma which is composed of small cysts ( 2 cm) are accounted for mucinous cystic neoplasms, its variant along pancreatic duct is ductectatic mucinous cystic neoplasm. Endocrine tumors of pancreas are hypervascular and can be depicted on early dynamic enhanced crosssectional imaging modalities or on angiography when they are <1 cm. Pancreatic metastases and lymphomas are rare neoplasms which should also be included in differential diagnosis for pancreatic masses

  3. Somatic CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangalia, J.; Massie, C.E.; Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Loo, P. Van; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O'Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing

  4. The inside tract: The appendicular, cecal, and colonic microbiome of captive aye-ayes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Lydia K; McKenney, Erin A

    2018-04-17

    The aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is famous for its feeding strategies that target structurally defended, but high-quality resources. Nonetheless, the influence of this digestible diet on gut microbial contributions to aye-aye metabolism and nutrition remains unexplored. When four captive aye-ayes were unexpectedly lost to persin toxicity, we opportunistically collected samples along the animals' gastrointestinal tracts. Here we describe the diversity and composition of appendicular, cecal, and colonic consortia relative to the aye-aye's unusual feeding ecology. During necropsies, we collected digestive content from the appendix, cecum, and distal colon. We determined microbiome structure at these sites via amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and an established bioinformatics pipeline. The aye-ayes' microbiomes exhibited low richness and diversity compared to the consortia of other lemurs housed at the same facility, and were dominated by a single genus, Prevotella. Appendicular microbiomes were differentiated from more homogenized cecal and colonic consortia by lower richness and diversity, greater evenness, and a distinct taxonomic composition. The simplicity of the aye-aye's gut microbiome could be attributed to captivity-induced dysbiosis, or it may reflect this species' extreme foraging investment in a digestible diet that requires little microbial metabolism. Site-specific appendicular consortia, but more similar cecal and colonic consortia, support the theory that the appendix functions as a safe-house for beneficial bacteria, and confirm fecal communities as fairly reliable proxies for consortia along the lower gut. We encourage others to make similar use of natural or accidental losses for probing the primate gut microbiome. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Predictors for cecal insertion time: the impact of abdominal visceral fat measured by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sakamoto, Kayo; Arai, Tomohiro; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Shinozaki, Masafumi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Uemura, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    Several factors affect the risk for longer cecal insertion time. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of longer insertion time and to evaluate the effect of visceral fat measured by CT. This is a retrospective observational study. Outpatients for colorectal cancer screening who underwent colonoscopies and CT were enrolled. Computed tomography was performed in individuals who requested cancer screening and in those with GI bleeding. Information on obesity indices (BMI, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue area), constipation score, history of abdominal surgery, poor preparation, fellow involvement, diverticulosis, patient discomfort, and the amount of sedation used was collected. The cecal insertion rate was 95.2% (899/944), and 899 patients were analyzed. Multiple regression analysis showed that female sex, lower BMI, lower visceral adipose tissue area, lower subcutaneous adipose tissue area, higher constipation score, history of surgery, poor bowel preparation, and fellow involvement were independently associated with longer insertion time. When obesity indices were considered simultaneously, smaller subcutaneous adipose tissue area (p = 0.038), but not lower BMI (p = 0.802) or smaller visceral adipose tissue area (p = 0.856), was associated with longer insertion time; the other aforementioned factors remained associated with longer insertion time. In the subanalysis of normal-weight patients (BMI abdominal fat, female sex, constipation, history of abdominal surgery, poor preparation, and fellow involvement were predictors of longer cecal insertion time. Among the obesity indices, high subcutaneous fat accumulation was the best predictive factor for easier passage of the colonoscope, even when body weight was normal.

  6. In vitro metabolism of radiolabeled carbohydrates by protective cecal anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, M E; Beier, R C; Hinton, A; Scanlan, C M; Corrier, D E; Peterson, D V; DeLoach, J R

    1993-12-01

    Cecal anaerobic bacteria from adult broilers were cultured in media containing .25% glucose or .25% lactose. Media also contained either [14C]-labeled lactose, glucose, galactose, or lactic acid as metabolic tracers. Cultures were analyzed at 4, 8, and 12 h for pH, radiolabeled and unlabeled volatile fatty acids, and lactic acid. The pH values of cultures containing .25% lactose were significantly (P galactose, lactose > glucose. The volatile fatty acids in which radiolabel was most concentrated were acetic acid, propionic acid, or butyric acid.

  7. The Effect of Feed Form on Diet Digestibility and Cecal Parameters in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Isabella Corsato; Aldrich, Charles Gregory; Kohles, Micah

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary In addition to hay or forage in the diet pet rabbits are commonly fed a supplementary food as a muesli (granular mix), pellets, or extruded croquettes. This study aimed to determine if form of this supplementary diet (pelleted vs. extruded) or composition (muesli) had an effect on the diets total tract digestibility and cecal fermentation patterns. Rabbits had slightly higher intake when fed extruded and pelleted diets compared to muesli. Digestibility results were inconsistent between estimation methods. The extruded diet was more digestible than pelleted according to the total collection digestibility method, but according to internal marker acid insoluble ash the pelleted diet was the most digestible. Both the extruded and pelleted diet had similar fermentation patterns, with lower cecal pH and greater proportions of butyrate. Our findings suggest that diet composition, rather than form, may have a greater impact on nutrient utilization by rabbits. Abstract Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to one of 3 dietary treatment groups of 5 animals each and fed pelleted, extruded, or muesli diets in a completely randomized design experiment. Rabbits were placed in individual cages with ad libitum access to water and food for 45 days acclimation followed by 30 days experimental period. Feed intake of rabbits fed pelleted and extruded diets was greater (p digestibility among the treatments was inconsistent when comparing results obtained from total fecal collection and AIA (please define) as an internal marker. Rabbits fed extruded and pelleted diets had lower (p < 0.05) cecal pH (6.42 and 6.38 vs. 7.02, respectively), and higher (p < 0.05) production of SCFA (18.5 and 19.0 vs. 11.7 mM, respectively) than those fed muesli. The fermentation products from rabbits fed pelleted and extruded diets had a greater proportion of butyrate and less propionate than rabbits fed muesli. The results of this study indicate that the basal dietary composition

  8. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed...

  9. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  10. Primary bone neoplasms in dogs: 90 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Trost

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of necropsy and biopsy cases of 90 primary bone tumors (89 malignant and one benign in dogs received over a period of 22 years at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, was performed. Osteosarcoma was the most prevalent bone tumor, accounting for 86.7% of all malignant primary bone neoplasms diagnosed. Most cases occurred in dogs of large and giant breeds with ages between 6 and 10-years-old. The neoplasms involved mainly the appendicular skeleton, and were 3.5 times more prevalent in the forelimbs than in the hindlimbs. Osteoblastic osteosarcoma was the predominant histological subtype. Epidemiological and pathological findings of osteosarcomas are reported and discussed.

  11. Solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L J; Hansen, A B; Burcharth, F

    1992-01-01

    In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well as zymoge......In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well...... as zymogenlike granules were demonstrated. Measurements of mean nuclear volume and volume-corrected mitotic index discriminated between SPN and well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, with notably lower values being seen in SPN. Silver-stained nucleolar organizer region counts showed wide...

  12. Comparison of conventional culture methods and two commercial enzyme immunoassays for detection of Salmonella in porcine fecal samples and cecal contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    1997-01-01

    Two commercial enzyme immunoassays, designated EIA-1 and EIA-2, for the detection of salmonella in feces and cecal contents were compared to conventional culture methods. Out of 362 cecal content samples, 35 were positive by EIA-1 and 30 were positive by EIA-2 and conventional methods. Out of 189...

  13. Cecal intubation time between cap-assisted water exchange and water exchange colonoscopy: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chih-Wei; Koo, Malcolm; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi

    2017-11-01

    The water exchange (WE) method can decrease the discomfort of the patients undergoing colonoscopy. It also provides salvage cleansing and improves adenoma detection, but a longer intubation time is required. Cap-assisted colonoscopy leads to a significant reduction in cecal intubation time compared with traditional colonoscopy with air insufflation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combined cap-assisted colonoscopy and water exchange (CWE) could decrease the cecal intubation time compared with WE. A total of 120 patients undergoing fully sedated colonoscopy at a regional hospital in southern Taiwan were randomized to colonoscopy with either CWE (n=59) or WE (n=61). The primary endpoint was cecal intubation time. The mean cecal intubation time was significantly shorter in CWE (12.0 min) compared with WE (14.8 min) (P=0.004). The volume of infused water during insertion was lower in CWE (840 ml) compared with WE (1044 ml) (P=0.003). The adenoma detection rate was 50.8 and 47.5% for CWE and WE, respectively (P=0.472). The Boston Bowel Preparation Scale scores were comparable in the two groups. Results from the multiple linear regression analysis indicated that WE with a cap, a higher degree of endoscopist's experience, a higher Boston Bowel Preparation Scale score, and a lower volume of water infused during insertion, without abdominal compression, without change of position, and without chronic laxative use, were significantly associated with a shorter cecal intubation time. In comparison with WE, CWE could shorten the cecal intubation time and required lower volume of water infusion during insertion without compromising the cleansing effect of WE.

  14. The neoplasms of the operated stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ositrova, L.I.; Golubovich, I.A.; Mashevskaya, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that operation and rexction in case of primary and recurrent neoplasm of operated stomach remains low. However radical operation is the only method permitting to hope for healing of shuch patients. A thorough medical examination is necessary at first 3 years following operation. Surgical treatment is accompanied by preoperational irradiation in such patients. Au 198 in 1.48 GBq is intravenously injected to some patients. 10 refs

  15. Granular cell tumor: An uncommon benign neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthankar Gayen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor is a distinctly rare neoplasm of neural sheath origin. It mainly presents as a solitary asymptomatic swelling in the oral cavity, skin, and rarely internal organs in the middle age. Histopathology is characteristic, showing polyhedral cells containing numerous fine eosinophilic granules with indistinct cell margins. We present a case of granular cell tumor on the back of a 48-year-old woman which was painful, mimicking an adnexal tumor.

  16. Neoplasms HIV associated Kaposi sarcoma not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, K.; Sosa, A.; Krygier, G.; Muse, I.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - The incidence of malignancies in virus carriers acquired immunodeficiency (HIV) has increased in conjunction with the disease during the past decade. 40% of all AIDS patients develop cancer during the course of HIV infection. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and cervical cancer have an impact extremely high in HIV infected patients, and they are considered as disease AIDS-defining stage. Many reports suggest that other neoplasms they can have a high impact on the population of HIV carrier, including head and neck carcinoma, rectal cancer - anal, plasma cytomas, and melanoma lung cancer. Methods - We examined the spectrum of cancer in HIV-infected patients, specifically neoplasms except Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed between 1/1998 - 6/2004. Information on age, sex, factors was gathered risk for AIDS, neoplasms and mortality rate. Results: The total number of patients in our study was 21 patients, what 15 were male (71%) and 6 females (29%); the median age was 36 (29-70). Tumors were reported: 11 Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (52%), 2 Hodgkin's lymphoma (6.6%), 1 medullary thyroid cancer (6.6%), 1 melanoma (6.6%), 1 rectal cancer (5%) and three head and neck cancers (14%), 1 cancer 1 lung and breast cancer. Five of the patients were intravenous drug abusers (24%); 4 patients were homosexual, bisexual March 8 straight, on 6 patients know the data. Conclusions - The spectrum of malignancies associated with infection HIV in our study was similar to that described in other populations. ratio between the immune system and the epidemiology of the virus-induced tumors is to importance to identify new therapeutic approaches in the treatment and / or prevention of these neoplasms

  17. Neoplasm carcinoid: Description of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Luis; Abarca, Jaysoom; Penaherrera, Vicente; Legarda, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of small bowel obstruction associated with a carcinoid neoplasm of the ileum in a 78 year old man who was presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and a mass in right lower quadrant. Carcinoids are neuroendocrine neoplasm originating in multiple locations throughout the body human. About 75% of such neoplasm are located within the gastrointestinal tract and are capable of rpoducing various peptides. Their clinical course is often indolent but can also be aggressive and resistant to therapy. The incidence of these tumours is approximately 2.5 in 100.000 people per year. The former classification system of fore gut, midgut and hind gut tumors is still used in clinical routine. Determination of the histopathology of carcinoid tumors is of utmost importance and involves specific immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, serotonin and gastrin. New localization procedures include somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and positron emission tomography. Surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment and provides the only chance of a cure. Other cytoreductive procedures include radiofrequency ablation, laser treatment and chemo embolization. New therapies, such as ling acting somatostatin analogs, together with further development of tumor targeted treatments, will come into clinical use in the near future. (The author)

  18. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.L. [Dept. of Radiology SB-05, Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Lough, L.R. [Pitts Radiological Associates, Columbia, SC (United States); Shuman, W.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Lazerte, G.D. [Dept. of Pathology RC-72, Washington Univ., Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Conrad, E.U. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery RK-10, Washington Univ., Medical Center of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  19. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.L.; Lough, L.R.; Shuman, W.P.; Lazerte, G.D.; Conrad, E.U.

    1994-01-01

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  20. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2016-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Cecal volvulus: a rare cause of bowel obstruction in a pediatric patient diagnosed pre-operatively by conventional imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Nghia J.; O'Hara, Sara M.; Alonso, Maria H.

    2005-01-01

    Cecal volvulus is an acute surgical condition that is extremely rare in children, with a mortality rate of up to 40%. The clinical symptoms are often non-specific, and pediatric patients frequently have neurological deficits with associated communication difficulties, making the clinical diagnosis extremely challenging. Conventional radiographic imaging studies play a key role in the prospective diagnosis in children. We report a rare case of cecal volvulus in a 12-year-old boy who was diagnosed pre-operatively by abdominal radiographs and a contrast enema. (orig.)

  2. Cecal volvulus: a rare cause of bowel obstruction in a pediatric patient diagnosed pre-operatively by conventional imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Nghia J.; O' Hara, Sara M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati (United States); Alonso, Maria H. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Cecal volvulus is an acute surgical condition that is extremely rare in children, with a mortality rate of up to 40%. The clinical symptoms are often non-specific, and pediatric patients frequently have neurological deficits with associated communication difficulties, making the clinical diagnosis extremely challenging. Conventional radiographic imaging studies play a key role in the prospective diagnosis in children. We report a rare case of cecal volvulus in a 12-year-old boy who was diagnosed pre-operatively by abdominal radiographs and a contrast enema. (orig.)

  3. Oral supplementation of Bifidobacterium longum strain BR-108 alters cecal microbiota by stimulating gut immune system in mice irrespectively of viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makioka, Yuko; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Ijichi, Tetsuo; Inoue, Ryo

    2018-03-20

    Effect on cecal microbiota and gene expression of various cytokines in ileal Peyer's patches and cecal tissues were compared between viable and heat-killed Bifidobacterium longum strain BR-108 (BR-108) using a mouse model. Irrespectively of viability, oral supplementation of BR-108 altered the cecal microbiota and stimulated gene expression of cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-10 in ileal Peyer's patches and cecal tissue of mice. In addition, BR-108 supplementation significantly affected the relative abundance of bacterial genera and family, Oscillospira, Bacteroides and S24-7. The abundance of these bacterial genera and family strongly correlated with gene expression induced by BR-108. This study demonstrated that the effect of heat-killed BR-108 on the mouse cecal microbiota is similar to that of viable BR-108, most likely due to stimulation of the gut immune system by both heat-killed and viable BR-108 is also similar.

  4. Investigation into Host Selection of the Cecal Acetogen Population in Rabbits after Weaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Yang

    Full Text Available Homoacetogenic bacteria have received attention as a hydrogenotrophic population that offers a significant energetic advantage to the host animal. Reductive acetogenesis is likely an important hydrogen disposal mechanism in the cecum of rabbits. However, molecular ecology information about cecal acetogen candidates has rarely been reported. To better understand the effect of host selection in the rabbit cecal acetogen community with respect to growth, rabbits at four different age stages (30, 60, 120 and 180 days with the same diet were studied. Although the abundance of potential acetogens and methanogens was high in the cecum of rabbits undergoing growth, many novel potential acetogen populations were observed in the cecum of rabbits across all age groups. Young and adult rabbits had their own distinct acetogen community although they received the same diet, which suggests that as the rabbit ages, acetogens in the cecum undergo developmental changes because of host selection that are independent of diet, and perhaps the different acetogen communities result in different hydrogenotrophic characteristics. The within-group similarity increased with age, indicating that the acetogen community converges to a more homogeneous and stable arrangement with aging.

  5. Ability of Arkansas LaKast and LaKast Hybrid Rice Bran to Reduce Salmonella Typhimurium in Chicken Cecal Incubations and Effects on Cecal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Ae Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prebiotic ability of Arkansas (AR LaKast rice bran cultivars as a feed supplement to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium and other gut microbiota. An in vitro mixed anaerobic culture system was used to simulate conditions in the chicken ceca. Anaerobic cultures contained feed, cecal contents collected from 2, 4, and 6 weeks of chicken broilers, and with/without AR rice bran (pureline and hybrid. After 24 h pre-incubation, S. Typhimurium was inoculated into the anaerobic cultures and surviving S. Typhimurium were enumerated during anaerobic incubation up to 48 h. Samples were also collected after 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 h incubation for microbiome analysis with an Illumina MiSeq platform to investigate the changes in bacterial composition. Both pure and hybrid LaKast rice exhibited significant inhibitory effects in all experiments using 2, 4, and 6 weeks ceca but greater bactericidal effects by LaKast rice were observed at 6 weeks compared to 2- and 4-week ceca samples. For samples containing 6-week chicken ceca, the pureline and hybrid rice bran resulted in no viable S. Typhimurium and 6.58 log CFU/ml reduction after 48 h, respectively. Adding rice bran also led to changes in the cecal microbiota. LaKast rice bran resulted in more diverse bacterial population than control groups without any rice bran. The lowest abundance of Proteobacteria (at phylum level and Enterobacteriaceae (at family and genus level was exhibited in LaKast pure treated groups followed by LaKast hybrid and control. This may be attributed to a significant reduction of S. Typhimurium of the Enterobacteriaceae family and Proteobacteria phylum. This study suggests the beneficial functionality of LaKast rice brans as biological supplements in feed. The use of rice bran is favorable for both the consumer and the rice industry because of the perception of rice bran as a naturally occurring substance. As an abundant by-product of rice

  6. Efeito da microbiota cecal e do Lactobacillus salivarius inoculados in ovo em aves desafiadas com Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis Effect of cecal microflora and Lactobacillus salivarius in ovo administration used on chicken previously challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Andreatti Filho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Ovos embrionados provenientes de matrizes pesadas foram inoculados na câmara de ar com microbiota cecal total, microbiota cecal diluída e cultura de Lactobacillus salivarius, no 18º dia de incubação. Dois dias após o nascimento, as aves foram desafiadas com Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis (SE e, cinco dias após o desafio, avaliou-se a presença da bactéria no fígado e ceco. O efeito de exclusão competitiva, após o desafio com SE, somente foi observado pela ausência da bactéria no fígado das aves tratadas in ovo com L. salivarius. A inoculação in ovo de microbiota cecal indefinida ou diluída não reduziu a colonização de SE no fígado e no ceco das aves, incluindo, neste último, também o tratamento com L. salivarius. Nenhum dos tratamentos in ovo determinou índice de eclodibilidade superior a 65%.Commercial 18-day-old incubating chicken embryos were inoculated with total or diluted cecal microbiota and Lactobacillus salivarius cultures directly into the inner air sac. Two days after hatching, the chicks were challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE, and five days later the presence of bacteria in cecum and liver was evaluated. The competitive exclusion effect was determined by the search for SE in the liver of chicks treated in ovo with L. salivarius and challenged with SE. The in ovo inoculation of total or diluted cecal microbiota, in addition to the L. salivarius treatment did not significantly decrease the colonization of SE in liver and cecum. All treatments resulted in hatchability of 65% or less.

  7. Characterization of nitrate-reducing and amino acid-using bacteria prominent in nitrotoxin-enriched equine cecal populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, populations of equine cecal microbes enriched for enhanced rates of 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) or nitrate metabolism were diluted and cultured for NPA-metabolizing bacteria on a basal enrichment medium (BEM) or tryptose soy agar (TSA) medium supplemented with either 5 mM NP...

  8. Influence of a subsequent meal on the oro-cecal transit time of a solid test meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, MG; Wachters-Hagedoorn, RE; Landman, K; Heimweg, J; Elzinga, H; Vonk, RJ

    Oro-cecal transit time (OCTT) is determined for clinical diagnostics of intestinal complaints and research purposes. Ingestion of a subsequent meal during the test period shortens the OCTT of a liquid test meal (glucose solution), as previously reported. This study was conducted to determine whether

  9. Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternative for an antibiotic, on the cecal microbial ecosystem in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.; Williams, B.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Li, H.S.; Li, X.P.; Luo, J.Y.; Li, W.K.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to study the potential prebiotic effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharide extracts, Lentinus edodes extract (LenE), Tremella fuciformis extract, and Astragalus membranaceus Radix extract, on chicken growth and the cecal microbial ecosystem, as compared with the

  10. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 1, benign lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, and the Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This two-part review presents an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. This first part presents a brief review of methods in molecular pathology along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. Malignant chondroid neoplasms will be considered in the second part of this review. (orig.)

  11. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 1, benign lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, W.C.; Klein, M.J.; Pitt, M.J.; Siegal, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    This two-part review presents an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. This first part presents a brief review of methods in molecular pathology along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. Malignant chondroid neoplasms will be considered in the second part of this review. (orig.)

  12. Molecular Properties of Guar Gum and Pectin Modify Cecal Bile Acids, Microbiota, and Plasma Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarzadegan, Tannaz; Marungruang, Nittaya; Fåk, Frida; Nyman, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) act as signaling molecules in various physiological processes, and are related to colonic microbiota composition as well as to different types of dietary fat and fiber. This study investigated whether guar gum and pectin-two fibers with distinct functional characteristics-affect BA profiles, microbiota composition, and gut metabolites in rats. Low- (LM) or high-methoxylated (HM) pectin, and low-, medium-, or high-molecular-weight (MW) guar gum were administered to rats that were fed either low- or high-fat diets. Cecal BAs, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and microbiota composition, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) levels were analyzed, by using novel methodologies based on gas chromatography (BAs and SCFAs) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Strong correlations were observed between cecal BA and SCFA levels, microbiota composition, and portal plasma LBP levels in rats on a high-fat diet. Notably, guar gum consumption with medium-MW increased the cecal amounts of cholic-, chenodeoxycholic-, and ursodeoxycholic acids as well as α-, β-, and ω-muricholic acids to a greater extent than other types of guar gum or the fiber-free control diet. In contrast, the amounts of cecal deoxycholic- and hyodeoxycholic acid were reduced with all types of guar gum independent of chain length. Differences in BA composition between pectin groups were less obvious, but cecal levels of α- and ω-muricholic acids were higher in rats fed LM as compared to HM pectin or the control diet. The inflammatory marker LBP was downregulated in rats fed medium-MW guar gum and HM pectin; these two fibers decreased the cecal abundance of Oscillospira and an unclassified genus in Ruminococcaceae, and increased that of an unclassified family in RF32. These results indicate that the molecular properties of guar gum and pectin are important for their ability to modulate cecal BA formation, gut microbiota composition, and high-fat diet induced

  13. Metastases in cranean of differential neoplasm tyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Chapuis, D.; Garrido Vazquez, P.; Vallverdu Carbajal, M.

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of matastases are presented in cranial calota of differentiated neoplasm of tyroids, one of them without other distance lesions ,in which the cranial tumours was the element that it take was to the diagnose. For the local control the surgical resection of the metastasis is recommended in calota, associated to external radiotherapy , while that the total thyroidectomy allows the detection and treatment of other metastasis with Iodine. In this situation the prediction it is unfavourable, with a half survive of 4,5 year(AU) [es

  14. Treatment of hepatic neoplasm through extrahepatic collaterals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, C.S.; Chuang, V.P.; Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.; Carrasco, H.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-nine patients with hepatic artery occlusion were treated with additional hepatic infusion or embolization through extrahepatic collaterals. Seventeen courses of hepatic infusion were performed in 13 patients through the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, left gastric artery, or right gastric artery. Twenty-five hepatic embolization procedures were performed in 16 patients through the right and left phrenic arteries, left and right gastric arteries, pancreaticoduodenal artery, gastroduodenal artery, or omentoepiploic artery. In one patient gastric ulcers developed following left gastric artery infusion. No complication related to the embolization procedure was observed in the embolization group. The extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative routes for continuous transcatheter management of hepatic neoplasms following hepatic artery occlusion.

  15. Treatment of hepatic neoplasm through extrahepatic collaterals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, C.S.; Chuang, V.P.; Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.; Carrasco, H.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with hepatic artery occlusion were treated with additional hepatic infusion or embolization through extrahepatic collaterals. Seventeen courses of hepatic infusion were performed in 13 patients through the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, left gastric artery, or right gastric artery. Twenty-five hepatic embolization procedures were performed in 16 patients through the right and left phrenic arteries, left and right gastric arteries, pancreaticoduodenal artery, gastroduodenal artery, or omentoepiploic artery. In one patient gastric ulcers developed following left gastric artery infusion. No complication related to the embolization procedure was observed in the embolization group. The extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative routes for continuous transcatheter management of hepatic neoplasms following hepatic artery occlusion

  16. Four types of neoplasms in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and observe four types of neoplasms on different parts (external and internal organs of an Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer. Methods: The sample was collected from local fish landing center (south east coast of India. Histopathology of normal and tumour tissues were analyzed. Results: A total of 83 tumour masses (neoplasm were recorded on the fish skin, also the neoplasms were recorded in internal organs of fish such as liver, stomach and ovary. Conclusions: Aetiology of such neoplasm’s are unknown, further more researches need to confirm the causative agent for this type of neoplasm.

  17. Unusual cystic pancreatic neoplasms -image-pathological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilendarov, A.; Simova, E.; Petrova, A.; Traikova, N.; Deenichin, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim is to present the variety of signs and symptoms from the diagnostic imaging methods of atypical neoplasms of the pancreas, presented as a type of cystic lesions. This often leads to unnecessary surgery or inappropriate tracking. In 115 patients (85 men and 30 women) with cystic lesions of the pancreas ultrasonic (US),computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed and verified through histological and macroscopic pathology preparations. The ultrasound machines equipped with linear and convex transducers, MDCT and MRI imaging systems were used. In 14 of 115 patients atypical neoplasms of the pancreas were diagnosed: two cases with macroscopic serous cystic neoplasms, two nonmucinous cystic neoplasms, two hemorrhagic mucinous neoplasms, two ductal adenocarcinomas with cystic changes, one islet cell cystic tumor, two lymphoepithetial cysts, one lymphangioma, one solid papillary epithelial neoplasm and one mucinous adenocarcinoma. The authors take into consideration and overlapping of clinical symptoms and laboratory tests. Although much of the imaging features and morphological characteristics of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are well known, should be known about the atypical unusual images in so-called 'typical' cystic neoplasms, cystic images in solid neoplasms and various atypical tumors with cystic lesions. (authors)

  18. Management of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas: a comparison with standard pancreatic neoplasms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, S. M. M.; Singhal, D.; Aronson, D. C.; Busch, O. R. C.; van Gulik, T. M.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) of the pancreas are increasingly diagnosed, but the exact surgical management in terms of extent of the resection is not well defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients operated on in our hospital between January 1993 and March 2005 formed the study

  19. Comparison and Efficacy of LigaSure and Rubber Band Ligature in Closing the Inflamed Cecal Stump in a Rat Model of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A and 7 days (Group B after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S, 5 mm LigaSure (L, or rubber band (R. Seven days after cecal resection, the LigaSure (BL and silk subgroups (BS had significantly less intra-abdominal adhesion and better laparotomy wound healing than rubber band subgroup (BR. The initial bursting pressure at cecal stump was comparable among the three methods; along with tissue healing process, both BL and BS provided a higher bursting pressure than BR 7 days after appendectomy. BL subgroup had more abundant hydroxyproline deposition than BS and BR subgroup. Furthermore, serum TNF-α in BR group kept persistently increasing along with time after cecal resection. Thus, the finding that LigaSure but not rubber band is safe in sealing off the inflamed cecal stump in rat model of acute appendicitis suggests the possibility of applying LigaSure for appendectomy via single port procedure or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES.

  20. Cecal rupture after continent ileocecal urinary diversion during total pelvic exenteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, E.

    1991-01-01

    Continent ureteral diversion at the time of pelvic exenteration avoids an external appliance and allows patients to retain bladder reservoir function. The technical difficulty of this procedure requires meticulous attention to operative and perioperative care, particularly after pelvic irradiation. A patient with recurrent stage IIIB carcinoma of the cervix underwent total pelvic exenteration with reconstructive procedures including low rectal anastomosis, neovagina formation, and ileocecal (Indiana) continent diversion. Early catheterization of the reservoir began 2 weeks postoperatively. One week later cecal rupture occurred, not related to suture line (technical) failure. Because of the high wall tension and reduced compliance in the irradiated cecum, the authors do not recommend catheterization of the urinary reservoir before 4-6 weeks. In order for continent diversion to become the standard diversion in exenteration patients, the major complication rate must remain comparable to that of noncontinent diversion

  1. Peptichemio in pretreated patients with plasmacell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, A; Salvagno, L; Chiarion-Sileni, V; Bolzonella, S; De Besi, P; Frizzarin, M; Pappagallo, G L; Fosser, V P; Fornasiero, A; Segati, R

    1986-09-01

    Twenty-one patients with alkylator-resistant plasmacell neoplasms were treated with Peptichemio (PTC) at a dose of 40 mg/m2 for 3 days every 3 weeks or, in the case of persistent leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia, at the single dose of 70 mg/m2 every 2-3 weeks according to haematological recovery. Seventeen patients, 10 with multiple myeloma and seven with extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP), were fully evaluable. Six of 17 patients (35%) responded: three of seven EMP patients had a complete remission and 3 of 10 multiple myeloma patients had an objective response greater than 50%. The median duration of response was 8.5 months. An EMP patient obtained a complete response lasting for 16 months. The most frequent toxic effect were phlebosclerosis, occurring in all the patients, and myelosuppression, which was severe in only one case. PTC appears to be an active drug in patients with plasmacell neoplasms even if resistant to alkylating agents.

  2. Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; Neuroendokrine Neoplasien des Pankreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiderwellen, K.; Lauenstein, T.C. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Sabet, A.; Poeppel, T.D. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Lahner, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Endokrinologie und Stoffwechselerkrankungen, Essen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) account for 1-2 % of all pancreatic neoplasms and represent a rare differential diagnosis. While some pancreatic NEN are hormonally active and exhibit endocrine activity associated with characteristic symptoms, the majority are hormonally inactive. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) or as combined PET/CT play a crucial role in the initial diagnosis, therapy planning and control. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and multiphase CT represent the reference methods for localization of the primary pancreatic tumor. Particularly in the evaluation of small liver lesions MRI is the method of choice. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin receptor PET/CT are of particular value for whole body staging and special aspects of further therapy planning. (orig.) [German] Neuroendokrine Neoplasien (NEN) des Pankreas stellen mit einem Anteil von 1-2 % aller pankreatischen Tumoren eine seltene Differenzialdiagnose dar. Ein Teil der Tumoren ist hormonell aktiv und faellt klinisch durch charakteristische Symptome auf, wohingegen der ueberwiegende Anteil hormonell inaktiv ist. Bildgebende Verfahren wie Sonographie, Computertomographie (CT), Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und nicht zuletzt Positronenemissionstomographie (PET oder kombiniert als PET/CT) spielen eine zentrale Rolle fuer Erstdiagnose, Therapieplanung und -kontrolle. Die Endosonographie und die multiphasische CT stellen die Referenzmethoden zur Lokalisation des Primaertumors dar. Fuer die Differenzierung insbesondere kleiner Leberlaesionen bietet die MRT die hoechste Aussagekraft. Fuer das Ganzkoerperstaging und bestimmte Aspekte der Therapieplanung lassen sich die Somatostatinrezeptorszintigraphie und v. a. die Somatostatinrezeptor-PET/CT heranziehen. (orig.)

  3. Differential Levels of Cecal Colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in Chickens Triggers Distinct Immune Kinome Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L. Swaggerty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause disease in numerous species. Salmonella-related infections originating from poultry and/or poultry products are a major cause of human foodborne illness with S. Enteritidis the leading cause worldwide. Despite the importance of Salmonella to human health and chickens being a reservoir, little is known of the response to infection within the chicken gastrointestinal tract. Using chicken-specific kinome immune peptide arrays we compared a detailed kinomic analysis of the chicken jejunal immune response in a single line of birds with high and low Salmonella loads. Four-day-old chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis (105 cfu and cecal content and a section of jejunum collected at three times: early [4–7 days post-infection (dpi], middle (10–17 dpi, and late (24–37 dpi. Salmonella colonization was enumerated and birds with the highest (n = 4 and lowest (n = 4 loads at each time were selected for kinomic analyses. Key biological processes associated with lower loads of Salmonella clustered around immune responses, including cell surface receptor signaling pathway, positive regulation of cellular processes, defense response, innate immune response, regulation of immune response, immune system process, and regulation of signaling. Further evaluation showed specific pathways including chemokine, Jak–Stat, mitogen activated protein kinase, and T cell receptor signaling pathways were also associated with increased resistance. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that it is possible to identify key mechanisms and pathways that are associated with increased resistance against S. Enteritidis cecal colonization in chickens. Therefore, providing a foundation for future studies to identify specific proteins within these pathways that are associated with resistance, which could provide breeders additional biomarkers to identify birds naturally

  4. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells form cancerous tumors. When there is only one tumor, the disease is called a plasmacytoma. When there are multiple tumors, it is called multiple myeloma. Start here to find information on plasma cell neoplasms treatment, research, and statistics.

  5. [Closed needle-biopsy in the diagnosis of neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, M; Perelli Ercolini, M; Beani, G

    1979-04-01

    The AA. demonstrate with this communication the validity of the needle biopsie for the diagnosis of neoplasms. They had used it for the breast, thyroid, flg and some other superficial tumefactions. In the mass-screening for the feminine neoplasms the clinical examination and the needle biopsy are very good method for a careful diagnosis.

  6. Characteristic radionuclide appearance of certain pediatric central nervous system neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The results of 5 years experience in the localization of brain neoplasms in children are summarized. The radiopharmaceutical of choice was /sup 99m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate administered in a dosage of 100μ Ci/lb. The appearance of the most common neoplasms of the central nervous system in childhood is characterized. (U.S.)

  7. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer MH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Magid H Amer Department of Medicine, St Rita's Medical Center, Lima, OH, USA Background: Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. Methods: This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284, and three or more primaries (n=38. Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%, with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%, had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%, and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%. When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P≤0.001. Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95% than for synchronous primaries (59% and single primaries (59%. The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991. Conclusion: Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent

  8. Zosteriform cutaneous leiomyoma: a rare cutaneous neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, A.U.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leiomyomas are firm, round to oval, skin-coloured to brownish papules and nodules that may present as a solitary, few discrete or multiple clustered lesions. Different uncommon patterns of multiple leiomyoma distribution have been noted as bilateral, symmetrical, linear, zosteriform, or dermatomal-like arrangement. One such rare presentation was seen in a 23-year-old patient who presented with zosteriform skin coloured, occasionally painful cutaneous lesions over left shoulder region. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma. He was symptomatically managed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and topical capcicum cream. Case is reported here due to rare occurrence of this benign cutaneous neoplasm in an atypical pattern and on uncommon site. (author)

  9. Radioisotope diagnostics of neoplasms in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Sinyuta, B.T.; Borisyuk, T.B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of radioisotope studies of 111 children with neoplasms of locomotor system, retroperitoneal space, maxillofacial region and neck, the limits and possibilities of the method of positive radiodiagnostics with short-life radionuclides sup(99M)Tc pertechnetate and 99 Tc pyrophosphate have been analyzed. It is pointed out that sensitivity of the investigation method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate is higher (91.6%) than that of the method with 99 Tc pertechnetate (84.5%). Specificity of the investigation method with 99 Tc p.ertechnetate is higher (71.5%) than that of the method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate (30%). The method of positive radiodiagnostics is characterized by safety, atraumatism, low radiation burdens and possibility of its realization in ambulatory conditions

  10. Rectal neoplasms. Postoperative follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galano Urgelles, Rolando; Rodriguez Fernandez, Zenen; Casaus Prieto, Arbelio

    1997-01-01

    A study of 31 patients operated on for rectal neoplasms between September, 1989 and September, 1995 in SantiAug de Cuba was performed. Patients Webre followed-up during this period for the purpose of the study. There was a frank predominance of males and ages between 45 and 64, of the stage II and the groups BI and BII according to Dukes' classification. Most patients received 5-fluoracil, without tumor relapses. The current survival rate of the series was 76 % at the end of the investigation. It is recommended that all patients operated on for this segment be followed-up after the operation; to continue with cytostatic treatment using 5-fluoracil, and to emphasize the importance of the use of tumor markers during the follow-up, in addition to transrectal ultrasound, as well as to make an early diagnosis through mass screening methods

  11. Surgical and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackeng, Wenzel M; Hruban, Ralph H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Brosens, Lodewijk A A

    2016-06-07

    Histologic characteristics have proven to be very useful for classifying different types of tumors of the pancreas. As a result, the major tumor types in the pancreas have long been classified based on their microscopic appearance. Recent advances in whole exome sequencing, gene expression profiling, and knowledge of tumorigenic pathways have deepened our understanding of the underlying biology of pancreatic neoplasia. These advances have not only confirmed the traditional histologic classification system, but also opened new doors to early diagnosis and targeted treatment. This review discusses the histopathology, genetic and epigenetic alterations and potential treatment targets of the five major malignant pancreatic tumors - pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm, acinar cell carcinoma and pancreatoblastoma.

  12. Prognostic factors in childhood intracranial neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampil, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-six cases of primary intracranial neoplasm in children (over 1 year but under 13 years of age) seen at the university medical center between 1951 and 1982 were reviewed because of concern as to the results and after-effects of applied therapy. The overall 5-year actuarial survival rate was 17 %. Several factors of possible prognostic relevance, such as patient's age, intracranial location of the tumor, application or nonapplication of therapy, single or multiple modes of therapy, and extent of surgery, were analyzed. Completeness of surgical removal of the tumor proved to be the only statistically significant factor that correlated with survival. There was only one recorded case of severe learning disability and abnormal neuropsychologic development among the 12 living patients. The influence of patient's age (and technical factors) at the time of irradiation in correlation with the child's subsequent posttreatment functional performance, as reported in the literature, is reviewed. (author)

  13. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Magid H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first) primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284), and three or more primaries (n=38). Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%), with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%), had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%), and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%). When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P≤0.001). Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95%) than for synchronous primaries (59%) and single primaries (59%). The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years) and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991). Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent clinical behavior with longer survival rates, possibly related to genetic predisposition

  14. Percutaneous thermal ablation of renal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacke, J.; Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Due to modern examination techniques such as multidetector computed tomography and high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the detection rate of renal neoplasms is continually increasing. Even though tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter rarely metastasize, all renal lesions that are possible neoplasms should be treated. Traditional treatment techniques include radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing resection, which are increasingly performed laparoscopically. Modern thermal ablation techniques such as hyperthermal techniques like radiofrequency ablation RFA, laser induced thermal ablation LITT, focused ultrasound FUS and microwave therapy MW, as well as hypothermal techniques (cryotherapy) may be a useful treatment option for patients who are unfit for or refuse surgical resection. Cryotherapy is the oldest and best known thermal ablation technique and can be performed laparoscopically or percutaneously. Since subzero temperatures have no antistyptic effect, additional maneuvers must be performed to control bleeding. Percutaneous cryotherapy of renal tumors is a new and interesting method, but experience with it is still limited. Radiofrequency ablation is the most frequently used method. Modern probe design allows volumes between 2 and 5 cm in diameter to be ablated. Due to hyperthermal tract ablation, the procedure is deemed to be safe and has a low complication rate. Although there are no randomized comparative studies to open resection, the preliminary results for renal RFA are promising and show RFA to be superior to other thermal ablation techniques. Clinical success rates are over 90% for both, cryo- and radiofrequency ablation. Whereas laser induced thermal therapy is established in hepatic ablation, experience is minimal with respect to renal application. For lesions of more than 2 cm in diameter, additional cooling catheters are required. MR thermometry offers temperature control during ablation. Microwave ablation is characterized by small ablation volumes

  15. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis-Polymerase Chain Reaction Comparison of Chitosan Effects on Anaerobic Cultures of Broiler Cecal Bacteria and Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Michael; Sohail, Muhammad Umar

    2018-04-01

    Enteropathogen colonization and product contamination are major poultry industry problems. The emergence of antibiotic resistance, and associated risks to human health, is limiting the use of antibiotics as first-line defense against enteropathogens in poultry. The chitin derivative, chitosan, has drawn substantial attention for its bactericidal properties. Different molecular weight (MW) chitosans can have varied effects against different bacteria in monoculture. In the current study, cecal contents from each of three market-age broilers and Salmonella Typhimurium, as indicator enteropathogen, were exposed to in vitro anaerobic culture to three chitosan preparations (0.08%, wt/vol), low (LMW), medium (MMW), and coarse (CMW). Effects of chitosan and the carrier solvent acetic acid, on cecal bacteria and Salmonella, were examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Salmonella enumeration. Bacterial profiles for the three cecal contents were shown by DGGE to be very different. Each of the three cecal contents grown in the presence of 0.08% acetic acid was very different from the same contents grown without the chitosan solvent. Culturing cecal contents in the presence of chitosan altered the bacterial DGGE profiles from the control and acetic acid-only cultures. The DGGE chitosan-treated profiles for all three cecal sources were identical to each other regardless of the MW chitosan in the culture medium. Compared with Salmonella in monoculture, Salmonella decreased (p < 0.05) by about 1.5 log CFU/mL when grown in mixed culture with cecal contents. Salmonella monocultures in the presence of 0.08% of the chitosan solvent acetic acid decreased (p < 0.05) counts by almost 3.5 log CFU/mL. Combining acetic acid and cecal contents reduced (p < 0.05) Salmonella by 7 log CFU/mL. Adding the chitosan preparations to the mixtures reduced (p < 0.05) Salmonella by 8 log CFU/mL.

  16. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis of the cecal pole and appendix vermiformis with increase of IgG4-positive plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtesse, Sarah; Friemel, Juliane; Fankhauser, René; Weber, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the clinicopathological course of a 20-year-old female patient with enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis (ELP) of the appendix vermiformis and cecal pole with increase of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The patient presented with acute abdomen, suspicious of acute appendicitis. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed tumefaction of the cecal pole and appendix vermiformis. Histologic examination revealed mural thickening and a dense lymphoplasmocytic, partly obliterative infiltrate of the veins with sparing of the arteries, diagnostic of ELP. In addition, we found an elevated number of IgG4-positive plasma cells blended in with the lymphocytes. The IgG4-to-IgG ratio accounted for >40 %. This case meets the histopathological criteria requested for IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and thus opens the possibility that ELP might be part of the IgG4-RD spectrum.

  17. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolnaya Lydia M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.

  18. A randomized comparison of ultrathin and standard colonoscope in cecal intubation rate and patient tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Derek J Y; Hui, Aric Josun; Yan, Kenneth Kar-Lung; Ng, Siew Chien; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Chan, Francis Ka-Leung; Cheong, Jessica P K; Lam, Phyllis P Y; Tse, Yee Kit; Lau, James Y W

    2012-03-01

    Complete colonoscopy examination cannot be performed in as many as 10% of cases. The new 9.2-mm ultrathin colonoscope (UTC) with an extra bending section may improve procedure tolerance and allow improvement in colonoscopy completion rate compared with a 12.9-mm standard colonoscope (SC). To compare the performance of the 9.2-mm UTC with that of the 12.9-mm SC. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Academic endoscopic unit. Subjects 18 years and older undergoing their first colonoscopy. Subjects were randomized to either the UTC or SC group. First and rescue successful cecal intubation rates, subject satisfaction scores, and sedation requirements were compared. A total of 1121 patients (56% women, mean age 53.6 years) were randomized to the UTC group (n = 551) or the SC group (n = 570). There was no statistically significant difference in the first successful cecal intubation rate between the UTC and SC groups (98.9% vs 97.4%, P = .057). The mean (standard deviation) dose of midazolam and pethidine used was significantly lower in the UTC group (2.65 [0.65] mg vs 2.82 [0.85] mg, P < .001 and 27.6 [7.4] mg vs 29.7 [9.6] mg, P < .001, respectively). The mean (standard deviation) patient satisfaction score was similar between groups (6.99 [2.89] vs 7.04 [3.06], P = .762). Of the 21 patients (1.9%) with an incomplete initial colonoscopy (6 in the UTC group and 15 in the SC group), all 6 in the UTC group had their procedure completed with an SC. Eleven of 15 patients in the SC group had their procedures completed with a UTC in the same session. Low failure rate may mask any difference between the 2 colonoscopes as a rescue instrument. The 9.2-mm UTC has performance characteristics similar to those of an SC in Chinese subjects undergoing their first colonoscopy performed by experienced and trainee endoscopists. ( NCT01142167.). Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders; Poulsen, Morten; Krath, Britta N; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Dragsted, Lars O; Wilcks, Andrea

    2010-01-20

    Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles.A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet) for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P apple pectin (7% in the diet) increases the population of butyrate- and beta-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.

  20. Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 prevents outbreak-associated Clostridium difficile-associated cecal inflammation in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Hon Wai; Su, Bowei; Xu, Chunlan; Mussatto, Caroline C; Tran, Diana Hoang-Ngoc; Lee, Elaine C; Ortiz, Christina; Wang, Jiani; Lee, Jung Eun; Ho, Samantha; Chen, Xinhua; Kelly, Ciaran P; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2016-10-01

    C. difficile infection (CDI) is a common debilitating nosocomial infection associated with high mortality. Several CDI outbreaks have been attributed to ribotypes 027, 017, and 078. Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that the nonpathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S.b) is effective for the prevention of CDI. However, there is no current evidence suggesting this probiotic can protect from CDI caused by outbreak-associated strains. We used established hamster models infected with outbreak-associated C. difficile strains to determine whether oral administration of live or heat-inactivated S.b can prevent cecal tissue damage and inflammation. Hamsters infected with C. difficile strain VPI10463 (ribotype 087) and outbreak-associated strains ribotype 017, 027, and 078 developed severe cecal inflammation with mucosal damage, neutrophil infiltration, edema, increased NF-κB phosphorylation, and increased proinflammatory cytokine TNFα protein expression. Oral gavage of live, but not heated, S.b starting 5 days before C. difficile infection significantly reduced cecal tissue damage, NF-κB phosphorylation, and TNFα protein expression caused by infection with all strains. Moreover, S.b-conditioned medium reduced cell rounding caused by filtered supernatants from all C. difficile strains. S.b-conditioned medium also inhibited toxin A- and B-mediated actin cytoskeleton disruption. S.b is effective in preventing C. difficile infection by outbreak-associated via inhibition of the cytotoxic effects of C. difficile toxins. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide and virginiamycin on the cecal microbial community and intestinal morphology of chickens raised under suboptimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Xu, Zhengxin; Baurhoo, Bushansingh; Chevaux, Eric; Zhao, Xin

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing movement against use of antibiotic growth promoters in animal feed. Prebiotic supplementation is a potential alternative to enhance the host's natural defense through modulation of gut microbiota. In the present study, the effect of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and virginiamycin (VIRG) on cecal microbial ecology and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens raised under suboptimal conditions was evaluated. MOS and VIRG induced different bacterial community structures, as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA. The antibiotic treatment reduced cecal microbial diversity while the community equitability increased. A higher bacterial diversity was observed in the cecum of MOS-supplemented birds. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results indicated that MOS changed the cecal microbiota in favor of the Firmicutes population but not the Bacteroidetes population. No difference was observed in total bacterial counts among treatments. MOS promoted the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. in the cecum and increased villus height and goblet cell numbers in the ileum and jejunum. These results provide a deeper insight into the microbial ecological changes after supplementation of MOS prebiotic in poultry diets.

