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Sample records for cecal diseases

  1. Correlation of Cecal Microflora of HLA-B27 Transgenic Rats with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    Onderdonk, Andrew B; Richardson, James A.; Hammer, Robert E.; Taurog, Joel D.

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic rats with a high level of expression of the human major histocompatibility complex class I molecule HLA-B27 develop chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and arthritis. Assessment of the cecal microflora showed a rise in numbers of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., corresponding to the presence and severity of IBD in these rats.

  2. [Cecal volvulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abita, T; Lachachi, F; Durand-Fontanier, S; Maisonnette, F; Roudaut, P Y; Valleix, D; Descottes, B

    2005-01-01

    The cecum is the second most common site of colonic volvulus after the sigmoid. The mechanism is torsion or hyperflexion of the enlarged, poorly-fixed, and hypermobile cecum. It presents clinically as an acute bowel obstruction with strangulation. Diagnosis can be made by plain abdominal X-ray in more than half the cases on the basis of cecal distention (with a classical "teardrop" or "comma" appearance), proximal small bowel distention with air-fluid levels, and a gasless distal colon. Barium enema shows lack of filling of the cecum, often with a "beaked" termination of the column of contrast. CT images are pathognomonic when they reveal a cecal "vortex". After surgical reduction of the torsion, ileo-cecal resection is usually the best therapeutic alternative. Cecopexy may be aDDrouriate in older and debilitated Datients if there is no concomitant cecal necrosis. PMID:16335894

  3. Marek’s disease virus-induced transient cecal tonsil atrophy

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    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic '-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. MD is characterized by bursal/th...

  4. Apendicitis retro-cecal

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Sánchez, Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Por definición, se llama apendicitis retro-cecal a la inflamación aguda o crónica del apéndice, cuando está situado en posición retrocecal,sea que acompañe a un ciego móvil y en consecuencia esté provisto de meso, o bien que con ciego fijo se encuentre sin meso y en posición retro-peritoneal, hallándose entonces en íntima relación con algunas formaciones anatómicas como el tejido conjuntivo peri-renal, el nervio génito.crural derecho, el fémoro cutáneo, el obsturador y el uréter derecho. Con ...

  5. Case report of idiopathic cecal perforation presenting as acute appendicitis on ultrasound

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    Calista Harbaugh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cecal perforation is an uncommon phenomenon in a pediatric population. It has been linked to a number of underlying medical conditions, which may result in focal inflammation or relative ischemia including hematologic malignancy, infection, and inflammatory bowel disease. We present an otherwise healthy 16-year-old male diagnosed with acute uncomplicated appendicitis on ultrasound, who was found to have cecal perforation with normal appendix intraoperatively, ultimately requiring ileocectomy. With this report, we aim to present the numerous pathophysiologic etiologies of cecal perforation, and to promote a comprehensive differential diagnosis despite the clinical and radiologic findings consistent with uncomplicated appendicitis.

  6. [Serial episodes of gastric and cecal perforation in a patient with Behcet's disease involving the whole gastrointestinal tract: a case report].

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    Shin, Dong Yeob; Cheon, Jae Hee; Park, Jae Jun; Kim, Hoguen; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Nam Kyu; Kim, Won Ho

    2009-02-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) has been recognized as multi-systemic chronic vasculitic disorder of recurrent inflammation, characterized by the involvement of multiple organs and resulting in orogenital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. Involvement of the central nervous system, vessels, and intestines in BD often leads to a poor prognosis. Digestive manifestations in BD have been reported in up to 1-60% of cases, although the rate varies in different countries. The most frequent extra-oral sites of gastrointestinal involvement are the ileocecal region and the colon. Gastric or esophageal involvement is reported to be very rare. Moreover, there have been no reports on the simultaneous involvement of the esophagus, stomach, ileum, and colon. Here, we present a 55-year-old Korean man with intestinal BD and multiple ileal and colonic ulcerations complicated by perforation, gastric ulcer with bleeding followed by perforation, and esophageal ulcers with bleeding.

  7. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of small bowel mesentery in associated with cecal cancer: a case report

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    Kim, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Sun; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choog Ki; Park, Dong Woo [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Wook; Oh, Young Ha [Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare disease that is histopathologically defined as a solitary tumor composed of a monoclonal proliferation of cells with plasmacytic differentiation in an extramedullary site. Most of these tumors occur in the submucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, and they rarely occur in the small bowel mesentery. We report here on a case of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the small bowel mesentery that was in association with a cecal cancer. Abdominal ultrasound and CT revealed a lobulated soft tissue mass with a cystic portion and peripheral calcification. In this case, the preoperative radiological diagnosis was difficult due to accompanying cecal cancer.

  8. Isolated non-hemorrhagic cecal varices

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, James D.; Lacey, Brent W.

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic varices (those outside of the gastro-esophageal region) are occasionally found on endoscopy in patients with portal hypertension; however they account for a small minority of all variceal bleeds. Cases of isolated cecal varices are quite rare and, when described, often present with acute hemorrhage or evidence of occult bleeding. We present the case of a 29-year-old male with a history of idiopathic portal vein thrombosis and known esophageal varices, who presented for evaluation of a...

  9. Changes in cecal microbiota and mucosal gene expression revealed new aspects of epizootic rabbit enteropathy.

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    Christine Bäuerl

    Full Text Available Epizootic Rabbit Enteropathy (ERE is a severe disease of unknown aetiology that mainly affects post-weaning animals. Its incidence can be prevented by antibiotic treatment suggesting that bacterial elements are crucial for the development of the disease. Microbial dynamics and host responses during the disease were studied. Cecal microbiota was characterized in three rabbit groups (ERE-affected, healthy and healthy pretreated with antibiotics, followed by transcriptional analysis of cytokines and mucins in the cecal mucosa and vermix by q-rtPCR. In healthy animals, cecal microbiota with or without antibiotic pretreatment was very similar and dominated by Alistipes and Ruminococcus. Proportions of both genera decreased in ERE rabbits whereas Bacteroides, Akkermansia and Rikenella increased, as well as Clostridium, γ-Proteobacteria and other opportunistic and pathogenic species. The ERE group displayed remarkable dysbiosis and reduced taxonomic diversity. Transcription rate of mucins and inflammatory cytokines was very high in ERE rabbits, except IL-2, and its analysis revealed the existence of two clearly different gene expression patterns corresponding to Inflammatory and (mucin Secretory Profiles. Furthermore, these profiles were associated to different bacterial species, suggesting that they may correspond to different stages of the disease. Other data obtained in this work reinforced the notion that ERE morbidity and mortality is possibly caused by an overgrowth of different pathogens in the gut of animals whose immune defence mechanisms seem not to be adequately responding.

  10. Differences in CD8 alpha alpha and cecal microbiome community during proliferation and late cytolytic phases of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection are associated with genetic resistance to Marek's disease

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    There is growing awareness that microbes in the gut play an important role in the health and disease response of the host. In this study, using chicken and Marek's disease virus, an economically important pathogen, we correlate changes in immune cells with gut microbes and their function. We find th...

  11. Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on the cecal microbial ecosystem in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, F C; Williams, B A; Kwakkel, R P; Li, H S; Li, X P; Luo, J Y; Li, W K; Verstegen, M W A

    2004-02-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to study the potential prebiotic effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharide extracts, Lentinus edodes extract (LenE), Tremella fuciformis extract, and Astragalus membranaceus Radix extract, on chicken growth and the cecal microbial ecosystem, as compared with the antibiotic Apramycin (APR). This investigation was carried out in terms of a dose-response study. The chickens were naturally infected with avian Mycoplasma gallisepticum prior to the experiment. The BW gain, cecal pH, viscosity, and predominant microbial populations were measured 1 wk after the extract and APR treatments. The extracts and APR significantly stimulated growth of the chickens infected with avian Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The average BW gain of the groups fed with the extracts was significantly lower than that of the antibiotic group. The extracts had no significant effect on cecal pH. However, cecal viscosity and microbial populations were significantly affected by feeding extracts and antibiotic. In contrast to APR, the extracts stimulated the number of the potentially beneficial bacteria (bifidobacteria and lactobacilli), while reducing the number of the potentially harmful bacteria (Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia coli). Of the 3 extracts, LenE was associated with the most cecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. With each increase in the LenE dose, birds tended to have higher BW gain and total aerobe and anaerobe counts. Numbers of predominant cecal bacteria, in particular, E. coli, bifidobacteria, and lactobacilli, were significantly increased with increases in the LenE dose. It would seem that these specific mushroom and herb polysaccharide extracts hold some promise as potential modifiers of intestinal microbiota in diseased chickens. PMID:14979567

  12. Extensive Microbial and Functional Diversity within the Chicken Cecal Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeant, Martin J.; Chrystala Constantinidou; Tristan A Cogan; Bedford, Michael R.; Penn, Charles W.; Pallen, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Chickens are major source of food and protein worldwide. Feed conversion and the health of chickens relies on the largely unexplored complex microbial community that inhabits the chicken gut, including the ceca. We have carried out deep microbial community profiling of the microbiota in twenty cecal samples via 16S rRNA gene sequences and an in-depth metagenomics analysis of a single cecal microbiota. We recovered 699 phylotypes, over half of which appear to represent previously unknown speci...

  13. Inhibition of salmonella by cecal bacteria in media supplemented with lactate and succinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to examine the ability of cecal cultures from broilers to inhibit growth of Salmonella Typhimurium in vitro. Cecal contents from commercial broilers were combined, and 0.1 ml of the cecal slurry was added to media containing (g/l), tryptose, 10; yeast extract, 5; sodium ch...

  14. Appendicitis Presenting Concurrently with Cecal Arteriovenous Malformation in a Child

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    Sahil P Parikh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis is a commonly diagnosed surgical problem in the pediatric population. Arterio-venous malformations (AVM of the colonic tract are rarely reported in the pediatric literature. A 13-year old boy who presented with acute appendicitis with concurrent cecal AVM is reported in whom appendectomy was done. Later on radiological investigations AVM was confirmed.

  15. Oro-cecal transit time : influence of a subsequent meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, MG; Wachters-Hagedoorn, RE; Stellaard, F; Heiner, AM; Elzinga, H; Vonk, RJ

    2004-01-01

    Background Small intestinal and oro-cecal transit time (OCTT) is determined for clinical diagnostics and research purposes. Experimental protocols used vary with respect to the inclusion of a subsequent meal during the test period. This study was conducted to elucidate whether the ingestion of a sub

  16. [Ceco-cecal intussusception in a Simmental heifer].

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    Lejeune, B; Kramer, A; Meylan, M

    2015-07-01

    This report describes the clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings in a Simmental heifer with a ceco-cecal intussusception. The general condition of the heifer was moderately reduced and it showed mild colic signs. Physical examination revealed a firm longish mass visible and palpable in the right flank. Findings upon rectal examination, fecal output und defecation were normal. Ultrasound examination of the mass revealed features typical for an intussusception. Based on the slow development of symptoms, normal fecal output and ultrasonography findings, a ceco-cecal intussusception was diagnosed. Right flank laparatomy was performed under general anaesthesia, and an end-to-side anastomosis between the jejunum and the spiral colon was made after resection of the intussuscepted intestines. Recovery was uneventful. PMID:26753359

  17. The efficacy of plant extracts on cecal amebiasis in rats

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    Enerst C. Ohanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Treatment failure with specific chemotherapy has been reported suggesting the possibility of drug resistance. This study investigated the anti-amoebic effects of four plant extracts on cecal amebiasis in rats. The cecal amebiasis was induced by the injection of 3.0×105 troph/mL of E. histolytica parasite directly into the rat’s caecum. A total of 137 rats were used for these studies; five rats in each group for both positive and negative control, 15 rats in each group to test the four plant extracts and metronidazole. The infected rats were treated for cecal amebiasis using each of the four plant extracts at graded doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg and with metronidzole at a dose of 62.5 mg/kg,100 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg for five consecutive days. The efficacy of the four plant extracts were evaluated based on Neal’s, 1951 method. The plant extracts of Garlic, Guava, Pawpaw and Pumpkin at 400 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body-weight gave a cure rate of 80%, 100%, 60%, 40% and 40%, 80%, 40%, 0%, respectively. The mean parasite count in the cecal contents of the treated rats at a dose 400 mg/kg were 18.5±1.6, 0.0±0.0, 33.3±1.8 and 49.5±4.0, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. This study has revealed that Guava at a high dosing level (400 mg/kg body weight is as good as the standard drug in reducing the both parasite load (probably with limited side effect.

  18. Extensive microbial and functional diversity within the chicken cecal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Martin J; Constantinidou, Chrystala; Cogan, Tristan A; Bedford, Michael R; Penn, Charles W; Pallen, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Chickens are major source of food and protein worldwide. Feed conversion and the health of chickens relies on the largely unexplored complex microbial community that inhabits the chicken gut, including the ceca. We have carried out deep microbial community profiling of the microbiota in twenty cecal samples via 16S rRNA gene sequences and an in-depth metagenomics analysis of a single cecal microbiota. We recovered 699 phylotypes, over half of which appear to represent previously unknown species. We obtained 648,251 environmental gene tags (EGTs), the majority of which represent new species. These were binned into over two-dozen draft genomes, which included Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pullorum. We found numerous polysaccharide- and oligosaccharide-degrading enzymes encoding within the metagenome, some of which appeared to be part of polysaccharide utilization systems with genetic evidence for the co-ordination of polysaccharide degradation with sugar transport and utilization. The cecal metagenome encodes several fermentation pathways leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids, including some with novel features. We found a dozen uptake hydrogenases encoded in the metagenome and speculate that these provide major hydrogen sinks within this microbial community and might explain the high abundance of several genera within this microbiome, including Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Megamonas.

  19. Extensive microbial and functional diversity within the chicken cecal microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Sergeant

    Full Text Available Chickens are major source of food and protein worldwide. Feed conversion and the health of chickens relies on the largely unexplored complex microbial community that inhabits the chicken gut, including the ceca. We have carried out deep microbial community profiling of the microbiota in twenty cecal samples via 16S rRNA gene sequences and an in-depth metagenomics analysis of a single cecal microbiota. We recovered 699 phylotypes, over half of which appear to represent previously unknown species. We obtained 648,251 environmental gene tags (EGTs, the majority of which represent new species. These were binned into over two-dozen draft genomes, which included Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pullorum. We found numerous polysaccharide- and oligosaccharide-degrading enzymes encoding within the metagenome, some of which appeared to be part of polysaccharide utilization systems with genetic evidence for the co-ordination of polysaccharide degradation with sugar transport and utilization. The cecal metagenome encodes several fermentation pathways leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids, including some with novel features. We found a dozen uptake hydrogenases encoded in the metagenome and speculate that these provide major hydrogen sinks within this microbial community and might explain the high abundance of several genera within this microbiome, including Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Megamonas.

  20. Successful laparoscopic treatment of ileo-cecal endometriosis producing bowel obstruction.

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    Fujimoto, A; Osuga, Y; Tsutsumi, O; Fujii, T; Okagaki, R; Taketani, Y

    2001-08-01

    Bowel endometriosis manifesting with ileus is difficult to diagnose, often requiring laparotomy for diagnosis and treatment. We report here a case of ileo-cecal endometriosis causing bowel obstruction. A diagnosis of intestinal endometriosis with menstruation-associated bowel symptoms was made, and the patient was successfully treated by laparoscopic ileo-cecal resection. PMID:11721734

  1. LaPlace's law revisited: Cecal perforation as an unusual presentation of pancreatic carcinoma

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    Cason Frederick D

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer is often locally and distally aggressive, but initial presentation as cecal perforation is uncommon. Case presentation We describe a patient presenting with pneumoperitoneum, found at initial exploration to have a cecal perforation believed to be secondary to a large cecal adenoma, after palpation of the remainder of the colon revealed hard stool but no distal obstruction. Postoperatively, however, the patient progressed to large bowel obstruction and upon reexploration, a mass could now be delineated, encompassing the splenic flexure, splenic hilum, and distal pancreas. Histological evaluation determined this was locally invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and therefore the true etiology of the original cecal perforation. Conclusion Any perforation localized to the cecum must be highly suspicious for a distal obstruction, as dictated by the law of LaPlace.

  2. Effect of mannan oligosaccharides on the ileal morphometry and cecal fermentation of growing rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, V.M; Alves, A; Mourão, J.L.; Guedes, C.M.; Pinto, L; Spring, P; Kocher, A

    2004-01-01

    A common problem in rabbits is the occurrence of digestive disorders just after weaning. This problem is usually associated with instability of the cecal microflora and characterized by diarrhea, loss of appetite and increased mortality. In the current study the effects of a mannan oligosaccharide (MOS, Bio-MOS ® , Alltech Inc. USA) was compared to a commonly used antibiotic (AGP, Zn-Bacitracin). The current study investigated the effects of MOS and AGP on intestinal morphometry and cecal VF...

  3. Influence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection on the composition of chicken cecal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Videnska, Petra; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Faldynova, Marcela; Rychlik, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Background Infection of newly hatched chicks with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) results in an inflammatory response in the intestinal tract which may influence the composition of gut microbiota. In this study we were therefore interested whether S. Enteritidis induced inflammation results in changes in the cecal microbiota. To reach this aim, we compared the cecal microbiota of non-infected chickens and those infected by S. Enteritidis by pyrosequencing the V3/V4 va...

  4. Cecal lipoma with pseudomalignant features: A case report and review of the literature

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    Panagiotis Katsinelos; Grigoris Chatzimavroudis; Christos Zavos; Ioannis Pilpilidis; Georgia Lazaraki; Basilis Papaziogas; George Paroutoglou; Jannis Kountouras; Dimitris Paikos

    2007-01-01

    Colonic lipoma is a well-documented benign neoplasia,endoscopically appearing as a smooth round yellowish polyp with a thick stalk or broad-based attachment. We describe a 63-year old woman with persistent abdominal pain, in whom colonoscopy revealed a cecal mass with malignant features. Based on the colonoscopy findings,right hemicolectomy was laparoscopically performed for a presumptive diagnosis of a cecal adenocarcinoma, but histological examination revealed a colonic lipoma with overlying mucosal ulceration.

  5. Differential responses of cecal microbiota to fishmeal, Eimeria and Clostridium perfringens in a necrotic enteritis challenge model in chickens.

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    Stanley, Dragana; Wu, Shu-Biao; Rodgers, Nicholas; Swick, Robert A; Moore, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens causes enteric diseases in animals and humans. In poultry, avian-specific C. perfringens strains cause necrotic enteritis, an economically significant poultry disease that costs the global industry over $2 billion annually in losses and control measures. With removal of antibiotic growth promoters in some countries this disease appears to be on the rise. In experimental conditions used to study disease pathogenesis and potential control measures, reproduction of the disease relies on the use of predisposing factors such as Eimeria infection and the use of high protein diets, indicating complex mechanisms involved in the onset of necrotic enteritis. The mechanisms by which the predisposing factors contribute to disease progression are not well understood but it has been suggested that they may cause perturbations in the microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract. We inspected changes in cecal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) induced by Eimeria and fishmeal, in birds challenged or not challenged with C. perfringens. C. perfringens challenge in the absence of predisposing factors did not cause significant changes in either the alpha or beta diversity of the microbiota nor in concentrations of SCFA. Moreover, there was no C. perfringens detected in the cecal microbiota 2 days post-challenge without the presence of predisposing factors. In contrast, both fishmeal and Eimeria caused significant changes in microbiota, seen in both alpha and beta diversity and also enabled C. perfringens to establish itself post challenge. Eimeria had its strongest influence on intestinal microbiota and SCFA when combined with fishmeal. Out of 6 SCFAs measured, including butyric acid, none were significantly influenced by C. perfringens, but their levels were strongly modified following the use of both predisposing factors. There was little overlap in the changes caused following Eimeria and fishmeal treatments, possibly indicating multiple routes for

  6. Differential responses of cecal microbiota to fishmeal, Eimeria and Clostridium perfringens in a necrotic enteritis challenge model in chickens.

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    Dragana Stanley

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens causes enteric diseases in animals and humans. In poultry, avian-specific C. perfringens strains cause necrotic enteritis, an economically significant poultry disease that costs the global industry over $2 billion annually in losses and control measures. With removal of antibiotic growth promoters in some countries this disease appears to be on the rise. In experimental conditions used to study disease pathogenesis and potential control measures, reproduction of the disease relies on the use of predisposing factors such as Eimeria infection and the use of high protein diets, indicating complex mechanisms involved in the onset of necrotic enteritis. The mechanisms by which the predisposing factors contribute to disease progression are not well understood but it has been suggested that they may cause perturbations in the microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract. We inspected changes in cecal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA induced by Eimeria and fishmeal, in birds challenged or not challenged with C. perfringens. C. perfringens challenge in the absence of predisposing factors did not cause significant changes in either the alpha or beta diversity of the microbiota nor in concentrations of SCFA. Moreover, there was no C. perfringens detected in the cecal microbiota 2 days post-challenge without the presence of predisposing factors. In contrast, both fishmeal and Eimeria caused significant changes in microbiota, seen in both alpha and beta diversity and also enabled C. perfringens to establish itself post challenge. Eimeria had its strongest influence on intestinal microbiota and SCFA when combined with fishmeal. Out of 6 SCFAs measured, including butyric acid, none were significantly influenced by C. perfringens, but their levels were strongly modified following the use of both predisposing factors. There was little overlap in the changes caused following Eimeria and fishmeal treatments, possibly indicating

  7. Technical note: a 2-stage cecal cannulation technique in standing horses.

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    Beard, W L; Slough, T L; Gunkel, C D

    2011-08-01

    Cecal cannulation is necessary for sampling of intestinal contents for a variety of nutritional or digestive physiology studies. This report describes a 2-stage technique for permanent cecal cannulation in standing horses. For the first procedure, a right flank laparotomy is performed and a small pouch of the cecal base exteriorized and sutured to the body wall. The second procedure is performed approximately 1 wk later. During the second procedure, the exposed cecal pouch is removed and the cannula inserted. Ten horses were cannulated using this technique. After the first procedure, 1 horse developed a cecal impaction unresponsive to medical therapy and ruptured its cecum, whereas 2 other horses developed mild transient colic that responded to medical management. Insertion of the cecal cannula after creation of the stoma in the second procedure resulted in transient colic in 4 of 9 horses, but they responded to analgesic therapy in less than 24 h in all instances. The time to complete healing of the cannula site was approximately 30 d. The technique described in this report decreases the risk of peritonitis due to intestinal leakage and is technically easier to perform than previously described techniques.

  8. Cecal infusion of nutrients improves nutritional status of rats.

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    Aghdassi, E; Raina, N; Allard, J P

    1995-11-01

    The role of colonic fermentation in providing energy was investigated in rats with small bowel transection (T) or 80% resection (SBR). Rats were randomized to receive for 12 d either saline (S) or the enteral solution (E) through a cecostomy to meet 30% of energy requirement; the rest (70%) was provided by parenteral nutrition. Although SBR-S rats lost weight significantly compared with d 1 of the study, SBR-E rats gained. Significantly greater carcass wet weight and fat were found in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. SBR-E and T-E rats had significantly greater colonic mucosal dry weight and protein compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents were also significantly higher in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. There was no significant effect of surgery (T vs. SBR) on any of the variables studied. These results suggest that the products of fermentation of an enteral solution infused through a cecostomy contribute substantially to energy requirement, maintenance of body composition and nutritional status of rats. PMID:7472670

  9. Campylobacter inoculation and quantification from broiler cecal samples to compare two plate counting methodologies

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    Anderlise Borsoi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis, a disease transmitted to humans from animals or animal products. The primarily source of Campylobacter infection in human is believed to be the handling and/or consumption of contaminated meat, especially poultry meat. Although in humans such infections are generally self-limiting, complications can arise and may include bacteraemia, Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis and abortion. In this study, 32 birds were divided in 2 groups: a control (C group and an inoculated (I group, with 16 birds each. The I group was inoculated orally with 108 CFU/mL of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33291, whereas the C group was inoculated with a saline solution. Four chicks per group were euthanized by cervical dislocation at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days post-inoculation (pi. Cecum samples were collected for microbiological analyses. The samples were processed by two plate count methodologies, one developed by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture in 2011 (B method and the other a serial dilution direct count method (A method. All birds from the C group remained negative until day 21. For the I group, the B method was found to be statistically superior to the A method for counting the recovered cells from the cecal contents at 7, 14 and 21 days pi. The microbiological direct plating counting method is a cost effective and rapid method to determine the level of contamination in broilers to help risk assessment programs at the industry level.

  10. In vitro fermentation response of laying hen cecal bacteria to combinations of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) prebiotic with alfalfa and layer ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of combining a prebiotic with an alfalfa molting diet on fermentation by laying hen cecal bacteria. Cecal contents from laying hens were diluted to a 1:3000 concentration with an anaerobic dilution solution and added to serum tubes fi...

  11. Effect of lactose on oro-cecal transit in lactose digesters and maldigesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T.; Priebe, M. G.; Welling, G. W.; Vonk, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background The transit time of the small intestine, in addition to lactase activity, may influence lactose digestion and thus play a role in the occurrence of lactose intolerance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of lactose on the oro-cecal transit time (OCTT) in lactose d

  12. Liquid enteral diets induce bacterial translocation by increasing cecal flora without changing intestinal motility.

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    Haskel, Y; Udassin, R; Freund, H R; Zhang, J M; Hanani, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of intestinal motility and cecal bacterial overgrowth to liquid diet-induced bacterial translocation (BT). Three different commercially available liquid diets were offered to mice for 1 week. BT to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), spleen, and liver were examined as well as cecal bacterial counts and populations, small bowel length and weight, and histopathologic changes in the ileal and jejunal mucosa. In addition, the effect of the various diets on intestinal motility was measured by the transit index of a charcoal mixture introduced into the stomach. The incidence of BT to the mesenteric lymph nodes was significantly and similarly increased (p Vivonex (30%), Ensure (30%), and Osmolite (33%) compared with chow-fed controls (0%). Compared with chow-fed controls, all three liquid diets were associated with the development of cecal bacterial overgrowth (p < .01). There were no significant changes in the transit index for the three liquid diet groups compared with the chow-fed controls. BT to the MLN was induced by all three liquid diets tested, casting some doubts as to their role in preventing BT in clinical use. BT was associated with a statistically significant increase in cecal bacterial count but was not associated with gut motility changes in this model. In fact, no significant changes in intestinal motility were noted in all groups tested. PMID:11284471

  13. Integrating Multiple Analytical Datasets to Compare Metabolite Profiles of Mouse Colonic-Cecal Contents and Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Grapov, Dmitry; Jackson, Matthew I; Fahrmann, Johannes; Fiehn, Oliver; Combs, Gerald F

    2015-09-11

    The pattern of metabolites produced by the gut microbiome comprises a phenotype indicative of the means by which that microbiome affects the gut. We characterized that phenotype in mice by conducting metabolomic analyses of the colonic-cecal contents, comparing that to the metabolite patterns of feces in order to determine the suitability of fecal specimens as proxies for assessing the metabolic impact of the gut microbiome. We detected a total of 270 low molecular weight metabolites in colonic-cecal contents and feces by gas chromatograph, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF). Of that number, 251 (93%) were present in both types of specimen, representing almost all known biochemical pathways related to the amino acid, carbohydrate, energy, lipid, membrane transport, nucleotide, genetic information processing, and cancer-related metabolism. A total of 115 metabolites differed significantly in relative abundance between both colonic-cecal contents and feces. These data comprise the first characterization of relationships among metabolites present in the colonic-cecal contents and feces in a healthy mouse model, and shows that feces can be a useful proxy for assessing the pattern of metabolites to which the colonic mucosum is exposed.

  14. Integrating Multiple Analytical Datasets to Compare Metabolite Profiles of Mouse Colonic-Cecal Contents and Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of metabolites produced by the gut microbiome comprises a phenotype indicative of the means by which that microbiome affects the gut. We characterized that phenotype in mice by conducting metabolomic analyses of the colonic-cecal contents, comparing that to the metabolite patterns of feces in order to determine the suitability of fecal specimens as proxies for assessing the metabolic impact of the gut microbiome. We detected a total of 270 low molecular weight metabolites in colonic-cecal contents and feces by gas chromatograph, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF. Of that number, 251 (93% were present in both types of specimen, representing almost all known biochemical pathways related to the amino acid, carbohydrate, energy, lipid, membrane transport, nucleotide, genetic information processing, and cancer-related metabolism. A total of 115 metabolites differed significantly in relative abundance between both colonic-cecal contents and feces. These data comprise the first characterization of relationships among metabolites present in the colonic-cecal contents and feces in a healthy mouse model, and shows that feces can be a useful proxy for assessing the pattern of metabolites to which the colonic mucosum is exposed.

  15. Ileostomia continente com preservação da papila íleo-cecal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FORMIGA GJS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Seis doentes foram submetidos a ileostomia continente com preservação da papila íleo-cecal, como tempo cirúrgico complementar à proctocolectomia e à colectomia totais, para tratamento de doença inflamatória intestinal e polipose adenomatosa familiar, associada a pólipo degenerado no reto inferior. A técnica utilizada de ileostomia continente preserva a papila íleo-cecal e uma pequena borda circular de parede cecal exteriorizados na parede abdominal. O débito ileal, na primeira semana pós-operatória, não ultrapassou 430 ml/dia, não houve complicações do procedimento e o aspecto estético ficou excelente. Conclui-se que a ileostomia continente com preservação da papila íleo-cecal, definitiva ou temporária, é um procedimento cirúrgico eficiente, em casos selecionados, quando se deseja manter um controle eficaz do efluente intestinal.

  16. Impact of succinate on growth of cultures of cecal bacteria from commercial broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneficial bacteria in probiotics produce and utilize several organic acids that may play a role in the ability of these bacteria to inhibit colonization of poultry by enteropathogens. Since cecal contents of adult poultry contain many of these beneficial bacteria, 3 experiments were conducted to ex...

  17. Impact of lactate on growth of cultures of cecal bacteria from commercial broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultures of beneficial bacteria used in probiotics produce and utilize organic acids that may play a role in the ability of the cultures to inhibit colonization of poultry by enteropathogens. Cecal contents of adult poultry contain many of these beneficial bacteria, and earlier experiments showed th...

  18. Effect of Different Oligosaccharides on Immunity, and Cecal Microflora in Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ying; SHAN An-shan

    2004-01-01

    One hundred and forty-four Avin broilers (1 d old) were randomly divided into six treatments, with three replicates of eight birds each to investigate the effect of different oligosaccharides on index of immune organ, cecal weight and microflora in broilers. The control group (Group Ⅰ) was fed with corn-soybean meal as basal diet, and the trial groups (group Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ ) were fed with basal diet plus 0.1% manoligosaccharides (MOS), 0.3% soybean-oligosaccharides (SBOS), 0.3% fructooligosaccharides (FOS), 0.3% α -glucooligosaccharides(α -GOS) and 0.03% chlortetracycline (CTC), respectively. The results showed that oligosaccharides supplementation significantly (P<0.05) increased bifidobacteria concentration ofyoung broilers and did not affect on bifidobacteria or escherichia coli concentration of the birds ( P >0.05). Cecal weights of 21 d old broilers fed with FOS and α -GOS were significantly (P <0.05) increased, higher than those with MOS and SBOS, but addition of oligosaccharides had no effect on the birds. The effect of oligosaccharides on the cecal length was the same as on the cecal weights. Oligosaccharides supplement did not affect on indexes of immune organs.

  19. Immune responses in cecal tonsils of MDV-infected chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic '-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. Clinical signs of MD include dep...

  20. Cecal volvulus: Report of a case and review of Japanese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshio Katoh; Tsunehiko Shigemori; Ryo Fukaya; Hiroshi Suzuki

    2009-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman presented with fever, severe abdominal pain, and distension. She had been institutionalized for depression and senile dementia. Laboratory examinations disclosed a leucocytosis (WBC:12 500/μL) and elevated levels of serum C-reactive protein (2.8 mEq/L). Diagnosis of acute cecal volvulus was made from a "coffee bean sign" on an abdominal computed tomography and a "beak sign" on a gastrographin enema. An emergent laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis and an ileo-colectomy with primary anastomosis wascarried out. The patient recovered after intensive respiratory care and fluid therapy, and then returned to her former institution. A review of Japanese literature disclosed that:(1) a marked increase of aged patients with mental disability presenting with cecal volvulus, (2) adoption of ileo-colectomy as the standard surgical procedure, and (3) improved survival of the patients, were observed in the last decade.

  1. Coprophagous behavior of rabbit pups affects implantation of cecal microbiota and health status

    OpenAIRE

    Combes, Sylvie; Gidenne, Thierry; Cauquil, Laurent; Bouchez, Olivier; Fortun-Lamothe, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    During the first few weeks after delivery, female rabbits excrete fecal pellets, which are ingested by their pups. We hypothesized that maternal excretion of hard fecal pellets and the coprophagous behavior of their pups were involved in cecal microbiota implantation. Four groups were compared: in 1 group (FM), pups had free access to maternal fecal pellets; in a second group, ingestion of feces was prevented (NF); and in 2 additional groups, pups had access only to fecal pellets excreted by ...

  2. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Feng Mei

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg–1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  3. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Wen Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg-1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  4. Prior esophagogastroduodenoscopy does not affect the cecal intubation time at bidirectional endoscopies

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Osman Zekai; Demirci, Rojbin Karakoyun; Gündüz, Umut Rıza; Aslaner, Arif; Koç, Ümit; Bülbüller, Nurullah

    2013-01-01

    Bidirectional endoscopy (BE) is often used to assess patients for the reason of anemia or to screen asymptomatic population for malignancy. Limited clinical data favors to perform first the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy, but its effect to the duration of colonoscopy is yet to be determined. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy on the time to achieve cecal intubation during colonoscopy in patients undergoing BE. Pati...

