WorldWideScience

Sample records for cec central european

  1. PIRAMID 1: a prime European CEC experiment in BR2 at Mol, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, C.; Simoni, O.

    1987-01-01

    In the event of a core disruptive accident in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), molten core materials interacting with liquid sodium may form debris beds to settle on the retention structures or on the reactor vessel. The decay heat of retained fission products can induce high temperatures or high thermal loads on the retention structures or the reactor vessel with consequent fission product release. To assess the long-term coolability of core debris beds the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) decided to coordinate and fund the European PAHR (Post-Accident Heat Removal) program. The first work carried out for the program resulted in PIRAMID 1 (Pahr IRradiation According to a Mol Integrated Device), a unique irradiation device, designed, constructed and tested at Mol

  2. Extended distribution of endemic Travancore Murainagrass Ischaemum travancorense Stapf ex C.E.C. Fisch. (Poaceae to central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandar N. Datar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ischaemum travancorense Stapf ex C.E.C. Fisch., an endemic species, earlier known only from the Western Ghats of Kerala, Maharashtra and Goa is reported here for the first time from central India. 

  3. Radioactivity in north European waters: report of Working Group 2 of CEC project MARINA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.; Aarkrog, A.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of Working Group 2 of Project MARINA was to consider recent measurements of environmental radioactivity in north European waters and to use this, and other information, to report likely magnitude of doses to the critical group from marine pathways. The monitoring data were supplemented, where appropriate, with predictions from simple models. The major sources of radioactivity studied were as follows: (i) liquid wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, (Sellafield, Dounreay, Cap de la Hague); (ii) liquid wastes from nuclear power plants and other major nuclear industry sites, (including Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, GDR, FDR, Netherlands, Sweden, UK, USSR); (iii) solid waste disposal in the deep north-east Atlantic; (iv) fallout from Chernobyl; and (v) naturally-occurring radionuclides. (author)

  4. Radioactivity in north European waters: report of Working Group 2 of CEC project MARINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camplin, W C [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (UK). Directorate of Fisheries Research; Aarkrog, A [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of Working Group 2 of Project MARINA was to consider recent measurements of environmental radioactivity in north European waters and to use this, and other information, to report the likely magnitude of doses to the critical group from marine pathways. The monitoring data were supplemented, where appropriate, with predictions from simple models. The major sources of radioactivity studied were as follows: (i) liquid wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; (ii) liquid wastes from nuclear power plants and other major nuclear industry sites; (iii) solid waste disposal in the deep north-east Atlantic; (iv) fallout from Chernobyl; and (v) naturally-occurring radionuclides. Some of the largest doses from marine pathways are predicted for naturally-occurring radionuclides. In this case, the dominant radionuclide is polonium-210 and the dominant pathway is via consumption of molluscan species. The highest doses from the nuclear industry were due to the operation of the reprocessing plant at Sellafield. Discharges from this site have been decreasing substantially in recent years and, as a consequence, doses have also been reducing. (author).

  5. Central European gas market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanous, Jan

    1999-01-01

    This presentation deals with (1) Definition of the Central European market, (2) Factors driving up consumption of natural gas in Central and Eastern Europe, (3) Role of natural gas in regional energy consumption, (4) Position of natural gas in individual country markets, (5) Future sources of imported natural gas into the region. The Central European market are the eleven countries Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, and Slovenia, with a total population of 121 million. This market is comparable to combined France and Italy in terms of population, but only 30% of its size in terms of GDP

  6. The European Central Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Michael; Wieland, Volker

    2006-01-01

    The establishment of the ECB and with it the launch of the euro has arguably been a unique endeavor in economic history, representing an important experiment in central banking. This note aims to summarize some of the main lessons learned from this experiment and sketch some of the prospects for the ECB. It is written for "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics", 2nd edition. JEL Classification: E52, E58

  7. DOE/CEC [Department of Energy/Commission of the European Communities] workshop on critical evaluation of radiobiological data to biophysical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Radiation Protection Program support the majority of Research in the Field of Radiobiological Modeling. This field of science develops models based on scientifically sound principles to predict biological response (at the cellular, molecular, and animal level) to exposure to low level ionizing radiation. Biophysical models are an important tool for estimating response of ionizing radiation at low doses and dose rates. Generally speaking, the biophysical models can be classified into two groups: (1) mechanistic models and (2) phenomenological models. Mechanistic models are based on some assumptions about the physical, chemical, or biological mechanisms of action in association with radiobiological data whereas the phenomenological models are based solely on available experimental data on radiobiological effects with less emphasis on mechanisms of action. There are a number of these models which are being developed. Since model builders rely on radiobiological data available in the literature either to develop mechanistic or phenomenological models, it is essential that a critical evaluation of existing radiobiological data be made and data that is generally considered good and most appropriate for biophysical modeling be identified. A Workshop jointly sponsored by the DOE and the CEC was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee from June 23--25, 1988, to review the data available from physical and chemical, cellular and molecular and animal studies with ionizing radiation

  8. Research and development action of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in the field of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Bresesti, M.

    1983-01-01

    The CEC R and D action, started in 1973, is carried out within the framework of cost-sharing contracts with Community organizations and in the laboratories of the Joint Research Centre, Ispra. About 350 research workers from 30 organizations within the Community are taking part. The R and D activities cover processing, conditioning, characterization, intermediate storage and final disposal of the radioactive wastes generated in reactors and in fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication plants. In the Community, spent fuels are not considered as radioactive waste. About one half of the total effort has been devoted to the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in geological formations (granite, clay, salt) and to related studies. The sub-seabed disposal option is also being investigated with a more limited effort. The R and D activities on waste treatment cover low-level, alpha-bearing and gaseous wastes. An important activity has been developed on the characterization of vitrified HLW. A similar activity for the characterization of other types of conditioned wastes has been started. The R and D activity of the CEC is supported by the existence of a Community Plan of Action (1980-1992) which entrusts to the Commission a wider role in the development of waste management policies. The Plan assures in particular the continuity of the R and D work up to 1992. International co-operation is considered important; international symposia have been co-sponsored with the IAEA; co-operative agreements with non-Community countries are in force (such as with Canada) or in preparation (such as with the USA). (author)

  9. CEC Natural Analogue Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    The central theme for the third meeting of the CEC analogue working group was ''How can analogue data be used for performance assessments, both in support of the results and for presentation to the public''. This report puts together the most recent achievements in this field, together with a review of on-going natural analogue programmes

  10. Can the European Central Bank Create a European identity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In what ways do central banks construct community, and how may the European Central Bank (ECB) contribute to a supranational European identity? In this paper I seek to answer these two questions by developing a conceptual framework for the ways that central banks construct national identities and...

  11. The European Central Bank and the Eurosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Carol C. Bertaut

    2002-01-01

    The Eurosystem comprises the European Central Bank at its center as well as the national central banks of the twelve countries currently participating in monetary union. The European Central Bank was established in July 1998, six months before the beginning of Stage Three of economic and monetary union. Although decisions regarding monetary policy are made centrally by the Governing Council of the Eurosystem, the operational aspects of monetary policy-including open market operations, adminis...

  12. The CEC radon research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olast, M.

    1990-01-01

    Following a council decision of 20 June 1989, a CEC research and training programme in the field of radiation protection has been adopted for the period 1990-1991. The european research programme is divided into three main areas, one being 'Risks and Management of Radiation Exposure': this includes a section on 'Exposure to natural radioactivity and evaluation of parameters influencing these risks'. The importance given to this field led to an impressive number of research proposals. The proposals accepted are grouped in three large multinational contracts covering radon exposure, and in one multinational contract dealing with environmental radon epidemiology. (author)

  13. Central and eastern European activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Florida State University/Technical University of Budapest environmental research center, Center for Hungarian/American Environmental Research, Studies and Exchanges (CHAERSE), provides a resource base for information and technologies that is used to address near- and long-term environmental problems within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in Central and Eastern Europe. The CHAERSE is used as a technology transfer conduit for environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) problems and solutions. The International Technology Exchange Division (ITED) used the CHAERSE as one source of information for the identification of international ER/WM technologies being developed in Central and Eastern Europe. This was accomplished by matching high-priority problems in that region to high-priority problems in the DOE Complex; conducting symposia, meetings and workshops with international environmental experts; and identifying innovative technologies

  14. The euro and the European Central Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey M. Wrase

    1999-01-01

    The formation of a monetary union by 11 European countries has received a lot of notice from the press since January 1, 1999, when the union's common currency, the euro, was officially introduced. To facilitate adoption of a single currency, these same countries have established a central bank that sets a common monetary policy for the members of the monetary union. In this article, Jeff Wrase gives some background on the European monetary union, outlines the procedure for introduction of the...

  15. Performance evaluation of Central European companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Fiala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a modelling approach for performance comparison of Central European companies on three levels: country, industry, and company. The approach is based on Data Envelopment Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process. The proposed model consists of two basic sections. The first section estimates the importance of selected industries in the countries, whereas the second section evaluates the performance of companies within industries. The results of both sections are synthesized and finally the country performance is estimated. The evaluation is based on the data set resulting from a survey of companies from selected industries.

  16. Workers doses in central European PWR NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M.

    2003-01-01

    As is stated, the ISOE database which was established in 1992 forms an excellent basis for studies and comparisons of occupational exposure data between nuclear power plants. In the year 2001, 69% of all participating reactors were pressurised water reactors. The ISOE database presents workers' exposure from 213 participating pressurised reactors (PWR) from 27 countries in that year. Among these 32 PWRs belong to six Central European Countries. The analysis of the exposure of workers based on radiation protection performance indicators (collective dose, average dose etc.) in these PWRs could be related to some nuclear safety performance indicators for recent years using ISOE database. The comparison is made to ISOE world - wide data. In the six Central European Countries altogether 32 PWR operated in the year 2001.The international databases of performance indicators related to radiation protection as for example the ISOE or the UNSCEAR database can be use as an efficient tool in the management of radiation protection of workers in a nuclear facilities and regulatory bodies. The databases enable the study of performance trends and the improvement of radiation protection. (authors)

  17. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  18. Molecular prey identification in Central European piscivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalinger, Bettina; Oehm, Johannes; Mayr, Hannes; Obwexer, Armin; Zeisler, Christiane; Traugott, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Diet analysis is an important aspect when investigating the ecology of fish-eating animals and essential for assessing their functional role in food webs across aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The identification of fish remains in dietary samples, however, can be time-consuming and unsatisfying using conventional morphological analysis of prey remains. Here, we present a two-step multiplex PCR system, comprised of six assays, allowing for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of fish DNA in dietary samples. This approach encompasses 78 fish and lamprey species native to Central European freshwaters and enables the identification of 31 species, six genera, two families, two orders and two fish family clusters. All targeted taxa were successfully amplified from 25 template molecules, and each assay was specific when tested against a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates inhabiting aquatic environments. The applicability of the multiplex PCR system was evaluated in a feeding trial, wherein it outperformed morphological prey analysis regarding species-specific prey identification in faeces of Eurasian otters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of fish species was detected in field-collected faecal samples and regurgitated pellets of Common Kingfishers and Great Cormorants, demonstrating the broad applicability of the approach. In conclusion, this multiplex PCR system provides an efficient, easy to use and cost-effective tool for assessing the trophic ecology of piscivores in Central Europe. Furthermore, the multiplex PCRs and the primers described therein will be applicable wherever DNA of the targeted fish species needs to be detected at high sensitivity and specificity. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. CEC/USDOE workshop on uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elderkin, C.E.; Kelly, G.N.

    1990-07-01

    Any measured or assessed quantity contains uncertainty. The quantitative estimation of such uncertainty is becoming increasingly important, especially in assuring that safety requirements are met in design, regulation, and operation of nuclear installations. The CEC/USDOE Workshop on Uncertainty Analysis, held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 13 through 16, 1989, was organized jointly by the Commission of European Communities (CEC's) Radiation Protection Research program, dealing with uncertainties throughout the field of consequence assessment, and DOE's Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program, concerned with the particular uncertainties in time and space variant transport and dispersion. The workshop brought together US and European scientists who have been developing or applying uncertainty analysis methodologies, conducted in a variety of contexts, often with incomplete knowledge of the work of others in this area. Thus, it was timely to exchange views and experience, identify limitations of approaches to uncertainty and possible improvements, and enhance the interface between developers and users of uncertainty analysis methods. Furthermore, the workshop considered the extent to which consistent, rigorous methods could be used in various applications within consequence assessment. 3 refs

  20. The CEC Action Plan for Libraries and IMPACT 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruine, R. Frans

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the role of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in the development of the electronic information industry in Europe. Activities aimed at libraries are described; the IMPACT program for developing the market for information services is explained; and problems of multilingualism are addressed. (LRW)

  1. The European Central Bank : Independence, accountability and strategy: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews research on central banking and monetary policy, with special emphasis on the position of the future European Central Bank. Nowadays, it is often thought that an independent central bank with an explicit mandate to aim for price stability constitutes an important institutional

  2. Time for EU Matters: The Europeanization of Dutch Central Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.; Princen, S.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent does the European Union (EU) affect national governments? This article seeks to answer this question by assessing the Europeanization of Dutch central government. Using data from a large-scale survey among civil servants, we assess to what extent the EU affects the structure and

  3. CEC natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The second meeting of the CEC Natural Analogue Working Group took place on June 17-19, 1986, hosted by the Swiss NAGRA in Interlaken (CH). A review of recent progress in natural analogue programmes was carried out, and complemented by detailed discussions about geomicrobiology, archaeological analogues, natural colloids, and use of analogues to increase confidence in safety assessments for radioactive waste disposal. A statement drafted by the Group, and the presentations made, are put together in this report

  4. Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berglund, T.; Hanousek, Jan; Mramor, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2006), s. 280-282 ISSN 1566-0141. [ Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries. Prague, 26.05.2006-27.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial markets * Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  5. The democratic accountability of the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. BINI-SMAGHI

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Central Bank (ECB is considered to be an institution with a high level of accountability compared with other central banks. However, the matter has yet to be investigated in practice. Accountability of the ECB will have to be checked by governing bodies both within and outside the ECB as well as the public. A survey is undertaken of the main reasons for central bank accountability, especially for the ECB.