  2. Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 prevents outbreak-associated Clostridium difficile-associated cecal inflammation in hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Hon Wai; Su, Bowei; Xu, Chunlan; Mussatto, Caroline C.; Tran, Diana Hoang-Ngoc; Lee, Elaine C.; Ortiz, Christina; Wang, Jiani; Lee, Jung Eun; Ho, Samantha; Chen, Xinhua; Kelly, Ciaran P.

    2016-01-01

    C. difficile infection (CDI) is a common debilitating nosocomial infection associated with high mortality. Several CDI outbreaks have been attributed to ribotypes 027, 017, and 078. Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that the nonpathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S.b) is effective for the prevention of CDI. However, there is no current evidence suggesting this probiotic can protect from CDI caused by outbreak-associated strains. We used established hamster models infected with outbreak-associated C. difficile strains to determine whether oral administration of live or heat-inactivated S.b can prevent cecal tissue damage and inflammation. Hamsters infected with C. difficile strain VPI10463 (ribotype 087) and outbreak-associated strains ribotype 017, 027, and 078 developed severe cecal inflammation with mucosal damage, neutrophil infiltration, edema, increased NF-κB phosphorylation, and increased proinflammatory cytokine TNFα protein expression. Oral gavage of live, but not heated, S.b starting 5 days before C. difficile infection significantly reduced cecal tissue damage, NF-κB phosphorylation, and TNFα protein expression caused by infection with all strains. Moreover, S.b-conditioned medium reduced cell rounding caused by filtered supernatants from all C. difficile strains. S.b-conditioned medium also inhibited toxin A- and B-mediated actin cytoskeleton disruption. S.b is effective in preventing C. difficile infection by outbreak-associated via inhibition of the cytotoxic effects of C. difficile toxins. PMID:27514478

  3. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, W.C.; Klein, M.J.; Pitt, M.J.; Siegal, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

  4. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2006-12-15

    This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

  5. Alteration of the rat cecal microbiome during colonization with the helminth Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Erin A; Williamson, Lauren; Yoder, Anne D; Rawls, John F; Bilbo, Staci D; Parker, William

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome is now widely recognized as being important in health and disease, and makes up a substantial subset of the biome within the ecosystem of the vertebrate body. At the same time, multicellular, eukaryotic organisms such as helminths are being recognized as an important component of the biome that shaped the evolution of our genes. The absence of these macroscopic organisms during the early development and life of humans in Western culture probably leads to a wide range of human immunological diseases. However, the interaction between the microbiome and macroscopic components of the biome remains poorly characterized. In this study, the microbiome of the cecum in rats colonized for 2 generations with the small intestinal helminth Hymenolepis diminuta was evaluated. The introduction of this benign helminth, which is of considerable therapeutic interest, led to several changes in the cecal microbiome. Most of the changes were within the Firmicutes phylum, involved about 20% of the total bacteria, and generally entailed a shift from Bacilli to Clostridia species in the presence of the helminth. The results point toward ecological relationships between various components of the biome, with the observed shifts in the microbiome suggesting potential mechanisms by which this helminth might exert therapeutic effects.

  6. Jerusalem artichokes stimulate growth of broiler chickens and protect them against endotoxins and potential cecal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleessen, Brigitta; Elsayed, N A A E; Loehren, U; Schroedl, W; Krueger, Monika

    2003-11-01

    Control of intestinal pathogens during the earliest phases of broiler production may be the best strategy for the reduction of human pathogens on processed broiler carcasses. The recent ban on antibiotics in poultry feed has served to focus much attention on alternative methods of controlling the gastrointestinal microflora. A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of the fructan-rich Jerusalem artichoke, or topinambur (administered as 0.5% topinambur syrup in drinking water), on cultural numbers of selected cecal bacteria (total aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, Bdellovibrio spp., and Clostridium perfringens) and levels of bacterial endotoxins as well as on body weights and relative weights of organs (the pancreas and the bursa of Fabricius) of chickens in the first 35 days of life (with weekly investigations being conducted). One-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to experimental (with topinambur) and control (without topinambur) groups. They were allowed free access to a standard broiler diet without growth-promoting antibiotics. Topinambur treatment resulted in a significant increase (P broilers than for control birds at the ages of 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. These results indicate that a small amount of topinambur in broilers' drinking water has a beneficial effect on growth performance, reduces bacterial endotoxin levels, and suppresses potential pathogens in broilers' ceca.

  7. A novel method for murine intrahepatic islet transplantation via cecal vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Nari; Kim, Hyun-Je; Min, Byoung-Hoon; Shin, Jun-Seop; Yoon, Il-Hee; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Yong-Hee; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2015-12-01

    Islet transplantation is one of the most beneficial treatment modality to treat type 1 diabetic patients with frequent hypoglycemic unawareness. In clinical setting, human islets are infused via portal vein and are settled in the end-portal venules in the liver. However, mouse islets are transplanted into kidney subcapsule or liver through direct portal vein. These conventional transplantation methods have several drawbacks such as different physiological environments around the transplanted islets in kidney subcapsule from the liver and high mortality rate in direct portal vein approach. In this study, we introduced murine intrahepatic islet transplantation method via cecal vein to have the same surgical operation route in humans as well as guaranteeing low mortality rate after islet transplantation. With this protocol, consistent normoglycemia can be obtained in diabetic mice, while keeping operation-related mortality extremely low. This approach with easier accessibility and low mortality will make murine intrahepatic islet transplantation a useful model for studying immunological mechanisms such as strong innate and adaptive immune responses that occur in human islet transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Digestibilidade pré-cecal diurna e noturna em equinos fistulados alimentados com diferentes concentrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto de Oliveira Gobesso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as possíveis diferenças entre períodos diurno e noturno dos coeficientes de digestibilidade parcial pré-cecal da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, amido, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente ácido e fibra em detergente neutro de diferentes dietas formuladas com concentrados energéticos à base de milho, aveia, sorgo e milho/aveia 50/50%. Foram utilizados quatro cavalos íleo-fistulados com 36±4 meses de idade, mestiços, machos, castrados, com peso médio de 308±32kg. O delineamento experimental foi um quadrado latino 4X4 (quatro tratamentos, quatro períodos. Houve diferenças entre os períodos diurno e noturno nas frações da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, amido, fibra em detergente ácido e fibra em detergente neutro no tratamento a base de milho, nas frações fibra em detergente acido e fibra em detergente neutro no tratamento com aveia, e na fibra em detergente ácido dos tratamentos com sorgo e milho/aveia 50/50%.

  9. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology: Part I. Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the field of medicine. In this article, the first of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to neoplasms, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2012-04-01

    We have previously defined a new syndrome "Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms" in which choriocarcinoma or persistent hydatidiform mole has a minimal growth rate and becomes chemorefractory. Previously we described a new treatment protocol, waiting for hCG rise to >3000 mIU/ml and disease becomes more advanced, then using combination chemotherapy. Initially we found this treatment successful in 8 of 8 cases, here we find this protocol appropriate in a further 16 cases. Initially we used hyperglycosylated hCG, a limited availability test, to identify this syndrome. Here we propose also using hCG doubling rate to detect this syndrome. Minimally aggressive gestational trophoblastic disease can be detected by chemotherapy resistance or low hyperglycosylated hCG, disease by hyperglycosylated hCG and by hCG doubling test. All were recommended to hold off further chemotherapy until hCG >3000mIU/ml. One case died prior to the start of the study, one case withdrew because of a lung nodule and one withdrew refusing the suggested combination chemotherapy. The remaining 16 women were all successfully treated. A total of 8 plus 16 or 24 of 24 women were successfully treated using the proposed protocol, holding back on chemotherapy until hCG >3000mIU/ml. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms of mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Ross L

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, a series of studies have provided genetic insight into the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). It is now known that JAK2V617F mutations are present in 90% of patients with polycythaemia vera (PV), 60% of patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET) and 50% of patients with myelofibrosis (MF). Despite the high prevalence of JAK2V617F mutations in these three myeloid malignancies, several questions remain. For example, how does one mutation contribute to the pathogenesis of three clinically distinct diseases, and how do some patients develop these diseases in the absence of a JAK2V617F mutation? Single nucleotide polymorphisms at various loci and somatic mutations, such as those in MPLW515L/K, TET2 and in exon 12 of JAK2, may also contribute to the pathogenesis of these MPNs. There are likely additional germline and somatic genetic factors important to the MPN phenotype. Additional studies of large MPN and control cohorts with new techniques will help identify these factors.

  12. INTRACRANIAL NEOPLASMS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA B.J. OLASODE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-01-01

    Jan 1, 2000 ... Results: Two hundred and ten intracronial neoplasms comprising 172 ... accounted for the largest group of tumours followed by metastases to the brain. ..... Percentage .... astrocytomas may be attributed to the increasing use.

  13. Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabayegit Ozlem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oncocytic neoplasms occur in several organs and are most commonly found in the thyroid, kidneys and salivary glands. Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal cortex are extremely rare and are usually non-functioning. Case presentation We report the case of an adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential in a 31-year-old man with Cushing's syndrome. The patient had been operated on following diagnosis of a 7 cm adrenal mass. Following surgery, the Cushing's syndrome resolved. The patient is still alive with no metastases one year after the surgery. Conclusion Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both functioning and non-functioning adrenal masses.

  14. Inheritance of the chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Ajenthen; Penninga, E; Jelsig, Am

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review investigated the inheritance of the classical chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Sixty-one articles were included and provided 135...

  15. Preoperation diagnosis of stomach neoplasm metases in the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.E.; Zholnerovich, E.M.; Zelenkevich, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that application of ultrasonography and computerized tomography in examining the upper part of abdomen in patients with stomach neoplasm permits to judge on metastases into the liver. Application of invasive methods of examination is indicated only in case of indefinite data of ultrasonography and computerized tomography. It is shown that application of invasive methods isn't advisable in patients with stomach neoplasm to which palliative operations are indicated. 4 refs

  16. Respiratory muscle strength of patients with esophagus and stomach neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Aline Boscolo Ruivo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In cancer patients, the reduced food intake causes weight loss and promotes protein-calorie malnutrition. This results in loss of lean body mass, which affects both skeletal muscles and respiratory muscles. Objective: Evaluate and compare the respiratory muscle strength of patients with esophageal and stomach neoplasia during the preoperative period. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out with 24 patients of both genders hospitalized in a teaching hospital. They underwent a physical therapy evaluation composed of anthropometric data and measurement of respiratory muscle strength through manovacuometry. Paired and unpaired t-tests were used to compare the values obtained with the predicted equations. Results: Regarding the disease prevalence, 66.66%(16 of the individuals had stomach neoplasm and 33.33%(8 esophageal neoplasm. Of the patients with esophageal neoplasm, 100% were men with a mean age of 63 ± 9.16 years. Of those with stomach neoplasm, 68.75% were men with a mean age of 69.36 ± 10.92 years. Female patients with stomach neoplasm had significantly higher BMI (p = 0.01 than male patients, and they were classified as overweight. Both neoplasms had significantly lower real values (p ≤ 0.05 than predicted values at the maximal expiratory pressure. Conclusion: Patients with esophageal and stomach neoplasms in the preoperative period present reduction in the expiratory muscle strength. There were no statistically significant differences, when we compared the maximum respiratory pressures between the two types of neoplasms investigated.

  17. Squamous neoplasms arising within tattoos: clinical presentation, histopathology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, A L; Wanat, K A; Farah, R S

    2017-08-01

    Tattooing, which involves the placement of ink into the skin, is an ancient decorative technique that has remained popular in modern society. Tattoos have long been known to cause cutaneous reactions, which include the emergence of neoplasms such as keratoacanthoma (KA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in tattooed areas of the skin. We review the clinical presentations, histology and treatment options for squamous neoplasms, primarily KA and SCC, arising in tattoos. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. [Approach to diagnosis and management of myeloproliferative neoplasm variants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumori, Toru; Kirito, Keita

    2015-08-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) variants are defined as relatively uncommon myeloid neoplasms which do not meet the criteria for either classical MPN or myelodysplastic syndrome. Due to the lack of specific markers, it has been challenging to accurately diagnose these malignant diseases. Recent studies have revealed new genetic abnormalities in MPN variants. These research advances are anticipated to open new approaches to not only achieving accurate diagnosis but also novel therapeutic options for these diseases.

  19. Inferior phrenic artery embolization in the treatment of hepatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprat, G.; Charnsangavej, C.; Wallace, S.; Carrasco, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-nine inferior phrenic artery embolizations were performed in 20 patients with primary or metastatic hepatic neoplasms. All patients had interruption of their hepatic arteries by previous infusion of chemotherapy, hepatic arterial embolization or surgical ligation. In one patient, bilateral pleural effusions developed following embolization of the inferior phrenic artery. No other severe complications occurred. Inferior phrenic artery embolization is a safe procedure and permits the continuation of transcatheter treatment of hepatic neoplasms. (orig.)

  20. Inferior phrenic artery embolization in the treatment of hepatic neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprat, G.; Charnsangavej, C.; Wallace, S.; Carrasco, C.H.

    Twenty-nine inferior phrenic artery embolizations were performed in 20 patients with primary or metastatic hepatic neoplasms. All patients had interruption of their hepatic arteries by previous infusion of chemotherapy, hepatic arterial embolization or surgical ligation. In one patient, bilateral pleural effusions developed following embolization of the inferior phrenic artery. No other severe complications occurred. Inferior phrenic artery embolization is a safe procedure and permits the continuation of transcatheter treatment of hepatic neoplasms.

  1. Plurihormonal Cosecretion by a Case of Adrenocortical Oncocytic Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corrales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms (oncocytomas are extremely rare; only approximately 159 cases have been described so far. The majority are nonfunctional and benign. We describe an unusual case of a functional oncocytoma secreting an excess of glucocorticoids (cortisol and androgens (androstenedione and DHEAS, a pattern of plurihormonal cosecretion previously not reported in men, presenting with endocrine manifestations of Cushing’s syndrome. The neoplasm was considered to be of uncertain malignant potential (borderline according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria.

  2. Origin of B-Cell Neoplasms in Autoimmune Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Hemminki

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs are associated with a number of B-cell neoplasms but the associations are selective in regard to the type of neoplasm and the conferred risks are variable. So far no mechanistic bases for these differential associations have been demonstrated. We speculate that developmental origin of B-cells might propose a mechanistic rationale for their carcinogenic response to autoimmune stimuli and tested the hypothesis on our previous studies on the risks of B-cell neoplasms after any of 33 ADs. We found that predominantly germinal center (GC-derived B-cells showed multiple associations with ADs: diffuse large B cell lymphoma associated with 15 ADs, follicular lymphoma with 7 ADs and Hodgkin lymphoma with 11 ADs. Notably, these neoplasms shared significant associations with 5 ADs (immune thrombocytopenic purpura, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosis. By contrast, primarily non-GC neoplasms, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and myeloma associated with 2 ADs only and mantle cell lymphoma with 1 AD. None of the neoplasms shared associated ADs. These data may suggest that autoimmune stimulation critically interferes with the rapid cell division, somatic hypermutation, class switch recombination and immunological selection of maturing B-cell in the GC and delivers damage contributing to transformation.

  3. CT characteristics of primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yufeng; Wang Jichen; Peng Yun; Zeng Jinjin

    2010-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms are uncommon in children. Retroperitoneal neoplasms are either mesodermal, neurogenic, germ cell ectodermal or lymphatic in origin. In general, primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children have different spectrum and prevalence compared to those in adults. Neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, benign teratoma and lymphoma are the common retroperitoneal neoplasms. In this review, the clinical and CT futures of common retroperitoneal neoplasms in children are described. Coarse, amorphous, and mottled calcification are very common in neuroblastoma. Paraganglioma tends to show marked and early enhancement and may present with clinical symptoms associated with the excess catecholamine. Sarcomas are often very large and have heterogeneous appearance. Imaging cannot be reliably used to identify the type of retroperitoneal sarcomas due to overlapped radiographic features. In children, lipoblastoma is the most common lipomatous tumor in the retroperitoneum. The percentage of visible fat in tumor varies depending on the cellular composition of the lesion. The CT characteristics of teratoma are quite variable, which may be cystic, solid, on a combination of both. Typically teratoma appears as a large complex mass containing fluid, fat, fat-fluid level, and calcifications. Lymphoma is often homogeneous on both enhanced and unenhanced CT scans. Necrosis and calcification are rare on CT. In conclusion, making a final histological diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor base on CT features is not often possible; however, CT can help to develop a differential diagnosis and determine the size and extent of the retroperitoneal neoplasms.

  4. Outcomes following splenectomy in patients with myeloid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rialon, Kristy L; Speicher, Paul J; Ceppa, Eugene P; Rendell, Victoria R; Vaslef, Steven N; Beaven, Anne; Tyler, Douglas S; Blazer, Dan G

    2015-03-15

    Myeloid neoplasms are classified into five major categories. These patients may develop splenomegaly and require splenectomy to alleviate mechanical symptoms, to ameliorate transfusion-dependent cytopenias, or to enhance stem cell transplantation. The objective of this study was to determine which clinical variables significantly impacted morbidity, mortality, and survival in patients with myeloid neoplasms undergoing splenectomy, and to determine if operative outcomes have improved over time. The records of all patients with myeloid neoplasms undergoing splenectomy from 1993 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Eighty-nine patients (n = 89) underwent splenectomy for myeloid neoplasms. Over half of patients who had symptoms preoperatively had resolution of their symptoms post-splenectomy. The morbidity rate was 38%, with the most common complications being bleeding (14%) or infection (20%). Thirty-day mortality rate was 18% and median survival after splenectomy was 278 days. Decreased survival was associated with a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm, anemia, abnormal white blood cell count, and hypoalbuminemia. Patients who underwent stem cell transplantation did not show an increased risk for morbidity or mortality. Patients with myeloid neoplasms have a poor prognosis after splenectomy and the decision to operate is a difficult one, associated with high morbidity and mortality. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Desempenho produtivo e atividade microbiana cecal de coelhos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de amido Performance and cecal microbial activity of growing rabbits fed diets with different starch levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do amido dietético sobre o rendimento produtivo e a atividade microbiana cecal de coelhos em crescimento, quatro dietas experimentais foram elaboradas de forma a conter níveis crescentes de amido (23, 28, 33 e 38% de amido total na base da MS, os quais foram fornecidos a 32 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, distribuídos em gaiolas de engorda individuais, seguindo um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Houve efeito linear decrescente para consumo e conversão alimentar, em que valores de 108,67 g/d e 3,216, respectivamente, foram obtidos para os animais alimentados com 38% de amido dietético. No entanto, o ganho de peso e o rendimento de carcaça não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. Por outro lado, os valores de pH, as concentrações totais e as proporções molares dos ácidos graxos voláteis não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos, porém, para o ácido propiônico, houve efeito linear decrescente, sendo a maior proporção molar (12,06% verificada no conteúdo cecal de coelhos alimentados com 23% de amido dietético. O milho-grão apresentou maior influência sobre a atividade microbiana cecal que o amido de milho purificado, porém, sem alterar o desempenho e rendimento de carcaça.With the objective to evaluate the effect of dietary starch on the productive yield and cecal microbial activity for rabbits in the growing, four experimental diets were formulated to contain increasing corn starch levels (23, 28, 33 and 38 % total starch levels in dry matter basis. A total of 32 White New Zealand rabbits were allotted to finishing cages in a completely randomized block design. The results showed a decreasing linear effect for the feed intake and feed:gain ratio, where values of 108.67g/d and 3.216, respectively, were recorded for animals fed 38% dietary starch. However, no difference was observed for the weight gain and carcass yield. Regarding to cecal microbial activity, pH and

  6. Ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Shoji

    1986-01-01

    A recent pathological and epidemiological study on females with ovarian neoplasms among the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Life Span Study (LSS) Extended Sample ascertained 194 malignant and 106 benign ovarian tumor cases which had occurred during the period 1950 - 80. Of the 194 cases of ovarian cancer, 128 (66 %) were reviewed microscopically and the age-adjusted incidence of ovarian cancer revealed a statistically significant linear increase with increasing exposure dose, both in microscopically reviewed and in all cases. The radiation-related excess of ovarian cancer appeared to be highest in women less than 20 years of age when exposed, with these women having the longest latent period for tumor development, compared to the older age groups. The histological distribution of cancer types among exposed individuals appeared not very different from that seen in the general population. The analysis of 106 autopsy subjects with benign ovarian tumors, of which 89 were reviewed microscopically, depicted a trend of increasing radiation-related tumor excess with increasing exposure dose among exposed cases, though the trend is not statistically significant when observation was limited to microscopically reviewed subjects. The histological distribution of benign tumor types among exposed cases appeared not very different from that seen in the general population. The findings are consistent with a hypothesis that radiation-injured ovaries in association with secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones are important causative factors in the development of ovarian tumors, which has been suggested by experimental findings concerning the induction of ovarian tumors by ionizing radiation and by a recent analysis of breast carcinogenesis in exposed females of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (author)

  7. Secondary malignant neoplasms in testicular cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Stephanie A; Fung, Chunkit; Beard, Clair J

    2015-09-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 15 to 40 years, and the incidence of testicular cancer is steadily increasing. Despite successful treatment outcomes and the rate of survival at 5 to 10 years being 95%, survivors can experience late effects of both their cancer and the treatment they received, including secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We discuss the development of non-germ cell SMNs that develop after diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer and their effect on mortality. Patients diagnosed with testicular cancer frequently choose postoperative surveillance if they are diagnosed with clinical stage I disease. These patients may experience an increased risk for developing SMNs following radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging. Similarly, radiotherapy for testicular cancer is associated with increased risks of developing both solid tumors and leukemia. Studies have reported that patients exposed to higher doses of radiation have an increased risk of developing SMNs when compared with patients who received lower doses of radiation. Patients treated with chemotherapy also experience an increased risk of developing SMNs following testicular cancer, though the risk following chemotherapy and radiation therapy combined is not well described. A large population-based study concluded that the rate ratios for both cancer-specific and all-cause mortality for SMNs among testicular cancer survivors were not significantly different from those of matched first cancers. Although it is known that patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or who undergo routine diagnostic or follow-up imaging for a primary testicular cancer are at an increased risk for developing SMNs, the extent of this risk is largely unknown. It is critically important that research be conducted to determine this risk and its contributing factors as accurately as possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thioredoxin-1 attenuates sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy after cecal ligation and puncture in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rickesha L; Selvaraju, Vaithinathan; Lakshmanan, Rajesh; Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Campbell, Jacob; McFadden, David W; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2017-12-01

    Sepsis is a leading cause of mortality among patients in intensive care units across the USA. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is an essential 12 kDa cytosolic protein that, apart from maintaining the cellular redox state, possesses multifunctional properties. In this study, we explored the possibility of controlling adverse myocardial depression by overexpression of Trx-1 in a mouse model of severe sepsis. Adult C57BL/6J and Trx-1 Tg/+ mice were divided into wild-type sham (WTS), wild-type cecal ligation and puncture (WTCLP), Trx-1 Tg/+ sham (Trx-1 Tg/+ S), and Trx-1 Tg/+ CLP groups. Cardiac function was evaluated before surgery, 6 and 24 hours after CLP surgery. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis were performed after 24 hours in heart tissue sections. Echocardiography analysis showed preserved cardiac function in the Trx-1 Tg/+ CLP group compared with the WTCLP group. Similarly, Western blot analysis revealed increased expression of Trx-1, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), survivin (an inhibitor of apoptosis [IAP] protein family), and decreased expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), caspase-3, and 3- nitrotyrosine in the Trx-1 Tg/+ CLP group compared with the WTCLP group. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced 4-hydroxynonenal, apoptosis, and vascular leakage in the cardiac tissue of Trx-1 Tg/+ CLP mice compared with mice in the WTCLP group. Our results indicate that overexpression of Trx-1 attenuates cardiac dysfunction during CLP. The mechanism of action may involve reduction of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and vascular permeability through activation of Trx-1/HO-1 and anti-apoptotic protein survivin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioral deficits in sepsis-surviving rats induced by cecal ligation and perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barichello

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis and its complications are the leading causes of mortality in intensive care units, accounting for 10-50% of deaths. Intensive care unit survivors present long-term cognitive impairment, including alterations in memory, attention, concentration, and/or global loss of cognitive function. In the present study, we investigated behavioral alterations in sepsis-surviving rats. One hundred and ten male Wistar rats (3-4 months, 250-300 g were submitted to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP, and 44 were submitted to sham operation. Forty-four rats (40% survived after CLP, and all sham-operated animals survived and were used as control. Twenty animals of each group were used in the object recognition task (10 in short-term memory and 10 in long-term memory, 12 in the plus-maze test and 12 in the forced swimming test. Ten days after surgery, the animals were submitted individually to an object recognition task, plus-maze and forced swimming tests. A significant impairment of short- and long-term recognition memory was observed in the sepsis group (recognition index 0.75 vs 0.55 and 0.74 vs 0.51 for short- and long-term memory, respectively (P < 0.05. In the elevated plus-maze test no difference was observed between groups in any of the parameters assessed. In addition, sepsis survivors presented an increase in immobility time in the forced swimming test (180 vs 233 s, P < 0.05, suggesting the presence of depressive-like symptoms in these animals after recovery from sepsis. The present results demonstrated that rats surviving exposure to CLP, a classical sepsis model, presented recognition memory impairment and depressive-like symptoms but not anxiety-like behavior.

  10. Disruption in the cecal microbiota of chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens and other factors was alleviated by Bacillus licheniformis supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yicen; Xu, Shuai; Zeng, Dong; Ni, Xueqin; Zhou, Mengjia; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Hesong; Zhou, Yi; Zhu, Hui; Pan, Kangcheng; Li, Guangyao

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens can induce necrotic enteritis of chickens, which causes large economic losses every year. Bacillus licheniformis, a probiotic, can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens, thereby improving the health status of chickens. However, from a microbial ecology perspective, the mechanisms by which alterations to the gut microbiota improve health remain unknown. In this study, we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to investigate the cecal microbiota of a negative control group (NC), a C. perfringens and Eimeria challenge group with fishmeal supplementation (PC), a group supplemented with fishmeal and infected with coccidia (FC), and group PC with B. licheniformis supplementation (BL). We found that the health status of C. perfringens-challenged chickens was compromised, and that B. licheniformis improved the growth of the chickens challenged with pathogens. Microbial diversity analysis and taxonomic profiling of groups NC, PC, and FC revealed a disturbed cecal microflora of the birds with C. perfringens. We also characterized the microbiota of the chickens in the BL group using several methods. Principal coordinate analysis demonstrated that, compared with group PC, the bacterial community structure of group BL was more similar to that of group NC. Linear discriminant analysis with effect size revealed less differentially represented bacterial taxa between groups BL and NC than between groups PC and NC. In addition, groups BL and NC appeared to have similar overrepresented microbial taxa (such as Bacteroides, Helicobacter, Megamonas, and Akkermansia) compared with group PC. Finally, a phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states analysis indicated that large differences existed between group PC and groups NC and BL. In conclusion, pre-treatment with B. licheniformis reduced the disturbance of the cecal microbiome induced by challenge with C. perfringens and other factors in broiler

  11. Imaging findings of abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Sin; Byun, Jae Ho; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, Ah Young; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Moon Gyu; Bae, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm. From April 2000 to January 2005, eight patients (four men, four women; mean age, 50.6 years) with pathologically proved, extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm involving the abdominal organs were included in this study. The diagnoses were based on consensus agreement between two radiologists who retrospectively reviewed CT, ultrasonography, and enteroclysis findings. We evaluated the findings by focusing on the location, size, margin, and enhancement pattern of the lesion, and lymphadenopathy on each image. There were multiple myeloma in four patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in the remaining four. Involved abdominal organs were the liver (n = 4), spleen (n 4), lymph node (n = 3), stomach (n = 1), small bowel (n = 1), and colon (n 1). The hepatic involvement of plasma cell neoplasm presented as a homogeneous, well-defined, solitary mass (n = 1), multiple nodules (n = 1), and hepatomegaly (n = 2). Its involvement of the spleen and lymph node appeared as splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, respectively. Its involvement of the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach, small bowel, and colon, presented as a homogeneous, diffuse wall thickening or mass in the gastrointestinal tract. Abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm involves occasionally the liver, spleen, and lymph node, and rarely the gastrointestinal tract. When we encounter a well-defined, homogeneous lesion of the abdominal organs in patients diagnosed or suspected as having plasma cell neoplasm, we should consider its involvement of the abdominal organs

  12. Incidence and significance of Multiple Primary Malignant Neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Cho, Moon June; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il; Bang, Young Ju; Kim, Noe Kyung

    1986-01-01

    To know the three questions about multiple primary cancers: 1) what are the characteristics of persons having multiple primary cancer? 2) Dose presence of a single primary concern after the susceptibility to multiple primary cancers? 3) Dose the location of one multiple primary cancer influence the site of others?, we analysed 121 cases of multiple primary malignant neoplasms registered in Seoul National University Hospital during 8years from July 1978 to August 1986. Of 121 cases, double primary malignant neoplasms were 119 cases and triple were 2 cases. The incidence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms was 0.7%. The metachronous tumor(> 6 months) was found in 70 cases and the median time between the first and the second was 32 months. The most commonly associated tumors were stomach and primary liver carcinoma. Cervix and Lung cancer, Stomach and Rectal cancer, Stomach and Esophagus cancer were also commonly associated

  13. Small-bowel neoplasms in patients undergoing video capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rondonotti, E; Pennazio, M; Toth, E

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Small-bowel tumors account for 1% - 3% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Recent studies with video capsule endoscopy (VCE) suggest that the frequency of these tumors may be substantially higher than previously reported. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency......, clinical presentation, diagnostic/therapeutic work-up, and endoscopic appearance of small-bowel tumors in a large population of patients undergoing VCE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Identification by a questionnaire of patients with VCE findings suggesting small-bowel tumors and histological confirmation...... of the neoplasm seen in 29 centers of 10 European Countries. RESULTS: Of 5129 patients undergoing VCE, 124 (2.4%) had small-bowel tumors (112 primary, 12 metastatic). Among these patients, indications for VCE were: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (108 patients), abdominal pain (9), search for primary neoplasm...

  14. Interdisciplinary Management of Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are increasingly recognized due to the frequent use of abdominal imaging. It is reported that up to 20% of abdominal cross-sectional scans identify incidental asymptomatic pancreatic cysts. Proper characterization of pancreatic cystic neoplasms is important not only to recognize premalignant lesions that will require surgical resection, but also to allow nonoperative management of many cystic lesions that will not require resection with its inherent morbidity. Though reliable biomarkers are lacking, a wide spectrum of diagnostic modalities are available to evaluate pancreatic cystic neoplasms, including radiologic, endoscopic, laboratory, and pathologic analysis. An interdisciplinary approach to management of these lesions which incorporates recent, specialty-specific advances in the medical literature is herein suggested.

  15. Neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima City. First report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Tomin; Ishida, Morihiro

    1960-04-01

    The 1957-1958 incidence of neoplasms among the survivors of the Hiroshima A-bomb, varies directly with radiation dose insofar as it may be inferred from distance from the hypocenter at exposure. The incidence of all malignant neoplasms among the survivors who were within 1000 meters is more than 4 times that of the non-exposed population. The incidence of benign neoplasms among the survivors exposed within 1500 meters is also significantly higher than that among the non-exposed. For survivors under 1500 meters significant differences are seen between the numbers of observed cancers of the lung, stomach, uterus and ovary and the expected cases calculated from the age-specific rates of the non-exposed portion of the Hiroshima population. The increased incidence among survivors within 1500 meters is not related to sex or age. 18 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  16. Western diet enhances hepatic inflammation in mice exposed to cecal ligation and puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houghton Jeff

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese patients display an exaggerated morbidity during sepsis. Since consumption of a western-style diet (WD is a major factor for obesity in the United States, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of chronic WD consumption on hepatic inflammation in mice made septic via cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Feeding mice diets high in fat has been shown to enhance evidence of TLR signaling and this pathway also mediates the hepatic response to invading bacteria. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combined effects of sepsis and feeding WD on TRL-4 signaling would exacerbate hepatic inflammation. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed purified control diet (CD or WD that was enriched in butter fat (34.4% of calories for 3 weeks prior to CLP. Intravital microscopy was used to evaluate leukocyte adhesion in the hepatic microcirculation. To demonstrate the direct effect of saturated fatty acid on hepatocytes, C3A human hepatocytes were cultured in medium containing 100 μM palmitic acid (PA. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4 and interleukin-8 (IL-8. Results Feeding WD increased firm adhesion of leukocytes in the sinusoids and terminal hepatic venules by 8-fold six hours after CLP; the increase in platelet adhesion was similar to the response observed with leukocytes. Adhesion was accompanied by enhanced expression of TNF-α, MCP-1 and ICAM-1. Messenger RNA expression of TLR-4 was also exacerbated in the WD+CLP group. Exposure of C3A cells to PA up-regulated IL-8 and TLR-4 expression. In addition, PA stimulated the static adhesion of U937 monocytes to C3A cells, a phenomenon blocked by inclusion of an anti-TLR-4/MD2 antibody in the culture medium. Conclusions These findings indicate a link between obesity-enhanced susceptibility to sepsis and

  17. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues of digestive systems and mediate specific uptake of small molecule substrates in facilitative manner. Given the important role of SLC proteins in maintaining normal functions of digestive system, dysregulation of these protein in digestive system neoplasms may deliver biological and clinical significance that deserves systemic studies. In this review, we critically summarized the recent advances in understanding the role of SLC proteins in digestive system neoplasms. We highlighted that several SLC subfamilies, including metal ion transporters, transporters of glucose and other sugars, transporters of urea, neurotransmitters and biogenic amines, ammonium and choline, inorganic cation/anion transporters, transporters of nucleotide, amino acid and oligopeptide organic anion transporters, transporters of vitamins and cofactors and mitochondrial carrier, may play important roles in mediating the initiation, progression, metastasis, and chemoresistance of digestive system neoplasms. Proteins in these SLC subfamilies may also have diagnostic and prognostic values to particular cancer types. Differential expression of SLC proteins in tumors of digestive system was analyzed by extracting data from human cancer database, which revealed that the roles of SLC proteins may either be dependent on the substrates they transport or be tissue specific. In addition, small molecule modulators that pharmacologically regulate the functions of SLC proteins were discussed for their possible application in the treatment of digestive system neoplasms. This review highlighted the potential of SLC family proteins as drug target for the treatment of digestive system neoplasms.

  18. Microbial compositional changes in broiler chicken cecal contents from birds challenged with different Salmonella vaccine candidate strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si Hong; Kim, Sun Ae; Rubinelli, Peter M; Roto, Stephanie M; Ricke, Steven C

    2017-05-31

    Previously, we constructed and characterized the vaccine efficacy of Salmonella Typhimurium mutant strains in poultry with either inducible mviN expression (P BAD -mviN) or methionine auxotrophy (ΔΔmetRmetD). The aim of the present study was to assess potential impact of these Salmonella vaccine strains on the cecal microbiota using a next generation sequencing (NGS). The cecal microbial community obtained from unvaccinated (group 1) and vaccinated chickens (group 2, vaccinated with P BAD -mviN; group 3, vaccinated with wild type; group 4, vaccinated with ΔΔmetRmetD) were subjected to microbiome sequencing analysis with an Illumina MiSeq platform. The NGS microbiome analysis of chicken ceca revealed considerable changes in microbial composition in the presence of the different vaccine strains and exhibited detectable patterns of distinctive clustering among the respective groups (the R value of unweighted PCoA plot was 0.68). The present study indicates that different S. Typhimurium vaccine strains can differentially influence the microbiota of the ceca in terms of presence but not in the relative abundance of microbiota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of antibiotic supplementation versus a yeast-based prebiotic on the cecal microbiome of commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si Hong; Lee, Sang In; Kim, Sun Ae; Christensen, Karen; Ricke, Steven C

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are defined as fermentable food ingredients that selectively stimulate beneficial bacteria in the lower gastrointestinal tract of the host. The purpose of this study was to assess growth performance of broilers and the cecal microbial populations of an antibiotic, BMD50, supplemented birds compared to broiler chickens fed the prebiotic, Biolex® MB40. Weight response data including feed conversion ratios (FCR), carcasses without giblets (WOG), wing, skin, white meat were collected during processing. Extracted DNA from cecal contents was utilized for microbiome analysis via an Illumina Miseq. In conclusion, white meat yield of Biolex® MB40 supplemented group exhibited significant improvement compared to both negative control (NC) and BMD50 supplemented groups. In addition, antibiotic significantly decreased level of Lactobacillus in 2 wk compared to other groups. A significantly higher percentage of Campylobacter was observed from the 4 wk old birds treated with antibiotic BMD50 compared to the NC and prebiotic group. Retention of broiler performance and improvement of white meat yield suggest that the prebiotic MB40 appears to be a potential alternative to replace the antibiotic growth promoter.

  20. Effects of polymannuronate on performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, cecal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhui; Li, Defa; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Hui; Xia, Xuan; Bi, Wanghua; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Liying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of purified polymannuronate (PM) obtained from marine brown algae on the performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, and cecal fermentation profile of broiler chickens. In a 42 d experiment, 540 (average BW 43.77±1.29 g) 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks and fed a corn and soybean meal (SBM)-based diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg polymannuronate. Adding polymannuronate to the broiler chickens' diets resulted in a significantly increased ADG and improved feed conversion compared with the control treatment. From d 1 to 42, the ADG of broilers fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg of polymannuronate was increased by 2.58, 4.33, 4.20, and 3.47%, respectively. Furthermore, parameters related to immune status, antioxidant capacity, and composition of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens fed the polymannuronate-containing diets were altered compared with broiler chickens fed a diet without polymannuronate. Supplementation with polymannuronate significantly increased the concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid in the cecum compared with the control group. The results indicate that polymannuronate has the potential to improve broiler chicken immune status, antioxidant capacity, and performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium Std fimbriae bind terminal α (1,2)fucose residues in the cecal mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, Daniela; Winter, Maria G.; Jakomin, Marcello; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The std operon encodes a fimbrial adhesin of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium that is required for attachment to intestinal epithelial cells and for cecal colonization in the mouse. To study the mechanism by which this virulence factor contributes to colonization we characterized its binding specificity. Std-mediated binding to human colonic epithelial (Caco-2) cells could be abrogated by removing N-linked glycans. Adherence of Std fimbriated S. Typhimurium to Caco-2 cells could be blocked by co-incubation with H type 2 oligosaccharide (Fucα1-2Galβ1-4GlcNAc) or by pretreatment of cells with α1-2 fucosidase. In contrast, pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with neuraminidase or co-incubation with the type 2 disaccharide precursor (Galβ1-4GlcNAc) did not reduce adherence of Std fimbriated S. Typhimurium. Binding of purified Std fimbriae to Fucα1-2Galβ1-4GlcNAc in a solid phase binding assay was competitively inhibited by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), a lectin specific for Fucα1-2 moieties. Purified Std fimbriae and UEA both bound to a receptor localized in the mucus layer of the murine cecum. These data suggest that the std operon encodes an adhesin that binds an α1-2 fucosylated receptor(s) present in the cecal mucosa. PMID:19183274

  2. Effect of propolis alcoholic extract on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Alves Ferreira Zanato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of different rates of propolis alcoholic extract (PAE on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits. Forty White New Zealand rabbits were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments and ten replicates per treatment. The rabbits were allocated individually in wire cages containing a nipple drinker and a semi-automatic feeder. The treatments were: T1 = control, T2 = 1ml of ethanol, T3 = 0.8ml of PAE, and T4 = 1.5ml of PAE. Commercial feed and water were provided ad libitum to the animals, and the treatment with cereal alcohol and PAE was administered orally using a 2ml syringe. It was concluded that the addition of PAE to the rabbits’ feeding resulted in weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH similar to those of animals which received the diets with ethanol without any addition, except for the paw weight, that was higher in the rabbits which were given PAE, and for the gastric system, that had a higher weight in the rabbits which received no addition to their diet.

  3. Assessing the occupational nature of malignant lung neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevc, J.; Klener, V.; Plank, V.

    1989-01-01

    The development of lung carcinoma in uranium miners is discussed. In spite of the decreasing radiation risks in mines, the absolute number of neoplasms has increased since the 1960's; this is due to the increasing number of miners, improved diagnostic methods and the aging of miners who thus enter higher age groups where a higher incidence of neoplasms can be expected. The probabilistic method was shown to be of help in deciding whether individual cases of lung carcinoma should be considered an occupational disease; new possible improvements of the method are suggested. (J.J.). 12 refs

  4. Postoperative meningeal enhancement on MRI in children with brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Hee; Han, Bokyung Kim; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Shin, Hyung Jin

    2000-01-01

    The meninges composed of the dura, the arachnoid and the pia are significant sites of blood-brain barrier. Physical disruption of the integrity of the meninges from a variety of causes including surgery results in various patterns of meningeal enhancement on contrast enhanced MR images. It is important to distinguish normal reactive or benign postoperative enhancement from more serious leptomeningeal metastasis or infection, particularly in children with intracranial neoplasms. We present various patterns of meningeal enhancement on MRI in children following surgery for brain neoplasms. (author)

  5. Unicentric Castleman’s Disease Masquerading Pancreatic Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Castleman’s disease is a rare nonclonal proliferative disorder of the lymph nodes with an unknown etiology. Common locations of Castleman’s disease are mediastinum, neck, axilla, and abdomen. Castleman’s disease of a peripancreatic location masquerading as pancreatic neoplasm is an even rarer entity. On search of published data, we came across about 17 cases published on peripancreatic Castleman’s disease until now. Here we are reporting a case of retropancreatic Castleman's disease masquerading as retroperitoneal neoplasm in a 46-year-old male patient.

  6. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several types of plasma cell neoplasms, including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), isolated plasmacytoma of the bone, extramedullary plasmacytoma, and multiple myeloma. Find evidence-based information on plasma cell neoplasms treatment, research, and statistics.

  7. Reconstruction techniques in the treatment of vertebral neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, R; Boriani, S; Casadei, R; Bandiera, S; De Iure, F; Campanacci, L; Demitri, S; Orsini, U; Di Fiore, M

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a new system for the topographical description of vertebral neoplasms. The general criteria of reconstruction after curettage or vertebral resection are evaluated. The literature is reviewed in terms of the use of prostheses, bone grafts, cement and stabilization systems in the treatment of tumors of the spine. Indications for the different methods are discussed.

  8. Neoplasms radiosensitivity: how to increase the efficiency of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calais, G.

    1991-01-01

    The hypoxia in the neoplasms is a radioresistance factor. This article is about the methods able to reduce the hypoxia in tumors: use of hyperbaric oxygen, radiosensitizers (as metronidazole), hyperthermia and modification of oxygen release in the tissues in modifying the blood flow and in reducing the hemoglobin affinity for oxygen [fr

  9. The radiotherapy value in recurrence control mammary neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Lopez, M.; Santini Blasco, A.

    1996-01-01

    In base on the retrospective analysis of 250 patient carrying of mammals neoplasms recurrence, their general characteristics are determined and the results are emphasized obtained by the radiotherapy, as well as the list that the indicative predict. It culminates in the necessity of indicating the adyuvance postoperative radiotherapy when factors unfavorable presage of recurrence(AU ) [es

  10. Childhood neoplasms presenting at autopsy: A 20-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Victoria A; Booth, John; Palm, Liina; Ashworth, Michael; Jacques, Thomas S; Sebire, Neil J

    2017-09-01

    The aims of the review are to establish the number of undiagnosed neoplasms presenting at autopsy in a single centre and to determine the incidence and most common causes of sudden unexpected death due to neoplasia in infancy and childhood (SUDNIC). Retrospective observational study of paediatric autopsies performed on behalf of Her Majesty's Coroner over a 20-year period (1996-2015; n = 2,432). Neoplasms first diagnosed at autopsy were identified from an established database and cases meeting the criteria for sudden unexpected death were further categorised. Thirteen previously undiagnosed neoplasms were identified, including five haematological malignancies, two medulloblastomas, two neuroblastomas, two cardiac tumours and two malignancies of renal origin. Eight cases met the criteria for SUDNIC (0.33% of autopsies), the commonest group of which were haematological malignancies (n = 3). Neoplasms presenting as unexpected death in infancy and childhood and diagnosed at autopsy are rare. The findings suggest that haematological malignancies are the commonest cause of SUDNIC and highlight the importance of specialist autopsy in cases of sudden unexpected death. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Diagnostic molecular pathology of lymphatic and myeloid neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapper, W; Kreipe, H

    2015-03-01

    Molecular pathology has been an integral part of the diagnostics of tumors of the hematopoietic system substantially longer than for solid neoplasms. In contrast to solid tumors, the primary objective of molecular pathology in hematopoietic neoplasms is not the prediction of drug efficacy but the diagnosis itself by excluding reactive proliferation and by using molecular features for tumor classification. In the case of malignant lymphomas, the most commonly applied molecular tests are those for gene rearrangements for immunoglobulin heavy chains and T-cell receptors. However, this article puts the focus on new and diagnostically relevant assays in hematopathology. Among these are mutations of MYD88 codon 265 in lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas, B-raf V600E in hairy cell leukemia and Stat3 exon 21 in indolent T-cell lymphomas. In myeloproliferative neoplasms, MPL W515, calreticulin exon 9 and the BCR-ABL and JAK2 V617F junctions are the most frequently analyzed differentiation series. In myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative neoplasms, SRSF2, SETBP1 and CSF3R mutations provide important differential diagnostic information. Genes mutated in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are particularly diverse but their analysis significantly improves the differential diagnostics between reactive conditions and MDS. The most frequent changes in MDS include mutations of TET2 and various genes encoding splicing factors.

  12. Cystic lesion of pancreas - Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Baijal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas is an intraductal mucin-producing epithelial neoplasm that arises from the main and/or branched pancreatic duct. It usually presents as cystic lesion of pancreas. There are well known differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesion. Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are detected at an increasing frequency due to an increased use of abdominal imaging. The diagnosis and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors (IPMN of the pancreas has evolved over the past decade. IPMN represents a spectrum of disease, ranging from benign to malignant lesions, making the early detection and characterization of these lesions important. Definitive management is surgical resection for appropriate candidates, as benign lesions harbor malignant potential. IPMN has a prognosis, which is different from adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. We report a case of a 58-year-old male with intraductal papillary neoplasm involving main duct and side branches presenting to us with clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis with obstructive jaundice and cholangitis treated surgically.

  13. Second Malignant Neoplasms After Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Attarbaschi, Andishe

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rare events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data on risk factors and outcomes of 642 children with SMNs occurring after treatment for ALL from 18 collaborative study groups between 19...

  14. Childhood Renal Neoplasms in Lagos Nigera- A 28 Year Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood Renal Neoplasms in Lagos Nigera- A 28 Year Review. ... Most of the patients presented with abdominal mass with a unilaterally enlarged kidney, abdominal pain, haematuria and weight loss. All of them had nephrectomy as initial treatment followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Nigerian Quarterly Journal ...

  15. A Survey Of Cutaneous Neoplasms Among Horses Used For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Survey Of Cutaneous Neoplasms Among Horses Used For Cultural Festivals In Borno State, Nigeria. ... Histologically, the papillomas were deeply subdivided into epithelial lobules with the outer and inner aspects of the epithelium running approximately parallel to each other. Irregular sub-dermal masses or cords of ...

  16. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) are treated with chemotherapy or other drugs, stem cell transplant, supportive care, and targeted therapy. They include chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), and atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). Learn about the clinical features and treatment options for these leukemias.