  5. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan. PMID:26468217

  6. Fermentation of carbohydrate in rat ileal excreta is enhanced with cecal inocula compared with fecal inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, D J; Marlett, J A

    1996-02-01

    The differential fermentative capacities of microflora from two regions of the large bowel and how fermentation was altered by prior exposure of the microflora to the substrate to be fermented were studied using an in vitro fermentation system. Bacterial inocula were prepared from cecal contents and feces from three groups of rats fed purified diets containing 100 g/kg dietary fiber from canned peas or psyllium seed husk, or a nonpurified diet containing 170 g/kg dietary fiber. The substrate for all fermentations was ileal excreta from colectomized rats fed a purified diet containing 100 g/kg dietary fiber from canned peas. Anaerobic fermentations were conducted for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h. Sugars of the unfermented polysaccharides were measured by gas chromatography following acid hydrolysis; disappearance was the measure of fermentation. Independent of inoculum source, > 90% of the starch and arabinose and 75% of the uronic acids, but psyllium seed husk fermented starch faster (P < 0.05) and non-starch glucose, arabinose and uronic acids more slowly (P < 0.05) than inocula adapted to peas or nonpurified diet. Bacterial efficiency of carbohydrate utilization, the increase in muramic acid/mole carbohydrate fermented, was greatest (P < 0.05) with cecal inocula adapted to peas. We conclude that using cecal microflora as the inoculum source provides a more accurate index of fermentation during transit through the large bowel and that noncellulosic and storage polysaccharides of the plant cell wall are utilized before cellulose. PMID:8632231

  7. Physical Activity Differentially Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Ovariectomized Female Rats Selectively Bred for High and Low Aerobic Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Wen Liu

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is considered a relevant factor in obesity and associated metabolic diseases, for which postmenopausal women are particularly at risk. Increasing physical activity has been recognized as an efficacious approach to prevent or treat obesity, yet the impact of physical activity on the microbiota remains under-investigated. We examined the impacts of voluntary exercise on host metabolism and gut microbiota in ovariectomized (OVX high capacity (HCR and low capacity running (LCR rats. HCR and LCR rats (age = 27 wk were OVX and fed a high-fat diet (45% kcal fat ad libitum and housed in cages equipped with (exercise, EX or without (sedentary, SED running wheels for 11 wk (n = 7-8/group. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would hinder weight gain, increase metabolic health and shift the microbiota of LCR rats, resulting in populations more similar to that of HCR rats. Animals were compared for characteristic metabolic parameters including body composition, lipid profile and energy expenditure; whereas cecal digesta were collected for DNA extraction. 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed, followed by analysis using QIIME 1.8.0 to assess cecal microbiota. Voluntary exercise decreased body and fat mass, and normalized fasting NEFA concentrations of LCR rats, despite only running one-third the distance of HCR rats. Exercise, however, increased food intake, weight gain and fat mass of HCR rats. Exercise clustered the gut microbial community of LCR rats, which separated them from the other groups. Assessments of specific taxa revealed significant (p<0.05 line by exercise interactions including shifts in the abundances of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Relative abundance of Christensenellaceae family was higher (p = 0.026 in HCR than LCR rats, and positively correlated (p<0.05 with food intake, body weight and running distance. These findings demonstrate that exercise differentially

  8. Responses in ileal and cecal bacteria to low and high amylose/amylopectin ratio diets in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu-Heng; Yang, Can; Wright, André-Denis G; He, Jun; Chen, Dai-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Dietary starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation in the distal intestine. This study aimed to compare the bacterial community in the ileal and cecal digesta of growing pigs fed diets with low (0.14, LR pigs) and high (0.43, HR pigs) amylose/amylopectin ratio. Pyrosequencing based on MiSeq 2000 platform showed that in ileum digesta, Bacteroidetes of LR pigs was markedly higher than that in HR pigs (P Halomonas pacifica, Escherichia fergusonii, and Actinobacillus minor which belong to class Gammaproteobacteria were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in HR pigs with a significant increase (P < 0.01) of Lactobacillus acetotolerans-like bacteria. Therefore, the changed bacterial community may lead to a transformation of microbial function, such as the alteration of fermentation mode which is showed on the change of microbial metabolites like the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), to a response to the switch of dietary composition, and in turn, to help host absorb and utilize nutrients efficiently. The increase of dietary amylose induced the reduction of conditioned pathogens which may probably be due to the increase of some probiotics such as Lactobacillus, thus reducing the risk of intestinal disease. PMID:26318448

  9. A new oral formulation for the release of sodium butyrate in the ileo-cecal region and colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aldo Roda; Patrizia Simoni; Maria Magliulo; Paolo Nanni; Mario Baraldini; Giulia Roda; Enrico Roda

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To develop a new formulation with hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose and Shellac coating for extended and selective delivery of butyrate in the ileo-caecal region and colon.METHODS:One-gram sodium butyrate coated tablets containing 13C-butyrate were orally administered to 12 healthy subjects and 12 Crohn's disease patients and the rate of 13C-butyrate absorption was evaluated by 13CO2 breath test analysis for eight hours.Tauroursodeoxycholic acid(500 mg)was co-administered as a biomarker of oro-ileal transit time to determine also the site of release and absorption of butyrate by the time of its serum maximum concentration.RESULTS:The coated formulation delayed the 13C-butyrate release by 2-3 h with respect to the uncoated tablets.Sodium butyrate was delivered in the intestine of all subjects and a more variable transit time was found in Crohn's disease patients than in healthy subjects.The variability of the peak 13CO2 in the kinetic release of butyrate was explained by the inter-subject variability in transit time.However,the coating chosen ensured an efficient release of the active compound even in patients with a short transit time.CONCLUSION:Simultaneous evaluation of breath 13CO2 and tauroursodeoxycholic acid concentrationtime curves has shown that the new oral formulation consistently releases sodium butyrate in the ileo-cecal region and colon both in healthy subjects and Crohn's disease patients with variable intestinal transit time.This formulation may be of therapeutic value in inflammatory bowel disease patients due to the appropriate release of the active compound.

  10. Comparison and Efficacy of LigaSure and Rubber Band Ligature in Closing the Inflamed Cecal Stump in a Rat Model of Acute Appendicitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Chieh Yeh; Chia-Ing Jan; Horng-Ren Yang; Po-Han Huang; Long-Bin Jeng; Wen-Pang Su; Hui-Chen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A) and 7 days (Group B) after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S), 5 mm LigaSure (L), or rubber band (R). Seven days after cecal resection, th...

  11. Production of amines in equine cecal contents in an in vitro model of carbohydrate overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S R; Rycroft, A; Elliott, J

    2002-10-01

    Acute laminitis can be induced experimentally in horses by the administration of carbohydrate, resulting in fermentation within the cecum and ischemia-reperfusion of the digits. The products of fermentation that trigger acute laminitis are as yet unknown; however, compounds such as amines might play a role due to their potential vasoactive properties. The objectives of this study were to quantify the amines present in equine cecal contents and to use a model of carbohydrate overload in vitro to test the hypothesis that carbohydrate fermentation is associated with increased amine production. Cecal contents from each horse were divided into aliquots and incubated anaerobically with either cornstarch or inulin (a form of fructan carbohydrate; both 1 g/100 mL). The pH was measured and samples were taken at the same time for amine measurement by HPLC at 2-h intervals over a 24-h period. In a second set of experiments, the effects of the antibiotic virginiamycin (1 mg/100 mL), calcium (CaPO4; 0.3 g/100 mL), and plant steroidal saponin (Yucca schidigera extract; 0.1 g/100 mL) were examined on pH and amine concentrations in cecal contents incubated with starch or inulin. Both starch and inulin caused significant time-dependent falls in pH, from 6.7 +/- 0.1 at 0 h to 5.2 +/- 0.1 (starch) and 5.0 +/- 0.1 (inulin) at 24 h. Fermentation of carbohydrate was also associated with increased production of phenylethylamine and isoamylamine (two- to threefold increases) as well as putrescine and cadaverine (1.5- to twofold increases). Virginiamycin inhibited the fall in pH and increases in production of phenylethylamine and isoamylamine, while calcium phosphate moderated the changes in pH only. Yucca schidigera extract was without effect. These data show that fermentation of carbohydrate by equine cecal microbiota may lead to increased production of amines. PMID:12413088

  12. Ileocecal-colonic intussusception caused by cecal adenocarcinoma A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verre, Luigi; Rossi, Rachele; Gaggelli, Ilaria; Piccolomini, Alessandro; Podzemny, Vlasta; Tirone, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intussusception in adults is an infrequent cause of intestinal occlusion that is usually due to neoplasm lesions. The unspecific nature of the clinical presentation often delays diagnosis. It is most commonly emergency explorative laparotomy which clarifies the etiology of the occlusion. The authors report a case of intestinal occlusion caused by ileocecal-colonic invagination with a small cecal adenocarcinoma as lead point, in a 74-year-old woman. CASE REPORT: A 74-year-old woman came to the Emergency Department, complaining of crampy pain in the mid- and lower abdomen. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a "pseudokidney sign" apparently involving the cecum. Because there were no clear signs of occlusion, the patient was dicharged on the same day. Three days later, upon admission, the patient complained of episodes of abdominal pain with intervals of moderate well-being, associated with nausea, vomiting and an inability to pass stool (but not gas) for 36 hours. On clinical examination her abdomen was distended and tender on palpation in all quadrants, especially in the right iliac fossa where a large mass could be felt. Standard abdominal x-Ray documented gaseous distension of some loops of the jejunum-ileum with some air-fluid level. The patient underwent an abdominal CT scan which showed advanced intussusception that appeared to be ileocolic and multiple enlarged lymphnodes were found in the invaginated mesentery at the base of which there appears to be a thickening of the intestinal wall that is probably neoplastic in nature. The patient underwent explorative laparotomy. Ileocecal-colonic intussusception caused by a cecal growth 5 cm in diameter was found on examination of the surgical specimen. Histology showed that the cause of the large swelling of the ascending colon was a vegetating ulcerated adenocarcinoma (medium grade differentiation: G2), measuring 6.5x 4.0 cm, arising from a tubulovillous adenoma infiltrating the submucosa. CONCLUSIONS

  13. Investigation into Host Selection of the Cecal Acetogen Population in Rabbits after Weaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Yang

    Full Text Available Homoacetogenic bacteria have received attention as a hydrogenotrophic population that offers a significant energetic advantage to the host animal. Reductive acetogenesis is likely an important hydrogen disposal mechanism in the cecum of rabbits. However, molecular ecology information about cecal acetogen candidates has rarely been reported. To better understand the effect of host selection in the rabbit cecal acetogen community with respect to growth, rabbits at four different age stages (30, 60, 120 and 180 days with the same diet were studied. Although the abundance of potential acetogens and methanogens was high in the cecum of rabbits undergoing growth, many novel potential acetogen populations were observed in the cecum of rabbits across all age groups. Young and adult rabbits had their own distinct acetogen community although they received the same diet, which suggests that as the rabbit ages, acetogens in the cecum undergo developmental changes because of host selection that are independent of diet, and perhaps the different acetogen communities result in different hydrogenotrophic characteristics. The within-group similarity increased with age, indicating that the acetogen community converges to a more homogeneous and stable arrangement with aging.

  14. Dietary resistant dextrins positively modulate fecal and cecal microbiota composition in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Libudzisz, Zdzisława; Barczyńska, Renata; Kapuśniak, Janusz; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the effect of dietary resistant dextrins, as potential prebiotics, on the intestinal microflora of young rats. Enzyme-resistant dextrin, prepared by heating of potato starch in the presence of hydrochloric (0.1% dsb) and tartaric (40% dsb) acid at 130ºC for 2 h (CA-dextrin). The experiment was performed on 24 Wistar male rats at 3-wk of age, divided by analogues in three experimental groups (control, starch and dextrin). Analyses determined the overall bacterial counts and the counts of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides and Clostridium strains within the feces and cecal contents of rats using fluorescence in situ hybridization method. CA-dextrin had no effect on primary growth indicators (body weight, body weight gain, dietary consumption) or the mass of the small intestine and the cecum, but dextrins caused a reduction in pH and the concentration of ammonia within the cecal contents. That supplementation of diet with resistant dextrins had a positive effect on composition of intestinal microflora in rats. It increased the counts of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains both in the feces and in the cecum. Moreover, it reduced the counts of Clostridium and Bacteroides strains. These results may suggest that resistant dextrins exerted a prebiotic-like effect in the large intestine. PMID:26610307

  15. Analysis of Resistant Starches in Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Timothy J. [Ames Laboratory; Ai, Yongfeng [Iowa State University; Jones, Roger W. [Ames Laboratory; Houk, Robert S. [Ames Laboratory; Jane, Jay-lin [Iowa State University; Zhao, Yinsheng [Iowa State University; Birt, Diane F. [Iowa State University; McClelland, John F. [Ames Laboratory

    2013-01-29

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) qualitatively and quantitatively measured resistant starch (RS) in rat cecal contents. Fisher 344 rats were fed diets of 55% (w/w, dry basis) starch for 8 weeks. Cecal contents were collected from sacrificed rats. A corn starch control was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. To calibrate the FTIR-PAS analysis, samples from each diet were analyzed using an enzymatic assay. A partial least-squares cross-validation plot generated from the enzymatic assay and FTIR-PAS spectral results for starch fit the ideal curve with a R2 of 0.997. A principal component analysis plot of components 1 and 2 showed that spectra from diets clustered significantly from each other. This study clearly showed that FTIR-PAS can accurately quantify starch content and identify the form of starch in complex matrices.

  16. Pathogenicity of a strain of Trichomonas gallinarum in turkeys and its possible interaction with cecal coccidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, R A

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Trichomonas gallinarum (TG) in turkeys and chickens was assessed in a series of four experiments. TG was shown to be resistant to freezing for a period of 1 hr at -20 C; birds administered an emulsion of previously frozen TG were readily infected. Young birds receiving this inoculum were more likely to be infected with TG in both ceca compared with birds administered TG emulsion that had remained at room temperature for the same length of time. In this and other experiments, birds infected with the parasite consistently produced a yellow frothy liquid in the ceca, as well as small raised papulae on the mucosal surface of the ceca. Histologically, the lesions were located in the lamina propria, with openings that extended from the apex of the lesion to the crypts. The lamina propria was consistently infiltrated by lymphocytes and scattered heterophiles. Although TG is likely involved in the pathogenesis of the lesions, the resulting pathology could not be linked definitively to TG alone because inoculation was performed with a cecal contents homogenate containing significant numbers of cecal bacteria. Combined infections of TG and Eimeria adenoides (EA) were also studied. Turkeys administered both parasites were more frequently infected with TG in both ceca compared with those that received TG alone. Ceca infected with TG alone tended to be enlarged and gas filled, whereas those infected with the combination of TG and EA were smaller and usually lacked the yellow frothy liquid contents.

  17. Investigation into Host Selection of the Cecal Acetogen Population in Rabbits after Weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunlei; Mi, Lan; Hu, Xialu; Liu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Homoacetogenic bacteria have received attention as a hydrogenotrophic population that offers a significant energetic advantage to the host animal. Reductive acetogenesis is likely an important hydrogen disposal mechanism in the cecum of rabbits. However, molecular ecology information about cecal acetogen candidates has rarely been reported. To better understand the effect of host selection in the rabbit cecal acetogen community with respect to growth, rabbits at four different age stages (30, 60, 120 and 180 days) with the same diet were studied. Although the abundance of potential acetogens and methanogens was high in the cecum of rabbits undergoing growth, many novel potential acetogen populations were observed in the cecum of rabbits across all age groups. Young and adult rabbits had their own distinct acetogen community although they received the same diet, which suggests that as the rabbit ages, acetogens in the cecum undergo developmental changes because of host selection that are independent of diet, and perhaps the different acetogen communities result in different hydrogenotrophic characteristics. The within-group similarity increased with age, indicating that the acetogen community converges to a more homogeneous and stable arrangement with aging. PMID:27379387

  18. Influence of a subsequent meal on the oro-cecal transit time of a solid test meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, MG; Wachters-Hagedoorn, RE; Landman, K; Heimweg, J; Elzinga, H; Vonk, RJ

    2006-01-01

    Oro-cecal transit time (OCTT) is determined for clinical diagnostics of intestinal complaints and research purposes. Ingestion of a subsequent meal during the test period shortens the OCTT of a liquid test meal (glucose solution), as previously reported. This study was conducted to determine whether

  19. Delayed ischemic cecal perforation despite optimal decompression after placement of a self-expanding metal stent: report of a case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip Krag; Pilsgaard, Bo; Meisner, Søren;

    2004-01-01

    condition. Three days after stent deployment, x-ray examinations revealed a small-bowel obstruction and emergency surgery was performed. Intraoperative findings demonstrated a segment of ileum fixated to the tumor in the small pelvis, resulting in the obstructive condition. Furthermore, a cecal perforation...

  20. Molecular Properties of Guar Gum and Pectin Modify Cecal Bile Acids, Microbiota, and Plasma Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannaz Ghaffarzadegan

    Full Text Available Bile acids (BAs act as signaling molecules in various physiological processes, and are related to colonic microbiota composition as well as to different types of dietary fat and fiber. This study investigated whether guar gum and pectin-two fibers with distinct functional characteristics-affect BA profiles, microbiota composition, and gut metabolites in rats. Low- (LM or high-methoxylated (HM pectin, and low-, medium-, or high-molecular-weight (MW guar gum were administered to rats that were fed either low- or high-fat diets. Cecal BAs, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and microbiota composition, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP levels were analyzed, by using novel methodologies based on gas chromatography (BAs and SCFAs and 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Strong correlations were observed between cecal BA and SCFA levels, microbiota composition, and portal plasma LBP levels in rats on a high-fat diet. Notably, guar gum consumption with medium-MW increased the cecal amounts of cholic-, chenodeoxycholic-, and ursodeoxycholic acids as well as α-, β-, and ω-muricholic acids to a greater extent than other types of guar gum or the fiber-free control diet. In contrast, the amounts of cecal deoxycholic- and hyodeoxycholic acid were reduced with all types of guar gum independent of chain length. Differences in BA composition between pectin groups were less obvious, but cecal levels of α- and ω-muricholic acids were higher in rats fed LM as compared to HM pectin or the control diet. The inflammatory marker LBP was downregulated in rats fed medium-MW guar gum and HM pectin; these two fibers decreased the cecal abundance of Oscillospira and an unclassified genus in Ruminococcaceae, and increased that of an unclassified family in RF32. These results indicate that the molecular properties of guar gum and pectin are important for their ability to modulate cecal BA formation, gut microbiota composition, and high

  1. Molecular Properties of Guar Gum and Pectin Modify Cecal Bile Acids, Microbiota, and Plasma Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarzadegan, Tannaz; Marungruang, Nittaya; Fåk, Frida; Nyman, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) act as signaling molecules in various physiological processes, and are related to colonic microbiota composition as well as to different types of dietary fat and fiber. This study investigated whether guar gum and pectin-two fibers with distinct functional characteristics-affect BA profiles, microbiota composition, and gut metabolites in rats. Low- (LM) or high-methoxylated (HM) pectin, and low-, medium-, or high-molecular-weight (MW) guar gum were administered to rats that were fed either low- or high-fat diets. Cecal BAs, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and microbiota composition, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) levels were analyzed, by using novel methodologies based on gas chromatography (BAs and SCFAs) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Strong correlations were observed between cecal BA and SCFA levels, microbiota composition, and portal plasma LBP levels in rats on a high-fat diet. Notably, guar gum consumption with medium-MW increased the cecal amounts of cholic-, chenodeoxycholic-, and ursodeoxycholic acids as well as α-, β-, and ω-muricholic acids to a greater extent than other types of guar gum or the fiber-free control diet. In contrast, the amounts of cecal deoxycholic- and hyodeoxycholic acid were reduced with all types of guar gum independent of chain length. Differences in BA composition between pectin groups were less obvious, but cecal levels of α- and ω-muricholic acids were higher in rats fed LM as compared to HM pectin or the control diet. The inflammatory marker LBP was downregulated in rats fed medium-MW guar gum and HM pectin; these two fibers decreased the cecal abundance of Oscillospira and an unclassified genus in Ruminococcaceae, and increased that of an unclassified family in RF32. These results indicate that the molecular properties of guar gum and pectin are important for their ability to modulate cecal BA formation, gut microbiota composition, and high-fat diet induced

  2. Comparison and Efficacy of LigaSure and Rubber Band Ligature in Closing the Inflamed Cecal Stump in a Rat Model of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A and 7 days (Group B after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S, 5 mm LigaSure (L, or rubber band (R. Seven days after cecal resection, the LigaSure (BL and silk subgroups (BS had significantly less intra-abdominal adhesion and better laparotomy wound healing than rubber band subgroup (BR. The initial bursting pressure at cecal stump was comparable among the three methods; along with tissue healing process, both BL and BS provided a higher bursting pressure than BR 7 days after appendectomy. BL subgroup had more abundant hydroxyproline deposition than BS and BR subgroup. Furthermore, serum TNF-α in BR group kept persistently increasing along with time after cecal resection. Thus, the finding that LigaSure but not rubber band is safe in sealing off the inflamed cecal stump in rat model of acute appendicitis suggests the possibility of applying LigaSure for appendectomy via single port procedure or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES.

  3. Comparison and efficacy of LigaSure and rubber band ligature in closing the inflamed cecal stump in a rat model of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Jan, Chia-Ing; Yang, Horng-Ren; Huang, Po-Han; Jeng, Long-Bin; Su, Wen-Pang; Chen, Hui-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A) and 7 days (Group B) after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S), 5 mm LigaSure (L), or rubber band (R). Seven days after cecal resection, the LigaSure (BL) and silk subgroups (BS) had significantly less intra-abdominal adhesion and better laparotomy wound healing than rubber band subgroup (BR). The initial bursting pressure at cecal stump was comparable among the three methods; along with tissue healing process, both BL and BS provided a higher bursting pressure than BR 7 days after appendectomy. BL subgroup had more abundant hydroxyproline deposition than BS and BR subgroup. Furthermore, serum TNF-α in BR group kept persistently increasing along with time after cecal resection. Thus, the finding that LigaSure but not rubber band is safe in sealing off the inflamed cecal stump in rat model of acute appendicitis suggests the possibility of applying LigaSure for appendectomy via single port procedure or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). PMID:25699264

  4. Cecal duplication cyst: A rare case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Shyam Raj Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplication cysts of the alimentary tract are very rare congenital anomalies. Out of all these cases, two-thirds of them manifest before the age of 2 years. They are common in ileum, but very rare in cecum. Some of them may remain asymptomatic and present in the adulthood. The lesion may be tubular or cystic. Several theories have been postulated, but true etiology is not known. We hereby report a case of a 10-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain in the pediatric surgery outpatient department. Diagnosis of cecal duplication cyst was confirmed on histopathology. This report implies that although alimentary tract duplications are rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children who presents with acute abdominal pain.

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of damage to the cecal mucosa of turkeys infected with Eimeria adenoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrick, W J; Hammer, R F

    1979-01-01

    White Wrolstad turkeys were each inoculated with 100,000 Eimeria adenoides oocysts and killed on days 4-14 postinoculation. Tissue samples, obtained from 4 areas of the ceca comparable to areas examined in chickens infected with E. tenella in previous studies, were processed by a modification of the osmium-thiocarbo-hydrazide-osmium technique and examined with a scanning electron microscope. The pathologic situation found in turkeys was slightly different from that in the ceca of chickens infected with E. tenella. The mucosal lesions are most severe at the proximal end of an infected cecum. Surface disruption was far less severe than with cecal coccidiosis in chickens of the same age exposed to an equal number of infective oocysts. Rupture of the epithelial cell often caused the mucosal surface to present a honeycomb appearance. Some specific stages of the life cycle were identified, including schizonts and oocysts.

  6. Comparison of conventional culture methods and two commercial enzyme immunoassays for detection of Salmonella in porcine fecal samples and cecal contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    1997-01-01

    method is rapid, requiring only 24 hours, and may he more sensitive than the EIA-2 assay and conventional culture techniques. Enzyme immunoassays for the detection elf salmonella in fecal samples or cecal contents provide a reasonable alternative to conventional culture techniques.......Two commercial enzyme immunoassays, designated EIA-1 and EIA-2, for the detection of salmonella in feces and cecal contents were compared to conventional culture methods. Out of 362 cecal content samples, 35 were positive by EIA-1 and 30 were positive by EIA-2 and conventional methods. Out of 189...

  7. Cecal ligation and puncture followed by MRSA pneumonia increases mortality in mice and blunts production of local and systemic cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E.; Liang, Zhe; Elise R Breed; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Fox, Amy C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Burd, Eileen M.; Farris, Alton B.; Richard S Hotchkiss; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2012-01-01

    Mortality in the ICU frequently results from the synergistic effect of two temporally-distinct infections. This study examined the pathophysiology of a new model of intraabdominal sepsis followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy followed three days later by an intratracheal injection of MRSA or saline. Both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice had 100% survival while animals with CLP followed by MRSA ...

  8. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolnaya Lydia M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.

  9. Inhibition of Escherichia coli Translocation from the Gastrointestinal Tract by Normal Cecal Flora in Gnotobiotic or Antibiotic-Decontaminated Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Rodney D.

    1980-01-01

    Escherichia coli C25 maintained population levels of 109 to 1010 per g of cecum and translocated to 100% of the middle mesenteric lymph nodes in gnotobiotic mice monoassociated with E. coli C25. Intragastric inoculation of these mice with the cecal contents from specific-pathogen-free mice reduced the population levels of E. coli C25 to 106 per g of cecum and completely inhibited translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Intragastric inoculation with heat-treated, Formalintreated, or filte...

  10. Short communication. Effects of purslane extract on performance, immunity responses and cecal microbial population of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Ghorbani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of purslane extract on performance, cecal microflora composition and immune responses of broiler chickens. One hundred and ninety two 1–day old broiler chicks (Ross 308 were allocated randomly in 4 groups with 4 replicates to receive diets supplemented with 0 (control, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of purslane extract for 42 days. Body weight gain, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly and calculated for starter (1-21 d, grower (22-42 d and overall periods (1-42 d. All diets were isocaloric, isonitrogenous and provided ad libitum. Antibody response against sheep red blood cell (SRBC was measured on d-28 and d-42. At the age of 42 d, eight chicks per treatment killed aseptically for enumeration of cecal bacteria. The results of this experiment indicated that FI increased significantly with inclusion of purslane extract in grower and overall period (p≤0.05. Purslane extract did not affect coliform and Escherichia coli populations but increased Lactobacillus population of cecal content significantly (p≤0.05. There were no significant differences in primary and secondary antibody titer against SRBC and no differences among the treatments for relative weight of thymus and spleen (p>0.05. Relative weight of bursa was affected with inclusion of purslane extract in the diet. Therefore, it was concluded that purslane inclusion had a positive significant effect on cecal microflora composition, but had no effect on immune response of broiler chickens.

  11. Anthocyanins in Strawberry Polyphenolic Extract Enhance the Beneficial Effects of Diets with Fructooligosaccharides in the Rat Cecal Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Fotschki

    Full Text Available The administration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS beneficially modulates gastrointestinal functions and may enhance the metabolism of polyphenols. However, different polyphenolic components in the diet may have different influences on the activities of the digestive enzymes and microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, a 4-week study of forty-eight male Wistar rats was conducted to investigate the physiological response of the rat cecal environment to diets without and with FOS that contained two different strawberry polyphenolic extracts, specifically EP (polyphenolic profile 60, 35, 5, and 0% ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, anthocyanins, respectively and EPA (polyphenolic profile: 50, 35, 6, and 9%, respectively. When combined with FOS, both extracts beneficially enhanced the acidification of the cecal digesta (P≤0.05 vs the groups without extracts, but the dietary combination of EPA and FOS elicited the greatest reduction in putrefactive short-chain fatty acid production and the lowest fecal β-glucuronidase activity in the cecum (P≤0.05 vs group EP. Moreover, the addition of dietary FOS elevated the metabolism of the examined strawberry extracts in the cecum and thereby increased the concentrations of the metabolites in the cecal digesta and urine (P≤0.05 vs the group with cellulose. Overall, both strawberry extracts modulated the effects of FOS in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the combination with EPA extract that contained anthocyanins exhibited greater beneficial effects in the lower gut environment than the EP extract.

  12. Pathological study on the effect of vitamin D3 on sepsis experimentally induced in rats by cecal ligation and punctures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Saidya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Vitamin D3 on the rats with sepsis that experimentally induced by cecal ligation and puncture. 100 Rats were divided into 5 groups, these include untreated control group, sham-operated group, CLP group and 2 treated groups pretreated daily a Subcutaneous injections of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 100 ng/kg for 3 days, then one of the pretreated groups subjected to sepsis accomplished by abdominal surgery comprising a cecal ligation and puncture. The following parameters were recorded: survival rate, hematological examinations and histopathological changes of the liver and heart were examined. It was found that vitamin D3 pretreated showed improvement in the survival rats and enhancement in the blood leukocyte count, also protect the rats from thrombocytopenia and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC, but vitamin D3 pretreated show slight improvement in the histopathological lesions in the liver and heart due to cecal ligation and puncture sepsis.

  13. Enzyme histochemistry of cecal lymphoid tissue during prenatal period of buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kritima; Singh, Opinder

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to elucidate the histoenzymic distribution of enzymes, i.e., phosphatases, oxidoreductases, dehydrogenases, and diaphorases in cecal lymphoid tissue during its development in the prenatal period. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on cecum of 15 buffalo fetuses ranging from 16 cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL) (100 days) to 100 cm CVRL (full term). The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL. Results: In Group I, the distribution of enzymes was uniformly weak in developing villi-like projections in cecum and completely absent from submucosa. In Group II, the enzymes showed a moderate to strong activity in epithelium lining tunica mucosa which progressively decreased as the fetus progresses toward late gestational age. However, the intense activity of enzymes was observed in developing lymphoid tissue in this group. In Group III, distribution of enzymes reduced in tunica mucosa of cecum with advancing age, whereas the intense activity was noticed in the developed lymphoid tissue complex. Conclusion: The distribution of enzymes was completely absent from submucosal region in cecum of Group I as there was no lymphoid tissue development at this age. In Group II, the enzymes showed a moderate to strong activity in epithelium lining tunica mucosa which progressively decreased toward late gestational age but an intense activity was observed in developing lymphoid tissue. In Group III, distribution of enzymes reduced in tunica mucosa with advancing age with intense activity noticed in the developed lymphoid tissue complex. PMID:27733804

  14. Hydrogen sulfide ameliorates cardiovascular dysfunction induced by cecal ligation and puncture in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, R S; El-Awady, M S; Nader, M A; Ammar, E M

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gaseous messenger that participates in regulation of cardiovascular functions. This study evaluates the possible protective effect of H2S in cardiovascular dysfunction induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rats. After 24 h of induction of CLP, heart rate (HR), mortality, cardiac and inflammation biomarkers (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) isozyme, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), in vitro vascular reactivity, histopathological examination, and oxidative biomarkers (malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were determined. CLP induced elevations in HR, mortality, serum CK-MB, cTnI, CRP, and LDH, in addition to impaired aortic contraction to potassium chloride and phenylephrine and relaxation to acetylcholine without affecting sodium nitroprusside responses. Moreover, CLP increased cardiac and aortic MDA and decreased SOD, without affecting GSH and caused a marked subserosal and interstitial inflammation in endocardium. Sodium hydrosulfide, but not the irreversible inhibitor of H2S synthesis dl-propargyl glycine, protected against CLP-induced changes in HR, mortality, cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers, oxidative stress, and myocardium histopathological changes without affecting vascular dysfunction. Our results confirm that H2S can attenuate CLP-induced cardiac, but not vascular, dysfunction possibly through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

  15. Effects of microbial agents on small intestinal structure and the quantity of cecal microorganisms in broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaodi NI; Xiuhui ZHONG; Haifeng WANG; Li XU; Shupeng WEI

    2009-01-01

    In order to elucidate the significance and related mechanisms of microbial agents in modulating the growth of broilers, one-day-old Avian broilers were employed to investigate the effect of microbial agents on body weight, daily gain and feed efficiency at various stages. The birds in the experimental groups were given salmonella pullorum then fed with antibiotics to counteract it. The results showed that the average broiler weight of the oral microbial agent group at the age of 40 days was significantly increased by 16.58% from 1520g to 1772 g (P < 0.05). The feed conversion efficiency was decreased from 2.21 to 1.82 (P < 0.01). In the experimental group fed with microbial agents, microscopic observation revealed that the intestinal villi increased in number, length and orderliness. The intestinal wall became thickened. The glands in the intestine were developed, which would be beneficial to nutrient absorption. The effect of oral microbial agents was identical to that due to antibiotics. It was also observed that Lactobacillus dominated the cecal microorganisms in broilers.

  16. Recent Research Progress of Cecal Ligation and Puncture%盲肠结扎穿孔术-脓毒症模型研究的金标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鑫(综述); 张敏州(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a high incidence and high mortality of the disease ,which is characterized by dysreg-ulated systemic in ammatory responses followed by immunosuppression , so how to choose the best animal model for the study of sepsis is crucial.Sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture ( CLP) is the most widely used model.Although CLP does not completely reproduce the complexity of human sepsis,the CLP model is one of the best representations of human sepsis which has made important contributions to our knowledge of the in ammation involved in sepsis and to the identi cation of therapeutic strategies .In this pa-per we gathered these datas on the cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis model for a review to narrow the gap between experimental sepsis models and clinical sepsis.%脓毒症是一个高发病率、高病死率的疾病。其发病特点是全身炎性反应失调引起的免疫功能障碍,因此如何选择最佳动物模型对研究脓毒症至关重要。盲肠结扎穿孔模型( CLP)是目前研究脓毒症应用最广泛、最具代表意义的一种模型,更类似于人类脓毒症的进展和特点。尽管 CLP 不能完全复制临床的脓毒症,但其仍为脓毒症发病机制和防治研究提供了大量有意义的基础数据。该文对盲肠结扎穿孔术模型的研究应用予以综述,以促进实验研究与临床试验间的转化。

  17. Metabolic changes at the early stage of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in rats and the interventional effects of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yufen; Gao, Na; Zhang, Zhongxiao; Zu, Xianpeng; Hu, Zhenlin; Zhang, Weidong; Yin, Jun; Liu, Xinru

    2016-07-15

    Sepsis is a disease with high mortality that requires rapid diagnosis and treatment. This study used a metabolomic approach to profile the metabolic changes at the early stage of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rats and investigated the interventional effects of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT). Male SD rats were intragastrically administered 270mg/kg HLJDT 2h prior to CLP, serum extracts were profiled by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-Q-TOF-MS) and multivariate analytical (MVA) methods were employed to evaluate the metabolic changes of extracts. A Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) score plot indicated that septic rats undergo significant metabolic changes 2h after CLP, and HLJDT administration could reverse the metabolic changes induced by CLP. Sixteen biomarkers involved in amino acid metabolism, unsaturated fatty acid metabolism, purine metabolism, and lipid metabolism were identified after Orthogonal Partial Least-Squares Analysis (OPLS). Among the 16 metabolites, 10 were regulated by HLJDT. This study established the foundation for further research of the early diagnosis biomarkers and therapeutic evaluation biomarkers discovery of sepsis. PMID:26365787

  18. Desempenho produtivo e atividade microbiana cecal de coelhos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de amido Performance and cecal microbial activity of growing rabbits fed diets with different starch levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do amido dietético sobre o rendimento produtivo e a atividade microbiana cecal de coelhos em crescimento, quatro dietas experimentais foram elaboradas de forma a conter níveis crescentes de amido (23, 28, 33 e 38% de amido total na base da MS, os quais foram fornecidos a 32 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, distribuídos em gaiolas de engorda individuais, seguindo um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Houve efeito linear decrescente para consumo e conversão alimentar, em que valores de 108,67 g/d e 3,216, respectivamente, foram obtidos para os animais alimentados com 38% de amido dietético. No entanto, o ganho de peso e o rendimento de carcaça não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. Por outro lado, os valores de pH, as concentrações totais e as proporções molares dos ácidos graxos voláteis não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos, porém, para o ácido propiônico, houve efeito linear decrescente, sendo a maior proporção molar (12,06% verificada no conteúdo cecal de coelhos alimentados com 23% de amido dietético. O milho-grão apresentou maior influência sobre a atividade microbiana cecal que o amido de milho purificado, porém, sem alterar o desempenho e rendimento de carcaça.With the objective to evaluate the effect of dietary starch on the productive yield and cecal microbial activity for rabbits in the growing, four experimental diets were formulated to contain increasing corn starch levels (23, 28, 33 and 38 % total starch levels in dry matter basis. A total of 32 White New Zealand rabbits were allotted to finishing cages in a completely randomized block design. The results showed a decreasing linear effect for the feed intake and feed:gain ratio, where values of 108.67g/d and 3.216, respectively, were recorded for animals fed 38% dietary starch. However, no difference was observed for the weight gain and carcass yield. Regarding to cecal microbial activity, pH and

  19. Behavioral deficits in sepsis-surviving rats induced by cecal ligation and perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barichello

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis and its complications are the leading causes of mortality in intensive care units, accounting for 10-50% of deaths. Intensive care unit survivors present long-term cognitive impairment, including alterations in memory, attention, concentration, and/or global loss of cognitive function. In the present study, we investigated behavioral alterations in sepsis-surviving rats. One hundred and ten male Wistar rats (3-4 months, 250-300 g were submitted to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP, and 44 were submitted to sham operation. Forty-four rats (40% survived after CLP, and all sham-operated animals survived and were used as control. Twenty animals of each group were used in the object recognition task (10 in short-term memory and 10 in long-term memory, 12 in the plus-maze test and 12 in the forced swimming test. Ten days after surgery, the animals were submitted individually to an object recognition task, plus-maze and forced swimming tests. A significant impairment of short- and long-term recognition memory was observed in the sepsis group (recognition index 0.75 vs 0.55 and 0.74 vs 0.51 for short- and long-term memory, respectively (P < 0.05. In the elevated plus-maze test no difference was observed between groups in any of the parameters assessed. In addition, sepsis survivors presented an increase in immobility time in the forced swimming test (180 vs 233 s, P < 0.05, suggesting the presence of depressive-like symptoms in these animals after recovery from sepsis. The present results demonstrated that rats surviving exposure to CLP, a classical sepsis model, presented recognition memory impairment and depressive-like symptoms but not anxiety-like behavior.