  6. HTA Implementation Roadmap in Central and Eastern European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Gheorghe, Adrian; Huic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    The opportunity cost of inappropriate health policy decisions is greater in Central and Eastern European (CEE) compared with Western European (WE) countries because of poorer population health and more limited healthcare resources. Application of health technology assessment (HTA) prior to health......The opportunity cost of inappropriate health policy decisions is greater in Central and Eastern European (CEE) compared with Western European (WE) countries because of poorer population health and more limited healthcare resources. Application of health technology assessment (HTA) prior......, use of local data, scope of mandatory HTA, decision criteria, and international collaboration in HTA. Although HTA implementation strategies from the region can be relevant examples for other CEE countries with similar cultural environment and economic status, HTA roadmaps are not still fully...

  7. THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK AND THE EUROZONE CRISIS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA ŞAGUNA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Euro is the single currency shared by 17 of the European Union's Member States, which together make up the Euro area. Since its introduction, in January 2002, it became the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. With the launch of the Euro, the monetary policy became the responsibility of the independent European Central Bank, which was created for that purpose, and of the national central banks of the Member States, having adopted the Euro. However, the accumulation of massive and unsustainable deficits and public debt levels in a number of peripheral economies threatened the Eurozone's viability by the end of its first decade, triggering a Eurozone sovereign debt crisis. The institutional mechanisms surrounding the Euro have also been an integral part of the crisis. On this line, the European Monetary Union is supported on one side by treaties and multilateral agreements including the Maastricht Treaty, the Stability and Growth Pact and the Lisbon Strategy and, on the other side, by the European Central Bank. The combination of these institutions has produced a mix of monetary, fiscal and labour market policies with powerful social implications. And, what started as a debt crisis in Greece in late 2009 has evolved into a broader economic and political crisis in the Eurozone and European Union. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyze the roots of the Eurozone crisis, as the biggest challenge since the Euro adoption and the European Central Bank’s response to it. Therefore the objectives are: identification of the reasons that stand behind the crisis, then observing how the crisis has affected the functioning of the European Central Bank and the Euro, and how it was forced to respond and, finally, focusing on the future and the challenges that lie ahead.

  8. Proposals accepted by the CEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    Descriptions are given of 12 geothermal projects approved by the California Energy Commission (CEC) for inclusion on the 1988-89 state budget. Projects include an aquaculture facility for mosquistofish to be used instead of toxic chemicals to control mosquitoes, an air monitoring program at The Geysers, a water quality baseline study for the Pieta Creek Basin within The Geysers KGRA, expansion of an existing geothermal district heating system, resource assessment and exploratory drilling on the Santa Ysabel Indian Reservation, and modifications and retrofit of space and water heating systems at two hospitals.

  9. THE MANIFESTATION OF THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK’S LEGAL PERSONALITY AT NATIONAL, EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA ŞAGUNA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Central Bank is one of the world’ s most important central banks, responsible for the monetary policy covering the 17 member States of the Eurozone. Established by the European Union in 1998, it was given the exclusive right to authorize the issue of banknotes within the European Union. The European Central Bank has legal personality under public international law. As article 282, paragraph 3 of the Treaty on functioning of the European Union and article 9, paragraph 1 of the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and of the European Central Bank states, the European Central Bank and the National Central Banks enjoy their own legal personality. The European Central Bank, given its important role in the economic integration, is the single institution of the European Union which has legal personality. This is a premise for it to fulfill its objectives. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyze the effects of the European Central Bank’s legal personality from a complete perspective: at national, European and international level. Therefore the objectives of my study are: an introspection in the concept of legal personality, the identification of the reason why it was entrusted to a single institution of the European Union and a detailed analyze of the effects of the European Central Bank’ s legal personality.

  10. Reactor safety research. The CEC contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krischer, W.

    1990-01-01

    The involvement of the EC Commission in the reactor safety research dates back almost to the implementation of the EURATOM Treaty and has thus lasted for thirty years. The need for close collaboration and for general consensus on some crucial problems of concern to the public, has made the role of international organizations and, as far as Europe is concerned, the role of the European Community particularly important. The areas in which the CEC has been active during the last five years are widespread. This is partly due to the fact that, after TMI and Chernobyl, the effort and the interest of the different countries in reactor safety was considerable. Reactor Safety Research represents the proceedings of a seminar held by the Commission at the end of its research programme 1984-88 on reactor safety. As such it gives a comprehensive overview of the recent activities and main results achieved in the CEC Joint Research Centre and in national laboratories throughout Europe on the basis of shared cost actions. In a concluding chapter the book reports on the opinions, expressed during a panel by a group of major exponents, on the needs for future research. The main topics addressed are, with particular reference to Light Water Reactors (LWRS): reliability and risk evaluation, inspection of steel components, primary circuit components end-of-life prediction, and abnormal behaviour of reactor cooling systems. As far as LMFBRs are concerned, the topics covered are: severe accident modelling, material properties and structural behaviour studies. There are 67 pages, all of which are indexed separately. Reactor Safety Research will be of particular interest to reliability and safety engineers, nuclear engineers and technicians, and mechanical and structural engineers. (author)

  11. Central European projects could alter oil movement patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffarges, E.H.; Howard, D.J.; Treat, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that several oil transportation projects are set to transform the flows of oil in Central Europe, with potentially important implications for crude oil and product prices in the region. These projects are spurred by the desires of the newly opened economies of Central Europe to diversify their sources of oil supplies away from the U.S.S.R. and by expectations of economic growth in this region. Today, Central European countries (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania, and Bulgaria) rely heavily on Soviet crude supplies. Of the 1.7 million b/d of crude oil consumed by these six countries, about 55% is imported from the U.S.S.R. This is down significantly from the more than 75% import dependence in the mid-1980s. This dependency on U.S.S.R. crude - for countries that either have a history of indigenous production (Romania) or access to Middle East or North African supplies (Yugoslavia) - testifies to more than 40 years of centrally planned economics in which Moscow provided the energy and raw materials and Central European countries delivered finished goods. Since the end of World War II, the pipeline flow of crude oil and products from Western to Central Europe has been almost nonexistent. In fact, the Western European crude and product pipeline network itself is a rather poorly integrated system, with only limited interconnections between northern and southern networks and no real competition across the major flow routes

  12. Double Taxation Conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a qualitative overview regarding the panacea of double taxation conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries. Double taxation paradigm highlights some serious problems arising from multiple taxation of the same income or capital. In the European Union these problems suggest that there is a strong need of a “best practice” construction of an optimal fiscal space in order to eliminate or reduce this problem. Central and Eastern European Countries have some special features: on one hand these countries have been influenced by the communist and postcommunism era, and on the other hand there are specific particularities for each country which must be economically and judicially understood and explained. This article highlights the structure, construction and appliance of the double taxation conventions in the Central and Eastern European Countries. The conclusions of this article enact the solutions of the potential problems of double taxation, especially in these former communist countries, with respect to the strengthening of the new fiscal space in the European Union.

  13. Computational content analysis of European Central Bank statements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milea, D.V.; Almeida, R.J.; Sharef, N.M.; Kaymak, U.; Frasincar, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for the computational content analysis of European Central Bank (ECB) statements. Based on this framework, we provide two approaches that can be used in a practical context. Both approaches use the content of ECB statements to predict upward and downward movement

  14. Exploring central governments' coordination of European Union affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the coordination mechanisms managed by the central governments of the European Union (EU) in order to develop negotiation positions for their plenipotentiaries in the Council. Utilizing novel data from an expert survey, the first part examines the relationships within and betw...

  15. European Integration and Outward FDI from Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.

    2015-01-01

    countries (CEECs) within the EU 27 (1996-2010). We find that the EU integration process is related with increasing importance of market access and less emphasis on labour cost advantages. We find heterogeneity in the valuation of foreign knowledge-related assets. The location probability within the EU15......The European Union (EU) Member States in central and eastern Europe (CEE) witnessed a surge in outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) between 2000 and the start of the global financial crisis. This article investigates whether the European integration process altered the relative importance...

  16. The European Central Bank: The Bank that rules Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, D.

    2009-01-01

    The power of the European Central Bank (ECB) is rooted in its independence established in the Maastricht Treaty of 1992. This power is reinforced though the bank’s monetary policy credibility—achieved through meeting its price stability mandate, whilst resisting political pressures to manipulate monetary policy to other ends. This credibility contributes to the ideational power of the ECB which is rooted in widespread support for price stability, one of the core objectives of Economic and Mon...

  17. EDITORIAL: The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita; Arsenovic, Dusan

    2009-07-01

    The development of quantum optics was part and parcel of the formation of modern physics following the fundamental work of Max Planck and Albert Einstein, which gave rise to quantum mechanics. The possibility of working with pure quantum objects, like single atoms and single photons, has turned quantum optics into the main tool for testing the fundamentals of quantum physics. Thus, despite a long history, quantum optics nowadays remains an extremely important branch of physics. It represents a natural base for the development of advanced technologies, like quantum information processing and quantum computing. Previous Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) took place in Palermo (2007), Vienna (2006), Ankara (2005), Trieste (2004), Rostock (2003), Szeged (2002), Prague (2001), Balatonfüred (2000), Olomouc (1999), Prague (1997), Budmerice (1995, 1996), Budapest (1994) and Bratislava (1993). Those meetings offered excellent opportunities for the exchange of knowledge and ideas between leading scientists and young researchers in quantum optics, foundations of quantum mechanics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, photonics, atom optics, condensed matter optics, and quantum informatics, etc. The collaborative spirit and tradition of CEWQO were a great inspiration and help to the Institute of Physics, Belgrade, and the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, as the organizers of CEWQO 2008. The 16th CEWQO will take place in 2009 in Turku, Finland, and the 17th CEWQO will be organized in 2010 in St Andrews, United Kingdom. The 15th CEWQO was organized under the auspices and support of the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia, the Serbian Physical Society, the European Physical Society with sponsorship from the University of Belgrade, the Central European Initiative, the FP6 Program of the European Commission under INCO project QUPOM No 026322, the FP7 Program of the European Commission under project NANOCHARM, Europhysics Letters (EPL), The European

  18. An emission inventory for the central European initiative 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Z.; Amann, M.; Cofala, J.; Gyárfáŝ, F.; Klaassen, G.; Schöpp, W.

    This paper presents the first consistent inventory of emission of sulphur dioxide (SO 2), nitrogen oxides (NO x), particulate matter (PM), and carbon dioxide (CO 2), for the countries co-operating in the Central European Initiative: Austria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Italy, Poland and Slovenia. The inventory is based on national and regional statistics as well as on information received from collaborating institutions. National data has been verified and converted into a common format, consistent with the database used by the European Environmental Agency and the European Community (the "CORINAIR" system). The inventory describes emissions in the year 1988, before the restructuring process began in former socialist economies. Data has been collected on the national level, for administrational units and for large point sources. The database on point sources contains specific information on 400 large plants in the region (e.g. capacity, commissioning year, fuel use, production, etc.). Total emissions of SO 2 in the CEI region in 1988 were 10.3 million tons, which accounts for 25% of total European SO 2 emissions. The highest emission densities (more than 100 t km -2) are found in Northern Bohemia (Czech Republic) and Upper Silesia (Poland). The overwhelming majority of SO 2 emissions (70%) originates from combustion of domestic (brown and hard) coal. Across the region, 60% of SO 2 is emitted from the large point sources identified in the study and over 60% of SO 2 emissions from public power plants in the CEI region is produced in plants older than 20 years.

  19. CEC/NRPB Association Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBeger, D.

    1993-01-01

    In January 1990 the National Radiological Protection Board signed an 'Agreement of Association' with the European Atomic Energy Community, represented by the Commission of the European Communities, to carry out research work in fields covered by the Radiation Protection Research Programme. Under the terms of the contract the Board assumed overall responsibility for the coordination of work involving a number of European organisations, 25 in total and covering 9 countries stretching from Greece to Sweden. The contract provided for funding of research work relating to the assessment of human exposure to natural, medical and occupational radiation and the associated risks. (Author)

  20. Sovereign Credit Risk, Liquidity, and European Central Bank Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We examine the dynamic relation between credit risk and liquidity in the Italian sovereign bond market during the eurozone crisis and the subsequent European Central Bank (ECB) interventions. Credit risk drives the liquidity of the market. A 10% change in the credit default swap (CDS) spread leads...... to a 13% change in the bid-ask spread, the relation being stronger when the CDS spread exceeds 500 basis points. The Long-Term Refinancing Operations of the ECB weakened the sensitivity of market makers’ liquidity provision to credit risk, highlighting the importance of funding liquidity measures...

  1. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH: RECENT TRENDS ACROSS CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihut Ioana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available What is economic growth? Although the answer to this question may seems of real simplicity, developing an accurate definition of this concept may constitute a real challenge both from a theoretical but also empirical point of view. This constant debate upon the concept of economic growth as well as indentifying the optimum set of instruments for quantifying it, constituted the starting point of the current article. The concept of economic growth is used nowadays complementary to terms like economic development, economic welfare or economic progress with reference to this complex process that implies macro-scale structures. Moreover indentifying the main factors that generate a significant impact upon the dynamics of the economic growth process, constitute a useful approach taking into consideration the high degree of heterogeneity that characterize the architecture of the economies around the world. If we develop this analysis across the European Union member states this debate became even more challenging due to the high degree of diversity that characterize these economies. Moreover, the Central and Eastern European countries and especially the ones that joined EU in 2004 and 2007 embody a set of particularities that make them extremely different from the rest of the European Union member states, features related to the historical background, economic policies and common efforts to intensify the convergence process with the more developed EU members. This paper studies the impact of two main factors upon the economic growth process namely an endogenous-exogenous factor like the degree of openness and an endogenous factor like the human capital using a complex dynamic panel method. The arguments that were in favour of choosing this two factors are on one hand the multitude of theoretical studies that argued the importance of them in modelling the economic growth process and on the other hand the small number of studies that use panel methods in

  2. The foreign exchange market interventions of the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frenkel

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the effectiveness of the foreign exchange market interventionsconducted by the European Central Bank (ECB in the fall of 2000 to support the external stability of the euro. To this end, we discuss different channels through whichinterventions may influence exchange rate dynamics. We use the insights provided by the theoretical and empirical literature to evaluate the effectiveness of theintervention policy of the ECB. In addition, we present an empirical analysis in which we use intra-daily exchange rate data to examine in detail the effects of theinterventions. We find that the interventions only had a rather short-term impact on the exchange rate path and had no effects beyond the short term. Therefore, our results suggest that the intervention policy of the ECB was not effective.