  17. Age-specific incidence of all neoplasms after colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Fabio; Randimbison, Lalao; Blanc-Moya, Rafael; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with a specific neoplasm tend to have a subsequent excess risk of the same neoplasm. The age incidence of a second neoplasm at the same site is approximately constant with age, and consequently the relative risk is greater at younger age. It is unclear whether such a line of reasoning can be extended from a specific neoplasm to the incidence of all neoplasms in subjects diagnosed with a defined neoplasm. We considered the age-specific incidence of all non-hormone-related epithelial neoplasms after a first primary colorectal cancer (n = 9542) in the Vaud Cancer Registry data set. In subjects with a previous colorectal cancer, the incidence rate of all other epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was stable around 800 per 100,000 between age 30 and 60 years, and rose only about twofold to reach 1685 at age 70 to 79 years and 1826 per 100,000 at age 80 years or older. After excluding synchronous cancers, the rise was only about 1.5-fold, that is, from about 700 to 1000. In the general population, the incidence rate of all epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was 29 per 100,000 at age 30 to 39 years, and rose 30-fold to 883 per 100,000 at age 70 to 79 years. Excluding colorectal cancers, the rise of all non-hormone-related cancers was from 360 per 100,000 at age 40 to 49 years to 940 at age 70 to 79 years after colorectal cancer, and from 90 to 636 per 100,000 in the general population (i.e., 2.6- vs. 7.1-fold). The rise of incidence with age of all epithelial non-hormone-related second cancers after colorectal cancer is much smaller than in the general population. This can possibly be related to the occurrence of a single mutational event in a population of susceptible individuals, although alternative models are plausible within the complexity of the process of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment with 24 h-delayed normo- and hyperbaric oxygenation in severe sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærnthsen, Nina Falcon; Hansen, Marco Bo; Wahl, Anna Mygind

    2017-01-01

    uncertain. We investigated the effects of 24 h delayed normobaric oxygen (NBO2) and HBO2treatment on the endogenous production of the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10, and on mortality in rats with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced sepsis. Method...

  19. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results Principal Component Analysis (PCA of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks, while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa, as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals. Conclusions Our findings show that consumption of apple pectin (7% in the diet increases the population of butyrate- and β-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.

  3. Delayed ischemic cecal perforation despite optimal decompression after placement of a self-expanding metal stent: report of a case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip Krag; Pilsgaard, Bo; Meisner, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Endoscopic deployment of self-expanding metal stents offers an alternative to surgical intervention in rectocolonic obstructions. Reported clinical failures in the literature are all related to the site of stent placement. We report a case of serious intra-abdominal disease after technically...... and clinically successful stent deployment: a potentially dangerous situation of which the surgeon should be aware. A previously healthy 72-year-old female was referred to our department with symptoms of an obstructing colorectal tumor. Successful stent placement resulted in resolution of the obstructive...... condition. Three days after stent deployment, x-ray examinations revealed a small-bowel obstruction and emergency surgery was performed. Intraoperative findings demonstrated a segment of ileum fixated to the tumor in the small pelvis, resulting in the obstructive condition. Furthermore, a cecal perforation...

  4. Low-Molecular-Weight Chitosan Supplementation Increases the Population of Prevotella in the Cecal Contents of Weanling Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LC promoted growth in weaned piglets as an alternative to feed-grade antibiotics. To investigate the influence of LC supplementation on piglets' gut microbiome and compare the differences in community composition between LC and antibiotics with ZnO addition, we assessed the cecal microbial community by 16S rRNA gene sequencing with three treatments consisting of basal diet (CTR group, basal diet with low-molecular-weight chitosan (LC group, and basal diet with antibiotic and ZnO (AZ group. LC decreased pH more than AZ did in the cecum (both compared to CTR. Beta diversity analysis showed that community structure was distinctly different among the CTR, LC, and AZ treatments, indicating that either LC or AZ treatment modulated the piglet microbiota. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria dominated the community [>98% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs] in piglet cecal contents. Compared to CTR, both LC, and AZ increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes while they decreased the count of Firmicutes and AZ decreased the population of Proteobacteria. In CTR the top four abundant genera were Prevotella (~10.4%, Succinivibrio (~6.2%, Lactobacillus (~5.6%, and Anaerovibrio (5.4%. Both LC and AZ increased the relative abundance of Prevotella but decreased the ratio of Lactobacillus when they compared with CTR. Moreover, LC increased the relative abundance of Succinivibrio and Anaerovibrio while AZ decreased them. The microbial function prediction showed LC enriched more pathways in the metabolism of cofactors and vitamins than CTR or AZ did. LC may potentially function as an alternative to feed-grade antibiotics in weaned piglets due to its beneficial regulation of the intestinal microbiome.

  5. Differential responses of cecal microbiota to fishmeal, Eimeria and Clostridium perfringens in a necrotic enteritis challenge model in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Stanley

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens causes enteric diseases in animals and humans. In poultry, avian-specific C. perfringens strains cause necrotic enteritis, an economically significant poultry disease that costs the global industry over $2 billion annually in losses and control measures. With removal of antibiotic growth promoters in some countries this disease appears to be on the rise. In experimental conditions used to study disease pathogenesis and potential control measures, reproduction of the disease relies on the use of predisposing factors such as Eimeria infection and the use of high protein diets, indicating complex mechanisms involved in the onset of necrotic enteritis. The mechanisms by which the predisposing factors contribute to disease progression are not well understood but it has been suggested that they may cause perturbations in the microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract. We inspected changes in cecal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA induced by Eimeria and fishmeal, in birds challenged or not challenged with C. perfringens. C. perfringens challenge in the absence of predisposing factors did not cause significant changes in either the alpha or beta diversity of the microbiota nor in concentrations of SCFA. Moreover, there was no C. perfringens detected in the cecal microbiota 2 days post-challenge without the presence of predisposing factors. In contrast, both fishmeal and Eimeria caused significant changes in microbiota, seen in both alpha and beta diversity and also enabled C. perfringens to establish itself post challenge. Eimeria had its strongest influence on intestinal microbiota and SCFA when combined with fishmeal. Out of 6 SCFAs measured, including butyric acid, none were significantly influenced by C. perfringens, but their levels were strongly modified following the use of both predisposing factors. There was little overlap in the changes caused following Eimeria and fishmeal treatments, possibly indicating

  6. Central Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma: Primary Odontogenic or Osseous Neoplasm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sook-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Currently, central cemento-ossifying fibroma is classified by the World Health Organization as a primary bone-forming tumor of the jaws. However, histopathologically, it is often indistinguishable from cemento-osseous dysplasias in that it forms osteoid and cementicles (cementum droplets) in varying proportions. It is believed that pluripotent cells within the periodontal membrane can be stimulated to produce either osteoid or woven bone and cementicles when stimulated. If this is true, cemento-ossifying fibroma would be better classified as a primary odontogenic neoplasm arising from the periodontal ligament. Cemento-ossifying fibromas also do not occur in the long bones. The present report compares several entities that fall within the diagnostic realm of benign fibro-osseous lesions and reviews the evidence for reclassifying central cemento-ossifying fibroma as a primary odontogenic neoplasm. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lesions and Neoplasms of the Penis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Debra S

    2016-01-01

    In addition to practitioners who care for male patients, with the increased use of high-resolution anoscopy, practitioners who care for women are seeing more men in their practices as well. Some diseases affecting the penis can impact on their sexual partners. Many of the lesions and neoplasms of the penis occur on the vulva as well. In addition, there are common and rare lesions unique to the penis. A review of the scope of penile lesions and neoplasms that may present in a primary care setting is presented to assist in developing a differential diagnosis if such a patient is encountered, as well as for practitioners who care for their sexual partners. A familiarity will assist with recognition, as well as when consultation is needed.

  8. Myeloid Neoplasms in the Guise of Nutritional Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Veda

    2012-01-01

    The classic BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) which include polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are among the most frequent hematologic neoplasms. Because of their relatively smooth clinical course, it is likely that many of these MPNs actually go undetected. Considering the high prevalence of iron, folic-acid, and vitamin B12 deficiencies in developing countries, their coexistence with MPN can be expected frequently. In such situations where both disorders coexist, MPN is often overlooked. This causes considerable diagnostic delay. In this paper, two cases of PMF and one case of PV where the diagnosis of MPN was delayed for about 3 years are discussed. Presence of concomitant vitamin B12, folate, and iron deficiencies perhaps camouflaged the underlying MPN. Bearing in mind the possibility of MPN, even in the setting of apparent nutritional deficiency and performing a bone marrow evaluation, is the crucial step in unveiling the hidden MPN. PMID:23227377

  9. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Karen; Delvaux, Peter; Huysentruyt, Frederik

    2017-08-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a rare variant of bile duct tumors, characterized by papillary growth within the bile duct lumen and is regarded as a biliary counterpart of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. IPNBs are mainly found in patients from Far Eastern areas, where hepatolithiasis and clonorchiasis are endemic. The Western experience, however, remains limited. In this article, we report a 56-year-old man, referred to our hospital because of deranged liver function tests. Further imaging modalities showed a cystic lesion of 9 cm diameter, arising from the left hepatic duct. Inlying was a heterogeneous, lobulated mass. The patient underwent a left hemihepatectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite recent advanced technologies, diagnosis of IPNB is still challenging, especially in western countries due to its rarity. Early identification and resection of lesions, even in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients, are however important prognostic factors.

  10. Food habits in atomic bomb survivors suffering from malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Kazue; Inoue, Hisako; Uchino, Chito

    1984-01-01

    Food habits were surveyed in patients admitted to 13 hospitals in Nagasaki prefecture and other prefectures to compare the incidence of malignant neoplasms according to the food intake between atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group. The incidence of malignant neoplasms was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of milk and salted fish than in those having the high intake of them in atomic bomb exposed group, while it was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of potatoes and milk and in female patients having the low intake of boiled fish paste than in those having the high intake of them in non-exposed group. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: report of two pediatric cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmani, Preeti Ashok; Mittal, Neha Manish; Subramanian, P G; Galani, Komal; Badrinath, Yajamanam; Amare, Pratibha; Gujral, Sumeet

    2015-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare subtype of acute leukemia that typically follows a highly aggressive clinical course in adults, whereas experience in children with this disease is very limited. We report cases of two children in whom bone marrow showed infiltration by large atypical monocytoid 'blast-like' cells which on immunophenotyping expressed CD4, CD56, HLA-DR and CD33 while were negative for CD34 other T-cell, B-cell and myeloid markers. The differential diagnoses considered were AML, T/NK-cell leukemia and acute undifferentiated leukemia. Additional markers CD303/BDCA-2 and CD123 which are recently validated plasmacytoid dendritic cell markers were done which helped us clinch the diagnosis of this rare neoplasm. An accurate diagnosis of BPDCN is essential in order to provide prompt treatment. Due to its rarity and only recent recognition as a distinct clinicopathological entity, no standardized therapeutic approach has been established for BPDCN.

  12. A broad survey of cathepsin K immunoreactivity in human neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Martignoni, Guido; Antonescu, Cristina; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Eberhart, Charles; Netto, George; Taube, Janis; Westra, William; Epstein, Jonathan I; Lotan, Tamara; Maitra, Anirban; Gabrielson, Edward; Torbenson, Michael; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Demarzo, Angelo; Shih, Ie Ming; Illei, Peter; Wu, T C; Argani, Pedram

    2013-02-01

    Cathepsin K is consistently and diffusely expressed in alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) and a subset of translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). However, cathepsin K expression in human neoplasms has not been systematically analyzed. We constructed tissue microarrays (TMA) from a wide variety of human neoplasms, and performed cathepsin K immunohistochemistry (IHC). Only 2.7% of 1,140 carcinomas from various sites exhibited cathepsin K labeling, thus suggesting that among carcinomas, cathepsin K labeling is highly specific for translocation RCC. In contrast to carcinomas, cathepsin K labeling was relatively common (54.6%) in the 414 mesenchymal lesions studied, including granular cell tumor, melanoma, and histiocytic lesions, but not paraganglioma, all of which are in the morphologic differential diagnosis of ASPS. Cathepsin K IHC can be helpful in distinguishing ASPS and translocation RCC from some but not all of the lesions in their differential diagnosis.

  13. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski JM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  14. Rectum neoplasms treatment advanced with radio and chemotherapy before - surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo Cespedes, A.; Aguiar Vitacca, S.

    1993-01-01

    In Uruguay the colorectal neoplasms has a can rate of mobility. The surgery has 13-26% local recurrence. The irradiation before surgery has demonstrated to improve the resect and the local control.The objective of this protocol it is to decrease the percentage of local relapse , using radiotherapy(RT) before surgery and concomitant chemotherapy that potencies the effect of the RT, improvement this way the therapeutic quotient (AU) [es

  15. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Huangying

    2016-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (g-NENs) are a group of heterogeneous tumors arising from the endocrine cells of stomach. Most g-NENs progresses slowly and have a long disease course; however, some other g-NENs grow rapidly, similar to the progression of gastric adenocarcinoma. g-NENs have complex and diverse clinical manifestations and their prognosis and treatment strategies depend highly on clinical subtype, pathological grade, tumour stage, and other factors. Due to their low prevalence,...

  16. Technology insight: endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastrointestinal neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hironori

    2007-09-01

    Gastrointestinal neoplasms can be cured by local resection as long as the lesions are in the early stage and have not metastasized. Endoscopic resection is a minimally invasive treatment for early-stage gastrointestinal neoplasms, and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is one type of endoscopic resection that has been developed in the past 10 years. For ESD to be a reliable, curative treatment for gastrointestinal neoplasms, it is necessary for the endoscopist to detect the lesion early, make a precise pretreatment diagnosis, ensure that the patient has the correct indication for endoscopic resection, and have the skill to perform ESD. For early lesion detection, endoscopists should pay attention to subtle changes in the surface structure, the color of the mucosa and the visibility of underlying submucosal vessels. Chromoendoscopy and magnifying endoscopy are useful for determining the margin of the lesions for pretreatment diagnosis, and endoscopic ultrasonography and magnifying endoscopy are useful for determining the depth of invasion. For ESD to be successful, local injection of sodium hyaluronate helps maintain mucosal elevation during dissection. Selecting the appropriate knife, using transparent hoods wisely, employing a good strategy that uses gravity, and having good control of bleeding are all needed to make ESD reliable.

  17. Appendiceal pathology at the time of oophorectomy for ovarian neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Julia; Galgano, Mary T; Stoler, Mark H; Lachance, Jason A; Modesitt, Susan C; Jazaeri, Amir A

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of appendiceal pathology in women undergoing surgery for a suspected ovarian neoplasm and the predictive value of intraoperative findings to determine the need for appendectomy at the time of surgery. Retrospective analysis of patients who underwent oophorectomy and appendectomy during the same surgical procedures at the University of Virginia Health System from 1992 to 2007. Observations were stratified based on the nature (benign, borderline, or malignant) and histology (serous compared with mucinous) of the ovarian neoplasm, frozen compared with final pathological diagnosis, and the gross appearance of the appendix. Among the 191 patients identified, frozen section was consistent with seven mucinous and 35 serous carcinomas, 16 serous and 33 mucinous borderline tumors, 71 mucinous and serous cystadenomas, and 29 cases of suspected metastatic tumor from a gastrointestinal primary. The highest rates of coexisting appendiceal pathology were associated with serous ovarian cancers (94.4% of grossly abnormal and 35.3% of normal appendices) and ovarian tumors suspected to be of primary gastrointestinal origin (83.3% grossly abnormal and 60.0% normal appendices harbored coexisting mucinous neoplasms). Linear regression analysis revealed that appearance of the appendix and frozen section diagnosis of the ovarian pathology were statistically significant predictors of coexisting appendiceal pathology, but the latter was more important. The prevalence of coexisting, clinically significant appendiceal pathology is low with a frozen section diagnosis of serous or mucinous cystadenoma. Appendectomy is recommended when frozen section diagnosis is mucinous or serous ovarian carcinoma, borderline tumor or metastatic carcinoma of suspected gastrointestinal origin.

  18. Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm mimicking an adnexal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian, Daniel Alin; Grama, Florin Andrei; Becheanu, Gabriel; Pop, Anamaria; Popa, Ileana; Şurlin, Valeriu; Stănilescu, Sorin; Bratu, Ana Magdalena; Burcoş, Traean

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of malignant epithelial neoplasm of the appendix, an uncommon disorder encountered in clinical practice, which poses a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We report a particular case in which the appendix was abnormally located in the pelvis, mimicking an adnexal mass. Therefore, it was difficult to make the preoperative diagnosis on clinical examination, imaging studies and laboratory tests and we discovered the lesion during the diagnostic laparoscopy. No lymphadenopathy or mucinous ascites were found. The case was completely handled via the laparoscopic approach keeping the appendix intact during the operation. The frozen section, the detailed histopathology overview as well as multiple immunostaining with a complex panel of markers report diagnosed a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) with no invasion of the wall. No adjuvant therapy was considered needed. At a one-year follow-up oncological assessment, the patient was free of disease. In women with cystic mass in the right iliac fossa an appendiceal mucocele should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Laparoscopic appendectomy can represent an adequate operation for the appendiceal mucinous neoplasm if the histological report is clear and surgical precautionary measures are taken.

  19. Tryptophan autofluorescence imaging of neoplasms of the human colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Bhaskar; Renkoski, Timothy; Graves, Logan R.; Rial, Nathaniel S.; Tsikitis, Vassiliki Liana; Nfonsom, Valentine; Pugh, Judith; Tiwari, Piyush; Gavini, Hemanth; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Detection of flat neoplasia is a major challenge in colorectal cancer screening, as missed lesions can lead to the development of an unexpected `incident' cancer prior to the subsequent endoscopy. The use of a tryptophan-related autofluorescence has been reported to be increased in murine intestinal dysplasia. The emission spectra of cells isolated from human adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa of the colon were studied and showed markedly greater emission intensity from cancerous cells compared to cells obtained from the surrounding normal mucosa. A proto-type multispectral imaging system optimized for ultraviolet macroscopic imaging of tissue was used to obtain autofluorescence images of surgical specimens of colonic neoplasms and normal mucosa after resection. Fluorescence images did not display the expected greater emission from the tumor as compared to the normal mucosa, most probably due to increased optical absorption and scattering in the tumors. Increased fluorescence intensity in neoplasms was observed however, once fluorescence images were corrected using reflectance images. Tryptophan fluorescence alone may be useful in differentiating normal and cancerous cells, while in tissues its autofluorescence image divided by green reflectance may be useful in displaying neoplasms.

  20. Clinical parameters predictive of malignancy of thyroid follicular neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, N.L.; Gordon, M.; Germann, E.; Robins, R.E.; McGregor, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Needle aspiration biopsy is commonly employed in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, the cytologic finding of a 'follicular neoplasm' does not distinguish between a thyroid adenoma and a follicular cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters that characterize patients with an increased risk of having a thyroid follicular cancer who preoperatively have a 'follicular neoplasm' identified by needle aspiration biopsy. A total of 395 patients initially treated at Vancouver General Hospital and the British Columbia Cancer Agency between the years of 1965 and 1985 were identified and their data were entered into a computer database. Patients with thyroid adenomas were compared to patients with follicular cancer using the chi-square test and Student's t-test. Statistically significant parameters that distinguished patients at risk of having a thyroid cancer (p less than 0.05) included age greater than 50 years, nodule size greater than 3 cm, and a history of neck irradiation. Sex, family history of goiter or neoplasm, alcohol and tobacco use, and use of exogenous estrogen were not significant parameters. Patients can be identified preoperatively to be at an increased risk of having a follicular cancer and accordingly appropriate surgical resection can be planned

  1. Environmental exposure to cooking oil fumes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.-T.; Lee, L.-H.; Ho, C.-K.; Wu, S.-C.; Lin, L.-Y.; Cheng, B.-H.; Liu, C.-L.; Yang, C.-Y.; Tsai, H.-T.; Wu, T.-N.

    2004-01-01

    The fumes from cooking oil, similar to cigarette smoke, contain numerous carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. In this study, we examined the association between exposure to cooking oil fumes and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The study population in this nested case-control study consisted of women above the age of 19 years living in Chia-Yi County, located in the southwestern Taiwan, who had received pap smear screening between October, 1999, and December, 2000 (n=32,466). The potential cases were women having lesions greater than cervical intraepithelium neoplasm II (≥CIN2) reconfirmed by cervical biopsy (n=116). The potential controls (case: control=1:2) were age-matched (±2 years) and residence-matched women who had normal pap smears within 6 months of the cases. In total, 100 cases and 197 controls were completely interviewed by public health nurses about cooking methods, ventilation, and other potential risk factors. Women who cooked at home in a kitchen (n=269) without the presence of a fume extractor at least once a week between the ages of 20 and 40 had a 2.29 times higher risk [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-4.87] of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than those who did not cook once a week in such a kitchen during the same age span, after adjusting for other potential confounders. This finding was further strengthened by the finding that women who did not use the fume extractors had a 2.47 times higher risk (95% CI=1.15-5.32) of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than women who cooked in kitchens with fume extractors that were always switched on while cooking. We also found a joint protective effect of fume extractor use among women older than 40 years (n=202) if they used the extractors during both age spans of their lives, ages 20-40 and >40 years. Comparing our findings on women more than 40 years old who used fume extractors during

  2. Tumor taxonomy for the developmental lineage classification of neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Jules J

    2004-01-01

    The new 'Developmental lineage classification of neoplasms' was described in a prior publication. The classification is simple (the entire hierarchy is described with just 39 classifiers), comprehensive (providing a place for every tumor of man), and consistent with recent attempts to characterize tumors by cytogenetic and molecular features. A taxonomy is a list of the instances that populate a classification. The taxonomy of neoplasia attempts to list every known term for every known tumor of man. The taxonomy provides each concept with a unique code and groups synonymous terms under the same concept. A Perl script validated successive drafts of the taxonomy ensuring that: 1) each term occurs only once in the taxonomy; 2) each term occurs in only one tumor class; 3) each concept code occurs in one and only one hierarchical position in the classification; and 4) the file containing the classification and taxonomy is a well-formed XML (eXtensible Markup Language) document. The taxonomy currently contains 122,632 different terms encompassing 5,376 neoplasm concepts. Each concept has, on average, 23 synonyms. The taxonomy populates 'The developmental lineage classification of neoplasms,' and is available as an XML file, currently 9+ Megabytes in length. A representation of the classification/taxonomy listing each term followed by its code, followed by its full ancestry, is available as a flat-file, 19+ Megabytes in length. The taxonomy is the largest nomenclature of neoplasms, with more than twice the number of neoplasm names found in other medical nomenclatures, including the 2004 version of the Unified Medical Language System, the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terminology, the National Cancer Institute's Thesaurus, and the International Classification of Diseases Oncolology version. This manuscript describes a comprehensive taxonomy of neoplasia that collects synonymous terms under a unique code number and assigns each

  3. Short communication: Inhibitory effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 on cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most toxic form among the mycotoxins. Cytokines are important mediators of the immune system. T-cell subsets play a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary AFB1 on the cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens throughout a 21-day experimental period. One hundred and fifty six one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into control group (0 mg AFB1/kg feed and AFB1 group (0.6 mg pure AFB1/kg feed. At 7, 14 and 21 days of age, the levels of seven cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA expression as well as the proportions of T-cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry methods were assessed in the cecal tonsils. The levels of the seven cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets significantly decreased at 14 and 21 days of age in the AFB1 group compared with the control group. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly changed. These results demonstrate that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 dietary exposure reduced the levels of cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsils of broiler chickens, suggesting that the cell-mediated immunity of cecal tonsils might be impaired in broilers.

  4. Short communication: Inhibitory effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 on cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Jiang, M.; Fang, J.; Peng, X.; Cui, H.

    2016-11-01

    Afatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic form among the mycotoxins. Cytokines are important mediators of the immune system. T-cell subsets play a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary AFB1 on the cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens throughout a 21-day experimental period. One hundred and fifty six one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into control group (0 mg AFB1/kg feed) and AFB1 group (0.6 mg pure AFB1/kg feed). At 7, 14 and 21 days of age, the levels of seven cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α) mRNA expression as well as the proportions of T-cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+) by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry methods were assessed in the cecal tonsils. The levels of the seven cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets significantly decreased at 14 and 21 days of age in the AFB1 group compared with the control group. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly changed. These results demonstrate that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 dietary exposure reduced the levels of cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsils of broiler chickens, suggesting that the cell-mediated immunity of cecal tonsils might be impaired in broilers. (Author)

  5. Multiple neoplasms among cervical cancer patients in the material of the lower Silesian cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmajłowicz, Barbara; Kornafel, Jan; Błaszczyk, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    According to the definition by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), primary multiple neoplasms are two or more neoplasms of different histopathological build in one organ, or two or more tumors occurring in one patient, regardless of the time of their occurrence (synchronic - up to 6 months, metachronous - after 6 months), coming from an organ or a tissue and not being an infiltration from another neoplasm, a relapse or a metastasis. It was the aim of the study to analyze the frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasms among patients suffering from uterine cervix cancer, with a special interest in coexistent neoplasms, the time of their occurrence and total 5-year survivals. The data from the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry concerning the years 1984-2009 formed the material of the present study. 5.3% of all cervix neoplasms occurred as multiple cancers. Cervix neoplasms were 13.4% of multiple neoplasms. On average, cervical cancer occurred as a subsequent cancer in 6 patients yearly (60.7% of the occurrences of cervical cancer were in the period of 5 years following treatment for the first neoplasm). 5-year survival in patients suffering from primarily multiple cervix neoplasms constituted 57% and was convergent with the results for all patients suffering from cervical cancer. Cervical cancer as the first neoplasm occurred in 287 patients, on average in 11 patients annually. In the period of the first 5 years after the treatment of cervical cancer, there were 42.8% occurrences of other cancers. Cervical neoplasms most frequently coexisted with cancers of the breast, lung and large intestine. The frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasm among cervical cancer patients is increasing. Most frequently they coexist with other tobacco-related neoplasms, those related to HPV infections and with secondary post-radiation neoplasms. These facts should be taken into consideration during post-treatment observation and when directing diagnostic

  6. Effect of -based Direct-fed Microbial on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Intestinal Morphology and Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjian Lei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based direct-fed microbial (DFM on growth performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal morphology and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. A total of two hundred and eighty eight 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allocated to one of four experimental treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was fed to eight replicate cages, with nine birds per cage. Dietary treatments were composed of an antibiotic-free basal diet (control, and the basal diet supplemented with either 15 mg/kg of virginiamycin as antibiotic growth promoter (AGP, 30 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 30 or 60 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 60. Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 1 to 21 and finisher (d 22 to 42. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, morphological parameters of the small intestine and cecal microbial populations were measured at the end of the starter (d 21 and finisher (d 42 phases. During the starter phase, DFM and virginiamycin supplementation improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR; p<0.01 compared with the control group. For the finisher phase and the overall experiment (d 1 to 42 broilers fed diets with the DFM had better body weight gain (BWG and FCR than that of control (p<0.05. Supplementation of virginiamycin and DFM significantly increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP, dry matter (DM and gross energy during both starter and finisher phases (p<0.05 compared with the control group. On d 21, villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were significantly increased for the birds fed with the DFM diets as compared with the control group (p<0.05. The DFM 30, DFM 60, and AGP groups decreased the Escherichia coli population in cecum at d 21 and d 42 compared with control

  7. The Structural and Functional Capacity of Ruminal and Cecal Microbiota in Growing Cattle Was Unaffected by Dietary Supplementation of Linseed Oil and Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Milka; McGovern, Emily; McCabe, Matthew S.; Martin, Cécile; Doreau, Michel; Arbre, Marie; Meale, Sarah J.; Morgavi, Diego P.; Waters, Sinéad M.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms in the digestive tract of ruminants differ in their functionality and ability to use feed constituents. While cecal microbiota play an important role in post-rumen fermentation of residual substrates undigested in the rumen, limited knowledge exists regarding its structure and function. In this trial we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions and on the structure of ruminal and cecal microbiota of growing bulls. Animals were allocated to either a CTL (control) or LINNIT (CTL supplemented with 1.9% linseed and 1.0% nitrates) diet. Methane emissions were measured using the GreenFeed system. Microbial diversity was assessed using amplicon sequencing of microbial genomic DNA. Additionally, total RNA was extracted from ruminal contents and functional mcrA and mtt genes were targeted in amplicon sequencing approach to explore the diversity of functional gene expression in methanogens. LINNIT had no effect on methane yield (g/kg DMI) even though it decreased methane production by 9% (g/day; P ruminants. There was a parallel between the lack of effect of LINNIT on ruminal and cecal microbial community structure and functions on one side and methane emission changes on the other. These results suggest that the sequencing strategy used here to study microbial diversity and function accurately reflected the absence of effect on methane phenotypes in bulls treated with linseed plus nitrate. PMID:28596764

  8. The myeloproliferative neoplasms, unclassifiable: clinical and pathological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianelli, Umberto; Cattaneo, Daniele; Bossi, Anna; Cortinovis, Ivan; Boiocchi, Leonardo; Liu, Yen-Chun; Augello, Claudia; Bonometti, Arturo; Fiori, Stefano; Orofino, Nicola; Guidotti, Francesca; Orazi, Attilio; Iurlo, Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigate in detail the morphological, clinical and molecular features of 71 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms, unclassifiable. We performed a meticulous morphological analysis and found that most of the cases displayed a hypercellular bone marrow (70%) with normal erythropoiesis without left-shifting (59%), increased granulopoiesis with left-shifting (73%) and increased megakaryocytes with loose clustering (96%). Megakaryocytes displayed frequent giant forms with hyperlobulated or bulbous nuclei and/or other maturation defects. Interestingly, more than half of the cases displayed severe bone marrow fibrosis (59%). Median values of hemoglobin level and white blood cells count were all within the normal range; in contrast, median platelets count and lactate dehydrogenase were increased. Little less than half of the patients (44%) showed splenomegaly. JAK2V617F mutation was detected in 72% of all patients. Among the JAK2-negative cases, MPLW515L mutation was found in 17% and CALR mutations in 67% of the investigated cases, respectively. Finally, by multiple correspondence analysis of the morphological profiles, we found that all but four of the cases could be grouped in three morphological clusters with some features similar to those of the classic BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Analysis of the clinical parameters in these three clusters revealed discrepancies with the morphological profile in about 55% of the patients. In conclusion, we found that the category of myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable is heterogeneous but identification of different subgroups is possible and should be recommended for a better management of these patients.

  9. Neoplasms in young dogs after irradiation during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.; Williams, J.S.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Lee, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    To study the lifetime effects of irradiation during development, 1680 beagle dogs were given single, whole body exposures to 60Co gamma radiation at one of 6 pre- or postnatal ages. Four groups of 120 dogs each (480 or 29%) received 0.16 or 0.83 Gy at early prenatal times, 8 or 28 days postcoitus (dpc). Four groups of 120 dogs each (29%) received 0.16 or 0.83 Gy in the perinatal period at 55 dpc or 2 days postpartum (dpp). Groups of 120 and 240 dogs (21%) received 0.83 Gy at later postnatal times, 70 or 365 dpp, respectively. A group of 360 dogs (21%) were sham-irradiated. The youngest dogs are now 12 years old. Through 4 years of age, 20 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed. Five malignancies and one benign tumor were seen in the first two years, including the only fatal malignancies which occurred in 4 perinatally irradiated dogs. Up to two years of age, the other non-fatal malignancy and benign tumor were found in dogs irradiated at 365 dpp and 55 dpc. The remaining 14 neoplasms, 12 benign and 2 non-fatal malignant, were diagnosed between two and four years of age. Respective numbers of these benign and non-fatal malignant tumors found in control, perinatally irradiated, and all other irradiated dogs were 2 and 0; 5 and 1; and 5 and 1. Eight of the benign lesions were minute papillomas of the eyelids which were more frequent in the perinatally irradiated dogs. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of the malignancies seen in the first four years of life occurred in the 29% of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. Sixty-seven percent (8 of 12) of all neoplasms, excluding eyelid papillomas, also occurred in perinatally irradiated dogs. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation

  10. Distinct molecular features of different macroscopic subtypes of colorectal neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Konda

    Full Text Available Colorectal adenoma develops into cancer with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. We studied the underlying molecular and clinicopathological features to better understand the heterogeneity of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs.We evaluated both genetic (mutations of KRAS, BRAF, TP53, and PIK3CA, and microsatellite instability [MSI] and epigenetic (methylation status of nine genes or sequences, including the CpG island methylator phenotype [CIMP] markers alterations in 158 CRNs including 56 polypoid neoplasms (PNs, 25 granular type laterally spreading tumors (LST-Gs, 48 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs, 19 depressed neoplasms (DNs and 10 small flat-elevated neoplasms (S-FNs on the basis of macroscopic appearance.S-FNs showed few molecular changes except SFRP1 methylation. Significant differences in the frequency of KRAS mutations were observed among subtypes (68% for LST-Gs, 36% for PNs, 16% for DNs and 6% for LST-NGs (P<0.001. By contrast, the frequency of TP53 mutation was higher in DNs than PNs or LST-Gs (32% vs. 5% or 0%, respectively (P<0.007. We also observed significant differences in the frequency of CIMP between LST-Gs and LST-NGs or PNs (32% vs. 6% or 5%, respectively (P<0.005. Moreover, the methylation level of LINE-1 was significantly lower in DNs or LST-Gs than in PNs (58.3% or 60.5% vs. 63.2%, P<0.05. PIK3CA mutations were detected only in LSTs. Finally, multivariate analyses showed that macroscopic morphologies were significantly associated with an increased risk of molecular changes (PN or LST-G for KRAS mutation, odds ratio [OR] 9.11; LST-NG or DN for TP53 mutation, OR 5.30; LST-G for PIK3CA mutation, OR 26.53; LST-G or DN for LINE-1 hypomethylation, OR 3.41.We demonstrated that CRNs could be classified into five macroscopic subtypes according to clinicopathological and molecular differences, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  11. Metanephric stromal tumor: A novel pediatric renal neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshmi V

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Metanephric stromal tumor of kidney is a novel pediatric benign stromal specific renal neoplasm. A few cases have been reported in adults also. This tumor is usually centered in the renal medulla with a characteristic microscopic appearance which differentiates this lesion from congenital mesoblastic nephroma and clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. In most cases complete excision alone is curative. The differentiation of metanephric stromal tumor from clear cell sarcoma of the kidney will spare the child from the ill effects of adjuvant chemotherapy. In this communication we describe the gross and microscopic features of metanephric stromal tumor in a one-month-old child with good prognosis.

  12. Inflammatory demyelinating pseudotumor with hemorrhage masquerading high grade cerebral neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agrawal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Demyelinating pseudotumors are rare, benign, solitary intracranial space occupying lesions which masquerade cerebral neoplasms. Contrast MRI shows open ring enhancement which is fairly specific for this entity. Advanced MRI techniques like MR spectroscopy and magnetizing transfer techniques can help differentiating these lesions. NAA/Cr ratio is significantly elevated in central regions of demyelinating pseudotumors than in gliomas and other lesions. Presence of abundant foamy macrophages, lymphoid inflammatory infiltrates around blood vessels, sheets of gemistocytic astrocytes with well-developed processes, well defined border of the lesion absence of neovascularity and necrosis should help us diagnose demyelinating pseudotumor fairly confidently on histopathology.

  13. Rupture of a Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rampersad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An acute presentation of a spontaneously ruptured Solid-Pseudopapillary Neoplasm (SPN in an 8 year old female is discussed with a review of the world literature. Our literature search revealed 15 other cases of ruptured SPN and with this case the total is now 16. Notably, 12 patients were 16 years of age or less at presentation as in our case. Although rupture of a SPN is rarely reported it appears to be more probable in the pediatric patient. Additionally, larger tumor size and trauma may be contributing factors.

  14. Cervical intraepitheial neoplasm with ichthyosis uteri- A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma Malla Vaidya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare condition in which the entire surface of the endometrium is replaced by stratified squamous epithelium is called Ichthyosis uteri. Originally described as an endometrial response to iatrogenically-introduced caustic substances, similar changes have since been described in association with a variety of inflammatory conditions of the endometrium.Here we report a case of intraepithelial neoplasm III, with ichthyosis uteri. A 75-years-old female with hypetension, underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salphingo-ophorectomy for watery discharge per vaginal since four months.

  15. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, David I.; Pritchard, Amy M.; Clarke, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:24106538

  16. Hypothetical atopic dermatitis-myeloproliferative neoplasm (AD-MPN syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki eKawakami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs are hematopoietic malignancies caused by uncontrolled proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Recent studies have described several mutant mice exhibiting both AD-like skin inflammation and MPN. Common pathways for skin inflammation encompass overexpression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and reduced signaling of epidermal growth factor receptor in the epidermis, while overproduction of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor by keratinocytes and constitutive activation of Stat5 in hematopoietic stem cells are important for the development of MPN. The murine studies suggest the existence of a similar human disease tentatively termed the AD-MPN syndrome.

  17. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Jing Xie,1,2 Xiao Yan Zhu,1,2 Lu Ming Liu,1,2 Zhi Qiang Meng1,2 1Department of Integrative Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues o...

  18. Dietary Cerebroside from Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus): Absorption and Effects on Skin Barrier and Cecal Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingjing; Ishida, Marina; Aida, Kazuhiko; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Jin; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-09-21

    Sphingolipids from marine sources have attracted more attention recently because of their distinctive structures and expected functions. In this study, the content and components of cerebroside from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus were analyzed. The absorption of cerebroside from S. japonicus was investigated with an in vivo lipid absorption assay. The result revealed that S. japonicus is a rich source of cerebroside that contained considerable amounts of odd carbon chain sphingoid bases. The cumulative recoveries of d17:1- and d19:2-containing cerebrosides were 0.31 ± 0.16 and 0.32 ± 0.10%, respectively, for 24 h after administration. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first work that shows sphingolipids from a marine source could be absorbed in vivo and incorporated into ceramides. In addition, dietary supplementation with sea cucumber cerebroside to hairless mouse improved the skin barrier function and increased short-chain fatty acids in cecal contents, which have shown beneficial effects on the host.

  19. Influence of postbiotic RG14 and inulin combination on cecal microbiota, organic acid concentration, and cytokine expression in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, K Y; Loh, T C; Foo, H L; Asmara, S A; Akit, H

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the effects of different combinations of inulin and postbiotics RG14 on growth performance, cecal microbiota, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ileal cytokine expression in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-and sixteen, one-day-old chicks were allocated into 6 treatment groups, namely, a basal diet (negative control, NC), basal diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (positive control, PC), T1 = basal diet + 0.15% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T2 = basal diet + 0.3% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T3 = basal diet + 0.45% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, and T4 = basal diet + 0.6% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, and fed for 6 weeks. The results showed that birds fed T1 and T3 diets had higher (P  0.05) among diets. The NC birds had higher (P inulin combinations are potential replacements for antibiotic growth promoters in the poultry industry. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Sodium butyrate improved performance while modulating the cecal microbiota and regulating the expression of intestinal immune-related genes of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, C; Pedroso, A A; Mallo, J J; Puyalto, M; Kim, W K; Applegate, T J

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) on performance, expression of immune-related genes in the cecal tonsils, and cecal microbiota of broiler chickens when dietary energy and amino acids concentrations were reduced. Day-old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed dietary treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial design (8 pens per treatment) with 3 dietary formulations (control diet; reduction of 2.3% of amino acids and 60 kcal/kg; and reduction of 4.6% of amino acids and 120 kcal/kg) with or without the inclusion of 0.1% of SB. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BW gain), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded until 28 d of age. From 14 to 28 d, there was an interaction of nutrient density by SB (P = 0.003) wherein BW gain of birds fed SB was impaired less by the energy/amino acids reduction than unsupplemented birds. A similar result was obtained from 1 to 28 d (P = 0.004). No interaction (P density by SB was observed for FCR. Nutritional density of the diets and SB modified the structure, composition, and predicted function of the cecal microbiota. The nutritionally reduced diet altered the imputed function performed by the microbiota and the SB supplementation reduced these variations, keeping the microbial function similar to that observed in chickens fed a control diet. The frequency of bacterial species presenting the butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene increased in the microbiota of chickens fed a nutritionally reduced diet without SB supplementation, and was not changed by nutrient density of the diet when supplemented with SB (interaction; P = 0.01). SB modulated the expression of immune related genes in the cecal tonsils; wherein SB upregulated the expression of A20 in broilers fed control diets (P broilers fed nutritionally reduced diets, partially by modulating the cecal microbiota and exerting immune-modulatory effects. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Mobilization of immunoglobulin (Ig)-containing plasma cells in Harderian gland, cecal tonsil and trachea of broilers vaccinated with Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrin, M; Khan, M Z I; Siddiqi, M N H; Masum, M A

    2013-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies of Harderian gland, cecal tonsil and trachea of various groups of broiler chickens and the response of Baby Chick Ranikhet Disease Vaccines (BCRDV) on the mobilization of Igs-cells during postnatal development of organs was investigated in the Dept. of Anatomy and Histology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. In this study twelve chickens were grouped into vaccinated broilers (D14 and D28) which had received vaccines first at D3 of age and a booster dose given at D13; and non-vaccinated broilers (D1) which had not been vaccinated. In this study, it was observed that the frequency and distribution of Igs-positive cells were higher at D14 and at D28 rather than D1. Among Igs-positive cells, the IgG-positive cells were significantly higher than IgM and IgA-positive cells in the Harderian gland of D14 and D28 groups of chickens, however, in day-old chickens, the frequency of IgM-positive cells in this gland were greater. In the cecal tonsil, the frequency and distribution of IgG-positive cells were significantly higher than IgA- and IgM-positive cells both at D14 and D28 ages of chicken. On the other hand, in day-old chickens, the frequency and distribution of IgA-positive cells were insignificantly greater, followed by IgM and IgG-positive cells. In the trachea, few immunoglobulin-containing plasma cells were distributed in the subepithelial layer. IgM-positive cells were higher followed by IgG and IgA-positive cells in the trachea in D14 and D28 groups of chickens. In the same organ, IgG-positive plasma cells were greater than IgA and IgM-positive cells at one-day old. When the data for Harderian gland, cecal tonsil and trachea were compared statistically, it was observed that Igs-positive cells were statistically more common in cecal tonsils in day old chickens, and with the advancement of age, Igs-positive cells were found more in the Harderian gland. In conclusion, with the advancement of age in chickens the Harderian gland

  2. [The lymph nodes imprint for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Alvarado, Carolina; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian Omar; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Romero-Guadarrama, Mónica; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Rozen-Fuller, Etta; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfo; Collazo-Jaloma, Juan; Mendoza-García, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    lymphoma is the most frequent lymphoid neoplasm in our country. Its diagnosis is based on histopathological findings. The lymph node imprint has been used for more than 40 years. The aim was to establish the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of lymph node imprint and estimate the inter-observer rate. we did an observational, retrospective, prolective study, based on the lymph node imprint obtained by excisional biopsies over a period of 6 years. the inclusion criteria was met on 199 samples, 27.1 % were considered as reactive (n = 54), 16.1 % Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 32), 40.2 % (n = 80) non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 16.6 % (n = 33) as metastatic carcinoma. Comparing with the final histopathology report, the sensitivity and specificity of lymph node imprint were 88 % (0.81-0.95) and 64 % (0.55-0.73) respectively, the positive predictive value was 67 % (0.59-0.76) and the negative predictive value was 86 % (0.79-0.94). The interobserver kappa index was 0.467. the lymph node imprint remains as a useful tool for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasm. The agreement between observers was acceptable.

  3. Pediatric liver neoplasms: a radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, T.K.; Reiser, M.F.; Ros, P.R.; Mergo, P.J.; Tomczak, R.

    1999-01-01

    Only 1-2 % of all pediatric tumors occur in the liver. Two thirds of these tumors are malignant and almost all of the tumors cause clinical symptoms due to their mass effects. Besides the poor prognosis in most of the malignant tumors, for further treatment the origin and nature of the neoplasm has to be known. Due to the mostly unimpeded growth into the peritoneal cavity, the origin of the tumors is primarily often unclear and can non-invasively only be determined by advanced imaging techniques. The display of the macro- and microhistological key features of primary pediatric liver neoplasms, including hepatoblastoma (HB), infantile hemangioendothelioma (IHE), mesenchymal hamartoma (MH), undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma (UES), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), together with their imaging representation by ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, may deepen the understanding of the underlying pathology and its imaging appearance. Furthermore, in many cases sufficient information may be provided not only to differentiate benign from malignant tumors, but also to guide for adequate treatment. (orig.)

  4. Immunoglobulin therapy in hematologic neoplasms and after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Masumi; Berger, Melvin; Gale, Robert Peter; Lazarus, Hillard M

    2018-03-01

    Immunoglobulins are used to prevent or reduce infection risk in primary immune deficiencies and in settings which exploit its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects. Rigorous proof of immunoglobulin efficacy in persons with lympho-proliferative neoplasms, plasma cell myeloma, and persons receiving hematopoietic cell transplants is lacking despite many clinical trials. Further, there are few consensus guidelines or algorithms for use in these conditions. Rapid development of new therapies targeting B-cell signaling and survival pathways and increased use of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy will likely result in more acquired deficiencies of humoral immunity and infections in persons with cancer. We review immunoglobulin formulations and discuss efficacy and potential adverse effects in the context of preventing infections and in graft-versus-host disease. We suggest an algorithm for evaluating acquired deficiencies of humoral immunity in persons with hematologic neoplasms and recommend appropriate use of immunoglobulin therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Endoscopic approach for a laryngeal neoplasm in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Maia Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal and tracheal tumors are rare in pets; some piece of information on their disease behavior, therapy and evolution are limited. Neoplasms in this area are a diagnostic challenge. In many cases, they can be biopsied and excised using endoscopic instruments, but there is no report of this in canines. The goal of this study is to report a successful case of a laryngeal neoplasm removal through endoscopy. A head and neck radiogram revealed a mass in the laryngeal lumen protruding into the trachea. The patient then underwent an endoscopy to confirm the radiographic diagnosis and to surgically remove the tumor. The histopathological diagnosis was poorly differentiated carcinoma. The most appropriate treatment for laryngeal tumors is the resection of the submucosa or a partial laryngectomy however, partial and total laryngectomies are associated with many postoperative complications. In contrast, the endoscopic approach allows for highly magnified visualization of the lesion in situ, which facilitates the surgical removal of the mass through videosurgery. With little manipulation of the affected area, the chances of postoperative complications are reduced, leading to a more rapid recovery.

  6. Classifying the evolutionary and ecological features of neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, Carlo C.; Aktipis, Athena; Graham, Trevor A.; Sottoriva, Andrea; Boddy, Amy M.; Janiszewska, Michalina; Silva, Ariosto S.; Gerlinger, Marco; Yuan, Yinyin; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Anderson, Karen S.; Gatenby, Robert; Swanton, Charles; Posada, David; Wu, Chung-I; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Hwang, E. Shelley; Polyak, Kornelia; Anderson, Alexander R. A.; Brown, Joel S.; Greaves, Mel; Shibata, Darryl

    2018-01-01

    Neoplasms change over time through a process of cell-level evolution, driven by genetic and epigenetic alterations. However, the ecology of the microenvironment of a neoplastic cell determines which changes provide adaptive benefits. There is widespread recognition of the importance of these evolutionary and ecological processes in cancer, but to date, no system has been proposed for drawing clinically relevant distinctions between how different tumours are evolving. On the basis of a consensus conference of experts in the fields of cancer evolution and cancer ecology, we propose a framework for classifying tumours that is based on four relevant components. These are the diversity of neoplastic cells (intratumoural heterogeneity) and changes over time in that diversity, which make up an evolutionary index (Evo-index), as well as the hazards to neoplastic cell survival and the resources available to neoplastic cells, which make up an ecological index (Eco-index). We review evidence demonstrating the importance of each of these factors and describe multiple methods that can be used to measure them. Development of this classification system holds promise for enabling clinicians to personalize optimal interventions based on the evolvability of the patient’s tumour. The Evo- and Eco-indices provide a common lexicon for communicating about how neoplasms change in response to interventions, with potential implications for clinical trials, personalized medicine and basic cancer research. PMID:28912577

  7. Dermal Squamomelanocytic Tumor: Neoplasm of Uncertain Biological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsad Dorić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of exceedingly rare cutaneous neoplasm with histological features of malignancy and uncertain biological potential. The nodular, darkly pigmented facial tumor with central exulceration, size 12x10x7 mm, of the skin 61-year-old man preauricular left was completely exised.Histologically tumor consists of atypical squamous cells, which express signs of moderate to significant pleomorphism, mitotically active, with foci forming of parakeratotic horn cysts (“pearls”. Characteristically tumor also consists of large number of atypical melanocytes with multifocal pattern, inserted between atypical squamous cells, and which contain large amount of dark brown pigment melanin. Immunohistochemically, squamous cells stain positively with keratin (CK116, melanocytes were stained with S -100 protein, HMB 45, and vimentin, but failed to stain with CK 116.To our knowledge this is the sixth reported case in world literature. The follow-up time of four years no evidence of recurrence or metastasis, similar all reported cases, but it is too short period in estimation to guarantee a benign course. However, it appears that this group of neoplasm may have different prognosis from pure squamous carcinoma or malignant melanoma.