  20. Relationship between cytokine mRNA expression and organ damage following cecal ligation and puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Qian Wu; Ying-Xin Xu; Xu-Hua Song; Li-Jun Chen; Xian-Jun Meng

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of cytokine gene expression inorgan damage at different tissue sites during sepsis.METHODS: Male NIH mice were subjected to cecal ligationand puncture (CLP) or sham operetion ( Sham ). Pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4) gene expression in the liverand lung tissue were assessed by RT-PCR. The permeabilityof microvascular and water content in the lungs and liverwere also examined.RESULTS: Significant increase in TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 geneexpression was observed at 3 and 12 h after CLP both in theliver and lungs ( P< 0.01). The level of IL-4 gene expressionwas not changed after CLP in the lungs, but increased at 12h after CLP ( P < 0.01) in the liver tissue. Both the liver andlungs showed a significant increase in microcirculatorypermeability at 12 h after CLP (P< 0.01), and the increasein the lungs was higher than that in the liver. The watermaes fractions in the liver ( P< 0.05) and lungs ( P< 0.01)were increased after CLP, and the increase in the lungshappened earlier and more severely than that in the liver.CONCLUSION: The inflammatory response in the liver andlungs wes different during sepsis. At the early stage ofsepsis, pro-inflammatory reaction dominates both in theliver and lungs. But at the later stage of sepsis, induction ofcompensatory anti-inflammatory response was seen in theliver but not in the lungs. This difference in situ activity maycontribute to the different vulnerability of organ damageduring sepsis. The strategy of systemic administration ofanti-inflammatory drugs to sepsis should be reconsidered.

  1. Reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium by Fermentation Metabolites of Diamond V Original XPC in an In Vitro Anaerobic Mixed Chicken Cecal Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinelli, Peter; Roto, Stephanie; Kim, Sun Ae; Park, Si Hong; Pavlidis, Hilary O.; McIntyre, Don; Ricke, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation metabolites of Diamond V Original XPC™ (XPC), a biological product derived from yeast fermentation, were evaluated for their ability to reduce the Salmonella Typhimurium population using an in vitro mixed anaerobic culture system containing cecal microbiota to simulate chicken hindgut conditions. Four different samples were prepared: anaerobic mixed culture containing (1) feed only, (2) cecal only (ceca were harvested from 42 days old broiler chickens), (3) feed and cecal contents, and (4) feed, cecal contents, and 1% XPC. Two experimental conditions were investigated: Group 1, in which the cecal content was added at the same time as a S. Typhimurium marker strain and Group 2, in which the cecal content was preincubated for 24 h prior to the inoculation with the S. Typhimurium marker strain. The mixed cultures were incubated anaerobically at 37°C, and the S. Typhimurium marker strain was enumerated at 0, 24, and 48 h. Analysis of short chain fatty acids was also conducted for 24 h. In the Group 1 experiment, adding XPC did not exhibit significant reduction of S. Typhimurium. However, the presence of XPC resulted in rapid reduction of S. Typhimurium in Group 2. S. Typhimurium was reduced from 6.81 log10 CFU/ml (0 h) to 3.73 log10 CFU/ml and 1.19 log10 CFU/ml after 24 and 48 h, respectively. These levels were also 2.47 log10 and 2.72 log10 lower than the S. Typhimurium level recovered from the control culture with feed and cecal contents, but without XPC. Based on these results, it appears that the ability of XPC to reduce S. Typhimurium requires the presence of the cecal microbiota. Short chain fatty acid analysis indicated that acetate and butyrate concentrations of cultures containing XPC were twofold greater than the control cultures by 24 h of anaerobic growth. Results from the present study suggest that dietary inclusion of XPC may influence cecal microbiota fermentation and has the potential to reduce Salmonella in the cecum

  2. Reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium by Fermentation Metabolites of Diamond V Original XPC in an In Vitro Anaerobic Mixed Chicken Cecal Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinelli, Peter; Roto, Stephanie; Kim, Sun Ae; Park, Si Hong; Pavlidis, Hilary O.; McIntyre, Don; Ricke, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation metabolites of Diamond V Original XPC™ (XPC), a biological product derived from yeast fermentation, were evaluated for their ability to reduce the Salmonella Typhimurium population using an in vitro mixed anaerobic culture system containing cecal microbiota to simulate chicken hindgut conditions. Four different samples were prepared: anaerobic mixed culture containing (1) feed only, (2) cecal only (ceca were harvested from 42 days old broiler chickens), (3) feed and cecal contents, and (4) feed, cecal contents, and 1% XPC. Two experimental conditions were investigated: Group 1, in which the cecal content was added at the same time as a S. Typhimurium marker strain and Group 2, in which the cecal content was preincubated for 24 h prior to the inoculation with the S. Typhimurium marker strain. The mixed cultures were incubated anaerobically at 37°C, and the S. Typhimurium marker strain was enumerated at 0, 24, and 48 h. Analysis of short chain fatty acids was also conducted for 24 h. In the Group 1 experiment, adding XPC did not exhibit significant reduction of S. Typhimurium. However, the presence of XPC resulted in rapid reduction of S. Typhimurium in Group 2. S. Typhimurium was reduced from 6.81 log10 CFU/ml (0 h) to 3.73 log10 CFU/ml and 1.19 log10 CFU/ml after 24 and 48 h, respectively. These levels were also 2.47 log10 and 2.72 log10 lower than the S. Typhimurium level recovered from the control culture with feed and cecal contents, but without XPC. Based on these results, it appears that the ability of XPC to reduce S. Typhimurium requires the presence of the cecal microbiota. Short chain fatty acid analysis indicated that acetate and butyrate concentrations of cultures containing XPC were twofold greater than the control cultures by 24 h of anaerobic growth. Results from the present study suggest that dietary inclusion of XPC may influence cecal microbiota fermentation and has the potential to reduce Salmonella in the cecum

  3. Effect of dietary levan fructan supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, relative organ weight, cecal microflora, and excreta noxious gas emission in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P Y; Wang, J P; Kim, I H

    2013-11-01

    A total of 720 1-d-old male Ross broilers (BW of 48.0±0.3 g) were used to evaluate the effects of dietary levan fructan supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, relative organ weight, cecal microflora, and excreta noxious gas emission in broilers. This experiment lasted 31 d. Broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: 1) CON, basal diet, 2) CON+0.25% fructan (FC1), and 3) CON+0.50% fructan (FC2). Each treatment contained 16 pens with 15 chicks per pen. Broilers on levan fructan supplementation treatments (FC1+FC2) had a lower (P=0.005 for d 15 to 31) ADFI and greater (P=0.005 for d 15 to 31 and P=0.022 for d 1 to 31) G:F than those on the CON. A decreased (P=0.031) relative spleen weight was observed with levan fructan supplementation treatments compared with the CON. Cecal E. coli and C. perfringens concentrations in levan fructan treatments were decreased, while cecal Lactobacillus, as well as Bifidobacteria, concentrations in levan fructan treatments were increased compared with the CON. However, excreta NH3 concentrations were decreased (P=0.013) in levan fructan treatments compared with the CON. In conclusion, fructan supplementation improved later stage growth performance, increased cecal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria concentrations, and decreased cecal E. coli and C. perfringens concentrations, as well as excreta NH3 concentrations, in broilers. PMID:24045474

  4. The Impact of Lactobacillus casei on the Composition of the Cecal Microbiota and Innate Immune System Is Strain Specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Busra; De Wolfe, Travis J; Safdar, Nasia; Darien, Benjamin J; Steele, James L

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic function to impact human health is thought to be related to their ability to alter the composition of the gut microbiota and modulate the human innate immune system. The ability to function as a probiotic is believed to be strain specific. Strains of Lactobacillus casei are commonly utilized as probiotics that when consumed alter the composition of the gut microbiota and modulate the host immune response. L. casei strains are known to differ significantly in gene content. The objective of this study was to investigate seven different L. casei strains for their ability to alter the murine gut microbiota and modulate the murine immune system. C57BL/6 mice were fed L. casei strains at a dose of 108 CFU/day/mouse for seven days and sacrificed 3.5h after the last administration. The cecal content and the ileum tissue were collected for microbiota analysis and immune profiling, respectively. While 5 of the L. casei strains altered the gut microbiota in a strain specific manner, two of the strains did not alter the overall cecal microbiota composition. The observed changes cluster into three groups containing between 1 and 2 strains. Two strains that did not affect the gut microbiota composition cluster together with the control in their impact on pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expression, suggesting that the ability to alter the cecal microbiota correlates with the ability to alter PRR expression. They also cluster together in their impact on the expression of intestinal antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). This result suggests that a relationship exists between the capability of a L. casei strains to alter the composition of the gut microbiota, PRR regulation, and AMP regulation. PMID:27244133

  5. Effects of probiotic inclusion levels in broiler nutrition on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, plasma immunoglobulins, and cecal microflora composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountzouris, K C; Tsitrsikos, P; Palamidi, I; Arvaniti, A; Mohnl, M; Schatzmayr, G; Fegeros, K

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of inclusion levels of a 5-bacterial species probiotic in broiler nutrition. Five hundred twenty-five 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were allocated in 5 experimental treatments for 6 wk. The experimental treatments received a corn-soybean coccidiostat-free basal diet and depending on the addition were labeled as follows: no addition (C), 10(8) cfu probiotic/kg of diet (P1), 10(9) cfu probiotic/kg of diet (P2), 10(10) cfu probiotic/kg of diet (P3), and 2.5 mg of avilamycin/kg of diet (A). Each treatment had 3 replicates of 35 broilers each. Treatment effects on broiler growth performance and biomarkers such as ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility, plasma Ig concentration, and cecal microflora composition were determined. Differences among treatments were considered significant when P feed conversion ratio values were similar and significantly better for P1 (1.80) and A (1.80) compared with P2 (1.87), C (1.89), and P3 (1.92). Ileal apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of CP and ether extract were higher in A. Generally, treatments A and P1 showed an improved total tract ADC for DM, organic matter, ash, ether extract, and AME(n) values. The total tract ADC of CP was higher in P1, C, and P2. There were no differences between treatments regarding plasma Ig in 14- and 42-d-old broilers. Treatments P2 and P3 were effective at beneficially modulating cecal microflora composition. In particular, the lower cecal coliform concentration (log cfu/g of wet digesta) was seen in P2 (6.12) and P3 (4.90) in 14- and 42-d-old broilers, respectively, whereas at 42 d, P3 and P2 had the highest Bifidobacterium (8.31; 8.08) and Lactobacillus concentrations (8.20; 7.86), respectively. It is concluded that probiotic inclusion level had a significant effect on broiler growth responses, nutrient ADC, AME(n), and cecal microflora composition. PMID:20008803

  6. Digestibilidad in vitro Prececal y Cecal de plantas forrajeras tropicales para la nutrición en cerdos

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal Tapia, Juliana Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Con el objetivo de evaluar nutricionalmente el follaje de leguminosas tropicales Canavalia (C. brasiliensis), Desmodium (D. velutinum), Caupi (V. unguiculata), Stylosanthes (S. guianensis), Cratylia (C argentea), Lablab (L purpureus), Centrosema (C. molle) y Centrocema brasilianum mediante pruebas de composición química, digestibilidad in vitro prececal de materia seca,(DIMS) energía (DIVE) y proteína (DIVP) y fermentación in vitro cecal. Se encontró C. molle y V. unguiculata tuvieron valores...

  7. PD-L1 Blockade Attenuated Sepsis-Induced Liver Injury in a Mouse Cecal Ligation and Puncture Model

    OpenAIRE

    Weimin Zhu; Rui Bao; Xiaohua Fan; Tianzhu Tao; Jiali Zhu; Jiafeng Wang; Jinbao Li; Lulong Bo; Xiaoming Deng

    2013-01-01

    Liver plays a major role in hypermetabolism and produces acute phase proteins during systemic inflammatory response syndrome and it is of vital importance in host defense and bacteria clearance. Our previous studies indicated that programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are crucial modulators of host immune responses during sepsis. Our current study was designed to investigate the role of PD-L1 in sepsis-induced liver injury by a mouse cecal ligation and pun...

  8. Delayed ischemic cecal perforation despite optimal decompression after placement of a self-expanding metal stent: report of a case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip Krag; Pilsgaard, Bo; Meisner, Søren;

    2004-01-01

    condition. Three days after stent deployment, x-ray examinations revealed a small-bowel obstruction and emergency surgery was performed. Intraoperative findings demonstrated a segment of ileum fixated to the tumor in the small pelvis, resulting in the obstructive condition. Furthermore, a cecal perforation...... to this specific treatment. We conclude that although a patient is eligible for treatment with self-expanding metal stents, large-bowel obstruction can be too "old" for stent-decompression, causing ischemic perforation of the colon. Furthermore, we underline the need to focus on the possibility of obstructions...

  9. Synchronous cecal adenocarcinoma and multiple colonic in situ carcinomas in hamartomatous polyps in a case of isolated Peutz–Jeghers syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia Z Gad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Yahia Z Gad1, Doaa H Bakr1, Mohammad G El-Ebeidy21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Mansoura Specialized Medical Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptBackground: Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (PJS is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation and hamartomatous polyps of the entire gastrointestinal tract. A Peutz–Jeghers polyp (PJP in a patient without pigmentation or a family history of the disease is called an isolated or solitary PJP. Individuals with PJS carry a very high risk of developing gastrointestinal (GI as well as extra-GI malignancies. This case report documents lesion multiplicity and their malignant potential in a young patient with PJS presenting in a serious condition for the first time.Case report: An 18-year-old female Egyptian patient was admitted with hematochezia and remarkable anemia. After appropriate resuscitation and consent, colonoscopic evaluation revealed seven pedunculated colonic polyps at the ascending and the transverse colon, and numerous variable-sized sessile polyps were scattered all over the colon. To establish hemostasis, endoscopic polypectomy for pedunculated polyps and argon plasma photocoagulation for the bleeding sessile polyps were performed. Histopathological examination revealed cecal adenocarcinoma in one specimen and two simultaneous in situ carcinoma at the transverse and the sigmoid colon in the mucosae of the excised histologically proven hamartomatous polyps. Additionally, one focal in situ carcinoma in the resected colon was detected.Conclusions: When considering the family history, serious GI neoplastic lesions may be unmasked in young patients with PJS who present with hematochezia, even in the absence of its characteristic mucocutaneous pigmented lesions. GI endoscopic surveillance programs should be adopted for diagnosed cases of PJS and their families. Genetic prenatal screening for early detection is the best option for

  10. Delayed Treatment with Sodium Hydrosulfide Improves Regional Blood Flow and Alleviates Cecal Ligation and Puncture (CLP)-Induced Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akbar; Druzhyna, Nadiya; Szabo, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis is a serious medical condition, caused by a severe systemic infection resulting in a systemic inflammatory response. Recent studies have suggested the therapeutic potential of donors of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel endogenous gasotransmitter and biological mediator in various diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of H2S supplementation in sepsis, with special reference to its effect on the modulation of regional blood flow. We infused sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a compound that produces H2S in aqueous solution (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg/h, for 1 h at each dose level) in control rats or rats 24 h after CLP, and measured blood flow using fluorescent microspheres. In normal control animals, NaHS induced a characteristic redistribution of blood flow, and reduced cardiac, hepatic, and renal blood flow in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, in rats subjected to CLP, cardiac, hepatic, and renal blood flow was significantly reduced; infusion of NaHS (1 mg/kg/h and 3 mg/kg/h) significantly increased organ blood flow. In other words, the effect of H2S on regional blood flow is dependent on the status of the animals (i.e., a decrease in blood flow in normal controls, but an increase in blood flow in CLP). We have also evaluated the effect of delayed treatment with NaHS on organ dysfunction and the inflammatory response by treating the animals with NaHS (3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 24 h after the start of the CLP procedure; plasma levels of various cytokines and tissue indicators of inflammatory cell infiltration and oxidative stress were measured 6 h later. After 24 h of CLP, glomerular function was significantly impaired, as evidenced by markedly increased (over 4-fold over baseline) blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels; this increase was also significantly reduced by treatment with NaHS. NaHS also attenuated the CLP-induced increases in malondialdehyde levels (an index of

  11. Delayed Treatment with Sodium Hydrosulfide Improves Regional Blood Flow and Alleviates Cecal Ligation and Puncture (CLP)-Induced Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akbar; Druzhyna, Nadiya; Szabo, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis is a serious medical condition, caused by a severe systemic infection resulting in a systemic inflammatory response. Recent studies have suggested the therapeutic potential of donors of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel endogenous gasotransmitter and biological mediator in various diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of H2S supplementation in sepsis, with special reference to its effect on the modulation of regional blood flow. We infused sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a compound that produces H2S in aqueous solution (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg/h, for 1 h at each dose level) in control rats or rats 24 h after CLP, and measured blood flow using fluorescent microspheres. In normal control animals, NaHS induced a characteristic redistribution of blood flow, and reduced cardiac, hepatic, and renal blood flow in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, in rats subjected to CLP, cardiac, hepatic, and renal blood flow was significantly reduced; infusion of NaHS (1 mg/kg/h and 3 mg/kg/h) significantly increased organ blood flow. In other words, the effect of H2S on regional blood flow is dependent on the status of the animals (i.e., a decrease in blood flow in normal controls, but an increase in blood flow in CLP). We have also evaluated the effect of delayed treatment with NaHS on organ dysfunction and the inflammatory response by treating the animals with NaHS (3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 24 h after the start of the CLP procedure; plasma levels of various cytokines and tissue indicators of inflammatory cell infiltration and oxidative stress were measured 6 h later. After 24 h of CLP, glomerular function was significantly impaired, as evidenced by markedly increased (over 4-fold over baseline) blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels; this increase was also significantly reduced by treatment with NaHS. NaHS also attenuated the CLP-induced increases in malondialdehyde levels (an index of

  12. Western diet enhances hepatic inflammation in mice exposed to cecal ligation and puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houghton Jeff

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese patients display an exaggerated morbidity during sepsis. Since consumption of a western-style diet (WD is a major factor for obesity in the United States, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of chronic WD consumption on hepatic inflammation in mice made septic via cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Feeding mice diets high in fat has been shown to enhance evidence of TLR signaling and this pathway also mediates the hepatic response to invading bacteria. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combined effects of sepsis and feeding WD on TRL-4 signaling would exacerbate hepatic inflammation. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed purified control diet (CD or WD that was enriched in butter fat (34.4% of calories for 3 weeks prior to CLP. Intravital microscopy was used to evaluate leukocyte adhesion in the hepatic microcirculation. To demonstrate the direct effect of saturated fatty acid on hepatocytes, C3A human hepatocytes were cultured in medium containing 100 μM palmitic acid (PA. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4 and interleukin-8 (IL-8. Results Feeding WD increased firm adhesion of leukocytes in the sinusoids and terminal hepatic venules by 8-fold six hours after CLP; the increase in platelet adhesion was similar to the response observed with leukocytes. Adhesion was accompanied by enhanced expression of TNF-α, MCP-1 and ICAM-1. Messenger RNA expression of TLR-4 was also exacerbated in the WD+CLP group. Exposure of C3A cells to PA up-regulated IL-8 and TLR-4 expression. In addition, PA stimulated the static adhesion of U937 monocytes to C3A cells, a phenomenon blocked by inclusion of an anti-TLR-4/MD2 antibody in the culture medium. Conclusions These findings indicate a link between obesity-enhanced susceptibility to sepsis and

  13. Assessment of cecal microbiota, integron occurrence, fermentation responses, and Salmonella frequency in conventionally raised broilers fed a commercial yeast-based prebiotic compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang In; Park, Si Hong; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    Prebiotics are defined as nondigestible food ingredients that can stimulate the growth of one or more beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. The Biolex(®) MB40 is a commercial prebiotic that contains mannanoligosaccharides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of prebiotic Biolex(®) MB40 on cecal microbiota of conventionally raised chickens using PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and assessing Salmonella prevalence. Chickens were randomly selected and distributed into three groups; a negative control (NC) and two treatment groups (T1 and T2). The NC group was fed a non-medicated feed, while the treatment groups were fed either T1 or T2, 0.05% antibiotic (BMD50) or 0.2% Biolex(®) MB40 respectively. During the study, cecal contents and bird feed were plated on selective media for Salmonella, yeast and mold prevalence analysis. Ten chickens from each group were randomly selected at 1, 2, 4 and 6 wk and ceca were extracted for DNA isolation for PCR-based DGGE. Also, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed from collected cecal material by gas chromatography. Only 4.2% of the samples were Salmonella positive. Presence of class 1 integron from cecal material were analyzed by PCR and 97.5% of the cecal samples were positive for integron presence, but no class I integrons were detected in the Salmonella isolates. According to the PCR-based DGGE analysis, the T2 group exhibited a cecal microbial population pattern that was similar to the T1 group prior to wk 4 and the T2 group appeared to be almost identical with the NC group after wk 4 but T2 exhibited less Bacteroides rodentium prior to wk 4. Overall results showed that the commercial prebiotic, MB40 did not lead to a detectable reduction of Salmonella but the general frequency of Salmonella was minimal in all treatments. However, feeding an MB40 supplement did result in similar DGGE band patterns as the T1 group indicating that cecal microbiotia were potentially

  14. Metabolomic Analyses of Brain Tissue in Sepsis Induced by Cecal Ligation Reveal Specific Redox Alterations-Protective Effects of the Oxygen Radical Scavenger Edaravone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hara, Naomi; Chijiiwa, Miyuki; Yara, Miki;

    2015-01-01

    at analyzing the preventive effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on sepsis-induced brain alterations. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and the mice were divided into three groups-CLP vehicle (CLPV), CLP and edaravone (MCI-186, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) (CLPE...... (Bcl-2 and Bax) were analyzed in selected brain regions. CLPE showed significant improvement in survival compared with CLPV 18 h postinduction of sepsis (P ... induced by cecal ligation alters cerebral redox status and supports a proapoptotic phenotype. The free radical scavenger edavarone reduces mortality of septic mice and protects against sepsis-induced neuronal cell death....

  15. Effect of propolis alcoholic extract on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Alves Ferreira Zanato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of different rates of propolis alcoholic extract (PAE on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits. Forty White New Zealand rabbits were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments and ten replicates per treatment. The rabbits were allocated individually in wire cages containing a nipple drinker and a semi-automatic feeder. The treatments were: T1 = control, T2 = 1ml of ethanol, T3 = 0.8ml of PAE, and T4 = 1.5ml of PAE. Commercial feed and water were provided ad libitum to the animals, and the treatment with cereal alcohol and PAE was administered orally using a 2ml syringe. It was concluded that the addition of PAE to the rabbits’ feeding resulted in weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH similar to those of animals which received the diets with ethanol without any addition, except for the paw weight, that was higher in the rabbits which were given PAE, and for the gastric system, that had a higher weight in the rabbits which received no addition to their diet.

  16. Probiotic level effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, cecal microbiota, and immune response of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourakbari, Mohammadreza; Seidavi, Alireza; Asadpour, Leila; Martínez, Andrés

    2016-05-31

    Probiotic effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, cecal microbiota, and immune response of broilers were studied. Two hundred one-day-old male chickens were allocated to one of five treatments (four replicates of 10 birds per treatment): control, and the same control diet supplemented with 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.015% and 0.02% probiotics. Probiotics in feed at 0.01% or higher levels of supplementation improved body weight gain (+12%) and feed conversion rate (-5%) compared with the control. There were no effects on carcass traits, but the relative weights of drumsticks and wings showed increasing and decreasing linear responses, respectively, to probiotic supplementation level. Blood plasma glucose and albumin contents linearly increased (from 167.1 to 200.5 mg dl-1, and from 1.70 to 3.25 g dl-1) with increasing probiotic supplementation. Triglycerides and cholesterol contents were lower in probiotic supplemented treatments (average contents 71.3 and 125.3 mg dl-1 vs. 92.6 and 149.9 mg dl-1 in the control). Probiotics decreased cecal Escherichia coli counts, but had no effects on immunity related organs or immune response. The linear trends, either positive or negative, observed in many of the parameters studied, suggest that more studies are needed to establish the optimal concentration of probiotics in broiler feed. PMID:27254451

  17. Real-time PCR detection of lactic acid bacteria in cecal contents of Eimeria tenella-infected broilers fed soybean oligosaccharides and soluble soybean polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Y.; Xun, S.; Tamminga, S.; Williams, B.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Erdi, G.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test whether dietary soybean meal oligosaccharides (SMO) and water-soluble polysaccharides (SMP) can assist broiler chickens in resisting Eimeria tenella, and to determine the survival of lactic acid bacteria in cecal contents postinfection. All birds received a soyb

  18. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results Principal Component Analysis (PCA of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks, while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa, as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals. Conclusions Our findings show that consumption of apple pectin (7% in the diet increases the population of butyrate- and β-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.

  19. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed......-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, puree or pomace....

  20. Rat cecal inocula produce different patterns of short-chain fatty acids than fecal inocula in in vitro fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, D J; Marlett, J A

    1995-10-01

    The effects of bacterial collection site, bacterial adaption to substrate and duration of fermentation on short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were studied using an in vitro fermentation system. Cecal and fecal inocula from rats fed purified diets containing 100 g/kg dietary fiber from canned peas or psyllium seed husk, or a nonpurified diet containing 170 g/kg dietary fiber fermented ileal excreta from colectomized rats fed a purified diet containing 100 g/kg dietary fiber from canned peas. The SCFA concentration, measured by gas chromatography, in anaerobic fermentations of 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, increased (P psyllium seed husk at most time points. We conclude that collection site, adaptation of bacteria to the substrate to be fermented and duration of fermentation significantly influence the results of in vitro fermentation studies. PMID:7562080

  1. Maximizing the general success of cecal intubation during propofol sedation in a multi-endoscopist academic centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donà Barbara M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving the target of 95% colonoscopy completion rate at centres conducting colorectal screening programs is an important issue. Large centres and teaching hospitals employing endoscopists with different levels of training and expertise risk achieving worse results. Deep sedation with propofol in routine colonoscopy could maximize the results of cecal intubation. Methods The present study on the experience of a single centre focused on estimating the overall completion rate of colonoscopies performed under routine propofol sedation at a large teaching hospital with many operators involved, and on assessing the factors that influence the success rate of the procedure and how to improve this performance, analyzing the aspects relating to using of deep sedation. Twenty-one endoscopists, classified by their level of specialization in colonoscopic practice, performed 1381 colonoscopies under deep sedation. All actions needed for the anaesthesiologist to restore adequate oxygenation or hemodynamics, even for transient changes, were recorded. Results The "crude" overall completion rate was 93.3%. This finding shows that with routine deep sedation, the colonoscopy completion rate nears, but still does not reach, the target performance for colonoscopic screening programs, at centers where colonoscopists of difference experience are employed in such programs. Factors interfering with cecal intubation were: inadequate colon cleansing, endoscopists' expertise in colonoscopic practice, patients' body weight under 60 kg or age over 71 years, and the need for active intervention by the anaesthesiologist. The most favourable situation - a patient less than 71 years old with a body weight over 60 kg, an adequate bowel preparation, a "highly experienced specialist" performing the test, and no need for active anaesthesiological intervention during the procedure - coincided with a 98.8% probability of the colonoscopy being completed

  2. Successional changes in the chicken cecal microbiome during 42 days of growth are independent of organic acid feed additives

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, Brian B; Buhr, R Jeff; Ritz, Casey W; Kiepper, Brian H; Berrang, Mark E.; Seal, Bruce S.; Cox, Nelson A

    2014-01-01

    Background Poultry remains a major source of foodborne bacterial infections. A variety of additives with presumed anti-microbial and/or growth-promoting effects are commonly added to poultry feed during commercial grow-out, yet the effects of these additives on the gastrointestinal microbial community (the GI microbiome) as the bird matures remain largely unknown. Here we compared temporal changes in the cecal microbiome to the effects of formic acid, propionic acid, and medium-chain fatty ac...

  3. Effect of lactulose supplementation on growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbial population, and short-chain fatty acid composition of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Ali; Ergün, Ahmet

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary lactulose supplementation on broiler growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, cecal microflora, and cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations. A total of 245 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 5 different treatments, with 7 replicates including 7 birds each. The birds received the same basal diet based on corn--soybean meal, and lactulose was included in the diet at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8% at the expense of corn and/or soybean meal. The body weight gain (linear, P=0.027) and feed conversion (linear, P=0.003) from 0 to 21 d showed significant improvement as dietary lactulose was increased from 0.2 to 0.8%. However, dietary lactulose did not affect broiler performance at the end of the experiment (42 d). Furthermore, intestinal measurements and the goblet cell count of broilers fed a lactulose-containing diet differed from those of birds fed a diet that did not contain lactulose. In addition, a significant quadratic response in the Lactobacillus count (P≤0.001) was observed at 42 d on increasing the level of lactulose. The cecal coliform bacterial population was not affected by the dietary treatments. Supplementation with lactulose significantly increased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA measured on d 7 and d 42. In conclusion, inclusion of lactulose in the diet can enhance broiler performance and intestinal morphology by selectively stimulating intestinal microflora and increasing cecal SCFA concentrations. PMID:26188035

  4. Absorptive activity of calcium in the isolated cecal epithelium adaptively increased by 2 week's feeding of difructose anhydride III in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Mineo, Hitoshi; Amano, Midori; Chiji, Hideyuki; Shigematsu, Norihiro; Tomita, Fusao; Hara, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    We compared net Ca absorption and Lucifer Yellow (LY), a paracellular passage dye, permeability in the epithelium isolated from the rat small intestine, cecum, and colon after feeding with control and difructose anhydride (DFA) III diets for 14 days using the Ussing chamber system. Feeding of DFA III increased net Ca transport and LY passage in the cecal but not in small intestinal or colonic epithelium. Ability of paracellular Ca passage via Tight-junction (TJ) in the cecum was changed adapt...

  5. Metagenomic analysis reveals a functional signature for biomass degradation by cecal microbiota in the leaf-eating flying squirrel (Petaurista alborufus lena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Hsiao-Pei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animals co-evolve with their gut microbiota; the latter can perform complex metabolic reactions that cannot be done independently by the host. Although the importance of gut microbiota has been well demonstrated, there is a paucity of research regarding its role in foliage-foraging mammals with a specialized digestive system. Results In this study, a 16S rRNA gene survey and metagenomic sequencing were used to characterize genetic diversity and functional capability of cecal microbiota of the folivorous flying squirrel (Petaurista alborufus lena. Phylogenetic compositions of the cecal microbiota derived from 3 flying squirrels were dominated by Firmicutes. Based on end-sequences of fosmid clones from 1 flying squirrel, we inferred that microbial metabolism greatly contributed to intestinal functions, including degradation of carbohydrates, metabolism of proteins, and synthesis of vitamins. Moreover, 33 polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and 2 large genomic fragments containing a series of carbohydrate-associated genes were identified. Conclusions Cecal microbiota of the leaf-eating flying squirrel have great metabolic potential for converting diverse plant materials into absorbable nutrients. The present study should serve as the basis for future investigations, using metagenomic approaches to elucidate the intricate mechanisms and interactions between host and gut microbiota of the flying squirrel digestive system, as well as other mammals with similar adaptations.

  6. Dietary Cerebroside from Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus): Absorption and Effects on Skin Barrier and Cecal Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingjing; Ishida, Marina; Aida, Kazuhiko; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Jin; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-09-21

    Sphingolipids from marine sources have attracted more attention recently because of their distinctive structures and expected functions. In this study, the content and components of cerebroside from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus were analyzed. The absorption of cerebroside from S. japonicus was investigated with an in vivo lipid absorption assay. The result revealed that S. japonicus is a rich source of cerebroside that contained considerable amounts of odd carbon chain sphingoid bases. The cumulative recoveries of d17:1- and d19:2-containing cerebrosides were 0.31 ± 0.16 and 0.32 ± 0.10%, respectively, for 24 h after administration. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first work that shows sphingolipids from a marine source could be absorbed in vivo and incorporated into ceramides. In addition, dietary supplementation with sea cucumber cerebroside to hairless mouse improved the skin barrier function and increased short-chain fatty acids in cecal contents, which have shown beneficial effects on the host. PMID:27585906

  7. Chemically modified tetracycline (COL-3) improves survival if given 12 but not 24 hours after cecal ligation and puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halter, Jeffrey M; Pavone, Lucio A; Steinberg, Jay M; Gatto, Louis A; DiRocco, Joseph; Landas, Steve; Nieman, Gary F

    2006-12-01

    Sepsis can result in excessive and maladaptive inflammation that is responsible for more than 215,00 deaths per year in the United State alone. Current strategies for reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis rely on treatment of the syndrome rather than prophylaxis. We have been investigating a modified tetracycline, COL-3, which can be given prophylactically to patients at high risk for developing sepsis. Our group has shown that COL-3 is very effect at preventing the sequelae of sepsis if given before or immediately after injury in both rat and porcine sepsis models. In this study, we wanted to determine the "treatment window" for COL-3 after injury at which it remains protective. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Rats were anesthetized and placed into five groups: CLP (n = 20) = CLP without COL-3, sham (n = 5) = surgery without CLP or COL-3, COL3@6h (n = 10) = COL-3 given by gavage 6 h after CLP, COL3@12h (n = 10) = COL-3 given by gavage 12 h after CLP, and COL3@24h (n = 20) = COL-3 given by gavage 24 h after CLP. COL-3 that was given at 6 and 12 h after CLP significantly improved survival as compared with the CLP and the CLP@24h groups. Improved survival was associated with a significant improvement in lung pathology assessed morphologically. These data suggest that COL-3 can be given up to 12 h after trauma and remain effective.

  8. Simultaneous malignancies consisting of cecal cancer, sigmoid colon cancer and pleomorphic sarcoma around the left iliac bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 71-year-old woman, who had surgery and subsequent irradiation for uterine canner 29 years prior, developed pain around her left hip and leg. Computed tomography showed a soft tissue density mass around the left iliac bone measuring 13 cm in diameter. An incisional biopsy revealed a pleomorphic sarcoma. On positron emission tomography and colonoscopy, a cecal cancer a sigmoid colon cancer were detected. These two colonic cancers were surgically removed to prevent bowel obstruction. Both of the tumors presented as bulky masses with well-defined margins invading the proper muscle layers and the surrounding colonic wall; they exhibited dysplasia, foamy cells, and thickened arterial walls that showed hyalinization, indicating radiation-induced colitis. Namely, all these tumors including the pleomorphic sarcoma around the iliac bone were considered to be radiation-induced tumors. Radiation-induced cancer is a late complication of irradiation and when diagnosed is often advanced. Both patients and clinicians should be cognizant of the potential consequences of irradiation; appropriate follow-up should be instituted. (author)

  9. PD-L1 Blockade Attenuated Sepsis-Induced Liver Injury in a Mouse Cecal Ligation and Puncture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver plays a major role in hypermetabolism and produces acute phase proteins during systemic inflammatory response syndrome and it is of vital importance in host defense and bacteria clearance. Our previous studies indicated that programmed death-1 (PD-1 and its ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1 are crucial modulators of host immune responses during sepsis. Our current study was designed to investigate the role of PD-L1 in sepsis-induced liver injury by a mouse cecal ligation and puncture (CLP model. Our results indicated that there was a significant increase of PD-L1 expression in liver after CLP challenge compared to sham-operated controls, in terms of levels of mRNA transcription and immunohistochemistry. Anti-PD-L1 antibody significantly alleviated the morphology of liver injury in CLP mice. Anti-PD-L1 antibody administration decreased ALT and AST release in CLP mice, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA in liver after sepsis challenge. Thus, anti-PD-L1 antibody might have a therapeutic potential in attenuating liver injury in sepsis.