  3. Morphological separation of the Central European Trochosa females (Araneae, Lycosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepner, Martin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult females of the five Central European wolf spiders Trochosa hispanica Simon, 1870, T. robusta (Simon, 1876, T. ruricola (DeGeer, 1778, T. spinipalpis (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1895, and T. terricola Thorell, 1856 were morphologically analysed. We defined sets of continuous and binary (presence/absence variables. Continuous data of various epigynal and carapace dimensions were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Using the PC loadings each individual was plotted along the PC axis in order to find gaps(overlaps between the species. The binary data sets were subjected to Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA in order to find characters that clearly separate the five Trochosa species. Using PCA only individuals of T.robusta and T.ruricola and of T.robusta and T.hispanica could be separated from each other. Using HCA all five species could clearly be separated by epigynal and vulval characteristics."

  4. Disposable and Usable Pasts in Central European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Lisiak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Central European cities memories and material histories of socialist regimes remain particularly difficult to address and incorporate into the new democratic present. After 1989, city authorities in the region have chosen to emphasize some pasts and neglect others and, thus, (rewrite their own versions of (urban history and (reshape their (urban identities. In my paper I inquire into how post-1989 Central European urbanities are shaped by and communicated through various designations including signs and symbols on city streets, monuments, and build-ings. Predictably, many material remnants of the socialist regimes have been de-stroyed or hidden from the public eye - my interest lies not only in which various designations on buildings and which monuments had to go, but also in why and how they disappeared. I discuss the most popular methods of hiding and/or effac-ing the remnants of socialism that range from subtle (surrounding of communist landmarks with tall buildings through the obvious (renaming of streets, squares, metro stations; giving old communist buildings new names and functions to the irreversible and, thus, most controversial (the razing of socialist architecture and monuments. The disappearance of the material capital of the socialist past has been accompanied by intense commemoration practices verging on memorial ob-sessions. New monuments, plaques, street names, and museums appeared almost as quickly as the old "disposable" ones were forced out from the urban landscape. The complexity of an urban identity as communicated through city streets, mo-numents, and buildings not only invites, but necessitates an interdisciplinary ap-proach and, thus, my analysis includes elements from such diverse areas of know-ledge as aesthetics, architecture, communication studies, comparative cultural studies, economics, history, and political science.

  5. Determinants of SME Finance: Evidence from Three Central European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ashiqur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the determinants of access to finance for small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the context of three Central European countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, and Hungary. The data set of the research is obtained from the BEEPS survey, which is conducted by the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. This paper empirically analyses firms not only from the SMEs point of view, but also shows results for micro, small and medium enterprises separately. Additionally, we have analysed the determinants of access to finance for SMEs at each country level for an in-depth understanding of country-level variations in SME financing. The results indicate that micro firms and firms owned and operated by women are experiencing a shortage of credits from banks. On the other hand, we found a positive relationship between the pledge of collateral and access to finance. With respect to the medium firms, we found evidence that innovative firms have a larger amount of credit from banks. The empirical results also suggest that the loan size increases as the interest rates increase in particular for SMEs on the whole and for micro-firms, although the interest rate is in a negative relationship with the loan size in Czech Republic.

  6. Slovakia, the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project; and Central European integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this chapter of the book author deals with the economic, social, ecological and cultural problems in connection of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (GNP) with the integration process of the 12 European Communities countries. Slovakia - sometimes also called the corridor between the East and the West - appears to have great potential as a link in the general east-west integration. Such a role could be further reinforced by the close and purposeful cooperation between Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Austria and Bavaria, and it could have a positive signal effect for the whole of Central Europe, as well as for Europe in general. However, this is possible only provided that the former COMECON countries will reduce their tendency to compete for western attention and they will begin, to a larger extent, to lay down the foundations for the indisputable benefits accruing to their population from cooperation and integration. In this respect, the GNP appears to be a crucial issue an the social and political decision on the completion of the Project would become a signal that Central Europe has entered the path towards becoming one of the most important regions of Europe

  7. Risk assessment of chemicals: A central European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencko, Vladimir [Institute of Hygiene, 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Ungvary, Gyoergy [National Institute of Occupational Health, Budapest (Hungary)

    1992-07-01

    During the last four decades in the Czech and Slovak federal Republic (CSFR) and Hungary, similar to the previous Soviet Union and all the Central and East European countries the prevention of the adverse health effects of chemicals in occupational and environmental settings, drinking water and food of population was intended to be achieved by determination and compulsory observance of hygienic limit values. From recent political developments it can be expected that due to the decay of the former Warsaw Pact and the related Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) the next development of risk assessment will reflect that new situation. The OECD principles of toxicity testing and risk assessment of exposure to chemicals will be sooner or later accepted in principle in the framework of a general economic integration of Central and Eastern European countries with EEC. During the 80s there was a growing feeling of the necessity to harmonize the activities of OECD and CMEA countries in the field of toxicological methodology and approaches to risk assessment of chemicals because of the growing production and mutual trade including transport of industrial and agricultural chemicals. As a contributory factor supporting this effort there was growing cross boundary air and river pollution in Europe. The former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance was an intergovernmental organization of 10 countries with a number of other countries and agencies cooperating with it in its work. CMEA as, and OECD still is concerned primarily with economic development but both had stated commitments to protecting human health and the environment. To help to mutual understanding and to promote harmonization of above mentioned obligations and commitments of the both organizations United Nation Environment Programme's International Registry of Potentially Toxic Chemicals and The International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP/IRPTC/IPCS) convened an International Consultation on

  8. Risk assessment of chemicals: A central European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencko, Vladimir; Gyoergy Ungvary

    1992-01-01

    During the last four decades in the Czech and Slovak federal Republic (CSFR) and Hungary, similar to the previous Soviet Union and all the Central and East European countries the prevention of the adverse health effects of chemicals in occupational and environmental settings, drinking water and food of population was intended to be achieved by determination and compulsory observance of hygienic limit values. From recent political developments it can be expected that due to the decay of the former Warsaw Pact and the related Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) the next development of risk assessment will reflect that new situation. The OECD principles of toxicity testing and risk assessment of exposure to chemicals will be sooner or later accepted in principle in the framework of a general economic integration of Central and Eastern European countries with EEC. During the 80s there was a growing feeling of the necessity to harmonize the activities of OECD and CMEA countries in the field of toxicological methodology and approaches to risk assessment of chemicals because of the growing production and mutual trade including transport of industrial and agricultural chemicals. As a contributory factor supporting this effort there was growing cross boundary air and river pollution in Europe. The former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance was an intergovernmental organization of 10 countries with a number of other countries and agencies cooperating with it in its work. CMEA as, and OECD still is concerned primarily with economic development but both had stated commitments to protecting human health and the environment. To help to mutual understanding and to promote harmonization of above mentioned obligations and commitments of the both organizations United Nation Environment Programme's International Registry of Potentially Toxic Chemicals and The International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP/IRPTC/IPCS) convened an International Consultation on

  9. Agriculture of central and eastern European countries in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepagić Srđan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture posed considerable tensions for the processes of enlargement of the European Union, because of its continuing importance both in the economies of the applicant countries of Central and Eastern European countries which have joined EU on the 1st may 2004., and in the EU budget and acquits communautaire. The preparation of agriculture in the candidate countries to join the EU was rendered more complex by the fact that the Community's Common Agricultural Policy was a moving target. The aim of this paper is to show the bases elements of the Common Agricultural Policy, but also to provide a survey of recent developments relating to agriculture in the EU and new member states of the EU before their accession to EU and their preparation to access on the enlarged market, in order to indicate the main challenges and difficulties posed by enlargement. It seems likely that agricultural policy in the enlarged EU will attach increased priority to objectives such as rural development and the environment. However, these new priorities may be expensive to realize, and may impose a growing burden on the national budgets of EU member states.

  10. The German 'Energiewende' from central European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szynol, Kazimierz [TAURON Wytwarzanie S.A., Jaworzno (Poland)

    2014-03-15

    Germany is a country of an exceptional economic significance for Europe and the entire world therefore everything that takes place in this country is carefully analyzed and investigated especially in the Central Europe. Hundreds of thousands workplaces in EU-11 are directly or indirectly connected with German economy present in those countries. That is why an unquestionable revolution in the power sector, i.e. Energiewende, is of importance to us both at present and in the future. The present article presents comparison of installed capacity, generation of electrical energy and power systems in Germany and EU-11. The article also assesses the differences regarding economic development of the aforementioned countries presenting the EU-11's understanding of what Energiewende is and what its objectives are. In addition, the article includes impartial evaluation of problems related to Energiewende and its outcome for the German economy and society. Due to considerable differences regarding economic development, it is hard to imagine a similar revolution taking place in EU-11. Therefore, a compromise with respect to European energy and climate policy acceptable for EU-11, Germany and the entire Europe is of the utmost necessity and the author is convinced that such a compromise is achievable. (orig.)

  11. Interspecific and interploidal gene flow in Central European Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Marte H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of polyploidisation on gene flow between natural populations are little known. Central European diploid and tetraploid populations of Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata are here used to study interspecific and interploidal gene flow, using a combination of nuclear and plastid markers. Results Ploidal levels were confirmed by flow cytometry. Network analyses clearly separated diploids according to species. Tetraploids and diploids were highly intermingled within species, and some tetraploids intermingled with the other species, as well. Isolation with migration analyses suggested interspecific introgression from tetraploid A. arenosa to tetraploid A. lyrata and vice versa, and some interploidal gene flow, which was unidirectional from diploid to tetraploid in A. arenosa and bidirectional in A. lyrata. Conclusions Interspecific genetic isolation at diploid level combined with introgression at tetraploid level indicates that polyploidy may buffer against negative consequences of interspecific hybridisation. The role of introgression in polyploid systems may, however, differ between plant species, and even within the small genus Arabidopsis, we find very different evolutionary fates when it comes to introgression.

  12. Thermal footprints in groundwater of central European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, P.; Menberg, K.; Blum, P.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric thermal pollution in densely populated areas is recognized as a severe problem with consequences for human health, and considerable efforts are being taken to mitigate heat stress in cities. However, anthropogenic activities also influence the thermal environment beneath the ground level, with commonly growing temperatures that affect groundwater ecology and geothermal use efficiency. In our work, we identify the controlling mechanisms for the long-term evolution of such urban heat islands. The shallow groundwater temperatures in several central European cities such as Cologne, Karlsruhe, Munich, Berlin and Zurich were mapped at high spatial and temporal resolution. Thermal anomalies were found to be highly heterogeneous with local hot spots showing temperatures of more than 20°C. Accordingly, these urban regions show a considerable groundwater warming in comparison to undisturbed temperatures of 8-11°C. Examination of potential heat sources by analytical modelling reveals that increased ground surface temperatures and basements of buildings act as dominant drivers for the anthropogenic heat input into the groundwater. The factors are revealed to be case-specific and they may have pronounced local or regional effects. Typical local factors are for example buried district heating networks. In selected cities we find that the average urban heat flux is around one order of magnitude higher than the elevated ground heat flux due to recent climate change. Additionally, such as observed in Zurich, naturally controlled temperature variations can be substantial and they are shown to wash out anthropogenic thermal footprints.

  13. EDITORIAL The 17th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2011-02-01

    Although the origin of quantum optics can be traced back to the beginning of the 20th century, when the fundamental ideas about the quantum nature of the interaction between light and matter were put forward, the splendid blossoming of this part of physics began half a century later, after the invention of masers and lasers. It is remarkable that after another half a century the tree of quantum optics is not only very strong and spreading, but all its branches continue to grow, showing new beautiful blossoms and giving very useful fruits. A reflection of this progress has been the origin and development of the series of annual events called the Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO). They started at the beginning of the 1990s as rather small meetings of physicists from a few countries in central-eastern Europe, but in less than two decades they have transformed into important events, gathering 100 to 200 participants from practically all European countries. Moreover, many specialists from other continents like to attend these meetings, since they provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. Regarding this, it seems worth mentioning at least some of the most interesting and important areas of quantum optics that have attracted the attention of researchers for the past two decades. One of these areas is quantum information, which over the course of time has become an almost independent area of quantum physics. But it still maintains very close ties with quantum optics. The specific parts of this area are, in particular, quantum computing, quantum communication and quantum cryptography, and the problem of quantitative description of such genuine quantum phenomena as entanglement is one of the central items in the current stream of publications. Theory and experiment related to quantum tomography have also become important to contemporary quantum optics. They are closely related to the subject of so

  14. MULTIFRACTAL STRUCTURE OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cn#259;pun#351;an Rn#259;zvan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that empirical data coming from financial markets, like stock market indices, commodities, interest rates, traded volumes and foreign exchange rates have a multifractal structure. Multifractals were introduced in the field of economics to surpass the shortcomings of classical models like the fractional Brownian motion or GARCH processes. In this paper we investigate the multifractal behavior of Central and Eastern European foreign exchange rates, namely the Czech koruna, Croatian kuna, Hungarian forint, Polish zlot, Romanian leu and Russian rouble with respect to euro from January 13, 2000 to February 29, 2012. The dynamics of exchange rates is of interest for investors and traders, monetary and fiscal authorities, economic agents or policy makers. The exchange rate movements affect the international balance of payments, trade flows, and allocation of the resources in national and international economy. The empirical results from the multifractal detrending fluctuation analysis algorithm show that the six exchange rate series analysed display significant multifractality. Moreover, generating shuffled and surrogate time series, we analyze the sources of multifractality, long-range correlations and heavy-tailed distributions, and we find that this multifractal behavior can be mainly attributed to the latter. Finally, we propose a foreign exchange market inefficiency ranking by considering the multifractality degree as a measure of inefficiency. The regulators, through policy instruments, aim to improve the informational inefficiency of the markets, to reduce the associated risks and to ensure economic stabilization. Evaluation of the degree of information efficiency of foreign exchange markets, for Central and Eastern Europe countries, is important to assess to what extent these countries are prepared for the transition towards fully monetary integration. The weak form efficiency implies that the past exchange rates cannot help to

  15. Heavy Metals in Brown Bears from the Central European Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Čelechovská

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess heavy metal load in the brown bear (Ursus arctos living in the central European Carpathians. Between 2002 and 2004, fifteen bears were examined to evaluate the distribution of cadmium, lead, mercury and copper in the animals' muscles (diaphragm, spleen, liver and kidney. The highest content of cadmium, lead and mercury was found in the kidney (17.4 ± 5.2 mg kg-1, 1.16 ± 0.39 mg kg-1, 0.39 ± 0.25 mg kg-1, whereas the lowest content of the metals was observed in the muscles (0.017 ± 0.009 mg kg-1, 0.299 ± 0.308 mg kg-1, 0.013 ± 0.011 mg kg-1. Second highest concentration of cadmium, lead and mercury was detected in the liver (0.83 ± 0.24 mg kg-1, 0.99 ± 0.61 mg kg-1, 0.11 ± 0.05 mg kg-1. Copper distributions and concentrations in bear tissues were as follows (in descending order: liver (23.9 ± 6.7 mg kg-1, > kidneys (9.0 ± 3.3 mg kg-1, > muscles (1.9 ± 1.6 mg kg-1 and > spleen (1.0 ± 0.2 mg kg-1. As compared with heavy metal load observed in bear tissues between 1988 and 1990, the concentration of cadmium in the muscles and liver was significantly lower (p p p < 0.01. Lead and copper tissue concentrations did not change substantially.