  8. Frequency of heterozygous TET2 deletions in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Tripodi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Tripodi1, Ronald Hoffman1, Vesna Najfeld2, Rona Weinberg31The Myeloproliferative Disorders Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine and 2Department of Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 3The Myeloproliferative Disorders Program, Cellular Therapy Laboratory, The New York Blood Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: The Philadelphia chromosome (Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs, including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis, are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders with overlapping clinical and cytogenetic features and a variable tendency to evolve into acute leukemia. These diseases not only share overlapping chromosomal abnormalities but also a number of acquired somatic mutations. Recently, mutations in a putative tumor suppressor gene, ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2 on chromosome 4q24 have been identified in 12% of patients with MPN. Additionally 4q24 chromosomal rearrangements in MPN, including TET2 deletions, have also been observed using conventional cytogenetics. The goal of this study was to investigate the frequency of genomic TET2 rearrangements in MPN using fluorescence in situ hybridization as a more sensitive method for screening and identifying genomic deletions. Among 146 MPN patients, we identified two patients (1.4% who showed a common 4q24 deletion, including TET2. Our observations also indicated that the frequency of TET2 deletion is increased in patients with an abnormal karyotype (5%.Keywords: TET2, myeloproliferative neoplasms, fluorescence in situ hybridization, cytogenetics

  9. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-08-07

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs in order to recognize potential markers for the discrimination of more aggressive IPMNs requiring surgical resection from benign IPMNs that could be observed. We briefly summarize recent research findings on the genetics and epigenetics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, identifying some genes, molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways correlated to the pathogenesis of IPMNs and their progression to malignancy. The knowledge of molecular biology of IPMNs has impressively developed over the last few years. A great amount of genes functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes have been identified, in pancreatic juice or in blood or in the samples from the pancreatic resections, but further researches are required to use these informations for clinical intent, in order to better define the natural history of these diseases and to improve their management.

  10. Malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczkowski, J.; Starzynska, A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present 17 cases of malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck observed in the Department of Otolaryngology in the years 1948-1993. The latest opinions on etiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of these tumors were described. Age and sex of patients, localization of tumor, symptoms histopathology and treatment were analyzed. Progressions of the disease were estimated retrospectively. It has been proved that these tumors develop quickly, give pain and paresthesia. Their diagnosis is very difficult because of their submucosal growth and difficult histopathological interpretation. A characteristic feature of these neurogenic tumors is the ability to give distant metastases. This feature differentiates them from squamous neoplasms, which give mainly nodal metastases. All the patients were subjected to surgery combined with conventional or high voltage radiotherapy. The positive effect of combined chemotherapy in cases of esthesioneuroblastoma is worthy of note. The prognosis in these tumors is often unfavorable. In the group under discussion 13 patients died because of recurrences, two patients are considered to be cured and the remaining 2 patients have had no recurrence for 2 and 3 years. (author)

  11. Photodynamic therapy of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms: an outcome analysis of 170 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakullukcu, Baris; van Oudenaarde, Kim; Copper, Marcel P.; Klop, W. M. C.; van Veen, Robert; Wildeman, Maarten; Bing Tan, I.

    2011-01-01

    The indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms are not well defined. The main reason is that the success rates are not well established. The current paper analyzes our institutional experience of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms (Tis-T2) to

  12. [Incidence of haematological neoplasms in Castilla y León, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, José Antonio; Vázquez, Lourdes; Ramos, Fernando; Cuevas, Beatriz; Martín, Alejandro; Smucler, Alicia; Guerola, Dulce Nombre; Cantalapiedra, Alberto; Alonso, José María; Fernández, Silvia; Díez, Eva; Rodríguez, María Jesús; Calmuntia, María José; Aguilar, Carlos; Sierra, Magdalena; Gracia, José Antonio; Cebeira, María José; Cantalejo, Rosa

    2015-06-08

    We aimed to assess the incidence of haematological neoplasms (HNs) in Castilla y León (2,5 million inhabitants) and its distribution by age, gender and histological type. The epidemiological profile based on the described variables of the 10,943 HNs diagnosed during a 10-years period was analyzed, compared with other studies. The overall age-adjusted incidence was 29.4 cases/10(5) inhabitants-year, with some geographical differences. The mean age was 67.3 years, with a turning point between the 6th-7th decades of life from which there was a very significant increase of incidence. Two relevant facts where simultaneous with advancing age: decreased lymphoid neoplasms incidence and increased low degree neoplasms incidence. Lymphoid low degree neoplasms accounted for half of the registered processes, showed the greatest preference for male and reached the mode before the rest of neoplasms. Myeloid neoplasms incidence (9.5) was higher than that reported in other European registries, specially compared to southern European countries, opposite to lymphoid neoplasms incidence (20.0). A higher myeloid neoplasms incidence and lower lymphoid one than expected was observed. The turning point of incidence is between the 6th-7th decades of life, with a preference for male that decreases with age. There is an increased incidence of HNs in the area where a higher density of potentially polluting facilities is concentrated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis as a risk factor for colonic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Izumi; Kato, Jun; Tamai, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Maekita, Takao; Yoshimura, Noriko; Ichinose, Masao

    2014-02-14

    To summarize the current views and insights on associations between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related chronic gastritis and colorectal neoplasm, we reviewed recent studies to clarify whether H. pylori infection/H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is associated with an elevated risk of colorectal neoplasm. Recent studies based on large databases with careful control for confounding variables have clearly demonstrated an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm associated with H. pylori infection. The correlation between H. pylori-related chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and colorectal neoplasm has only been examined in a limited number of studies. A recent large study using a national histopathological database, and our study based on the stage of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis as determined by serum levels of H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen, indicated that H. pylori-related CAG confers an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm, and more extensive atrophic gastritis will probably be associated with even higher risk of neoplasm. In addition, our study suggested that the activity of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is correlated with colorectal neoplasm risk. H. pylori-related chronic gastritis could be involved in an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm that appears to be enhanced by the progression of gastric atrophy and the presence of active inflammation.

  14. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells or myeloma cells form tumors in the bones or soft tissues of the body. Multiple myeloma, plasmacytoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are different types of plasma cell neoplasms. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, diagnostic tests, prognosis, and treatment for these diseases.

  15. Interferon-alpha in the treatment of Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch

    2011-01-01

    The Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms encompass essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). A major break-through in the understanding of the pathogenesis of these neoplasms occurred in 2005 by the discovery of the JAK2 V617F...

  16. Targeting angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms using combined polymer therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Segal

    Full Text Available There is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced "living polymerization" technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT, we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN, and the potent anti-angiogenic agent TNP-470 with N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA copolymer through a Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Norleucine linker, cleaved by cathepsin K, a cysteine protease overexpressed at resorption sites in bone tissues. In this approach, dual targeting is achieved. Passive accumulation is possible due to the increase in molecular weight following polymer conjugation of the drugs, thus extravasating from the tumor leaky vessels and not from normal healthy vessels. Active targeting to the calcified tissues is achieved by ALN's affinity to bone mineral.The anti-angiogenic and antitumor potency of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We show that free and conjugated ALN-TNP-470 have synergistic anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity by inhibiting proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial and human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Evaluation of anti-angiogenic, antitumor activity and body distribution of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was performed on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID male mice inoculated with mCherry-labeled MG-63-Ras human osteosarcoma and by modified Miles permeability assay. Our targeted bi-specific conjugate reduced VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability by 92% and remarkably inhibited osteosarcoma growth in mice by 96%.This is the first report to describe a new concept of a narrowly-dispersed combined polymer therapeutic designed to target both tumor and

  17. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Moran-Ramos

    Full Text Available Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6 and oxidative stress (ROS, modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA, and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism.

  18. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Ramos, Sofia; He, Xuan; Chin, Elizabeth L; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Raybould, Helen E

    2017-01-01

    Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF) diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6) and oxidative stress (ROS), modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA), and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG) levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism.

  19. Shorter Duration of Post-Operative Antibiotics for Cecal Ligation and Puncture Does Not Increase Inflammation or Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra N Iskander

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial therapy for sepsis has beneficial effects, but prolonged use fosters emergence of resistant microorganisms, increases cost, and secondary infections. We tested whether 3 days versus 5 days of antibiotics in the murine model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP negatively influences outcomes. Following CLP mice were randomized to receive the antibiotic imipenem-cilastatin (25mg/kg in dextrose 5% in Lactated Ringer's solution every 12 hours for either three or five days. Serial monitoring over 28 days included body weight, temperature, pulse oximetry, and facial vein sampling for hematological analysis and glucose. A separate group of mice were euthanized on post-CLP day 5 to measure cytokines and peritoneal bacterial counts. The first study examined no antimicrobial therapy and demonstrated that antibiotics significantly improved survival compared to fluids only (p = 0.004. We next tested imipenem-cilastatin therapy for 3 days versus 5 days. Body weight, temperature, glucose, and pulse oximetry measurements remained generally consistent between both groups as did the hematological profile. Pro-inflammatory plasma cytokines were comparable between both groups for IL-6, IL-1β, MIP-2 and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, and TNF SRI. At 5 days post-CLP, i.e. 2 days after the termination of antibiotics in the 3 day group, there were no differences in the number of peritoneal bacteria. Importantly, shortening the course of antibiotics by 40% (from 5 days to 3 days did not decrease survival. Our results indicate that reducing the duration of broad-spectrum antibiotics in murine sepsis did not increase inflammation or mortality.

  20. Dietary whey proteins shield murine cecal microbiota from extensive disarray caused by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Naice E S; Roquetto, Aline R; de Pace, Fernanda; Moura, Carolina S; Santos, Andrey Dos; Yamada, Aureo T; Saad, Mário José A; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    High-fat diets are used to induce adverse alterations in the intestinal microbiota, or dysbiosis, generalized inflammation and metabolic stress, which ultimately may lead to obesity. The influence of dietary whey proteins, whether intact or hydrolyzed, has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis and reduce stress. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to test if dietary milk-whey proteins, both in the intact form and hydrolyzed, could have an effect on the compositional changes of the cecal microbiota that can be induced in mice when receiving a high-fat diet in combination with the standard casein. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control casein diet (AIN 93-G); high-fat-casein (HFCAS); high-fat-whey protein concentrate (HFWPC) and high-fat whey-protein hydrolysate (HFWPH) for 9weeks. The intestinal microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S-rRNA of the invariant (V1-V3) gene, potentially endotoxemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release was determined colorimetrically, and liver fat infiltration assessed by light microscopy. The high-fat diet proved to induce dysbiosis in the animals by inverting the dominance of the phylum Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes, promoted the increase of LPS and resulted in liver fat infiltration. The whey proteins, whether intact or hydrolyzed, resisted the installation of dysbiosis, prevented the surge of circulating LPS and prevented fat infiltration in the liver. It is concluded that dietary whey proteins exert metabolic actions that tend to preserve the normal microbiota profile, while mitigating liver fat deposition in mice consuming a high-fat diet for nine weeks. Such beneficial effects were not seen when casein was the dietary protein. The hydrolyzed whey protein still differed from the normal whey protein by selectively protecting the Bacteroidetes phylum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Murine Pancreatic Cancer Alters T Cell Activation and Apoptosis and Worsens Survival After Cecal Ligation and Puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John D; Chen, Ching-Wen; Liang, Zhe; Zhang, Wenxiao; Chihade, Deena B; Burd, Eileen M; Farris, Alton B; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig

    2018-06-08

    Patients with cancer who develop sepsis have a markedly higher mortality than patients who were healthy prior to the onset of sepsis. Potential mechanisms underlying this difference have previously been examined in two preclinical models of cancer followed by sepsis. Both pancreatic cancer/pneumonia and lung cancer/cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) increase murine mortality, associated with alterations in lymphocyte apoptosis and intestinal integrity. However, pancreatic cancer/pneumonia decreases lymphocyte apoptosis and increases gut apoptosis while lung cancer/CLP increases lymphocyte apoptosis and decreases intestinal proliferation. These results cannot distinguish the individual roles of cancer versus sepsis since different models of each were used. We therefore created a new cancer/sepsis model to standardize each variable. Mice were injected with a pancreatic cancer cell line and three weeks later cancer mice and healthy mice were subjected to CLP. Cancer septic mice had a significantly higher 10-day mortality than previously healthy septic mice. Cancer septic mice had increased CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells, associated with decreased CD4 T cell apoptosis 24 hours after CLP. Further, splenic CD8+ T cell activation was decreased in cancer septic mice. In contrast, no differences were noted in intestinal apoptosis, proliferation or permeability, nor were changes noted in local bacterial burden, renal, liver or pulmonary injury. Cancer septic mice thus have consistently reduced survival compared to previously healthy septic mice, independent of the cancer or sepsis model utilized. Changes in lymphocyte apoptosis are common to cancer model and independent of sepsis model whereas gut apoptosis is common to sepsis model and independent of cancer model. The host response to the combination of cancer and sepsis is dependent, at least in part, on both chronic co-morbidity and acute illness.

  2. Cecal ligation and puncture followed by MRSA pneumonia increases mortality in mice and blunts production of local and systemic cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E.; Liang, Zhe; Breed, Elise R.; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Fox, Amy C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Burd, Eileen M.; Farris, Alton B.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality in the ICU frequently results from the synergistic effect of two temporally-distinct infections. This study examined the pathophysiology of a new model of intraabdominal sepsis followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy followed three days later by an intratracheal injection of MRSA or saline. Both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice had 100% survival while animals with CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia had 67% seven-day survival. Animals subjected to CLP/MRSA had increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) concentrations of MRSA compared to sham/MRSA animals. Animals subjected to sham/MRSA pneumonia had increased BAL levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and G-CSF compared to those given intratracheal saline while CLP/MRSA mice had a blunted local inflammatory response with markedly decreased cytokine levels. Similarly, animals subjected to CLP/saline had increased peritoneal lavage levels of IL-6 and IL-1β compared to those subjected to sham laparotomy while this response was blunted in CLP/MRSA mice. Systemic cytokines were upregulated in both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice, and this was blunted by the combination of CLP/MRSA. In contrast, no synergistic effect on pneumonia severity, white blood cell count or lymphocyte apoptosis was identified in CLP/MRSA mice compared to animals with either insult in isolation. These results indicate that a clinically relevant model of CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia causes higher mortality than could have been predicted from studying either infection in isolation, and this was associated with a blunted local (pulmonary and peritoneal) and systemic inflammatory response and decreased ability to clear infection. PMID:21937950

  3. Amyand’s hernia with acute gangrenous appendicitis and cecal perforation: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Kromka

    Full Text Available Introduction: An Amyand's hernia is a heterogeneous clinical condition defined by the presence of the vermiform appendix within an inguinal hernia sac, which may or may not contain other abdominal contents or pathologic inflammatory changes. Herein we present an exceptionally rare case of an Amyand's hernia containing acute appendicitis and a perforated cecum. Presentation of case: A 46-year-old male with a right inguinal hernia of 2–3 year duration presented to our Emergency Department complaining of acute onset abdominal and groin pain. The patient was diagnosed with an incarcerated right inguinal hernia and underwent emergent surgical repair. Intraoperatively a reactive fluid was found within the hernia sac that prompted an exploratory laparotomy for suspected bowel perforation. The hernia was then found to contain an inflamed gangrenous appendix with an inflamed and perforated cecum. An ileocecectomy and enteroenterostomy was performed and the hernia defect was repaired without mesh. Discussion: With an estimated incidence of only 1%, Amyand's hernias are rare and lack a clear evidence-based management scheme. Moreover, they can contain a diverse range of pathologic features and presentations that can complicate diagnosis and treatment. To avoid potential morbidity and mortality, the surgeon must consider an Amyand's hernia on his or her differential when operating on inguinal hernias and be aware of the associated presentations, complications, and management schemes. Conclusion: There is a paucity of reports describing simultaneous appendicitis and cecal perforation within an Amyand's hernia. In our case, ileocecectomy and Bassini hernia repair with close follow-up led to a favorable outcome. Keywords: Amyand, Hernia, Appendicitis, Surgery, Case report, Ileocecectomy

  4. 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals effects of photoperiod on cecal microbiota of broiler roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoperiod is an important factor in stimulating broiler performance in commercial poultry practice. However, the mechanism by which photoperiod affects the performance of broiler chickens has not been adequately explored. The current study evaluated the effects of three different photoperiod regimes (short day (LD = 8 h light, control (CTR = 12.5 h light, and long day (SD = 16 h light on the cecal microbiota of broiler roosters by sequencing bacterial 16S rRNA genes. At the phylum level, the dominant bacteria were Firmicutes (CTR: 68%, SD: 69%, LD: 67% and Bacteroidetes (CTR: 25%, SD: 26%, and LD: 28%. There was a greater abundance of Proteobacteria (p < 0.01 and Cyanobacteria (p < 0.05 in chickens in the LD group than in those in the CTR group. A significantly greater abundance of Actinobacteria was observed in CTR chickens than in SD and LD chickens (p < 0.01. The abundance of Deferribacteres was significantly higher in LD chickens than in SD chickens (p < 0.01. Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria were more abundant in SD chickens than in CTR and LD chickens. The predicted functional properties indicate that cellular processes may be influenced by photoperiod. Conversely, carbohydrate metabolism was enhanced in CTR chickens as compared to that in SD and LD chickens. The current results indicate that different photoperiod regimes may influence the abundance of specific bacterial populations and then contribute to differences in the functional properties of gut microbiota of broiler roosters.

  5. CT differentiation of mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver from solitary bile duct cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Jung; Yu, Eun Sil; Byun, Jae Ho; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, So Yeon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the CT features required for differentiating mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver (mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct) from solitary bile duct cysts. CT images of pathologically confirmed mucinous cystic neoplasms (n = 15), cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct (n = 16), and solitary bile duct cysts (n = 31) were reviewed. Analysis of the CT findings included shape, presence of septa, location of septa (peripheral vs central), thickness of septa (thin vs thick), mosaic pattern, mural nodules, intracystic debris, calcification, upstream bile duct dilatation, downstream bile duct dilatation, and communication between a cystic lesion and the bile duct. The maximum size of a cystic lesion and the maximum size of the largest mural nodule were measured. The presence of septa, central septa, mural nodules, upstream bile duct dilatation, and downstream bile duct dilatation were found to be significant CT findings for differentiating mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct from solitary bile duct cysts (p bile duct were 87% (27 of 31) and 87% (27 of 31), respectively. When two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct were 87% (27 of 31) and 87% (27 of 31), respectively [corrected]. With the use of specific CT criteria, mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver can be differentiated from solitary bile duct cysts with a high degree of accuracy.

  6. Clinical Significance of Colonoscopy in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Polyps and Neoplasms: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Jie; Lin, Yuan; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Liu-Cheng; Liu, Jun-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background Some authors have studied the relationship between the presence of polyps, adenomas and cancers of upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach and duodenum) and risk of colorectal polyps and neoplasms; however, the results are controversial, which may be due to study sample size, populations, design, clinical features, and so on. No meta-analysis, which can be generalized to a larger population and could provide a quantitative pooled risk estimate of the relationship, of this issue existed so far. Methods We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate risk of colorectal polyps or neoplasms in patients with polyps, adenomas or cancers in upper gastrointestinal tract comparing with controls. A search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, reference lists of potentially relevant papers, and practice guidelines up to 27 November 2013 without languages restriction. Odd ratios (ORs) were pooled using random-effects models. Results The search yielded 3 prospective and 21 retrospective case-control studies (n = 37152 participants). The principal findings included: (1) OR for colorectal polyps was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04–1.26) in the gastric polyps group comparing with control groups; (2) Patients with gastric polyps and neoplasms have higher risk (OR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.06–1.62], and 1.72 [95% CI, 1.42–2.09], respectively) of colorectal neoplasms comparing with their controls; and (3) Positive association was found between the presence of colorectal neoplasms and sporadic duodenal neoplasms (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.64–4.11). Conclusions Findings from present meta-analysis of 24 case-control studies suggest that the prevalence of colorectal polyps was higher in patients with gastric polyps than in those without gastric polyps, and the risk of colorectal neoplasms increases significantly in patients with gastric polyps, neoplasms, and duodenal neoplasms. Therefore, screening colonoscopy should be considered for patients with upper gastrointestinal polyps and neoplasms. PMID

  7. Thyroid neoplasms after radiation therapy for adolescent acne vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paloyan, E.; Lawrence, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    There is a potential hazard of thyroid cancer after exposure to external irradiation for the treatment of adolescent acne vulgaris. We noted a 60% incidence of thyroid carcinoma among 20 patients with such a history, who were operated on for thyroid nodules during a five-year period. Eighty-three percent of the patients with carcinoma had either a follicular or a mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma; 17% had a papillary carcinoma; 33% had regional node metastases; none had evidence of distant metastases. The interval between radiation exposure and thyroidectomy ranged from nine to 41 years. This association of thyroid neoplasms and a prior history of radiation for acne vulgaris may be coincidental and therefore remains to be proved by retrospective surveys of large numbers of treated patients with appropriate controls

  8. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and neoplasms: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Nilza N F; Caran, Eliana M; Lee, Maria Lucia; Silva, Nasjla Saba; Rocha, André Caroli; Macedo, Carla R D

    2010-01-01

    Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder exhibiting high penetrance and variable expressivity. It is characterized by facial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), palmar and plantar pits, bifid ribs, vertebral anomalies and a variety of other malformations. Various neoplasms, such as medulloblastomas, meningiomas, ovarian and cardiac fibromas are also found in this syndrome. To describe a twelve-year-old patient with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, with basal cell carcinomas and promyelocytic leukemia developed after receiving craniospinal radiation for a medulloblastoma. Bifid ribs as well as mandibular and maxillar OKC were also diagnosed Conclusion: The patient with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome should receive close follow-up for early detection of malformations nd malignant neoplasias.

  9. [Evidence on chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms from landmark clinical trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroki

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the JAK2 gene are thought to underlie the development of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (cMPN). Indeed, ≥95% of polycythemia vera patients, and half or more of essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) patients, harbor the JAK2V617F mutation. Besides the JAK2V617F mutation, the JAK2 exon 12 deletion, the MPLW515L/K, and CALR mutation have been discovered and shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Based on these advancements in the study of cMPN, the JAK2 inhibitor was developed as a new therapy for PMF. Moreover, recent advancements in our ability to diagnose cMPN have paralleled the development of large clinical trials for patients with cMPN. This article provides explanatory information from these large clinical trials that is useful for the actual clinical practice of caring for patients with cMPN in Japan.

  10. Autopsy findings of malignant neoplasms treated with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Atsushi; Ito, Jun; Tatezawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Toshinobu; Niibe, Hideo.

    1984-01-01

    Autopsy findings in 26 cases of malignant neoplasms treated with radiation were analysed and following results were obtained. 1. Causes of death except for neoplastic extension were 58% (15/26) and infection was the single predominant cause of death (73% : 11/15) with 50% (4/8) in lung cancer. 2. Distant metastases were found in 73% (19/26). In 7 cases, no obvious metastasis was found before and after autopsy. On the other hand, the patients with metastases over 2 organs before autopsy revealed metastases in 82% (9/11) to the other organs at autopsy. 3. Radiation therapy was effective and the primary tumor disappeared completely in 71% (10/14) with curative irradiation. In metastatic lesions, tumor cells were almost disappeared with dosage over 40 Gy. (author)

  11. CT diagnosis of hyperdense intracranial neoplasms. Review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Reiichi; Ando, Kumiko; Tominaga, Satoru; Nakao, Norio; Ikeda, Jouta; Takemura, Yuriko; Morikawa, Tsutomu

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to typical astrocytic tumors that show hypodense areas on computed tomographic images, some intracranial tumors show hyperdense areas on CT images. The major reasons for hyperdensity on CT images are hypercellular lesions, intratumoral calcification, and intratumoral hemorrhage. Malignant lymphomas, germinomas, and medulloblastomas show homogenous hyperdensity on CT images because of their hypercellularity. Tumorous lesions such as subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, central neurocytomas, craniopharyngiomas, and meningiomas often present with hyperdense calcified lesions on CT images. Intratumoral hemorrhage also causes hyperdensity on CT images, and is often associated with metastatic brain tumors, glioblastomas, pituitary adenomas, and rarely with any of the other intracranial tumors. Although magnetic resonance imaging is now the major diagnostic tool for diseases of the central nervous system, the first imaging studies for patients with neurologic symptoms are still CT scans. Hyperdense areas on CT images are a clue to making an accurate diagnosis of intracranial neoplasms. (author)

  12. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Bruner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:444–447.

  13. THE THERAPEUTIC USE OF RADIOACTIVE GOLD SEEDS IN NEOPLASMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachance, Paul; Vallee, A. F.

    1963-06-15

    A method and the apparatus for the treatment of neoplasms with Au/sup 198/ seeds are described. The introducer or gun is loaded with a magazine or cartridge containing 15 radioactive gold grains and then irradiated. The grains are cylinders made of gold encased in Pt with measurements of: length, 2.1 mm; diameter, 0.4 mm; weight, 25 mgm; platinum casing, 0.2 mm. The seeds are ready for use 7 to 10 days after irradiation or when gamma activity is around 3 to 4.5 mC per seed. A permanent implant gives to the tumor an approximate dose of 6000- 7000 r in 4 to 5 days. The effectiveness and advantages of the method are also discussed. (P.C.H.)

  14. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, J.G.; Levinsky, R.; Ohel, G.

    1984-01-01

    The data of an epidemiologic study of multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel are presented. During the 18-year period of the study 12,302 cases of breast carcinoma were diagnosed, and, of these, 984 patients (8%) had multiple primary malignant tumors. Forty-seven of these patients developed two multiple primary cancers. A significantly higher than expected incidence of second primary cancers occurred at the following five sites: the opposite breast, salivary glands, uterine corpus, ovary, and thyroid. Cancers of the stomach and gallbladder were fewer than expected. Treatment of the breast cancer by irradiation was associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancers of lung and hematopoietic system. The prognosis was mainly influenced by the site and malignancy of the second primary cancer. The incidence of multiple primary malignancies justifies a high level of alertness to this possibility in the follow-up of breast cancer patients

  15. Non-driver mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated myelofibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied non-driver mutations in 62 subjects with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN-associated myelofibrosis upon diagnosis, including 45 subjects with primary myelofibrosis (PMF and 17 with post-polycythemia vera or post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis (post-PV/ET MF. Fifty-eight subjects had ≥1 non-driver mutation upon diagnosis. Mutations in mRNA splicing genes, especially in U2AF1, were significantly more frequent in PMF than in post-PV/ET MF (33 vs. 6%; P = 0.015. There were also striking differences in clonal architecture. These data indicate different genomic spectrums between PMF and post-PV/ET MF.

  16. Localization of gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, R.; Kitayama, S.; Yamoto, M.; Shima, K.; Ooshima, A.

    1989-01-01

    The binding of human luteinizing hormone and human follicle-stimulating hormone to ovarian tumor biopsy specimens from 29 patients was analyzed. The binding sites for human luteinizing hormone were demonstrated in one tumor of epithelial origin (mucinous cystadenoma) and in one of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor). The binding sites for human follicle-stimulating hormone were found in three tumors of epithelial origin (serous cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenoma) and in two of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor and theca-granulosa cell tumor). The surface-binding autoradiographic study revealed that the binding sites for gonadotropins were localized in the stromal tissue. The results suggest that gonadotropic hormones may play a role in the growth and differentiation of a certain type of human ovarian neoplasms

  17. Percutaneous thermal ablation of renal neoplasms; Perkutane Thermoablation von Nierentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacke, J. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie/Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Passau (Germany); Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    Due to modern examination techniques such as multidetector computed tomography and high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the detection rate of renal neoplasms is continually increasing. Even though tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter rarely metastasize, all renal lesions that are possible neoplasms should be treated. Traditional treatment techniques include radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing resection, which are increasingly performed laparoscopically. Modern thermal ablation techniques such as hyperthermal techniques like radiofrequency ablation RFA, laser induced thermal ablation LITT, focused ultrasound FUS and microwave therapy MW, as well as hypothermal techniques (cryotherapy) may be a useful treatment option for patients who are unfit for or refuse surgical resection. Cryotherapy is the oldest and best known thermal ablation technique and can be performed laparoscopically or percutaneously. Since subzero temperatures have no antistyptic effect, additional maneuvers must be performed to control bleeding. Percutaneous cryotherapy of renal tumors is a new and interesting method, but experience with it is still limited. Radiofrequency ablation is the most frequently used method. Modern probe design allows volumes between 2 and 5 cm in diameter to be ablated. Due to hyperthermal tract ablation, the procedure is deemed to be safe and has a low complication rate. Although there are no randomized comparative studies to open resection, the preliminary results for renal RFA are promising and show RFA to be superior to other thermal ablation techniques. Clinical success rates are over 90% for both, cryo- and radiofrequency ablation. Whereas laser induced thermal therapy is established in hepatic ablation, experience is minimal with respect to renal application. For lesions of more than 2 cm in diameter, additional cooling catheters are required. MR thermometry offers temperature control during ablation. Microwave ablation is characterized by small ablation volumes

  18. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN): the cutaneous sanctuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileri, A; Delfino, C; Grandi, V; Agostinelli, C; Pileri, S A; Pimpinelli, N

    2012-12-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDNC) is a rare tumour, which stems from plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Although the aetiology is still unclear, in the last few years various reports suggested a potential role of chromosomal aberrations in the oncogenesis. The disease is currently enclosed among "acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and related precursor neoplasms" in the last WHO classification. BPDCN has an aggressive course, however, it has been suggested that an exclusive cutaneous involvement at presentation is related to a better clinical outcome. We review the literature about BPDCN, and we present a series of 11 cases, all characterised by disease limited to the skin at presentation. Furthermore, we examined all cases of the last 10 years stored in the database of the multidisciplinary study group on cutaneous lymphomas of the University of Florence. Basing on the clinical features, patient were classified into two groups: with a single-lesion or multiple eruptive-lesions presentation. The former were treated with radiotherapy (limited field, electron beam therapy). The latter were treated with different therapeutic options, depending on age and co-morbidities. All patients with a single lesion achieved complete response. Five of 6 patients with eruptive lesions achieved a clinical response (2 complete and 3 partial response). Notably, the progression free survival was higher in the single-lesion than in the eruptive-lesion group (23 vs. 9 months). However all patients relapsed and 8 of 11 died. Although the small number of selected patients, we could speculate that the concept of "cutaneous sanctuary" is particularly true in patients with a single lesion-presentation. In these patients, especially if >70 year-old aged, radiotherapy should be encouraged as the treatment of choice.

  19. Functional Characteristics of the Flying Squirrel's Cecal Microbiota under a Leaf-Based Diet, Based on Multiple Meta-Omic Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Pei Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian herbivores rely on microbial activities in an expanded gut chamber to convert plant biomass into absorbable nutrients. Distinct from ruminants, small herbivores typically have a simple stomach but an enlarged cecum to harbor symbiotic microbes; however, knowledge of this specialized gut structure and characteristics of its microbial contents is limited. Here, we used leaf-eating flying squirrels as a model to explore functional characteristics of the cecal microbiota adapted to a high-fiber, toxin-rich diet. Specifically, environmental conditions across gut regions were evaluated by measuring mass, pH, feed particle size, and metabolomes. Then, parallel metagenomes and metatranscriptomes were used to detect microbial functions corresponding to the cecal environment. Based on metabolomic profiles, >600 phytochemical compounds were detected, although many were present only in the foregut and probably degraded or transformed by gut microbes in the hindgut. Based on metagenomic (DNA and metatranscriptomic (RNA profiles, taxonomic compositions of the cecal microbiota were dominated by bacteria of the Firmicutes taxa; they contained major gene functions related to degradation and fermentation of leaf-derived compounds. Based on functional compositions, genes related to multidrug exporters were rich in microbial genomes, whereas genes involved in nutrient importers were rich in microbial transcriptomes. In addition, genes encoding chemotaxis-associated components and glycoside hydrolases specific for plant beta-glycosidic linkages were abundant in both DNA and RNA. This exploratory study provides findings which may help to form molecular-based hypotheses regarding functional contributions of symbiotic gut microbiota in small herbivores with folivorous dietary habits.

  20. Effects of diets containing different concentrations of mannanoligosaccharide or antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal development, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurhoo, B; Ferket, P R; Zhao, X

    2009-11-01

    The effects of 2 levels of mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) in feed were compared with antibiotic growth promoters on growth performance, intestinal morphology, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters in broilers raised in a sanitary environment. Dietary treatments included: 1) antibiotic growth promoter-free diet (control), 2) VIRG (diet 1 + 16.5 mg/kg of virginiamycin), 3) BACT (diet 1 + 55 mg/kg of bacitracin), 4) LMOS (diet 1 + 0.2% MOS), and 5) HMOS (diet 1 + 0.5% MOS). Birds were randomly assigned to 3 replicate pens/treatment (n = 55/pen). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly throughout 38 d. At d 14, 24, and 34, a 1-cm segment of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was used in morphological analysis (n = 9 birds/d per treatment). At the same bird ages, cecal contents were assayed for lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli, whereas litter was analyzed for Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli. Carcass yields (breast fillet and tenders, thigh, drumstick, and wing) were determined at d 38. Body weight, feed conversion, and carcass yields did not differ among treatments. In contrast to birds fed VIRG or BACT, LMOS and HMOS consistently increased (P litter from all treatments were free of Salmonella. At d 14 and 24, cecal E. coli and Campylobacter counts were not different among treatments. In comparison to birds fed control, at d 34, BACT, LMOS, and HMOS significantly reduced (P Litter bacterial counts were not altered by dietary treatments. In conclusion, under conditions of this study, MOS conferred intestinal health benefits to chickens by improving its morphological development and microbial ecology. But, there were no additional benefits of the higher MOS dosage.

  1. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. Metabolomic Analyses of Brain Tissue in Sepsis Induced by Cecal Ligation Reveal Specific Redox Alterations-Protective Effects of the Oxygen Radical Scavenger Edaravone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hara, Naomi; Chijiiwa, Miyuki; Yara, Miki

    2015-01-01

    at analyzing the preventive effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on sepsis-induced brain alterations. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and the mice were divided into three groups-CLP vehicle (CLPV), CLP and edaravone (MCI-186, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) (CLPE......), and sham-operated (Sham). Mice in CLPV and CLPE were injected with saline or edaravone intraperitoneally at a dose of 10 mg/kg twice daily. The treatments were initiated 4 days prior to the surgical procedure. Mortality, histological changes, electron microscopy (EM), and expression of Bcl-2 family genes...

  9. Efeito protetor da microbiota cecal congelada e liofilizada sobre a infecção experimental de frangos de corte por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Andreatti Filho R.L.; Crocci A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Estudaram-se os efeitos do tratamento de frangos de corte com microbiota cecal anaeróbia liofilizada (MCL) e congelada (MCC) sobre a infecção do trato digestivo das aves por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis. Foi usada microbiota intestinal sem prévia identificação bacteriana. A infecção foi persistente, em ordem, no ceco, inglúvio e duodeno. A infecção também foi autolimitante nos grupos tratados e no controle. Não ocorreu diferença entre o grupo-controle positivo e os tratados com MCL...

  10. Sepsis Strengthens Antagonistic Actions of Neostigmine on Rocuronium in a Rat Model of Cecal Ligation and Puncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin; Jin, Tian; Wang, Hong; Li, Shi-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Background: The antagonistic actions of anticholinesterase drugs on non-depolarizing muscle relaxants are theoretically related to the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). However, till date the changes of AChE activity in the NMJ during sepsis have not been directly investigated. We aimed to investigate the effects of sepsis on the antagonistic actions of neostigmine on rocuronium (Roc) and the underlying changes of AChE activity in the NMJ in a rat model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Methods: A total of 28 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to undergo a sham surgery (the sham group, n = 12) or CLP (the septic group, n = 16). After 24 h, the time-response curves of the antagonistic actions of 0.1 or 0.5 μmol/L of neostigmine on Roc (10 μmol/L)-depressed diaphragm twitch tension were measured. Meanwhile, the activity of AChE in the NMJ was detected using a modified Karnovsky and Roots method. The mRNA levels of the primary transcript and the type T transcript of AChE (AChET) in the diaphragm were determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Four of 16 rats in the septic group died within 24 h. The time-response curves of both two concentrations of neostigmine in the septic group showed significant upward shifts from those in the sham group (P < 0.001 for 0.1 μmol/L; P = 0.009 for 0.5 μmol/L). Meanwhile, the average optical density of AChE in the NMJ in the septic group was significantly lower than that in the sham group (0.517 ± 0.045 vs. 1.047 ± 0.087, P < 0.001). The AChE and AChET mRNA expression levels in the septic group were significantly lower than those in the sham group (P = 0.002 for AChE; P = 0.001 for AChET). Conclusions: Sepsis strengthened the antagonistic actions of neostigmine on Roc-depressed twitch tension of the diaphragm by inhibiting the activity of AChE in the NMJ. The reduced content of AChE might be one of the possible causes of the

  11. Molecular Diagnostics in the Neoplasms of Small Intestine and Appendix: 2018 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingtao; Zulfiqar, Muhammad; Bluth, Martin H; Bhalla, Amarpreet; Beydoun, Rafic

    2018-06-01

    Neoplasms of the small intestine are rare in comparison with colorectal tumors. The most common tumor types arising in the small intestine are adenocarcinomas, well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphoma. Primary appendiceal neoplasms are rare and found in less than 2% of appendectomy specimens with an incidence of approximately 1.2 cases per 100,000 people per year in the United States. This article explores molecular diagnostics in the neoplasms of small intestine and appendix. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tumor registry data, Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1957-1959: malignant neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Tomin; Ide, Masao; Ishida, Morihiro; Troup, G M

    1963-10-03

    The report concerns three aspects of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Tumor Registry data, 1957-1959: comparability, reliability and validity of incidence rates of malignant neoplasms obtained from the Tumor Registries and various statistical problems of registered data related to the Life Span Study sample and Adult Health Study sample; incidence rates of main site of malignant neoplasms obtained from the Tumor Registries are compared with those of the United States and Denmark; and incidence of malignant neoplasm among Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. 15 references, 7 figures, 30 tables.

  13. Simultaneous liver mucinous cystic and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynska, Agnieszka; Hartleb, Marek; Nowakowska-Dulawa, Ewa; Krol, Robert; Remiszewski, Piotr; Mazurkiewicz, Michal

    2014-04-14

    Cystic hepatic neoplasms are rare tumors, and are classified into two separate entities: mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B). We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain and jaundice due to the presence of a large hepatic multilocular cystic tumor associated with an intraductal tumor. Partial hepatectomy with resection of extrahepatic bile ducts demonstrated an intrahepatic MCN and an intraductal IPMN-B. This is the first report of the simultaneous occurrence of these two histologically distinct entities in the liver.

  14. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura: a rare but usually benign intrathoracic neoplasm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)) and low performance status usually preclude surgical treatment of lung neoplasms. Earlier case reports have suggested that curative, safe surgery is possible in extrapulmonal intrathoracic neoplasms. METHODS: A case report of an 83-year-old women...... with progressing dyspnoea secondary to a huge left-side neoplasm. RESULTS: Work-up reveal an FEV(1) of 0.4 L, and a giant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura. The tumor was surgically removed in toto without complications: weighting approximately 3 kg, and benign histology. The patient was without dyspnoea...

  15. Molecular mechanisms associated with leukemic transformation of MPL-mutant myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Philip A; Ortmann, Christina A; Stegelmann, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Somatic activating mutations in MPL, the thrombopoietin receptor, occur in the myeloproliferative neoplasms, although virtually nothing is known about their role in evolution to acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, the MPL T487A mutation, identified in de novo acute myeloid leukemia......, was not detected in 172 patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm. In patients with a prior MPL W515L-mutant myeloproliferative neoplasm, leukemic transformation was accompanied by MPL-mutant leukemic blasts, was seen in the absence of prior cytoreductive therapy and often involved loss of wild-type MPL...

  16. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of genetic heterogeneity in myeloid neoplasms uncovered by comprehensive mutational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While growing use of comprehensive mutational analysis has led to the discovery of innumerable genetic alterations associated with various myeloid neoplasms, the under-recognized phenomenon of genetic heterogeneity within such neoplasms creates a potential for diagnostic confusion. Here, we describe two cases where expanded mutational testing led to amendment of an initial diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia with subsequent altered treatment of each patient. We demonstrate the power of comprehensive testing in ensuring appropriate classification of genetically heterogeneous neoplasms, and emphasize thoughtful analysis of molecular and genetic data as an essential component of diagnosis and management.

  17. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J.; Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Else, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  18. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Else, Tobias [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  19. Current approaches to challenging scenarios in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimran, Eran; Hoffman, Ronald; Kremyanskaya, Marina

    2018-06-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis are clonal hematological malignancies that originate at the level of the hematopoietic stem cell, and are characterized by excessive proliferation of cells belonging to one or more of the myeloid lineages. Central to the pathogenesis of the MPNs is constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway due to a family of driver mutations affecting JAK2, CALR or MPL. These disorders share common clinical and laboratory features, a significant burden of systemic symptoms, increased risk of developing arterial and venous thrombotic events, and the potential to progress to myelofibrosis and acute leukemia. Areas covered: We identified four clinical situations which represent challenging management dilemmas for patients with MPNs. Our conclusions and recommendations are based on a literature search using MEDLINE and recent meeting abstracts using the keywords, focusing on publications directly addressing these scenarios and on recent contributions to the field. Expert commentary: Multi-center efforts to study large cohorts of MPN patients have led to more uniform and evidence-based approaches to key aspects in MPN management. However, treatment strategies to deal with specific clinical scenarios are lacking.

  20. Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, I.

    1982-01-01

    While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility

  1. Neurotensin receptors in human neoplasms: high incidence in Ewing's sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, J C; Waser, B; Schaer, J C; Laissue, J A

    1999-07-19

    Receptors for regulatory peptides, such as somatostatin or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), expressed at high density by neoplastic cells, can be instrumental for tumor diagnosis and therapy. Little is known about the expression of neurotensin receptors in human tumors. In the present study, 464 human neoplasms of various types were investigated for their neurotensin receptor content by in vitro receptor autoradiography on tissue sections using 125I-[Tyr3]-neurotensin as radioligand. Neurotensin receptors were identified and localized in tumor cells of 11/17 Ewing's sarcomas, 21/40 meningiomas, 10/23 astrocytomas, 5/13 medulloblastomas, 7/24 medullary thyroid cancers and 2/8 small cell lung cancers. They were rarely found in non-small cell lung cancers and breast carcinomas; they were absent in prostate, ovarian, renal cell and hepatocellular carcinomas, neuroendocrine gut tumors, pituitary adenomas, schwannomas, neuroblastomas and lymphomas. When present, the receptors bound with nanomolar affinity neurotensin and acetyl-neurotensin-(8-13), with lower affinity neuromedin N, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acidneurotensin-(8-13) and SR 48692, but not neurotensin-(1-11). They were all of the NT1 type, without high affinity for levocabastine. Further, in 2 receptor-positive Ewing's sarcomas, neurotensin mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization techniques. Since neurotensin is known to stimulate cell proliferation, the presence of neurotensin receptors in human neoplasia may be of biological relevance, possibly as an integrative part of an autocrine feedback mechanism of tumor growth stimulation.

  2. Mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas in a male patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yoshida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs make up a morphologic family of similar appearing tumors arising in the ovary and various extraovarian organs such as pancreas, hepatobiliary tract and mesentery. MCNs of the pancreas occur almost exclusively in women. Here, we report a rare case of MCN in a male patient. A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the chief complaint of back pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a multilocular cyctic mass 6.3 cm in diameter in the pancreatic tail. In addition, the outer wall and septae with calcification were demonstrated in the cystic lesion. On magnetic resonance imaging , the cystic fluid had low intensity on T1-weighted imaging and high intensity on T2-weighted imaging. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP showed neither communication between the cystic lesion and the main pancreatic duct nor encasement of the main pancreatic duct. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed neither solid component nor thickness of the septae in the cystic lesion. Consequently, we performed distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy under the diagnosis of cystic neoplasia of the pancreas. Histopathologically, the cystic lesion showed two distinct component: an inner epithelial layer and an outer densely cellular ovarian-type stromal layer. Based on these findings, the cystic lesion was diagnosed as MCN.

  3. JAK2 mutations and clinical practice in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefferi, Ayalew

    2007-01-01

    With the discovery in the last 3 years of novel Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and thrombopoietin receptor (MPL) mutations, the pathogenetic understanding of and clinical practice for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have entered a new era. Each one of these newly discovered mutations, including JAK2V617F, MPLW515L, and a JAK2 exon 12 mutation, has been shown to result in constitutive activation of JAK-STAT signaling and also induce a MPN phenotype in mice. Thus, JAK2 is now considered to be a legitimate target for drug development in MPNs, and small molecule JAK2 inhibitors have already gone through successful preclinical testing, and early-phase human trials in primary myelofibrosis have already begun. Furthermore, JAK2 mutation screening has now become a front-line diagnostic test in the evaluation of both "erythrocytosis" and thrombocytosis and the 2001 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis have now been revised to incorporate JAK2V617F mutation screening.

  4. AKT is a therapeutic target in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, I; Huang, Z; Wen, Q; Stankiewicz, M J; Gilles, L; Goldenson, B; Schultz, R; Diebold, L; Gurbuxani, S; Finke, C M; Lasho, T L; Koppikar, P; Pardanani, A; Stein, B; Altman, J K; Levine, R L; Tefferi, A; Crispino, J D

    2013-09-01

    The majority of patients with BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) harbor mutations in JAK2 or MPL, which lead to constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT, PI3K and ERK signaling pathways. JAK inhibitors by themselves are inadequate in producing selective clonal suppression in MPN and are associated with hematopoietic toxicities. MK-2206 is a potent allosteric AKT inhibitor that was well tolerated, including no evidence of myelosuppression, in a phase I study of solid tumors. Herein, we show that inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling by MK-2206 affected the growth of both JAK2V617F- or MPLW515L-expressing cells via reduced phosphorylation of AKT and inhibition of its downstream signaling molecules. Moreover, we demonstrate that MK-2206 synergizes with ruxolitinib in suppressing the growth of JAK2V617F-mutant SET2 cells. Importantly, MK-2206 suppressed colony formation from hematopoietic progenitor cells in patients with primary myelofibrosis and alleviated hepatosplenomegaly and reduced megakaryocyte burden in the bone marrows, livers and spleens of mice with MPLW515L-induced MPN. Together, these findings establish AKT as a rational therapeutic target in the MPNs.