  10. Chromogranin A is a sensitive marker of progression or regression in ileo-cecal neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Højsgaard; Hilsted, Linda; Jensen, Claus Verner;

    2013-01-01

    evaluated by events, which were recorded when a CT was followed by another CT 1 - 12 months later. Change in tumor size was defined as regression, progression, or stable disease using RECIST criteria 1.1. Of 426 events, there were 97 with progression, 279 with stable disease, and 50 with regression. Based...... on the ROC curves a cutoff value of 25% change was selected to discriminate between increased, decreased, or unchanged CgA concentrations in plasma, using a sensitive radioimmunoassay with well-defined epitope specificity. Results. In the 97 events showing tumor progression diagnostic sensitivity...... and negative predictive values were 91% and 63%, respectively. In the 50 events showing tumor regression, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a decrease in CgA concentration were 78% and 91%, the positive and negative predictive values being 55% and 97%. Conclusions. CgA concentrations in plasma have...

  11. Probiotic pre-administration reduces mortality in a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lufang; Xu, Keying; Gui, Qifeng; Chen, Yue; Chen, Deying; Yang, Yunmei

    2016-01-01

    A number of clinical trials have demonstrated that the use of probiotics has the potential to prevent nosocomial infections. However, the mechanism underlying probiotic-induced anti-infection and sepsis remains to be investigated. In the present study, 200 µl/day of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or normal saline (control) was orally administrated to 4-week-old C57BL6 mice 4 weeks prior to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). A number of mice were sacrificed 24 h after CLP, and the remaining mice were used for survival studies. Ileum tissues were collected to evaluate the injury on the intestine. Blood samples were also obtained to investigate the changed metabolic pattern in mice that underwent different treatments using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). In the survival studies, the mortality of CLP-induced septic mice pretreated with LGG was significantly lower compared with untreated mice (P=0.029). Ileum mucosal damage was evident in the control septic mice. Based on the data of UPLC-QTOF-MS, phosphatidylcholines were increased and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) that contained polyunsaturated fatty acids were decreased in septic mice, whereas saturated fatty acid LPCs reveal no significant difference between septic and sham mice. In addition, the metabolic profile in the septic mice pretreated with LGG was much closer to that of sham mice compared with control septic mice. The results of the present study suggest that probiotic pre-administration reduces the mortality in septic mice by decreasing ileum mucosal damage, increasing the gut barrier integrity and altering global serum metabolic profiles. PMID:27588102

  12. Cecal ligation and puncture followed by MRSA pneumonia increases mortality in mice and blunts production of local and systemic cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E.; Liang, Zhe; Breed, Elise R.; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Fox, Amy C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Burd, Eileen M.; Farris, Alton B.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality in the ICU frequently results from the synergistic effect of two temporally-distinct infections. This study examined the pathophysiology of a new model of intraabdominal sepsis followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy followed three days later by an intratracheal injection of MRSA or saline. Both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice had 100% survival while animals with CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia had 67% seven-day survival. Animals subjected to CLP/MRSA had increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) concentrations of MRSA compared to sham/MRSA animals. Animals subjected to sham/MRSA pneumonia had increased BAL levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and G-CSF compared to those given intratracheal saline while CLP/MRSA mice had a blunted local inflammatory response with markedly decreased cytokine levels. Similarly, animals subjected to CLP/saline had increased peritoneal lavage levels of IL-6 and IL-1β compared to those subjected to sham laparotomy while this response was blunted in CLP/MRSA mice. Systemic cytokines were upregulated in both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice, and this was blunted by the combination of CLP/MRSA. In contrast, no synergistic effect on pneumonia severity, white blood cell count or lymphocyte apoptosis was identified in CLP/MRSA mice compared to animals with either insult in isolation. These results indicate that a clinically relevant model of CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia causes higher mortality than could have been predicted from studying either infection in isolation, and this was associated with a blunted local (pulmonary and peritoneal) and systemic inflammatory response and decreased ability to clear infection. PMID:21937950

  13. Propionibacterium acidipropionici CRL1198 influences the production of acids and the growth of bacterial genera stimulated by inulin in a murine model of cecal slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Pisarello, M J; Gultemirian, M L; Nieto-Peñalver, C; Perez Chaia, A

    2010-08-01

    Different attempts have been made to improve the health status of humans and animals by increasing the intestinal production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) derived from non-digestible carbohydrates fermentation. In this paper we investigate the in vitro production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) after addition of inulin, propionibacteria or a combination of both in an experimental model of mice cecal slurries. The development of bacterial genera which are usually stimulated by inulin addition was also investigated. According to our experimental data, acetic acid and butyric acids concentrations increased after incubation in slurries that had no supplements. By contrast, butyric acid concentrations remained in the basal value when supplements were used. Fermentation of only inulin did not increase the concentration of total SCFA. Propionibacterium acidipropionici CRL1198 improved the production of propionic acid in cecal slurries when it was added alone, but the effect was more noticeable in the combination with inulin. A modulation of the global fermentative activity of the cecal microbiota was evidenced by the increase on the ratio propionic acid/SCFA in supplementations with propionibacteria. Statistical analysis of data demonstrated that samples from homogenates with propionibacteria alone or combined with inulin belong to the same cluster. The presence of propionibacteria limited the growth of Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium hystoliticum groups in slurries with and without inulin. The growth of Bifidobacterium was not modified and the stimulating effect of inulin on lactobacilli disappeared in the presence of propionibacteria. In conclusion, dairy propionibacteria are potential candidates to develop new functional foods helpful to ensure the intestinal production of SCFA during inulin supplementation and to control the overgrowth of bacteria belonging to Bacteroides and Clostridium genera.

  14. Resistant starch alters gut microbiome and metabolomic profiles concurrent with amelioration of chronic kidney disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A; Piccolo, Brian D; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Liu, Shuman; Lau, Wei L; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nazertehrani, Sohrab; Moore, Mary E; Marco, Maria L; Martin, Roy J; Adams, Sean H

    2016-05-01

    Patients and animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit profound alterations in the gut environment including shifts in microbial composition, increased fecal pH, and increased blood levels of gut microbe-derived metabolites (xenometabolites). The fermentable dietary fiber high amylose maize-resistant starch type 2 (HAMRS2) has been shown to alter the gut milieu and in CKD rat models leads to markedly improved kidney function. The aim of the present study was to identify specific cecal bacteria and cecal, blood, and urinary metabolites that associate with changes in kidney function to identify potential mechanisms involved with CKD amelioration in response to dietary resistant starch. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with adenine-induced CKD were fed a semipurified low-fiber diet or a high-fiber diet [59% (wt/wt) HAMRS2] for 3 wk (n = 9 rats/group). The cecal microbiome was characterized, and cecal contents, serum, and urine metabolites were analyzed. HAMRS2-fed rats displayed decreased cecal pH, decreased microbial diversity, and an increased Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio. Several uremic retention solutes were altered in the cecal contents, serum, and urine, many of which had strong correlations with specific gut bacteria abundances, i.e., serum and urine indoxyl sulfate were reduced by 36% and 66%, respectively, in HAMRS2-fed rats and urine p-cresol was reduced by 47% in HAMRS2-fed rats. Outcomes from this study were coincident with improvements in kidney function indexes and amelioration of CKD outcomes previously reported for these rats, suggesting an important role for microbial-derived factors and gut microbe metabolism in regulating host kidney function. PMID:26841824

  15. Hypertonic saline solution drives neutrophil from bystander organ to infectious site in polymicrobial sepsis: a cecal ligation and puncture model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cardillo Theobaldo

    Full Text Available The effects of hypertonic saline solution (HSS have been shown in several animal models of ischemia and shock. Literature has shown potential benefits of HSS modulating inflammatory response after sepsis in an animal model. We studied the HSS effects in sepsis through cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in Balb-C mice. Groups studied: 1- CLP without treatment (CLP-C; 2- CLP treated with normal saline solution NaCl 0.9% - 34 ml/Kg (CLP-S; 3- CLP treated with HSS NaCl 7.5% - 4 ml/Kg (CLP-H; and 4- group (Basal without no CLP or treatment. Volume infusion was always applied 30 min after CLP. Lung and peritoneal lavage were harvested after 6h and 24h of CLP to analyze cytokines amount, oxide nitric, lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration. Neutrophil infiltration, ICAM-1, CXCR-2, and CXCL-1 in lung were reduced by HSS (CLP-H compared to CLP-C or CLP-S. Neutrophil in peritoneal lavage was increased in 24h with HSS (CLP-H compared to CLP and CLP-S. Peritoneal CXCR-2 was increased in CLP-C and CLP-S but presented a lower increase with HSS (CLP-H after 6 hours. GRK-2 presented difference among the groups at 24 h, showing a profile similar to neutrophil infiltration. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 were reduced by HSS treatment; CLP-S increased TNF-α. IL-10 was increased in lung tissue by the HSS treatment. The oxidative stress (TBARS and nitric oxide biochemistry markers was reduced with HSS. Animal survival was 33.3% in CLP-C group, 46.6% in CLP-S group and 60% in the CLP-H group after the sixth day. The HSS protects the animal against sepsis. Our results suggest that the volume replacement modulate pro and anti-inflammatory mediators of an inflammatory response, but HSS presented a more effective and potent effect.

  16. Stimulation of butyrate production by gluconic acid in batch culture of pig cecal digesta and identification of butyrate-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Koyama, Hironari; Okada, Masaaki; Ushida, Kazunari

    2002-08-01

    Gluconic acid reaches the large intestine to stimulate lactic acid bacteria. However, the fermentation pattern of gluconic acid has yet to be elucidated. Accordingly, we examined the fermentation properties induced by gluconic acid in the pig cecal digesta in vitro. We also tested sorbitol and glucose, substrates for which the fermentation rate and patterns are known. The gluconic acid-utilizing bacteria were further isolated from pig cecal digesta and identified to examine the effect of gluconic acid on hind gut fermentation. Gluconic acid was fermented more slowly than were the other two substrates. Gluconic acid stimulated butyrate production; the butyrate molar percentage reached 26%, which is considered a high butyrate production. The majority of gluconic acid fermenters were identified as lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus reuteri and L. mucosae, and acid-utilizing bacteria, such as Megasphaera elsdenii and Mitsuokella multiacida. The gluconic acid fermented by lactic acid bacteria, and the lactate and acetate that were produced were used to form butyrate by acid-utilizing bacteria, such as M. elsdenii. Gluconic acid may be useful as a prebiotic to stimulate butyrate production in the large intestine.

  17. DESEMPENHO, RENDIMENTO DE CARCAÇA E pH CECAL DE COELHOS EM CRESCIMENTO ALIMENTADOS COM DIETAS CONTENDO NÍVEIS DE PROBIÓTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Regina Caires

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o desempenho, o rendimento de carcaça e o pH cecal de coelhos em crescimento alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de probiótico composto por Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Streptococcus salivarium, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtillis, B. toyoi e Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Foram utilizados 48 coelhos Nova Zelândia Branco num delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os coelhos foram desmamados aos 35 dias e abatidos aos 85 dias de idade. Os níveis de probiótico dietético avaliados foram 0,00%, 0,01%, 0,02% e 0,03%. Não houve efeito significativo (P>0,05 em decorrência da inclusão do probiótico na dieta dos animais sobre o desempenho, rendimento e pH cecal, com vistas a uma melhoria nos índices zootécnicos desses animais. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Aditivos, bactérias, microrganismos.

  18. Effects of Dietary Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT(®)) on Growth Performance, Relative Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, Tibia Bone Characteristics, and Meat Qualities in Pekin Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S T; Zheng, L; Kwon, H J; Choo, Y K; Lee, K W; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2015-01-01

    Fermented Chlorella vulgaris was examined for its effects on growth performance, cecal microflora, tibia bone strength, and meat qualities in commercial Pekin ducks. A total of three hundred, day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into three groups with five replicates (n = 20 ducklings per replicate) and offered diets supplemented with commercial fermented C. vulgaris (CBT(®)) at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 6 wks. The final body weight was linearly (p = 0.001) increased as the addition of fermented C. vulgaris into diets increased. Similarly, dietary C. vulgaris linearly increased body weight gain (p = 0.001) and feed intake (p = 0.001) especially at the later days of the feeding trial. However, there was no C. vulgaris effect on feed efficiency. Relative weights of liver were significantly lowered by dietary fermented C. vulgaris (linear effect at p = 0.044). Dietary fermented C. vulgaris did not affect total microbes, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms in cecal contents. Finally, meat quality parameters such as meat color (i.e., yellowness), shear force, pH, or water holding capacity were altered by adding fermented C. vulgaris into the diet. In our knowledge, this is the first report to show that dietary fermented C. vulgaris enhanced meat qualities of duck meats. In conclusion, our study indicates that dietary fermented C. vulgaris exerted benefits on productivity and can be employed as a novel, nutrition-based strategy to produce value-added duck meats.

  19. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi;

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  20. Cecal populations of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and Escherichia coli populations after in vivo Escherichia coli challenge in birds fed diets with purified lignin or mannanoligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurhoo, B; Letellier, A; Zhao, X; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    2007-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate lignin and mannanoligosaccharides as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in broilers. Dietary treatments for the 2 studies were 1) negative control (CTL-, antibiotic free); 2) positive control (CTL+, diet 1 + 11 mg of virginiamycin/kg); 3) mannanoligosaccharide (MOS; diet 1 + BioMos: 0.2% to 21 d and 0.1% thereafter); 4) LL (diet 1 + 1.25% Alcell lignin); and 5) HL (diet 1 + 2.5% Alcell lignin). In experiment 1, each treatment was assigned to 4 pen replicates (52 birds each). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly for 38 d. At 28 and 38 d, cecal contents were assayed for lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Body weight and feed intake did not differ among dietary treatments. At d 38, the lactobacilli population was greatest (P < 0.05) in birds fed MOS, whereas LL-fed birds had greater (P < 0.05) lactobacilli load than those fed CTL+. Bifidobacteria load was greater (P < 0.05) in birds fed MOS or LL compared with those fed CTL+ at both d 28 and 38. However, at d 28 and 38, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria loads were lowest (P < 0.05) in CTL+ or HL-fed birds. In experiment 2, 21-d-old birds from the initial flock were transferred to cages for oral Escherichia coli (O2 and O88 serotypes) challenge (12 birds/treatment). After 3, 6, and 9 d, cecal loads of E. coli were determined. Birds fed HL had a lower E. coli load (P < 0.05) than birds fed CTL- or CTL+ at d 3, and lower than birds fed CTL- at d 6. At d 9, the E. coli load was lower (P < 0.05) in birds fed MOS or HL than in those fed the CTL- or CTL+ diets; LL-fed birds had lower E. coli load than those fed CTL-. Birds fed MOS or LL had a comparative advantage over CTL+ birds in increasing populations of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and lowering E. coli loads after challenge. PMID:18029796

  1. Características do líquido peritoneal de eqüinos normais após punção cecal percutânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valadão Carlos Augusto Araújo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados 10 eqüinos da raça Manga Larga, machos, inteiros clinicamente sadios, submetidos à punção cecal percutânea. Analisou-se a resposta clínica, celular, bioquímica e microbiológica do líquido peritoneal por um período de 24 horas após a punção cecal, nos tempos T0, T6, T12 e T24. Foi observada elevação na freqüência respiratória em T6 e na temperatura retal entre T6 e T12. Decorridas 24 horas da punção cecal, ocorreu aumento na concentração de proteínas totais do líquido peritoneal e na atividade da fosfatase alcalina. Tanto a atividade da ALT quanto os níveis de hemoglobina apresentaram diminuição em T6. Não foram registradas alterações na celularidade do plasma ou do líquido peritoneal e obteve-se resultado negativo para a cultura microbiológica do líquido. Considerando a inexistência de efeitos adversos, além das poucas alterações descritas, conclui-se que a punção cecal percutânea é um procedimento seguro e factível, se praticada criteriosamente.

  2. Pomegranate protects liver against cecal ligation and puncture-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rats through TLR4/NF-κB pathway inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makled, Mirhan N; El-Awady, Mohammed S; Abdelaziz, Rania R; Atwan, Nadia; Guns, Emma T; Gameil, Nariman M; Shehab El-Din, Ahmed B; Ammar, Elsayed M

    2016-04-01

    Acute liver injury secondary to sepsis is a major challenge in intensive care unit. This study was designed to investigate potential protective effects of pomegranate against sepsis-induced acute liver injury in rats and possible underlying mechanisms. Pomegranate was orally given (800mg/kg/day) for two weeks before sepsis induction by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Pomegranate improved survival and attenuated liver inflammatory response, likely related to downregulation of mRNA expression of toll like recptor-4, reduced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB subunit p65, decreased mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduction in myeloperoxidase activity and mRNA expression. Pomegranate also decreased CLP-induced oxidative stress as reflected by decreased malondialdehyde content, and increased reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity. These results confirm the antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects of pomegranate in CLP-induced acute liver injury mediated through inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB pathway, lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration. PMID:27011232

  3. Effects of Fructooligosaccharides,compared with Direct-Fed Microbial Bacteria,and Zinc Bacitracin on Cecal Microbial Populations and Performance of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructooligosaccharides(FOS),compared with direct-fed microbial bacteria (DFM),and zinc bacitracin ,on cecal microbial populations and performance of broiler Chickens. One hundred and ninety-two broilers (Avian) were randomly assigned to four groups,with four replicates of 12 birds each. The control group was fed with the basal diet,without any drug additive. FOS,DFM and zine bacitracin was respectively added to the basal diet at the level of 1.5% ,800 mg@kg-1 and 300 mg@ kg-1 to form the experimental diets. Body weight ,feed intake and feed efficiency were measured weekly. The feeding trial started at 1 d and ended at 21 d. At day 14 and day 21 ,four broilers per group were killed and cecum waa taken to determined microflors and pH. The results showed that dietary FOS increased bifidobactrial concentration by 1. 75-fold( P <0. 05) at 14 d of age and 1.45-fold( P <0. 05) at 21 d of age compared with control. FOS had no effect on concnetrations of E. coli and pH. There were no dietary effects of FOS,DFM,and zinc bacitracin on weight gain,feed intake,feed conversion( P >0. 05).

  4. Metabolomic Analyses of Brain Tissue in Sepsis Induced by Cecal Ligation Reveal Specific Redox Alterations--Protective Effects of the Oxygen Radical Scavenger Edaravone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Naomi; Chijiiwa, Miyuki; Yara, Miki; Ishida, Yusuke; Ogiwara, Yukihiko; Inazu, Masato; Kuroda, Masahiko; Karlsson, Michael; Sjovall, Fredrik; Elmér, Eskil; Uchino, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    The pathophysiology of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is complex and remains incompletely elucidated. Dysregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial-mediated necrotic-apoptotic pathway have been proposed as part of the pathogenesis. The present study aimed at analyzing the preventive effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on sepsis-induced brain alterations. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and the mice were divided into three groups-CLP vehicle (CLPV), CLP and edaravone (MCI-186, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) (CLPE), and sham-operated (Sham). Mice in CLPV and CLPE were injected with saline or edaravone intraperitoneally at a dose of 10 mg/kg twice daily. The treatments were initiated 4 days prior to the surgical procedure. Mortality, histological changes, electron microscopy (EM), and expression of Bcl-2 family genes (Bcl-2 and Bax) were analyzed in selected brain regions. CLPE showed significant improvement in survival compared with CLPV 18 h postinduction of sepsis (P free radical scavenger edavarone reduces mortality of septic mice and protects against sepsis-induced neuronal cell death.

  5. Cystathionine-γ-lyase gene silencing with siRNA in monocytes/ macrophages attenuates inflammation in cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in the mouse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Badiei; ST Chambers; RR Gaddam; M Bhatia

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen sulphide is an endogenous inflammatory mediator produced by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in macrophages. To determine the role of H2S and macrophages in sepsis, we used small interference RNA (siRNA) to target the CSE gene and investigated its effect in a mouse model of sepsis. Cecal ligation puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis is characterized by increased levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, morphological changes in liver and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the liver and lung. SiRNA treatment attenuated inflammation in the liver and lungs of mice following CLP-induced sepsis. Liver MPO activity increased in CLP-induced sepsis and treatment with siRNA significantly reduced this. Similarly, lung MPO activity increased following induction of sepsis with CLP while siRNA treatment significantly reduced MPO activity. Liver and lung cytokine and chemokine levels in CLP-induced sepsis reduced following treatment with siRNA. These findings show a crucial pro-inflammatory role for H2S synthesized by CSE in macrophages in sepsis and suggest CSE gene silencing with siRNA as a potential therapeutic approach for this condition.

  6. EFFECT OF AN ENZYMATIC COMPLEX ON EGG PRODUCTION AND QUALITY, TOTAL PLASMA PROTEIN LEVELS AND CECAL BACTERIAL COUNT OF LAYERS EFEITO DE UM COMPLEXO ENZIMÁTICO NA PRODUÇÃO E NA QUALIDADE DE OVOS, NOS NÍVEIS DE PROTEÍNAS PLASMÁTICAS E NA POPULAÇÃO BACTERIANA CECAL EM POEDEIRAS SEMIPESADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Pereira Gentilini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to relate the egg production with health status, expressed as cecal bacteria contamination, as well as to investigate the effect of total plasma proteins with egg quality of layers fed different diets reformulated to different metabolizable energy levels using an enzyme complex, obtained by solid state fermentation.  A total of  384 26-week old Hisex Brown layers were fed experimental diets during 280 days (10 periods of 28 days each. A total of 4 birds were allocated per cage, in a total of 64 birds/treatment. Treatments consisted in reformulating diets to different metablizable energy levels using an enzyme complex (EC obtained by  solid state fermentation:   T1 – basal diet (control; T2 –  basal diet  + EC (reformulated to  120 kcal ME/kg; T3 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 90 kcal ME/kg; T4 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 60 kcal ME/kg; T5 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 30 kcal ME/kg and T6 – basal diet + EC ( on top. Egg production, egg weight, Haugh units, albumen weight, total plasma proteins and cecal bacteria count were evaluated.  Egg weight and albumen weight and cecal bacteria count, but not egg production, Haugh units and total plasma proteins,   were adversely affected when the EC was added on top of a diet containing a regular commercial premix. This study indicates that the health status of the gut can be improved by adding the SSF enzyme complex on top of a regular diet.

    KEY WORDS: Exogenous enzymes, Haugh units, sanitary status.
    Objetivou-se relacionar a produção de ovos com o status sanitário das aves, expresso pelo nível de contaminação bacteriana cecal, bem como os níveis plasmáticos de proteínas totais com a qualidade dos ovos de aves que receberam dietas com complexo enzimático (CE com diferentes níveis de valorização da energia metabolizável. Utilizaram-se 384 poedeiras Hisex Brown por um período de 280 dias, divididos em dez ciclos de 28

  7. Chronic kidney disease-induced HMGB1 elevation worsens sepsis and sepsis-induced acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Huang, Yuning; Hu, Xuzhen; Zhou, Hua; Tsuji, Takayuki; Chen, Richard; Jeffrey B Kopp; Schnermann, Jürgen; Yuen, Peter S.T.; Star, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    We previously showed that kidney dysfunction/interstitial fibrosis by folate predisposes mice to sepsis mortality (normal/sepsis: 15%; folate/sepsis: 90%); agents that increased survival in normal septic mice were ineffective in the two-stage model. We used a recently characterized 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) mouse model of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) to study how CKD impacts sepsis and acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by cecal ligation-puncture (CLP). CKD intensified sepsis severity (...

  8. Behavior of Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderlise Borsoi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5ufc/mL each until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

  9. Behavior of salmonella heidelberg and salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsoi, Anderlise; Ruschel do Santos, Luciana; Beatriz Rodrigues, Laura; Luiz de Souza Moraes, Hamilton; Tadeu Pippi Salle, Carlos; Pinheiro do Nascimento, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5)ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

  10. Involvement of Central Endothelin ETA and Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors and Arginine Vasopressin Release in Sepsis Induced by Cecal Ligation and Puncture in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Avalca, Mariane C G; Lomba, Luis A; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda L; Brito, Haissa O; Fraga, Daniel; Zampronio, Aleksander R

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that endothelin-1 (ET-1) reduced the frequency of spontaneous excitatory currents in vasopressinergic magnocellular cells through the activation of endothelin ETA receptors in rat brain slices. This effect was abolished by a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, suggesting the involvement of endocannabinoids. The present study investigated whether the blockade of ETA or CB1 receptors during the phase of increased levels of ET-1 after severe sepsis increases the survival rate of animals concomitantly with an increase in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels. Sepsis was induced in male Wistar rats by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Treatment with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (Rim; 10 and 20 mg/kg, orally) 4 h after CLP (three punctures) significantly increased the survival rate compared with the CLP per vehicle group. Intracerebroventricular treatment with the ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 (100 pmol) or with Rim (2 μg) 4 and 8 h after CLP but not the ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 (100 pmol), also significantly improved the survival rate. Sham-operated and CLP animals that were treated with Rim had significantly lower core temperature than CLP animals. However, oral treatment with Rim did not change bacterial count in the peritoneal exudate, neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity, leucopenia or increased plasma interleukin-6 levels induced by CLP. Both Rim and BQ123 also increased AVP levels 12 h after CLP. The blockade of central CB1 and ETA receptors in the late phase of sepsis increased the survival rate, reduced body temperature and increased the circulating AVP levels. PMID:26925810

  11. Cecal ligation and puncture followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia increases mortality in mice and blunts production of local and systemic cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E; Liang, Zhe; Breed, Elise R; Dominguez, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Fox, Amy C; Dunne, W Michael; Burd, Eileen M; Farris, Alton B; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2012-01-01

    Mortality in the intensive care unit frequently results from the synergistic effect of two temporally distinct infections. This study examined the pathophysiology of a new model of intra-abdominal sepsis followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy followed 3 days later by an intratracheal injection of MRSA or saline. Both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice had 100% survival, whereas animals with CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia had 67% 7-day survival. Animals subjected to CLP/MRSA had increased bronchoalveolar lavage concentrations of MRSA compared with sham/MRSA animals. Animals subjected to sham/MRSA pneumonia had increased bronchoalveolar lavage levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor compared with those given intratracheal saline, whereas CLP/MRSA mice had a blunted local inflammatory response with markedly decreased cytokine levels. Similarly, animals subjected to CLP/saline had increased peritoneal lavage levels of IL-6 and IL-1β compared with those subjected to sham laparotomy, whereas this response was blunted in CLP/MRSA mice. Systemic cytokines were upregulated in both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice, and this was blunted by the combination of CLP/MRSA. In contrast, no synergistic effect on pneumonia severity, white blood cell count, or lymphocyte apoptosis was identified in CLP/MRSA mice compared with animals with either insult in isolation. These results indicate that a clinically relevant model of CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia causes higher mortality than could have been predicted from studying either infection in isolation, and this was associated with a blunted local (pulmonary and peritoneal) and systemic inflammatory response and decreased ability to clear infection. PMID:21937950

  12. The Effects of Sub-Chronic Treatment with Pioglitazone on the Septic Mice Mortality in the Model of Cecal Ligation and Puncture: Involvement of Nitric Oxide Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Shafaroodi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by an infection and remains as a major challenge in health care. Many studies have reported that pioglitazone may display anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of subchronic treatment with pioglitazone on high-grade septic mice survival and nitrergic system involvement. Diffused sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP surgery in male NMRI mice (20-30 g. Pioglitazone (5,10 and 20 mg/kg was administered by gavage daily for 5 days prior to surgery. Nitric oxide involvement was assessed by sub-chronic administration of a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME and a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aminoguanidine. TNF-α  and IL-1β plasma levels were measured by ELISA. Pioglitazone (10 and 20 mg/kg significantly improved survival rate in septic mice. The chronic intraperitoneally co-administration of L-NAME (0.5 mg/kg, daily or aminoguanidine (1 mg/kg, daily with a daily dose of pioglitazone, 5 mg/kg, significantly increased the survival rate. This survival improving effect was accompanied by a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β plasma levels. In conclusion, sub-chronic pioglitazone treatment can improve survival in mouse sepsis model by CLP. Inhibition of nitric oxide release, probably through inducible nitric oxide synthase at least in part is responsible for this effect. Suppression of TNF-α and IL-1β could be another mechanism in pioglitazone-induced survival improving effect in septic mice.

  13. Modulation effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on target organ function as well as immune and inflammatory response of cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian-Xun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the modulation effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on target organ function as well as immune and inflammatory reaction of cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic rats.Methods:Adult SD rats were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into control group, model group and PUFA group. Septic rat models were made by cecal ligation and puncture method and given n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid for parenteral nutrition. Then number of apoptosis cells in intestinal mucosa, contents of intestinal flora, intestinal mucosal barrier function and immune function were detected.Results: (1) Intestinal mucosa function: the number of apoptosis cells in intestinal mucosa, intestinal E. coli contents, serum D-lactose and DAO contents as well as L/M ratio in urine of model group were higher than those of control group, and contents of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were lower than those of control group; the number of apoptosis cells in intestinal mucosa, intestinal E. coli contents, serum D-lactose and DAO contents as well as L/M ratio in urine of PUFA group were lower than those of model group, and contents of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were higher than those of model group; (2) Immune and inflammatory response: the number of PP nodes and PP node cells as well as contents of B cells and T cells in intestinal mucosa of model group were lower than those of control group; the number of PP nodes and PP node cells as well as contents of B cells and T cells in intestinal mucosa of PUFA group were higher than those of model group.Conclusion: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) are helpful to protect intestinal mucosal barrier function of cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic rats, regulate intestinal flora balance and improve immune and inflammatory response.

  14. The Use of Steered Ileo-cecal Valve Cannulated Pigs to Evaluate the Effects of Adding Phytase or Beta-mannanase to the Diet on Amino Acid, Mineral and Energy Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Radcliffe, John Scott

    2000-01-01

    Forty-six barrows fitted with steered ileo-cecal valve cannulas were used in four experiments to evaluate the effects of supplementing swine diets with microbial phytase or beta-mannanase on the apparent ileal (AID) and/or apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of amino acids, N, Ca, P, DM and energy. In Exp. 1, the addition of phytase to low CP corn-soybean meal based diets increased the AID of Ca (P < .01), P (P < .001), and all amino acids (P < .10) measured except Leu, Ser, Pro, Met, ...

  15. Atividade microbiana cecal e contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes fontes de fibra e níveis de amido

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda Alex Martins Varela de; Lopes Darci Clementino; Ferreira Walter Motta; Rostagno Horacio Santiago; Queiroz Augusto Cesar de; Pereira Elzânia Sales; Silva José Francisco da; Jham Gulab Newandram

    2003-01-01

    Objetivou-se neste estudo a avaliação da atividade microbiana cecal e a contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de amido (22 a 32% em média) mediante a inclusão de milho grão e diferentes fontes de fibra (feno de alfafa ou casca de soja), em esquema fatorial 2x2. No primeiro experimento, 40 coelhos alojados em gaiolas de engorda individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados à vontade dos 45 aos 85 dias de idade,...

  16. Gene deletion of P-Selectin and ICAM-1 does not inhibit neutrophil infiltration into peritoneal cavity following cecal ligation-puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Karen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophil infiltration is one of the critical cellular components of an inflammatory response during peritonitis. The adhesion molecules, P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, mediate neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions and the subsequent neutrophil transendothelial migration during the inflammatory response. Despite very strong preclinical data, recent clinical trials failed to show a protective effect of anti-adhesion therapy, suggesting that the length of injury might be a critical factor in neutrophil infiltration. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the role of P-selectin and ICAM-1 in neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity during early and late phases of peritonitis. Methods Peritonitis was induced in both male wild-type and P-selectin/ICAM-1 double deficient (P/I null mice by cecal ligation-puncture (CLP. Peripheral blood and peritoneal lavage were collected at 6 and 24 hours after CLP. The total leukocyte and neutrophil contents were determined, and neutrophils were identified with the aid of in situ immunohistochemical staining. Comparisons between groups were made by applying ANOVA and student t-test analysis. Results CLP induced a severe inflammatory response associated with a significant leukopenia in both wild-type and P/I null mice. Additionally, CLP caused a significant neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity that was detected in both groups of mice. However, neutrophil infiltration in the P/I null mice at 6 hours of CLP was significantly lower than the corresponding wild-type mice, which reached a similar magnitude at 24 hours of CLP. In contrast, in peritonitis induced by intraperitoneal inoculation of 2% glycogen, no significant difference in neutrophil infiltration was observed between the P/I null and wild-type mice at 6 hours of peritonitis. Conclusions The data suggest that alternative adhesion pathway(s independent of P-selectin and ICAM

  17. Phylum Level Change in the Cecal and Fecal Gut Communities of Rats Fed Diets Containing Different Fermentable Substrates Supports a Role for Nitrogen as a Factor Contributing to Community Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kalmokoff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation differs between the proximal and distal gut but little is known regarding how the bacterial communities differ or how they are influenced by diet. In order to investigate this, we compared community diversity in the cecum and feces of rats by 16S rRNA gene content and DNA shot gun metagenomics after feeding purified diets containing different fermentable substrates. Gut community composition was dependent on the source of fermentable substrate included in the diet. Cecal communities were dominated by Firmicutes, and contained a higher abundance of Lachnospiraceae compared to feces. In feces, community structure was shifted by varying degrees depending on diet towards the Bacteroidetes, although this change was not always evident from 16S rRNA gene data. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis (PCoA comparing cecal and fecal metagenomes grouped by location within the gut rather than by diet, suggesting that factors in addition to substrate were important for community change in the distal gut. Differentially abundant genes in each environment supported this shift away from the Firmicutes in the cecum (e.g., motility towards the Bacteroidetes in feces (e.g., Bacteroidales transposons. We suggest that this phylum level change reflects a shift to ammonia as the primary source of nitrogen used to support continued microbial growth in the distal gut.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 grown in vitro in the sterile-filtrated cecal content of human gut microbiota associated rats reveals an adaptive expression of metabolic and virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Guillaume; Jubelin, Grégory; Garneau, Philippe; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Martin, Christine; Beaudry, Francis; Harel, Josée

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a leading cause of bloody diarrhea and renal failures in human. Understanding strategies employed by EHEC to colonize the intestine is of major importance since to date no cure exists to eradicate the pathogen. In this study, the adaptive response of EHEC to the intestinal milieu conditioned by a human microbiota was examined. A transcriptomic analysis was performed on the EHEC strain EDL933 incubated in vitro in the sterile-filtrated cecal content of human microbiota-associated rats (HMC) compared with EDL933 incubated in the sterile-filtrated cecal content of germ-free rat (GFC). EDL933 switches from a glycolytic metabolic profile in the GFC to an anaplerotic metabolic profile in HMC. The expression of several catabolism genes was strongly affected such as those involved in the utilization of sugars, glycerol, N-acetylneuraminic acid, amino acids and secondary metabolites. Interestingly, expression level of critical EHEC O157:H7 virulence genes including genes from the locus of enterocyte effacement was reduced in HMC. Altogether, these results contribute to the understanding of EHEC adaptive response to a digestive content and highlight the ability of the microbiota to repress EHEC virulence gene expression. PMID:25290220

  19. 鸡肠道中植物乳杆菌JX98所产细菌素的理化特性研究%A Study on Characteristics of Lactobacillus Bacteriocin JX98 from Chicken Cecal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄微薇

    2012-01-01

    从鸡肠道内容物中分离筛选出1株产细菌素的菌株,通过生理生化法和16S rRNA测序分析进行鉴定。采用牛津杯法对抗菌肽的抗菌谱进行研究,利用N-羟甲基甲基甘氨酸-SDS-PAGE电泳确定细菌素的相对分子质量。%One bacterial strains were isolated from chicken cecal contents and identified basing on physiological and biochemeical characteristics determination,and 16s rRNA sequencing analysis.Oxford cup test was applied to assay the antimicrobial spectrum.