  16. Detailed genetic structure of European bitterling populations in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bartáková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus is a small cyprinid fish whose populations declined markedly between 1950 and 1980. However, its range currently expands, partly due to human-assisted introductions. We determined the genetic variability and detailed spatial structure among bitterling populations in Central Europe and tested alternative hypotheses about colonization of this area. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci on a large sample of 688 individuals had been used to analyse genetic variability and population structure. Samples originated from 27 localities with emphasis on area of the Czech Republic where three major sea drainages (Black, Baltic, and Northern Sea meet. Highly variable level of intrapopulation genetic variability had generally been detected and a recent decrease in numbers (“bottleneck” had been indicated by genetic data among six populations. High level of interpopulation differentiation was identified even within the basins. There was a significant role of genetic drift and indications of low dispersal ability of R. amarus. Surprisingly, the Odra River was inhabited by two distinct populations without any genetic signatures of a secondary contact. Czech part of the Odra (Baltic basin was colonized from the Danubian refugium (similarly to adjacent Danubian basin rivers including the Morava, while Polish part of the Odra was genetically similar to the populations in the Vistula River (Baltic basin, that has been colonized by a different (Eastern phylogeographic lineage of R. amarus. Most Czech R. amarus populations were colonized from the Danubian refugium, suggesting potential for a human-mediated colonization of the Odra or Elbe Rivers by R. amarus. One Elbe basin population was genetically mixed from the two (Danubian and Eastern phylogeographic lineages. In general the Czech populations of R. amarus were genetically stable except for a single population which has probably been recently introduced. This research

  17. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznan, Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gadher, S. J.; Marczak, L.; Luczak, M.; Stobiecki, M.; Widlak, P.; Kovářová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2016), s. 5-7 ISSN 1478-9450. [Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) /9./. Poznaň, 15.06.2015-18.06.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Central and Eastern Proteomic Conference * proteomics * mass spectrometry imaging Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.849, year: 2016

  18. Regional European Specialization and Concentration in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Neculita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement has become a fundamental priority of the European Union after the 90’s. Up to now seven rounds have been held for enlarging the Community which initially was made up of six Member States (Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands. Among all EU enlargements, the eastward enlargement from 2004 was the biggest challenge, both due to the number of new Member States which joined - the number of EU inhabitants increasing to approximately from 380 to 485 million, but also due to the difference of Gross Domestic Product between the old and new EU members. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration and absorption of European funds into the newest that joined the European Union. The paper proposes an analysis of integration and specialization in Eastern Europe by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions.

  19. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    Much of our present understanding of the microscopic world is based on quantum mechanics. The field owes much of its existence to the venerable science of optics, since the fundamental ideas on the nature of the interaction between light and matter lie at the roots of its origin. We have now reached one century of quantum mechanics. In contrast, the splendid blossoming of quantum optics began only after the comparatively recent invention of the laser. Since then, it has become an exciting and always expanding area at the cutting-edge of research, in part because theory and experiment are more closely connected in this field than any other. Moreover, the technological distance between fundamental studies and practical applications has always been very short in quantum optics. As a result, modern engineering is increasingly based on quantum rather than classical physics; we are facing a transition similar to the one society confronted 200 years ago, at the start of the Industrial Revolution. In parallel with this, the physics community is witnessing the recent and vigorous emergence of quantum information. It aims at exploring the physical foundations of information and at developing efficient methods for processing quantum information. The questions driving this field reveal a profound change in attitude towards fundamental aspects of quantum theory. The photon turns out to be a tool extremely well suited to exploring theoretical quantum information schemes and their experimental implementations. Mirroring this continued progress has been the growth and development of the series of annual Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO). The series started at the beginning of the 1990s, as rather small meetings of physicists from a few countries in central-eastern Europe. In two decades, the workshops have transformed into important events that reach well beyond the original rather restricted geographical limits. The history of CEWQOs can be found in the preface

  20. Reports submitted by participants from central and eastern european countries and the new independent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nersesyan, V.; Rozdyalovskaya, L.; Yatsevich, V.; Soljan, V.; Valcic, I.; Saar, J.; Abraitis, M.; Bieliauskas, V.; Szkultecka, E.; Cutoiu, D.; Chirica, M.T.; Karasev, A.V.; Pospisil, M.; Zlatnansky, J.; Kot, Y.; Shvytai, V.

    2000-01-01

    In this communication are grouped the reports submitted by participants from central and eastern European countries and the new independent states, concerning their government legislation relative to the nuclear liability in the event of a nuclear accident. (N.C.)

  1. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Mascha K; Laubender, Ruediger P; Kuster, Daniela; Braendli, Otto; Moeller, Alexander; Mansmann, Ulrich; von Mutius, Erika; Wildhaber, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. We used data collected between January 1993 and December 2010 from a central European population. The data was modelled using "Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape" (GAMLSS). The spirometry reference equations were derived from 118'891 individuals consisting of 60'624 (51%) females and 58'267 (49%) males. Altogether, there were 18'211 (15.3%) children under the age of 18 years. We developed spirometry reference equations for a central European population between 8 and 90 years of age that can be implemented in a wide range of clinical settings.

  2. C.E.C. program on radioactive waste management disposal and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Girardi, F.; Bresesti, M.

    1976-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) has been involved many years with the radioactive waste problem; but a major effort started in 1973 when a specific program was given to the Commission's own laboratories (C.E.C. Joint Research Center, Ispra Establishment). This effort is very much enlarged since June 1975, when the Commission was authorized to start a coordinated program with the national laboratories of the nine member states, financed on a 50/50 basis. The contribution of the Commission for the 1975-79 plan amounts to $19 million. The overall program now involves several laboratories and does represent a significant European effort to contribute to solving a world scale problem; it is intended to promote a large international cooperation

  3. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate

  4. UNCONVENTIONAL MONETARY POLICY: CHANGING EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK’S PERSPECTIVE ON FINANCIAL GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Munteanu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to look at the European Central Bank governance in terms of decisions taken to deploy a new kit of unconventional monetary policy measures, in order to respond to a new economic paradigm characterized by dynamic change in evolution, high volatility and enhanced financial risks. As an institution, the European Central Bank is led by the Governing Council and the decisions taken on how to use monetary policy impact an entire financial system. European Central Banking governance is about safeguarding the common currency and ensuring a future for the economic and monetary area to emerge stronger. For this purpose, when conventional monetary policies reach limits in their effects, it is time for the European Central Bank governance to analyse and assume the decision to deploy the arsenal of unconventional monetary policies. The experience of recent years showed a positive effect of the European Central Bank’s unconventional monetary measures, but costs could rise in case of extensive use of such measures. When these measures are used in combination, the effect is amplified and the European Central Bank needs to assess when it is time to withdraw the support, how to communicate and what exit strategy should use, what the costs are and impact can expect.

  5. Forming Professional Competency of Education Managers in Central European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovkanets, Oksana

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of forming education managers' professional competency in the context of European integration educational processes. The peculiarities of education managers' competences as well as directions of their professional training in motivational, cognitive and metacognitive spheres have been theoretically justified. The…

  6. The competitiveness through taxes in the Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pîrvu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, many countries Central and Eastern European countrieshave reduced their corporate income tax rates with the purpose of attractingmultinational companies. Various studies indicate the fact that the level of the corporateincome tax represents an important advantage that drives the decisions to place foreigndirect investments. Many European Union member states have initiated corporateincome tax reforms, in order to generate the increase in the competitiveness of nationaleconomies. In the case of the Central and Eastern European countries, where thedecrease in the corporate income taxes was higher, these reforms brought profoundchanges in the economic environment.

  7. European future natural gas demand and supply diversification: key issues for Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Elschner, E.

    1996-01-01

    After the breakdown of the former Soviet Union and the COMECON the demarcation line between western Europe and central/eastern Europe has disappeared. The central and eastern European economies as a whole and their gas industries as well as the western European gas companies are preparing for the future enlarged market in creating the prerequisites to participate successfully in such a market and to seize the opportunities this market is offering. The framework for this future European Gas Market has to be created now. The European gas industries and gas markets are in transition and are in a process of reshaping, with the following challenges: (1) In Central and Eastern European countries: To complete the privatization and restructuring process from centrally-planned economies to market-oriented structures with deregulated prices, market-oriented tariff systems and new legal and regulatory frameworks. These are the essential prerequisites for an integration of the central and eastern European countries into a single European gas market and the basis for an effective and successful trans border gas co-operation between east and west. (2) In western European countries: To pursue nearly similar processes of restructuring which are underway: privatization by reducing state participation and influence in gas and energy companies, with the accent on liberalization and deregulation of market structures with fewer market entry barriers, and more competition by reducing the influence of state or private monopolies. Gas companies are undertaking cost-efficiency measures to be prepared to meet the requirements of more competitive market structures and also of a more advanced internationalized gas business. The fundamental rules on which western European gas industries based their operations up to now have to be reconsidered. The old western European structures which have developed under the shelter of governmental protection are under pressure from several sources. EU energy

  8. Cooperation Agreement between the European Central Bank and Europol for Combating Euro Counterfeiting. Some Critical Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Birzu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper there has been examined the Agreement between the European Police Office (Europol and the European Central Bank (ECB for preventing and combating euro counterfeiting, focusing on certain provisions which take into account the aim and the exchange of information between the two European institutions. The novelty of this paper relates to the achieved examination, where it is highlighted the importance of European legal instrument and the critical opinions and proposals for improving the agreement. The paper can be useful to academics and practitioners who conduct their activity within this area.

  9. Recent development of a CEC'S elasto-plastic-creep cyclic benchmark programme relevant to LMFBR structural integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, F.; Terzaghi, A.

    1984-01-01

    It's presented the programme of elasto-plastic benchmark calculations relevant to LMFBr, which started in 1977 with the support and coordination of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and the participation of nuclear engineering and manufacturing companies as well as nuclear research centers of France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. (E.G.) [pt

  10. Evolving Privatization in Eastern and Central European Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    With the fall of communism in 1989, Eastern and Central Europe would quickly become part of an already strong global tide of privatization in higher education. Nowhere else did private higher education rise so suddenly or strongly from virtual nonexistence to a major regional presence. A fresh database allows us to analyze the extent and…

  11. Psychoanalysis and the Emigration of Central and Eastern European Intellectuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erős, Ferenc

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important phenomena in the intellectual history of the 20th century was the exodus of the European mind, the emigration of persons, ideas, techniques, and institutions in the vast areas of social, human, and natural sciences, as well as in literature and the visual arts. Among these exiled intellectuals, psychoanalysts formed a special group. This paper examines the major lines of the emigration of psychoanalysts from the countries of issue to the countries of reception. It focuses, in particular on Hungarian analysts and analytic candidates who left their country of birth in two waves, first after the failure of revolutions in 1918/19 for Berlin, and then after 1938, to escape the Nazis. The paper comments on the existential situation of émigré psychoanalysts in light of Hannah Arendt's writings on refugees.

  12. Actual versus Perceived Central Bank Transparency : The Case of the European Central Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.

    2007-01-01

    Central banks have become more and more transparent about their monetary policy making process. In the central bank transparency lit- erature the distinction between actual and perceived central bank trans- parency is often lacking. However, as perceptions are crucial for the ac- tions of economic

  13. Emergence of sandflies (Phlebotominae) in Austria, a Central European country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Weiler, Martin; Burgmann, Heinz; Mooseder, Gerhard; Lorentz, Susanne; Rauchenwald, Friedrich; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia; Naucke, Torsten J

    2013-12-01

    The possible existence of autochthonous sandfly populations in Central Europe north of the Alps has long been excluded. However, in the past years, sandflies have been documented in Germany, Belgium, and recently, also in Austria, close to the Slovenian border. Moreover, autochthonous human Leishmania and Phlebovirus infections have been reported in Central Europe, particularly in Germany. From 2010 to 2012, sandfly trapping (740 trap nights) was performed at 53 different capture sites in Austria using battery-operated CDC miniature light traps. Sites were chosen on the basis of their climate profile in the federal states Styria, Burgenland, and Lower Austria. Sandfly specimens found were transferred to 70% ethanol for conservation. Identification was based on morphological characters of the male genitalia and the female spermathecae, respectively. Altogether, 24 specimens, 22 females and 2 males, all identified as Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908, were found at six different sampling sites in all three federal states investigated. The highest number of catches was made on a farm in Lower Austria. Altogether, the period of sandfly activity in Austria was shown to be much longer than presumed, the earliest capture was made on July 3rd and the latest on August 28th. Sandflies have been autochthonous in Austria in small foci probably for long, but in the course of global warming, further spreading may be expected. Although P. mascittii is only an assumed vector of Leishmania spp.-data on its experimental transmission capacity are still lacking-the wide distribution of sandflies in Austria, a country thought to be free of sandflies, further supports a potential emergence of sandflies in Central Europe. This is of medical relevance, not only with respect to the transmission of Leishmania spp. for which a reservoir is given in dogs, but also with respect to the phleboviruses.