  5. Current trend of malignant neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made on 7,589 admitted patients and 1,965 autopsy cases. The overall incidence of malignant neoplasms tended to decrease in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases and to increase in admitted patients. The incidence of pulmonary cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to increase up to 1975, and thereafter tended to decrease. The incidence of liver cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients, which was marked in males. The incidence of leukemia was high in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases, and in the group within 1 km and the group which entered the city after the explosion in admitted patients. The incidence of malignant lymphoma tended to decrease, and the incidence of carcinoma of the colon tended to gradually increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of multiple carcinomas tended to increase in both atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group, being higher in atomic bomb group than in non-exposed group. The incidence of breast cancer became constant since 1970. The incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland tended to decrease, although it was high in the group exposed near the explosion. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Epigenetic therapy in myeloproliferative neoplasms: evidence and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Guglielmelli, Paola; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Bogani, Costanza; Barbui, Tiziano

    2009-01-01

    The classic Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), which include polycythaemia vera, essential thrombocythaemia and primary myelofibrosis, originate from a stem cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation that manifests itself with variable haematopoietic cell lineage involvement; they are characterized by a high degree of similarities and the chance to transform each to the other and to evolve into acute leukaemia. Their molecular pathogenesis has been associated with recurrent acquired mutations in janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL). These discoveries have simplified the diagnostic approach and provided a number of clues to understanding the phenotypic expression of MPNs; furthermore, they represented a framework for developing and/or testing in clinical trials small molecules acting as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. On the other hand, evidence of abnormal epigenetic gene regulation as a mechanism potentially contributing to the pathogenesis and the phenotypic diversity of MPNs is still scanty; however, study of epigenetics in MPNs represents an active field of research. The first clinical trials with epigenetic drugs have been completed recently, whereas others are still ongoing; results have been variable and at present do not allow any firm conclusion. Novel basic and translational information concerning epigenetic gene regulation in MPNs and the perspectives for therapy will be critically addressed in this review. PMID:19522842

  7. Targeted cancer exome sequencing reveals recurrent mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenedini, E; Bernardis, I; Artusi, V; Artuso, L; Roncaglia, E; Guglielmelli, P; Pieri, L; Bogani, C; Biamonte, F; Rotunno, G; Mannarelli, C; Bianchi, E; Pancrazzi, A; Fanelli, T; Malagoli Tagliazucchi, G; Ferrari, S; Manfredini, R; Vannucchi, A M; Tagliafico, E

    2014-01-01

    With the intent of dissecting the molecular complexity of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), we designed a target enrichment panel to explore, using next-generation sequencing (NGS), the mutational status of an extensive list of 2000 cancer-associated genes and microRNAs. The genomic DNA of granulocytes and in vitro-expanded CD3+T-lymphocytes, as a germline control, was target-enriched and sequenced in a learning cohort of 20 MPN patients using Roche 454 technology. We identified 141 genuine somatic mutations, most of which were not previously described. To test the frequency of the identified variants, a larger validation cohort of 189 MPN patients was additionally screened for these mutations using Ion Torrent AmpliSeq NGS. Excluding the genes already described in MPN, for 8 genes (SCRIB, MIR662, BARD1, TCF12, FAT4, DAP3, POLG and NRAS), we demonstrated a mutation frequency between 3 and 8%. We also found that mutations at codon 12 of NRAS (NRASG12V and NRASG12D) were significantly associated, for primary myelofibrosis (PMF), with highest dynamic international prognostic scoring system (DIPSS)-plus score categories. This association was then confirmed in 66 additional PMF patients composing a final dataset of 168 PMF showing a NRAS mutation frequency of 4.7%, which was associated with a worse outcome, as defined by the DIPSS plus score. PMID:24150215

  8. Meningioma as second malignant neoplasm after oncological treatment during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.L.; Gebhardt, U. [Klinikum Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology; Warmuth-Metz, M. [University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Pietsch, T. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology; Soerensen, N. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus, Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kortmann, R.D. [University Hospital Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology

    2012-05-15

    A total of 38 patients (18 female/20 male) with childhood meningioma were recruited from the German registry HIT-Endo (1989-2009). In 5 cases meningioma occurred as second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Histologies were confirmed by reference assessment in all cases (SMN: 2 WHO I, 1 WHO II, 2 WHO III). The SMNs were diagnosed at a median age of 12.4 years with a median latency of 10.2 years after primary malignancy (PMN; 4 brain tumors, 1 lymphoblastic leukemia; median age at diagnosis 2.7 years). Meningioma occurred as SMN in the irradiated field of PMN (range 12-54 Gy). The outcome after treatment of SMN meningioma (surgery/irradiation) was favorable in terms of psychosocial status and functional capacity in 4 of 5 patients (1 death). We conclude that survivors of childhood cancer who were exposed to radiation therapy at young age harbor the risk of developing meningioma as a SMN at a particularly short latency period in case of high dose exposure. (orig.)

  9. Parathyroid carcinoma: an unusual presentation of a rare neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti, Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignant endocrine neoplasm that is very challenging in its diagnosis as well as its treatment. Clinically the disease is detected earlier in patients who present with hyperparathyroidism with signs of profound hypercalcemia. Differentiation between benign and malignant disease of the parathyroid is challenging both for the clinician and for the pathologist. Complete surgical resection at the time of first operation offers the best chance of cure. Even after radical excision which is the standard management, local recurrence and metastases are frequent. The disease usually has a slow indolent course and most patients suffer from complications of hypercalcemia rather than tumor invasion or metastasis.We report a case of a 31-year-old woman who presented with renal colic. Various hematological, biochemical and radiological investigations were performed and a slightly enlarged right parathyroid was found. A clinical diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma was made and a right parathyroidectomy was done. Intraoperatively the surgeon had no suspicion of malignancy but microscopically the lesion was malignant and a final diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was rendered based on the criteria of invasion. Since there is no gold standard, a multidisciplinary approach, including the entire clinical, biochemical, radiological and pathological profile of the disease aids in an accurate diagnosis. Here we are reporting a case of a functional parathyroid carcinoma presenting in a relatively young patient with all the biochemical and radiological investigations and findings pointing towards a benign parathyroid disease.

  10. Microvessel and mast cell densities in malignant laryngeal neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balica Nicolae Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal neoplasm contributes to 30-40% of carcinomas of the head and neck. Mast cells are normal connective tissue residents, well represented in the respiratory tract. Experimental evidence suggests that the growth of a tumor beyond a certain size requires angiogenesis, which may also permit metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between mast cell density, microvascular density, histopathological type and histological grade. Our study included 38 laryngeal carcinomas as follows: adenoid cystic carcinoma (2 cases, malignant papilloma (2 cases and squamous cell carcinoma (34 cases. The combined technique of CD 34-alcian blue safranin (ABS was used to identify microvessel and mast cell density, which was quantified by the hot spot method. A significant correlation was found between both mast cell and microvascular density, and G1/G2 histological grade (p=0.002 and p=0.004, respectively. Squamous cell carcinoma was significantly correlated with mast cell density (p=0.003, but not with microvascular density (p=0.454.

  11. Impact of Inflammation on Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Symptom Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Geyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (essential thrombocythemia, ET; polycythemia vera, PV; myelofibrosis, MF are monoclonal malignancies associated with genomic instability, dysregulated signaling pathways, and subsequent overproduction of inflammatory markers. Acknowledged for their debilitating symptom profiles, recent investigations have aimed to determine the identity of these markers, the upstream sources stimulating their development, their prevalence within the MPN population, and the role they play in symptom development. Creation of dedicated Patient Reported Outcome (PRO tools, in combination with expanded access to cytokine analysis technology, has resulted in a surge of investigations evaluating the potential associations between symptoms and inflammation. Emerging data demonstrates clear relationships between individual MPN symptoms (fatigue, abdominal complaints, microvascular symptoms, and constitutional symptoms and cytokines, particularly IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Information is also compiling on the role symptoms paradoxically play in the development of cytokines, as in the case of fatigue-driven sedentary lifestyles. In this paper, we explore the symptoms inherent to the MPN disorders and the potential role inflammation plays in their development.

  12. Defining the Thrombotic Risk in Patients with Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Vianello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycythemia vera (PV and essential thrombocythemia (ET are two Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN associated with an acquired mutation in the JAK2 tyrosine kinase gene. There is a rare incidence of progression to myelofibrosis and myeloid metaplasia in both disorders, which may or may not precede transformation to acute myeloid leukemia, but thrombosis is the main cause of morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of thrombosis in patients with MPN is complex. Traditionally, abnormalities of platelet number and function have been claimed as the main players, but increased dynamic interactions between platelets, leukocytes, and the endothelium do probably represent a fundamental interplay in generating a thrombophilic state. In addition, endothelial dysfunction, a well-known risk factor for vascular disease, may play a role in the thrombotic risk of patients with PV and ET. The identification of plasma markers translating the hemostatic imbalance in patients with PV and ET would be extremely helpful in order to define the subgroup of patients with a significant clinical risk of thrombosis.

  13. Cytokine Regulation of Microenvironmental Cells in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Hoermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN refers to a heterogeneous group of diseases including not only polycythemia vera (PV, essential thrombocythemia (ET, and primary myelofibrosis (PMF, but also chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, and systemic mastocytosis (SM. Despite the clinical and biological differences between these diseases, common pathophysiological mechanisms have been identified in MPN. First, aberrant tyrosine kinase signaling due to somatic mutations in certain driver genes is common to these MPN. Second, alterations of the bone marrow microenvironment are found in all MPN types and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Finally, elevated levels of proinflammatory and microenvironment-regulating cytokines are commonly found in all MPN-variants. In this paper, we review the effects of MPN-related oncogenes on cytokine expression and release and describe common as well as distinct pathogenetic mechanisms underlying microenvironmental changes in various MPN. Furthermore, targeting of the microenvironment in MPN is discussed. Such novel therapies may enhance the efficacy and may overcome resistance to established tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment in these patients. Nevertheless, additional basic studies on the complex interplay of neoplastic and stromal cells are required in order to optimize targeting strategies and to translate these concepts into clinical application.

  14. Trisomy 19 as the sole chromosomal anomaly in hematologic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, B; Billström, R; Mauritzson, N; Mitelman, F

    1994-05-01

    Trisomy 19 was found as the sole chromosomal aberration in three hematologic malignancies: one chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and two cases of of immunophenotypically immature acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A compilation of previously published hematologic neoplasms with +19 as the only change reveals that this anomaly is strongly associated with myeloid malignancies; 25 of 31 cases have been myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or AML. Eight of the 11 MDS cases have been either refractory anemia (RA) or RA with excess of blasts, and four of the 14 AML cases have had preleukemic myelodysplastic cases phase, with the +19 accruing during the time of leukemic transformation. The AML cases have, in general, been either or early maturation arrest, i.e. undifferentiated or AML-M1/M2, or of myelomonocytic-monoblastic origin, i.e., AML-M4/M5. None of the MDS or AML cases with +19 had had a previous history of radio- or chemotherapy. We conclude that trisomy 19, as the sole anomaly, is a characteristic abnormality in de novo myeloid malignancies. No clinical features seem to characterize patients with +19 AML and MDS and the prognostic impact of the aberration remains to be elucidated.

  15. Microsatellite Status of Primary Colorectal Cancer Predicts the Incidence of Postoperative Colorectal Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Aki; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Hata, Keisuke; Ishihara, Soichiro; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have evaluated the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms stratified by the nature of primary colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we revealed it on the basis of the microsatellite (MS) status of primary CRC. We retrospectively reviewed 338 patients with CRC and calculated the risk of neoplasms during postoperative surveillance colonoscopy in association with the MS status of primary CRC. A propensity score method was applied. We identified a higher incidence of metachronous rectal neoplasms after the resection of MS stable CRC than MS instable CRC (adjusted HR 5.74, p=0.04). We also observed a higher incidence of colorectal tubular adenoma in patients with MSS CRC (adjusted hazard ratio 7.09, pcolorectal cancer influenced the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of errors during medical and computerized diagnostics of spherical lung neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozmogov, A.I.; Petruk, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reasons for errors in medical and computerized diagnostics of spherical lung neoplasms are studied based on material of 212 case records and clinicoroentgenological data; it should promote improvement of their diagnostics

  17. An extremely rare neoplasm, histiocytic sarcoma: A report of two cases with an aggressive clinical course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Kayikcioglu

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: HS is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm of the monocytic/macrophage lineage, with no standardized chemotherapy regimen for multisystemic disease. Metastatic patients have a more aggressive clinical course than those with unifocal disease.

  18. Increased gene expression of histone deacetylases in patients with Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Thomassen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Myeloproliferation, myeloaccumulation (decreased apoptosis), inflammation, bone marrow fibrosis and angiogenesis are cardinal features of the Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms: essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF...

  19. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and subsequent cancer risk: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we...

  20. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for bile duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Shi-Hong; Teng, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Qi-Dong; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Chen, Feng; Xiao, Wen-Bo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B).

  1. Esophageal and stomach malignant neoplasms characterization at Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Razuk Filho; Júlio César Martinez

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: the aim of this study is to collect and organize data on the incidence and prevalence of patients with malignant neoplasms of the esophagus and stomach in Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba of the past six years. Methods: we conducted a survey of data on incidence, prevalence, age and sex of patients with malignant neoplasms of the esophagus and stomach that were admitted, treated and/or surgery at Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba, in the last six years. Results: we analyz...

  2. Renal Function Outcomes for Multifocal Renal Neoplasms Managed by Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Pushpender, E-mail: pugupta@wakehealth.edu; Allen, Brian C., E-mail: bcallen2@wakehealth.edu; Chen, Michael Y., E-mail: mchen@wakehealth.edu; Childs, David D., E-mail: dchilds@wakehealth.edu; Kota, Gopi, E-mail: gkota@wakehealth.edu; Zagoria, Ronald J., E-mail: rzagoria@wakehealth.edu [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate renal function changes related to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of multifocal renal neoplasms. Methods: This is an institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant retrospective study of all patients treated with computed tomography guided RFA for multifocal renal neoplasms at one institution. Fifty-seven subjects, mean age 70 (range 37-88) years, underwent RFA of 169 renal neoplasms (average size 2.0 cm). Subjects had between 2 and 8 (mean 2.96) neoplasms ablated. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was measured before and after RFA. Complications related to RFA were recorded. Results: eGFR decreased on average of 4.4 % per tumor treated and 6.7 % per ablation session (average 1.76 tumors treated per session). For subjects with the largest neoplasm measuring >3 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 14.5 % during the course of their treatment. If the largest neoplasm measured 2-3 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 7.7 %, and if the largest neoplasm measured <2 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 3.8 %. Subjects with reduced baseline renal function were more likely to have a greater decline in eGFR after RFA. There was a minor complication rate of 6.3 % (6 of 96 sessions), none of which required treatment, and a major complication rate of 4.2 % (4 of 96 sessions). Conclusion: RFA for the treatment of multifocal renal neoplasms results in mild decline of renal function.

  3. The Synchronous Prevalence of Colorectal Neoplasms in Patients with Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Su; Kim, Cha Young; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The association between stomach cancer and colorectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer. Methods A total of 123 patients with stomach cancer (86 male) and 246 consecutive, age- and sex-matched persons without stomach cancer were analyzed from July 2005 to June 2010. All of them underwent colonoscopy within 6 months after undergoing gastroscopy. Results The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher in the stomach cancer group (35.8%) than in the control group (17.9%) (P neoplasms were more prevalent in the patients with stomach cancer (odds ratio [OR], 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71 to 5.63). In particular, the difference in the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was more prominent in the patients above 50 years old (OR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.80 to 6.98). Conclusion The results showed that the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was higher in patients with stomach cancer than in those without stomach cancer. Therefore, patients with stomach cancer should be regarded as a high-risk group for colorectal neoplasms, and colonoscopy should be recommended for screening. PMID:22102975

  4. Impact of oral hygiene on the development of oropharyngeal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kiparisova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the impact of oral hygiene on the development of oropharyngeal malignancies.Subjects and methods. The data of a prospective study of dental health indicators were analyzed in 586 patients (there were 76.4 % men and 23.6 % women with oropharyngeal malignancies. In the examinees, the sites of oropharyngeal neoplasms were as follows: the tongue in 195 (33 % cases, mouth floor in 147 (25 %, oropharynx in 139 (24 %, maxilla in 36 (6 %, buccal mucosa in 21 (4 %, soft palate in 18 (3 %, retromolar area in 14 (2 %, mandibula in 12 (2 %, and nose in 4 (1 %. The patients, examination employed routine dental examinations, determination of oral hygiene index, CFE index (a sum of carious, filled, and extracted teeth, and assessment of a patient, s skill and desire to perform individual oral hygiene. The patient hygiene performance (PHP index (Podshadley, Haley, 1968 was used to estimate his/her baseline ability. The rates of initial visits made by patients with oropharyngeal tumors to physicians of different specialties were also analyzed.Results. In the patients with oropharyngeal malignancies, the CFE index was high and amounted to 15 ± 0.4 с with a preponderance of carious and extracted teeth in the pattern; the PHP index was 1.4 ± 0.1, which corresponded to a satisfactory index. Thus, among the comparison group patients, satisfactory oral cavity sanitation was noted in only 4.8 % of the patients having a sanitation certificate. Consequently, 95.2 % of the patients were unready for specialized treatment. Out of the examinees, 176 (30 % made an initial visit for complaints to a dentist, 155 (26.5 % to an oncologist, 107 (18.3 % to an ENT doctor, 103 (17.7 % to a local therapist, and 43 (7.5 % to a surgeon. The collected history data also revealed that 59.2 % of the patients had self-treatment before going to specialists (according to them. Self-treatment or treatment by a noncancer specialist was ascertained to take an average of

  5. Peritoneal dissemination complicating morcellation of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms.

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    Michael A Seidman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Power morcellation has become a common technique for the minimally invasive resection of uterine leiomyomas. This technique is associated with dissemination of cellular material throughout the peritoneum. When morcellated uterine tumors are unexpectedly found to be leiomyosarcomas or tumors with atypical features (atypical leiomyoma, smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential, there may be significant clinical consequences. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency and clinical consequence of intraperitoneal dissemination of these neoplasms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2005-2010, 1091 instances of uterine morcellation were identified at BWH. Unexpected diagnoses of leiomyoma variants or atypical and malignant smooth muscle tumors occurred in 1.2% of cases using power morcellation for uterine masses clinically presumed to be "fibroids" over this period, including one endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS, one cellular leiomyoma (CL, six atypical leiomyomas (AL, three smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMPs, and one leiomyosarcoma (LMS. The rate of unexpected sarcoma after the laparoscopic morcellation procedure was 0.09%, 9-fold higher than the rate currently quoted to patients during pre-procedure briefing, and this rate may increase over time as diagnostically challenging or under-sampled tumors manifest their biological potential. Furthermore, when examining follow-up laparoscopies, both from in-house and consultation cases, disseminated disease occurred in 64.3% of all tumors (zero of one ESS, one of one CL, zero of one AL, four of four STUMPs, and four of seven LMS. Only disseminated leiomyosarcoma, however, was associated with mortality. Procedures are proposed for pathologic evaluation of morcellation specimens and associated follow-up specimens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While additional study is warranted, these data suggest uterine morcellation carries a risk of disseminating

  6. Role of imprint/exfoliative cytology in ulcerated skin neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Babu, Ravindra; Pai, Dinker; Verma, Surendra Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Imprint cytology is a method of studying cells by taking an imprint from the cut surface of a wedge biopsy specimen or from the resected margins of a surgical specimen. It is rapid, simple and fairly accurate. Exfoliative cytology is an offshoot from the imprint cytology where in cells obtained from the surface of ulcers, either by scrape or brush, are analyzed for the presence of malignant cells. We undertook this study to see the role of imprint/exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of ulcerated skin neoplasm and to check the adequacy of resected margins intra-operatively. This was a prospective investigative study conducted from September 2003 to July 2005. All patients presenting to surgical clinic with ulcerated skin and soft tissue tumours were included in the study. A wedge biopsy obtained from the ulcer and imprint smears were taken from the cut surface. Exfoliative cytology was analyzed from the surface smears. Wedge biopsy specimen was sent for histopathological (HPE) examination. The cytology and HPE were analyzed by a separate pathologist. Imprint cytology was also used to check the adequacy of resected margins in case of wide excision. This was compared with final HPE. Total of 107 patients was included in the present study and 474 imprint smears were done, with an average of 4.43 slides per lesion. Out of 59 wide excision samples, 132 imprint smears were prepared for assessing resected margins accounting for an average of 2.24 slides per each excised lesion. On combining imprint cytology with exfoliative cytology the overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were 90.38 %, 100 % and 90.38 % respectively. Only one out of 59 cases had a positive resected margin which was not picked by imprint cytology. Imprint cytology can be used for rapid and accurate diagnosis of various skin malignancies. It can also be used to check the adequacy of the resected margin intraoperatively.

  7. Minichromosome Maintenance Expression Defines Slow-Growing Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schimmack

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm (SI-NEN proliferation is quantified by Ki67 measurements which capture G1-G2M phases of the cell cycle. G0 and early G1 phases, typical of slow-growing cells, can be detected by minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM expression. We hypothesized that these replication licensing markers may provide clinically relevant information to augment Ki67 in low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasia. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining (IHC, Western blot analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and copy number variations of MCM2, MCM3, and Ki67 were undertaken in SI-NENs (n = 22. MCM and Ki67 expression was compared by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (tissue microarray, independent set [n = 55]. Forty-three pancreatic NENs and 14 normal tissues were included as controls. RESULTS: In SI-NENs, MCM2 (mean: 21.2%: range: 16%-25% and MCM3 (28.7%: 22%-34% were detected in significantly more cells than Ki67 (2.3%: 0%-7%, P < .01. MCM2 mRNA correlated with Ki67 IHC (P < .05. MCM3 protein expression was higher in metastases (38-fold than in normal small intestine (P = .06 and was largely absent in normal neuroendocrine cells. There was considerable variation at the MCM copy number level (0-4 copies. MCM3 expression in proliferating cells significantly predicted overall survival (P < .002. Combinations of Ki67 and MCM2/3 in algorithms differentiated low and higher proliferative lesions (overall survival: 12 vs 6.1 years, P = .06. MCM expression was not informative in pancreatic NENs. CONCLUSION: MCMs are expressed in a higher proportion of NEN cells than Ki67 in slow-growing small intestinal lesions and correlate with survival. Assessment can be used to augment Ki67 to improve prognostic classification in these low-grade tumors.

  8. Thermal and epithermal neutrons in the treatment of neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.H.; Wellum, G.; Tolpin, E.; Messer, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in the preparation and testing of boron compounds for use as targets in the neutron capture therapy of neoplasms. The synthesis and structural confirmation of the disulfide, B 1 H 11 SSB 12 H 11 -4 is reported as well as a new structural model for its mono-oxidized derivative, B 12 H 11 SOSB 12 H 11 -4 , which showed useful tumor:blood concentration ratios in rats after three I. V. injections. The material, B 12 H 11 (SH) 2 -2 , was isolated and identified from impure Cs 2 B 12 H 11 SH. The former anion was shown to be responsible, in its oxidized form, for the excellent tumor uptake results shown by impure B 12 H 11 SH -2 in the past. As a consequence of this work, a borane polymer was synthesized which has shown extremely encouraging tumor uptake properties. The synthesis of this polymer depended on our production and characterization of the first stable thiyl radical at room temperature, B 12 H 11 -S: -2 . The retesting of certain phosphate boranes is reported. And a reagent, namely acetyl sulfenyl chloride, lSCOCH 3 , has been found which will produce B 12 H 11 SH -2 in a laboratory synthesis. The ability of sulfur derivatives of B 12 H 11 SH -2 to bind to proteins was examined, as was the blood distribution of two of these interesting boranes. The amount of non-protein bound borane was related to the rate of blood clearance of the borane in rats. Progress is also reported on dog irradiation experiments. (U.S.)

  9. Secondary myeloid neoplasms: bone marrow cytogenetic and histological features may be relevant to prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sandra da Silva Tanizawa

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Secondary myeloid neoplasms comprise a group of diseases arising after chemotherapy, radiation, immunosuppressive therapy or from aplastic anemia. Few studies have addressed prognostic factors in these neoplasms. Method: Forty-two patients diagnosed from 1987 to 2008 with secondary myeloid neoplasms were retrospectively evaluated concerning clinical, biochemical, peripheral blood, bone marrow aspirate, biopsy, and immunohistochemistry and cytogenetic features at diagnosis as prognostic factors. The International Prognostic Scoring System was applied. Statistical analysis employed the Kaplan–Meier method, log-rank and Fisher's exact test. Results: Twenty-three patients (54.8% were male and the median age was 53.5 years (range: 4–88 years at diagnosis of secondary myeloid neoplasms. Previous diseases included hematologic malignancies, solid tumors, aplastic anemia, autoimmune diseases and conditions requiring solid organ transplantations. One third of patients (33% were submitted to chemotherapy alone, 2% to radiotherapy, 26% to both modalities and 28% to immunosuppressive agents. Five patients (11.9% had undergone autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The median latency between the primary disease and secondary myeloid neoplasms was 85 months (range: 23–221 months. Eight patients were submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to treat secondary myeloid neoplasms. Important changes in bone marrow were detected mainly by biopsy, immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics. The presence of clusters of CD117+ cells and p53+ cells were associated with low survival. p53 was associated to a higher risk according to the International Prognostic Scoring System. High prevalence of clonal abnormalities (84.3% and thrombocytopenia (78.6% were independent factors for poor survival. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that cytogenetics, bone marrow biopsy and immunohistochemistry are very important

  10. Bortezomib as a new therapeutic approach for blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Laure; Ceroi, Adam; Bôle-Richard, Elodie; Jenvrin, Alizée; Biichle, Sabeha; Perrin, Sophie; Limat, Samuel; Bonnefoy, Francis; Deconinck, Eric; Saas, Philippe; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Angelot-Delettre, Fanny

    2017-11-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an aggressive hematologic malignancy with a poor prognosis. No consensus regarding optimal treatment modalities is currently available. Targeting the nuclear factor-kappa B pathway is considered a promising approach since blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm has been reported to exhibit constitutive activation of this pathway. Moreover, nuclear factor-kappa B inhibition in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cell lines, achieved using either an experimental specific inhibitor JSH23 or the clinical drug bortezomib, interferes in vitro with leukemic cell proliferation and survival. Here we extended these data by showing that primary blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cells from seven patients were sensitive to bortezomib-induced cell death. We confirmed that bortezomib efficiently inhibits the phosphorylation of the RelA nuclear factor-kappa B subunit in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cell lines and primary cells from patients in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model. We then demonstrated that bortezomib can be associated with other drugs used in different chemotherapy regimens to improve its impact on leukemic cell death. Indeed, when primary blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cells from a patient were grafted into mice, bortezomib treatment significantly increased the animals' survival, and was associated with a significant decrease of circulating leukemic cells and RelA nuclear factor-kappa B subunit expression. Overall, our results provide a rationale for the use of bortezomib in combination with other chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Based on our data, a prospective clinical trial combining proteasome inhibitor with classical drugs could be envisaged. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  11. Effects of chromium-enriched bacillus subtilis KT260179 supplementation on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajun; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yayuan; Wu, Yijing

    2016-11-08

    Both chromium (Cr) and probiotic bacillus own the virtues of regulating animal metabolism and meat quality. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of supplemental Cr and bacillus in the form of chromium-enriched Bacillus subtilis KT260179 (CEBS) on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality. Six hundred of 1-day-old Chinese Huainan Partridge chickens were divided into four groups randomly: Control, inorganic Cr, Bacillus subtilis, and CEBS. The feed duration was 56 days. After 28 days of treatment, broiler feed CEBS or normal B. subtilis had higher body weights than control broiler, and after 56 days, chickens given either CEBS or B. subtilis had greater body weights than control broiler or those given inorganic Cr. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels declined significantly in the CEBS group compared with the control, whereas plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly. The concentration of Cr in blood and breast muscle increased after CEBS and inorganic Cr supplementation. B. subtilis and CEBS supplementation caused a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the caecum, while the numbers of Escherichia coli and Salmonella decreased significantly compared to the control. Feed adding CEBS increased the lightness, redness, and yellowness of breast meat, improved the water-holding capacity, decreased the shear force and cooking loss. In all, CEBS supplementation promoted body growth, improved plasma lipid parameters, increased tissue Cr concentrations, altered cecal bacterial composition and improved breast meat quality.

  12. Effects of Dietary Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT®) on Growth Performance, Relative Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, Tibia Bone Characteristics, and Meat Qualities in Pekin Ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S T.; Zheng, L.; Kwon, H. J.; Choo, Y. K.; Lee, K. W.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Fermented Chlorella vulgaris was examined for its effects on growth performance, cecal microflora, tibia bone strength, and meat qualities in commercial Pekin ducks. A total of three hundred, day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into three groups with five replicates (n = 20 ducklings per replicate) and offered diets supplemented with commercial fermented C. vulgaris (CBT®) at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 6 wks. The final body weight was linearly (p = 0.001) increased as the addition of fermented C. vulgaris into diets increased. Similarly, dietary C. vulgaris linearly increased body weight gain (p = 0.001) and feed intake (p = 0.001) especially at the later days of the feeding trial. However, there was no C. vulgaris effect on feed efficiency. Relative weights of liver were significantly lowered by dietary fermented C. vulgaris (linear effect at p = 0.044). Dietary fermented C. vulgaris did not affect total microbes, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms in cecal contents. Finally, meat quality parameters such as meat color (i.e., yellowness), shear force, pH, or water holding capacity were altered by adding fermented C. vulgaris into the diet. In our knowledge, this is the first report to show that dietary fermented C. vulgaris enhanced meat qualities of duck meats. In conclusion, our study indicates that dietary fermented C. vulgaris exerted benefits on productivity and can be employed as a novel, nutrition-based strategy to produce value-added duck meats. PMID:25557680

  13. Effects of Dietary Fermented (CBT on Growth Performance, Relative Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, Tibia Bone Characteristics, and Meat Qualities in Pekin Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S T. Oh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented Chlorella vulgaris was examined for its effects on growth performance, cecal microflora, tibia bone strength, and meat qualities in commercial Pekin ducks. A total of three hundred, day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into three groups with five replicates (n = 20 ducklings per replicate and offered diets supplemented with commercial fermented C. vulgaris (CBT® at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 6 wks. The final body weight was linearly (p = 0.001 increased as the addition of fermented C. vulgaris into diets increased. Similarly, dietary C. vulgaris linearly increased body weight gain (p = 0.001 and feed intake (p = 0.001 especially at the later days of the feeding trial. However, there was no C. vulgaris effect on feed efficiency. Relative weights of liver were significantly lowered by dietary fermented C. vulgaris (linear effect at p = 0.044. Dietary fermented C. vulgaris did not affect total microbes, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms in cecal contents. Finally, meat quality parameters such as meat color (i.e., yellowness, shear force, pH, or water holding capacity were altered by adding fermented C. vulgaris into the diet. In our knowledge, this is the first report to show that dietary fermented C. vulgaris enhanced meat qualities of duck meats. In conclusion, our study indicates that dietary fermented C. vulgaris exerted benefits on productivity and can be employed as a novel, nutrition-based strategy to produce value-added duck meats.

  14. Effect of whole yeast cell product supplementation (CitriStim®) on immune responses and cecal microflora species in pullet and layer chickens during an experimental coccidial challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markazi, Ashley D; Perez, Victor; Sifri, Mamduh; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2017-07-01

    Three separate experiments were conducted to study the effects of whole yeast cell product supplementation in pullets and layer hens. Body weight gain, fecal and intestinal coccidial oocyst counts, cecal microflora species, cytokine mRNA amounts, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations in the cecal tonsils were analyzed following an experimental coccidial infection. In Experiment I, day-old Leghorn layer chicks were fed 3 experimental diets with 0, 0.1, or 0.2% whole yeast cell product (CitriStim®, ADM, Decatur, IL). At 21 d of age, birds were challenged with 1 × 105 live coccidial oocysts. Supplementation with whole yeast cell product decreased the fecal coccidial oocyst count at 7 (P = 0.05) and 8 (P product and challenged with 1 × 105 live coccidial oocysts on d 25 of whole yeast cell product feeding. Supplementation with whole yeast cell product decreased the coccidial oocyst count in the intestinal content (P product increased relative proportion of Lactobacillus (P product decreased CD8+ T cell percentages (P product and challenged with 1 × 105 live coccidial oocysts on d 66 of whole yeast cell product feeding. At 5 d post-coccidial challenge, whole yeast cell product supplementation down-regulated (P = 0.01) IL-10 mRNA amount. It could be concluded that supplementing whole yeast cell product can help minimize coccidial infection in both growing pullets and layer chickens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. High-protein diet improves sensitivity to cholecystokinin and shifts the cecal microbiome without altering brain inflammation in diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Jacobs, Jonathan P; Lagishetty, Venu; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Wu, Shuping V; Million, Mulugeta; Reeve, Joseph R; Pisegna, Joseph R; Taché, Yvette

    2017-10-01

    High-protein diet (HPD) curtails obesity and/or fat mass, but it is unknown whether it reverses neuroinflammation or alters glucose levels, CCK sensitivity, and gut microbiome in rats fed a Western diet (WD)-induced obesity (DIO). Male rats fed a WD (high fat and sugar) for 12 wk were switched to a HPD for 6 wk. Body composition, food intake, meal pattern, sensitivity to intraperitoneal CCK-8S, blood glucose, brain signaling, and cecal microbiota were assessed. When compared with a normal diet, WD increased body weight (9.3%) and fat mass (73.4%). CCK-8S (1.8 or 5.2 nmol/kg) did not alter food intake and meal pattern in DIO rats. Switching to a HPD for 6 wk reduced fat mass (15.7%) with a nonsignificantly reduced body weight gain, normalized blood glucose, and decreased feeding after CCK-8S. DIO rats on the WD or switched to a HPD showed comparable microbial diversity. However, in HPD versus WD rats, there was enrichment of 114 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and depletion of 188 OTUs. Of those, Akkermansia muciniphila (enriched on a HPD), an unclassified Clostridiales, a member of the RF39 order, and a Phascolarctobacterium were significantly associated with fat mass. The WD increased cytokine expression in the hypothalamus and dorsal medulla that was unchanged by switching to HPD. These data indicate that HPD reduces body fat and restores glucose homeostasis and CCK sensitivity, while not modifying brain inflammation. In addition, expansion of cecal Akkermansia muciniphila correlated to fat mass loss may represent a potential peripheral mechanism of HPD beneficial effects.

  16. Imaging features of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yubao; Li Meng; Zhong Xiaomei; Liu Zaiyi; Liang Changhong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT and MRI features of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB). Methods: Thirty eight patients with IPNB finally diagnosed by puncture biopsy or surgery were enrolled in this study. All the CT or MRI data were investigated retrospectively. Twenty one patients underwent CT examinations, 17 patients underwent MRI examinations. The features of IPNB including the distribution features of the nodules or masses, CT and MRI features of cholangiectasis, mucus were analyzed. The accuracy differences of CT and MRI for the preoperatively diagnosing mucus and tumor growing along mucous were compared by nonparametric test. Results: The lesions (including 5 patients with solitary lesions and 19 patients with multiple lesions) were located in intrahepatic bile duct in 24 patients, 3 patients occurred simultaneously in intrahepatic and portal bile duct, 2 lesions occurred in portal bile duct, 8 lesions occurred in common bile duct, the lesions of 1 patient occurred simultaneously in common bile duct, cystic duct and gallbladder. Seventeen and 11 patients appeared nodules locating in dilated bile duct on CT and MRI, respectively. Four and 5 patients appeared cystic lesions with multiple nodules of the liver on CT and MRI, respectively. Higher contrast enhancement on CT and MRI in arterial phase than that in portal vein and equilibrium phase were observed in 18 and 12 patients, respectively. Excluding the patients undergoing puncture, CT was better than MRI in evaluating whether the mucus was present, with the accuracies of 30.0% (6/20) and 6.3% (1/16) for CT and MRI, respectively (Z=2.58, P<0.05). CT was worse than MRI in preoperatively evaluating the features of tumor growing along mucous, with the accuracies of 77.8% (14/18) and 92.6% (13/14) for CT and MRI, respectively (Z=4.23, P<0.01). Conclusion: IPNB had the features of growing along mucous of the bile duct, nodule or mass in dilated bile duct and other features, CT and MRI are

  17. Transabdominal Ultrasound Colonography for Detection of Colorectal Neoplasms: Initial Clinical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Ya; Chen, Li-Da; Xu, Jian-Bo; Wu, Hui; Ye, Jin-Ning; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Wei; Lu, Ming-De

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using ultrasound colonography (USC) to visualize the healthy colon and rectum and detect colorectal polyps. Eight healthy volunteers underwent USC after standard bowel preparation. The feasibility and image quality of USC in different segments were evaluated. Then, USC was conducted on eight patients with known colonic neoplasms using colonoscopy as the reference standard. For volunteers, USC examinations were successfully performed on four (50.0%) ascending, three (37.5%) transverse and eight (100%) descending colons, as well as all sigmoid colons and rectums. One of four (25.0%) ascending, two of eight (25.0%) descending and all sigmoid colons and rectums were well visualized and free of artifacts. For patients, colonoscopy revealed that eight patients had 17 neoplasms in the distal sigmoid colon and rectum, which included 3 lesions ≤5 mm, 3 lesions 6-9 mm and 11 lesions ≥10 mm. USC visualized 12 of 17 (70.6%) neoplasms. Lesion detection by USC was 0% (0/3), 33.3% (1/3) and 100% (11/11) for neoplasms ≤5, 6-9 mm and ≥10 mm in size. USC can visualize the sigmoid colon and rectum well and detect distal sigmoid and rectal neoplasms ≥10 mm in diameter. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection is an independent risk factor of early and advanced colorectal neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jun; Kim, Eun Ran; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Young-Ho; Baek, Sun-Young; Kim, Kyunga; Hong, Sung Noh

    2017-06-01

    The role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the development of colorectal neoplasm remains controversial. We examined the association between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasm in a large sample of healthy participants who underwent screening colonoscopy. A cross-sectional study of 8916 men, who participated in a regular health-screening examination that included an H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G antibody test and colonoscopy, was conducted to evaluate the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasm. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, regular exercise, regular aspirin use, and family history of colorectal cancer showed that the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for any adenoma and advanced neoplasm was 1.32 (1.07-1.61) and 1.90 (1.05-3.56) in participants with H. pylori infection and without H. pylori infection, respectively. The association persisted after further adjustment for inflammatory markers or metabolic variables including fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Regarding the location, a positive association was confined to cases with proximal adenomas and was observed similarly in all the evaluated subgroups. In a large-scale study, carefully controlled for confounding factors, involving asymptomatic participants without a history of colonoscopy, H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the risk of any colorectal adenoma and advanced colorectal neoplasm. Prospective studies are necessary to determine whether H. pylori eradication can reduce this risk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Classification tree analysis of second neoplasms in survivors of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jazbec, Janez; Todorovski, Ljupčo; Jereb, Berta

    2007-01-01

    Reports on childhood cancer survivors estimated cumulative probability of developing secondary neoplasms vary from 3,3% to 25% at 25 years from diagnosis, and the risk of developing another cancer to several times greater than in the general population. In our retrospective study, we have used the classification tree multivariate method on a group of 849 first cancer survivors, to identify childhood cancer patients with the greatest risk for development of secondary neoplasms. In observed group of patients, 34 develop secondary neoplasm after treatment of primary cancer. Analysis of parameters present at the treatment of first cancer, exposed two groups of patients at the special risk for secondary neoplasm. First are female patients treated for Hodgkin's disease at the age between 10 and 15 years, whose treatment included radiotherapy. Second group at special risk were male patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who were treated at the age between 4,6 and 6,6 years of age. The risk groups identified in our study are similar to the results of studies that used more conventional approaches. Usefulness of our approach in study of occurrence of second neoplasms should be confirmed in larger sample study, but user friendly presentation of results makes it attractive for further studies

  20. Influence of transcatheter hepatic artery embolization using iodized oil on radiofrequency ablation of hepatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xilin; Ma Qingjiu; Wang Yiqing; Wang Zhimin; Zhang Hongxin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of iodized oil on radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) of hepatic neoplasms by using a cluster array of ten separate electrodes. Methods: The patients were divided into 2 groups, group A with transcatheter hepatic artery embolization, group B without transcatheter hepatic artery embolization. All patients were undergone radiofrequency ablation of hepatic neoplasms. Results: The time of RFA for group A was (9 ± 2.1) minutes, showing the diameter of necrosis of (5.3 ± 1.4) cm. The time of RFA for group B was (16 ± 4. 6) minutes demonstrating the diameter of necrosis of (3.5 ± 1.8) cm (P<0.01). Conclusions: These findings suggest that radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatic neoplasms with transcatheter hepatic artery embolization using iodized oil might improve the safety and synergic effect

  1. Serous Cystadenoma of the Pancreas Presenting as a Third Primary Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Şeref Köksal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Serous cystadenomas are the most common cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. They may occur solely or coexist with other neoplasms. A 10 cm mass involving the body of the pancreas was observed in the computed tomography of a 61-year-old man with a previous history of bladder and prostate carcinoma. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of the mass demonstrated multiple small cysts associated with a central calcified scar. A distal pancreatectomy was performed. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of serous microcystic adenoma. This is the first report of a serous cystadenoma of the pancreas with two metachronous neoplasms. This feature should be kept in mind during the diagnosis and evaluation of patients with serous cystadenoma.

  2. Dietary patterns and risk of advanced colorectal neoplasms: A large population based screening study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erben, Vanessa; Carr, Prudence R; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2018-06-01

    Specific components of the diet such as red and processed meat have been associated with the risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, evidence on the association of dietary patterns with colorectal neoplasms is sparse. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of dietary patterns with prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasms among older adults in Germany. A cross-sectional study was conducted among participants of screening colonoscopy in Saarland, Germany, who were enrolled in the KolosSal study (Effektivität der Früherkennungs-Koloskopie: eine Saarland-weite Studie) from 2005 to 2013. Information on diet and lifestyle factors was obtained through questionnaires and colonoscopy results were extracted from physicians' reports. Associations of a priori defined dietary patterns (vegetarian or adapted versions of the Healthy Eating Index [HEI] and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH] index) with the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasms were assessed by multiple logistic regression analyses with comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders. A total of 14,309 participants were included (1561 with advanced colorectal neoplasms). Healthier eating behavior was associated with lower prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasms in a dose-response manner. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest with the lowest categories of adapted HEI and DASH were 0.61 (0.50, 0.76) and 0.70 (0.55, 0.89), respectively. No significant associations were observed for a vegetarian eating pattern (adjusted OR 0.80 (0.55, 1.17)). Healthy dietary patterns, as described by a high HEI or DASH score, but not a vegetarian diet alone, are associated with reduced risk of advanced colorectal neoplasms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunomodifying effect of VCG vaccine in treatment of urinary bladder neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neprina, G.S.; Panteleeva, E.S.; Vatin, O.E.; Karyakin, O.B.; Kurasova, V.G.; Filatov, P.P.; Dunchik, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that immunotherapy realization using VCG vaccine after completion of PCT (polychemotherapy) course in patients suffering from later stages of urinary bladder neoplasm, allowed one to maximally connect stages of chemo- and radiation therapy at the expense of sufficient increase of the quantity of main groups of immunocompetent cells. Introduction of incometacin to immunocorrection scheme allowed one to remove disbalance in immunoregulating lymphocyte system which testifies to advisability of combined applicaion of VCG vaccine and indometacin in complex treatment of cerinary bladder neoplasms. 5 refs

  4. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in vivo for diagnosing melanocytic skin neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy in vivo (CLSM for diagnosing melanocytic skin neoplasms and its value for early diagnostics of melanoma. CLSM is an innovation noninvasive visual examination method for real-time multiple and painless examinations of the patient’s skin without injuring the skin integument. The method ensures early diagnostics of skin melanomas with high sensitivity and specificity, which makes it possible to use CLSM for screening melanocytic skin neoplasms for the sake of the early onset of treatment to save patient life and health.

  5. Malignant Nonfunctioning Neuroendocrine Neoplasm of the Pancreas in a 10-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Marwan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant neoplasms of the pancreas are extremely rare in children and only represent a small percentage of pediatric cancer-related deaths. The paucity of cases reported in the literature, in addition to the lack of understanding of biologic behavior, has led to a lack of consensus concerning optimal management strategy. Presentation differs compared to adult counterparts and generally prognosis is improved even when lymph node metastases occur. Here we review the literature and report the case of a 10-year-old autistic female with a malignant nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine neoplasm of the head of the pancreas successfully extirpated via pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  6. Surgical management of neoplasms of the ampulla of Vater: Local resection or pancreatoduodenectomy and prognostic factors for survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, S. M. M.; van Heek, N. T.; Kuhlmann, K. F. D.; Busch, O. R. C.; Offerhaus, G. J. A.; van Gulik, T. M.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    yBackground. Neoplasms of the ampulla of Vater have a better 5-year survival than pancreatic and bile duct neoplasms after resection. This study was Performed to analyze the outcome after local resection and pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) and to identify predictive factors for survival. Methods. We used

  7. Endoscopic Ultrasound Fine-Needle Aspiration Characteristics of Primary Adenocarcinoma versus Other Malignant Neoplasms of The Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Gagovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS with fine-needle aspiration (FNA is often used to assist in the evaluation of pancreatic lesions and may help to diagnose benign versus malignant neoplasms. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding comparative EUS characteristics of various malignant pancreatic neoplasms (primary and metastatic.

  8. Broilers fed dietary vitamins harbor higher diversity of cecal bacteria and higher ratio of Clostridium, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus than broilers with no dietary vitamins revealed by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu-heng; Peng, Huan-wei; Wright, André-Denis G; Bai, Shi-ping; Ding, Xue-mei; Zeng, Qiu-feng; Li, Hua; Zheng, Ping; Su, Zhuo-wei; Cui, Ren-yong; Zhang, Ke-ying

    2013-09-01

    Research on the interaction between dietary vitamins and intestinal bacteria is poorly understood. To investigate the effect of dietary vitamins on the cecal bacterial communities, 2 bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from the cecal digesta of 28-d broilers fed diets with vitamins (V) at the NRC level or with no vitamins (NV). The results showed that BW gain and average feed intake of V broilers was significantly higher (P vitamins can increase the ratio of facultative pathogenic bacteria and decrease the diversity of bacteria in the cecum of broilers. Our results provide new leads for further investigations on the interaction between dietary vitamin additives and the gut health of broilers.

  9. Características do líquido peritoneal de eqüinos normais após punção cecal percutânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valadão Carlos Augusto Araújo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados 10 eqüinos da raça Manga Larga, machos, inteiros clinicamente sadios, submetidos à punção cecal percutânea. Analisou-se a resposta clínica, celular, bioquímica e microbiológica do líquido peritoneal por um período de 24 horas após a punção cecal, nos tempos T0, T6, T12 e T24. Foi observada elevação na freqüência respiratória em T6 e na temperatura retal entre T6 e T12. Decorridas 24 horas da punção cecal, ocorreu aumento na concentração de proteínas totais do líquido peritoneal e na atividade da fosfatase alcalina. Tanto a atividade da ALT quanto os níveis de hemoglobina apresentaram diminuição em T6. Não foram registradas alterações na celularidade do plasma ou do líquido peritoneal e obteve-se resultado negativo para a cultura microbiológica do líquido. Considerando a inexistência de efeitos adversos, além das poucas alterações descritas, conclui-se que a punção cecal percutânea é um procedimento seguro e factível, se praticada criteriosamente.

  10. Decreased IgA+ B Cells Population and IgA, IgG, IgM Contents of the Cecal Tonsil Induced by Dietary High Fluorine in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangping Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in humans and animals. The cecal tonsil is an important component of the mucosal immune system and performs important and unique immune functions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on the quantities of IgA+ B cells in the cecal tonsil by immunohistochemistry, and the immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM contents in the cecal tonsil by ELISA. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg or the same diet supplemented with 400, 800 and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II and III in the form of sodium fluoride, respectively, throughout a 42-day experimental period. The results showed that the quantities of IgA+ B cells were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 and the IgA, IgG, and IgM contents were decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 in high fluorine groups II and III in comparison with those of control group. It was concluded that dietary fluorine, in the 800–1,200 mg/kg range, could reduce the numbers of the IgA+ B cells and immunoglobulin contents in the cecal tonsil, implying the local mucosal immune function was ultimately impacted in broilers.