  20. In situ caecal degradation of roughages in horses Degradação cecal in situ de alimentos volumosos em equinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pimentel Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the in situ degradation of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and crude protein (CP in roughages by the in situ caecal digestion technique in horses. The roughages evaluated were: Lucerne hay (Medicago sativa, peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo, desmodio(Desmodium ovalifolium, stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, lime-yellow pea (Macrotyloma axillare and coastcross hay (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross. The assay was conducted in a complete randomized design with seven roughages and three replications. One mare with a cannula fitted in the caecum was used, fed diet consisting of coastcross hay (80% and concentrate (20% at 2.0% BW, four times a day. Nylon 6.5 × 20 cm bags were used with 45 μ/pore, containing 5.2 g DM/bag, inserting 3 or 4 bags in the caecum at the times of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours incubation. The caecum in situ degradability parameters of nutrients were obtained by Ørskov model. The DM degradability parameters of all the roughages were significant. There was no fit to the model for pigeon pea for CP and NDF and desmodio. Peanut, stylo and lime-yellow pea presented larger potentially degradable DM with values of 53, 46.5 and 40%, respectively, and higher values for the soluble fraction of 20, 21, 28.6%, with high degradability rates of 10.36, 20.26 and 14.8% h-1. Higher NDF degradation rates were observed in these foodstuffs with values of 9.1 and 11.3, 11.2% h-1, high potentially degradable fraction with values of 55, 51.8 and 47.2%, and greater CP degradation at 48 hours with values of 87, 95, and 94.8%. Peanut, stylo and lime-yellow pea presented potential for use in horses diets.Objetivou-se avaliar a degradação da matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e proteína bruta de alimentos volumosos pela técnica da digestão cecal in situ em equinos. Avaliaram-se as forrageiras: feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa

  1. 谷氨酰胺对饲喂高精料奶山羊盲肠黏膜形态及炎症因子 mRNA 表达的影响%Effects of Glutamine on Cecal Mucosal Morphology and Inflammatory Cytokine mRNA Expressions of Dairy Goats Fed a High Concentrate Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉洁; 刘军花; 许婷婷; 毛胜勇

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of glutamine ( Gln) on cecal mucosa morphology and inflammatory cytokine mRNA expressions of dairy goats fed a high concentrate diet.Twelve healthy dairy goats were randomly assigned to control group ( n =6, fed a high concentrate diet) and Gln group ( n=6 , supplemental level of Gln was 50 g/d) .After a 28-day experimental period, four goats in each group were slaughtered to collect cecal mucosa.The changes of tissue morphology of cecal mucosa, the mR-NA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in cecal mucosa and the concentrations of volatile fatty acids in cecal contents were measured.The results showed as follows: Gln supplementation did not affect the concen-trations of volatile fatty acids, lactic acid and endotoxin contents in cecal (P>0.05); the supplementation of Gln played roles in keeping the integrity and enhancing tight junction of cecal mucosa; the supplementation of Gln significantly decreased the mRNA expression level of tumor necrosis factorα( P0 .05 ) .It is suggested that Gln supplementation can enhance cecal mucosa tight junctions release cecal mucosal inflammatory response, to a certain extent, which is benefit for maintenance of mucosal barrier function of hindgut under the condition of the high concentrate diet.%本试验旨在研究谷氨酰胺对饲喂高精料奶山羊盲肠黏膜形态及炎症因子mRNA表达的影响。采用随机区组设计,将12头健康奶山羊随机分为对照组( n=6,饲喂高精料)和谷氨酰胺组( n=6,谷氨酰胺添加量为50 g/d)。试验期28 d。每组各选取4头山羊进行屠宰,取盲肠黏膜,观察组织形态学变化,检测盲肠黏膜炎症因子mRNA的表达量、盲肠内容物挥发性脂肪酸浓度。结果表明:添加谷氨酰胺对盲肠食糜中挥发性脂肪酸、乳酸及内毒素浓度无显著影响(P>0.05);添加谷氨酰胺保持了盲肠黏膜的完整性,紧密连

  2. The Effects of Montelukast on Antioxidant Enzymes and Proinflammatory Cytokines on the Heart, Liver, Lungs, and Kidneys in a Rat Model of Cecal Ligation and Puncture–Induced Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kagan Coskun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential protective effects of montelukast (MLK on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP–induced tissue injury in vital organs — liver, heart, kidneys, and especially lungs — through inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokine response and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in rats. The rat groups were (1 a 10-mg/kg MLK-treated CLP group; (2 a 20-mg/kg MLK-treated CLP group; (3 a 20-mg/kg MLK-treated, sham-operated group; (4 a CLP control group; and (5 a sham-operated control group. MLK treatment significantly decreased proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 cytokine levels following CLP. The lipid peroxide level increased in the lung, heart, liver, and kidney tissues after CLP-induced sepsis, and myeloperoxidase activity increased in the lung, heart, and liver tissues. MLK attenuated this elevation in all tissues except the kidney, dose dependently. The glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly increased in the lung, liver, and kidney tissues after MLK treatment. MLK treatment after CLP also potentially reduced mortality. The lung and kidney tissues were the most protected by MLK under sepsis conditions. We can suggest that MLK reverses the systemic inflammatory reaction to polymicrobial sepsis and thereby reduces multiple organ failure.

  3. Digestibilidade in vitro de leguminosas do semiárido com inóculo cecal de avestruzes In vitro digestibility of legumes from semi-arid with caecal inoculum liquor of ostriches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a digestibilidade in vitro de leguminosas do semiárido nordestino usando inóculo cecal de avestruzes por meio da técnica Tilley e Terry Reversa, usou-se o feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa como referência aos fenos de canafístula (Senna multijuga, de cunhã (Clitoria ternatea, de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, de mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia e de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia. Verificou-se, pelo teste de Duncan (PTo evaluate the in vitro digestibility of forage legume from semi-arid northeast region using caecal inoculum liquor of ostriches with Reverse Tilley and Terry technique, the alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa was used as reference food for comparison between hays of canephori (Senna multijuga, clitoria (Clitoria ternatea, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, kills pasture (Senna obtusifolia and thrush (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia. There was, by Duncan test (P<0.05, significant difference to in vitro digestibility of the nutritional fractions among the legume hays resulting in general mean value of 49.62% for dry matter (DIVMS, of 23.38% for crude protein (DIVPB, of 17.88% for insoluble protein in neutral detergent fiber (DIVPIDN, of 34.52% for neutral detergent fiber (DIVFDN and of 42.07% for neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (DIVFDNcp. The nutritional composition of feedstuffs influenced the fermentative activity of microorganisms from cecum-colon of ostriches in these in vitro incubations, and the better digestibility values were observed for alfalfa hay, followed by kills pasture and leucaena hays, wich were higher than other legumes from semi-arid.

  4. Atividade microbiana cecal e contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes fontes de fibra e níveis de amido Caecal microbial activity and caecotrophy nutritional contribution in rabbits fed diets with different starch levels and fiber sources

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda; Darci Clementino Lopes; Walter Motta Ferreira; Horacio Santiago Rostagno; Augusto Cesar de Queiroz; Elzânia Sales Pereira; José Francisco da Silva; Gulab Newandram Jham

    2003-01-01

    Objetivou-se neste estudo a avaliação da atividade microbiana cecal e a contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de amido (22 a 32% em média) mediante a inclusão de milho grão e diferentes fontes de fibra (feno de alfafa ou casca de soja), em esquema fatorial 2x2. No primeiro experimento, 40 coelhos alojados em gaiolas de engorda individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados à vontade dos 45 aos 85 dias de idade,...

  5. Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ePublications > Our ePublications > Lung disease fact sheet ePublications Lung disease fact sheet This information in Spanish (en ... disease? More information on lung disease What is lung disease? Lung disease refers to disorders that affect ...

  6. Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ameliorates disease due to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in germfree mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Kathryn A; Honkala, Alexander; Auchtung, Thomas A; Britton, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Strains of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are a group of Shiga toxin-producing food-borne pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic colitis and can lead to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), a life-threatening condition that principally affects children and for which there is no effective treatment. We used a germfree mouse model of renal and enteric disease due to EHEC to determine if probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 is effective in suppressing disease symptoms caused by EHEC. When germfree Swiss Webster mice are monocolonized with EHEC, they develop disease characterized by weight loss, cecal luminal fluid accumulation, and renal tubular necrosis. When L. reuteri was administered 1 day prior to EHEC challenge and every other day thereafter, EHEC colonization was suppressed and mice were significantly protected from the manifestations of disease. Protection from disease did not require the induction of the antimicrobial compound reuterin in L. reuteri prior to treatment. The twice-daily administration of L. reuteri appeared more effective than every-other-day administration. These data indicated that L. reuteri partially protects mice from disease manifestations of EHEC. PMID:20974822

  7. Glomerular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  8. Kawasaki Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Article Body What is Kawasaki disease? Kawasaki disease is a serious and perplexing disease, the cause of which is ... influenza) with aspirin has been linked with a serious disease called Reye syndrome. Always consult your pediatrician before ...

  9. Ribbing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc

  10. SPF鸡盲肠复合微生态制剂代替抗生素预防肉仔鸡沙门菌感染%Prevention of Salmonella infection in broilers with SPF chicken cecal probiotics complex instead of antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏红; 胡明; 骆延波; 朱小玲; 张世栋; 张波; 吴润; 刘玉庆

    2012-01-01

    目的 在雏鸡盲肠尽快建立完整健康菌群,通过“竞争排除(Competitive exclusion,CE)”抑制病原菌定植感染.方法 提取SPF鸡盲肠菌群,排除沙门菌感染的可能,制成复合微生态制剂,在鸡胚孵化19 d啄壳时和21 d雏鸡全出壳时进行两次喷雾接种,监测鸡群沙门菌抗体和粪便中沙门菌,测定成活率、生产性能.结果 进行喷雾接种后的小鸡至12日龄可以完全不使用抗生素,成活率、采食量与体重略高于使用抗生素的对照组,能提高饲料报酬,饲养12、24、35 d均未检出粪便沙门菌和血液沙门菌抗体,全程无沙门菌感染.结论 SPF鸡盲肠复合微生态制剂能代替抗生素预防肉仔鸡沙门菌感染.%Objective To establish complex and complete cecal flora chickens to prevent the colonization and infection of pathogens by competitive exclusion (CE). Method Complex microecological preparation was extracted from caecum flora of SPF chickens which were excluded from the possibility of Salmonella infection. The preparation was sprayed on eggs at 19 days ( when they pecking the shells) and 21 days ( when they pecking fully out of shells) of hatching, respectively. Salmonella in the excrement or its antibodies in the blood were monitored and the survival rate and production performance were recorded and analyzed. Result The inoculated chicken no longer needed antibiotics up to 12 days after birth; Their survival rate, weight and feed intake were slightly higher compared with the control group. A better feed reward could be observed. No Salmonella in the excrement or its antibodies in the blood could be observed after the chickens were fed for 12, 24 or 35 days. There was no Salmonella infection during the growth of these chickens. Conclusion Salmonella infection in broilers can be prevented with SPF chicken cecal probiotics complex instead of antibiotics.

  11. Morphology of immune organs after very virulent plus strain of Marek's disease virus infection in vaccinated hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, J P; Woźniakowski, G; Gaweł, A

    2016-01-01

    Marek's disease (MD) outbreaks in poultry flocks may be associated with overriding of vaccine immune protection by very virulent (vvMDV) or very virulent plus (vv+MDV) strains. This paper presents the study on lymphoid organ morphology in the latent phase of MD caused by vv+MDV which break post-vaccinal protection in hens. We also immunohistochemically examined B and T populations as well as B/T and CD4+/CD8+ ratio of lymphocytes in lymphatic organs and, as a background, in MD lymphomas from non-lymphatic organs. The number of antigen expressed cells was evaluated as a percentage of positive cells in the one power field. Organ samples were collected from 24 dead reproductive hens (Ross 308 line) in age between 35-56 weeks, infected with vv+MDV. The hens originated from farms with MD outbreaks, despite earlier routine vaccination with CVI988/Rispens + HVT. The control organ samples originated from 15 clinically healthy hens at the same age and line, subjected to the same vaccination schedule. The number of CD3+, CD8+ and TCRγδ+ cells was significantly lower in MDV infected thymus, spleen and cecal tonsils in comparison to that found in the control organs. The proportion of CD4+ was also distinctly reduced in the thymus and limited in the spleen of MDV infected hens. This study revealed that infection with field vv+MDV isolates might break post-vaccinal protection and influence the central and peripheral immune system. The decrease in CD8+ and TCRγδ+ cell number in the thymus, spleen and cecal tonsils suggests that primarily these cells are involved in cell-mediated cytotoxicity against MDV transformed cells during latency. PMID:27487506

  12. A role for the non-canonical Wnt-ß-Catenin and TGF-ß signaling pathways in the induction of tolerance during the establishment of a Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis persistent cecal infection in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early pro-inflammatory response in chickens. However, the response is short-lived, asymptomatic of disease, resulting in a persistent colonization of the ceca, and fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent infecti...

  13. Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that ... higher if a family member has had the disease. No treatment can stop the disease. However, some ...

  14. Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn's can affect any area from the mouth to the anus. It often affects the lower part of the small intestine called the ileum. The cause of Crohn's disease ...

  15. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Heart Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Heart Disease Print A A ... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the cardiovascular ...

  16. Reportable diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notifiable diseases ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Last updated May 4, 2015. Available at: wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss . Accessed September 9, 2015.

  17. Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Lyme disease is caused by bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi ( B burgdorferi ). Blacklegged ticks and other species of ... Names Borreliosis; Bannwarth syndrome Images Lyme disease organism, Borrelia burgdorferi Tick, deer engorged on the skin Lyme disease - ...

  18. Legionnaires' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung disease Have a weak immune system Legionnaires' disease is serious and can be life-threatening. However, most people recover with antibiotic treatment. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  19. Sandhoff Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body. Sandhoff disease is a severe form of Tay-Sachs disease, the incidence of which had been particularly ... gene therapy seen in an animal model of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases for use in humans. NIH ...

  20. Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of ...

  1. Wilson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wilson disease. Health care providers do not use brain imaging tests to diagnose Wilson disease, though certain findings ... testing. [ Top ] Clinical Trials The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other ...

  2. Farber's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Farber's Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Ceramidase Deficiency Table of Contents ( ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Farber's Disease? Farber’s disease, also known as Farber's lipogranulomatosis, describes ...

  3. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  4. Effects of High Lipid Diet on Cecal Microbial Community Structure of Japanese Quail (Cotur nix japonica)%高脂饲粮对日本鹌鹑(Cotur nix japonica)盲肠微生物群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎莎; 张宏福; 郑明德; 计成

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在研究高脂饲粮对日本鹌鹑( Cotur nix japonica)盲肠微生物群落结构、组成及其脂肪代谢的影响。选择160只1日龄日本鹌鹑,1~6周龄饲喂半合成饲粮,6周龄时,所有鹌鹑随机分成2个组,每组8个重复,每个重复10只。2组分别饲喂半合成饲粮和添加胆固醇的半合成饲粮,继续饲喂6周。试验期结束后,每个重复随机挑选1只接近平均体重的鹌鹑进行屠宰,收集血液分离得到血浆用于脂肪代谢指标分析;采集鹌鹑盲肠内容物,用焦磷酸测序分析微生物群落结构和组成。结果表明:1)高脂饲粮组鹌鹑总胆固醇( TC)、低密度脂蛋白( LDL)含量和LDL/高密度脂蛋白( HDL)显著提高( P<0.05);2)高脂饲粮显著降低盲肠微生物多样性( P<0.05);在微生物科水平,高脂饲粮显著降低 Lactobacillal、Streptococcaceae 和 Clostridiales (P<0.05)、其他(others)科的丰度(P<0.05),显著提高Erysipelotrichales、Erysipelotrichaceae科的丰度( P<0.05),在微生物属水平,高脂饲粮显著降低Ruminococcaceae、Ruminococcus的丰度( P<0.05),但是显著提高了Erysipelotrichaceae、cc_115和Erysipelotrichaceae、Eubacterium的丰度(P<0.05);3)cc_115(Erysipelotrichaceae)和未被分类的微生物(属于Lachnospiraceae科)丰度与TC、LDL 含量和 LDL/HDL 呈显著正相关( P<0.05),除此之外 Eubacterium ( Erysipe-lotrichaceae)只与LDL/HDL呈显著正相关( P<0.05),Ruminococcus ( Ruminococcaceae)的丰度与TC、LDL含量和LDL/HDL呈显著负相关( P<0.05),Ruminococcus ( Lachnospiraceae)的丰度与HDL含量呈显著正相关( P<0.05)。由此可见,高脂饲粮影响了日本鹌鹑盲肠微生物群落的结构、组成及其脂肪代谢。%The object of this study was to investigate the effects of high lipid diet on cecal microbial community structure and composition and its lipid metabolism of Japanese quail ( Cotur nix japonica) . A total of 160 one-day-old Japanese quail fed a semi

  5. Ribbing disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukkada Philson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc.

  6. Bladder Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  7. Newcastle disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND), referred to as Exotic Newcastle disease (END) in the U. S., is an acute viral disease of domestic poultry and many other bird species and a recognized worldwide problem. Occurrence of END is due to an infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and is a ...

  8. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. ... disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is ...

  9. Lyme Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, M L

    1989-01-01

    Lyme disease, caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. The clinical presentation varies depending on the stage of the illness: early disease includes erthyma migrans, early disseminated disease includes multiple erythema migrans, meningitis, cranial nerve palsies and carditis; late disease is primarily arthritis. The symptoms and signs of infection resolve in the vast majority of patients after appropriate treatment with antimicr...

  10. Atividade microbiana cecal e contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes fontes de fibra e níveis de amido Caecal microbial activity and caecotrophy nutritional contribution in rabbits fed diets with different starch levels and fiber sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo a avaliação da atividade microbiana cecal e a contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de amido (22 a 32% em média mediante a inclusão de milho grão e diferentes fontes de fibra (feno de alfafa ou casca de soja, em esquema fatorial 2x2. No primeiro experimento, 40 coelhos alojados em gaiolas de engorda individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados à vontade dos 45 aos 85 dias de idade, foram abatidos para coleta dos conteúdos ileais e cecais. A concentração de ácidos graxos voláteis foi influenciada pela interação entre tratamentos, sendo 93,82 mmol/l para ração de maior nível de amido com casca de soja e 80,03 mmol/l para ração de menor nível de amido com feno de alfafa. No segundo experimento, 40 coelhos aos 65 dias de idade, alojados em gaiolas de engorda individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, foram alimentados à vontade por 10 dias, e receberam colares de madeira para permitir a coleta total de cecotrofos. Houve influência da interação entre tratamentos sobre os teores de proteína e energia dos cecotrofos, sendo de 29,66% e 4204,87 kcal/kg para ração contendo maiores níveis de amido e casca de soja e de 27,98% e 4080,46 kcal/kg para ração contendo menores níveis de amido e feno de alfafa. As rações de alto amido ou com casca de soja propiciaram maior enriquecimento do conteúdo cecal e melhor aporte nutricional para os coelhos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the caecal microbial activity and caecotrophy nutritional contribution in rabbits fed diets with differents starch levels (22 or 32% on average from a high or low inclusion of corn grain and differents fiber sources (alfalfa hay or soybean hulls, in a 2x2 factorial design. In the first experiment, 40 rabbits were individually housed in fattening cages within entirely randomized design, and fed ad libitum from 45 to 85

  11. Fifth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvovirus B19; Erythema infectiosum; Slapped cheek rash ... Fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the fluids in the nose and ...

  12. Wilson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You need ... copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...

  13. Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

  14. Legionnaires' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legionnaires' disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. You usually get it by breathing in mist from ... spread from person to person. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease include high fever, chills, a cough, and sometimes ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder. It happens when nerve cells in the brain don't ... coordination As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple ...

  16. Raynaud's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the ... secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are ...

  17. Addison Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...

  18. Gaucher Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher disease is a rare, inherited disorder in which you do not have enough of an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase. ... It usually starts in childhood or adolescence. Gaucher disease has no cure. Treatment options for types 1 ...

  19. Fifth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...

  20. Meniere's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear. It can cause severe dizziness, a roaring sound in your ... together over several days. Some people with Meniere's disease have "drop attacks" during which the dizziness is ...

  1. Wilson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You ... extra copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...

  2. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Added Sugar Intake and Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality Among US Adults, examines the relationship between consuming too much added sugar and the risk of heart disease death. When it Comes to Blood Pressure, Make Control ...

  3. Addison disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or fungal infections Hemorrhage into the adrenal glands Tumors Risk factors for the autoimmune type of Addison disease include other autoimmune diseases : Swelling (inflammation) of the thyroid gland that often results in reduced thyroid function ( chronic ...

  4. Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enabling JavaScript. Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Lyme Disease Lyme ... research with the major goals of developing better means of diagnosing, treating, and preventing the disease. To accomplish ...

  5. Fifth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are otherwise healthy. But for some people fifth disease cause serious health complications. People with weakened immune systems caused ... transplants, or HIV infection are at risk for serious complications from fifth disease. It can cause chronic anemia that requires medical ...

  6. Menetrier's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a weakened immune system, CMV can cause serious disease, such as retinitis, which can lead to blindness. ... weakened immune system in order to prevent a serious disease from developing as a result of CMV. Antiviral ...

  7. Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some examples of CAM are herbal products, chiropractic , acupuncture , and hypnosis . If you have an autoimmune disease, ... Toll-Free: 877-226-4267 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, HHS Phone: ...

  8. Legionnaire disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Legionnaire disease is an infection of the lungs and airways. It is caused by Legionella bacteria. Causes The bacteria that cause Legionnaire disease have ...

  9. Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease early before it causes damage to the intestine. But because it's easy to confuse the symptoms with other intestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease , or lactose intolerance , teens with ...

  10. Endocrine Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fibrosis Research Identifies Key Hurdle in Quest for Cystic Fibrosis Treatment More Research News Clinical Trials Clinical trials offer ... people and opportunities to help researchers find better treatments in the ... Fibrosis Graves' Disease Hashimoto's Disease Human Growth Hormone and ...

  11. Huntington disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington chorea ... Huntington disease is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 4. The defect causes a part of ... 10 to 28 times. But in persons with Huntington disease, it is repeated 36 to 120 times. ...

  12. Autoinflammatory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... descriptions of some of the more common autoinflammatory diseases. The Immune System Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) Neonatal Onset Multisystem ... and monocytes to destroy harmful substances. In autoinflammatory diseases, this innate immune system causes inflammation for unknown reasons. It reacts, ...

  13. Valve Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myocarditis Obstructive Sleep Apnea Pericarditis Peripheral Vascular Disease Rheumatic Fever Sick Sinus Syndrome Silent Ischemia Stroke Sudden Cardiac Arrest Vulnerable Plaque Valve Disease | Share Related terms: heart valves, valve insufficiency, valve regurgitation, valve stenosis, valvular ...

  14. Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  15. Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, ... the skin, can be one sign of liver disease. Cancer can affect the liver. You could also ...

  16. Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  17. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  18. Eye Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  19. Mitochondrial Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Mitochondrial diseases are a group of metabolic disorders. Mitochondria are ... cells and cause damage. The symptoms of mitochondrial disease can vary. It depends on how many mitochondria ...

  20. Endocrine Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond ... In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are ...

  1. Colonic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diverticulitis - inflammation or infection of pouches in the colon Irritable bowel syndrome - an uncomfortable condition causing abdominal cramping and other symptoms Treatment for colonic diseases varies greatly depending on the disease and its ...

  2. Legionnaires' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common name for one of the several illnesses caused by Legionnaires' disease bacteria (LDB). Legionnaires' disease is an infection of the ... Legion Convention in Philadelphia. L. pneumophila had undoubtedly caused previous ... disease bacteria (LDB). L. pneumophila is a gram-negative rod ...

  3. Meniere's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Valer'evich Zamergrad

    2011-01-01

    frequently diagnosed late and patients do not receive timely therapy. The paper gives current diagnostic criteria for Meniere's disease. Approaches to treating the disease in its attack and an interattack interval are discussed. Emphasis is laid on the role of vestibular rehabilitation in increasing the quality of life in patients with Meniere's disease.

  4. Glomerular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, Shelly L

    2011-08-01

    Glomerular diseases are a leading cause of chronic kidney disease in dogs but seem to be less common in cats. Glomerular diseases are diverse, and a renal biopsy is needed to determine the specific glomerular disease that is present in any animal. Familial glomerulopathies occur in many breeds of dogs. However, most dogs with glomerular disease have acquired glomerular injury that is either immune-complex mediated or due to systemic factors, both of which are believed to be the result of a disease process elsewhere in the body (i.e., neoplastic, infectious, and noninfectious inflammatory disorders). A thorough clinical evaluation is indicated in all dogs suspected of having glomerular disease and should include an extensive evaluation for potential predisposing disorders. Nonspecific management of dogs with glomerular disease can be divided into 3 major categories: (1) treatment of potential predisposing disorders, (2) management of proteinuria, and (3) management of uremia and other complications of glomerular disease and chronic kidney disease. Specific management of specific glomerular diseases has not been fully studied in dogs. However, it may be reasonable to consider immunosuppressive therapy in dogs that have developed a form of glomerulonephritis secondary to a steroid-responsive disease (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus) or have immune-mediated lesions that have been documented in renal biopsy specimens. Appropriate patient monitoring during therapy is important for maximizing patient care. The prognosis for dogs and cats with glomerular disease is variable and probably dependent on a combination of factors. The purpose of this article is to discuss the general diagnosis and management of dogs with glomerular disease. PMID:21782143

  5. Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Schachter, Armand S.; Davis, Kenneth L.

    2000-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is one of the most devastating brain disorders of elderly humans. It is an undertreated and under-recognized disease that is becoming a major public health problem. The last decade has witnessed a steadily increasing effort directed at discovering the etiology of the disease and developing pharmacological treatment. Recent developments include improved clinical diagnostic guidelines and improved treatment of both cognitive disturbance and behavioral problems. Symptomatic t...

  6. Celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a multysystemic autoimmune disease induced by gluten in wheat, barley and rye. It is characterized by polygenic predisposition, high prevalence (1%, widely heterogeneous expression and frequent association with other autoimmune diseases, selective deficit of IgA and Down, Turner and Williams syndrome. The basis of the disease and the key finding in its diagnostics is symptomatic or asymptomatic inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa which resolves by gluten-free diet. Therefore, the basis of the treatment involves elimination diet, so that the disorder, if timely recognized and adequately treated, also characterizes excellent prognosis.

  7. Coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Peter H R; Jabri, Bana

    2003-08-01

    Coeliac disease is a genetically-determined chronic inflammatory intestinal disease induced by an environmental precipitant, gluten. Patients with the disease might have mainly non-gastrointestinal symptoms, and as a result patients present to various medical practitioners. Epidemiological studies have shown that coeliac disease is very common and affects about one in 250 people. The disease is associated with an increased rate of osteoporosis, infertility, autoimmune diseases, and malignant disease, especially lymphomas. The mechanism of the intestinal immune-mediated response is not completely clear, but involves an HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 restricted T-cell immune reaction in the lamina propria as well as an immune reaction in the intestinal epithelium. An important component of the disease is the intraepithelial lymphocyte that might become clonally expanded in refractory sprue and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. Study of the mechanism of the immune response in coeliac disease could provide insight into the mechanism of inflammatory and autoimmune responses and lead to innovations in treatment. PMID:12907013

  8. [Moyamoya disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, R G; Isayeva, Yu N; Gorobets, E A; Tokareva, N V; Esin, O R

    2016-01-01

    Moya-moya is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by the progressive occlusion of cerebral vessels with partial switching off the circle of Willis and arteries that feed it. The article provides a review of literature, modern diagnostic criteria and a description of a single clinical case. The onset of the disease in this patient was characterized by headache and speech disorders.An analysis of speech disorders showed that they were systemic. They were registered at all language levels (phonetic, lexical,morphological, syntactic). A long diagnostic search may be explained by clinical manifestations that are atypical for other cerebrovascular diseases and by the rarity of the disease. PMID:27386589

  9. Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hero Brokalaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a small intestine disease caused by the immunological response to gluten, a component of wheat, rye and barley. The worldwide prevalence of celiac disease ranges between 0.2% and 2.2 %. The clinical features of celiac disease includes diarrhea, steatorrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain and weight loss. The asymptomatic type of celiac disease is characterized by soft or normally shaped stool, weakness, lassitude and moderate weight loss. In children, celiac disease usually arises between the first and the third year of age, with diarrhea, flatulence and low weight. The malabsorption in small intestine causes many extaintestinal manifestations, such us anemia, bone abnormalities, hemorrhage and neuropathy. Celiac disease is diagnosed by histological examination of tissue samples taken by duodenum due gastroscopy and by the detection of certain antibodies in blood (anti-GL-IgG, anti-GL-IgA, ΕΜΑ-IgA και anti-tTg-IgA. The only therapeutic approach to celiac disease is a gluten-free diet and, if it is necessary, the administration of iron, folic acid, calcium and vitamins (K, B12. The prognosis of celiac disease is excellent, if there is an early diagnosis and the patient keeps for life a gluten free diet.

  10. Celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtmeier Wolfgang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalence for clinically overt celiac disease varies from 1:270 in Finland to 1:5000 in North America. Since celiac disease can be asymptomatic, most subjects are not diagnosed or they can present with atypical symptoms. Furthermore, severe inflammation of the small bowel can be present without any gastrointestinal symptoms. The diagnosis should be made early since celiac disease causes growth retardation in untreated children and atypical symptoms like infertility or neurological symptoms. Diagnosis requires endoscopy with jejunal biopsy. In addition, tissue-transglutaminase antibodies are important to confirm the diagnosis since there are other diseases which can mimic celiac disease. The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown but is thought to be primarily immune mediated (tissue-transglutaminase autoantigen; often the disease is inherited. Management consists in life long withdrawal of dietary gluten, which leads to significant clinical and histological improvement. However, complete normalization of histology can take years.

  11. Immunological changes of chicken infected with marek‘s disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuZhonggui; LiQingzhagn; 等

    1994-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to infect one-day old healthy AA chicks with virulent Marek's disease virus(MDV).Compared with the uninfected control chicks,it was undertaken to detect the inductive activity of interlukin-2,expression of IL-2 recepter(IL-2R)and proliferative reaction of T cell in the thymus and spleen;to determine the number of α-naphthyl esterase positive T cells,acid phosphatase positive T cells and antibody forming cells in the thymus,Bursa Fabricius,spleen,cecal tonsil,Harder gand and mucosal lympoid tissue of bronchus;to check the number of T cell in peripheral blood as well as the dynamic changes of the amount of IgG,IgM and IgA in the serum,tear,trachea washings and intestinal secretions of infected chickens at 5,25,45 days old,respectively.The experimental results reveal that immunoregulation of IL-2 in immune organs of infected chicknens was disordered;the cellular and humoral immune functions were significantly depressed in the central and peripheral immune organs;the local or mucosal immune defense function were also markedly decreased in respiratory and digestive tracts.

  12. Is "Parkinson's disease" one disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Calne, D B

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to how and why categories of ill health are divided into diseases. Aetiology is a fundamental criterion for the delineation of individual diseases. The same clinical and pathological picture may have many different causes; for example meningococcal meningitis and pneumococcal meningitis are distinct diseases that may display the same symptoms and signs. On the other hand, a single aetiology may lead to quite separate clinical and pathological phenomena; for example, neu...

  13. Hartnup disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerajani Hemangi

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of Hartnup disease is presented - the patient being an 11 year old school girl suffering from a typically pellagroid rash in the absence of any other signs of malnutrition. No accompanying neurological or psychiatric features are seen, but electro-encephalography revealed abnormal baseline activity. Investigations and management are detailed and the literature on Hartnup disease reviewed.

  14. Hartnup disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jerajani Hemangi; Amladi Sangeeta; Kohli Malavika; Parekh Roopali

    1994-01-01

    A rare case of Hartnup disease is presented - the patient being an 11 year old school girl suffering from a typically pellagroid rash in the absence of any other signs of malnutrition. No accompanying neurological or psychiatric features are seen, but electro-encephalography revealed abnormal baseline activity. Investigations and management are detailed and the literature on Hartnup disease reviewed.

  15. Pneumococcal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 adults age 65 years and older. Pneumococcal disease can cause serious illness and lifelong complications. Pneumococcal meningitis can cause hearing loss, seizures, blindness, and paralysis. Serious heart problems are ... its worst forms, pneumococcal disease kills one in every four to five people ...

  16. Tickborne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye rash similar to that found in Lyme disease, which is caused by bacteria transmitted by the deer tick. Although researchers know that the lone star tick transmits the infectious agent that causes STARI, they ... both bacterial diseases. Babesiosis is caused by parasites carried by deer ...

  17. Facioscapulohumeral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padberg, George Waltherus Adrianus Maria

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss several aspects of facioscapulohumeral disease, also called "autosomal dominant facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy" or "Landouzy-Dejerine type of muscular dystrophy" or "Landouzy-Dejerine' s disease" . We consider this disorder well defined and recognizabl

  18. Whipple's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... she sends a report to the gastroenterologist for review. Read more in Upper GI Endoscopy at www.digestive.niddk.nih.gov. How is Whipple disease treated? The health care provider prescribes antibiotics to destroy the T. whipplei bacteria and treat Whipple disease. Health care providers choose ...

  19. Barlow's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sozen, Yunus V.; Tozun, Remzi; Berkman, Mahmut; Akalin, Yilmaz; Kara, Ayhan Nedim

    2004-01-01

    Scurvy that is so rare nowadays is clinically and radiologically very well defined. Two cases brought to our clinic in 1979 and 1980 are presented because ths disease process was so far advanced and because the clinical ond especsally radiological manifesations of the disease were so typical. The radiological and clinical characteristics of scurvy are elucidated because of these two cases.

  20. Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Karjoo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy is characterized by intestinal mucosal damage and malabsorption from dietary intake of wheat, rye or barley. Symptoms may appear with introduction of cereal in the first 3 years of life. A second peak in symptoms occurs in adults during the third or forth decade and even as late as eight decade of life. The prevalence of this disease is approximately 1 in 250 adults. The disease is more prevalent in Ireland as high as 1 in 120 adults. The disorder occurs in Arab, Hispanics, Israeli Jews, Iranian and European but is rare in Chinese and African American. To have celiac disease the patient should have the celiac disease genetic markers as HLA DQ 2 and HLA DQ 8. Patient with celiac disease may have 95 per cent for DQ 2 and the rest is by DQ 8. Someone may have the genetic marker and never develops the disease. In general 50 percent with markers may develop celiac disease. To develop the disease the gene needs to become activated. This may happen with a viral or bacterial infection, a surgery, delivery, accident, or psychological stress. After activation of gene cause the tight junction to opens with the release of Zonulin This results in passage of gluten through the tight junction and formation of multiple antibodies and autoimmune disease. This also allows entrance of other proteins and development of multiple food allergies. As a result is shortening, flattening of intestinal villi resulting in food, vitamins and minerals malabsorption.

  1. Refractory disease in autoimmune diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasconcelos, Carlos; Kallenberg, Cees; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2011-01-01

    Refractory disease (RD) definition has different meanings but it is dynamic, according to knowledge and the availability of new drugs. It should be differentiated from severe disease and damage definitions and it must take into account duration of adequate therapy and compliance of the patient. It c

  2. Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2012-02-03

    Crohn\\'s disease is a disorder mediated by T lymphocytes which arises in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of a breakdown in the regulatory constraints on mucosal immune responses to enteric bacteria. Regulation of immune reactivity to enteric antigens has improved understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of Crohn\\'s disease, and has expanded therapeutic options for patients with this disorder. Disease heterogeneity is probable, with various underlying defects associated with a similar pathophysiological outcome. Although most conventional drug treatments are directed at modification of host response, therapeutic manipulation of the enteric flora is becoming a realistic option.

  3. Kummell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Larry T; Schucany, William G; Opatowsky, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Kummell disease, or avascular necrosis of a vertebral body, presents as vertebral osteonecrosis typically affecting a thoracic vertebra with compression deformity, intravertebral vacuum cleft, and exaggerated kyphosis weeks to months after a minor traumatic injury. This rare disease is increasing in prevalence secondary to an aging population and the associated rise in osteoporosis. Treatment with vertebroplasty or surgical decompression and fusion is often required. We present a classic case of Kummell disease to illustrate the salient features of the condition, with associated imaging findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  4. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about 5 to 10 percent of people with Parkinson's have "early-onset" disease which begins before the age of 50. Early-onset forms of Parkinson's are often inherited, though not always, and some ...