  14. SKODA JS in Central and Eastern European markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luptacik, P.

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, SKODA JS a.s. gained a leading position in the manufacture of equipment for the nuclear power sector in Central and Eastern Europe. The company benefited from its experience accumulated during the construction of VVER 440 and VVER 1000 NPPs at a time that saw a global decrease in popularity of the nuclear power sector. The company is building its success on a comprehensive understanding of the function of the primary coolant circuit and efforts to upgrade the equipment and processes so as to reflect new requirements in terms of safety and reactor unit service life. (orig.)

  15. Systematic review on the evaluation criteria of orphan medicines in Central and Eastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zelei, Tam?s; Moln?r, M?ria J.; Szegedi, M?rta; Kal?, Zolt?n

    2016-01-01

    Background In case of orphan drugs applicability of the standard health technology assessment (HTA) process is limited due to scarcity of good clinical and health economic evidence. Financing these premium priced drugs is more controversial in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) region where the public funding resources are more restricted, and health economic justification should be an even more important aspect of policy decisions than in higher income European countries. Objectives To e...

  16. The legacy of uranium mining in Central and Eastern Europe - a view from the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.; Vrijen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the countries of Central and Eastern Europe there was widespread mining and processing of uranium which has left a huge environmental and public health problem requiring urgent remedial action. The present paper outlines the situation from the perspective of the European Union by presenting a description of the assistance provided through Community funding and a summary of relevant European Union legislation in this field. (author)

  17. INTERGEO - Central/East European Collaboration Network on direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovski, K [Central/East European Collaboration Network on Direct Application of Geothermal Energy, Bitola (Yugoslavia); Arpasi, M [International Geothermal Association - European Branch, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-01

    A proposal for organisation of a Network to be known as INTERGEO is presented, which should extend and reinforce the cooperation for the development of the direct application of geothermal energy between the developed EC countries and the ones of the so called Central/East European region. Unter the term `developed countries` for this particular energy source utilisation mainly Italy, France and Germany should be understood. The Central/East European region consists the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lituania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Roumania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. The idea itself, the need and possibilities for organisation, possible plan of action and expected benefits for the EC and Central/East European countries are elaborated in order to come to the conclusions for the proposal justifiableness and feasibility for realisation. (orig.)

  18. Emigrée Central European Jewish Women's Holocaust Life Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Louise O.

    2009-01-01

    In her paper "Emigrée Central European Jewish Women's Holocaust Life Writing," Louise O. Vasvári analyzes voices of women survivors from a gendered perspective in order to provide insights for both Holocaust studies and gender studies. Vasvári considers whether it can be claimed that there is a specifically female style of remembering and of testifying about these traumatic experiences. Vasvári's selection includes the writings of some two dozen Central European emigrée survivors, all native ...

  19. Security challenges to Central European bordering territories: view from the Transcarpatian region of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslava Lendel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The factor of integral Central European space determines the formation of common challenges to the region's security. One part of them is not visualized or not perceived in the capital cities. These threats may be most vividly traced in the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine, taking into consideration the fact that it borders with the abovementioned countries. These are ethnopolitical threats, caused by the multiethnic population of the region, energy dependence, threats of social economic peripherization of Central European bordering territories, informational influence on the population, different attitudes to Ukraine-Russia conflict.

  20. Occupational radiation exposure in Central and Eastern European countries - ESOREX EAST -. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Anatschkowa, E.

    1999-02-01

    On behalf of the European Commission, the BfS is currently executing a project entitled 'European Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure - ESOREX'. The project consists of several surveys executed in the Member States of the European Union, furthermore in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. In each of these countries the - 1. administrative systems used to register individual occupational radiation exposure, - 2. numbers and dose distributions of occupationally radiation exposed persons in 1995 are surveyed. The aim is to describe and compare the administrative structures of the various national registration systems and the distributions of the workers and their doses. It shall identify the differences between the states and analyse the possibilities for a European harmonization. Because of the intention of numerous Central and Eastern European countries to join the European Community, the harmonization theme is also of considerable importance for these countries. The workshop served the preparing works to execute the ESOREX study also in ten Central and Eastern European countries. In order to establish the necessary contacts and to prepare the co-operation with the respective institutions of these states, the BfS organised, together with the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic, an international introductory workshop in Prague in September 1998. The proceedings reflect the presentations of the participants and the results of the discussions. (orig.) [de

  1. Introduction to and Bibliography of Central European Women's Holocaust Life Writing in English

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Louise O.

    2009-01-01

    In her "Introduction to and Bibliography of Central European Women's Holocaust Life Writing in English," Louise O. Vasvári discusses aspects and perspectives of women's life writing, including her criteria of selection, the problematics of sourcing, issues of translation, and processes of publication. While the authors listed in the bibliography are overwhelmingly Jewish and from Central and East Europe, there are works listed by others whose experiences also offer important testimony not onl...

  2. Actual versus perceived central bank transparency: the case of the European Central Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.; Eijffinger, S.

    2008-01-01

    Central banks have become more and more transparent about their monetary policy making process. In the central bank transparency literature the distinction between actual and perceived transparency is often lacking. However, as perceptions are crucial for the actions of economic agents this

  3. Landslide hazards and systems analysis: A Central European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo; Kreuzer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Part of the problem with assessing landslide hazards is to understand the variable settings in which they occur. There is growing consensus that hazard assessments require integrated approaches that take account of the coupled human-environment system. Here we provide a synthesis of societal exposure and vulnerability to landslide hazards, review innovative approaches to hazard identification, and lay a focus on hazard assessment, while presenting the results of historical case studies and a landslide time series for Germany. The findings add to a growing body of literature that recognizes societal exposure and vulnerability as a complex system of hazard interactions that evolves over time as a function of social change and development. We therefore propose to expand hazard assessments by the framework and concepts of systems analysis (e.g., Liu et al., 2007) Results so far have been promising in ways that illustrate the importance of feedbacks, thresholds, surprises, and time lags in the evolution of landslide hazard and risk. In densely populated areas of Central Europe, landslides often occur in urbanized landscapes or on engineered slopes that had been transformed or created intentionally by human activity, sometimes even centuries ago. The example of Germany enables to correlate the causes and effects of recent landslides with the historical transition of urbanization to urban sprawl, ongoing demographic change, and some chronic problems of industrialized countries today, including ageing infrastructures or rising government debts. In large parts of rural Germany, the combination of ageing infrastructures, population loss, and increasing budget deficits starts to erode historical resilience gains, which brings especially small communities to a tipping point in their efforts to risk reduction. While struggling with budget deficits and demographic change, these communities are required to maintain ageing infrastructures that are particularly vulnerable to

  4. China in light of the performance of Central and East European economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švejnar, Jan

    -, č. 26 (2007), s. 1-39 Keywords : economic transition * China * CEE countries Subject RIV: AH - Economic s http://www.internationalpolicy.umich.edu/workingpapers/ipc-26-svejnar, china -in-light-of-the-performance-of-central- and -east-european-economies.pdf

  5. The Central European, Tarim and Siberian Large Igneous Provinces, Late Palaeozoic orogeny and coeval metallogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/098199056

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the Central European and Tarim Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) in the Early Permian coincided with the demise of the Variscan and the Southern Tianshan orogens, respectively. The Early Triassic Siberian LIP was formed in the wake of the Western Altaid orogeny in the Late Permian.

  6. Genetic variability of central-western European pine marten (Martes martes) populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Elschot, Kelly; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; van de Zande, Louis; Zalewski, Andrzej; Munoz, Joaquin; Madsen, Aksel Bo; Loeschcke, Volker; de Groot, Arjen; Bijlsma, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies highlighted the potential role of cryptic glacial refugia for temperate taxa in Europe beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas. To further investigate phylogeographic features of the European pine marten (Martes martes) in previously identified cryptic refugia located in central-western

  7. Effects of atmospheric and climate change at the timberline of the Central European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Matyssek, Rainer; Luzian, Roland; Zwerger, Peter; Pindur, Peter; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This review considers potential effects of atmospheric change and climate warming within the timberline ecotone of the Central European Alps. After focusing on the impacts of ozone (O3) and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, effects of climate warming on the carbon and water balance of timberline trees and forests will be outlined towards conclusions about changes in tree growth and treeline dynamics. Presently, ambient ground-level O3 concentrations do not exert crucial stress on adult conifers at the timberline of the Central European Alps. In response to elevated atmospheric CO2 Larix decidua showed growth increase, whereas no such response was found in Pinus uncinata. Overall climate warming appears as the factor responsible for the observed growth stimulation of timberline trees. Increased seedling re-establishment in the Central European Alps however, resulted from invasion into potential habitats rather than upward migration due to climate change, although seedlings will only reach tree size upon successful coupling with the atmosphere and thus loosing the beneficial microclimate of low stature vegetation. In conclusion, future climate extremes are more likely than the gradual temperature increase to control treeline dynamics in the Central European Alps. PMID:21379395

  8. The democratic accountability of the European Central Bank : A comment on two fairy-tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J; Eijffinger, SCW

    The European Central Bank (ECB) is widely considered to be (legally) independent. Buiter (1999) critizes the ECB for its lack of democratic accountability, which he does not define in a very precise way. Issing (1999) replies to some of the points raised by Buiter and argues that the ECB is both

  9. Structural changes in Central and Eastern European economies: breaking news or breaking the ice?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Égert, B.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, R.; Kočenda, Evžen; Morales-Zumaquero, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, 1-2 (2006), s. 85-103 ISSN 1573-9414 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries * multiple structural breaks * volatility Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  10. Development tendencies of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesner, W.; Stuits, I.; Zeltins, N.

    1999-01-01

    The present work considers development problems of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries being in transition in the period from 1990 to 1997. It outlines the changes in economical situation during this period. The paper also shows the development dynamics for economic indicators in 11 countries and analyses them for each country taken separately. (author)

  11. The challenges of attracting an retaining academic talent. Central and Eastern European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Rose, Anna-Lena

    2016-01-01

    Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries are currently facing strong imperatives to increase incoming academic staff mobility. In this article, we focus on barriers and facilitators of academic mobility. We provide examples of Lithuanian and Czech higher education systems that are based on

  12. Institutionalisation without internalisation. The cultural dimension of French-German conflicts on European Central Bank independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, F.A.W.J. van; Jong, E. de

    2013-01-01

    When accepting the Maastricht treaty, the members of the Euro-zone agreed on the establishment of a very independent European Central Bank (ECB). Over the years, however, French political leaders systematically brought forward proposals undermining the ECB’s independence, much to the dismay of their

  13. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascha K Rochat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. OBJECTIVE: To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. MATERIALS: We used data collected between January 1993 and December 2010 from a central European population. The data was modelled using "Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape" (GAMLSS. RESULTS: The spirometry reference equations were derived from 118'891 individuals consisting of 60'624 (51% females and 58'267 (49% males. Altogether, there were 18'211 (15.3% children under the age of 18 years. CONCLUSION: We developed spirometry reference equations for a central European population between 8 and 90 years of age that can be implemented in a wide range of clinical settings.

  14. Institutionalisation without Internalisation. The Cultural Dimension of French-German Conflicts on European Central Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, F.A.W.J.; Jong, Eelke, De

    2013-01-01

    When accepting the Maastricht treaty, the members of the Euro-zone agreed on the establishment of a very independent European Central Bank (ECB). Over the years, however, French political leaders systematically brought forward proposals undermining the ECB’s independence, much to the dismay of their

  15. Foreign bank entry, bank efficiency and market power in Central and Eastern European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Poghosyan, Arsen

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the implications of the recently observed sharp expansion of foreign banks in the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) as measured by equity ownership. We show that the mode of foreign entry has a pivotal impact on the post-entry performance of banks in CEECs. Foreign

  16. Reasons for Discontinuing Hashish Use in a Group of Central European Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, David F.

    1988-01-01

    Examined self-reported reasons for discontinuing marijuana use among 61 former marijuana using students at central European sports training facility. Most common reasons given for discontinuing marijuana use were dislike of effects, athletic training regimen, health reasons, and mental/emotional problems. (Author/NB)

  17. Factual material data banks: CEC Workshop, JRC Petten, November 14-16, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeckel, H; Reynard, K; Steven, G

    1985-01-01

    The CEC Workshop on Factual Materials Data Banks was held at JRC Petten, The Netherlands, on November 14-16, 1984. The workshop was limited to consideration of data bases of machine-readable, factual data on technically relevant properties of engineering materials. Its objectives were to: review with the aid of demonstrations, the present status and availability of materials data bases in Europe; compare these with the experience of those in other countries; define aims for a cooperative approach to integration in the CEC, taking advantage of the discussions which have taken place on a similar approach in other countries; and recommend and assign priorities as to how the CEC structures, means of action and funding should be used to produce timely, practical and effective results. The importance of materials data and information systems were reviewed and summary papers on the situation in the UK, France, Germany, Japan and the USA were given. Recommendations under the following eleven headings have been gathered from the findings of the group discussions and plenary sessions: Directory of Data Information Sources; Improving Awareness; Multilingual Dictionary of Technical Terms and Definitions; Defining a European System; Guidelines for the Functional Specification of Software and ''Standards'' for Uniformity and User Friendliness in Access; Demonstrator Program; Analysis of Economic and Cost-benefit Aspects; Strategy for Coping with a Variety of User Needs; Educational Aspects; Confidentiality and Restrictions on Data Access; and Standardization of Test Methods and Test Result Presentation.

  18. RE-EXAMINATION OF THE PURCHASING POWER PARITY IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The empirical record on PPP tests for transition economies is far from being so opulent as it is for the developed market economies. This paper attempts to fill this gap by scrutinizing the theory of PPP on a sample of Central and Eastern European economies. The paper has two main advances with respect to previous PPP studies. First, it employs a monthly data base on real exchange rates for a panel of 12 Central and Eastern European economies by testing the theory separately with respect to US dollar and with respect to Euro. Second, we utilise a panel unit root test that involves the estimation of the ADF regression in a SUR framework. Since our study found support for the validity of PPP in some reforming European economies, special attention should be devoted to individual country-specific factors that cause PPP deviations.