  11. Effect of supplementation of yeast with bacteriocin and culture on growth performance, cecal fermentation, microbiota composition, and blood characteristics in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of yeast with bacteriocin and Lactobacillus cultures (mixture of Lactobacillus agilis BCRC 10436 and Lactobacillus reuteri BCRC 17476 supplements, alone or in combination, on broiler chicken performance. Methods A total of 300, 1-d-old healthy broiler chickens were randomly divided into five treatment groups: i basal diet (control, ii basal diet+0.25% yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YC, iii basal diet+0.25% yeast with bacteriocin (BA, iv basal diet+Lactobacillus cultures (LAB, and v basal diet +0.25% yeast with bacteriocin+Lactobacillus cultures (BA+LAB. Growth performance, cecal microbiota, cecal fermentation products, and blood biochemistry parameters were determined when chickens were 21 and 35 d old. Results The supplementation of YC, BA, and BA+LAB resulted in a significantly better feed conversion rate (FCR than that of the control group during 1 to 21 d (p<0.05. The LAB supplementation had a significant effect on the presence of Lactobacillus in the ceca at 35 d. None of the supplements had an effect on relative numbers of L. agilis and L. reuter at 21 d, but the BA supplementation resulted in the decrease of both Lactobacillus strains at 35 d. The BA+LAB supplementation resulted in higher short chain fatty acid (SCFA in the ceca, but LAB supplementation significantly decreased the SCFA at 35 d (p<0.05. All treatments tended to decrease ammonia concentration in the ceca at 21 d, especially in the LAB treatment group. The BA supplementation alone decreased the triacylglycerol (TG concentration significantly at 21 d (p<0.05, but the synergistic effect of BA and LAB supplementation was required to reduce the TG concentration at 35 d. The YC supplementation tended to increase the plasma cholesterol at 21 d and 35 d. However, the BA supplementation significantly decreased the cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level at 35 d. In conclusion, the BA

  12. Diminished responsiveness to dobutamine as an inotrope in mice with cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis: attribution to phosphodiesterase 4 upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mari; Suzuki, Tokiko; Tomita, Kengo; Yamashita, Shigeyuki; Palikhe, Sailesh; Hattori, Kohshi; Yoshimura, Naoki; Matsuda, Naoyuki; Hattori, Yuichi

    2017-06-01

    Dobutamine has been used in septic shock for many years as an only inotrope, but its benefit has been questioned. We weighed the effects of dobutamine and milrinone as inotropes in mice with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis. CLP-induced septic mice exhibited significant cardiac inflammation, as indicated by greatly increased mRNAs of proinflammatory cytokines and robust infiltration of inflammatory cells in the ventricular myocardium. Elevations of plasma cardiac troponin-I showed cardiac injury in CLP mice. Noninvasive echocardiographic assessment of cardiac function revealed that despite preserved left ventricular function in the presence of fluid replacement, the dobutamine inotropic response was significantly impaired in CLP mice compared with sham-operated controls. By contrast, milrinone exerted inotropic effects in sham-operated and CLP mice in an equally effective manner. Surface expression levels of β 1 -adrenoceptors and α-subunits of three main G protein families in the myocardium were unaffected by CLP-induced sepsis. Plasma cAMP levels were significantly elevated in both sham-operated and CLP mice in response to milrinone but only in sham-operated controls in response to dobutamine. Of phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms, PDE4D, but not PDE3A, both of which are responsible for cardiac cAMP hydrolysis, was significantly upregulated in CLP mouse myocardium. We define a novel mechanism for the impaired responsiveness to dobutamine as an inotrope in sepsis, and understanding the role of PDE4D in modulating cardiac functional responsiveness in sepsis may open the potential of a PDE4D-targeted therapeutic option in septic patients with low cardiac output who have a need for inotropic support. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Advisability of the usefulness of dobutamine in septic shock management is limited. Here, we reveal that the effect of dobutamine as a positive inotrope is impaired in mice with cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis

  13. Nodular fasciitis: A pseudomalignant clonal neoplasm characterized by USP gene rearrangements and spontaneous regression

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennebry, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a rapidly growing, self-limited, myofibroblastic neoplasm that typically arises in subcutaneous tissues of young adults and regresses spontaneously. Nodular fasciitis mimics sarcoma on clinical, radiological, and histological grounds and is usually, diagnosed following excision.\\r\

  14. Successful Control of Liver Metastases From Pancreatic Solid-Pseudopapillary Neoplasm (SPN) Using Hepatic Arterial Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violari, Elena G., E-mail: eviolari@live.com; Brody, Lynn A.; Covey, Anne M.; Erinjeri, Joseph P.; Getrajdman, George I.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology Service (United States); Reidy, Diane L. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Gastrointestinal Oncology Service (United States); Jarnagin, William R. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, Hepatopancreatobiliary Service (United States); Brown, Karen T. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology Service (United States)

    2015-04-15

    No systemic agents that are known to be effective for the treatment of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) are available. We report the prolonged and sustained control of metastatic pancreatic SPN to the liver using hepatic arterial embolization (HAE), where a total of 13 HAE sessions were performed over a 6-year period.

  15. Evaluation of a selective management strategy of patients with primary cystic neoplasms of the pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, S. M. M.; Houwert, J. T.; van der Gaag, N. A.; Busch, O. R. C.; van Gulik, T. M.; Gouma, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that a selective group of patients with primary cystic neoplasms of the pancreas can be managed conservatively by radiological follow-up. The aim of this study was to analyze if such a strategy is efficient and safe. A retrospective analyses was performed of patients who

  16. Diagnostic yield of combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion weighted imaging in intracranial neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayat E. El Sherbeny

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: MRS has a robust diagnostic accuracy in cases of well defined high or low grade brain neoplasms. ADC value had the ability to confirm and differentiate low from high grade tumors in many situations where there were diagnostic confusions with MRS due to borderline values.

  17. The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A revision of the nearly 8-year-old World Health Organization classification of the lymphoid neoplasms and the accompanying monograph is being published. It reflects a consensus among hematopathologists, geneticists, and clinicians regarding both updates to current entities as well as the addition of a limited number of new provisional entities.

  18. Smell and taste in patients with neoplasms tumors of palatine tonsils treated by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korytowska, A.; Szmeja, Z.; Wojtowicz, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    The smell and taste investigations were made in group of 47 subjects with neoplasms of palatine tonsils surgical treated with radiation and in group of 7 subjects treated only by radiation. The investigation presents mostly quantitative disturbance of smell in both groups but with temporary character. (author)

  19. Preparation of {sup 125}I-labeled monoclonal antibody of bladder neoplasm using lactoperoxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huaifen, Li; Huisheng, Niu; Mingyue, Yuan; Yongzhi, Huang [Chinese Acaolemy of Medical Sciences, Tianjin (China). Inst. of Radiation Medicine

    1994-11-01

    {sup 125}I-labelled monoclonal antibody of bladder neoplasm ({sup 125}I-L{sub 4}B{sub 4}) is prepared using lactoperoxidase. The in-vivo radioactive distribution of {sup 125}I-L{sub 4}B{sub 4} in bare mice shows that {sup 125}I-L{sub 4}B{sub 4} concentrates in the tumour.

  20. Preparation of 125I-labeled monoclonal antibody of bladder neoplasm using lactoperoxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huaifen; Niu Huisheng; Yuan Mingyue; Huang Yongzhi

    1994-01-01

    125 I-labelled monoclonal antibody of bladder neoplasm ( 125 I-L 4 B 4 ) is prepared using lactoperoxidase. The in-vivo radioactive distribution of 125 I-L 4 B 4 in bare mice shows that 125 I-L 4 B 4 concentrates in the tumour

  1. Synthetic display of three-dimensional CT and MPR for gastric neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Toshihiro; Maruyama, Masakazu

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to obtain synthesized three dimensional (3D) and MPR (Multi Planar Reconstruction) helical CT scans (3D-MPR-CT) of gastric neoplasm by using the air as a contrast medium, and we assessed the usefulness of 3D-MPR-CT gastroendoscopy in the diagnosis of gastric neoplasm. Five minutes before the scan, 20 mg Scopolamine Butylbromide (Buscopan) was injected intramuscularly to minimize gastric peristalsis. An effervescent agent (bubble-make granules) was fed to extend the stomach wall. Non-ionic contrast material (100 mL) was power injected immediately before the scan start. Axial images were obtained with an intersection gap of 5-mm, a 5-mm/sec table speed, and 1-mm reconstruction intervals. 3D-MPR-CT images were reconstructed from these images. In abdominal study, 3D-MPR-CT images enabled the visualization of neoplasm and its adjacent structures in versatile directions, including a view similar to endoscopic observation, proximal aspect of narrowing by tumor and also could get the information about invasive depth of gastric neoplasm. Reports on some clinical cases and the advantages and disadvantages of 3D-MPR-CT gastroendoscopy were discussed. (author)

  2. Histologically benign but clinically malignant neoplasms in the thorax: CT–pathological overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.Y.; Kim, T.S.; Han, J.; Kim, H.; Choi, Y.S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the computed tomography (CT) and histopathological features of uncommon primary neoplasms of the thorax that can manifest clinically malignant features (multiplicity of pulmonary nodules, an invasive nature, and metastases or recurrence after surgery) with little evidence of histological malignancy.

  3. Molecular genetics of intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Toru

    2007-01-01

    Intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas show characteristic clinicopathological and molecular pathobiological features which are distinct from those of conventional ductal adenocarcinomas. Alterations of KRAS, AKT/PKB, CDKN2A, TP53, SMAD4, STK11/LKB1, and DUSP6, and other molecular alterations, including global expression studies as well as their clinical implications, are discussed.

  4. Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of metastatic neoplasms of the breast. A three-case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Garza-Guajardo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastases to the breast are unusual lesions that make up approximately 2% of all malignant mammary neoplasms and may mimic both benign and malignant primary neoplasms from a clinical point of view, as well as in imaging studies. Arriving at a correct diagnosis is therefore essential in order to establish appropriate management. We present three cases of metastatic neoplasms diagnosed through fine needle aspiration biopsy and immunocytochemistry. The cytological diagnoses were: medulloblastoma in an 18-year-old woman, melanoma in a 26-year-old man, and an exceptional case of ovarian sarcoma originating from a granulosa cell tumor with metastases to both breasts. A metastatic disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a palpable mass in the breast, especially if there is a history of an extramammary malignant neoplasm. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the method of choice for the management of these cases. Whenever possible the exam of the material obtained should be compared to the previous biopsy, which is usually enough to arrive at a correct diagnosis, thus preventing unnecessary surgical procedures.

  5. Agreement Between Cytology and Histopathology for Regional Lymph Node Metastasis in Dogs With Melanocytic Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Janet A; Matz, Brad M; Christopherson, Pete W; Koehler, Jey W; Cappelle, Kelsey K; Hlusko, Katelyn C; Smith, Annette

    2017-07-01

    Melanocytic neoplasms are common in dogs and frequently occur within the oral cavity or in haired skin. The behavior of melanocytic neoplasms is variable and depends on tumor location, size, and histopathologic features. This study compared cytopathology and histopathology of 32 lymph nodes from 27 dogs diagnosed with melanocytic neoplasms. Agreement between the original cytology report, cytology slide review, original histopathology report, and histopathology slide review was determined for each lymph node. A subset of lymph nodes was subjected to immunohistochemistry (Melan-A) and additional histochemical stains/techniques (Prussian blue, bleach) to assist in differentiation of melanocytes and melanophages. Agreement ranged from slight to fair for each of the variables evaluated with weighted kappa (κ w ) or kappa (κ) analysis (original cytology vs cytology review κ w = 0.24; original cytology vs original histopathology κ w = 0.007; original cytology vs histopathology review κ w = 0.23; cytology review vs original histopathology κ w = 0.008; cytology review vs histopathology review κ w = 0.006; and original histopathology vs histopathology review κ = 0.18). The diagnoses (metastatic, equivocal, or negative for metastasis) of the original report and slide review for both cytology and histopathology were not significantly correlated with survival in this population of patients. Overall, agreement between cytology and histopathology was poor even with a single clinical or anatomic pathologist performing slide review. Consensus between routine cytology and histopathology for staging of lymph nodes in patients with melanocytic neoplasms is poor and does not correlate with survival.

  6. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for pancreatic neoplasms without hematoxylin and eosin stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youting; Chen, Jing; Chen, Hong; Hong, Zhipeng; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Yanling; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of tissue samples is the standard approach in histopathology for imaging and diagnosing cancer. Recent reports have shown that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides better sample interface with single-cell resolution, which enhances traditional H&E staining and offers a powerful diagnostic tool with potential applications in oncology. The purpose of this study was to further expand the versatility of MPM by establishing the optical parameters required for imaging unstained histological sections of pancreatic neoplasms, thereby providing an efficient and environmentally sustainable alternative to H&E staining while improving the accuracy of pancreatic cancer diagnoses. We found that the high-resolution MPM images clearly distinguish between the structure of normal pancreatic tissues compared with pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections, and discernable differences in tissue architecture and cell morphology between normal versus tumorigenic cells led to enhanced optical diagnosis of cancerous tissue. Moreover, quantitative assessment of the cytomorphological features visualized from MPM images showed significant differences in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios of pancreatic neoplasms compared with normal pancreas, as well as further distinguished pancreatic malignant tumors from benign tumors. These results indicate that the MPM could potentially serve as an optical tool for the diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections.

  7. Myeloid neoplasm with prominent eosinophilia and PDGFRA rearrangement treated with imatinib mesylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Møller, Michael Boe

    2010-01-01

    of FIP1L1-PDGFRA positive disease has been reported. We report a 2-year-old female with a myeloid neoplasm associated with eosinophilia and rearrangement of PDGFRA. Treatment with imatinib resulted in complete and durable clinical, hematological, and molecular remission within 3 months after starting...

  8. Surgical Management of Penile and Preputial Neoplasms in Equine with Special Reference to Partial Phallectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Rizk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile and preputial neoplasia in horses occurs infrequently and represents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The present study was carried out on a total number of 21 equids (14 stallions and 7 donkeys suffered from different penile and preputial neoplasia. Diagnosis of neoplasms was based up on history of the case, clinical examination as well as histopathological evaluation. Animals with penile and preputial neoplasms were underwent local excision and partial phallectomy with a slightly modified version of the techniques described by William’s. The diagnosed neoplasms were penile and preputial squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; ; sarcoid (; a-fibrosarcoma; and a melanoma. Local excision was curative in all cases except 5 stallions with SCCs. These stallions had extensive damage of the glans penis, free part of the penis and the inner lamina of the internal fold of the prepuce, and they underwent a partial phallectomy with successful outcome. Follow-up information was obtained by visit and telephone inquiries. In conclusion, penile and preputial neoplasms are commonly encountered in elderly male horses and SCCs are the most common type affecting male external genitalia. Partial phallectomy is effective for management of equine neoplasia if they are confined to the glans and body of the penis and there is no proximal spread or involvement to regional lymph nodes.

  9. Single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy for low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm after laparoscopic rectectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Shiki; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Noura, Shingo; Shingai, Tatsushi; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Ohue, Masayuki; Yano, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    In this case report, we discuss single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy for low-grade appendiceal neoplasm after laparoscopic anterior resection for rectal cancer. The optimal surgical therapy for low-grade appendiceal neoplasm is controversial; currently, the options include appendectomy, cecectomy, right hemicolectomy, and open or laparoscopic surgery. Due to the risk of pseudomyxoma peritonei, complete resection without rupture is necessary. We have encountered 5 cases of low-grade appendiceal neoplasm and all 5 patients had no lymph node metastasis. We chose the appendectomy or cecectomy without lymph node dissection if preoperative imaging studies did not suspect malignancy. In the present case, we performed cecectomy without lymph node dissection by single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), which is reported to be a reduced port surgery associated with decreased invasiveness and patient stress compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery. We are confident that SILS is a feasible alternative to traditional surgical procedures for borderline tumors, such as low-grade appendiceal neoplasms. PMID:24868331

  10. The Disruption of Geniculocalcarine Tract in Occipital Neoplasm: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

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    Yan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Investigate the disruption of geniculocalcarine tract (GCT in different occipital neoplasm by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Methods. Thirty-two subjects (44.1 ± 3.6 years who had single occipital neoplasm (9 gliomas, 6 meningiomas, and 17 metastatic tumors with ipsilateral GCT involved and thirty healthy subjects (39.2 ± 3.3 years underwent conventional sequences scanning and diffusion tensor imaging by a 1.5T MR scanner. The diffusion-sensitive gradient direction is 13. Compare the fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD values of healthy GCT with the corresponding values of GCT in peritumoral edema area. Perform diffusion tensor tractography (DTT on GCT by the line propagation technique in all subjects. Results. The FA values of GCT in peritumoral edema area decreased (P=0.001 while the MD values increased (P=0.002 when compared with healthy subjects. There was no difference in the FA values across tumor types (P=0.114 while the MD values of GCT in the metastatic tumor group were higher than the other groups (P=0.001. GCTs were infiltrated in all the 9 gliomas cases, with displacement in 2 cases and disruption in 7 cases. GCTs were displaced in 6 meningiomas cases. GCTs were displaced in all the 7 metastatic cases, with disruption in 7 cases. Conclusions. DTI represents valid markers for evaluating GCT’s disruption in occipital neoplasm. The disruption of GCT varies according to the properties of neoplasm.

  11. Prevalence of colorectal neoplasm among patients with newly diagnosed coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Annie On On; Jim, Man Hong; Lam, Kwok Fai; Morris, Jeffrey S; Siu, David Chun Wah; Tong, Teresa; Ng, Fook Hong; Wong, Siu Yin; Hui, Wai Mo; Chan, Chi Kuen; Lai, Kam Chuen; Cheung, Ting Kin; Chan, Pierre; Wong, Grace; Yuen, Man Fung; Lau, Yuk Kong; Lee, Stephen; Szeto, Ming Leung; Wong, Benjamin C Y; Lam, Shiu Kum

    2007-09-26

    Colorectal neoplasm and coronary artery disease (CAD) share similar risk factors, and their co-occurrence may be associated. To investigate the prevalence of colorectal neoplasm in patients with CAD in a cross-sectional study and to identify the predisposing factors for the association of the 2 diseases. Patients in Hong Kong, China, were recruited for screening colonoscopy after undergoing coronary angiography for suspected CAD during November 2004 to June 2006. Presence of CAD (n = 206) was defined as at least 50% diameter stenosis in any 1 of the major coronary arteries; otherwise, patients were considered CAD-negative (n = 208). An age- and sex-matched control group was recruited from the general population (n = 207). Patients were excluded for use of aspirin or statins, personal history of colonic disease, or colonoscopy in the past 10 years. The prevalence of colorectal neoplasm in CAD-positive, CAD-negative, and general population participants was determined. Bivariate logistic regression was performed to study the association between colorectal neoplasm and CAD and to identify risk factors for the association of the 2 diseases after adjusting for age and sex. The prevalence of colorectal neoplasm in the CAD-positive, CAD-negative, and general population groups was 34.0%, 18.8%, and 20.8% (P < .001 by chi2 test), prevalence of advanced lesions was 18.4%, 8.7%, and 5.8% (P < .001), and prevalence of cancer was 4.4%, 0.5%, and 1.4% (P = .02), respectively. Fifty percent of the cancers in CAD-positive participants were early stage. After adjusting for age and sex, an association still existed between colorectal neoplasm and presence of CAD (odds ratio [OR], 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.70; P = .002) and between advanced lesions and presence of CAD (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.43-4.35; P = .001). The metabolic syndrome (OR, 5.99; 95% CI, 1.43-27.94; P = .02) and history of smoking (OR, 4.74; 95% CI, 1.38-18.92; P = .02) were independent factors for the

  12. Modern classification of neoplasms: reconciling differences between morphologic and molecular approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Jules

    2005-01-01

    For over 150 years, pathologists have relied on histomorphology to classify and diagnose neoplasms. Their success has been stunning, permitting the accurate diagnosis of thousands of different types of neoplasms using only a microscope and a trained eye. In the past two decades, cancer genomics has challenged the supremacy of histomorphology by identifying genetic alterations shared by morphologically diverse tumors and by finding genetic features that distinguish subgroups of morphologically homogeneous tumors. The Developmental Lineage Classification and Taxonomy of Neoplasms groups neoplasms by their embryologic origin. The putative value of this classification is based on the expectation that tumors of a common developmental lineage will share common metabolic pathways and common responses to drugs that target these pathways. The purpose of this manuscript is to show that grouping tumors according to their developmental lineage can reconcile certain fundamental discrepancies resulting from morphologic and molecular approaches to neoplasm classification. In this study, six issues in tumor classification are described that exemplify the growing rift between morphologic and molecular approaches to tumor classification: 1) the morphologic separation between epithelial and non-epithelial tumors; 2) the grouping of tumors based on shared cellular functions; 3) the distinction between germ cell tumors and pluripotent tumors of non-germ cell origin; 4) the distinction between tumors that have lost their differentiation and tumors that arise from uncommitted stem cells; 5) the molecular properties shared by morphologically disparate tumors that have a common developmental lineage, and 6) the problem of re-classifying morphologically identical but clinically distinct subsets of tumors. The discussion of these issues in the context of describing different methods of tumor classification is intended to underscore the clinical value of a robust tumor classification. A

  13. Clinicopathologic features of hepatic neoplasms in explanted livers: a single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, W.; Tulbah, A.; Al-Omari, M.; Al-Mana, H.; Khalaf, H.; Neiamatallah, M.

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic neoplasms can be the primary indication for hepatic transplantation. The tumors can also be incidentally identified in explanted livers. We explored the clinicopathologic features of hepatic neoplasms identified in explanted livers. All explanted livers resected between 2001 and 2006 were evaluated for the presence of neoplasms and their clinicopathologic features were examined. In 198 liver transplants, 15 neoplasms (15.3%) were identified. Patient ages ranged from 5 to 63 years (median, 56 years). The primary etiology of hepatic disease was hepatitis C virus in 12 cases, hepatitis B virus in 1 case, cryptogenic cirrhosis in 1 case and congenital hepatic fibrosis in 1 case. Serum alpha-fetoprotein was significantly elevated (>400 U/L) in only 2 cases. CA19-9 was not elevated in any of the cases. The tumors included hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 13 cases, 1 case of cholangiocarcinoma and 1 case of combined HCC and hepatoblastoma. The tumors ranged in size from 0.5 to 5 cm (median 1.4 cm) and were multifocal in 5 of the cases (33%). Tissue alpha-fetoprotein expression was only seen in the cases associated with elevated serum levels. In our institution hepatic neoplasma are seen in more than 15% of explanted livers. They can be incidentally identified, are frequently not associated with elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and CA19-9, are commonly multifocal but small and are associated with good prognosis. Elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein, albeit specific, is not a very sensitive marker in the detection of hepatic neoplasms. (author)

  14. Solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas : radiologic pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Ki Whang; Cho, Nam Hoon

    1996-01-01

    To report variable radiologic manifestastions and to accomplish detailed radiologic-pathologic correlation of solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas. In 23 patients with surgically confirmed solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm, retrospective examination of operative records, gross and micropathologic findings, and radiologic findings including US(n=17), CT(n=23), ERCP(n=9), MRI(n=3) were carried out. On the basis of pathologic findings, detailed analysis of radiologic findings of solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm was then performed. Most pancreatic solid and papillary epithelial neoplasms(n=17) were seen as a mass with heterogeneous internal density consisting of cystic change, hemorrhagic necrosis, and tumor tissue, although the mass con also be seen to be homogeneous(n=6). On gross specimens, a capsule which showed enhancement on the delayed phase of the enhanced CT scan was demonstrated in 22 cases. In was seen as an echogenic rim on the ultrasound images and a low signal rim on the MR images. Calcification of the mass was seen in ten cases, nine of which showed peripheral calcification along the tumor capsule ; five cases showed calcifications within the mass. On pathologic examination, ten cases had a single or multiple cystic appearance ; in seven of these cases, this appeared on CT scan. In addition to usual mixed internal density caused by hemorrhagic necrosis of the tumor, enhanced capsule and internal multicystic appearance on CT scan were other characteristics of pancreatic solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm. These could be useful findings in the radiologic approach and in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses

  15. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Colorectal Neoplasms: Clinical Experience in a Tertiary Medical Center in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yu Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD is a promising technique to treat early colorectal neoplasms by facilitating en bloc resection without size limitations. Although ESD for early gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasms has been popular in Japan, clinical experience with colorectal ESD has been rarely reported in Taiwan. Methods. From March 2006 to December 2011, 92 consecutive patients with early colorectal neoplasms resected by ESD at Tri-Service General Hospital were included. ESD was performed for colorectal epithelial neoplasms with a noninvasive pit pattern which had the following criteria: (1 lesions difficult to remove en bloc with a snare, such as laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG ≧20 mm and laterally spreading tumors-granular type (LST-G ≧30 mm; (2 lesions with fibrosis or which had recurred after endoscopic mucosal resection with a nonlifting sign. Results. The mean age of the patients was 66.3±12.9 years, and the male-female ratio was 1.8 : 1. The mean tumor size was 37.2±17.9 mm. The en bloc resection rate was 90.2% and the R0 resection rate was 89.1%. Perforations during ESD occurred in 11 patients (12.0% and all of them were effectively treated by endoscopic closure with hemoclips. No delayed perforation or postoperative bleeding was recorded. There were no procedure-related morbidities or mortalities. Conclusion. ESD is an effective method for en bloc resection of large early colorectal neoplasms and those with a nonlifting sign. An endoscopic technique to close perforations is essential for colorectal ESD.

  16. Risk of malignant neoplasms in acromegaly: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, K; Stangierski, A; Dyrda, K; Nowicka, K; Pelka, M; Iqbal, A; Car, A; Lazizi, M; Bednarek, N; Czarnywojtek, A; Gurgul, E; Ruchala, M

    2017-03-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic disease resulting from pathological oversecretion of growth hormone and subsequently insulin growth factor-1. Several complications of the disease have been reported, including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders but also increased risk of benign and malignant neoplasms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of malignant neoplasms in the patients with acromegaly in comparison with the control group. Medical documentation of acromegalic patients treated in one medical center between 2005 and 2016 has been analyzed. Results were compared with sex- and age-matched group of subjects with prolactinomas and hormonally inactive pituitary lesions hospitalized in the same department. Two hundred patients with acromegaly were included. Control group was composed of 145 patients. Any malignant neoplasm in anamnesis was present in 27 (13.5 %) patients with acromegaly and six (4.1 %) subjects from control group (p = 0.003). Thyroid cancer was present in 14 (7.0 %) patients with acromegaly and two (1.4 %) in control group (p = 0.02). Breast cancer was present in seven women (5.4 % of women) in acromegaly group but none of subjects in control group (p = 0.02). Colon cancer-4 (2.0 %) patients in acromegaly group and 0 in control group (p = 0.14). Malignant neoplasms are significantly more common in patients with acromegaly. Particularly, risk of thyroid cancer was increased over fivefold. Systematic screening for neoplastic diseases should be important part of follow-up in these patients. Further case-control studies are strongly indicated to evaluate which neoplasms are more common in acromegalic patients and what is the exact risk of malignancy.

  17. Goblet cell carcinoid neoplasm of the appendix: Clinical and CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.S.; Tang, L.H.; Shia, J.; Paty, P.B.; Weiser, M.R.; Guillem, J.G.; Temple, L.K.; Nash, G.M.; Reidy, D.; Saltz, L.; Gollub, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the clinical and CT imaging features of goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) neoplasm of the appendix. Methods and materials: A computer search of pathology and radiology records over a 19-year period at our two institutions was performed using the search string “goblet”. In the patients with appendiceal GCC neoplasms who had abdominopelvic CT, imaging findings were categorized, blinded to gross and surgical description, as: “Appendicitis”, “Prominent appendix without peri-appendiceal infiltration”, “Mass” or “Normal appendix”. The CT appearance was correlated with an accepted pathological classification of: low grade GCC, signet ring cell adenocarcinoma ex, and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma ex GCC group. Results: Twenty-seven patients (age range, 28–80 years; mean age, 52 years; 15 female, 12 male) with pathology-proven appendiceal GCC neoplasm had CT scans that were reviewed. Patients presented with acute appendicitis (n = 12), abdominal pain not typical for appendicitis (n = 14) and incidental finding (n = 1). CT imaging showed 9 Appendicitis, 9 Prominent appendices without peri-appendiceal infiltration, 7 Masses and 2 Normal appendices. Appendicitis (8/9) usually correlated with typical low grade GCC on pathology. In contrast, the majority of Masses and Prominent Appendices without peri-appendiceal infiltration were pathologically confirmed to be signet ring cell adenocarcinoma ex GCC. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma ex GCC was seen in only a small minority of patients. Hyperattenuation of the appendiceal neoplasm was seen in a majority of cases. Conclusions: GCC neoplasm of the appendix should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with primary appendiceal malignancy. Our cases demonstrated close correlation between our predefined CT pattern and the pathological classification

  18. Goblet cell carcinoid neoplasm of the appendix: Clinical and CT features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.S., E-mail: kyungmouklee@alum.mit.edu [Department of Radiology Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Tang, L.H., E-mail: tangl@mskc.org [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Shia, J., E-mail: shiaj@mskcc.org [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Paty, P.B., E-mail: patyp@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Weiser, M.R., E-mail: weiser1@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Guillem, J.G., E-mail: guillemj@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Temple, L.K., E-mail: temple@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Nash, G.M., E-mail: nashg@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Reidy, D., E-mail: reidyd@mskcc.org [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Saltz, L., E-mail: saltzl@mskcc.org [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Gollub, M.J., E-mail: gollubm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiology Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To describe the clinical and CT imaging features of goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) neoplasm of the appendix. Methods and materials: A computer search of pathology and radiology records over a 19-year period at our two institutions was performed using the search string “goblet”. In the patients with appendiceal GCC neoplasms who had abdominopelvic CT, imaging findings were categorized, blinded to gross and surgical description, as: “Appendicitis”, “Prominent appendix without peri-appendiceal infiltration”, “Mass” or “Normal appendix”. The CT appearance was correlated with an accepted pathological classification of: low grade GCC, signet ring cell adenocarcinoma ex, and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma ex GCC group. Results: Twenty-seven patients (age range, 28–80 years; mean age, 52 years; 15 female, 12 male) with pathology-proven appendiceal GCC neoplasm had CT scans that were reviewed. Patients presented with acute appendicitis (n = 12), abdominal pain not typical for appendicitis (n = 14) and incidental finding (n = 1). CT imaging showed 9 Appendicitis, 9 Prominent appendices without peri-appendiceal infiltration, 7 Masses and 2 Normal appendices. Appendicitis (8/9) usually correlated with typical low grade GCC on pathology. In contrast, the majority of Masses and Prominent Appendices without peri-appendiceal infiltration were pathologically confirmed to be signet ring cell adenocarcinoma ex GCC. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma ex GCC was seen in only a small minority of patients. Hyperattenuation of the appendiceal neoplasm was seen in a majority of cases. Conclusions: GCC neoplasm of the appendix should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with primary appendiceal malignancy. Our cases demonstrated close correlation between our predefined CT pattern and the pathological classification.

  19. Efeito protetor da microbiota cecal congelada e liofilizada sobre a infecção experimental de frangos de corte por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreatti Filho R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos do tratamento de frangos de corte com microbiota cecal anaeróbia liofilizada (MCL e congelada (MCC sobre a infecção do trato digestivo das aves por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis. Foi usada microbiota intestinal sem prévia identificação bacteriana. A infecção foi persistente, em ordem, no ceco, inglúvio e duodeno. A infecção também foi autolimitante nos grupos tratados e no controle. Não ocorreu diferença entre o grupo-controle positivo e os tratados com MCL ou MCC. Houve redução da colonização do ceco no período de 12 dias após o desafio nos grupos tratados com MCL e MCC, o que não ocorreu no grupo-controle positivo. Não houve variação entre os tratamentos com MCL e MCC quanto às características pesquisadas. A S. Enteritidis reduziu o ganho de peso médio nas aves inoculadas. Os tratamentos com MCL e MCC minimizaram a redução de peso nos grupos infectados.

  20. Artesunate Reduces Serum Lipopolysaccharide in Cecal Ligation/Puncture Mice via Enhanced LPS Internalization by Macrophages through Increased mRNA Expression of Scavenger Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is the first line of defense in human beings against pathogen infection; monocytes/macrophages are the primary cells of the innate immune system. Recently, macrophages/monocytes have been discovered to participate in LPS clearance, and the clearance efficiency determines the magnitude of the inflammatory response and subsequent organ injury. Previously, we reported that artesunate (AS protected sepsis mice against heat-killed E. coli challenge. Herein, we further confirmed that AS protected cecal ligation/puncture (CLP sepsis mice. Its protection on sepsis mice was related to not only reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and serum LPS levels but also improvement of liver function. Based on the fact that AS did not directly bind and neutralize LPS, we hypothesized that the reduction of serum LPS level might be related to enhancement of LPS internalization and subsequent detoxification. Our results showed that AS increased FITC-LPS internalization by peritoneal macrophage and liver Kupffer cell, but enhancement of LPS internalization by AS was not related to the clathrin-dependent pathway. However, AS induced mRNA expression of important scavenger receptors (SRs; SR-A and MARCO mRNA expression was upregulated, suggesting that AS enhancement of LPS internalization and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines was related to changes in mRNA expression of SRs.

  1. Pomegranate protects liver against cecal ligation and puncture-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rats through TLR4/NF-κB pathway inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makled, Mirhan N; El-Awady, Mohammed S; Abdelaziz, Rania R; Atwan, Nadia; Guns, Emma T; Gameil, Nariman M; Shehab El-Din, Ahmed B; Ammar, Elsayed M

    2016-04-01

    Acute liver injury secondary to sepsis is a major challenge in intensive care unit. This study was designed to investigate potential protective effects of pomegranate against sepsis-induced acute liver injury in rats and possible underlying mechanisms. Pomegranate was orally given (800mg/kg/day) for two weeks before sepsis induction by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Pomegranate improved survival and attenuated liver inflammatory response, likely related to downregulation of mRNA expression of toll like recptor-4, reduced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB subunit p65, decreased mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduction in myeloperoxidase activity and mRNA expression. Pomegranate also decreased CLP-induced oxidative stress as reflected by decreased malondialdehyde content, and increased reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity. These results confirm the antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects of pomegranate in CLP-induced acute liver injury mediated through inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB pathway, lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. EFFECT OF AN ENZYMATIC COMPLEX ON EGG PRODUCTION AND QUALITY, TOTAL PLASMA PROTEIN LEVELS AND CECAL BACTERIAL COUNT OF LAYERS EFEITO DE UM COMPLEXO ENZIMÁTICO NA PRODUÇÃO E NA QUALIDADE DE OVOS, NOS NÍVEIS DE PROTEÍNAS PLASMÁTICAS E NA POPULAÇÃO BACTERIANA CECAL EM POEDEIRAS SEMIPESADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Pereira Gentilini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to relate the egg production with health status, expressed as cecal bacteria contamination, as well as to investigate the effect of total plasma proteins with egg quality of layers fed different diets reformulated to different metabolizable energy levels using an enzyme complex, obtained by solid state fermentation.  A total of  384 26-week old Hisex Brown layers were fed experimental diets during 280 days (10 periods of 28 days each. A total of 4 birds were allocated per cage, in a total of 64 birds/treatment. Treatments consisted in reformulating diets to different metablizable energy levels using an enzyme complex (EC obtained by  solid state fermentation:   T1 – basal diet (control; T2 –  basal diet  + EC (reformulated to  120 kcal ME/kg; T3 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 90 kcal ME/kg; T4 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 60 kcal ME/kg; T5 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 30 kcal ME/kg and T6 – basal diet + EC ( on top. Egg production, egg weight, Haugh units, albumen weight, total plasma proteins and cecal bacteria count were evaluated.  Egg weight and albumen weight and cecal bacteria count, but not egg production, Haugh units and total plasma proteins,   were adversely affected when the EC was added on top of a diet containing a regular commercial premix. This study indicates that the health status of the gut can be improved by adding the SSF enzyme complex on top of a regular diet.

    KEY WORDS: Exogenous enzymes, Haugh units, sanitary status.
    Objetivou-se relacionar a produção de ovos com o status sanitário das aves, expresso pelo nível de contaminação bacteriana cecal, bem como os níveis plasmáticos de proteínas totais com a qualidade dos ovos de aves que receberam dietas com complexo enzimático (CE com diferentes níveis de valorização da energia metabolizável. Utilizaram-se 384 poedeiras Hisex Brown por um período de 280 dias, divididos em dez ciclos de 28

  3. [Cardiac transplantation and neoplasms: experiences at Escola Paulista de Medicina of the Federal University of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello Junior, Walter Teixeira de; Branco, João Nelson R; Catani, Roberto; Aguiar, Luciano de Figueiredo; Paez, Rodrigo Pereira; Buffolo, Enio

    2006-02-01

    To study the occurrence and types of neoplasms developed by patients who underwent an orthotopic cardiac transplantation under the Program of Cardiac Transplantation of Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo. This is an observational study of 106 patients who underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation from November 1986 to September 2002 and survived at least thirty days following the procedure. The triple immunosuppressive regimen given included cyclosporin A, azathioprine and a corticosteroid agent. Only two patients received OKT3 in addition to the regimen established. Mean follow-up was 61.4 months (ranging from two months to 192 months). Twenty-three patients (21.3%) developed neoplasms--56.5% of these were skin neoplasm, 30.1%, solid tumors, and 13.4% of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Mean interval between transplantation and diagnosis of neoplasm was: 54.9 months for skin neoplasm; 24.8 months for solid tumors and 70.3 months for PTLD. Malignant neoplasms are relatively common in the population studied. Skin cancer was the most common type compared to the other types of neoplasms. Solid tumors were more frequently diagnosed than the lymphoproliferative diseases in the population examined.

  4. Some correlations between eight types of malignant neoplasms: A hint from cancer dynamics of 31 European countries in 20 years

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    WenJun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the data of standardised death rates of malignant neoplasms per 100000 inhabitants in 31 European countries during 1994-2013 were used to analyze linear correlations between eight types of cancers in terms of induced death rates. The results showed that most pairs of cancers closely correlate to each other. The malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri (women and the malignant neoplasm of trachea, bronchus and lung correlate most closely (r=0.5915, followed by the malignant neoplasms (r=0.4832 of colon, rectosigmoid junction, rectum, anus and anal canal and lymphatic/haematopoietic tissue, the malignant neoplasms (r=-0.483 of stomach, and trachea, bronchus and lung, the malignant neoplasms (r=0.4605 of skin and prostate (men, the malignant neoplasms (r=0.4344 of colon, rectosigmoid junction, rectum, anus and anal canal and trachea, bronchus and lung, etc. These correlations are likely caused by common or adverse environmental, social, medical or even genetic / molecular factors.

  5. Spectral CT imaging in differential diagnosis of pancreatic serous oligocystic adenoma and mucinous cystic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiaozhu; Chen Kemin; Wu Zhiyuan; Tao Ran; Guo Yan; Zhang Jing; Li Jianying; Shen Yun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT spectral imaging features of pancreatic serous oligocystic adenoma and mucinous cystic neoplasms and to assess the value of spectral CT in differentiating between pancreatic serous oligocystic adenoma and mucinous cystic neoplasms. Methods: From Feb. 2010 to Dec. 2010, 27 patients with cystic neoplasms of the pancreas (group one with 15 serous oligocystic adenomas and group two with 12 mucinous cystic neoplasms) underwent dual-phase CT spectral imaging followed by surgery. Quantitative values (age, tumor size, CT value change as function of photon energy, effective-Z, iodine-water concentration, and calcium-water concentration) were compared with independent samples t test and Mann-Whitney test and non-quantitative parameters (gender, symptom, and tumor location) were compared with Chi-square test (Fisher exact). The parameters with significant differences between two groups were analyzed further and the performance of multiple parameters for joint differential diagnosis was evaluated with discriminant analysis. Results: Compared to patients with mucinous cystic neoplasms, patients with serous oligocystic adenoma had younger age, lower frequency of being symptomatic and smaller tumor size. The CT values on 40 keV to 60 keV (with 10 keV increment) in late arterial phase [(36±13) HU vs. (62±23) HU, (26±8) HU vs. (40±15) HU, and (19±6) HU vs. (27±10) HU respectively] and 40 keV to 50 keV (with 10 keV increment) in portal venous phase [(43±14) HU vs. (61±25) HU and (30±10) HU vs. (40±16) HU respectively], effective-Z (late arterial phase 7.80± 0.16 vs. 8.05±0.21, and portal venous phase 7.87±0.15 vs 8.02±0.22), concentration of calcium (water) [late arterial phase (5±3) g/L vs. (11±4) g/L, t=-3.836, P=0.001 and portal venous phase (7±3) g/L vs. (10±5) g/L, t=-2.071, P=0.049] and iodine (water) [late arterial phase (0.38±0.24) g/L vs. (0.78±0.32) g/L, t=-3.755, P=0.001 and portal venous phase (0.48± 0.24) g/L vs. (0

  6. Molecular Diagnostics in the Neoplasms of the Pancreas, Liver, Gallbladder, and Extrahepatic Biliary Tract: 2018 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Bluth, Martin H; Bhalla, Amarpreet

    2018-06-01

    Pancreatic neoplasms, including ductal adenocarcinoma, solid pseudopapillary neoplasm, pancreatic endocrine neoplasms, acinar cell carcinoma, and pancreatoblastoma, are associated with different genetic abnormalities. Hepatic adenomas with beta-catenin exon 3 mutation are associated with a high risk of malignancy. Hepatic adenoma with arginosuccinate synthetase 1 expression or sonic hedgehog mutations are associated with a risk of bleeding. Hepatocellular carcinoma and choangiocarcinoma display heterogeneity at both morphologic and molecular levels Cholangiocellular carcinoma is most commonly associated with IDH 1/2 mutations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation, for pancreatic cystic neoplasms and neuroendocrine tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Madhava; Habib, Nagy; Senturk, Hakan; Lakhtakia, Sundeep; Reddy, Nageshwar; Cicinnati, Vito R; Kaba, Iyad; Beckebaum, Susanne; Drymousis, Panagiotis; Kahaleh, Michel; Brugge, William

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To outline the feasibility, safety, adverse events and early results of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in pancreatic neoplasms using a novel probe. METHODS: This is a multi-center, pilot safety feasibility study. The intervention described was radiofrequency ablation (RF) which was applied with an innovative monopolar RF probe (1.2 mm Habib EUS-RFA catheter) placed through a 19 or 22 gauge fine needle aspiration (FNA) needle once FNA was performed in patients with a tumor in the head of the pancreas. The Habib™ EUS-RFA is a 1 Fr wire (0.33 mm, 0.013”) with a working length of 190 cm, which can be inserted through the biopsy channel of an echoendoscope. RF power is applied to the electrode at the end of the wire to coagulate tissue in the liver and pancreas. RESULTS: Eight patients [median age of 65 (range 27-82) years; 7 female and 1 male] were recruited in a prospective multicenter trial. Six had a pancreatic cystic neoplasm (four a mucinous cyst, one had intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and one a microcystic adenoma) and two had a neuroendocrine tumors (NET) in the head of pancreas. The mean size of the cystic neoplasm and NET were 36.5 mm (SD ± 17.9 mm) and 27.5 mm (SD ± 17.7 mm) respectively. The EUS-RFA was successfully completed in all cases. Among the 6 patients with a cystic neoplasm, post procedure imaging in 3-6 mo showed complete resolution of the cysts in 2 cases, whilst in three more there was a 48.4% reduction [mean pre RF 38.8 mm (SD ± 21.7 mm) vs mean post RF 20 mm (SD ± 17.1 mm)] in size. In regards to the NET patients, there was a change in vascularity and central necrosis after EUS-RFA. No major complications were observed within 48 h of the procedure. Two patients had mild abdominal pain that resolved within 3 d. CONCLUSION: EUS-RFA of pancreatic neoplasms with a novel monopolar RF probe was well tolerated in all cases. Our preliminary data suggest that the procedure is straightforward and safe. The

  8. Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm of the Liver or Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Bile Duct? A Case Report and a Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunovsky, Lumir; Kala, Zdenek; Svaton, Roman; Moravcik, Petr; Mazanec, Jan; Husty, Jakub; Prochazka, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver (MCN-L) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct (IPMN-B) are diagnoses that were classified by the World Health Organization in 2010 as mucin-producing bile duct tumors of the hepatobiliary system. The preoperative differential diagnosis between these two entities is difficult; the presence of a communication with the bile duct is usually considered as a typical sign of IPMN-B. However, the presence of an ovarian-like stroma (OLS) has been established to define the diagnosis of MCN-L. We present the case of a 33-year-old woman with a rapid progression of a cystic tumor of the liver. In 2 years, the lesion increased from 27 to 64 mm and a dilation of the left hepatic duct appeared. Percutaneous transhepatic drainage with a biopsy was performed. No malignant cells were found on biopsy. Because of the rapid progression of the cystic tumor and unclear malignant potential, left hemihepatectomy was performed. Even though tumor masses were present in the biliary duct, on the basis of the presence of OLS, histology finally confirmed MCN-L with intermediate-grade intraepithelial dysplasia to high-grade intraepithelial dysplasia. The patient is currently under oncologic follow-up with no signs of recurrence of the disease. We present a rare case where MCN-L caused a dilation of the left hepatic duct, a sign that is usually a characteristic of IPMN-B.

  9. Growth and apoptosis of human natural killer cell neoplasms: role of interleukin-2/15 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Satoshi; Maeda, Motoi; Ohshima, Koichi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Otsuka, Teruhisa; Harada, Mine

    2004-10-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15 plays an important role in the survival of human natural killer (NK) cells. We investigated IL-2/15 signaling in NK cell neoplasms from five patients and in five cell lines (NK-92, KHYG-1, SNK-6, HANK1 and MOTN-1) compared to mature peripheral NK cells from 10 healthy subjects. Apoptosis of NK cell lines was prevented by addition of IL-15 in vitro. Blocking IL-2/15Rbeta on IL-2-stimulated NK-92 cells resulted in reduced expression of Bcl-X(L) and phosphorylated Stat5, which paralleled early apoptosis without altering Bcl-2 expression. These data add IL-2/15Rbeta to the list of factors important for the survival of NK cell neoplasms.

  10. A comparative study of 99Tcm (V)-DMSA imaging with histopathological examination in ovarian neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xinming; Wang Jianfang; Xu Fang; Yin Jie; Wei Lanxiu; Sun Li

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of 99 Tc m (V)-Dmsa imaging in detecting the ovarian and the pelvic cavity neoplasms. Methods: 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA imaging was performed on 24 patients with diagnosed ovarian neoplasms which were pathologically confirmed after operation. Results: 14 of the 15 patients with malignant ovarian tumors had positive 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA scintigraphy. However, 7 of 9 cases with benign ovarian tumors had negative 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA scintigraphy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive rate, false negative rate, and accuracy of 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA imaging for detecting malignant ovarian tumors were 93.33%, 77.78%, 87.50%, 87.50%, 14.29%, 6.67% and 87.50%, respectively. Conclusions: 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA imaging is of important value in detecting malignant and benign ovarian and pelvic tumors

  11. WHO Grade IV Gliofibroma: A Grading Label Denoting Malignancy for an Otherwise Commonly Misinterpreted Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A. Escalante Abril

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a 50-year-old woman with no relevant clinical history who presented with headache and loss of memory. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a left parieto-temporal mass with annular enhancement after contrast media administration, rendering a radiological diagnosis of high-grade astrocytic neoplasm. Tumour sampling was performed but the patient ultimately died as a result of disease. Microscopically, the lesion had areas of glioblastoma mixed with a benign mesenchymal constituent; the former showed hypercellularity, endothelial proliferation, high mitotic activity and necrosis, while the latter showed fascicles of long spindle cells surrounded by collagen and reticulin fibers. With approximately 40 previously reported cases, gliofibroma is a rare neoplasm defined as either glio-desmoplastic or glial/benign mesenchymal. As shown in our case, its prognosis is apparently determined by the degree of anaplasia of the glial component.

  12. Imaging findings of neuroendocrine neoplasm in biliary duct with liver metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung Hwa; Chung, Dong Jin; Hahn, Sung Tae; Lee, Jae Moon [Dept. of Radiology, Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    A 64-year-old man was transferred to our hospital because of indigestion and jaundice. The initial abdominal CT and MRI revealed a 2.0 cm enhancing mass in the proximal common bile duct (CBD) with several enlarged lymph nodes. The mass was presumed to be a cholangiocarcinoma, and a CBD segmental resection and choledochojejunostomy was performed. However, the final diagnosis was that of a mixed endocrine-exocrine carcinoma, a high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm. Seven months after the operation, a follow-up abdominal CT study revealed multiple small arterial enhancing nodules in both hepatic lobes. A sono-guided liver biopsy confirmed these as metastastic mixed endocrine-exocrine carcinoma. This case is unique in that the imaging study regarding the neuroendocrine neoplasm of biliary duct has not been previously reported.

  13. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: reporting clinically relevant features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Chiaro, Marco; Verbeke, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas can exhibit a wide spectrum of macroscopic and microscopic appearances. This not only causes occasional difficulties for the reporting pathologist in distinguishing these tumours from other lesions, but is also relevant clinically. As evidence accumulates, it becomes clear that multiple macroscopic and histological features of these neoplasms are relevant to the risk for malignant transformation and, consequently, of prime importance for clinical patient management. The need for detailed reporting is therefore increasing. This review discusses the panoply of gross and microscopic features of IPMN as well as the recommendations from recent consensus meetings regarding the pathology reporting on this tumour entity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Positron imaging feasibility studies: characteristics of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in rodent and canine neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.M.; Weiden, P.L.; Grunbaum, J.