  5. Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most cases, people only take this medication for short periods of time since it can increase the chance of developing megacolon. Bowel Rest Sometimes Crohn's disease symptoms are severe and a person may need to ...

  6. Pompe Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weakness progressing to respiratory weakness and death from respiratory failure after a course lasting several years. The heart ... the age of one year from either cardiorespiratory failure or respiratory infection. For individuals with late onset Pompe disease, ...

  7. Behcet's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 25 years and access publications (since 1985) and patents resulting from NIH funding. PubMed is a free ... http://www.nidcr.nih.gov National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Website: http://www. ...

  8. Planning Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Medard

    1984-01-01

    To solve societal problems, both local and global, a global approach is needed. Serious diseases that are crippling present-day problem solving and planning are discussed, and the characteristics of a healthy, effective planning approach are described. (RM)

  9. Chagas disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect control with insecticides and houses that are less likely to have high insect populations will help control the spread of the disease. Blood banks in Central and South America screen donors for ...

  10. Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senile dementia - Alzheimer type (SDAT); SDAT; Dementia - Alzheimer ... The exact cause of Alzheimer disease (AD) is not known. Research shows that certain changes in the brain lead to AD. You are more likely ...

  11. Sever's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results from physical activities and sports that involve running and jumping, especially those that take place on hard surfaces, such as track, basketball, soccer, and gymnastics. Sever's disease also can result from ...

  12. [Kawasaki's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, J; Martínez, B; Montini, C; Barraza, P; Reyes, A

    1989-08-01

    We described a case of Kawasaki's disease in a chilean girl, one year and 5 months old of age, who presented the oral characteristics, cutaneous and systemic manifestation of the condition, that is not very common for the dentist but that it is necessary to know due to the heart complications and the mortality associated with the disease, and it is necessary that the dentist recognize early this condition.

  13. Extrapyramidal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010380 Evaluation non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease and its influence on ability of daily living. WANG Rongfei(王荣飞),et al. Dept Neurol,1st Hosp,Guangzhou Med Coll,Guangzhou 510000. Chin J Neurol 2010;43(4):273-276. Objective To evaluate the non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD),and its influence on ability of daily living (ADL) in PD

  14. Celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Holtmeier, Wolfgang; Caspary, Wolfgang F

    2006-01-01

    Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalence for cli...

  15. Celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Holtmeier Wolfgang; Caspary Wolfgang F

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalenc...

  16. Bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008069 The application of Montreal classification in inflammatory bowel disease. YANG Chuanhua(杨川华), et al. Renji Hosp, Shanghai Instit, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Med Coll, Shanghai 200001. Chin J Intern Med 2008;47(1):7-10. Objective To investigate the clinical features of Crohn′s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) according to the Montreal classification. Methods The clinical data of 110 cases of CD or UC were reviewed. The age at

  17. Extrapyramidal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008119 Therapeutic effect of neuropeptide PACAP27 on Parkinson′s disease in mice. WANG Gang(王刚), et al.Dept Neurol & Neurol Instit, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Med Sch, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Neurol 2007;40(12):837-841. Objective To investigate the effects of different doses of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the functional and morphological outcome in a mice model of Parkinson′s disease (PD) re

  18. Muscular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930186 The diagnostic value of MRI on neuro-muscular disease.CHEN Qingtang(陈清棠),etal.Dept Neurol,1st Hosp,Beijing Med Univ,100034.Chin J Neurol & Psychiat 1992;25(5):267-269.The article concentrated on the study ofskeletal muscles of four extremities in 12 casesof different kinds of neuromuscular diseases and4 volunteers with MRI.The results revealed:MRI could clearly display individual muscle,muscle groups or abnormal muscles morphologi-

  19. HIV and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions HIV & Rheumatic Diseases HIV and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Rheumatic diseases related ... knows he or she has HIV. What are HIV-associated rheumatic diseases? Some diseases of the joints ...

  20. Learning about Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page. Learning About Crohn's Disease What is Crohn's disease? What are the symptoms ... disease Additional Resources for Crohn's Disease What is Crohn's disease? Crohn's disease, an idiopathic (of unknown cause), chronic ...

  1. Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki Kurokawa, M; Suzuki, N

    2004-09-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a systemic disorder of recurrent acute inflammation, characterized by major symptoms of oral aphthous ulcers, uveitis, skin lesions and genital ulcers. Involvement of intestines, vessels, and central nervous system (CNS) sometimes leads to a poor prognosis. Patients with BD are known to distribute along the ancient Silk Road. The incidence is relatively higher from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean area as roughly 1-10 patients in 10,000 people, whereas only 1-2 patients in 1,000,000 people in UK and North America. Although etiology of the disease is still unknown, high prevalence of HLA-B51, increased expression of heat shock protein 60 and Th1 dominant immune responses in the patients are considered important in its pathogenesis. Non-infectious neutrophil activation and infection with Streptococcus sanguis and herpes simplex virus would also be associated. Because BD lacks any pathognomonic symptoms and laboratory findings, the diagnosis relies largely upon the criteria proposed by the International Study Group for Behcet's disease in 1990. In Japan, the diagnosis was also made according to the Japanese criteria revised in 1987. Recently, the Behcet's Disease Research Committee of Japan again revised the Japanese criteria in 2003 to avoid overdiagnosis. The new Japanese criteria are introduced in this review. Differential diagnosis excluding Sweet's disease, pemphigus, erythema nodosum and Crohn's disease is important, and positive laboratory data for pathergy test, prick test for dead Streptococci and HLA-B51 are emphasized to make appropriate diagnosis in these criteria. Pathological findings of the disease-affected site such as erythematous nodosum is also stressed. Treatment for the disease has been chosen according to the clinical symptoms. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, corticosteroids and colchicine are basically introduced. Recently, effects of interferon-alpha/beta, anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody

  2. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if they have a history of: Abnormal cholesterol Diabetes Heart disease (coronary artery disease) High blood pressure ( hypertension ) Kidney disease involving hemodialysis Smoking Stroke ( cerebrovascular disease )

  3. Myocardial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930497 Ectopic expression and the significanceof HLA—class II antigens in the myocardium ofpatients with dilated cardiomyopathy.LI Yunyou(李运友),et al.lst Affili Hosp,Nanjing MedCoil,Nanjing,210029.Chin J Cardiol 1993;21(1):15—16.Expression of HLA—class II antigens(DQ,DP)in the myocardium of patients with differentheart diseases and normal controls was studiedwith indirect immunofluorescence(IIF).Thepositive rates in different groups were observedas follows:dilated cardiomyopathy(DCM,12/13,+++),rheumatic heart disease(2/4,++),congenital heart diseases(1/14,+),left a-trial myxoma(0/1)and normal controls(1/8,

  4. Celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Jensen, Michael Dam; Reimer, Maria Christina;

    2015-01-01

    This national clinical guideline approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology describes the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease (CD) in adults. CD is a chronic immunemediated enteropathy of the small intestine triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing proteins, w......, which are found in wheat, rye, and barley. The disease prevalence is 0.5-1.0%, but CD remains under-diagnosed. The diagnosis relies on the demonstration of lymphocyte infiltration, crypt hyperplasia, and villous atrophy in duodenal biopsies. Serology, malabsorption, biochemical markers...... the small intestinal mucosa and absorption. Adherence to a GFD usually requires dietary advice from a clinical dietician. The monitoring of antibody levels and malabsorption markers is crucial during follow-up and allows for early treatment of disease complications. Important complications include...

  5. Celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Jensen, Michael Dam; Reimer, Maria Christina;

    2015-01-01

    the small intestinal mucosa and absorption. Adherence to a GFD usually requires dietary advice from a clinical dietician. The monitoring of antibody levels and malabsorption markers is crucial during follow-up and allows for early treatment of disease complications. Important complications include......This national clinical guideline approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology describes the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease (CD) in adults. CD is a chronic immunemediated enteropathy of the small intestine triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing proteins...

  6. Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mean age of onset of Parkinson's disease is about 65 years, with a median time of 9 years between diagnosis and death. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of fetal cell or stem cell......-derived therapy in people with Parkinson's disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to September 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from...

  7. Hansen's disease: a vanishing disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinésio Talhari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction, implementation, successes and failures of multidrug therapy (MDT in all Hansen's disease endemic countries are discussed in this paper. The high efficacy of leprosy treatment with MDT and the global reduction of prevalence led the World Health Organization, in 1991, to establish the goal of elimination of Hansen's disease (less than 1 patient per 10,000 inhabitants to be accomplished by the year 2000. Brazil, Nepal and East Timor are among the few countries that didn't reach the elimination goal by the year 2000 or even 2005. The implications of these aspects are highlighted in this paper. Current data from endemic and previously endemic countries that carry a regular leprosy control programme show that the important fall in prevalence was not followed by the reduction of the incidence. This means that transmission of Mycobacterium leprae is still an issue. It is reasonable to conclude that we are still far from the most important goal of Hansen's disease control: the interruption of transmission and reduction of incidence. It is necessary to emphasize to health managers the need of keeping Hansen's disease control activities to better develop control programmes in the future. The recent international proposal to interrupt the transmission of leprosy by the year 2020 seems to unrealistic and it is discussed in this paper. The possibility of epidemiological impact related to the human immunodeficiency virus/Hansen's disease coinfection is also considered.

  8. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... second most common disorder of this type after Alzheimer's disease. It progresses slowly as small clusters of ... vitamin D deficiency in the development of Parkinson's. Vitamin D, which can enter ... K, Richards MB, Meng C, Priestley B, Fernandez HH, Cambi F, Umbach DM, Blair A, ...

  9. [Autoinflammatory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ricardo A G; Katsicas, María M

    2016-01-01

    The monogenic autoinflammatory diseases are rare, genetic disorders resulting in constitutive innate immune defects leading to excessive response to danger signals, spontaneous activation of inflammatory mediators or loss of inhibitory regulators. During the past 15 years, a growing number of monogenic inflammatory diseases have been described and their respective responsible genes identified. The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in the regulatory pathways of inflammation and are mostly expressed in cells of the innate immune system. Although a group of patients exhibit episodic systemic inflammation (periodic fevers), these disorders are mediated by continuous overproduction and release of pro-inflammatory mediators, notably IL-1β, and are best considered as autoinflammatory diseases rather than periodic fevers. The most common autoinflammatory diseases are familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), mevalonate kinase deficiency/hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome (MKD/HIDS) and the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). Clinical features often include fever, cutaneous rash, serosal involvement and acute phase reactants. Autoantibodies are usually absent but may accompany certain syndromes. Diagnosis remains clinical and is based on the different phenotypic features. Genetic diagnosis is of utmost importance, but must be performed judiciously and interpreted cautiously. Treatment with biologic agents that block proinflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-1, has proved to be dramatically effective in many patients. Still, in many cases of autoinflammation no genetic abnormalities are detected and treatment remains suboptimal, raising the question of novel pathogenic mutations in unexplored genes and pathways. PMID:27295706

  10. Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to probe the cause and progression of such circuit defects in HD. Scientists are also using stem cells to study disease mechanisms and test potential therapeutic drugs. The NINDS-funded PREDICT-HD study seeks to identify biomarkers (biological changes that can be used to predict, diagnose, ...

  11. Extraphyramidal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009250 Effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on depression in patients with parkinson’s disease. WANG Xuelian(王学廉),et al.Dept Neurosurg,Tangdu Hosp,4th Milit Med Univ,Xi’an,710038.Chin J Nerv Ment Dis,2009;35(2):88-92.

  12. Infectious Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010400 The genetic characterization of VP1 region of Coxsackie virus A10 isolated from hand, foot and mouth disease cases in Shandong Province of China.YANG He(杨赫), et al.Instit Epidemiol & Health Statistic, Sch Public Health, Shandong Univ, Jinan 250012.Chin J Infect Dis

  13. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/research/parkinsonsweb/index.htm NIH Patient Recruitment for Parkinson's Disease Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical ... 800-655-2273 Fax: 408-734-8522 Parkinson's Resource Organization ... Health and Human Services, Education, May 22, 2002. September 1999 Parkinson's ...

  14. INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    2.1 Viral disease2003263 Isolation, identification and sequence analyses of dengue virus type 2 strain GD19/2001. REN Rui-wen(任瑞文), et al. Milit Med Instit Guangzhou Milit District, Guangzhou 510507. Chin J Epidemiol 2003; 24 (4):288-290. Objective:To identify the virus isolated from patients

  15. Celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, E; Assiri, A; Guandalini, S

    2013-10-01

    Celiac disease, with a prevalence around 1% of the general population, is the most common genetically-induced food intolerance in the world. Triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals, this enteropathy may appear at any age, and is characterized by a wide variety of clinical signs and symptoms. Among them, gastrointestinal presentations include chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss or failure to thrive in children; but extra-intestinal manifestations are also common, and actually appear to be on the rise. They include a large variety of ailments, such as dermatitis Herpetiformis, anemia, short stature, osteoporosis, arthritis, neurologic problems, unexplained elevation of transaminases, and even female infertility. For the clinician interested in oral diseases, celiac disease can lead to delayed tooth eruption, dental enamel hypoplasia, recurrent oral aphthae. Diagnosing celiac disease requires therefore a high degree of suspicion followed by a very sensitive screening test: serum levels of the autoantibody anti-tissue transglutaminase. A positive subject will then be confirmed by an intestinal biopsy, and will then be put on a strict gluten-free diet, that in most cases will bring a marked improvement of symptoms. Newer forms of treatment which in the future will probably be available to the non-responsive patients are currently being actively pursued. PMID:23496382

  16. Gum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... embarrassing (like bad breath) to the serious — like pain and tooth loss (which is both embarrassing and serious!). What ... also feed the acids that eat into your tooth enamel. If you have braces, ... certain medicines increase the risk of gum disease. Running yourself ...

  17. Leigh's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... impairment of respiratory and kidney function. In Leigh’s disease, genetic mutations in mitochondrial DNA interfere with the energy sources that run cells in an area of the brain that plays a role in motor movements. The primary function of mitochondria is to convert the energy in glucose and ...

  18. INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    3.1 Viral disease2003162 The clinical and epidemiological analysis on 46 patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever in Huainan areas. WANG Kexia(王克霞). Sch Med, An-hui Univ Sci & Tehnol, Huainan 232001. Chin J En-demiol 2003;22(1):48-50.

  19. Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermind, Lena Elisabeth; Law, Ian; Jønch, Aia;

    2011-01-01

    In this open-label pilot study, the authors evaluated the effect of memantine on the distribution of brain glucose metabolism in four Huntington's disease (HD) patients as determined by serial 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose [F(18)]FDG-PET scans over a period of 3-4 months (90-129 days, with one patient...

  20. INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    2.1 Viral disease2004002 M gene sequence analyses on Guangdong SARS CoV isolates. ZHOU Huiqiong (周惠琼), et al. Dis Contr & Prev Center, Guangdong Prov, Guangzhou 510300. Chin J Microbiol Immunol 2003; 23 (12) : 923 -925.Objective:To analyze the variation of M gene by sequenc-

  1. INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    3.1 Viral disease2004310 One-step simultaneous detection of G-genotype of human group a rotaviruses by multiplex RT-PCR. TANG Shaowen (唐少文) , et al. Dept Epidemiol, Tongji Med Coll Huozhong Univ Sci & Technol, Wuhan 430030. Chin J Lab Med 2004; 27 (4):234-236

  2. Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  3. Prionic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Q-C Araujo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are neurodegenerative illnesses due to the accumulation of small infectious pathogens containing protein but apparently lacking nucleic acid, which have long incubation periods and progress inexorably once clinical symptoms appear. Prions are uniquely resistant to a number of normal decontaminating procedures. The prionopathies [Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD and its variants, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS syndrome and fatal familial insomnia (FFI] result from accumulation of abnormal isoforms of the prion protein in the brains of normal animals on both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. The accumulation of this protein or fragments of it in neurons leads to apoptosis and cell death. There is a strong link between mutations in the gene encoding the normal prion protein in humans (PRNP - located on the short arm of chromosome 20 – and forms of prion disease with a familial predisposition (familial CJD, GSS, FFI. Clinically a prionopathy should be suspected in any case of a fast progressing dementia with ataxia, myoclonus, or in individuals with pathological insomnia associated with dysautonomia. Magnetic resonance imaging, identification of the 14-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid, tonsil biopsy and genetic studies have been used for in vivo diagnosis circumventing the need of brain biopsy. Histopathology, however, remains the only conclusive method to reach a confident diagnosis. Unfortunately, despite numerous treatment efforts, prionopathies remain short-lasting and fatal diseases.

  4. Infectious Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    3.1 Viral disease2007149 Study on platelet β3 integrin expression levels and their relationships with disease severity in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.GAO Maicang(高麦仓), et al. Dept Infect Dis, 1st Affili Hosp, Sch Med, Xi′an Jiaotong Univ , Xi′an 710061. Chin J Infect Dis 2007;25(3):152-153. Objective To investigate the relationship between the expression level of platelet membrane glycoprotein 133(GP Ⅲa, CD61) and the severity of disease in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS). Methods One hundred and four patients with HFRS and 30 healthy individuals were recruited. The percentage of CD61 positive platelets and the mean fluorescence intensities (MFI) of platelet membrane glycoprotein β3 were determined by flow cytometry (FCM). The 104 patients studied were divided into three groups based on their expression levels of platelet membrane glycoprotein β3 at oliguric phase. Clinical data and laboratory parameters in different groups were compared and analyzed. Results The expression levels of CD61 in patients with HFRS were significantly higher than those in control group, although no significant difference in the percentage of CD61 positive platelets between patients with HFRS and controls was detected. The MFI of CD61 expression in patients with HFRS at fever phase, oliguric phase and polyuric phase was 19. 75±2.57, 17.46±1.48 and 15. 55±0.60, respectively, which was significantly higher than that in control group (3. 20±0.12). The expression level of CD61 in patients with HFRS at oliguric phase was negatively correlated with platelet count and serum albumin(r=-0.637 and -0. 695. respectively) and positively correlated with white blood cell count, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase(r= 0.945, 0. 904, 0.956 and 0. 891, respectively). When the patients were compared according to the expression levels of CD61, it was indicated that the higher the expression level of CD61, the

  5. Asymptomatic De Novo Inflammatory Bowel Disease Late After Liver Transplantation for Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg, F; Abdulle, A; Mäkelä, A; Nissinen, M

    2015-11-01

    Guidelines recommend colonoscopy screening for possible asymptomatic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in all patients diagnosed with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). PSC-IBD warrants regular dysplasia-surveillance colonoscopy. However, no consensus exists regarding follow-up colonoscopy in PSC patients without IBD who remain asymptomatic. We describe a 43-year-old female who had undergone liver transplantation (LT) due to advanced PSC. Previous colonoscopies had been normal. The post-transplantation course was uneventful, with no rejections and signs of PSC recurrence. Immunosuppression was by tacrolimus monotherapy. She was asymptomatic with normal inflammation markers. A protocol colonoscopy, performed as general dysplasia surveillance 8 years post-transplantation, revealed mucopurulent-covered small superficial ulcerations and erythema diffusely distributed from the cecal to sigmoid colon with intervening normal mucosa and rectal sparing. Histologic examination showed patchy chronic colitis with crypt architectural distortion and mild-moderate inflammation activity. Infection samples were negative. Findings complied with de novo IBD, type unclassified. In conclusion, the link between PSC and clinically silent IBD may manifest after the PSC diagnosis and even several years after LT. Given the increased colorectal cancer risk associated with PSC, IBD, and LT, repeat colonoscopy might be warranted in PSC patients without IBD at initial assessment, and also after LT.

  6. Celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune disorder,induced by the intake of gluten proteins present in wheat, barley and rye. Contrary to common belief,this disorder is a protean systemic disease, rather than merely a pure digestive alteration. CD is closely associated with genes that code HLA-Ⅱ antigens, mainly of DQ2 and DQ8 classes. Previously, it was considered to be a rare childhood disorder, but is actually considered a frequent condition, present at any age, which may have multiple complications. Tissue transglutaminase-2(tTG), appears to be an important component of this disease, both, in its pathogenesis and diagnosis. Active CD is characterized by intestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms, villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia, and strongly positive tTG auto-antibodies. The duodenal biopsy is considered to be the "gold standard" for diagnosis, but its practice has significant limitations in its interpretation, especially in adults. Occasionally, it results in a false-negative because of patchy mucosal changes and the presence of mucosal villous atrophy is often more severe in the proximal jejunum, usually not reached by endoscopic biopsies. CD is associated with increased rates of several diseases, such as iron deficiency anemia, osteoporosis, dermatitis herpetiformis,several neurologic and endocrine diseases, persistent chronic hypertransami-nasemia of unknown origin,various types of cancer and other autoimmune disorders.Treatment of CD dictates a strict, life-long gluten-free diet, which results in remission for most individuals,although its effect on some associated extraintestinal manifestations remains to be established.

  7. Fabry disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germain Dominique P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fabry disease (FD is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal α-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual α-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain, cutaneous (angiokeratoma, renal (proteinuria, kidney failure, cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal α-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked α-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human α-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with

  8. Bacterial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930445 A report on investigation of an outbreakof legionnaires’disease in a hotel in Beijing.DENG Changying(邓长英),et al.Beijing ArmedForce General Hosp,Beijing,100027.Chin J Epi-demiol 1993;14(2):78—79.During the period from February to March,1992,an outbreak of upper respiratory infection(influenza—like syndrome)took place in a hotelin Beijing.An epidemiological investigation andbacteriological examination were carried out inthis hotel.The results showed that it was anoutbreak of Legionnaires’disease caused by Le-gionella pneumophila serogroup 10(Lpl0).Theincidence was 13.51%(5/37).This is the firstreport on Lp10 infection in China.

  9. Morgellons disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John

    2008-01-01

    Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients. PMID:18318880

  10. Coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary heart ...

  11. "Chronic Lyme Disease"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area "Chronic Lyme Disease" What is "chronic Lyme disease?" Lyme disease is an infection caused by ... J Med 357:1422-30, 2008). How is Lyme disease treated? For early Lyme disease, a short ...

  12. Fungal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930031 Experimental studies on lung lesionsof rabbits caused by streptomyces thermohy-groscopicus.LIU Fang(刘仿),et al.Dept Mi-crobiol,Hubei Med Coll,Xianning Branch,437100.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis 1992;15(4):207—208.Imitating the natural way of infection ofFarmer’s lung disease,we succeeded in inducingChina Medical Abstracts(Internal Medicine)

  13. INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    4.1 Viral disease2003021 Analysis on the epidemiologic features of Dengue fever in Guangdong province, 1990 - 2000. LUO Huiming(罗会明), et al. Dis Contr & Prev Center Guangdong Prov, Guangzhou 510300. Chin J Epi-demiol 2002;23(6):427-430.Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of Dengue fever in Guangdong province in 1990 - 2000, and to develop the strategy for

  14. Infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system infections represents a group of life-threatening diseases that present a formidable challenge to physicians. Despite the development of effective antimicrobial agents and modern surgical techniques, significant mortality and morbidity with CNS infections persist. Since the introduction of computed tomography, there is evidence of a marked decrease in mortality among patients with brain abscesses, although the morbidity has not changed significantly. CT correlation with pathology of the various CNS infections may aid in earlier diagnosis and bring about further disease in morbidity and mortality. Infections reach the brain or meninges mainly by two routes: (1) hematogenous dissemination from a distant infective focus to the meninges, corticomedullary junction, and choroid plexus; (2) direct extension by bony erosion for an adjacent focus of suppuration (otitis, mastoidits, sinusitis), by transmission along anaostomotic veins from the face, scalp, and orbits, and by transmission along cranial nerves following neurosurgery or traumatic craniocerebral wounds. Certain external factors serve to enhance the risk of intracranial infections, such as radiation; immunosuppressive or steroid therapy; cyanotic congenital heart disease; systemic illness such as diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or cirrhosis; leukemia, lymphoma, or agammaglobulinemia; severe body stress; midline bony fusion defects; surgical or traumatic craniocerebral injury; and pulmonary or other systemic infections

  15. Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudianos, G; Gitlin, J D

    2000-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism resulting from the absence or dysfunction of a copper transporting P-type ATPase encoded on chromosome 13. This ATPase is expressed in hepatocytes where it is localized to the trans-Golgi network and transports copper into the secretory pathway for incorporation into ceruloplasmin and excretion into the bile. Under physiologic circumstances, biliary excretion represents the sole mechanism for copper excretion, and thus affected individuals have progressive copper accumulation in the liver. When the capacity for hepatic storage is exceeded, cell death ensues with copper release into the plasma, hemolysis, and tissue deposition. Presentation in childhood may include chronic hepatitis, asymptomatic cirrhosis, or acute liver failure. In young adults, neuropsychiatric symptoms predominate and include dystonia, tremor, personality changes, and cognitive impairments secondary to copper accumulation in the central nervous system. The laboratory diagnosis of Wilson's disease is confirmed by decreased serum ceruloplasmin, increased urinary copper content, and elevated hepatic copper concentration. Molecular genetic analysis is complex as more than 100 unique mutations have been identified and most individuals are compound heterozygotes. Copper chelation with penicillamine is an effective therapy in most patients and hepatic transplantation is curative in individuals presenting with irreversible liver failure. Elucidation of the molecular genetic basis of Wilson's disease has permitted new insights into the mechanisms of cellular copper homeostasis.

  16. Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Angela

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197 were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure. Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status.

  17. Huntington's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Branka

    2009-01-01

    Die Huntington''sche Krankheit (Huntington''s disease, HD) ist eine tödliche neurodegenerative Erkrankung mit einem extensiven Verlust von Neuronen im Striatum. Die Ursache für HD ist eine genetische Mutation, bei der eine CAG-Wiederholungssequenz verlängert wird. Im resultierenden Protein, das Huntingtin (htt) genannt wurde, diese Mutation führt zur Missfaltung und Aggregation von htt. Ich habe untersucht ob die Bildung von htt-Aggregaten die Transkription von Genen dass sie von HD-asso...

  18. [Renal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys. Some of these restrictions modify the intake of proteins, sodium, and phosphorus. Milk and dairy products are sources of these nutrients. This article aims to inform the reader about the benefits including milk and dairy products relying on a scientific and critical view according to the clinical conditions and the stage of renal disease in which the patient is. PMID:27603894

  19. Infectious Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    2.1 Viral disease 2006009 Correlation analysis of type A influenza virus genetic variation characteristic with survival selective pressure ZHOU xiao -ming(周晓明 ) ,et al. Sch Pub Health,Fudan Univ. Shanghai 200032. China J Infect Dis 2005;23(4) :221 -224 Objective:To study the relationship betweer. type A influenza virus genetic variation with survival selective pressure to find possible vaccine conserved antigen target. Methods:Seven strains of same HA (Hemagglutinin) serotype, regional and isolation time closely related type A influenza virus were selected with full HA gene coding sequence , Blast2 program was used to calculate the param-

  20. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  1. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  2. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease Updated:May 20,2016 View an animation of ... call 9-1-1. Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease Major risk factors that can't be changed ...

  3. [Morton's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomoto, Shinji; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2014-12-01

    Morton's disease refers to neuralgia at the web space of the toes with a pseudo-neuroma. It commonly occurs in the third web space of the foot in middle-aged and older women. The pseudo-neuroma is thought to be a secondary change after entrapment or repeated microtrauma. Patients complain of forefoot pain while walking. Typically, symptoms are caused by tight high-heeled shoes. The physical examination includes palpation of the web spaces and Mulder's test. Weight bearing foot radiographs are used to evaluate the deformity of the foot, especially at metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. MRI is useful for differential diagnosis of pseudo-neuroma, MTP joint arthritis, and interdigital bursitis. Conservative treatments are shoe modification, use of orthotic insoles, and injection of corticosteroids and local anesthesia. The injections are useful not only for the treatment but also for diagnosis of Morton's disease. If the local injection is not temporally effective, surgical treatment is not indicated. If the conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment is indicated. The most common surgery is excision of the pseudo-neuroma. The surgery is usually performed using a dorsal approach. PMID:25475032

  4. Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Paula, Vanessa J; Radanovic, Marcia; Diniz, Breno S; Forlenza, Orestes V

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with well-defined pathophysiological mechanisms, mostly affecting medial temporal lobe and associative neocortical structures. Neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles represent the pathological hallmarks of AD, and are respectively related to the accumulation of the amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) in brain tissues, and to cytoskeletal changes that arise from the hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated Tau protein in neurons. According to the amyloid hypothesis of AD, the overproduction of Aβ is a consequence of the disruption of homeostatic processes that regulate the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Genetic, age-related and environmental factors contribute to a metabolic shift favoring the amyloidogenic processing of APP in detriment of the physiological, secretory pathway. Aβ peptides are generated by the successive cleavage of APP by beta-secretase (BACE-1) and gamma-secretase, which has been recently characterized as part of the presenilin complex. Among several beta-amyloid isoforms that bear subtle differences depending on the number of C-terminal amino acids, Aβ (1-42) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. The neurotoxic potential of the Aβ peptide results from its biochemical properties that favor aggregation into insoluble oligomers and protofibrils. These further originate fibrillary Aβ species that accumulate into senile and neuritic plaques. These processes, along with a reduction of Aβ clearance from the brain, leads to the extracellular accumulation of Aβ, and the subsequent activation of neurotoxic cascades that ultimately lead to cytoskeletal changes, neuronal dysfunction and cellular death. Intracerebral amyloidosis develops in AD patients in an age-dependent manner, but recent evidence indicate that it may be observed in some subjects as early as in the third or fourth decades of life, with increasing magnitude in late middle age

  5. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Browse Related Terms Progression of Liver Disease , Family History of Liver Disease , Liver Wellness , Liver Failure , Liver Biopsy Home > Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > The Progression ...

  6. [Pancreatic Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöfl, Rainer

    2016-06-22

    The author presents his personal choice of practical relevant papers of pancreatic diseases from 2014 to 2015. Nutritional factors and hypertriglycidemia are discussed as causes of acute pancreatitis. Tools to avoid post-ERCP(endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) pancreatitis are described and the natural course of fluid collections and pseudocysts is demonstrated. The value of secretin-MRCP(magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) for diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is illustrated. Data help to choose the minimally effective prednisolone dose in autoimmune pancreatitis. The increased prevalence of fractures in patients with chronic pancreatitis highlights the necessity of screening for bone density loss. The association of vitamin D intake with pancreatic cancer is described. The probability of cancer in IPNM is shown and innovative surgical concepts to reduce the loss of pancreatic function are presented. Finally neoadjuvant concepts for the treatment of pancreatic cancer are highlighted. PMID:27329710

  7. Heart disease and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007188.htm Heart disease and women To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. People often do not consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the ...

  8. Mitral Valve Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tricuspid Valve Disease Cardiac Rhythm Disturbances Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Heart abnormalities that are ... Transplantation End-stage Lung Disease Adult Lung Transplantation Pediatric Lung ... Aortic Aneurysm Mitral Valve Disease Overview The mitral valve is ...

  9. Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Mad Cow Disease Print A ... likely are people to get it? What Is Mad Cow Disease? Mad cow disease is an incurable, fatal brain ...

  10. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  11. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  12. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, ... Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs when ...

  13. Disease Outbreak News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and response operations Diseases Biorisk reduction Disease Outbreak News (DONs) Latest DONs 26 August 2016 Middle East ... Disease outbreaks by country RSS feeds Disease outbreak news Announcement: WHO to change the way it reports ...

  14. Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Celiac Disease › Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease It is estimated that up to 20% of ... continuing to ingest gluten. Causes of Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease Continuing Gluten Ingestion The most common reason for ...

  15. Genetics and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... percent, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...

  16. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  17. Lyme Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lyme Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Lyme Disease Print A ... Pacific Northwest, and the northern Midwest states. About Lyme Disease Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium ...

  18. Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first r...

  19. [Castleman disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belletti, Gerardo A; Savio, Verónica; Minoldo, Daniel; Caminos, Susana; Yorio, Marcelo A

    2004-01-01

    A 66 years female, who was since last year under astenia, arthralgias, pimply lesions in spread plates and tests showing eritrosedimentation over 100 mm, anemi, leucocitosis with neutrofilia, policlonal hypergammaglobulinemia, slight proteinuria and IgE on 900. This patient was sporadically treated with corticoids. When made the medical consult had lost 34lb., was under anorexy, as well as dyspepsia. Hemoglobyn 6.9 gr/dl, leucocytes 20000/mm3, neutrofils at 90%, proteinogram the same as former, with hypoalbuminemia. She was taking prednisona, 16 mg/day. When examined showed depress of conscience, astenia, and dermic lesions already quoted. 4 cm nonpainful right axillary adenopaty adhered to deep planes. Medulogram with increased iron, hyperegenerative. Ganglionar biopsia: linfoid hyperplasic process linked to inmune response. Toracoabdominal tomography with adenomegalia in torax and retroperitoneo. Skin biopsia: neutrofilic vasculitis. The patient suspends the 16 mg of prednisona and fever as well as generalized adenopatias come up. After laying aside other ethiologies, and understanding as Castleman Multicentric disease, it is started to supply prednisona 1 mg/kg of weight with a clinical and biochemical fast and outstanding response. After 7 months it was progressively suspended the esteroids and 60 days later, the process fall back; for that, corticoids are restarted, with a good evolution. The illness of Castleman although it is not very frequent, it should be considered as differential diagnosis in those clinical cases that are accompanied with important general commitment, linphadenopaties and respons to steroid therapy.

  20. Meniere's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tsutomu; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Arroll, Megan A; Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Foster, Carol A; Manzoor, Nauman F; Megerian, Cliff A; Naganawa, Shinji; Young, Yi-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Meniere's disease (MD) is a disorder of the inner ear that causes vertigo attacks, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus and aural fullness. The aetiology of MD is multifactorial. A characteristic sign of MD is endolymphatic hydrops (EH), a disorder in which excessive endolymph accumulates in the inner ear and causes damage to the ganglion cells. In most patients, the clinical symptoms of MD present after considerable accumulation of endolymph has occurred. However, some patients develop symptoms in the early stages of EH. The reason for the variability in the symptomatology is unknown and the relationship between EH and the clinical symptoms of MD requires further study. The diagnosis of MD is based on clinical symptoms but can be complemented with functional inner ear tests, including audiometry, vestibular-evoked myogenic potential testing, caloric testing, electrocochleography or head impulse tests. MRI has been optimized to directly visualize EH in the cochlea, vestibule and semicircular canals, and its use is shifting from the research setting to the clinic. The management of MD is mainly aimed at the relief of acute attacks of vertigo and the prevention of recurrent attacks. Therapeutic options are based on empirical evidence and include the management of risk factors and a conservative approach as the first line of treatment. When medical treatment is unable to suppress vertigo attacks, intratympanic gentamicin therapy or endolymphatic sac decompression surgery is usually considered. This Primer covers the pathophysiology, symptomatology, diagnosis, management, quality of life and prevention of MD. PMID:27170253

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease and airway diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutcovici, Maria; Brassard, Paul; Bitton, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Airway diseases are the most commonly described lung manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the similarities in disease pathogenesis and the sharing of important environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility suggest that there is a complex interplay between IBD and airway diseases. Recent evidence of IBD occurrence among patients with airway diseases and the higher than estimated prevalence of subclinical airway injuries among IBD patients support the hypothesis of a two-way association. Future research efforts should be directed toward further exploration of this association, as airway diseases are highly prevalent conditions with a substantial public health impact. PMID:27678355

  2. Association between periodontal diseases and systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Weidlich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease may be associated with systemic diseases. This paper reviewed the published data about the relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, diabetes and respiratory diseases, focusing on studies conducted in the Brazilian population. Only a few studies were found in the literature focusing on Brazilians (3 concerning cardiovascular disease, 7 about pregnancy outcomes, 9 about diabetes and one regarding pneumonia. Although the majority of them observed an association between periodontitis and systemic conditions, a causal relationship still needs to be demonstrated. Further studies, particularly interventional well-designed investigations, with larger sample sizes, need to be conducted in Brazilian populations.