  19. MUP, CEC-DES, STRADE. Codes for uncertainty propagation, experimental design and stratified random sampling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendola, A.; Astolfi, M.; Lisanti, B.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes the how-to-use of the codes: MUP (Monte Carlo Uncertainty Propagation) for uncertainty analysis by Monte Carlo simulation, including correlation analysis, extreme value identification and study of selected ranges of the variable space; CEC-DES (Central Composite Design) for building experimental matrices according to the requirements of Central Composite and Factorial Experimental Designs; and, STRADE (Stratified Random Design) for experimental designs based on the Latin Hypercube Sampling Techniques. Application fields, of the codes are probabilistic risk assessment, experimental design, sensitivity analysis and system identification problems

  20. Acquits communautaire in quality management in the energy sector -Central and Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristikj, Julija

    1997-01-01

    Energy is considered as one of the main infrastructure components, and efficient energy sectors are corner stones for the economic growth of the Central and Eastern European Countries on their way towards gaining EU membership. Therefore, energy is considered as one of the main directions of action within the PHARE Programme with trans-European dimensions. Five years ago started the implementation of the PHARE Multi-country Energy Programme, the efforts of which have been oriented to three main strategic axes: energy policy, energy supply, as well as energy efficiency and environment. (author)

  1. Undergraduate teaching of nuclear medicine: a comparison between Central and Eastern Europe and European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, P.; Scheffler, J.; Bandurski, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper overviews the curricula of nuclear medicine (NM) undergraduate training in 34 Central and Eastern European (CEE) and 37 European Union (EU) medical faculties. The data show enormous variation in the number of hours devoted to nuclear medicine, varying between 1-2 to 40 hours and highly differentiated concepts/ideas of nuclear medicine training in particular countries. In most EU countries this teaching is integrated with that of radiology or clinical modules, also with training in clinical physiology. In many CEE countries teaching and testing of NM are independent, although integration with other teaching modules is frequent. The paper discusses the differences in particular approaches to nuclear medicine teaching. (author)

  2. CEC-atmospheric pressure ionization MS of pesticides using a surfactant-bound monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Congying; Shamsi, Shahab A

    2010-04-01

    A surfactant bound poly (11-acrylaminoundecanoic acid-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column was simply prepared by in situ co-polymerization of 11-acrylaminoundecanoic acid and ethylene dimethacrylate with 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol and water as porogens in 100 microm id fused-silica capillary in one step. This column was used in CEC-atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI)-MS system for separation and detection of N-methylcarbamates pesticides. Numerous parameters are optimized for CEC-APPI-MS. After evaluation of the mobile phase composition, sheath liquid composition and the monolithic capillary outlet position, a fractional factorial design was selected as a screening procedure to identify factors of ionization source parameters, such as sheath liquid flow rate, drying gas flow rate, drying gas temperature, nebulizing gas pressure, vaporizer temperature and capillary voltage, which significantly influence APPI-MS sensitivity. A face-centered central composite design was further utilized to optimize the most significant parameters and predict the best sensitivity. Under optimized conditions, S/Ns around 78 were achieved for an injection of 100 ng/mL of each pesticide. Finally, this CEC-APPI-MS method was successfully applied to the analysis of nine N-methylcarbamates in spiked apple juice sample after solid phase extraction with recoveries in the range of 65-109%.

  3. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznań, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań.

  4. Land Mobility in a Central and Eastern European Land Consolidation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    in a Central and Eastern European land consolidation context. The term land mobility is defined and the limited theory available is reviewed. Case studies of land mobility in land consolidation pilot projects in Moldova, Albania and Bosnia-Herzegovina show the correlation between land mobility and the success......In most of the Central and Eastern European countries, land reforms after 1989 have resulted in extensive land fragmentation. The majority of the countries have during the two recent decades introduced land consolidation instruments to address the structural problems with land fragmentation...... or failure of voluntary land consolidation projects. In situations with low land mobility, land consolidation instruments need in order to be successful to be supported by other land policy tools such as land banks. The use of existing state agricultural land is an obvious foundation for establishing a state...

  5. Income inequality in post-communist Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara ROSE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Income inequality has become an important issue in Central and Eastern European countries during their transition process. This study constructs a model incorporating different categories of factors that impact inequality and tests whether the wealth of a country makes a difference in these relationships. This article shows that different income categories of Central and Eastern European transition countries do experience different relationships between income inequality and its contributing factors: economic, demographic, political, and cultural and environmental. The resulting Random Effects models of the best fit incorporate economic and political factors and show differences in magnitude, direction, and in their significance. These findings add to the literature by taking a cross-country and cross-income view on the impact of various factors.

  6. The monetary policy of the European Central Bank in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitskaya Irina, L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the monetary policy analysis of the European Central Bank (ECB under the present crisis conditions. The paper systematizes the ECB monetary policy in today's crisis and researches it at different stages of the crisis. A detailed analysis showed that the ECB's monetary policy is significantly different from the actions of other central banks during the current crisis (for example, the Federal Reserve. Thus, the ECB unconventional monetary policy combined with traditional measures, but does not replace them. Often ECB use credit easing instead of quantitative easing. The ECB's monetary policy used not only to combat the financial crisis, such as the Fed, but also to deal with the debt crisis. These features of the ECB’s monetary policy were due to both the institutional characteristics of the European Union, as well as special conditions of flow of the financial crisis in the euro zone.

  7. Contagion among Central and Eastern European stock markets during the financial crisis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Vácha, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2013), s. 443-453 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : wavelets * financial crisis * Central and Eastern European stock markets * comovement * contagion Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.358, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/barunik-0396416.pdf

  8. Ethical Leadership Styles of Future Managers in Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Remišová; Anna Lašáková

    2013-01-01

    There is a limited understanding what the constituent elements of the ethical leadership are. Although various researchers defined ethical leadership as a specific leadership style, with typical personality traits and behaviors, the precise instantiation of the content of ethical leadership was only seldom investigated. The body of empirical research on ethical leadership is only slowly beginning to build up. Furthermore, the ethical leadership in Central and Eastern European countries (CEE c...

  9. How Do Neural Networks Enhance the Predictability of Central European Stock Returns?

    OpenAIRE

    Jozef Baruník

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author applies neural networks as nonparametric and nonlinear methods to Central European (Czech, Polish, Hungarian, and German) stock market returns modeling. In the first part, he presents the intuition of neural networks and also discusses statistical methods for comparing predictive accuracy, as well as economic significance measures. In the empirical tests, he uses data on the daily and weekly returns of the PX-50, BUX, WIG, and DAX stock exchange indices for the 2000–...

  10. Wavelet Analysis of Central European Stock Market Behaviour During the Crisis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Vácha, Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2009, č. 23 (2009), s. 1-14 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP402/08/P207; GA ČR GD402/09/H045 Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : wavelet analysis * multiresolution analysis * Central European stock markets * financial crisis Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  11. Behavioral Determinants of Russian Nuclear State-Owned Enterprises in Central and Eastern European Region

    OpenAIRE

    Vlcek, Tomas; Jirusek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Rosatom State Nuclear Corporation play a substantial role in the energy sector of the Central and Eastern European region and the behavioral characteristics of the company forms the basis of this article. Rosatom is positioned as the dominant provider of nuclear technology and fuel supplies to the region, in large part stemming from the Soviet legacy in CEE countries. Compounding this challenge, nuclear energy is one of the major sources of power generation in CEE. Given the long-time, near m...

  12. Agreement and Accuracy of National Stereotypes in Five Central European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hřebíčková, M. (Martina); Graf, S. (Sylvie)

    2016-01-01

    In the chapter, we provide an overview of the current research on the accuracy of national stereotypes and introduce results of a research project on national stereotypes in five Central European countries. National stereotypes were operationalized as personality traits of typical country representatives. In Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, and Slovakia, we measured stereotypes from ingroup as well as outgroup perspectives. Each typical country representative was rated by people ...

  13. Changes in Inflation Dynamics under Inflation Targeting? Evidence from Central European Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baxa, Jaromír; Plašil, M.; Vašíček, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2015), s. 116-130 ISSN 0264-9993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Bayesian model averaging * Central European countries * Inflation Dynamics Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.997, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/baxa-0449816.pdf

  14. The Impact of Bribery on Firm Performance: Evidence from Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Kochanova

    2012-01-01

    I examine the relation between bureaucratic corruption ('to get things done') and firm performance in Central and Eastern European countries. While previous re- search relies on data from the BEEPS survey, which suffers from excessive non- reporting of corporate performance, I combine the information on bribery practices from the BEEPS with reliable firm performance data from the Amadeus database. The estimates, identified from within-firm variation, suggest that bureaucratic cor- ruption neg...

  15. Long-range dependence in returns and volatility of Central European Stock Indices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-19 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : long-range dependence * rescaled range * modified rescaled range * bootstrapping Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/kristoufek-long-range dependence in returns and volatility of central european stock indices.pdf

  16. Radiation processing in some Central-East European countries: an area report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1990-01-01

    The area report presents the state of art and the hard-ware status of radiation processing in some Central-East European countries. Only sources exceeding 1.85 PBq (50 kCi) of the isotope and 0.5 kW beam power electron accelerators have been taken into account, operating in the first half of 1989. Trends of development are discussed. (author)

  17. Ethical Competence Training for Members on Clinical Ethics Committees (CEC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knox, Jeanette Bresson Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    To address the moral questions in patient care and medical practice, Danish hospitals are starting to solicit clinical ethics committees (CEC). As in other places around the world, CECs in Denmark is an interdisciplinary group that includes physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists, lawyers...... lingering moral quandaries. Thus, the creation of CECs in Denmark has raised the question of qualifications for those who serve on a committee. When the Danish Society of Clinical Ethics was formed in 2012, it was therefore at the forefront of its agenda to establish a training program that would offer...... valuable contributions to the ethical aspect of medical decision making and to serve as an important resource for health care providers, patients and their families. This article describes the history, development and preliminary results of the current training program as well as reflects on future ideas...

  18. Economic potential of demand response at household level—Are Central-European market conditions sufficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prüggler, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic potential of demand response (DR) on household level at Central European market conditions. Thereby, required economic benefits for consumers' participation, the realistic load shifting potential at household level and the estimation of essential intelligent infrastructure costs are discussed. The core of this paper builds a case-study applying spot market-oriented load shifting from the supplier's point of view by using Austrian electricity market data, household load profiles as well as a heat pump and e-car charging load profile. It is demonstrated which cost savings for suppliers can be derived from such load shifting procedure at household level. Furthermore, upper cost limits for intelligent infrastructure in order to break-even are derived. Results suggest to take a critical look at European discussions on DR implementation on household level, showing that at Central European market conditions the potential for DR at household level is restricted to significant loads and hence, the applied load shifting strategy is only beneficial with application to heat pumps. In contrast, the frequently discussed shifting of conventional household devices' loads (such as washing machines) economically does not add up. - Highlights: • Calculation of economic potential of domestic DR at Central European market conditions. • Model and case-study of spot market-oriented load shifting from supplier's perspective. • Derivation of supplier's cost savings and upper cost limits for ICT infrastructure. • Results show economic potential of domestic DR to be restricted to significant loads. • Shifting of washing machines economically does not pay off in contrast to heat pumps

  19. Regionalism versus integration of the EU electricity market : An open debate from the comparative and prospective analysis of regulatory regimes in the central European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engoian, Alda; Mouchart, Christel

    2005-12-15

    The failure of integration of 25 national energy markets into an unique one has been clearly expressed by the European Commission in its last benchmarking report. This working paper investigate the question of the more appropriate and realistic market design to limit perverse effects linked to the gaps between Western and Eastern European electricity markets. The paper consists in comparing electricity regulations per segment of the value chain in the CECs (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia) characterized by industrial structures stemming from the socialism. Our regulatory approach and the example of South-East Europe support the idea of regionalism as an interim stage towards a final integrated European market. This regionalism based on the Standard Market Design concept, with flexible principles, and simultaneously combined to national reforms would seem to be a ''key of success''. (Author)

  20. Regionalism versus integration of the EU electricity market : An open debate from the comparative and prospective analysis of regulatory regimes in the central European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engoian, Alda; Mouchart, Christel

    2005-01-01

    The failure of integration of 25 national energy markets into an unique one has been clearly expressed by the European Commission in its last benchmarking report. This working paper investigate the question of the more appropriate and realistic market design to limit perverse effects linked to the gaps between Western and Eastern European electricity markets. The paper consists in comparing electricity regulations per segment of the value chain in the CECs (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia) characterized by industrial structures stemming from the socialism. Our regulatory approach and the example of South-East Europe support the idea of regionalism as an interim stage towards a final integrated European market. This regionalism based on the Standard Market Design concept, with flexible principles, and simultaneously combined to national reforms would seem to be a ''key of success''. (Author)

  1. Evidence of ancient DNA reveals the first European lineage in Iron Age Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, C Z; Li, C X; Cui, Y Q; Zhang, Q C; Fu, Y Q; Zhu, H; Zhou, H

    2007-07-07

    Various studies on ancient DNA have attempted to reconstruct population movement in Asia, with much interest focused on determining the arrival of European lineages in ancient East Asia. Here, we discuss our analysis of the mitochondrial DNA of human remains excavated from the Yu Hong tomb in Taiyuan, China, dated 1400 years ago. The burial style of this tomb is characteristic of Central Asia at that time. Our analysis shows that Yu Hong belonged to the haplogroup U5, one of the oldest western Eurasian-specific haplogroups, while his wife can be classified as haplogroup G, the type prevalent in East Asia. Our findings show that this man with European lineage arrived in Taiyuan approximately 1400 years ago, and most probably married a local woman. Haplogroup U5 was the first west Eurasian-specific lineage to be found in the central part of ancient China, and Taiyuan may be the easternmost location of the discovered remains of European lineage in ancient China.

  2. Il cambio dollaro/euro, il prezzo del petrolio e la Banca Centrale Europea (Dollar/Euro Exchange Rate, Oil Price and the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sylos Labini

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis on dollar/euro exchange rate, oil price and European Central Bank monetary policy is worked out. Firstly, data on the main variables related with the exchange rate and an equation to explain the variation of the exchange rate in the period March 1998-September 2000 are presented; secondly, the consequences of oil price growth and eurodevaluation on the US and European economies are taken into account; lastly, different policy strategies to stop eurodevaluation are discussed. The European Central Bank strategy, that consists of small increases of the interest rate, is not reaching any result. An alternative strategy is based on innovative public demand, that should be financed by European bonds using "central bank excess funds" as security. Public demand of infrastructures and new technologies should aim at reducing oil dependence and would stimulate growth and sustainable development in Europe, with positive effects on the exchange rate.