    1981-01-01

    Uptake of [ 3 H]2-deoxyglucose was studied in BALB/c mice with EMT-6 sarcoma, in Buffalo rats with Morris 7777 hepatoma, and in eight dogs with spontaneous neoplasms: five osteosarcomas and three diffuse lymphomas. High tumor-to-tissue ratios were observed for all tumor types studies. In rodents, peak levels of uptake occurred between 30 min and 1 hr, with a slow loss from the tumor of about 10% per hour thereafter. In dogs there was considerable variability in uptake, both between individuals and at different tumor sites within an individual. Necrotic tumor did not take up the radiotracer. Absolute uptakes, when normalized for body weight, were similar for spontaneous and transplanted neoplasms. These studies provide additional support for the concept that positron emission tomography can be used to obtain functional images of important metabolic processes of tumors, including glycolysis

  15. Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm Involving the Endometrium and Presenting with Mucinous Vaginal Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavinskaya, Vera; Baumgartner, Joel M; Ko, Albert; Saenz, Cheryl C; Valasek, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Primary appendiceal mucinous lesions are uncommon and represent a spectrum from nonneoplastic mucous retention cysts to invasive adenocarcinoma. Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) represent an intermediate category on this spectrum and can be classified according to whether or not they are confined to the appendix. Although LAMNs are frequently confined to the appendix, they can also spread to the peritoneum and clinically progress as pseudomyxoma peritonei (i.e., mucinous ascites). Thus, the appropriate classification of appendiceal primary neoplasia is essential for prognosis and influences clinical management. In addition, the precise classification, management, and clinical outcome of patients with disseminated peritoneal disease remain controversial. Here, we report an unusual case of LAMN with pseudomyxoma peritonei that initially presented with mucinous and bloody vaginal discharge. Pathological evaluation revealed low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm with secondary involvement of the peritoneum, ovaries, and endometrial surface. Therefore, LAMN should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mucinous vaginal discharge.

  16. Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm Involving the Endometrium and Presenting with Mucinous Vaginal Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vavinskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary appendiceal mucinous lesions are uncommon and represent a spectrum from nonneoplastic mucous retention cysts to invasive adenocarcinoma. Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs represent an intermediate category on this spectrum and can be classified according to whether or not they are confined to the appendix. Although LAMNs are frequently confined to the appendix, they can also spread to the peritoneum and clinically progress as pseudomyxoma peritonei (i.e., mucinous ascites. Thus, the appropriate classification of appendiceal primary neoplasia is essential for prognosis and influences clinical management. In addition, the precise classification, management, and clinical outcome of patients with disseminated peritoneal disease remain controversial. Here, we report an unusual case of LAMN with pseudomyxoma peritonei that initially presented with mucinous and bloody vaginal discharge. Pathological evaluation revealed low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm with secondary involvement of the peritoneum, ovaries, and endometrial surface. Therefore, LAMN should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mucinous vaginal discharge.

  17. Role of intraoperative imprint cytology in diagnosis of suspected ovarian neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Soumit; Misra, Vatsala; Singh, P A; Mishra, Sanjay; Sharma, Nishant

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess whether cytology can help in rapid diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms and thus facilitate individualised treatment. A prospective investigation was performed on 30 cases of suspected ovarian neoplasms. Imprint smears were made intraperatively from fresh samples from various representative areas, and stained with Leishman Giemsa for air-dried smears, and with hematoxylin and eosin and Papanicolaou for alcohol-fixed smears. A rapid opinion regarding the benign or malignant nature of the lesion and the type of tumour was given. The overall sensitivity was 96.2%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value 96.3%, and diagnostic accuracy of 83.3%. Characteristic cytological patterns were noted in various epithelial and germ cell tumours. Imprint cytology can be used as an adjunct to histopathology for rapid and early diagnosis in the operation theatre, thus helping better management of patients.

  18. Hidradenocarcinoma: A Rare Sweat Gland Neoplasm Presenting as Small Turban Tumor of the Scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asati, Dinesh P; Brahmachari, Swagata; Kudligi, Chandramohan; Gupta, Chandramohan

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  19. Hidradenocarcinoma: A rare sweat gland neoplasm presenting as small turban tumor of the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh P Asati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  20. Malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Shoji; Kawai, Kioko; Shimizu, Yukiko; Inai, Kouki; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Fujikura, Toshio; Kato, Hiroo.

    1988-09-01

    For 1950 - 80, 194 ovarian cancer cases were ascertained among the 70,030 females of the RERF Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample, and 106 autopsied cases with benign ovarian neoplasms were ascertained among all 3,046 autopsies performed in the same sample. On the basis of microscopic review, 66 % of the cancer and 84 % of the benign tumor cases were classified by histological type. The age-adjusted ovarian cancer incidence rates showed a statistically significant increase with increased exposure dose, both in the entire exposed group (P 0.10). The distribution of histological types of both cancer and benign tumor of the ovary did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that radiation injury of ovaries with secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones are important causative factors in the development of ovarian neoplasms. (author)

  1. Malignant Lymphatic and Hematopoietic Neoplasms Mortality in Serbia, 1991–2010: A Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data on mortality from malignant lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms have been published for Serbia. Methods The study covered population of Serbia during the 1991–2010 period. Mortality trends were assessed using the joinpoint regression analysis. Results Trend for overall death rates from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms significantly decreased: by −2.16% per year from 1991 through 1998, and then significantly increased by +2.20% per year for the 1998–2010 period. The growth during the entire period was on average +0.8% per year (95% CI 0.3 to 1.3). Mortality was higher among males than among females in all age groups. According to the comparability test, mortality trends from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms in men and women were parallel (final selected model failed to reject parallelism, P = 0.232). Among younger Serbian population (0–44 years old) in both sexes: trends significantly declined in males for the entire period, while in females 15–44 years of age mortality rates significantly declined only from 2003 onwards. Mortality trend significantly increased in elderly in both genders (by +1.7% in males and +1.5% in females in the 60–69 age group, and +3.8% in males and +3.6% in females in the 70+ age group). According to the comparability test, mortality trend for Hodgkin's lymphoma differed significantly from mortality trends for all other types of malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms (P<0.05). Conclusion Unfavourable mortality trend in Serbia requires targeted intervention for risk factors control, early diagnosis and modern therapy. PMID:25333862

  2. Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: importance of clinical and cytological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-García, Martín; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; del Carmen González-Ramírez, Imelda; Cano-Valdez, Ana María; Flores-Hernández, Lorena; Aguilar-Ponce, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid cancer presents as nodules. Thyroid nodules are frequent, but only 5-30% are malignant. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is useful for initial evaluation; nevertheless, malignancy is uncertain when follicular neoplasm is reported. Some factors can be associated with malignancy. Therefore, we analyzed our follicular neoplasms in order to identify those factors associated with a higher risk of malignancy. We analyzed the clinical files of consecutive patients with cytological diagnoses of follicular neoplasm. From 1,005 cases of thyroid nodules, 121 were follicular neoplasms according to cytology. Of these, 75 were surgically treated. Definitive report showed 45 benign (60%) and 30 malignant (40%) cases. Benign cases included 29 goiters, 11 follicular adenomas, and 5 cases of thyroiditis. Malignant cases were comprised of 12 papillary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 3 papillary carcinomas-follicular variant, 1 lymphoma, 1 teratoma, 5 medullary carcinomas, 2 insular carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma and 1 metastatic breast carcinoma. Tumor size of benign lesions was 3.43 ± 2.04 cm, and 4.67 ± 2.78 (p = 0.049) for malignant lesions. Age was 46.95 ± 15.39 years for benign lesions and 48.67 ± 17.28 for malignant lesions (p = 0.66). Fifty percent of males showed malignancy vs. 37.7% of females (p < 0.005). Our results suggest that size and gender, but not age, are associated with cytological pattern. Ultrasonographic characteristics may be useful discriminating patients with a higher risk of malignancy. FNAB is a useful tool for initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, but clinical evaluation can enhance predictive value.

  3. Second malignant neoplasms after childhood cancer: a report of three cases of osteogenic sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ironside, J.A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The rising incidence of second malignant neoplasms after childhood cancer, whilst due in part to increasing numbers of survivors, is also thought to be related to increasingly more intensive combined modality treatment schedules. Three illustrative cases are reported in which radiation therapy in childhood for the first cancer is thought to have been a significant aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of the second malignancy (which in all three patients was an osteogenic sarcoma). (author)

  4. The Synchronous Prevalence of Colorectal Neoplasms in Patients with Stomach Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Su; Jung, Woon Tae; Kim, Cha Young; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The association between stomach cancer and colorectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer. Methods A total of 123 patients with stomach cancer (86 male) and 246 consecutive, age- and sex-matched persons without stomach cancer were analyzed from July 2005 to June 2010. All of them underwent colonoscopy within 6 months after undergoing gastroscopy. Results The prevalence of...

  5. Canine ovarian neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 71 cases, including histology of 12 granulosa cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, A K; Greenlee, P G

    1987-11-01

    In a retrospective study of 71 primary ovarian tumors in the dog, epithelial tumors (46%) were more common than sex cord stromal (34%) and germ cell tumors (20%). There were more adenocarcinomas (64%) than adenomas. Sex cord stromal tumors were equally divided into Sertoli-Leydig (12/24) and granulosa cell tumors (12/24). There were equal numbers (7/14) of dysgerminomas and teratomas among the germ cell tumors. Most teratomas (6/7) were malignant. Most granulosa cell tumors were solid; two were mostly cystic. Patterns included sheets of round and ovoid to spindle-shaped cells separated by thin, fibrovascular stroma; neoplastic cells formed rosettes or Call-Exner bodies. In some areas, neoplastic cells were in cords or columns and formed cyst-like structures. Four granulosa cell tumors were macrofollicular, having cysts lined with granulosa cells. Median ages of dogs with different ovarian neoplasms were similar; all were more than 10 years old, except the dogs with teratoma (mean age, 4 years). Most neoplasms were unilateral (84%), except the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, many of which were bilateral (36%). Size of ovarian neoplasms varied (2 cm3 to 15,000 cm3). Twenty-nine percent of neoplasms metastasized; adenocarcinomas (48%) and malignant teratomas (50%) had the highest rates, and distant metastasis was more common in malignant teratoma. Endometrial hyperplasia was in 67% of the dogs; it was most common in dogs with sex cord stromal tumors (95%). Uterine malignancy was not seen in dogs with granulosa cell tumors, although hyperplasia endometrium was in all dogs with this tumor. Cysts in the contralateral ovaries were most common in dogs with sex cord stromal tumors.

  6. The Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Nourelahi; Roshannia; Kameli; Hormozi

    2016-01-01

    Context Oral cavity is one of the most common sites for neoplasms with a multifactorial etiology. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal tissues such as gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is linked to many systemic diseases. Recently a link between periodontal disease and cancer is suggested. The current review article aimed to evaluate the association between periodonta...

  7. THE ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL DATA ON MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN P APILLOMAVIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kostin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study of statistical data for the first time in Russia the analysis of the morbidity and mortality of patients with malignant neoplasms that may be associated with human papilloma virus (HPV is performed: cervical cancer (cervical cancer, cancer of the vulva and vagina, cancer of penis, cancer of the rectum, anal canal and rectosigmoid junction cancer, cancer of the pharynx and larynx.

  8. Spectrum of myeloid neoplasms and immune deficiency associated with germline GATA2 mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Mir, Muhammad A; Kochuparambil, Samith T; Abraham, Roshini S; Rodriguez, Vilmarie; Howard, Matthew; Hsu, Amy P; Jackson, Amie E; Holland, Steven M; Patnaik, Mrinal M

    2015-01-01

    Guanine-adenine-thymine-adenine 2 (GATA2) mutated disorders include the recently described MonoMAC syndrome (Monocytopenia and Mycobacterium avium complex infections), DCML (dendritic cell, monocyte, and lymphocyte deficiency), familial MDS/AML (myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia) (myeloid neoplasms), congenital neutropenia, congenital lymphedema (Emberger's syndrome), sensorineural deafness, viral warts, and a spectrum of aggressive infections seen across all age groups. While c...

  9. Radiation-Induced Neoplasms in Beagles after Administrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, M.; Dungworth, D. L.; Bulgin, M. S.; Rosenblatt, L. S.; Richards, W. P.C.; Bustad, L. K. [Radiobiology Laboratory and Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1969-11-15

    The comparative carcinogenic efficiency of two bone-seeking radionuclides is under study in a colony of several hundred beagles. The toxicity of internally deposited alpha emitters ({sup 226}Ra and its daughters) and of beta irradiation ({sup 90}Sr) at comparable dosage rates indicates marked differences in site of appearance and mode of action in litters studied up to 7 years of age. Radiation carcinogenesis in beagles exposed to {sup 90}Sr daily from midgestation to adulthood (1.5 yr) is at present confined to dogs fed 4 {mu}Ci {sup 90}Sr/d or higher. The 20 cases constitute a spectrum of myeloproliferative disorders characterized by terminal anaemias, and ranging from myeloid metaplasia to granulocytic leukaemia. Continuous high-level {sup 90}Sr irradiation to bone and marrow from early life onward causes a thickened hypocellular bone ('pachyostosis'), some instances of myelofibrosis, and persistent mild leukopenia on which the final spectrum of terminal disoideis is superimposed. In contrast, up to 100 {mu}Cl {sup 226}Ra given intravenously (8 equally spaced injections at 14 to 18 months of age) to young adults is not a potent marrow cell carcinogen. The higher LET, shorter-range alpha particles are efficient in inducing bone cancers (14 cases) and skeletal lesions similar to those documented in watch-dial luminizers exposed to {sup 226}Ra in the early 1900's. The incidence of haematopoietic and skeletal neoplasms observed is dose-rate related, and the morphologic characteristics have several analogues in human cancer. The use of identically treated litters rather than individuals affords additional opportunity to study possible familial factors in the distribution of the neoplasms. Pathogenic evaluation at this juncture strongly indicates that continued bone and marrow irradiation in early life is more likely to induce haematopoietic neoplasms than is skeletal irradiation starting in young adulthood, which induces osseous neoplasms. (author)

  10. Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm Involving the Endometrium and Presenting with Mucinous Vaginal Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Vavinskaya, Vera; Baumgartner, Joel M.; Ko, Albert; Saenz, Cheryl C.; Valasek, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Primary appendiceal mucinous lesions are uncommon and represent a spectrum from nonneoplastic mucous retention cysts to invasive adenocarcinoma. Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) represent an intermediate category on this spectrum and can be classified according to whether or not they are confined to the appendix. Although LAMNs are frequently confined to the appendix, they can also spread to the peritoneum and clinically progress as pseudomyxoma peritonei (i.e., mucinous ascit...

  11. Non-squamous cell neoplasms of the larynx: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M; Moulin, G; Kurt, A M; Dulgerov, P; Vukanovic, S; Zbären, P; Marchal, F; Rüfenacht, D A; Terrier, F

    1998-01-01

    A variety of benign and malignant non-squamous cell neoplasms may affect the larynx. Most of these uncommon laryngeal neoplasms are located beneath an intact mucosa, making diagnosis difficult with endoscopy alone, and sampling errors may occur if only traditional superficial biopsies are performed. In some laryngeal neoplasms, radiologic evaluation allows the correct diagnosis. Hemangiomas have very high signal intensity at T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and strong enhancement at both computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging after administration of contrast material. Phleboliths, which are pathognomonic for hemangiomas, are easily identified at CT. Chondrogenic tumors typically manifest with coarse or stippled calcifications at CT. Because of their high water content, chondrogenic tumors have very high signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images, whereas only moderate enhancement is observed after administration of contrast material. Lipomas typically manifest at both CT and MR imaging as homogeneous nonenhancing lesions. They are isoattenuating to subcutaneous fat at CT and isointense relative to subcutaneous fat with all MR pulse sequences. Metastases from renal adenocarcinoma typically demonstrate strong contrast enhancement and flow voids at MR imaging, and metastases from melanotic melanoma usually have high signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images and low signal intensity on T2-weighted images owing to the paramagnetic properties of melanin. Although radiologic findings are nonspecific in most other non-squamous cell neoplasms of the larynx (eg, Kaposi sarcoma, hematopoietic tumors, tumors of the minor salivary glands, metastases from amelanotic melanoma), cross-sectional imaging can play an important role in the diagnostic work-up of these unusual tumors by delineating the extent of submucosal tumor spread and directing the endoscopist to the appropriate site for the deep, transmucosal biopsies needed to establish the diagnosis. In addition, CT

  12. Dietary One-Carbon Nutrient Intake and Risk of Lymphoid and Myeloid Neoplasms: Results of the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, H.C.; Verhage, B.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous epidemiologic research suggests a protective role of one-carbon nutrients in carcinogenesis. Folate, however, may play a dual role in neoplasms development: protect early in carcinogenesis and promote carcinogenesis at a later stage. We prospectively examined associations

  13. Study of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression and Angiogenesis in Urothelial neoplasms: Correlation with tumor grade and stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojan Agarwal

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: PCNA and CD31 when used together are valuable markers to help classify urothelial neoplasms in limited tumor material. However, larger prospective studies are required for better prognostication.

  14. The impact of interferon-alpha2 on HLA genes in patients with polycythemia vera and related neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch; Thomassen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression profiling in Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have unraveled significant deregulation of several immune and inflammation genes of potential importance for clonal evolution. Other mechanisms might be downregulation of major histocompatibility class ...

  15. In vitro digestibility of jitirana using caecal liquor of ostriches Digestibilidade "in vitro" da jitirana com inóculo cecal de avestruzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Roberto Goes Ferreira Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluated the in vitro digestibility of jitirana using ostriches ceacal liquor, it were used entirely randomized design on factorial schedule (4x2, with four cut age of forage (60; 75; 90 and 105 days old and two types forage in natura or hay. There was a significative interaction between cut age and jitirana type to in vitro digestibility of dry matter and proteic fractions, and the means obtained were 59.57% to dry matter, 28.07% to crude protein and 21.7% to neutral detergent insoluble protein. It were not observed significative interaction to in vitro digestibility of fiber fraction, and the means obtained were 45.20% to neutral detergent fiber and 49.83% to neutral detergent fiber corrected to ash and protein. In relation to the different cut age of jitirana plant, to the in vitro digestibility of dry matter to the in natura type, the means stayed between 71.75 and 53.87%, while to the jitirana hay type the in vitro digestibility of dry matter the means stayed between 61.36 and 50.23%. For both jitirana type in natura or hay, the cut age on 60 days old propitiated the best values of digestibility when compared to the cut age on 105 days old, as a higher available and nutritional quality to the fermentative caecal activity.Para avaliar a digestibilidade in vitro da jitirana com inóculo cecal de avestruzes, usou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (4x2, com quatro diferentes idades de corte (60; 75; 90 e 105 dias e duas formas de uso, in natura ou em feno. Houve interação significativa para digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca e de frações proteicas da jitirana, com média total de 59,57% para matéria seca; 28,07% proteína bruta e 21,70% para proteína insolúvel em detergente neutro. Não foi observada interação significativa para a digestibilidade in vitro da fração fibrosa da jitirana, com média total de 45,20% para fibra em detergente neutro e 49,83% fibra em detergente neutro corrigida para

  16. Cruciferous vegetables and risk of colorectal neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Genevieve; Eslick, Guy D

    2014-01-01

    Evidence shows cruciferous vegetables exhibit chemoprotective properties, commonly attributed to their rich source of isothiocyanates. However, epidemiological data examining the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and colorectal neoplasms have been inconclusive. This meta-analysis examines the epidemiological evidence to characterize the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and risk of developing colorectal neoplasms. Thirty-three articles were included in the meta-analysis after a literature search of electronic databases. Subgroup analysis for individual cruciferae types (n = 8 studies) and GST polymorphism (n = 8 studies) were performed. Pooled adjusted odds ratios (ORs) comparing highest and lowest categories of dietary pattern scores were calculated. Results show a statistically significant inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and colon cancer [OR = 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.98; P value heterogeneity colorectal (CRC) neoplasms (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.99; P value heterogeneity = 0.02). Stratification by GST genotype reveals that the GSTT1 null genotype confers a reduction in CRC risk (OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64-0.95; P value heterogeneity = 0.32). This study provides support to the hypothesis that cruciferous vegetable intake protects against cancer of the colon. This study also demonstrates the significance of gene-diet interactions and the importance of assessing individual cruciferous vegetables.

  17. Positron imaging feasibility studies: characteristics of [3H]thymidine uptake in rodent and canine neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.M.; Weiden, P.L.; Grunbaum, J.

    1981-01-01

    Uptake [ 3 H]thymidine was studied in BALB/c mice with EMT-6 sarcoma, in Buffalo rats with Morris 7777 hepatoma, and in nine dogs with spontaneous neoplasms: four lymphomas, two osteosarcomas, two soft-tissue sarcomas, and a thyroid carcinoma. High tumor-to-tissue ratios were observed for all tumor types assayed, and absolute uptakes, when computed as percent dose per gram tumor normalized for body weight, were similar for transplanted and spontaneous tumors. In the rodent tumors, radiothymidine was retained for at least 3 hr in the tumor without appreciable loss. In canine neoplasms, although the highest uptakes were observed in cellular tumors with many mitotic figures, tumor uptake showed significant variability that did not correlate with any obvious histologic change, and thus may reflect true biologic differences in metabolism among tumors at different sites in the same animal. These studies provide additional experimental evidence that the ratios of neoplastic to normal tissue and the kinetics of thymidine uptake by tumors are suitable for positron emission tomography of neoplasms in small and large, animals, including both transplanted and spontaneous tumors

  18. Coccidiomycosis infection of the patella mimicking a neoplasm – two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi-Chen; Calvert, George; Hanrahan, Christopher J; Jones, Kevin B; Randall, Robert Lor

    2014-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic fungal infection in the southwestern of United States. Most infections are asymptomatic or manifest with mild respiratory complaints. Rare cases may cause extrapulmonary or disseminated disease. We report two cases of knee involvement that presented as isolated lytic lesions of the patella mimicking neoplasms. The first case, a 27 year-old immunocompetent male had progressive left anterior knee pain for four months. The second case was a 78 year-old male had left anterior knee pain for three months. Both of them had visited general physicians without conclusive diagnosis. A low attenuation lytic lesion in the patella was demonstrated on their image studies, and the initial radiologist’s interpretation was suggestive of a primary bony neoplasm. The patients were referred for orthopaedic oncology consultation. The first case had a past episode of pulmonary coccioidomycosis 2 years prior, while the second case had no previous coccioidal infection history but lived in an endemic area, the central valley of California. Surgical biopsy was performed in both cases due to diagnostic uncertainty. Final pathologic examination revealed large thick walled spherules filled with endospores establishing the final diagnosis of extrapulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Though history and laboratory findings are supportive, definitive diagnosis still depends on growth in culture or endospores identified on histology. We suggest that orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists keep in mind that chronic fungal infections can mimic osseous neoplasm by imaging

  19. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Keishi; Muto, Manabu; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Mera, Kiyomi; Doi, Toshihiko; Sano, Yasushi; Yoshida, Shigeaki

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed our clinical experiences of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for esophageal cancer (EC) in 44 patients with multiple primary malignant neoplasms. Among them, 34 were accompanied with synchronous tumors, 8 were accompanied with antecedent tumors and 8 with subsequent tumors. The sites of primary malignant neoplasms were as follows; stomach 24 (43.6%), head and neck 17 (30.9%), colon and rectum 4 (7.3%). Among the 19 patients with synchronous cancer in the stomach, 6 patients underwent gastrectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection before CRT, and the others received definitive CRT as initial treatment. While 5 patients were alive without recurrence of EC and gastric cancer, more than half of the patients died of EC. Among 11 patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), 9 patients underwent surgery for HNC before CRT, because the clinical stages of the HNC was more progressive than that of EC. Only 3 patients achieved complete cure of both EC and HNC. The number of patients who developed subsequent tumors after CRT for EC was too small for us to draw definitive conclusions from our discussion, so further long-term follow-up and analysis based on large-scale surveys are required. Although CRT has become one of the standard treatments for EC, there is no treatment strategy for patients with both EC and other malignant primary neoplasms. Our results suggest that we should consider the curability of EC by CRT when we treat such patients. (author)

  20. Clinicopathological characteristics of synchronous and metachronous gastric neoplasms after endoscopic submucosal dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi Young; Oh, Wang Guk; Ko, Sung Jun; Han, Shang Hoon; Baek, Hoon Ki; Lee, Young Jae; Kim, Ji Woong; Jung, Gum Mo; Cho, Yong Keun

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has become accepted as a minimally invasive treatment for gastric neoplasms. However, the development of synchronous or metachronous gastric lesions after endoscopic resection has become a major problem. We investigated the characteristics of multiple gastric neoplasms in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) or gastric adenoma after ESD. Methods In total, 512 patients with EGC or gastric adenoma who had undergone ESD between January 2008 and December 2011 participated in this study. The incidence of and factors associated with synchronous and metachronous gastric tumors were investigated in this retrospective study. Results In total, 66 patients (12.9%) had synchronous lesions, and 13 patients (2.5%) had metachronous lesions. Older (> 65 years) subjects had an increased risk of multiple gastric neoplasms (p = 0.012). About two-thirds of the multiple lesions were similar in macroscopic and histological type to the primary lesions. The median interval from the initial lesions to the diagnosis of metachronous lesions was 31 months. The annual incidence rate of metachronous lesions was approximately 3%. Conclusions We recommend careful follow-up in patients of advanced age (> 65 years) after initial ESD because multiple lesions could be detected in the remnant stomach. Annual surveillance might aid in the detection of metachronous lesions. Large-scale, multicenter, and longer prospective studies of appropriate surveillance programs are needed. PMID:24307844

  1. Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.; Thomassen, R.W.; Hargis, A.M.; Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    Mortality because of neoplasia was examined in Segment III dogs exposed to 0,20, or 100 R of 60 Co gamma radiation in prenatal and early postnatal life. During the inital 10 years of the experiment (through January 31, 1978) 20 dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumors in these 19 irradiated dogs included 5 malignant lymphomas, 8 carcinomas (2 of mammary origin, 2 of prostatic origin, and 1 each or oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), 4 sarcomas (2 hemangiosarcomas, 1 fibrosarcoma and 1 mast cell sarcoma), 1 astrocytoma, and 1 hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100R) and 70 dpp (100R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100R. Four of the tumors in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before 2 years of age. The earliest death was at 3 months, because of an astrocytoma. A single sham-irradiated dog died or a malignant tumor, a mammary carcinoma. Preliminary analyses point to three findings of particular interest: the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs, the unusual finding of four deaths because of neoplasia prior to 2 years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs, and the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

  2. The Utilization of Imaging Features in the Management of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Palmucci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs represent a group of cystic pancreatic neoplasms with large range of clinical behaviours, ranging from low-grade dysplasia or borderline lesions to invasive carcinomas. They can be grouped into lesions originating from the main pancreatic duct, main duct IPMNs (MD-IPMNs, and lesions which arise from secondary branches of parenchyma, denominated branch-duct IPMNs (BD-IPMNs. Management of these cystic lesions is essentially based on clinical and radiological features. The latter have been very well described in the last fifteen years, with many studies published in literature showing the main radiological features of IPMNs. Currently, the goal of imaging modalities is to identify “high-risk stigmata” or “worrisome feature” in the evaluation of pancreatic cysts. Marked dilatation of the main duct (>1 cm, large size (3–5 cm, and intramural nodules have been associated with increased risk of degeneration. BD-IPMNs could be observed as microcystic or macrocystic in appearance, with or without communication with main duct. Their imaging features are frequently overlapped with cystic neoplasms. The risk of progression for secondary IPMNs is lower, and subsequently an imaging based follow-up is very often proposed for these lesions.

  3. Pelvic exenteration for locally advanced primary and recurrent pelvic neoplasm: a series of 54 resectable cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Renato Pais Costa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report on a series of 54 patients with pelvic neoplasms submitted to curative pelvic exenteration at a tertiary hospital and describe the results (morbidity, mortality, and long-term survival. Methods: The complete data of 54 patients submitted to pelvic exenteration between 1999 and 2007 were evaluated. Sixteen men and 38 women with a mean age of 65 years and median age of 66 years (36 to 77 were studied. Surgical procedures included total pelvic exenteration (n = 26, anterior pelvic exenteration(n = 5, and posterior pelvic exenteration (n = 23. Rresults: The mean operative time was 402 minutes (280 to 585. The average volume of intraoperative bleeding was 2,013 ml (300 to 5,800. Postoperative mortality was 5% (n = 3. The overall morbidity rate was 46%(n = 25. Histological evaluation demonstrated that 47 resections were R0 (87% while seven were R1 (13%. The overall survival rate in five years was 23.5% (n = 12. Cconclusions: Despite its aggressive nature and high morbidity, pelvic exenteration is still justified in locally advanced pelvic neoplasms or even in isolated pelvic recurrence, since it affords a greater long-term control of the neoplasm.

  4. Undifferentiated (embryonal) liver sarcoma: synchronous and metachronous occurrence with neoplasms other than mesenchymal liver hamartoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasljevic, Gorana; Lamovec, Janez; Jancar, Janez

    2011-08-01

    Undifferentiated (embryonal) liver sarcoma (UELS) is a rare tumor that typically occurs in children. The association of UELS with neoplasm other than mesenchymal liver hamartoma is exceedingly rare. The aim of the study was to report 3 cases of UELS, 2 of them being interesting because of their association with another neoplasm, vaginal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a teenage girl and B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a middle-aged woman. Besides, one of our cases of UELS, in a 58-year-old woman, is an extremely rare presentation of such a tumor in a middle-aged adult. The patient's clinical features, therapy, and pathologic results were reviewed; immunohistochemical analysis and, in 2 cases, electron microscopy were performed. In this study, all 3 patients were females aged 13, 13, and 58 years. Histopathologic evaluation of resected liver tumors confirmed the diagnosis of UELS in all of them. In 2 of the cases, metachronous occurrence of UELS with vaginal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a teenage girl and B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a middle-aged woman is described. Careful clinical analysis, histologic studies, and immunohistochemistry are mandatory to distinguish UELS from other hepatic malignancies with similar or overlapping features and to exclude the possibility of other tumors that may be considered in the differential diagnosis. The association of UELS with another neoplasm is exceedingly rare. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the management of thrombocytopenic patients with malignant neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriuchi, N.; Korkmaz, M.; Kim, E.E.; Delpassand, E.S.; Wong, F.; Podoloff, D.A. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Wallace, S. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1998-03-01

    This study was done to investigate the role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant neoplasms. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms or hematological disorders and without evidence of underproduction of megakaryocytes due to chemotherapy or bone marrow infiltration by the malignancy. Splenic sequestration of platelets was evaluated by measuring spenic uptake of {sup 111}In-labelled platelets, and findings were correlated with the outcome of splenectomy and medication. Of the 20 patients, 13 had splenic sequestration of platelets. Seven of the 13 patients underwent splenectomy; six of these seven patients experienced a complete response. The other six patients received medication only and showed no response. Of the seven patients without splenic sequestration of platelets, five received medication, and four of them responded to it. {sup 111}In-labelled platelet scintigraphy has a role in selecting appropriate therapy and predicting its efficacy in patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms. (orig.)

  6. Role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the management of thrombocytopenic patients with malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriuchi, N.; Korkmaz, M.; Kim, E.E.; Delpassand, E.S.; Wong, F.; Podoloff, D.A.; Wallace, S.

    1998-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant neoplasms. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms or hematological disorders and without evidence of underproduction of megakaryocytes due to chemotherapy or bone marrow infiltration by the malignancy. Splenic sequestration of platelets was evaluated by measuring spenic uptake of 111 In-labelled platelets, and findings were correlated with the outcome of splenectomy and medication. Of the 20 patients, 13 had splenic sequestration of platelets. Seven of the 13 patients underwent splenectomy; six of these seven patients experienced a complete response. The other six patients received medication only and showed no response. Of the seven patients without splenic sequestration of platelets, five received medication, and four of them responded to it. 111 In-labelled platelet scintigraphy has a role in selecting appropriate therapy and predicting its efficacy in patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms. (orig.)

  7. Endoscopic surgery and photodynamic therapy for behign and malignant neoplasms of colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Razzhivina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature for current methods of endoscopic treatment for colon epithelial neoplasms is represented. Such types of endoscopic interventions as loop electroresection, submucosal dissection, coagulation and destruction of tumors and combination of several options depending on efficiency of previous therapy is analyzed. Limitations of every method, its special aspects and possible complications are described. Special focus is on specifics of neoplasms for which selected methods may be the most effective. Thus, hot biopsy and destruction using high-energy laser is efficient for small flat neoplasms, endoscopic electroexcision – far small pedunculated lesions, and fragmentation is adequate for exophytic tumors more than 2.0 cm. Long-term results of endoscopic treatment, recurrence rates after different options are represented. The literature for photodynamic therapy consists mostly articles about development (on pre-clenecal stage of new photosensitizers which are effective for colon cancer, new methods of treatment including combination with hyperthermia in low-dose light irradiation etc. The literature data shows the prospectivity of subsequent developments in this field. 

  8. Diagnostic radiology for head and neck neoplasms with emphasis on computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.L.; Manzione, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    The radiologic evaluation of head and neck neoplasms constitutes an important part in their diagnosis and treatment. The introduction of computerized tomography (CT) and the further development of this modality since 1972 have contributed significantly to the staging of these neoplasms. CT not only demonstrates soft tissue densities, but also bony structures, muscles, fascial planes, opacified vascular structures, and enlarged lymph nodes. CT, however, fails to differentiate the various histologic types of lesions in the majority of cases. Features such as size of the lesion, marginal definition, lytic bone destruction, sclerotic bony reaction, bony expansion, calcific densities, fat content, and obliteration of fascial planes are utilized to delimit the spectrum of diagnostic possibilities. Conventional films including tomography are also indicated as preliminary examinations in the investigation of head and neck neoplasms. They provide a survey of the abnormality in question and form the basis for special studies such as CT and angiography. They are often the first examination to demonstrate a lesion that may be suspected from the history and clinical examination. 13 refs.; 11 figs

  9. [Therapeutic effect of cervical Jiaji electroacupuncture on postoperative intractable hiccup of liver neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S K; Gao, W B; Liu, Y; He, H

    2018-02-23

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of cervical Jiaji electroacupuncture on postoperative intractable hiccup of liver neoplasms. Methods: A total of 39 patients with postoperative intractable hiccup of liver neoplasms in The First Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine from May 2013 to May 2017 were collected and divided into 2 groups randomly. The electroacupuncture group included 20 cases, the control group included 19 cases. Patients in the electroacupuncture group were treated by cervical Jiaji electroacupuncture (located in C3-5, sympathetic ganglion), while the control group were treated by metoclopramide combined with chlorpromazine for three days. The therapeutic effects of two groups were compared and the onset time were recorded. Results: Total effective rates of electroacupuncture group and control group were 95.0% and 47.4%, respectively. The onset time in electroacupuncture group and control group were (14.8±3.3) h and (30.5±3.1) h, respectively ( P electroacupuncture for 3 days, 6 cases were recovered, 3 cases became better, while 1 case demonstrated no response. No serious adverse reactions were appeared in each group. Conclusion: Cervical Jiaji electroacupuncture is an effective and safe treatment for postoperative intractable hiccup of liver neoplasms, and it can be used as a remedy for intractable hiccup patients who don't respond to drug treatment.

  10. Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines 2013 for the treatment of uterine body neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebina, Yasuhiko; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Mikami, Mikio; Nagase, Satoru; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Udagawa, Yasuhiro; Kato, Hidenori; Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Takamatsu, Kiyoshi; Ino, Kazuhiko; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The third version of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines for the treatment of uterine body neoplasms was published in 2013. The guidelines comprise nine chapters and nine algorithms. Each chapter includes a clinical question, recommendations, background, objectives, explanations, and references. This revision was intended to collect up-to-date international evidence. The highlights of this revision are to (1) newly specify costs and conflicts of interest; (2) describe the clinical significance of pelvic lymph node dissection and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, including variant histologic types; (3) describe more clearly the indications for laparoscopic surgery as the standard treatment; (4) provide guidelines for post-treatment hormone replacement therapy; (5) clearly differentiate treatment of advanced or recurrent cancer between the initial treatment and the treatment carried out after the primary operation; (6) collectively describe fertility-sparing therapy for both atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (corresponding to G1) and newly describe relapse therapy after fertility-preserving treatment; and (7) newly describe the treatment of trophoblastic disease. Overall, the objective of these guidelines is to clearly delineate the standard of care for uterine body neoplasms in Japan with the goal of ensuring a high standard of care for all Japanese women diagnosed with uterine body neoplasms.

  11. Solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas: radiologic and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ik; Lim, Joo Won; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jeong Ho

    1994-01-01

    Computed tomographic(CT), ultrasonographic(US) findings of solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas were correlated with pathologic findings for the better understanding of this disease entity. A retrospective review of CT and US of 14 cases of solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas was carried out in terms of the margin, internal architecture, calcification and septation, and this was correlated with gross pathologic findings. CT and US findings were well defined round masses consisting of both solid and cystic components. Five cases were cystic, four cases were solid and five cases were mixed. Cystic portion of the tumor represented variable degree of hemorrhagic necrosis. Six cases contained foci of calcification, which were linear, marginal and amorphous. Marginal calcification interfered US examination of the mass in three cases. Internal septum was demonstrated in four cases on CT, one case on US and three cases on gross specimen. Our results indicate that calcification and internal septum were considered as a part of radiologic findings in solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas

  12. Neurodegenerative evidence in mice brains with cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis: preventive effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Yokoo

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a major clinical challenge and septic encephalopathy is its nasty complication. The pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms of septic encephalopathy are not well understood. This study sought to fully characterize sepsis-associated biochemical and histopathological changes in brains of mice after cecal ligation and puncture, regarded as a highly clinically relevant animal model of polymicrobial sepsis. Real-time PCR analysis showed that gene expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, were significantly up-regulated in brain tissues from septic mice, but to a much lesser extent when compared with those in peripheral tissues such as lungs. Blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability was significantly increased in septic mice, as determined by the measurement of sodium fluorescein and Evans blue content. Sepsis resulted in increases in NADPH oxidase activity and expression of p47(phox and p67(phox and up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase in brains, indicating that superoxide, produced by NADPH oxidase, reacts with NO to form peroxynitrite, that maybe lead to the loss of BBB integrity. Light and electron microscopic examination of septic mouse brain showed serious neuronal degeneration, as indicated by hyperchromatic, shrunken, pyknotic, and electron-dense neurons. These histopathological changes were prevented by treatment with the free radical scavenger edaravone. Together, these results suggest that sepsis can lead to rapid neurodegenerative changes in brains via free radical species production and possibly subsequent injury to the BBB. We may also provide a potentially useful therapeutic tool for treating septic encephalopathy.

  13. Gene expression profiling of chicken cecal tonsils and ileum following oral exposure to soluble and PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN, and lysate of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C; Yitbarek, Alexander; Shojadoost, Bahram; Sharif, Shayan

    2017-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading bacterial cause of food-borne illness in humans. Contaminated chicken meat is an important source of infection for humans. Chickens are not clinically affected by colonization, and immune responses following natural infection have limited effects on bacterial load in the gut. Induction of intestinal immune responses may possibly lead to a breakdown of the commensal relationship of chickens with Campylobacter. We have recently shown that soluble and poly D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-encapsulated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) as well as C. jejuni lysate, are effective in reducing the intestinal burden of C. jejuni in chickens; however, the mechanisms behind this protection have yet to be determined. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms of host responses conferred by these treatments. Chickens were treated orally with soluble CpG ODN, or PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN, or C. jejuni lysate, and expression of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides was evaluated in cecal tonsils and ileum using quantitative RT-PCR. Oral administration of soluble CpG ODN upregulated the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCLi2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4/1, IL-10 and IL-13, while treatment with PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN upregulated the expression of IL-1β, CXCLi2, TGF-β4/1, IL-13, avian β-defensin (AvBD) 1, AvBD2 and cathelicidin 3 (CATHL-3). C. jejuni lysate upregulated the expression of IFN-γ, IL-1β, TGF-β4/1, IL-13, AvBD1, and CATHL-3. In conclusion, induction of cytokine and antimicrobial peptides expression in intestinal microenvironments may provide a means of reducing C. jejuni colonization in broiler chickens, a key step in reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EVALUATION OF THE ANTIGENICITY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF Eimeria tenella BY REPRODUCTIVE INDEX AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF CECAL COCCIDIOSIS VIRULENT LIVE VACCINE IN BROILER CHICKENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprihati, Endang; Yunus, Muchammad

    2018-01-01

    The development of vaccine to control coccidiosis caused by Eimeria tenella ( E. tenella ) in chickens is intensifying because of the increasing threat of drug resistance to anticoccidial agents. It is important, therefore, to develop a reliable standard method for the assessment of vaccine afficacy particularly antigenicity and immunogenicity become crucial. Evaluation of E. tenella antigenicity and immunogenicity to some low doses can be reflected by reproductive index and histopathological changes. The complete random design of research was used in this study. Sixty of two weeks old broilers were divided into four groups and each group composed 15 replications. The group 1 was chicken group without virulent E. tenella oocyst inoculation. The group 2, 3 and group 4 were chicken group inoculated with virulent E. tenella oocyst at doses of 1.0 x 10 2 , 2.0 x 10 2 , 3.0 x 10 2 , respectively. Then all chicken groups were challenged with E. tenella oocyst at doses of 1.0 x 10 3 . Observation of research that represented antigenicity and immunogenicity was clinical sign, reproductive index, histopathological changes. On virulent E. tenella inoculation step, some clinical signs such as appetite, weakness, and diarrhea were very slight on all chicken groups. While on challenge test step, there were no clinical signs of all chicken groups except the group 1. For the reproductive index of virulent E. tenella inoculation step, there were no significantly differences in all chicken groups except the group 1. As reproductive index, the same result pattern was seen for histopathological changes. The low number virulent E. tenella had low reproductive index and few histopathological changes effect that represents a promising strategy to prevent cecal coccidiosis in chickens.

  15. Synchronous cecal adenocarcinoma and multiple colonic in situ carcinomas in hamartomatous polyps in a case of isolated Peutz–Jeghers syndrome

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    Yahia Z Gad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Yahia Z Gad1, Doaa H Bakr1, Mohammad G El-Ebeidy21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Mansoura Specialized Medical Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptBackground: Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (PJS is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation and hamartomatous polyps of the entire gastrointestinal tract. A Peutz–Jeghers polyp (PJP in a patient without pigmentation or a family history of the disease is called an isolated or solitary PJP. Individuals with PJS carry a very high risk of developing gastrointestinal (GI as well as extra-GI malignancies. This case report documents lesion multiplicity and their malignant potential in a young patient with PJS presenting in a serious condition for the first time.Case report: An 18-year-old female Egyptian patient was admitted with hematochezia and remarkable anemia. After appropriate resuscitation and consent, colonoscopic evaluation revealed seven pedunculated colonic polyps at the ascending and the transverse colon, and numerous variable-sized sessile polyps were scattered all over the colon. To establish hemostasis, endoscopic polypectomy for pedunculated polyps and argon plasma photocoagulation for the bleeding sessile polyps were performed. Histopathological examination revealed cecal adenocarcinoma in one specimen and two simultaneous in situ carcinoma at the transverse and the sigmoid colon in the mucosae of the excised histologically proven hamartomatous polyps. Additionally, one focal in situ carcinoma in the resected colon was detected.Conclusions: When considering the family history, serious GI neoplastic lesions may be unmasked in young patients with PJS who present with hematochezia, even in the absence of its characteristic mucocutaneous pigmented lesions. GI endoscopic surveillance programs should be adopted for diagnosed cases of PJS and their families. Genetic prenatal screening for early detection is the best option for

  16. Cecal ligation and puncture followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia increases mortality in mice and blunts production of local and systemic cytokines.

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    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E; Liang, Zhe; Breed, Elise R; Dominguez, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Fox, Amy C; Dunne, W Michael; Burd, Eileen M; Farris, Alton B; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2012-01-01

    Mortality in the intensive care unit frequently results from the synergistic effect of two temporally distinct infections. This study examined the pathophysiology of a new model of intra-abdominal sepsis followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy followed 3 days later by an intratracheal injection of MRSA or saline. Both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice had 100% survival, whereas animals with CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia had 67% 7-day survival. Animals subjected to CLP/MRSA had increased bronchoalveolar lavage concentrations of MRSA compared with sham/MRSA animals. Animals subjected to sham/MRSA pneumonia had increased bronchoalveolar lavage levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor compared with those given intratracheal saline, whereas CLP/MRSA mice had a blunted local inflammatory response with markedly decreased cytokine levels. Similarly, animals subjected to CLP/saline had increased peritoneal lavage levels of IL-6 and IL-1β compared with those subjected to sham laparotomy, whereas this response was blunted in CLP/MRSA mice. Systemic cytokines were upregulated in both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice, and this was blunted by the combination of CLP/MRSA. In contrast, no synergistic effect on pneumonia severity, white blood cell count, or lymphocyte apoptosis was identified in CLP/MRSA mice compared with animals with either insult in isolation. These results indicate that a clinically relevant model of CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia causes higher mortality than could have been predicted from studying either infection in isolation, and this was associated with a blunted local (pulmonary and peritoneal) and systemic inflammatory response and decreased ability to clear infection.

  17. THE EFFECT OF POLYMORPHISM IN GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES ON THE DEVELOPING SECOND MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS AFTER LEUKEMIA TREATMENT IN CHILDHOOD

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    Janez Jazbec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Survivors of childhood leukemia have an increased risk of developing second malignant neoplasms and specific treatment factors such as alkylating agents, topoisomerase inhibitors and radiation have been associated with their occurrence. Genetic polymorphism in drug-metabolizing enzymes may result in impared detoxification of chemotherapeutics and may lead to increased risk for cancer.Methods. To test if polymorphism in glutathione S-transferases (GST genes is associated with occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasms, we compared GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes among 16 patients treated for childhood leukemia in whom second neoplasm occurred and matched the control group.Results. GSTM1 null genotype was found in 44% of patients with second neoplasms and in 50% in control group (p = 0.768, GSTT1 null genotype in 19% of cases and in 29% of controls (p = 0.729 and GSTP1 105 Ile/ile in 50% of cases and 37% of controls (p = 0.537. Differences in distribution of GST genotypes in patients with second neoplasms after childhood leukemia, compared to a matched control group of patients were not statistically significant.Conclusions. In our study we were not able to show relation between GST genotype and occurrence of second neoplasms after the childhood acute leukemia.

  18. Prognostic value of C-reactive protein levels in patients with bone neoplasms: A meta-analysis.

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    Li, Wenyi; Luo, Xujun; Liu, Zhongyue; Chen, Yanqiao; Li, Zhihong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of retrospective studies that investigated the association of preoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) levels with the overall survival (OS) of patients with bone neoplasms. A detailed literature search was performed in the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase and PubMed databases up to August 28, 2017, for related research publications written in English. We extracted the data from these studies and combined the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the correlation between CRP levels and OS in patients with bone neoplasms. Five studies with a total of 816 participants from several countries were enrolled in this current meta-analysis. In a pooled analysis of all the publications, increased serum CRP levels had an adverse prognostic effect on the overall survival of patients with bone neoplasms. However, the combined data showed no significant relationship between the level of CRP and OS in Asian patients (HR = 1.73; 95% CI: 0.86-3.49; P = 0.125). Similar trends were observed in patients with bone neoplasms when stratified by ethnicity, histology, metastasis and study sample size. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that increased CRP expression indicates a poorer prognosis in patients with bone neoplasms. More prospective studies are needed to confirm the prognostic significance of CRP levels in patients with bone neoplasms.