  3. Association between periodontal diseases and systemic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Patrícia; Cimões, Renata; Pannuti, Claudio Mendes; Oppermann, Rui Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease may be associated with systemic diseases. This paper reviewed the published data about the relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, diabetes and respiratory diseases, focusing on studies conducted in the Brazilian population. Only a few studies were found in the literature focusing on Brazilians (3 concerning cardiovascular disease, 7 about pregnancy outcomes, 9 about diabetes and one regarding pneumonia). Although the majority of them observed an association between periodontitis and systemic conditions, a causal relationship still needs to be demonstrated. Further studies, particularly interventional well-designed investigations, with larger sample sizes, need to be conducted in Brazilian populations. PMID:19838549

  4. Virus diseases of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.

  5. Kidney disease - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - kidney disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on kidney disease: National Kidney Disease Education Program -- www.nkdep.nih.gov National Kidney Foundation -- www.kidney.org National ...

  6. Heart disease - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association -- www.heart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/heartdisease

  7. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Sickle Cell Disease New supplement from the American Journal of Preventive Medicine describes the state of sickle cell disease related care in the United States. Read Supplement » ... are affected by sickle cell disease. More WEBINAR ...

  8. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Sickle Cell Disease? Español The term sickle cell disease (SCD) ... common forms of SCD. Some Forms of Sickle Cell Disease Hemoglobin SS Hemoglobin SC Hemoglobin Sβ 0 thalassemia ...

  9. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Background Information > Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Using computers to prepare ... Content Area Predicting the potential spread of an infectious disease requires much more than simply connecting cities on ...

  10. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Back to Patient Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Millions of people experience irregular heartbeats, called ... harmless and happen in healthy people free of heart disease. However, some abnormal heart rhythms can be serious ...

  11. Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Alan ... hormone. Why does hypothyroidism increase your risk for heart disease? Both thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) are related ...

  12. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead to heart disease, including high cholesterol , high blood pressure, and obesity ...

  13. What Is Vascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  14. Diabetes and Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  15. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Fact Sheet See a list of all ... can I get more information? What are motor neuron diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  16. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Kidney Disease What are my kidneys and ... urine until releasing it through urination. How can diabetes affect my kidneys? Too much glucose , also called ...

  17. Lyme disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyme disease is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by skin changes, joint inflammation and symptoms similar to the ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a deer ...

  18. Alzheimer's Disease Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Alzheimer's Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Alzheimer's Disease? Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related, ...

  19. Pediatric Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Celiac Disease Many kids have sensitivities to certain foods, and ... protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Pediatric Celiac Disease If your child has celiac disease, consuming gluten ...

  20. Adult Still's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  1. Lyme disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyme disease is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by skin changes, joint inflammation and symptoms similar to ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a ...

  2. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Lung Diseases and Conditions Breathing is a complex process. If ... lead to a disease called COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). COPD prevents proper airflow in and out of ...

  3. Parkinson disease - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your doctor has told you that you have Parkinson disease . This disease affects the brain and leads to ... have you take different medicines to treat your Parkinson disease and many of the problems that may come ...

  4. C-reactive protein levels in the perioperative period as a predictive marker of endoscopic recurrence after ileo-colonic resection for Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaculli, E; Agostini, M; Biancone, L; Fiorani, C; Di Vizia, A; Montagnese, F; Sibio, S; Manzelli, A; Tesauro, M; Rufini, A; Sica, G S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the perioperative behavior of C-reactive protein (CRP) in Crohn's disease (CD) patients undergoing elective ileo-cecal (IC) resection and to identify association between perioperative CRP levels and endoscopic recurrence at 1 year. Study hypothesis was that perioperative CRP changes are disease specific and could detect subset of patients with more aggressive pathopysiology. Seventy-five patients undergoing IC resection for CD were prospectively enrolled. Serial CRP levels were assessed: preoperative, postoperative day 1 (POD1) and day 5 (POD5). CD patients' values were compared against same interval assessments of control groups undergoing right colectomy and appendicectomy. At POD1, the serum concentration increase was significantly higher in CD patients than in controls. Comparing with control groups, CRP levels remained remarkably high and showed a lower reduction in CD at POD5. Difference between groups was statistically significant. Optimal cutoff levels have been identified: serum CRP concentrations of >39.8 mg/l at POD1 and of >23.2 mg/l at POD5 have shown a significant association to endoscopic recurrence when using bivariate correlation. In this preliminary series, binary logistic regression could not demonstrate statistical relationship between endoscopic recurrence and any of the variables evaluated as prognostic factor. This is the only study so far that investigates and confirms a disease-specific upregulation of CRP response in the perioperative period for CD patients undergoing surgery. The postoperative CRP levels and kinetics seem to be related to the grade of mucosal inflammation and recurrence rate according to our 12 months endoscopic evaluation. PMID:27551522

  5. Dietary flaxseed modulates the colonic microenvironment in healthy C57Bl/6 male mice which may alter susceptibility to gut-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Krista A; Lepp, Dion; Zarepoor, Leila; Monk, Jennifer M; Wu, Wenqing; Tsao, Rong; Liu, Ronghua

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how dietary components alter the healthy baseline colonic microenvironment is important in determining their roles in influencing gut health and gut-associated diseases. Dietary flaxseed (FS) has demonstrated anti-colon cancer effects in numerous rodent models, however, exacerbated acute colonic mucosal injury and inflammation in a colitis model. This study investigates whether FS alters critical aspects of gut health in healthy unchallenged mice, which may help explain some of the divergent effects observed following different gut-associated disease challenges. Four-week-old C57Bl/6 male mice were fed an AIN-93G basal diet (BD) or an isocaloric BD+10% ground FS diet for 3 weeks. FS enhanced colon goblet cell density, mucus production, MUC2 mRNA expression, and cecal short chain fatty acid levels, indicative of beneficial intestinal barrier integrity responses. Additionally, FS enhanced colonic regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) and reduced MUC1 and resistin-like molecule beta (RELMβ) mRNA expression which may indicate altered responses in regulating microbial defense and injury repair responses. FS diet altered the fecal microbial community structure (16S rRNA gene profiling), including a 20-fold increase in Prevotella spp. and a 30-fold reduction in Akkermansia muciniphila abundance. A 10-fold reduction in A. muciniphila abundance by FS was also demonstrated in the colon tissue-associated microbiota (quantitative PCR). Furthermore, fecal branched chain fatty acids were increased by FS, indicative of increased microbial-derived putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, consumption of a FS-supplemented diet alters the baseline colonic microenvironment of healthy mice which may modify subsequent mucosal microbial defense and injury-repair responses leading to altered susceptibility to different gut-associated diseases.

  6. Cholestatic liver disease masquerading as Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Vikrant; Rawat, Dinesh; Khanna, Rajeev; Alam, Seema

    2015-03-01

    Wilson disease and cholestatic liver diseases may present as a diagnostic dilemma if standard guidelines incorporating markers of copper overload are followed. We hereby present a series of four cases of sclerosing cholangitis masquerading as Wilson disease. True Wilson disease cases had significantly lower ceruloplasmin (6 vs. 16 mg/dL) and higher 24-hour urinary copper (322.3 vs. 74.5 μg/day) as compared to mimickers. Initial low serum ceruloplasmin levels normalized in mimickers on follow up, and this may used as a diagnostic indicator. Standard Wilson disease diagnostic criteria thus need further modification especially in developing countries to help avoid mismanagement.

  7. Liver in systemic disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Potential causes of abnormal liver function tests include viral hepatitis, alcohol intake, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, hereditary diseases, hepatobiliary malignancies or infection, gallstones and drug-induced liver injury. Moreover, the liver may be involved in systemic diseases that mainly affect other organs. Therefore, in patients without etiology of liver injury by screening serology and diagnostic imaging, but who have systemic diseases, the abnormal liver function test results might be caused by the systemic disease. In most of these patients, the systemic disease should be treated primarily. However, some patients with systemic disease and severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure require intensive treatments of the liver.

  8. Genetics and Neuromuscular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dermatomyositis Inclusion-body myositis Diseases of Neuromuscular Junction Myasthenia gravis Lambert-Eaton (myasthenic) syndrome Congenital myasthenic syndromes Diseases of Peripheral Nerve Charcot-Marie- ...

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  10. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine

    2016-01-01

    by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information...... and their disease relationships from the reported TDDB database. The resulting human EDN takes into consideration the level of evidence of the toxicant-disease relationships allowing including some degrees of significance in the disease-disease associations. Such network can be used to identify uncharacterized...... connections between diseases. Examples are discussed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Additionally, this computational model allows to confirm already know chemical-disease links (e.g. bisphenol A and behavioral disorders) and also to reveal unexpected associations between chemicals and diseases (e.g. chlordane...

  11. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  12. What Causes Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Disease? Research suggests that coronary heart disease (CHD) begins with damage to the lining and ... causing coronary microvascular disease (MVD). Coronary MVD is heart disease that affects the heart's tiny arteries. The cause ...

  13. [Wilson's disease: clinical spectrum of liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Palominos, Alejandra; Ibáñez Samaniego, Luis; Catalina Rodríguez, María-Vega; Pajares Díaz, José; Clemente Ricote, Gerardo

    2013-02-01

    Wilson's disease is a hereditary autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism,characterized by copper accumulation in the liver and brain. This rare entity, which has a broad clinical spectrum, is often difficult to diagnose and should therefore always be suspected in patients with liver disease of unclear cause. We describe two types of manifestation of liver disease in two patients; the first developed fulminant hepatic failure requiring urgent liver transplantation and the second showed advanced chronic liver disease and received standard medical treatment. The objective of this clinical observation is to analyze the diagnosis of Wilson's disease in two patients with distinct onset, illustrating the broad clinical spectrum of the disease, and its treatment.

  14. Small animal disease surveillance: respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M.; Philip H Jones; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J.; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J.M.; Radford, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    This second Small Animal Disease Surveillance report focuses on syndromic surveillance of i) respiratory disease in veterinary practice and ii) feline calicivirus (FCV) based on laboratory diagnosis, in a large veterinary-visiting pet population of the UK between January 2014 and December 2015. Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7%, 2.3% and 2.5% of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively. In dogs, the most frequent respiratory sign reported was coughing (71.1% of ...

  15. [Periodontal disease in pediatric rheumatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, Gisele M C; Savioli, Cynthia; Siqueira, José T; Campos, Lucia M; Bonfá, Eloisa; Silva, Clovis A

    2014-01-01

    Gingivitis and periodontitis are immunoinflammatory periodontal diseases characterized by chronic localized infections usually associated with insidious inflammation This narrative review discusses periodontal diseases and mechanisms influencing the immune response and autoimmunity in pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD), particularly juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (C-SLE) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Gingivitis was more frequently observed in these diseases compared to health controls, whereas periodontitis was a rare finding. In JIA patients, gingivitis and periodontitis were related to mechanical factors, chronic arthritis with functional disability, dysregulation of the immunoinflammatory response, diet and drugs, mainly corticosteroids and cyclosporine. In C-SLE, gingivitis was associated with longer disease period, high doses of corticosteroids, B-cell hyperactivation and immunoglobulin G elevation. There are scarce data on periodontal diseases in JDM population, and a unique gingival pattern, characterized by gingival erythema, capillary dilation and bush-loop formation, was observed in active patients. In conclusion, gingivitis was the most common periodontal disease in PRD. The observed association with disease activity reinforces the need for future studies to determine if resolution of this complication will influence disease course or severity.

  16. Hyperparathyroidism of Renal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Noah K; Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Campbell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Patients with rHPT experience increased rates of cardiovascular problems and bone disease. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend that screening and management of rHPT be initiated for all patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, disease. PMID:27479950

  17. Pregnancy and periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sağlam, Ebru; SARUHAN, Nesrin; Çanakçı, Cenk Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Some maternal immunological changes due to pregnancy increases susceptibility to infections. Periodontal disease, the main cause is plaque, is a common disease which is seen multifactorial and varying severity. There are many clinical criteria for diagnosis of periodontal disease. Correlation between pregnancy and periodontal inflammation is known for many years. Periodontal disease affects pregnant’s systemic condition and also has negative effects on fetus. Periodontal disease increases the...

  18. Prion diseases as transmissible zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-02-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

  19. Celiac disease - sprue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Addison disease Down syndrome Intestinal cancer Intestinal lymphoma Lactose intolerance Thyroid disease Type 1 diabetes Symptoms The symptoms ... unchanged) Diarrhea , either constant or off and on Lactose intolerance (common when the person is diagnosed, often goes ...

  20. Liver disease - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services -- www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  1. Parkinson disease - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - Parkinson disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Parkinson disease : The Michael J. Fox Foundation -- www.michaeljfox.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  2. Lung disease - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  3. HIV and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheets Permission to Use Fact Sheets Sponsors and Advertising Privacy Policy Project ... Disease WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT KIDNEY DISEASE? WHAT IS NORMAL KIDNEY FUNCTION? HOW DO I KNOW IF THERE ARE PROBLEMS ...

  4. Kennedy's Disease Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of great accomplishments. It is passed on from generation to generation in families worldwide. Males generally inherit the disease ... on the picture above. Spinal Bulbar Muscular Atrophy , X-linked Spinal Bulbar Muscular Atrophy, SBMA, neuromuscular disease, ...

  5. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  6. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  7. Tay-Sachs Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay-Sachs disease is a rare, inherited disorder. It causes too much of a fatty substance to build up in the ... mental and physical problems. Infants with Tay-Sachs disease appear to develop normally for the first few ...

  8. Carotid Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  9. Lewy Body Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

  10. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  11. Aspirin and heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology ... NE, et al. Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for ischemic ... of coronary heart disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, et ...

  12. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000106.htm Heart disease - risk factors To use the sharing features on ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. Changing ...

  13. Learning about Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mouse Models Of Huntington's Disease 1998 News Release Learning About Huntington's Disease What do we know about ... and treatment information. Hosted by the Dolan DNA Learning Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Huntington's Outreach ...

  14. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Page Content On this page: ... responds by decreasing TSH production. [ Top ] How does pregnancy normally affect thyroid function? Two pregnancy-related hormones— ...

  15. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of a funeral ritual) Scrapie (found in sheep) Other very rare inherited human diseases, such as ... markers that sometimes occur with the disease CT scan of the brain Electroencephalogram (EEG) MRI of the ...

  16. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TDP43-related Dementia 2013 Andrew Watt Characterisation of Tau Imaging Ligands for Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias 2010 Marco Prado The Prion Protein as a Therapeutic Target in Alzheimer's Disease 2007 ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TDP43-related Dementia 2013 Andrew Watt Characterisation of Tau Imaging Ligands for Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias 2010 Marco Prado The Prion Protein as a Therapeutic Target in Alzheimer's Disease 2007 ...

  18. Fibrocystic breast disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibrocystic breast disease; Mammary dysplasia; Diffuse cystic mastopathy; Benign breast disease; Glandular breast changes ... made in the ovaries may make a woman's breasts feel swollen, lumpy, or painful before or during ...

  19. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Mar 23,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  20. Sickle Cell Disease Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Disease Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... True or False: Only African Americans get sickle cell disease. A True B False 2. True or ...

  1. Gum Disease in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Periodontist Gum Disease In Children Chronic gingivitis. aggressive periodontitis and generalized aggressive periodontitis are types ... children. Types of periodontal diseases in children Chronic gingivitis is common in children. It usually causes gum ...

  2. Tay-Sachs Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay-Sachs disease is a rare, inherited disorder. It causes too much of a fatty substance to build ... cells, causing mental and physical problems. Infants with Tay-Sachs disease appear to develop normally for the first ...

  3. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  4. Lyme Disease Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Lyme Disease Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... else I should know? How is it used? Lyme disease tests are used to determine if a person ...

  5. Collagen vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many of many ...

  6. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen A Diefenbach; Christopher K Breuer

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is an important cause of gastrointestinal pathology in children and adolescents.The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is increasing; therefore, it is important for the clinician to be aware of the presentation of this disease in the pediatric population. Laboratory tests, radiology studies,and endoscopic procedures are helpful in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease and differentiating between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Once diagnosed,the goal of medical management is to induce remission of disease while minimizing the side effects of the medication. Specific attention needs to be paid to achieving normal growth in this susceptible population.Surgical management is usually indicated for failure of medical management, complication, or malignancy.Algorithms for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease are presented.The specific psychosocial issues facing these patients are also discussed in this review as are the future goals of research in the complex problem of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD ... Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is passed down through families (inherited). The 2 inherited forms of PKD are autosomal dominant ...

  8. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) KidsHealth > For Teens > Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Print ... healthy teens can have GERD, too. What Is GERD? Gastroesophageal (pronounced: gas-tro-ih-sah-fuh-JEE- ...

  9. What Is Parkinson's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National HelpLine Educational Publications Online Seminars Parkinson's News Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Educational Materials Do you want ... resources & more. Order Free Materials Today What is Parkinson’s Disease? Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and ...

  10. Rheumatoid lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The cause of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Sometimes, the medicines used to ...

  11. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, degenerative brain disorder. Symptoms usually start around age 60. Memory problems, behavior changes, vision ... during a medical procedure Cattle can get a disease related to CJD called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) ...

  12. Lyme Disease Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lyme disease FAQ Health care providers Educational materials Data and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... in the northeast and upper Midwest. Lyme Disease Data File To facilitate the public health and research ...

  13. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs ... often help with the symptoms and keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  14. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  15. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  16. [Emerging noninfectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Ezequiel

    2008-11-01

    In recent years, emerging diseases were defined as being infectious, acquiring high incidence, often suddenly, or being a threat or an unexpected phenomenon. This study discusses the hallmarks of emerging diseases, describing the existence of noninfectious emerging diseases, and elaborating on the advantages of defining noninfectious diseases as emerging ones. From the discussion of various mental health disorders, nutritional deficiencies, external injuries and violence outcomes, work injuries and occupational health, and diseases due to environmental factors, the conclusion is drawn that a wide variety of noninfectious diseases can be defined as emergent. Noninfectious emerging diseases need to be identified in order to improve their control and management. A new definition of "emergent disease" is proposed, one that emphasizes the pathways of emergence and conceptual traits, rather than descriptive features.

  17. Self Inflicted Dermatological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ertuğrul H. Aydemir

    2010-01-01

    This group of diseases are characterised with the aggravated types of stress releasing behaviors like scratching, picking, squeezing, and sucking. Lichen simplex chronicus, prurigo nodularis, neurotic excoriations, trichotillomani, and onychotillomani are the diseases in this group. Depression, anxiety, and obsesif compulsive disease are the main underlying psychologic diseases. They need a skillfull psychiatric approach in addition to dermatologic treatment, and should be treated with patien...

  18. Self Inflicted Dermatological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul H. Aydemir

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This group of diseases are characterised with the aggravated types of stress releasing behaviors like scratching, picking, squeezing, and sucking. Lichen simplex chronicus, prurigo nodularis, neurotic excoriations, trichotillomani, and onychotillomani are the diseases in this group. Depression, anxiety, and obsesif compulsive disease are the main underlying psychologic diseases. They need a skillfull psychiatric approach in addition to dermatologic treatment, and should be treated with patience in a long duration.

  19. Iron and Liver Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Fargion, Silvia; Mattioli, Michela; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Fiorelli, Gemino

    2000-01-01

    A mild to moderate iron excess is found in patients with liver diseases apparently unrelated to genetic hemochromatosis. Iron appears to affect the natural history of hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by leading to a more severe fibrosis and thus aiding the evolution to cirrhosis.Ahigher frequency of mutations of the HFE gene, the gene responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis, is found in patients with liver diseases a...

  20. Genetics of complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Arno G

    2006-02-01

    Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.

  1. Functional bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with functional bowel disease were given fructose, sorbitol, fructose-sorbitol mixtures, and sucrose. The occurrence of malabsorption was evaluated by means of hydrogen breath tests and the gastrointestinal symptoms, if any, were recorded. One patient could not be evaluated...... with functional bowel disease. The findings may have direct influence on the dietary guidance given to a major group of patients with functional bowel disease and may make it possible to define separate entities in this disease complex....

  2. Parkinson's disease and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, K; Bennett, G

    2001-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the subject of anxiety in patients with Parkinson's disease. Up to 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience clinically significant anxiety. This anxiety may be a psychological reaction to the stress of the illness or may be related to the neurochemical changes of the disease itself. Antiparkinsonian drugs may have a role in the pathogenesis of the anxiety. The anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease patients appear to be clustered in th...

  3. Learning about Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggest that these genes are also involved in early-onset Parkinson's disease (diagnosed before the age of 30) or ... LRRK2 causes Parkinson's Disease [interscience.wiley.com] Hereditary Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease Caused by Mutations in PINK1 [sciencemag.org] ...

  4. Fabry disease in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Rasmussen, AK;

    2013-01-01

    Fabry disease is a rare, multiorgan disease. The most serious complications involve the kidney, brain and heart. This study aims to assess the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using agalsidase-beta in children with Fabry disease. We carried out a nationwide, descriptive and observational...

  5. Gender and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Ruijter, Hester M.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    More women than men die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) each year in every major developed country and most emerging economies. Nonetheless, CVD has often been considered as men’s disease due to the higher rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) of men at younger age. This has led to the underestimat

  6. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Overview of Infectious Diseases Page Content Article Body I nfectious diseases are ... worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy ...

  7. Heart Disease in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or ... the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and it happens slowly over time. It's the ...

  8. Menopause and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Menopause and Heart Disease Updated:Apr 18,2016 Heart disease risk rises for everyone as they age, but ... women is seen about 10 years after menopause. Heart disease is the leading killer of women . Estrogen Levels ...

  9. Living with Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Disease If you have coronary heart disease (CHD), you can take steps to control its ... the section of this article titled "How Is Heart Disease Treated?" You also can visit the Health Topics ...

  10. Heart Disease in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart disease risk factors causes coronary MVD. Although death rates from heart disease have dropped in the last 30 years, they ... stopped her "dead in her tracks." Jennifer reminds us how heart disease takes too many of our moms, sisters, and ...

  11. Living with Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Crohn's Disease Living with Crohn's Disease Past Issues / Winter 2016 Table of Contents Photo ... Why have you chosen to speak out about Crohn's disease? For many years I really didn't talk ...

  12. What Is Crohn's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are Crohn's & Colitis? > What is Crohn’s Disease? Crohn’s Disease is a Chronic Condition By understanding your body ... live a full and rewarding life What is Crohn’s Disease? Email Print + Share Named after Dr. Burrill B. ...

  13. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...

  14. Heart Disease in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or ... It's the major reason people have heart attacks. Heart diseases that affect women more than men include Coronary ...

  15. Candidate parasitic diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Behbehani, K

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses five parasitic diseases: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. The available technology and health infrastructures in developing countries permit the eradication of dracunculiasis and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti. Blindness due to onchocerciasis and transmission of this disease will be prevented in eleven West African countries; transmission of Chagas dise...

  16. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Heart Disease Risk Factors Recommend ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke File Formats Help: How do ...

  17. Childhood Contagious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these diseases are so common in children. Contagious diseases are often caused by the spread of bacteria (such as in scarlet fever) or viruses (such as in chickenpox, measles, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and quite a few others) in droplets of ...

  18. [Fatigue in neuromuscular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, B.G.M. van; Kalkman, J.S.; Schillings, M.L.; Werf, S.P. van der; Bleijenberg, G.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Chronic fatigue is a symptom of diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's and cerebrovascular disease. Fatigue can also be present in people with no demonstrable somatic disease. If certain criteria are met, chronic-fatigue syndrome may be diagnosed in these cases. Fatigue is a multi-

  19. Epilepsy is a disease!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Oleschko Arruda

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition of disease, epilepsy shall not be considered neither a symptom nor a syndrome. Epilepsy is a generic term for a group of diseases characterized by seizures. It implies a state quite distinct from health. Therefore it seems worthy to keep epilepsy as such in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD.

  20. Spinal Cord Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damages the vertebrae or other parts of the spine, this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections such as meningitis and polio Inflammatory diseases Autoimmune diseases Degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal ...

  1. Disease control operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian

    1987-01-01

    Individual disease outbreaks have killed many thousands of animals on numerous occasions. Tens of thousands of migratory birds have died in single die-offs with as many as 1,000 birds succumbing in 1 day. In mammals, individual disease outbreaks have killed hundreds to thousands of animals with, for example, hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer, distemper in raccoon, Errington's disease in muskrat, and sylvatic plague in wild rodents. The ability to successfully combat such explosive situations is highly dependent n the readiness of field personnel to deal with them. Because many disease agents can spread though wildlife populations very fast, advance preparation is essential in preventing infected animals from spreading disease to additional species and locations. Carefully though-out disease contingency plans should be developed as practical working documents for field personnel and updated as necessary. Such well-designed plans can prove invaluable in minimizing wildlife losses and costs associated with disease control activities. Although requirements for disease control operations vary and must be tailored to each situation, all disease contingency planning involved general concepts and basic biological information. This chapter, intended as a practical guide, identifies the major activities and needs of disease control operations, and relates them to disease contingency planning.

  2. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickle cell disease? Sickle cell disease, also called sickle cell anemia, is a hereditary condition (which means it runs ... or blocks blood and oxygen reaching nearby tissues. Sickle cell disease ... the whites of the eyes) Anemia (the decreased ability of the blood to carry ...

  3. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Usually the cause is staphylococcal (staph), but sometimes streptococcus (strep) can cause it, too. It is most ... color or outline, or in any other way. Psoriasis © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Psoriasis —A skin disease ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) LRRK2-Related Parkinson Disease Parkin Type of Early-Onset Parkinson Disease Parkinson Disease Overview PINK1 Type of Young- ... Parkinson disease 5 Parkinson disease 6, autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease 7 Parkinson disease 8, autosomal dominant Parkinson ...

  5. Meditation and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberg, Andrew B; Serruya, Mijail; Wintering, Nancy; Moss, Aleezé Sattar; Reibel, Diane; Monti, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases pose a significant problem for the healthcare system, doctors, and patients. With an aging population, more and more individuals are developing neurodegenerative diseases and there are few treatment options at the present time. Meditation techniques present an interesting potential adjuvant treatment for patients with neurodegenerative diseases and have the advantage of being inexpensive, and easy to teach and perform. There is increasing research evidence to support the application of meditation techniques to help improve cognition and memory in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses the current data on meditation, memory, and attention, and the potential applications of meditation techniques in patients with neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Disease: H00061 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00061 Prion diseases; Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD); Gerstmann-Straussler diseas...e (GSD); Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease (GSSD); Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) Prion diseases, also t...ermed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that... affect humans and a number of other animal species. The etiology of these diseases...vely folded protein, PrPC. Neurodegenerative disease hsa05020 Prion diseases PRNP (mutation) [HSA:5621] [KO:

  7. Fight against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, K; Kamakura, M; Kitamura, K

    1996-08-01

    During early Meiji era in Japan, there were frequent epidemics of fatal acute communicable diseases such as cholera, dysentery and smallpox, and preventive measures and preparations for acute infectious diseases were urgently needed. Together with improvement of scientific preparations, the Communicable Disease Prevention Law was promulgated in 1897. Then gradually until 1940's, the focus of preventive measures have been shifted from acute infectious diseases to chronic ones, particularly tuberculosis. After the World War II, except the short period of social confusion, major legally-defined communicable diseases had been decreasing rapidly mainly due to the use of antibiotics and improvement of environmental sanitation. At the same time, the introduction of preventive vaccination marked a new era for the prevention of infectious diseases and was largely responsible for the remarkable decrease of infant mortality in Japan. Recently the concept of defense by vaccination against infectious diseases has evolved from group-oriented to individual-oriented, so that the Preventive Vaccination Law was drastically revised in 1994. Currently, effective counter-measures against newly emerged infectious diseases, as viral hepatitis, institution-acquired infection, viral hemorrhagic fever etc., have been implemented. For the future, improvement of infections disease surveillance, vaccine development and expansion of vaccination coverage along with monitoring side-effects, preventive health education on AIDS/STDs, addressing the special needs of foreigners living in Japan and international collaboration for disease control abroad are all vital to the success of protection of the public's health from infectious diseases in Japan. PMID:8800275

  8. Celiac disease and autoimmune thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, Chin Lye; Jones, M Keston; Kingham, Jeremy G C

    2007-10-01

    Celiac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy is relatively common in western populations with prevalence around 1%. With the recent availability of sensitive and specific serological testing, many patients who are either asymptomatic or have subtle symptoms can be shown to have CD. Patients with CD have modest increases in risks of malignancy and mortality compared to controls. The mortality among CD patients who comply poorly with a gluten-free diet is greater than in compliant patients. The pattern of presentation of CD has altered over the past three decades. Many cases are now detected in adulthood during investigation of problems as diverse as anemia, osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, unexplained neurological syndromes, infertility and chronic hypertransaminasemia of uncertain cause. Among autoimmune disorders, increased prevalence of CD has been found in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune liver diseases and inflammatory bowel disease. Prevalence of CD was noted to be 1% to 19% in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 2% to 5% in autoimmune thyroid disorders and 3% to 7% in primary biliary cirrhosis in prospective studies. Conversely, there is also an increased prevalence of immune based disorders among patients with CD. The pathogenesis of co-existent autoimmune thyroid disease and CD is not known, but these conditions share similar HLA haplotypes and are associated with the gene encoding cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4. Screening high risk patients for CD, such as those with autoimmune diseases, is a reasonable strategy given the increased prevalence. Treatment of CD with a gluten-free diet should reduce the recognized complications of this disease and provide benefits in both general health and perhaps life expectancy. It also improves glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and enhances the absorption of medications for associated hypothyroidism and osteoporosis. It

  9. 感染鸡贫血病毒雏鸡接种新城疫疫苗后局部粘膜免疫功能的变化%THE CHANGES OF IMMUNE FUNCTION IN LOCAL MUCOSA POST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VACCINATION OF CHICKENS INFECTED WITH CHICKEN ANEMIA VIRUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠贵; 郑世民; 杨丽萍; 周志勇; 阿合买提·买买提; 李广兴

    2001-01-01

    Chickens were infected with CAV at one-day-old and 8 days later the infected and uninfected chickens were vaccinated with newcastle disease vaccine.At 7、14、28 days post vaccination,the number of T cell and IgG+、IgM+ and IgA+antibody producing cells in Harderian glands and cecal tonsils,the content of IgG、IgM and IgA in tears,trachea fluid,intestinal fluid and bile as well as the HI titer in tears and bile were detected.The results showed that the number of T cells and IgG+、IgM+、IgA+ antibody producing cells in harderian glands and cecal tonsils,the content of IgG、IgM and IgA in tears,trachea fluid,intestinal fluid and bile as well as the HI titer in tears and bile post ND vaccination of CAV infected chickens were decreased significantly than those of uninfect-vaccinated chickens.These indicated that the immune response function was markedly weakened in local mucosa of digestive and respiratory tract post ND vaccination of CAV-infected chikens.%雏鸡1日龄感染鸡贫血病毒(CAV),8日龄接种Lasota疫苗,以未感染免疫雏鸡为对照,于免疫后7、14、28d检测其哈德尔腺和盲肠扁桃体T细胞及IgG+、IgM+、IgA+抗体生成细胞数量,泪液、气管液、肠液、胆汁中IgG、IgM、IgA含量以及泪液、胆汁HI抗体滴度的动态变化。揭示了感染CAV雏鸡接种ND疫苗免疫后哈德尔腺、盲肠扁桃体的T细胞和IgG+、IgM+、IgA+抗体生成细胞数量,泪液、气管液、肠液、胆汁中免疫球蛋白IgG、IgM、IgA含量以及泪液、胆汁HI抗体滴度,均较未感染免疫雏鸡明显减少。表明眼部、呼吸道和消化道局部粘膜免疫防御能力减弱。

  10. Multiple cystic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Angélica Ferreira Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cystic lung disease represents a diverse group of uncommon disorders that can present a diagnostic challenge due to the increasing number of diseases associated with this presentation. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest helps to define the morphological aspects and distribution of lung cysts, as well as associated findings. The combination of appearance upon imaging and clinical features, together with extrapulmonary manifestations, when present, permits confident and accurate diagnosis of the majority of these diseases without recourse to open-lung biopsy. The main diseases in this group that are discussed in this review are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and folliculin gene-associated syndrome (Birt–Hogg–Dubé; other rare causes of cystic lung disease, including cystic metastasis of sarcoma, are also discussed. Disease progression is unpredictable, and understanding of the complications of cystic lung disease and their appearance during evolution of the disease are essential for management. Correlation of disease evolution and clinical context with chest imaging findings provides important clues for defining the underlying nature of cystic lung disease, and guides diagnostic evaluation and management.

  11. Multiple cystic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Francisco, Flavia Angélica; Soares Souza, Arthur; Zanetti, Gláucia; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-12-01

    Multiple cystic lung disease represents a diverse group of uncommon disorders that can present a diagnostic challenge due to the increasing number of diseases associated with this presentation. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest helps to define the morphological aspects and distribution of lung cysts, as well as associated findings. The combination of appearance upon imaging and clinical features, together with extrapulmonary manifestations, when present, permits confident and accurate diagnosis of the majority of these diseases without recourse to open-lung biopsy. The main diseases in this group that are discussed in this review are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and folliculin gene-associated syndrome (Birt-Hogg-Dubé); other rare causes of cystic lung disease, including cystic metastasis of sarcoma, are also discussed. Disease progression is unpredictable, and understanding of the complications of cystic lung disease and their appearance during evolution of the disease are essential for management. Correlation of disease evolution and clinical context with chest imaging findings provides important clues for defining the underlying nature of cystic lung disease, and guides diagnostic evaluation and management. PMID:26621970

  12. Genetics of Proteasome Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin V. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The proteasome is a large, multiple subunit complex that is capable of degrading most intracellular proteins. Polymorphisms in proteasome subunits are associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurological diseases, and cancer. One polymorphism in the proteasome gene PSMA6 (−8C/G is associated with three different diseases: type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. One type of proteasome, the immunoproteasome, which contains inducible catalytic subunits, is adapted to generate peptides for antigen presentation. It has recently been shown that mutations and polymorphisms in the immunoproteasome catalytic subunit PSMB8 are associated with several inflammatory and autoinflammatory diseases including Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, CANDLE syndrome, and intestinal M. tuberculosis infection. This comprehensive review describes the disease-related polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with human diseases and the physiological modulation of proteasome function by these polymorphisms. Given the large number of subunits and the central importance of the proteasome in human physiology as well as the fast pace of detection of proteasome polymorphisms associated with human diseases, it is likely that other polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with diseases will be detected in the near future. While disease-associated polymorphisms are now readily discovered, the challenge will be to use this genetic information for clinical benefit.

  13. Coeliac disease and epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Whether there is an association between coeliac disease and epilepsy is uncertain. Recently, a syndrome of coeliac disease, occipital lobe epilepsy and cerebral calcification has been described, mostly in Italy. We measured the prevalence of coeliac disease in patients attending a seizure clinic, and investigated whether cerebral calcification occurred in patients with both coeliac disease and epilepsy. Screening for coeliac disease was by IgA endomysial antibody, measured by indirect immunofluorescence using sections of human umbilical cord. Of 177 patients screened, four patients were positive. All had small-bowel histology typical of coeliac disease. The overall frequency of coeliac disease in this mixed patient sample was 1 in 44. In a control group of 488 pregnant patients, two serum samples were positive (1 in 244). Sixteen patients with both coeliac disease and epilepsy, who had previously attended this hospital, were identified. No patient had cerebral calcification on CT scanning. Coeliac disease appears to occur with increased frequency in patients with epilepsy, and a high index of suspicion should be maintained. Cerebral calcification is not a feature of our patients with epilepsy and coeliac disease, and may be an ethnically-or geographically-restricted finding.