  3. The Integration of MEPs from Central and Eastern Europe into the European Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko Hokovský

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the level of integration of Members of the European Parliament from Central and Eastern Europe in the European Parliament after the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007. The main objective is to address the puzzle of how the European Parliament’s political groups could maintain or even increase their voting cohesion after the influx of a significantly large number of new MEPs coming from countries with different historical experience, socio-economic characteristics, and political and party systems. Three indicators of MEP integration are defined: integration into parliamentary leadership, integration into parliamentary work, and integration into voting patterns. The article uses data from the VoteWatch.eu website on MEPs’ activities and voting between the years 2004-2011, as well as data from official documents of the European Parliament and its political groups. Analysis of the data reveals that the new member states’ MEPs were significantly under-represented in parliamentary leadership and key legislative activities, despite the fact that their voting loyalty to their political groups was greater than that of their colleagues from older member states.

  4. Micronutrient intake and status in Central and Eastern Europe compared with other European countries, results from the EURRECA network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Bekkering, G.E.; Roman-Vinas, B.; Ngo, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Glibetic, M.; Golesorkhi, M.; Warthon-Medina, M.; Satalic, Z.; Geelen, A.; Serra Majem, L.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare micronutrient intakes and status in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) with those in other European countries and with reference values. Design: Review of the micronutrient intake/status data from open access and grey literature source

  5. Implementation of the CEC Directive on patient protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    A report on a lecture given on the implementation in the UK of the CEC Directive on patient protection is given. After outlining the history of legislation on the medical uses of ionizing radiations, the current Directive and the Department of Health and Social Security's specific proposals to meet its requirements are presented. (UK)

  6. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Guozheng

    2016-07-06

    Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2) explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3) investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population.

  7. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Liu

    Full Text Available Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1 examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2 explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3 investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs, but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population.

  8. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Guozheng; Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Longin, C. Friedrich H.; Reif, Jochen C.; Mette, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2) explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3) investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population.

  9. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guozheng; Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Longin, C. Friedrich H.; Reif, Jochen C.; Mette, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2) explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3) investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population. PMID:27383841

  10. Central European Workshops on Soil Zoology (CEWSZ) České Budějovice, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel

    č. 36 (2003), s. 21 ISSN 1161-2398. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /6./. České Budějovice, 24.04.2001-25.04.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : European Workshop * soil zoology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. The European central bank and the us federal reserve as lender of last resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herr Hansjörg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Without a lender of last resort financial stability is not possible and systemic financial crises get out of control. During and after the Great Recession the US Federal Reserve System (Fed and the European Central Bank (ECB took on the role of lender of last resort in a comprehensive way. The Fed stabilised the financial system, including the shadow banking system. However, the chance to fundamentally restructure the financial system was not used. The ECB was confronted with sovereign debt crises and an incomplete integration of the European Monetary Union (EMU. It followed a kind of “muddling through” to keep the Euro area together. In the EMU not only a fundamental restructuring of the financial system is needed but also a deeper economic and political integration. The Fed and the ECB both were the most important institutions to avoid repetition of the 1930s.

  12. Determinants of non-performing loans in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Škarica

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the determinants of the changes in the non-performing loan (NPL ratio in selected European emerging markets. The model was estimated on a panel dataset using a fixed effects estimator for seven Central and Eastern European (CEE countries between Q3:2007 and Q3:2012. The countries analyzed are Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Romania and Slovakia. Although the literature on NPLs is quite extensive, this is the first empirical research on the countries of CEE region using aggregate, country-level data on problem loans. The results suggest that the primary cause of high levels of NPLs is the economic slowdown, which is evident from statistically significant and economically large coefficients on GDP, unemployment and the inflation rate.

  13. Centralized vs decentralized options for a european data relay satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Ph. Saint; Hervieux, M.; Perbos, J. L.; Saggese, E.; Soprano, C.

    The European Data Relay Satellite (DRS) is now being planned to support future European missions in the nineties and in particular the various elements of the in-orbit infrastructure. Studies are being conducted to investigate the usefulness of the Relay System as well as to provide the basis for issuing technical specifications for a development and launch in 1993. This paper presents the results of a study issued by ESA on possible options for a DRS System, concentrating on the comparison between a centralized and a decentralized data distribution concept. After recalling the space programmes foreseen in Europe, the paper discusses the architecture and design of the various elements of the System: space segment, DRS ground segment and user ground segment for different options of data dissemination.

  14. Centralized vs decentralized options for an European Data Relay Satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Aubert, S.; Hervieux, M.; Perbos, J. L.; Saggese, E.; Soprano, C.

    1985-10-01

    The European Data Relay Satellite (DRS) is now being planned to support future European missions in the nineties and in particular the various elements of the in-orbit infrastructure. Studies are being conducted to investigate the usefulness of the relay system as well as to provide the basis for issuing technical specifications for a development and launch in 1993. This paper presents the results of a study issued by ESA on possible options for a DRS System, concentrating on the comparison between a centralized and a decentralized data distribution concept. After recalling the space programs foreseen in Europe, the paper discusses the architecture and design of the various elements of the System: space segment, DRS ground segment, and user ground segment for different options of data dissemination.

  15. Generalization and fine mapping of European ancestry-based central adiposity variants in African ancestry populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, S; Yao, J; Guo, X; Fernandez-Rhodes, L; Lim, U; Boston, J; Buzková, P; Carlson, C S; Cheng, I; Cochran, B; Cooper, R; Ehret, G; Fornage, M; Gong, J; Gross, M; Gu, C C; Haessler, J; Haiman, C A; Henderson, B; Hindorff, L A; Houston, D; Irvin, M R; Jackson, R; Kuller, L; Leppert, M; Lewis, C E; Li, R; Le Marchand, L; Matise, T C; Nguyen, K-Dh; Chakravarti, A; Pankow, J S; Pankratz, N; Pooler, L; Ritchie, M D; Bien, S A; Wassel, C L; Chen, Y-D I; Taylor, K D; Allison, M; Rotter, J I; Schreiner, P J; Schumacher, F; Wilkens, L; Boerwinkle, E; Kooperberg, C; Peters, U; Buyske, S; Graff, M; North, K E

    2017-02-01

    Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of body mass index (BMI) and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition. To identify the underlying functional genetic determinants of body fat distribution, we conducted an array-wide association meta-analysis among persons of African ancestry across seven studies/consortia participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. We used the Metabochip array, designed for fine-mapping cardiovascular-associated loci, to explore novel array-wide associations with WC and WHR among 15 945 African descendants using all and sex-stratified groups. We further interrogated 17 known WHR regions for African ancestry-specific variants. Of the 17 WHR loci, eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in four loci were replicated in the sex-combined or sex-stratified meta-analyses. Two of these eight independently associated with WHR after conditioning on the known variant in European descendants (rs12096179 in TBX15-WARS2 and rs2059092 in ADAMTS9). In the fine-mapping assessment, the putative functional region was reduced across all four loci but to varying degrees (average 40% drop in number of putative SNPs and 20% drop in genomic region). Similar to previous studies, the significant SNPs in the female-stratified analysis were stronger than the significant SNPs from the sex-combined analysis. No novel associations were detected in the array-wide analyses. Of 17 previously identified loci, four loci replicated in the African ancestry populations of this

  16. Generalization and fine mapping of European ancestry-based central adiposity variants in African ancestry populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Sachiko; Yao, Jie; Guo, Xiuqing; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Lim, Unhee; Boston, Jonathan; Buzková, Petra; Carlson, Christopher S.; Cheng, Iona; Cochran, Barbara; Cooper, Richard; Ehret, Georg; Fornage, Myriam; Gong, Jian; Gross, Myron; Gu, C. Charles; Haessler, Jeff; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Houston, Denise; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Jackson, Rebecca; Kuller, Lew; Leppert, Mark; Lewis, Cora E.; Li, Rongling; Le Marchand, Loic; Matise, Tara C.; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung H.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Pankow, James S.; Pankratz, Nathan; Pooler, Loreall; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Bien, Stephanie A.; Wassel, Christina L.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Taylor, Kent D.; Allison, Matthew; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Wilkens, Lynne; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kooperberg, Charles; Peters, Ulrike; Buyske, Steven; Graff, Mariaelisa; North, Kari E.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of BMI and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition. Subjects/Methods To identify the underlying functional genetic determinants of body fat distribution, we conducted an array-wide association meta-analysis among persons of African ancestry across seven studies/consortia participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. We used the Metabochip array, designed for fine mapping cardiovascular associated loci, to explore novel array-wide associations with WC and WHR among 15 945 African descendants using all and sex-stratified groups. We further interrogated 17 known WHR regions for African ancestry-specific variants. Results Of the 17 WHR loci, eight SNPs located in four loci were replicated in the sex-combined or sex-stratified meta-analyses. Two of these eight independently associated with WHR after conditioning on the known variant in European descendants (rs12096179 in TBX15-WARS2 and rs2059092 in ADAMTS9). In the fine mapping assessment, the putative functional region was reduced across all four loci but to varying degrees (average 40% drop in number of putative SNPs and 20% drop in genomic region). Similar to previous studies, the significant SNPs in the female stratified analysis were stronger than the significant SNPs from the sex-combined analysis. No novel associations were detected in the array-wide analyses. Conclusions Of 17 previously identified loci, four loci replicated in the African ancestry populations of

  17. Lichens of neglected habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Motiejūnaitē

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Situation of lichens of aquatic and transient habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands is discussed basing on example of several selected species: Leptogium biatorinum, Sarcosagium campestre, Steinia geophana, Verrucaria aquatilis, V. hydrela, V. praetermissa, V. xyloxena. Both habitat types are generally very much neglected in the region and all species show large spatial gaps in recording, which makes it difficult to judge both about their true distribution limits and spreading dynamics. On the other hand, targeted search through the suitable habitats and abundance of such indicate that many of these lichens are probably not uncommon in the region.

  18. Perspectives for long-term competition in the central European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the Central European electricity market and analyse whether liberalization, deregulation, and privatization are sufficient to bring about real competition. Moreover, we discuss the relevance of the following conditions to bring about real competition and to avoid market power: 1) A rigorous correct un bundling; 2) excess capacities in transmission; 3) excess capacities in generation; 4) a large number of generators and suppliers; 5) the balanced existence of short-term (e.g. spot markets) and long-term markets (e.g. bilateral contracts, forwards); 6) full liberalization; Some major findings of this analysis are: 1) Currently, demand is continuously increasing while capacities are shut down. At least in 2009 demand will have caught up with generation capacities. This could lead to severe price spikes. 2) The Central European electricity market is separated from other markets by means of limited transmission capacities; 3) With respect to effective competition in Central Europe the major problems are: i) a very small (and continuously decreasing) number of generators, and ii) a lack of serious un bundling between generation and transmission mainly in Germany; This leads to cross-subsidization of generation by the network operation and to a heavy discrimination of other and new generators; 4) Moreover, a crucial condition for active competition is a sufficiently large transmission grid. Yet, currently especially at the border to the new EU member countries transmission capacities are rather scarce and there are no signs of extensions of the grid. This also limits the access of countries with potential excess capacities like Ukraine, Bulgaria, Romania to the Central European market The major conclusion of this analysis is: All conditions investigated above must be fulfilled simultaneously to bring about a competitive electricity market in Western Europe and the extended European Union. If only one of these conditions is missing, competition

  19. Assessment of Single European Sky Implementation in the Functional Airspace Block Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Mihetec

    2017-12-01

    implementation is performed through sub-regional grouping of Air Navigation Service Providers in a form of Functional Airspace Blocks. This paper analyses the level of implementation of ATM-related projects in the Functional Airspace Block Central Europe and their relation to other Functional Airspace Blocks defined in Europe. From this paper it is obvious that even though the planning of Single European Sky projects is based on the collaborative implementation of Functional Airspace Block level, the real implementation is fragmented and based on national levels.

  20. Analysis of the Voting Method used in the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honorata Sosnowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Game theoreticians usually deal with standard voting methods such as plurality voting or approval voting. In reality however, some complicated non-standard voting methods are used. In this paper the voting method and rotation scheme have been presented used by the Governing Council of the European Central Bank (ECB, as it enlarges to accommodate new members of the economic and monetary union. We present game theoretical approaches for analyzing this method and different methods of computing the Shapley value for games connected with voting under such rotation schemes. (original abstract

  1. Where Did Central- and Eastern-European Emigrants Go and Why?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    Central European countries, and Romania and Bulgaria, while immigrants from the Baltic countries seem to rely much less on networks. Income gaps have a positive effect on migration flows, particularly from the Southeastern countries, while employment opportunities in destination countries are main...... an important role in international migration from those countries. The disaggregated results show that there are large differences between the CEE countries with respect to emigration patterns. The lagged stock of immigrants, which may reflect networks has a strong and positive effect for immigrants from...

  2. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT. EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela Amarandei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of corruption on foreign direct investment inflows for ten Central and Eastern European states. The paper attempts to answer the question: what is the role of corruption in attracting foreign direct investments? Using the data from UNCTAD for foreign direct investment and Corruption Perception Index from Transparency International, for a period of 12 years, 2000-2012, we evaluate the specific impact of corruptions on FDI using GDP as control variable. Our results confirm the majority of literature and show a negative significant relation between the variables analyzed, but at a lower intensity than expected.