  19. Rate of detection of advanced neoplasms in proximal colon by simulated sigmoidoscopy vs fecal immunochemical tests.

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    Castells, Antoni; Quintero, Enrique; Álvarez, Cristina; Bujanda, Luis; Cubiella, Joaquín; Salas, Dolores; Lanas, Angel; Carballo, Fernando; Morillas, Juan Diego; Hernández, Cristina; Jover, Rodrigo; Hijona, Elizabeth; Portillo, Isabel; Enríquez-Navascués, José M; Hernández, Vicent; Martínez-Turnes, Alfonso; Menéndez-Villalva, Carlos; González-Mao, Carmen; Sala, Teresa; Ponce, Marta; Andrés, Mercedes; Teruel, Gloria; Peris, Antonio; Sopeña, Federico; González-Rubio, Francisca; Seoane-Urgorri, Agustín; Grau, Jaume; Serradesanferm, Anna; Pozo, Àngels; Pellisé, Maria; Balaguer, Francesc; Ono, Akiko; Cruzado, José; Pérez-Riquelme, Francisco; Alonso-Abreu, Inmaculada; Carrillo-Palau, Marta; de la Vega-Prieto, Mariola; Iglesias, Rosario; Amador, Javier; Blanco, José Manuel; Sastre, Rocio; Ferrándiz, Juan; González-Hernández, Ma José; Andreu, Montserrat; Bessa, Xavier

    2014-10-01

    We compared the ability of biennial fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and one-time sigmoidoscopy to detect colon side-specific advanced neoplasms in a population-based, multicenter, nationwide, randomized controlled trial. We identified asymptomatic men and women, 50-69 years old, through community health registries and randomly assigned them to groups that received a single colonoscopy examination or biennial FIT. Sigmoidoscopy yield was simulated from results obtained from the colonoscopy group, according to the criteria proposed in the UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Trial for colonoscopy referral. Patients who underwent FIT and were found to have ≥75 ng hemoglobin/mL were referred for colonoscopy. Data were analyzed from 5059 subjects in the colonoscopy group and 10,507 in the FIT group. The main outcome was rate of detection of any advanced neoplasm proximal to the splenic flexure. Advanced neoplasms were detected in 317 subjects (6.3%) in the sigmoidoscopy simulation group compared with 288 (2.7%) in the FIT group (odds ratio for sigmoidoscopy, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.93-2.70; P = .0001). Sigmoidoscopy also detected advanced distal neoplasia in a higher percentage of patients than FIT (odds ratio, 2.61; 95% confidence interval, 2.20-3.10; P = .0001). The methods did not differ significantly in identifying patients with advanced proximal neoplasms (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.76; P = .44). This was probably due to the lower performance of both strategies in detecting patients with proximal lesions (sigmoidoscopy detected these in 19.1% of patients and FIT in 14.9% of patients) vs distal ones (sigmoidoscopy detected these in 86.8% of patients and FIT in 33.5% of patients). Sigmoidoscopy, but not FIT, detected proximal lesions in lower percentages of women (especially those 50-59 years old) than men. Sigmoidoscopy and FIT have similar limitations in detecting advanced proximal neoplasms, which depend on patients' characteristics

  20. The radiological and histopathological differential diagnosis of chordoid neoplasms in skull base

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    PAN Bin-cai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Chordoid neoplasms refer to tumors appearing to have histological features of embryonic notochord, which is characterized by cords and lobules of neoplastic cells arranged within myxoid matrix. Because of radiological and histological similarities with myxoid matrix and overlapping immunohistochemical profile, chordoma, chordoid meningioma, chordoid glioma, and rare extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma enter in the radiological and histological differential diagnosis at the site of skull base. However, there is always a great challenge for histopathologists to make an accurate diagnosis when encountering a chordoid neoplasm within or near the central nervous system. The aim of this study is to investigate and summarize the radiological, histological features and immunohistochemical profiles of chordoid neoplasms in skull base, and to find a judicious panel of immunostains to unquestionably help in diagnostically challenging cases. Methods A total of 23 cases of chordoid neoplasms in skull base, including 10 chordomas, 5 chordoid meningiomas, 3 chordoid gliomas and 5 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, were collected from the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University and Guangdong Tongjiang Hospital. MRI examination was performed on the patients before surgical treatment. Microscopical examination and immunohistochemical staining study using vimentin (Vim, pan-cytokeratin (PCK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, S?100 protein (S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, D2-40, Galectin-3, CD3, CD20, Ki-67 were performed on the samples of cases. The clinicopathological data of the patients was also analyzed retrospectively. Results Most of chordomas were localized in the clivus with heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2WI scanning. The breakage of clivus was observed in most cases. Histologically, the tumor cells of chordoma exhibited bland nuclear features and some contained abundant vacuolated cytoplasm (the so

  1. PATHOLOGIC EVALUATION AND REPORTING OF INTRADUCTAL PAPILLARY MUCINOUS NEOPLASMS (IPMNs) OF THE PANCREAS AND OTHER TUMORAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASMS OF PANCREATOBILIARY TRACT: RECOMMENDATIONS OF VERONA CONSENSUS MEETING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsay, Volkan; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Furukawa, Toru; Basturk, Olca; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Marchegiani, Giovanni; Bassi, Claudio; Salvia, Roberto; Malleo, Giuseppe; Paiella, Salvatore; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Matthaei, Hanno; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Adham, Mustapha; Bruno, Marco J.; Reid, Michelle; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Klöppel, Günter; Ohike, Nobuyuki; Tajiri, Takuma; Jang, Kee-Taek; Roa, Juan Carlos; Allen, Peter; Castillo, Carlos Fernández-del; Jang, Jin-Young; Klimstra, David S.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are no established guidelines for pathologic diagnosis/reporting of IPMNs. Design An international multidisciplinary group brought together by the Verona Pancreas Group in Italy-2013, was tasked to devise recommendations. Results 1) Crucial to rule out invasive carcinoma with extensive (if not complete) sampling. 2) Invasive component is to be documented in a full synoptic report including its size, type, grade, stage. 3) The term “minimally invasive” should be avoided; instead, invasion size with stage and substaging of T1 (1a, b, c; ≤0.5, >0.5–≤1, >1 cm), is to be documented. 4) Largest diameter of the invasion, not the distance from the nearest duct, is to be used. 5) A category of “indeterminate/(suspicious) for invasion” is acceptable for rare cases. 6) The term “malignant” IPMN should be avoided. 7) The highest grade of dysplasia in the non-invasive component is to be documented separately. 8) Lesion size is to be correlated with imaging findings in cysts with rupture. 9) The main duct diameter, and if possible, its involvement is to be documented; however, it is not required to provide main vs branch duct classification in the resected tumor. 10) Subtyping as gastric/intestinal/pancreatobiliary/oncocytic/mixed is of value. 11) Frozen section is to be performed highly selectively, with appreciation of its shortcomings. 12) These principles also apply to other similar tumoral intraepithelial neoplasms (mucinous cystic neoplasms, intra-ampullary, intra-biliary/cholecystic). Conclusion These recommendations will ensure proper communication of salient tumor characteristics to the management teams, accurate comparison of data between analyses, and development of more effective management algorithms. PMID:25775066

  2. Gene expression profiling of the local cecal response of genetic chicken lines that differ in their susceptibility to Campylobacter jejuni colonization.

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    Xianyao Li

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni is one of the most common causes of human bacterial enteritis worldwide primarily due to contaminated poultry products. Previously, we found a significant difference in C. jejuni colonization in the ceca between two genetically distinct broiler lines (Line A (resistant has less colony than line B (susceptible on day 7 post inoculation. We hypothesize that different mechanisms between these two genetic lines may affect their ability to resist C. jejuni colonization in chickens. The molecular mechanisms of the local host response to C. jejuni colonization in chickens have not been well understood. In the present study, to profile the cecal gene expression in the response to C. jejuni colonization and to compare differences between two lines at the molecular level, RNA of ceca from two genetic lines of chickens (A and B were applied to a chicken whole genome microarray for a pair-comparison between inoculated (I and non-inoculated (N chickens within each line and between lines. Our results demonstrated that metabolism process and insulin receptor signaling pathways are key contributors to the different response to C. jejuni colonization between lines A and B. With C. jejuni inoculation, lymphocyte activation and lymphoid organ development functions are important for line A host defenses, while cell differentiation, communication and signaling pathways are important for line B. Interestingly, circadian rhythm appears play a critical role in host response of the more resistant A line to C. jejuni colonization. A dramatic differential host response was observed between these two lines of chickens. The more susceptible line B chickens responded to C. jejuni inoculation with a dramatic up-regulation in lipid, glucose, and amino acid metabolism, which is undoubtedly for use in the response to the colonization with little or no change in immune host defenses. However, in more resistant line A birds the host defense

  3. Gene deletion of P-Selectin and ICAM-1 does not inhibit neutrophil infiltration into peritoneal cavity following cecal ligation-puncture

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    Hess Karen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophil infiltration is one of the critical cellular components of an inflammatory response during peritonitis. The adhesion molecules, P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, mediate neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions and the subsequent neutrophil transendothelial migration during the inflammatory response. Despite very strong preclinical data, recent clinical trials failed to show a protective effect of anti-adhesion therapy, suggesting that the length of injury might be a critical factor in neutrophil infiltration. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the role of P-selectin and ICAM-1 in neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity during early and late phases of peritonitis. Methods Peritonitis was induced in both male wild-type and P-selectin/ICAM-1 double deficient (P/I null mice by cecal ligation-puncture (CLP. Peripheral blood and peritoneal lavage were collected at 6 and 24 hours after CLP. The total leukocyte and neutrophil contents were determined, and neutrophils were identified with the aid of in situ immunohistochemical staining. Comparisons between groups were made by applying ANOVA and student t-test analysis. Results CLP induced a severe inflammatory response associated with a significant leukopenia in both wild-type and P/I null mice. Additionally, CLP caused a significant neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity that was detected in both groups of mice. However, neutrophil infiltration in the P/I null mice at 6 hours of CLP was significantly lower than the corresponding wild-type mice, which reached a similar magnitude at 24 hours of CLP. In contrast, in peritonitis induced by intraperitoneal inoculation of 2% glycogen, no significant difference in neutrophil infiltration was observed between the P/I null and wild-type mice at 6 hours of peritonitis. Conclusions The data suggest that alternative adhesion pathway(s independent of P-selectin and ICAM

  4. Neoplasms in persons treated with x-rays in infancy: fourth survey in 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempelmann, L.H.; Hall, W.J.; Phillips, M.; Cooper, R.A.; Ames, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    The incidence of neoplastic disease was determined by a mail survey of 2,872 young adults given x-ray treatments in infancy and of their 5,005 nonirradiated siblings. Newly diagnosed benign and malignant neoplasms appeared more frequently in the irradiated subjects than in their siblings or the age- and sex-matched general population of upstate New York. Only thyroid neoplasms occurred in sufficient numbers to permit statistical analysis for the effects on incidence of sex, age, and dose, and of being in a high-risk group (sub-group C). Thyroid cancers developed earlier in life than did benign neoplasms, especially in boys; benign goiters occurred after smaller doses, predominantly in females. Females had a greater risk of developing thyroid cancer than males--2.3 times for females of all ages and 5 times for young adults. Except for young adult females, there was no definite age effect. The risk of cancer (but not of benign goiter) was proportional to the thyroid dose, with a linear risk coefficient of 2.5/year/million people exposed to 1 rad for the entire irradiated population and 4.0 for subgroup C. The high risk of thyroid cancer in subgroup C may be the result of the high percentage of Jews, who had a 3.4-fold greater risk than non-Jews. Young adult Jewish females had a 17-fold increased risk. An incidental observation was an apparent increased incidence of asthma and rare diseases with abnormal immunologic features in the irradiated population. (auth)

  5. Morbid obesity increases risk of morbidity and reoperation in resection of benign cranial nerve neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Meghan E; McCutcheon, Brandon A; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Porter, Amanda; Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Daniel; Rayan, Tarek; Maloney, Patrick R; Carter, Bob S; Bydon, Mohamad; Gompel, Jamie J Van; Link, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased risk for postoperative CSF leak in patients with benign cranial nerve tumors. Other measures of postoperative morbidity associated with obesity have not been well characterized. Patients enrolled in the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) from 2007 to 2013 with a diagnosis code of a benign neoplasm of a cranial nerve were included. The primary outcome of postoperative morbidity was analyzed as well as secondary outcomes of readmission and reoperation. The main covariate of interest was body mass index (BMI). A total of 561 patients underwent surgery for a benign cranial nerve neoplasm between 2007 and 2013. Readmission data, available for 2012-2013(n=353), revealed hydrocephalus, facial nerve injury, or CSF leak requiring readmission or reoperation occurred in 0.85%, 1.42%, and 3.12%, respectively. Composite morbidity included wound complications, infection, respiratory insufficiency, transfusion requirement, stroke, venous thromboembolism, coma and cardiac arrest. On multivariable analysis patients with class I (BMI 30-34.9) and II (BMI 35-39.9) obesity showed trends towards increasing return to operating room, though not significant, but there was no trend for composite complications in class I and II obesity patients. However, class III obesity, BMI≥40, was associated with increased odds of composite morbidity (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.24-15.88) and return to the operating room (OR 5.97, 95% CI 1.20-29.6) relative to patients with a normal BMI, 18.5-25. Obesity is an independent and important risk factor for composite morbidity in resection of benign cranial nerve neoplasms, and as such, merits discussion during preoperative counseling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, R.W.; Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.; Phemister, R.D.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Beagle dogs were given whole-body exposure to 60 Co gamma radiation at one of six ages of pre- or postnatal life. Four-hundred and eighty dogs, 120 for each age at exposure, received 20 R at 8, 28 or 55 days postcoitus (dpc) or at 2 days postpartum (dpp). Similarity 480 dogs, in groups of 120, were exposed to 100 R at these same ages. Exposures of 100 R were also given to 118 dogs at 70 dpp and 231 dogs at 365 dpp. An additional 359 dogs were sham-irradiated. Mean values for each age at exposure ranged from 15.6 to 17.5 rads for 20 R exposures and from 80.8 to 88.3 rads for exposure to 100 R. Mortality due to neoplasia during the initial ten years of the experiment was examined. Twenty dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumours in these 19 irradiated dogs included five malignant lymphomas, eight carcinomas (two of mammary origin, two of prostatic origin, and one each of oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), four sarcomas (two haemangiosarcomas, one fibrosarcoma and one mast cell sarcoma), one astrocytoma, and one hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100 R) and 70 dpp (100 R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100 R. Four of the tumours in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before two years of age. The earliest death was at three months, due to an astrocytoma. Preliminary analyses point to findings of particular interest: (1) the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs; (2) the unusual finding of four deaths due to neoplasia before two years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs; and (3) the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

  7. A THREE YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF OVARIAN NEOPLASMS WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON SURFACE EPITHELIAL TUMOURS

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    Krishna Bharathi Yarlagadda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ovarian tumours being second most common gynaecological cancer in India account for 30% of all cancers of female genital tract. Study conducted to determine relative frequencies of various histological types based on WHO classification and their age distribution with particular emphasis on surface epithelial tumours. This study is undertaken to find out the frequency of incidence of different histopathological subtypes with particular emphasis on surface epithelial tumours and age distribution of ovarian tumours in our institute located in coastal Andhra Pradesh. METHODS This is a retrospective study of 100 cases of ovarian neoplasms collected during a period of 3 years from June 2013 to May 2016 from the Department of Pathology, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Chinakondrupadu, Guntur, A. P, India. The patients attending our hospital are mostly from rural areas around. Paraffin blocks of all 100 ovarian neoplasms retrieved. Complete clinical and radiological findings analysed from our records. RESULTS The tumours are grouped according to the nature of tumour whether benign or borderline or malignant according to cell of origin, histological subtyping, and age group. Surface epithelial tumours are the most common. Benign tumours outnumber the malignant tumours. Benign ovarian tumours showed a peak in 21-40 Yrs. age group and malignant in the age group of 41- 60 Yrs. Results of our study compared with other studies. CONCLUSION Because of the geographic location, poverty, and illiteracy, patients seek medical advice late. So, awareness among public by health education, passive surveillance, and community screening facility will be helpful in early detection of ovarian neoplasms.

  8. Clinical outcomes of myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umino, Kento; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Ikeda, Takashi; Toda, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko; Mashima, Kiyomi; Minakata, Daisuke; Nakano, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sugimoto, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Sato, Kazuya; Oh, Iekuni; Ohmine, Ken; Muroi, Kazuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2018-02-28

    Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) rearrangement are hematopoietic stem cell disorders with a poor prognosis, but no established standard therapy. We experienced a patient with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) associated with FGFR1 rearrangement who underwent cord blood transplantation, but died of pulmonary complication. We collected the clinical data of patients with FGFR1 rearrangement from the medical literature and analyzed 45 patients, including our patient. The primary diagnoses were myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in 14 and acute leukemia or LBL in 31. In MPN and MDS patients, the cumulative incidence of transformation to blast phase (BP) at 12 months was 46.2%. The 1-year overall survival (OS) from diagnosis in all cases was 43.1%. With regard to the impact of treatment response on survival, the achievement of complete response with a landmark at 2 months after diagnosis of BP was associated with a superior OS (40.0% vs. 26.0% P = 0.011 for 1-year OS from BP). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed in 13 patients, and the 1-year OS from allogeneic HSCT was 61.5%. The hazard ratio for mortality was 0.34 (95% CI, 0.08-1.51, P = 0.15) for allogeneic HSCT treated as a time-dependent covariate, which suggests that allogeneic HSCT may confer a clinical benefit. The further accumulation of clinical data is needed to determine the optimal therapeutic approach for these neoplasms.

  9. Prospective Evaluation of Germline Alterations in Patients With Exocrine Pancreatic Neoplasms.

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    Lowery, Maeve A; Wong, Winston; Jordan, Emmet J; Lee, Jonathan W; Kemel, Yelena; Vijai, Joseph; Mandelker, Diana; Zehir, Ahmet; Capanu, Marinela; Salo-Mullen, Erin; Arnold, Angela G; Yu, Kenneth H; Varghese, Anna M; Kelsen, David P; Brenner, Robin; Kaufmann, Erica; Ravichandran, Vignesh; Mukherjee, Semanti; Berger, Michael F; Hyman, David M; Klimstra, David S; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K; Tjan, Catherine; Covington, Christina; Maynard, Hannah; Allen, Peter J; Askan, Gokce; Leach, Steven D; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Robson, Mark E; Offit, Kenneth; Stadler, Zsofia K; O'Reilly, Eileen M

    2018-02-28

    Identification of pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs) has important clinical and therapeutic implications in pancreas cancer. We performed comprehensive germline testing (GT) in an unselected prospective cohort of patients with exocrine pancreatic neoplasms with genotype and phenotype association to facilitate identification of prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers and examine potential therapeutic implications. Six hundred fifteen unselected patients with exocrine pancreatic neoplasms were prospectively consented for somatic tumor and matched sample profiling for 410-468 genes. GT for PGAs in 76 genes associated with cancer susceptibility was performed in an "identified" manner in 356 (57.9%) patients and in an "anonymized" manner in 259 (42.1%) patients, using an institutional review board-approved protocol. Detailed clinical and pathological features, response to platinum, and overall survival (OS) were collected for the identified cohort. OS was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curves. PGAs were present in 122 (19.8%) of 615 patients involving 24 different genes, including BRCA1/2, ATM, PALB2, and multiple additional genes associated with the DNA damage response pathway. Of 122 patients with germline alterations, 41.8% did not meet current guidelines for GT. The difference in median OS was not statistically significant between patients with and without PGA (50.8 months, 95% confidence interval = 34.5 to not reached, two-sided P = .94). Loss of heterozygosity was found in 60.0% of BRCA1/2. PGAs frequently occur in pancreas exocrine neoplasms and involve multiple genes beyond those previously associated with hereditary pancreatic cancer. These PGAs are therapeutically actionable in about 5% to 10% of patients. These data support routinely offering GT in all pancreatic ductal adenocarcimona patients with a broad panel of known hereditary cancer predisposition genes.

  10. Phylum Level Change in the Cecal and Fecal Gut Communities of Rats Fed Diets Containing Different Fermentable Substrates Supports a Role for Nitrogen as a Factor Contributing to Community Structure

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    Martin Kalmokoff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation differs between the proximal and distal gut but little is known regarding how the bacterial communities differ or how they are influenced by diet. In order to investigate this, we compared community diversity in the cecum and feces of rats by 16S rRNA gene content and DNA shot gun metagenomics after feeding purified diets containing different fermentable substrates. Gut community composition was dependent on the source of fermentable substrate included in the diet. Cecal communities were dominated by Firmicutes, and contained a higher abundance of Lachnospiraceae compared to feces. In feces, community structure was shifted by varying degrees depending on diet towards the Bacteroidetes, although this change was not always evident from 16S rRNA gene data. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis (PCoA comparing cecal and fecal metagenomes grouped by location within the gut rather than by diet, suggesting that factors in addition to substrate were important for community change in the distal gut. Differentially abundant genes in each environment supported this shift away from the Firmicutes in the cecum (e.g., motility towards the Bacteroidetes in feces (e.g., Bacteroidales transposons. We suggest that this phylum level change reflects a shift to ammonia as the primary source of nitrogen used to support continued microbial growth in the distal gut.

  11. Phylum level change in the cecal and fecal gut communities of rats fed diets containing different fermentable substrates supports a role for nitrogen as a factor contributing to community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmokoff, Martin; Franklin, Jeff; Petronella, Nicholas; Green, Judy; Brooks, Stephen P J

    2015-05-06

    Fermentation differs between the proximal and distal gut but little is known regarding how the bacterial communities differ or how they are influenced by diet. In order to investigate this, we compared community diversity in the cecum and feces of rats by 16S rRNA gene content and DNA shot gun metagenomics after feeding purified diets containing different fermentable substrates. Gut community composition was dependent on the source of fermentable substrate included in the diet. Cecal communities were dominated by Firmicutes, and contained a higher abundance of Lachnospiraceae compared to feces. In feces, community structure was shifted by varying degrees depending on diet towards the Bacteroidetes, although this change was not always evident from 16S rRNA gene data. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis (PCoA) comparing cecal and fecal metagenomes grouped by location within the gut rather than by diet, suggesting that factors in addition to substrate were important for community change in the distal gut. Differentially abundant genes in each environment supported this shift away from the Firmicutes in the cecum (e.g., motility) towards the Bacteroidetes in feces (e.g., Bacteroidales transposons). We suggest that this phylum level change reflects a shift to ammonia as the primary source of nitrogen used to support continued microbial growth in the distal gut.

  12. Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas in Young Male Patients: Three Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Aso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A preoperative diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs in young male patients is difficult to achieve using radiological images. We herein present three cases of young male patients with relatively small SPNs. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS showed well-encapsulated, smooth-surfaced, heterogeneous solid lesions in all patients, and all preoperative diagnoses were achieved by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA. The final pathological diagnosis after surgery was an SPN with a Ki-67 labeling index of <2%. SPNs should be considered even in young male patients. EUS with EUS-FNA could be a useful diagnostic modality for SPNs even in young male patients.

  13. Refined staging in hilar bronchial neoplasms with ECG-gated multislice-CT. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlmann, S.; Daliri, A.; Froelich, J.J.; Nowak, R.; Michulla, R.

    2008-01-01

    Equivocal initial CT-based staging in 2 patients with hilar bronchial neoplasms was reassessed with retrospective ECG-gated Multislice-CT and optimized examination parameters prior to definition of treatment. An initially suspected irresectable T 4 tumor with mediastinal infiltration was downstaged to T 2 in one case, while tumor infiltration into the left atrium could be confirmed in the other case. In doubtful conditions, ECG-gated multislice CT with optimized examination parameters may be helpful for refined staging in patients with hilar bronchial neoplasma, thus possibly influencing treatment strategies. (orig.)

  14. Second malignancies in hydroxyurea and interferon-treated Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Iben Onsberg; Sørensen, Anders Lindholm; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In an era of controversy in regard to 'hydroxyurea-leukaemogenicity' and when interferon-alfa2 (IFN) is being revived in the treatment of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), we aim in this single-centre observational study to describe the frequencies of second...... malignancies in a cohort of MPN patients treated with hydroxyurea (HU) or IFN monotherapy or the combination of these agents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Records of a MPN cohort of 196 patients were reviewed, and a retrospective analysis was performed on 90 patients treated with HU, 38 patients treated with IFN...

  15. External suction versus water seal after selective pulmonary resection for lung neoplasm: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Qiu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether external suction is more advantageous than water seal in patients undergoing selective pulmonary resection (SPR for lung neoplasm. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Whether external suction should be routinely applied in postoperative chest drainage is still unclear, particularly for lung neoplasm patients. To most surgeons, the decision is based on their clinical experience. METHODS: Randomized control trials were selected. The participants were patients undergoing SPR with lung neoplasm. Lung volume reduction surgery and pneumothorax were excluded. Suction versus non-suction for the intervention. The primary outcome was the incidence of persistent air leak (PAL. The definition of PAL was air leak for more than 3-7 days. The secondary outcomes included air leak duration, time of drainage, postoperative hospital stay and the incidence of postoperative pneumothorax. Studies were identified from literature collections through screening. Bias was analyzed and meta-analysis was used. RESULTS: From the 1824 potentially relevant trials, 6 randomized control trials involving 676 patients were included. There was no difference between external suction and water seal in decreasing the incidence of PAL [95% confidence interval (CI 0.81-2.16; z = 1.10; P = 0.27]. Regarding secondary outcomes, there were no differences in time of drainage (95% CI-0.36-1.56, P = 0.22, postoperative hospital stay (95% CI -.31-.54, P = 0.87 or incidence of postoperative pneumothorax (95% CI 0.18-.02, P = 0.05 between external suction and water seal. CONCLUSIONS: For participants, no differences are identified in terms of PAL incidence, drainage time, length of postoperative hospital stay or incidence of postoperative pneumothorax between external suction and water seal. The bias analysis should be emphasized. To the limitations of the bias and methodological differences among the included studies, we have no recommendation on

  16. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor or small cell carcinoma of the kidney, arare neoplasm: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, A.; Ratnakar, K.S.; Al-Durazi, M.; Khalifa, F.

    2002-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma is a malignancy primarily recognized in thebronchopulmonary region. Extrapulmonary locations are extremely uncommon. Wereport here a case of renal tumor encountered in a 34-year-old female, withextensive metastases in liver, lung and bone. Histological examination wasmost compatible with primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) small cellcarcinoma. There were negative immunohistochemical markers for cytokeratin,any hormonal peptides and epithelial membrane antigens, which is consistentwith the designation of neoplasm as PNET. Previously reported cases have allbeen in the elderly and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first caseof proven PNET of the kidney described in a young female. (author)

  17. Adrenal Castleman's disease mimicking other adrenal neoplasms: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Baek; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Han, Ga Jin; Ha, Hong Koo; Ku, Ja Yoon; Ahn, Sang Jeong; Lee, Chang Hun [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    We present a rare case of adrenal Castleman's disease with hyaline vascular type mimicking other adrenal neoplasms in a 65-year-old woman. Although rare, the hyaline vascular type of adrenal Castleman's disease should be included in the differential diagnosis if an adrenal mass shows a well-defined, highly enhancing solid adrenal mass with peripheral rim enhancement, multiple satellite lymph nodes, and peritoneal thickening around the dominant mass on computed tomography as shown in this patient.

  18. P14.06 Central nervous system symptoms as the first manifestation of malignant neoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espírito Santo, V.; Almendra, R.; Mendes, M.; Veiga, A.; Velon, A.; Guimarães, P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Neurological involvement is a frequent complication of systemic neoplasm, but not all secondary lesions have clinical manifestations, and there are fewer cases in which first symptom is neurological. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study between January 2006 through November 2016 of patients in whom neurological manifestations due to metastases were the inaugural manifestation of systemic neoplasm. Results: Twenty-six patients (19 male, 7 female) between the ages of 48 and 85 were identified. The main complaints were motor deficit (n = 10), headache (n = 7), behaviour change (n = 3), sensory deficit (n = 2), language disorder (n=1), visual disorder (n=1), syncope (n = 1) and dizziness (n = 1), with 11 patients presenting with symptoms other than the main complaint. Twenty-four patients had brain metastases, in 9 patients, it was solitary, in 5 patients, 2 lesions were found and in the remaining 9, 3 or more lesions were found. Two patients had multiple spinal metastases and 1 patient presented meningeal carcinomatosis. The primary neoplasm were of pulmonary origin (n = 17), gastric (n = 1), prostatic (n = 1), rectal (n = 1) and skin (n=1). In 5 patients the primary lesion remained hidden. Histology results were available in 19 patients: adenocarcinoma (n = 13), small cell carcinoma (n = 3), spinous cell carcinoma (n = 1), melanoma (n = 1) and linitis plastica (n=1). The treatment consisted in corticosteroid treatment (n = 23), chemotherapy (n = 11), radiotherapy (n = 11), surgery (n = 2) and hormonal treatment (n = 1). The mean survival was 225 days, ranging from 9 to 801 days. Conclusions: With this work we verified a broad spectrum of central nervous system symptoms as clinical presentation of malignant neoplasm. In these cases, a detailed investigation is essential for the treatment and prognosis of these patients.

  19. Neoplasm mortality of urban population, living in houses with different level of natural gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, B.N.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship of cancer mortality among urban dwellers to an equation of the gamma background in dwellings was explored. The following most representative pairs of distribution were compared: all those who died of lung cancer and of stomach cancer; men and women who died of stomach cancer; men and women who died of lung cancer; men and women who died of cardiovascular diseases; all those who died of lung cancer and of cardiovascular diseases. Comparison of death rates for various kinds of malignant neoplasms in two cities of the RSFSR with different gamma backgrounds failed to show significant differences between these rates

  20. Radioimmunological test for the cancero-embryonal antigen in evaluation of stomach neoplasm treatment efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenkov, A.A.; Tkacheva, G.A.; Gladikov, Yu.V.; Blokhina, N.G.; Ozherel'ev, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a dynamic determination of the level of the cancero-embryonic antigen are analysed in 30 patients with stomach neoplasm of the 1-3 stages subjected to a radical operation and 22 patients with stage 4 given polychemotherapy. It is shown that information on the nature of the change in the level of the cancero-embryonal antigen in the blood serves as an important criterion for evaluation of the completeness of the tumour mass removal, detection of the disease relapse and comparison of the efficiency of various combinations of antitumor drugs

  1. Clinical-morphological characteristic of bening thyroid neoplasms in children and adolescents of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolgov, M.Yu.; Bogdanova, T.I.; Rybakov, S.I.; Lysenko, A.G.; Chernyshev, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    The data obtained testify to an increase in the number of children and adolescents operated on for thyroid benign neoplasms after the Chernobyl accident.According to pathohistological diagnosis nodular and multinodular goiters were the most frequent.A tendency towards a decrease in the percentage of follicular adenomas and cystadenomas was observed in spite of an increase in the absolute number of cases.All these changes in structure of benign surgical thyroid pathology allow us to presuppose radiation effects and demand more careful epidemiological and radiological analysis

  2. Circulating tumor cells and miRNAs as prognostic markers in neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Grossrubatscher, Erika Maria; Guadagno, Elia; Sciammarella, Concetta; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-06-01

    The prognosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) is widely variable and has been shown to associate with several tissue- and blood-based biomarkers in different settings. The identification of prognostic factors predicting NEN outcome is of paramount importance to select the best clinical management for these patients. Prognostic markers have been intensively investigated, also taking advantage of the most modern techniques, in the perspective of personalized medicine and appropriate resource utilization. This review summarizes the available data on the possible role of circulating tumor cells and microRNAs as prognostic markers in NENs. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Traumatic presentation of a solid pancreatic pseudopapillary neoplasm in a 7 year old girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas are rare tumors that present in adolescence after having grown to a large size. We present the case of a young girl who had emesis and abdominal pain after hitting her abdomen on the side of her bathtub. She underwent workup and successful surgical resection in the same admission. In reviewing the literature, these tumors often present with a palpable mass or abdominal pain. They are diagnosed with various imaging modalities and have an excellent prognosis with complete surgical resection. Chemotherapy is reserved for unresectable or metastatic disease. The young age and traumatic presentation make this a notable case.

  4. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas in pediatric patients: A case report and institutional case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B. Mahida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN of the pancreas is a rare tumor presenting in adolescent and young adult females. A previously healthy 13 year-old female presented to our institution with abdominal pain and emesis. Imaging revealed a pancreatic cystic mass. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS with fine needle biopsy suggested SPN. Pathologic evaluation following resection revealed immunohistochemical (IHC staining positive for β-catenin and α-1-antitrypsin despite extensive necrosis. We discuss this patient as well as our institutional series of SPN of the pancreas, describing the evaluation, management, and histopathology of this rare tumor.

  5. Non-invasive imaging of retinal blood flow in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Anne; Hansen, Mathias M; Klefter, Oliver Niels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the circulation in the retinal vessels in patients with blood dyscrasia due to myeloproliferative neoplasms using non-invasive retinal imaging. METHODS: Prospective consecutive case series of seven treatment-naïve patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (n = 2), polycythemia vera...... present at baseline in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and were replaced by normal patterns at follow-up. Retinopathy, in the form of cotton-wool spots and retinal haemorrhages, was found at presentation in the two patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and in one patient with polycythemia vera...

  6. Childhood extracranial neoplasms: the role of imaging in drug development and clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, Lucy A.; Koh, Dow-Mu; MacVicar, David; Collins, David J.; Jerome, Neil P.; Chua, Sue C.; Pearson, Andrew D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in children older than 1 year of age and new drugs are necessary to improve outcomes. Imaging is crucial to the drug development process and assessment of therapeutic response. In adults, tumours are often assessed with CT using size criteria. Unfortunately, techniques established in adults are not necessarily applicable in children due to differing pathophysiology, ability to cooperate and increased susceptibility to ionising radiation. MRI, in particular quantitative MRI, has to date not been fully utilised in children with extracranial neoplasms. The specific challenges of imaging in children, the potential for functional imaging techniques to inform upon and their inclusion in clinical trials are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Association Of Tnf Polymorphisms With Jak2 (v617f) Myeloproliferative Neoplasms In Brazilian Patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Luciana Conci; de Cesare Quintero, Fernanda; Pagliari-E-Silva, Sara; Pagnano, Katia Borgia Barbosa; Rodrigues, Camila; de Alencar, Josiane Bazzo; Sell, Ana Maria; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

    2016-01-01

    The classical chromosome Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of disorders that share clinical, hematological, and histological features. Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are elevated in patients with MPN. The aim of this study was to verify the association between the polymorphisms of TNF gene (-308G/A and -238 G/A) in BCR-ABL-negative MPN in our population. Blood samples obtained from MPN patients were genotyped for the JAK2V...

  8. Childhood extracranial neoplasms: the role of imaging in drug development and clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowkes, Lucy A.; Koh, Dow-Mu; MacVicar, David [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Collins, David J.; Jerome, Neil P. [Institute of Cancer Research, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Chua, Sue C. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Nuclear Medicine and PET Department, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Pearson, Andrew D.J. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Paediatric Drug Development Unit, Children and Young People' s Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in children older than 1 year of age and new drugs are necessary to improve outcomes. Imaging is crucial to the drug development process and assessment of therapeutic response. In adults, tumours are often assessed with CT using size criteria. Unfortunately, techniques established in adults are not necessarily applicable in children due to differing pathophysiology, ability to cooperate and increased susceptibility to ionising radiation. MRI, in particular quantitative MRI, has to date not been fully utilised in children with extracranial neoplasms. The specific challenges of imaging in children, the potential for functional imaging techniques to inform upon and their inclusion in clinical trials are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Proliferative, reparative, and reactive benign bone lesions that may be confused diagnostically with true osseous neoplasms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wick, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic problems attending intraosseous and parosteal pseudoneoplastic lesions can be radiographic, or histological, or both. Proliferations in this category may contain cellular fibro-osseous or chondro-osseous tissues that are difficult to separate microscopically from those seen in various true neoplasms of the bones. This review considers the clinicopathologic features of fibrous dysplasia, benign fibro-osseous lesions of the jawbones, osteofibrous dysplasia, metaphyseal fibrous defect, giant-cell reparative granuloma, "brown tumor" of hyperparathyroidism, synovial chondrometaplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, tumefactive chronic osteomyelitis, proliferative Paget disease, and polyvinylpyrrolidone storage disease of bone.

  10. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor masquerading as a lung neoplasm. A case presentation and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papagiannopoulos K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Their incidence in the esophagus is 1%–3%. Never has a GIST been documented to directly invade the lung. We report a primary esophageal GIST with direct invasion into the lung parenchyma, presenting predominantly with respiratory symptoms. We include a retrospective literature review. Although the principle 'common things are common' usually guides our everyday clinical practice, this case emphasizes that rare entities can mimic common pathologies and underlines the importance of having a clearly defined differential diagnostic list which should be meticulously scrutinized.

  11. Possibilities of computer and magnetic-resonance tomography in liver neoplasm diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momot, N.V.; Shpak, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    With the purpose of comparison of CT and MRI possibilities in diagnostics of focal liver lesions 238 patients were studied by CT and 38 - by MRI. Results of investigation were verified by surgery, needle-fine biopsy, dynamic observation. CT is a method of a choice in diagnostics of focal liver lesions. MRI has some advantages in revealing of small metastases and neoplasms located on diaphragmal surface of the liver, in evaluation of hepatic portal structures and tumor relation with surrounding tissues and vessels

  12. Incidence of lymphoid neoplasms by subtype among six Asian ethnic groups in the United States, 1996-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, J Daniel; Morton, Lindsay M; Devesa, Susan S; Clarke, Christina A; Gomez, Scarlett L; Glaser, Sally L; Sakoda, Lori C; Linet, Martha S; Wang, Sophia S

    2008-12-01

    To establish baseline data for lymphoid neoplasm incidence by subtype for six Asian-American ethnic groups. Incident rates were estimated by age and sex for six Asian ethnic groups--Asian Indian/Pakistani, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese--in five United States cancer registry areas during 1996-2004. For comparison, rates for non-Hispanic Whites were also estimated. During 1996-2004, Filipinos had the highest (24.0) and Koreans had the lowest incidence (12.7) of total lymphoid neoplasms. By subtype, Vietnamese and Filipinos had the highest incidence for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (8.0 and 7.2); Japanese had the highest incidence of follicular lymphoma (2.3). Although a general male predominance of lymphoid neoplasms was observed, this pattern varied by lymphoid neoplasm subtype. Whites generally had higher rates than all Asian ethnic groups for all lymphoid neoplasms and most lymphoma subtypes, although the magnitude of the difference varied by both ethnicity and lymphoma subtype. The observed variations in incidence patterns among Asian ethnic groups in the United States suggest that it may be fruitful to pursue studies that compare Asian populations for postulated environmental and genetic risk factors.

  13. A Case of Mature Natural Killer-Cell Neoplasm Manifesting Multiple Choroidal Lesions: Primary Intraocular Natural Killer-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Tagawa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Natural killer (NK cell neoplasm is a rare disease that follows an acute course and has a poor prognosis. It usually emerges from the nose and appears in the ocular tissue as a metastasis. Herein, we describe a case of NK-cell neoplasm in which the eye was considered to be the primary organ. Case: A 50-year-old female displayed bilateral anterior chamber cells, vitreous opacity, bullous retinal detachment, and multiple white choroidal mass lesions. Although malignant lymphoma or metastatic tumor was suspected, various systemic examinations failed to detect any positive results. A vitrectomy was performed OS; however, histocytological analyses from the vitreous sample showed no definite evidence of malignancy, and IL-10 concentration was low. Enlarged choroidal masses were fused together. Three weeks after the first visit, the patient suddenly developed an attack of fever, night sweat, and hepatic dysfunction, and 5 days later, she passed away due to multiple organ failure. Immunohistochemisty and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of atypical cells positive for CD3, CD56, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs, resulting in the diagnosis of NK-cell neoplasm. With the characteristic clinical course, we concluded that this neoplasm was a primary intraocular NK-cell lymphoma. Conclusions: This is the first report to describe primary intraocular NK-cell neoplasm. When we encounter atypical choroidal lesions, we should consider the possibility of NK-cell lymphoma, even though it is a rare disease.

  14. Histomorphologic spectrum of BAP1 negative melanocytic neoplasms in a family with BAP1-associated cancer susceptibility syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušić, Zlatko; Buljan, Marija; Busam, Klaus J

    2015-06-01

    Multiple BAP1 negative melanocytic neoplasms are a hallmark of familial cancer susceptibility syndrome caused by BAP1 germline mutation. The syndrome is characterized by increased incidence of renal cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, cholangiocarcinoma, cutaneous and uveal melanoma and some other neoplasms. We report histomorphologic characteristics of six cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms with loss of BAP1 expression in two members of a family with BAP1-associated cancer susceptibility syndrome. The neoplasms were dermal melanocytic nevi characterized by a proliferation of large epithelioid (spitzoid) melanocytes, and adipocytic metaplasia. Nuclear pseudoinclusions and multinucleated melanocytes were present in most neoplasms. In two of the cases, a nodular melanoma was found associated with a dermal nevus. None of the melanomas recurred or metastasized after 6 and 3 years of follow up. We report two new cases of melanoma arising in a BAP1-deficient melanocytic nevus in the setting of familial tumor predisposition syndrome. Adipocytic metaplasia and nuclear pseudoinclusions may be additional morphologic clues to a BAP1-deficient nevus. It remains to be seen whether these features are more common in familial than sporadic lesions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Incidence and survival patterns of rare anal canal neoplasms using the surveillance epidemiology and end results registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metildi, Cristina; McLemore, Elisabeth C; Tran, Thuy; Chang, David; Cosman, Bard; Ramamoorthy, Sonia L; Saltzstein, Sidney L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-10-01

    Small cell, neuroendocrine tumors, and melanoma of the anus are rare. Limited data exist on the incidence and management for these rare tumors. A large, prospective, population-based database was used to determine incidence and survival patterns of rare anal neoplasms. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry was queried to identify patients diagnosed with anal canal neoplasms. Incidence and survival patterns were evaluated with respect to age, sex, race, histology, stage, and therapy. We identified 7078 cases of anal canal neoplasms: melanoma (n = 149), neuroendocrine (n = 61), and small cell neuroendocrine (n = 26). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n = 6842) served as the comparison group. Anal melanoma (AM) demonstrated the lowest survival rate at 2.5 per cent. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) demonstrated similar survival as SCC (10-year survival for regional disease of 25 and 22.3%, respectively). Ten-year survival of small cell NETs resembled AM (5.3 vs 2.5%). Age 60 years or older, sex, black race, stage, and surgery were independent predictors of survival. This study presents the largest patient series of rare anal neoplasms. NETs of the anal canal demonstrate similar survival patterns to SCC, whereas small cell NETs more closely resemble AM. Accurate histologic diagnosis is vital to determine treatment and surgical management because survival patterns can differ among rare anal neoplasms.

  16. Oncocytic Type Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas with Unusually Low Mucin Production Mimicking Intraductal Tubulopapillary Neoplasm: A Report of a Case Diagnosed by a Preoperative Endoscopic Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yukinari; Endo, Takao; Tanaka, Eiichi; Kikuchi, Takefumi; Akino, Kimishige; Mita, Hiroaki; Adachi, Yasuyo; Nakamura, Masahiro; Adachi, Yasushi; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Matsumoto, Joe; Hirano, Satoshi; Nitta, Takeo; Mitsuhashi, Tomoko; Kato, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 78-year-old woman with an intraductal tumor with scant mucin production in a moderately dilated main pancreatic duct that resembled an intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) on imaging. An endoscopic transpapillary forceps biopsy enabled an accurate preoperative diagnosis of the tumor as an oncocytic type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas microscopically showing papillary growth consisting of oncocytic cells with a typical mucin expression profile, although with few intraepithelial lumina containing mucin. This is the first case of an oncocytic type IPMN mimicking an ITPN that was able to be diagnosed preoperatively. PMID:29021473

  17. Biological significance of TERT promoter mutation in papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Chieh; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Jhuang, Yu-Lin; Chen, Chih-Chi; Jeng, Yung-Ming

    2018-04-01

    Mutations in FGFR3 and the promoter region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene have been found frequently in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder. However, related data for papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP) are limited. In this study, we investigated the mutation status of the TERT promoter, FGFR3 and HRAS in low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms and evaluated their prognostic significance. The cases included in this study comprised 21 inverted papillomas, 30 PUNLMPs and 34 low-grade non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinomas (NIPUCs). TERT promoter mutations were observed in 10 (33%) PUNLMPs and 17 (50%) low-grade NIPUCs, but not in any inverted papilloma. FGFR3 mutations were observed more frequently in PUNLMP and low-grade NIPUC than in inverted papillomas (P = 0.009), whereas the opposite trend was noted for HRAS mutations (P low-grade NIPUC (P = 0.530). Notably, PUNLMP cases with TERT promoter mutations had a similar recurrence rate to that in low-grade NIPUC cases (P = 0.487). Our results suggest that the status of the TERT promoter mutation may serve as a biomarker of prognostic stratification in patients with PUNLMP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Primary malignant melanoma of the female urethra: Report of a rare neoplasm of the urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Bhutani

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can affect any area of the anatomical economy. Its occurance in the female urethra is extremely rare. We report a case of primary malignant urethral melanoma developed in an elderly female patient. Presentation of case: A 70 years old female presented with dysuria, poor stream, gross haematuria, intermittent blood spots, and a painful mass. On physical examination, there were no suspicious lesions on the skin. On external genital examination, a lesion at the level of the urethral meatus was observed. The mass was removed by wide local excision under spinal anaesthesia. The pathological diagnosis was malignant melanoma of the urethra. Discussion: The common presentations include bleeding and/or discharge per urethra, voiding dysfunction and the presence of tumor mass. Survival depends on the stage, location and size of the neoplasm at the time of diagnosis. Despite major surgery, radiotherapy or immunotherapy; malignant melanoma usually has a poor prognosis. Conclusion: Melanoma of the female urethra is an extremely uncommon pathology leading to paucity of literature and any definite recommendations regarding management. The histological and immunohistochemical findings can be helpful in making an early and accurate diagnosis of malignant melanoma in the urogenital region. Keywords: Case report, Female urethral cancer, Immunohistochemistry, Malignant melanoma, Urethral neoplasm

  19. Presence of lung metastases in bitches affected by malignant mammary neoplasms in Medellin (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Gómez J.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define the presence of lung metastasis in bitches with malignant mammary neoplasms. Materials and methods. Thirty female dogs that were attended at Veterinary Hospital (University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia were selected for the study. At consultation clinical variables and grade of mammary and inguinal lymph node compromise were registered. Latero-lateral and ventral-dorsal radiographic images of thorax were done for identification of radiographic lesions suggestive of lung metastasis. At surgery biopsies of affected mammary glands were taken for histopathological study and classification of tumors. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results. The average (± standard error age at clinical diagnosis was 10.87±2.65 year old. French poodle (46.6% cross-breed (13.3% and Schnauzer (10% were the breeds most frequently affected by mammary tumors. The most frequent tumor found was carcinoma (81%, followed by adenoma (8.1%, and other types (10.8%. The most frequently affected mammary glands by tumors were the right and the left inguinal glands (70% and 66.6%, respectively. Five out of 30 bitches (16.6% had lung metastasis according to radiographic examination. From this group of dogs, 4 out of 5 neoplasms (80% were diagnosed as complex carcinoma by histopathology diagnosis. Conclusions. We provide evidence suggesting that complex carcinoma is the most frequent mammary tumor in bitches in our city and it is highly related to lung metastasis.

  20. Evaluation of rotational set-up errors in patients with thoracic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanyang; Fu Xiaolong; Xia Bing; Fan Min; Yang Huanjun; Ren Jun; Xu Zhiyong; Jiang Guoliang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the rotational set-up errors in patients with thoracic neoplasms. Methods: 224 kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (KVCBCT) scans from 20 thoracic tumor patients were evaluated retrospectively. All these patients were involved in the research of 'Evaluation of the residual set-up error for online kilovoltage cone-beam CT guided thoracic tumor radiation'. Rotational set-up errors, including pitch, roll and yaw, were calculated by 'aligning the KVCBCT with the planning CT, using the semi-automatic alignment method. Results: The average rotational set-up errors were -0.28 degree ±1.52 degree, 0.21 degree ± 0.91 degree and 0.27 degree ± 0.78 degree in the left-fight, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior axis, respectively. The maximal rotational errors of pitch, roll and yaw were 3.5 degree, 2.7 degree and 2.2 degree, respectively. After correction for translational set-up errors, no statistically significant changes in rotational error were observed. Conclusions: The rotational set-up errors in patients with thoracic neoplasms were all small in magnitude. Rotational errors may not change after the correction for translational set-up errors alone, which should be evaluated in a larger sample future. (authors)