  14. Disease: H00921 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available terion to establish the diagnosis. Congenital disorder; Eye disease; Hematologic disease; Skin and connective tissue disea...se; Nervous system disease TINF2 [HSA:26277] [KO:K11112] Dyskeratos

  15. Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Mad Cow Disease Print A ... Contagious? What Is Being Done About It About Mad Cow Disease Mad cow disease has been in the headlines ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: prion disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or, more commonly, "mad cow disease." Another example of an acquired human prion disease ... forms of prion disease , including kuru and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, are not inherited. Related Information What does it ...

  17. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  18. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  19. Disease: H01151 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available infections in patients with underlying diseases. Infectious disease Brevundimonas vesicularis Brevundimonas...d-stage renal disease Autoimmune diseases Vancomycin [ATC: J01XA01] Ceftazidime [ATC:J01DD02] Levofloxacin [

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Sandhoff disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) Health Topic: Degenerative Nerve Diseases Health Topic: Tay-Sachs Disease Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 ... UK) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association Genetic Testing Registry (1 ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Alzheimer disease Alzheimer disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain ...

  2. Liver Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver Disease Pulmonary & PH Hypertension Did you know that if you have liver disease, you are at risk for pulmonary ... to the liver without cirrhosis. How does liver disease relate to pulmonary hypertension? Liver disease can cause what is known ...

  3. [Genetics and disease resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Gerald

    2008-07-01

    Genetic components of disease resistance have been described in most of important diseases in human as well as in laboratory and livestock animals. However the basic mechanisms have been established in a few examples only. The reasons herefore are the mostly polygenic inheritance of disease resistance traits, the missing of suitable animal models and the dominance of environmental effects like infection pressure, immune status, and stressors, limiting the view on responsible gene variants. Ethical and practical aspects may further hinder research on disease resistance in certain species. Livestock animals play a crucial role in disease resistance research, because of distinct genetic diversity within and between breeds, because of an often distinct metabolic congruency with humans, and aiming towards the improvement of hygiene and economy of production and animal welfare. The following sections will review disease resistance in livestock animals and their practical implications, completed by examples of our own research activities.

  4. Dynamics of interacting diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz, Joaquín; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2014-01-01

    Current modeling of infectious diseases allows for the study of complex and realistic scenarios that go from the population to the individual level of description. Most epidemic models however assume that the spreading process takes place on a single level (be it a single population, a meta-population system or a network of contacts). The latter is in part a consequence of our still limited knowledge about the interdependency of the many mechanisms and factors involved in disease spreading. In particular, interdependent contagion phenomena can only be addressed if we go beyond the scheme one pathogen-one network. In this paper, we study a model that allows describing the spreading dynamics of two concurrent diseases and apply it to a paradigmatic case of disease-disease interaction: the interaction between AIDS and Tuberculosis. Specifically, we characterize analytically the epidemic thresholds of the two diseases for different scenarios and also compute the temporal evolution characterizing the unfolding dyn...

  5. Hereditary neuromuscular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezsarlak, O. E-mail: ozkan.ozsarlak@uza.be; Schepens, E.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W. van; Vanhoenacker, F.; Schepper, A.M. de; Martin, J.J

    2001-12-01

    This article presents the actual classification of neuromuscular diseases based on present expansion of our knowledge and understanding due to genetic developments. It summarizes the genetic and clinical presentations of each disorder together with CT findings, which we studied in a large group of patients with neuromuscular diseases. The muscular dystrophies as the largest and most common group of hereditary muscle diseases will be highlighted by giving detailed information about the role of CT and MRI in the differential diagnosis. The radiological features of neuromuscular diseases are atrophy, hypertrophy, pseudohypertrophy and fatty infiltration of muscles on a selective basis. Although the patterns and distribution of involvement are characteristic in some of the diseases, the definition of the type of disease based on CT scan only is not always possible.

  6. Interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina M. Antoniou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung diseases are a group of diffuse parenchymal lung disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Knowledge achieved in recent years has resulted in the publication of the new classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, according to which there are three groups: major, rare and unclassified. The novelty of the new classification comes from the fact that difficult to classify entities can be treated according to the disease behaviour classification. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most lethal amongst the interstitial lung diseases and presents high heterogeneity in clinical behaviour. A number of biomarkers have been proposed in order to predict the course of the disease and group patients with the same characteristics in clinical trials. Early diagnosis and disease stratification is also important in the field of other interstitial lung diseases.

  7. Diagnosis of Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Lukacs, Zoltan; Straub, Volker

    2013-01-01

    to identify late-onset Pompe disease often leads to false-negative results and subsequent delays in identification and treatment of the disorder. Serum creatine kinase level can be normal or only mildly elevated in late-onset Pompe disease and is not very helpful alone to suggest the diagnosis......, but in combination with proximal and axial weakness it may raise the suspicion for Pompe disease. A simple blood-based assay to measure the level of α-glucosidase activity is the optimal initial test for confirming or excluding Pompe disease. A timely and accurate diagnosis of late-onset Pompe disease likely...... will improve patient outcomes as care standards including enzyme replacement therapy can be applied and complications can be anticipated. Increased awareness of the clinical phenotype of Pompe disease is therefore warranted to expedite diagnostic screening for this condition with blood-based enzymatic assays....

  8. Spectrum of cardiorenal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter A. McCullough

    2005-01-01

    @@ Cardiorenal disease The modern day,worldwide epidemics of obesity and hypertension (HTN) are central drivers of a secondary epidemic of type 2 diabetes with combined chronic kidney disease (CKD)and cardiovascular disease (CVD).1 Approximately half of those with diabetes will develop CKD.2 Conversely,half of all cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are due to diabetic nephropathy.With the aging of the general population and cardiovascular care shifting towards the elderly,an understanding of why decreasing levels of renal function act as a major adverse prognostic factor after a variety of cardiac events is imperative.The heart and kidney are inextricably linked via hemodynamic and neurohumoral function (Fig.1).Considerable evidence shows that CKD accelerates atherosclerosis,myocardial disease,valvular disease,and promotes an array of cardiac arrhythmias.3

  9. Disease: H00059 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00059 Huntington's disease (HD) Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant n...p53 mediates mitochondrial dysfunction. Neurodegenerative disease hsa05016 Huntington's disea...se HTT; huntingtin (CAG repeat expansion) [HSA:3064] [KO:K04533] Tiagabine [DR:D08588] Disease class: polyglutamine disea...fi E, Underwood BR, Rubinsztein DC Huntington's disease: from pathology and genetics to potential therapies....isms mediating pathological plasticity in Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease. J Neurochem 100:874-

  10. Disease: H00075 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00075 Refsum disease; Heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis Refsum disease (RD) ...ponsible for some, but not all, cases of Refsum's disease. Peroxisomal PHYH import occurs via PEX7 which is ...genes can be found. Neurodegenerative disease; Inherited metabolic disease; Peroxisomal disease hsa04146(526...5191] [KO:K13341] Phytanic acid from diet Phytanic acid [CPD:C01607] Disease clas...s: leukodystrophy; phytanic acid storage disease Affected region: cerebellum Microscopic lesion: accumulatio

  11. Laparoscopy in Crohn's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Murali N.; Trang, Alfred C.; Salky, Barry A.

    2007-01-01

    Crohn's disease represents a challenging operative dilemma. The nature of the disease increases the technical complexity of operations, their morbidity, and the likelihood of multiple operations. In this setting, the advantages of laparoscopic surgery, including shorter hospital stays, less adhesion formation, fewer wound complications, and faster recovery of bowel function, are particularly beneficial to the patient. Patients with Crohn's disease requiring operations in the elective and semi...

  12. Adult congenital heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Morphet, John AM

    2006-01-01

    One million people over the age of 20 suffer from congenital heart disease in the United States. These adult patients can slip through the cracks of our medical system; many are too old to be cared for in most pediatric institutions by pediatric cardiologists and, unfortunately, most adult cardiologists are not trained in congenital heart disease. Therefore, it is important to identify the common lesions in adult congenital heart disease and how they should be managed. Acyanotic congenital he...

  13. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis). PMID:26350315

  14. Chronic inflammatory systemic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, Rainer H.; Schradin, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that during chronic inflammatory systemic diseases (CIDs) maladaptations of the immune, nervous, endocrine and reproductive system occur. Maladaptation leads to disease sequelae in CIDs. The ultimate reason of disease sequelae in CIDs remained unclear because clinicians do not consider bodily energy trade-offs and evolutionary medicine. We review the evolution of physiological supersystems, fitness consequences of genes involved in CIDs during different life-history sta...

  15. CDC Disease Detective Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-02

    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.  Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2010.

  16. Sexually Transmitted Parasitic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of diseases are recognized as being sexually transmitted. The majority of these are bacterial or viral in nature; however, several protozoan and nematode infections can also be transmitted by sexual activity. For most of these diseases, the primary mode of transmission is nonsexual in nature, but sexual activity that results in fecal-oral contact can lead to transmission of these agents. Two parasitic diseases commonly transmitted by sexual contact are amebiasis and giard...

  17. Neuro-Sweet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gemma; Archibald, Neil; Turnbull, Doug

    2012-04-01

    Sweet's syndrome, or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is a multisystem, inflammatory disease characterised by tender skin lesions and neutrophilic infiltration of various organs, including the nervous system. A rare condition, neuro-Sweet's can present with a wide variety of neurological symptoms dependent on the region of the CNS affected. Here we present a case of neuro-Sweet's disease in association with Crohn's disease. PMID:22450461

  18. Psoriasis, a Systemic Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgün Atakan; Sibel Doğan

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease which is characterized by plaques with shiny white desquamation on the skin. It affects 1 to 3% of different ethnic populations. The disease significantly lowers the quality of life for the patients as the lesions appear on visible regions such as the scalp, face and extremities causing pruritus and extensive use of topical agents with a poor rate of recovery and the disease has a recurrent course with frequent attacks. Psoriasis was previously assu...

  19. Inhalational Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    S Kowsarian; Farzaneh; F Jamshidiha

    2010-01-01

    Inhalational lung diseases are among the most important occupational diseases. Pneumoconiosis refers to a group of lung diseases result from inhalation of usually inorganic dusts such as silicon dioxide, asbestos, coal, etc., and their deposition in the lungs. The resultant pulmonary disorders depend on the susceptibility of lungs; size, concentration, solubility and fibrogenic properties of the inhaled particles; and duration of exposure. Radiographic manifestations of pneumoconiosis become ...

  20. Demystifying Dutch disease

    OpenAIRE

    Naoko C. Kojo

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the theory of Dutch disease and its implications for practical policy questions. Dutch disease is a term that is well-known to economists and development practitioners. But it is also a concept that is often conflated with "resource curse" and misinterpreted as a "disease" that necessarily causes adverse impacts on the economy. The paper points out that many of the seem...

  1. Epidemiology of Lyme Disease

    OpenAIRE

    White, Dennis J

    1991-01-01

    Investigation of the epidemiology of Lyme disease depends upon information generated from several sources. Human disease surveillance can be conducted by both passive and active means involving physicians, public health agencies and laboratories. Passive and active tick surveillance programs can document the extent of tick-borne activity, identify the geographic range of potential vector species, and determine the relative risk of exposure to Lyme disease in specific areas. Standardized labor...

  2. Diabetes and kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic nephropathy; Nephropathy - diabetic; Diabetic glomerulosclerosis; Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease ... so that you know how meals and activities affect your level OTHER WAYS TO PROTECT YOUR KIDNEYS ...

  3. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...

  4. Lyme disease and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  5. Moyamoya disease: Diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyamoya disease is a progressive vasculopathy leading to stenosis of the main intracranial arteries. The incidence of moyamoya disease is high in Asian countries; in Europe and North America, the prevalence of the disease is considerably lower. Clinically, the disease may be of ischaemic, haemorrhagic and epileptic type. Cognitive dysfunction and behavioral disturbance are atypical symptoms of moyamoya disease. Characteristic angiographic features of the disease include stenosis or occlusion of the arteries of the circle of Willis, as well as the development of collateral vasculature. Currently, magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography with multi-row systems are the main imaging methods of diagnostics of the entire range of vascular changes in moyamoya disease. The most common surgical treatment combines the direct arterial anastomosis between the superficial temporal artery and middle cerebral, and the indirect synangiosis involving placement of vascularised tissue in the brain cortex, in order to promote neoangiogenesis. Due to progressive changes, correct and early diagnosis is of basic significance in selecting patients for surgery, which is the only effective treatment of the disease. An appropriate qualification to surgery should be based on a comprehensive angiographic and imaging evaluation of brain structures. Despite the rare occurrence of moyamoya disease in European population, it should be considered as one of causes of ischaemic or haemorrhagic strokes, especially in young patients

  6. Epigenetics in neonatal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xue-feng; DU Li-zhong

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the role of epigenetic regulation in neonatal diseases and better understand Barker's "fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis".Data sources The data cited in this review were mainly obtained from the articles published in Medline/PubMed between January 1953 and December 2009.Study selection Articles associated with epigenetics and neonatal diseases were selected.Results There is a wealth of epidemiological evidence that lower birth weight is strongly correlated with an increased risk of adult diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This phenomenon of fetal origins of adult disease is strongly associated with fetal insults to epigenetic modifications of genes. A potential role of epigenetic modifications in congenital disorders, transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM), intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) have been studied.Conclusions Acknowledgment of the role of these epigenetic modifications in neonatal diseases would be conducive to better understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases, and provide new insight for improved treatment and prevention of later adult diseases.

  7. Digestive Diseases Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Image Library Digestive Disease, Nutrition, and Weight-control Materials Healthy eating, physical activity, and weight control materials available from NIDDK's Weight-control Information Network(WIN) ...

  8. Interstitial lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...

  9. Creativity and neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Lealani Mae Y

    2014-08-01

    Although humans have long valued creativity, the generation of such innovation is still incompletely understood. Looking at the healthy brain, researchers have localized certain parts for a basic understanding of these mechanisms. By researching the brain affected by neurological disease, scientists have observed unique manifestations of creativity, such as in frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and parkinsonian spectrum disorders, and stroke, which help clarify these creative underpinnings. Incorporating both healthy and disease models of cerebral functioning, neurological and neuroscientific research from recent years has built on established theories and expanded current knowledge. PMID:24938215

  10. IN VITRO BIOTRANSFOMATION OF AN ARSENOSUGAR BY MOUSE ANAEROBIC CECAL MICROFLORA AND CECAL TISSUE EXAMINED USING IC-ICP-MS AND LC-ESI-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation examined chemical and microbiological transformations of an arsenosugar by mouse cecum. To mimic the low oxygen environment in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, reaction mixtures were incubated under anaerobic conditions. An arsenosugar extracted from ribbo...

  11. Neurodegenerative disease. Genetic discrimination in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulst, Stefan M

    2009-10-01

    A survey conducted in Canada examined the prevalence of perceived genetic discrimination against patients with Huntington disease. The respondents reported discrimination not only by insurance or mortgage companies, but also in family and social contexts. Discrimination was more frequently attributed to family history than to genetic test results. PMID:19794509

  12. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter J; Burney, Peter G J; Silverman, Edwin K; Celli, Bartolome R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease with high global morbidity and mortality. COPD is characterized by poorly reversible airway obstruction, which is confirmed by spirometry, and includes obstruction of the small airways (chronic obstructive bronchiolitis) and emphysema, which lead to air trapping and shortness of breath in response to physical exertion. The most common risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking, but other environmental factors, such as exposure to indoor air pollutants - especially in developing countries - might influence COPD risk. Not all smokers develop COPD and the reasons for disease susceptibility in these individuals have not been fully elucidated. Although the mechanisms underlying COPD remain poorly understood, the disease is associated with chronic inflammation that is usually corticosteroid resistant. In addition, COPD involves accelerated ageing of the lungs and an abnormal repair mechanism that might be driven by oxidative stress. Acute exacerbations, which are mainly triggered by viral or bacterial infections, are important as they are linked to a poor prognosis. The mainstay of the management of stable disease is the use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, whereas corticosteroids are beneficial primarily in patients who have coexisting features of asthma, such as eosinophilic inflammation and more reversibility of airway obstruction. Apart from smoking cessation, no treatments reduce disease progression. More research is needed to better understand disease mechanisms and to develop new treatments that reduce disease activity and progression. PMID:27189863

  14. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467

  15. Wilson's Disease Association International

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treated before serious illness from copper poisoning develops. Wilson disease affects approximately one in 30,000 people worldwide. The genetic defect causes excessive copper accumulation in the liver or brain. Read More Membership Wilson Disease Association Membership As a member, you have ...

  16. Ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise Houlberg; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Correct prehospital diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) may accelerate and improve the treatment. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of prehospital diagnoses of ischemic heart diseases assigned by physicians. Methods. The Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in Odense, Denmark...

  17. Women and Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国如

    2005-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading killer of Americans. But it kills more women than men. The American Heart Association says heart disease and other cardiovascular (心血管的) disorders kill about five hundred thousand women a year. That is more than the next seven causes of death combined.

  18. Falls in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Y.A.M.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the latest insights into the clinical significance, assessment, pathophysiology and treatment of falls in Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that falls are common in Parkinson's disease, even when compared with other fall-prone populations

  19. Thyroid Disease Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size ... sweat, mucous, and tears. goiter: This is a thyroid gland that is enlarged to the point that ...

  20. Heart Disease and Stroke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-03

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the number one killer in the United States - heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/3/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  1. Disease quantification in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Tanja Maria; Kamp, Søren; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate documentation of disease severity is a prerequisite for clinical research and the practice of evidence-based medicine. The quantification of skin diseases such as psoriasis currently relies heavily on clinical scores. Although these clinical scoring methods are well established and very ...

  2. Koi Herpesvirus Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on Koi herpesvirus disease (KHV). KHV is caused by koi herpesvirus (or cyprinid herpesvirus-3) a double stranded DNA virus of the family Herpesviridae. KHV is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC and is notifiable in Ireland according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  3. Heart disease and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease and depression often go hand-in-hand. You are are more likely to feel sad or depressed after a heart attack ... heart disease. The good news is that treating depression may help improve both your mental and physical ...

  4. Anthocyanins and heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthocyanins are red, blue, and purple pigments distributed throughout nature, and in our diet. One potential health benefit of dietary anthocyanins is protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence for beneficial effects of anthocyanins with respect to heart disease comes from epidemio...

  5. Management of diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützer, Roland H; Kruis, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Diverticular disease is a common condition in Western countries and the incidence and prevalence of the disease is increasing. The pathogenetic factors involved include structural changes in the gut that increase with age, a diet low in fibre and rich in meat, changes in intestinal motility, the concept of enteric neuropathy and an underlying genetic background. Current treatment strategies are hampered by insufficient options to stratify patients according to individual risk. One of the main reasons is the lack of an all-encompassing classification system of diverticular disease. In response, the German Society for Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases (DGVS) has proposed a classification system as part of its new guideline for the diagnosis and management of diverticular disease. The classification system includes five main types of disease: asymptomatic diverticulosis, acute uncomplicated and complicated diverticulitis, as well as chronic diverticular disease and diverticular bleeding. Here, we review prevention and treatment strategies stratified by these five main types of disease, from prevention of the first attack of diverticulitis to the management of chronic complications and diverticular bleeding.

  6. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treated? Living With Lou Gehrig's Disease en español Esclerosis lateral amiotrófica What Is Lou Gehrig's Disease? Lou ... elimination to figure out the answer to a multiple-choice question on a test.) One of the ...

  7. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  8. Lesch-Nyhan Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabas, Gabor, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This special edition explores the serious genetic disorder, Lesch-Nyhan Disease (LND), which is characterized by severe dystonia, spasticity, speech impairment, renal disease, varying degrees of cognitive deficit, and, especially, compulsive self-injury. The information provided is based on experience at the Matheny School and Hospital (New…

  9. What Is Celiac Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needs. Over time, celiac disease can cause anemia, infertility, weak and brittle bones, an itchy skin rash, and other health problems. Fast Facts Celiac disease is an immune disorder in which people can't eat gluten or use items with gluten in them. Celiac ...

  10. Nutrition and celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Klaus-Peter

    2011-10-01

    Celiac disease affects about 1% of the European and North American population. The classical clinical presentation is with symptoms of malabsorption. Serologic studies demonstrate that most celiac patients present with oligosymptomatic (silent), latent, potential, and extraintestinal forms. The disease is defined as an immune-mediated systemic disorder of genetically disposed individuals (HLA-DQ2/8) induced by the alcohol-soluble fractions of cereals and characterized by gluten-dependent symptoms, celiac-specific antibodies (against tissue transglutaminase 2), and a Marsh 2-3 enteropathy. In the last 60 years, a strict and lifelong gluten-free diet has been demonstrated to be effective and safe, preventing most potential complications of the disease, including autoimmune disease, osteoporosis, infertility, prematurity, and malignancy. Among patients with celiac disease, the toxicity of oats seems to be less than wheat, barley, and rye. The introduction of oats into the diet of patients with celiac disease should increase taste, fiber content, diversity, compliance with the diet, and quality of life. The clinical studies provide limited results in favor of a general harmlessness of oats for celiac disease patients. Patients with celiac disease who consume oats (20-25 g/d for children, 50-70 g/d for adults) need proper follow-up. PMID:21939908

  11. Peptic Ulcer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACG on Facebook About ACG ACG Store ACG Patient Education & Resource Center Home GI Health and Disease Recursos en Español What is a Gastroenterologist? Podcasts and Videos GI Health Centers Colorectal Cancer Hepatitis C Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Obesity © ...

  12. A rare tonsillar disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safavi Naiyni SA

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A 16 year old woman with Tangier disease in palatine tonsils is reported. She has recurrent sore throat. In physical examination the palatine tonsils are hypertrophied and has very yellowish points. The facial skin is yellowish but the skin of another areas of body is normal. After tonsillectomy the pathologist report Tangier disease in palatine tonsils

  13. Management of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammermeier, Jochen; Morris, Mary-Anne; Garrick, Vikki; Furman, Mark; Rodrigues, Astor; Russell, Richard K

    2016-05-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is rapidly increasing in children so an up to date knowledge of diagnosis, investigation and management is essential. Exclusive enteral nutrition is the first line treatment for active disease. The vast majority of children will need immunosuppressant treatment and around 20% will need treatment with biologics. Recent guidelines have helped make best use of available therapies.

  14. Liver disease in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel M Lee; Carla W Brady

    2009-01-01

    Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy.

  15. Psoriasis, a Systemic Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Atakan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease which is characterized by plaques with shiny white desquamation on the skin. It affects 1 to 3% of different ethnic populations. The disease significantly lowers the quality of life for the patients as the lesions appear on visible regions such as the scalp, face and extremities causing pruritus and extensive use of topical agents with a poor rate of recovery and the disease has a recurrent course with frequent attacks. Psoriasis was previously assumed to be a cutaneous disease resulting from epidermal cell hyperproliferation for a long time. However, studies conducted on the etiopathogenesis of the disease revealed that psoriasis is a chronic autoinflammatory disease which is caused by immune system dysregulation. Recently, the frequent association of psoriasis with other autoinflammatory diseases, comorbidities and complications which indeed shorten life expectancy concluded that psoriasis is a systemic disease and created a major difference in its treatment and follow-up modalities. In this review, the comorbidities, which are shown to be related to systemic inflammation and which also share a common pathogenesis with psoriasis, will be discussed. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 119-22

  16. Respiratory Diseases of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...

  17. Bistability in autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Mosekilde, Erik; Lund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases damage host tissue, which, in turn, may trigger a stronger immune response. Systems characterized by such positive feedback loops can display co-existing stable steady states. In a mathematical model of autoimmune disease, one steady state may correspond to the healthy state...

  18. Lyme Disease (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Lyme Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Lyme Disease Print A A A Text Size What's ... Fight the Bite en español La enfermedad de Lyme In the spring and summer, you might hear ...

  19. Parkinson's Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the HelpLine Upcoming Events Parkinson's News PD ExpertBriefing : Parkinson’s Disease: Financial, Legal and Medical Planning Tips for Care ... loved one with Parkinson's plan for the future? Parkinson’s disease can require you to plan for both long- ...

  20. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  1. Autoimmune liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pietro Invernizzi; Ian R Mackay

    2008-01-01

    The liver was one of the earliest recognized sites among autoimmune diseases yet autoimmune hepatitis,primary biliary cirrhosis,primary sclerosing cholangitis,and their overlap forms,are still problematic in diagnosis and causation.The contributions herein comprise 'pairs of articles' on clinical characteristics,and concepts of etiopathogenesis,for each of the above diseases,together with childhood autoimmune liver disease,overlaps,interpretations of diagnostic serology,and liver transplantation.This issue is timely,since we are witnessing an ever increasing applicability of immunology to a wide variety of chronic diseases,hepatic and non-hepatic,in both developed and developing countries.The 11 invited expert review articles capture the changing features over recent years of the autoimmune liver diseases,the underlying immunomolecular mechanisms of development,the potent albeit still unexplained genetic influences,the expanding repertoire of immunoserological diagnostic markers,and the increasingly effective therapeutic possibilities.

  2. Autophagy in Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. S. Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy provides a mechanism for the turnover of cellular organelles and proteins through a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway. During starvation, autophagy exerts a homeostatic function that promotes cell survival by recycling metabolic precursors. Additionally, autophagy can interact with other vital processes such as programmed cell death, inflammation, and adaptive immune mechanisms, and thereby potentially influence disease pathogenesis. Macrophages deficient in autophagic proteins display enhanced caspase-1-dependent proinflammatory cytokine production and the activation of the inflammasome. Autophagy provides a functional role in infectious diseases and sepsis by promoting intracellular bacterial clearance. Mutations in autophagy-related genes, leading to loss of autophagic function, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Furthermore, autophagy-dependent mechanisms have been proposed in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases that involve inflammation, including cystic fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Strategies aimed at modulating autophagy may lead to therapeutic interventions for diseases associated with inflammation.

  3. Biomarkers in Airway Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent limitations of spirometry and clinical history have prompted clinicians and scientists to search for surrogate markers of airway diseases. Although few biomarkers have been widely accepted into the clinical armamentarium, the authors explore three sources of biomarkers that have shown promise as indicators of disease severity and treatment response. In asthma, exhaled nitric oxide measurements can predict steroid responsiveness and sputum eosinophil counts have been used to titrate anti-inflammatory therapies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory plasma biomarkers, such as fibrinogen, club cell secretory protein-16 and surfactant protein D, can denote greater severity and predict the risk of exacerbations. While the multitude of disease phenotypes in respiratory medicine make biomarker development especially challenging, these three may soon play key roles in the diagnosis and management of airway diseases.

  4. Hyperosmia in Lyme disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant K. Puri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurological involvement in Lyme disease has been reported to include meningitis, cranial neuropathy and radiculoneuritis. While it is known that in some cases of asceptic meningitis patients may develop hyperosmia, the association between hyperosmia and Lyme disease has not previously been studied. Objective To carry out the first systematic study to ascertain whether hyperosmia is also a feature of Lyme disease. Method A questionnaire regarding abnormal sensory sensitivity in respect of the sense of smell was administered to 16 serologically positive Lyme disease patients and to 18 control subjects. Results The two groups were matched in respect of age, sex and body mass. None of the 34 subjects was suffering from migraine. Eight (50% of the Lyme patients and none (0% of the controls suffered from hyperosmia (p=0.0007. Conclusion This first systematic controlled study showed that Lyme disease is associated with hyperosmia.

  5. Autophagosomes and human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beau, Isabelle; Mehrpour, Maryam; Codogno, Patrice

    2011-04-01

    The autophagosome is a double-membrane bound compartment that initiates macroautophagy, a degradative pathway for cytoplasmic material terminating in the lysosomal compartment. The discovery of ATG genes involved in the formation of autophagosomes has greatly increased our understanding of the molecular basis of macroautophagy, and its role in cell function. Macroautophagy plays a pivotal role in cell fitness by removing obsolete organelles and protein aggregates. Its stimulation is an adaptive response to stressful situations, such as nutrient deprivation, intended to maintain a level of ATP compatible with cell survival. Macroautophagy is central for organ homeostasis, embryonic development, and longevity. Malfunctioning autophagy is observed in many human diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiac and muscular diseases, infectious and inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and obesity. Discovering potential drug therapies that can be used to modulate macroautophagy is a major challenge, and likely to enhance the therapeutic arsenal against many human diseases. PMID:21256243

  6. Gluten intolerance (coeliac disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, A; Ziegler, K; Strobel, S

    1984-12-01

    Coeliac disease is a permanent condition of gluten intolerance associated with characteristic gluten-sensitive changes in the jejunal mucosa. In Edinburgh and the Lothians Region of Scotland, the prevalence of the disease is one in 1637 (61/100,000) with considerable variation in age, and sex-specific prevalence and incidence. Several lines of evidence indicate an immunologic basis for the gluten-sensitive enteropathy in coeliac disease. Animal models of intestinal T cell-mediated reactions in the gut have shown pathologic features similar to those of coeliac disease. These include changes in villus and crypt architecture with crypt hyperplasia, and increased numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes and of intraepithelial lymphocyte mitosis. Experimental CMI reactions also influence differentiation of goblet cells and expression of Ia antigen on epithelial cells, but these factors have not yet been reported for the coeliac mucosa. In addition to this circumstantial evidence, based on animal work, other factors which suggest that CMI reactions rather than antibodies are relevant to coeliac disease include the findings of antigliadin antibodies in a proportion of normal individuals, patients without gastrointestinal disease (seen in hospital), and patients with jejunal Crohn's disease. In addition, there is a well documented patient with adult onset primary hypogammaglobulinaemia and coeliac disease. The underlying pathogenesis in coeliac disease can be envisaged as failure of the normal inhibition of immune responses to this particular food antigen in the gut. Manipulation of immunoregulatory mechanisms would provide a new approach to treatment or cure of this disease and of other food protein-sensitive enteropathies. PMID:6391293

  7. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    OpenAIRE

    Frölich, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD), alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infe...

  8. Coeliac disease and autoimmune disease-genetic overlap and screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundin, Knut E. A.; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2015-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a treatable, gluten-induced disease that often occurs concurrently with other autoimmune diseases. In genetic studies since 2007, a partial genetic overlap between these diseases has been revealed and further insights into the pathophysiology of coeliac disease and autoimmunity ha

  9. Celiac Disease and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ch’ng, Chin Lye; Jones, M Keston; Kingham, Jeremy G. C.

    2007-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy is relatively common in western populations with prevalence around 1%. With the recent availability of sensitive and specific serological testing, many patients who are either asymptomatic or have subtle symptoms can be shown to have CD. Patients with CD have modest increases in risks of malignancy and mortality compared to controls. The mortality among CD patients who comply poorly with a gluten-free diet is greater than in compliant patien...

  10. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  11. Achalasia and thyroid disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Hassan Emami; Mostafa Raisi; Jaleh Amini; Hamed Daghaghzadeh

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate some possible etiologies of achalasia by screening patients with achalasia for some autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disease.METHODS: We examined 30 known cases of achalasia (20 females, 10 males). Their age ranged 15-70 years.All of them were referred to our institute for treatment.Their sera were evaluated to detect some possible associations with rheumatoid disease, thyroid disease,inflammatory process, anemia, etc.RESULTS: Seven out of 30 patients (23%) had thyroid disease including four patients with hypothyroidism (13.3%), two patients with hyperthyroidism (6.6%),and one had only thyroid nodule but was in euthyroid state (3.3%). Two of these hypothyroid patients had no related clinical symptoms (subclinical) and two had clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism. There were no correlations between the intensity of thyroid diseases and the severity of achalasia symptoms.CONCLUSION: The etiology of achalasia is unknown although autoimmunity has been implicated and is supported by several studies. Thyroid disease presents concomitantly with achalasia in about one fourth of our patients who may have a common etiology.

  12. SMOKING AND PERIODONTAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Harpreet Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is the result of complex interrelationships between infectious agents and host factors. Environmental, acquired, and genetic risk factors modify the expression of disease and may, therefore, affect the onset or progression of periodontitis. Numerous studies of the potential mechanisms whereby smoking tobacco may predispose to periodontal disease have been conducted, and it appears that smoking may affect the vasculature, the humoral immune system, and the cellular immune and inflammatory systems, and have effects throughout the cytokine and adhesion molecule network. The aim of present review is to consider the association between smoking and periodontal diseases.

  13. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...

  14. Sleep in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Disorders of sleep are an integral part of neurodegenerative diseases and include insomnia, sleep-wake cycle disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness that may be manifested as persistent somnolence or sudden onset of sleep episodes, obstructive and central sleep apnea, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome. The origin of these sleep disorders is multifactorial including degeneration of the brain areas that modulate sleep, the symptoms of the disease, and the effect of medications. Treatment of sleep disorders in patients with neurodegenerative diseases should be individualized and includes behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, melatonin, hypnotics, waking-promoting agents, and continuous positive airway pressure. PMID:26972029

  15. Kirsner's inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Balfour Sarto; William J Sandborn

    2005-01-01

    @@ Very few medical textbooks have so thoroughly dominated,and even defined a field, as has Inflammatory Bowel Diseases by Joe Kirsner. Originally co-edited with Roy Shorter of Mayo Clinic, this book, beginning with its first edition in 1975, encapsulated the science and art of caring for patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Thus it is with considerable respect, and indeed some awe and trepidation,that we eagerly embraced the opportunity to assume the editorship of this preeminent textbook and the obligation to transition it to reflect the changing, increasingly complex pathophysiology and treatment of these diseases.

  16. Rare Disease Video Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Bocanegra, Carlos Luis

    2011-01-01

    Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) is a portal web where contains videos from Youtube including all details from 12 channels of Youtube. Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) es un portal web que contiene los vídeos de Youtube incluyendo todos los detalles de 12 canales de Youtube. Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) és un portal web que conté els vídeos de Youtube i que inclou tots els detalls de 12 Canals de Youtube.

  17. Respiratory System Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Danielle M; Singh, Shipra

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory system involvement in cystic fibrosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene throughout the sinopulmonary tract result in recurrent infections with a variety of organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Lung disease occurs earlier in life than once thought and ideal methods of monitoring lung function, decline, or improvement with therapy are debated. Treatment of sinopulmonary disease may include physiotherapy, mucus-modifying and antiinflammatory agents, antimicrobials, and surgery. In the new era of personalized medicine, CFTR correctors and potentiators may change the course of disease. PMID:27469180

  18. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jian-rong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a degenerative central nervous system (CNS disease caused by infection of prion protein (PrP, with clinical features including short course, rapid development and 100% mortality. This article aims to discuss the pathogenesis, histopathological features, clinical manifestations, electroencephalogram (EEG findings, imaging data and treatment progress of this disease based on literature review. Cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein detection, EEG and MRI are three important methods to make an early diagnosis on patients with suspected CJD, such as elderly patients with rapidly progressive dementia (RPD and young patients with mental symptoms involving multiple systems (MS.

  19. Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Seebald, BS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease is an occlusive, nonatherosclerotic, inflammatory vasculitis that causes ischemia in small and medium vessels. Most commonly, Buerger disease is diagnosed in 40- to 45-year-old men with a heavy smoking history. Our case exemplifies the most common presentation, diagnosis, and treatment in a 53-year-old male smoker who presents with arm pain and dusky cool fingers. A Buerger diagnosis requires exclusion of autoimmune, diabetic, and embolic causes. The only recognized treatment for this disease is smoking cessation.

  20. [Upper extremity arterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, F

    2007-02-01

    Compared to lower limb arterial diseases, upper limb arterial diseases look rare, heterogeneous with various etiologies and a rather vague clinical picture, but with a negligible risk of amputation. Almost all types of arterial diseases can be present in the upper limb, but the anatomical and hemodynamic conditions particular to the upper limb often confuse the issue. Thus, atherosclerosis affects mainly the subclavian artery in its proximal segment where the potential of collateral pathway is high making the symptomatic forms not very frequent whereas the prevalence of subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion is relatively high. The clinical examination and the etiologies are discussed according to the clinical, anatomical and hemodynamic context.