  3. Long-range dependence in returns and volatility of Central European Stock Indices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 27 (2010), s. 50-67 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 5183/2010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : long-range dependence * bootstrapping * rescaled range analysis * rescaled variance analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/kristoufek-long-range dependence in returns and volatility of central european stock indices bces.pdf

  4. THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK AND THE FEDERAL RESERVE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Clichici

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the main differences and similarities between the European Central Bank (ECB and US Federal Reserve (FED in terms of their functional framework and monetary policy. The research is based on a comparative analysis of the history of establishing the Eurosystem and the Federal Reserve System, which has influenced the way these central banks operate today. It also analyzes the policy responses of the two institutions to the 2007 global financial crisis, since both their non-conventional policy measures and the effects thereof on growth, inflation and unemployment rates were slightly different. The paper finds that there are differences between the ECB and FED rather regarding the organization and functioning of the Committees for monetary policy and monetary policy objectives than the institutional structure and policy framework

  5. The Eastring gas pipeline in the context of the Central and Eastern European gas supply challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišík, Matúš; Nosko, Andrej

    2017-11-01

    Ever since the 2009 natural gas crisis, energy security has been a crucial priority for countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Escalating in 2014, the conflict between Ukraine and Russia further fuelled negative expectations about the future development of energy relations for the region predominantly supplied by Russia. As a response to the planned cessation of gas transit through the Brotherhood pipeline, which brings Russian gas to Europe via Ukraine and Slovakia, the Slovak transmission system operator Eustream proposed the Eastring pipeline. This Perspective analyses this proposal and argues that neither the perceived decrease in Slovak energy security nor the loss of economic rent from the international gas transit should be the main policy driver behind such a major infrastructure project. Although marketed as an answer to current Central and Eastern European gas supply security challenges, the Eastring pipeline is actually mainly focused on issues connected to the Slovak gas transit.

  6. The Migration Crisis from the East-Central European Perspective: Challenges for Regional Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Podgórzańska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the common denominator of involvement of the EastCentral Europe in the international arena, and above all, the premise determining community of interest expressed in the European Union is the migration crisis. Despite the different circumstances of activity in the context of the migration crisis, states in the region express similar opinions on the consequences of immigration for security in the region. Above all, they emphasise the implications of immigration for the internal security of states. Given the complex nature of migration, this article focuses on the phenomenon of immigration in the EU, determining the causes of the escalation of the influx of immigrants and, above all, identifying the consequences for the security of states of East-Central Europe.

  7. Electromagnetic field standards in Central and Eastern European countries: current state and stipulations for international harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajsek, P; Pakhomov, A G; Klauenberg, B J

    2002-04-01

    Electromagnetic field standards in the West are based on well-established acute biological effects that could be considered as signaling a potentially adverse health effect. The specific absorption rate, which is proportional to the tissue heating (thermal effects), represents the basic restriction of exposure to Radio-Frequency (RF) fields. On the other hand, Eastern European standards are designed to protect from potential non-thermal effects that might be caused by chronic exposure to very low intensities, where a so-called "power load" (a product of field intensity and duration of exposure) represents the basic limitation. Thus, electromagnetic field standards in Eastern European countries differ considerably from those which are proposed by the International Commission of Non-ionizing Radiation Protection and the Standards Coordinating Committee 28 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. In the present paper, the strategies for development of exposure limit values in electromagnetic fields standards currently in force in Eastern and Central European countries are discussed. Some differences as well as similarities of the national health and safety standards and the main obstacles to harmonization of these standards with those being established by Western national and international organizations and agencies are presented.

  8. Real Style: Riegl and Early 20th Century Central European Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Originally published in Centropa: Journal of Central European Art and Architecture 5, n. 1 (January 2005: 16-25. Kimberly A. Smith discusses the ways in which the understanding of style was articulated by intellectuals working in the late nineteenth century, primarily in Germany and Austria, and the epistemological repercussions of this shift in thinking for both the theory and practice of central European art in the years before World War I. Smith focuses in particular on the writings of Alois Riegl, in which this approach to thinking about style came to its most influential fruition, and proposes that Riegl’s conception of form had implications for artistic practice. Riegl’s methodological understanding of artistic form drew connections between morphological types and perceptions of reality, thereby altering the ways in which artists could conceive of aesthetic authenticity. Style itself could be seen as the harbinger of truth, opening up the possibility that any style might offer a genuine revelation of the real. Yet as Smith shows, the Rieglian theory of meaningful form may have encouraged an artistic pluralism that subverted the very Kunstwollen theory of historically unified style from which it sprung.

  9. The Image of the East-Central European in Rose Tremain’s The Road Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harasztos Ágnes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Rose Tremain’s The Road Home, the culture clash of the British and the East-Central European is portrayed through a complex symbolism centred on images of food, consumption and waste. This literary representation may shed light on British literary auto-images, as well as hetero-images of the Eastern European immigrant. The novel’s presentation of this culture shock is defined by the cultural historical and economic circumstances of the parties. Food and material provide the symbolic sphere where the relationship between Britain and East-Central Europe is characterized in terms of capitalist worldview as opposed to a post-communist existence. William Shakespeare’s Hamlet is the most important intertext for Tremain’s novel. Hamlet is obsessed with the vulnerability of material in light of the spiritual value attached to it in the form of human soul. Stephen Greenblatt’s ideas on food, waste and the Christian belief in divine existence residing in material objects - ideas that originate in early modern times - shed light on the motif of material and food in The Road Home. Seen through the symbolism of food and the idea of differing values being attached to matter, the narrative identity of Lev, the protagonist of Tremain’s work, experiences drastic change due to his encounter with the capitalist, British ‘other’.

  10. Financial development and energy consumption in Central and Eastern European frontier economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of financial development on energy consumption in a sample of 9 Central and Eastern European frontier economies. Several different measures of financial development are examined including bank related variables and stock market variables. The empirical results, obtained from dynamic panel demand models, show a positive and statistically significant relationship between financial development and energy consumption when financial development is measured using banking variables like deposit money bank assets to GDP, financial system deposits to GDP, or liquid liabilities to GDP. Of the three stock market variables investigated, only one, stock market turnover, has a positive and statistically significant impact on energy consumption. Both short-run and long-run elasticities are presented. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. - Research Highlights: → Financial development affects energy consumption in 9 Central and Eastern European frontier economies. → Bank variables have a larger impact on energy consumption than do stock market variables. → Long run bank elasticities range from 0.117 to 0.276. → These results have implications for energy demand forecasts and greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered. Five NUTS-2 (Nomenclature d'Unites Territoriales Statistiques) regions with high biomass production potentials in Poland, Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic were analysed for biofuel export options. From these regions pellets from willow can be provided to destination areas in Western European countries (WEC) at costs of 105.2-219.8 EUR t -1 . Ethanol can be provided at 11.95-20.89 EUR per GJ if the biomass conversion is performed at the destination areas in the WEC or at 14.84-17.83 EUR GJ -1 J if the biomass to ethanol conversion takes place (at small scale) at the CEEC region where the biomass is produced. Short sea shipping shows most cost advantages for longer distance international transport compared to inland waterway shipping and railway. Another reason for lower biofuel supply costs are shorter distances between the regions of biomass production and the destination areas. Therefore the Szczecin region in Poland, closely located to the Baltic Sea, shows a better economic performance for long distance trade of biomass production than the selected region in Hungary ('land-locked'). It is concluded that in future key CEEC regions can supply (pre-treated) biomass and biofuels to the European market at cost levels, which are sound and attractive to current and expected diesel and gasoline prices. (author)

  12. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty - A Joint CEC/USNRC Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Julie J.; Harper, Frederick T.

    1999-01-01

    The joint USNRC/CEC consequence uncertainty study was chartered after the development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS in the U.S. and COSYMA in Europe. Both the USNRC and CEC had a vested interest in expanding the knowledge base of the uncertainty associated with consequence modeling, and teamed up to co-sponsor a consequence uncertainty study. The information acquired from the study was expected to provide understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of current models as well as a basis for direction of future research. This paper looks at the elicitation process implemented in the joint study and discusses some of the uncertainty distributions provided by eight panels of experts from the U.S. and Europe that were convened to provide responses to the elicitation. The phenomenological areas addressed by the expert panels include atmospheric dispersion and deposition, deposited material and external doses, food chain, early health effects, late health effects and internal dosimetry

  13. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty - A Joint CEC/USNRC Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Julie J.; Harper, Frederick T.

    1999-07-28

    The joint USNRC/CEC consequence uncertainty study was chartered after the development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS in the U.S. and COSYMA in Europe. Both the USNRC and CEC had a vested interest in expanding the knowledge base of the uncertainty associated with consequence modeling, and teamed up to co-sponsor a consequence uncertainty study. The information acquired from the study was expected to provide understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of current models as well as a basis for direction of future research. This paper looks at the elicitation process implemented in the joint study and discusses some of the uncertainty distributions provided by eight panels of experts from the U.S. and Europe that were convened to provide responses to the elicitation. The phenomenological areas addressed by the expert panels include atmospheric dispersion and deposition, deposited material and external doses, food chain, early health effects, late health effects and internal dosimetry.

  14. PUBLIC POLICY, QUALITY OF INTITUTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOGARU DORIN-MADALIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between economic performance and institutional development in several Central and Eastern European Countries. Our meta-argument is that the structural transformations at the levels of the quantitative variables and mechanisms are only a part of the transition processes. In order to view the big picture, the qualitative aspects related to public policies and institutions should also be considered. We test the linkages between the quality of public policies and institutions for seven Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia and Romania for a time span between 2001 and 2011. These countries are displaying a certain degree of heterogeneity in terms of economic performances and the design and implementation of public policies. We use for our analysis the World Bank indicators from World Wide Governance Indicators. In order to deal with the potential reverse causality issues, we employ Generalized Method of Moments Framework (GMM by using the lagged variables as instruments. The impact of governance indicators is statistically significant even if we use several control variables: exchange rate, unemployment, current account deficit, taxes burden and price stability. The corresponding Sargan and Arellano-Bond test for zero autocorrelation in first-differenced errors tests shows that the results display a corresponding robustness. The main policy implications for our findings may be synthesized by the thesis, according to which a proper design of public policies, a high degree of their effectiveness and accountability, a stable social and political environment together with the rule of law and efficient anticorruption mechanisms are critical determinants of economic growth even in emerging markets. The impact of the government “size , economic structure and markets” mechanisms , monetary policy and price stability , ownership structure and legal rights

  15. Results of the third CEC intercomparison of active and passive detectors for the measurement of radon and radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1988-01-01

    In 1982 and 1984 the radiation protection research programme of the European Communities organized intercomparisons of radon and radon daughter measurement techniques, and the results were published (Miles et al., 1983; Miles and Sinnaeve, 1986. The second of these intercomparisons was carried out as part of a wider exercise sponsored jointly by the CEC and the OECD/NEA (OECD, 1983). The third CEC intercomparison, held at the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in the United Kingdom in 1987, again constituted the European regional part of this wider exercise. The intercomparison on the European region was carried out in two stages, the first for passive integrating detectors and the second for active instruments, usually by spot measurements. Twenty-one laboratories participated in the intercomparison, of passive dosimetry and 17 in that for active dosimetry. Passive detectors have been used in many European countries to carry out surveys of exposure in homes and to monitor occupational exposure. The exposures for the intercomparison of passive detectors were carried out in June, July and August 1987 at NRPB. The intercomparison of active detectors was carried out over three days in October 1987, when scientists from the participating laboratories brought their equipment to NRPB

  16. CEC workshop on methods for assessing the offsite radiological consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luykx, F.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1986-01-01

    On Apr 15-19, 1985, in Luxembourg, the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), in collaboration with the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), Federal Republic of Germany, and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), United Kingdom, presented a workshop on methods for assessing the offsite radiological consequences of nuclear accidents. The program consisted of eight sessions. The main conclusions, which were presented in the Round Table Session by the individual Session Chairmen, are summarized. Session topics are as follows: Session I: international developments in the field of accident consequence assessment (ACA); Session II: atmospheric dispersion; Session III: food chain models; Session IV: urban contamination; Session V: demographic and land use data; Session VI: dosimetry, health effects, economic and counter measure models; Session VII: uncertainty analysis; and Session VIII: application of probabilistic consequence models as decision aids

  17. Systematic review on the evaluation criteria of orphan medicines in Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelei, Tamás; Molnár, Mária J; Szegedi, Márta; Kaló, Zoltán

    2016-06-04

    In case of orphan drugs applicability of the standard health technology assessment (HTA) process is limited due to scarcity of good clinical and health economic evidence. Financing these premium priced drugs is more controversial in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) region where the public funding resources are more restricted, and health economic justification should be an even more important aspect of policy decisions than in higher income European countries. To explore and summarize the recent scientific evidence on value drivers related to the health technology assessment of ODs with a special focus on the perspective of third party payers in CEE countries. The review aims to list all potentially relevant value drivers in the reimbursement process of orphan drugs. A systematic literature review was performed; PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched for relevant publications until April 2015. Extracted data were summarized along key HTA elements. From the 2664 identified publications, 87 contained relevant information on the evaluation criteria of orphan drugs, but only 5 had direct information from the CEE region. The presentation of good clinical evidence seems to play a key role especially since this should be the basis of cost-effectiveness analyses, which have more importance in resource-constrained economies. Due to external price referencing of pharmaceuticals, the relative budget impact of orphan drugs is expected to be higher in CEE than in Western European (WE) countries unless accessibility of patients remains more limited in poorer European regions. Equity principles based on disease prevalence and non-availability of alternative treatment options may increase the price premium, however, societies must have some control on prices and a rationale based on multiple criteria in reimbursement decisions. The evaluation of orphan medicines should include multiple criteria to appropriately measure the clinical added value of orphan

  18. Some stylised facts about the exchange rate behaviour of Central European currencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vejmělek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates developments of exchange rate time series of Central European currencies and tries to find evidence of some stylised facts. Statistical methods and an econometric approach to the univariate time series modelling of high-frequency data, i.e., daily, are used. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 All the CE nominal exchange time series are not stationary: nevertheless, stationarity of all the return time series was confirmed. (2 Volatility clustering was proven and the GARCH modelling approach was successfully applied, including asymmetric modelling of volatility. (3 The more flexible an exchange rate regime is, the more volatile the respective currency. This is true for both nominal and real exchange rates. While nominal volatility is lower than real volatility in a system of fixed or less flexible exchange rates, the opposite is true for flexible systems: exchange rate volatility is higher in nominal terms than in real terms.

  19. E-business and its Application in Conditions of Central European Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Tolga Saruc

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is highlighting possibilities in effective utilization of Information and Communication Technologies for supporting entrepreneurship (e-business for Small and Medium enterprises. The core research carried on for duration of twelve months covered analysis and following presentation of possibilities of practical utilization of e-business applications. Furthermore research was oriented towards innovative forms of marketing communication in Real Corporation conducting business in Central European market. Analyzing data on collected findings can add value towards gaining a significant competitive advantage in form of better understanding of real facts influencing entrepreneurship in principle. This can lead consequently to positive influence on corporate effectiveness in the environment of Small and Medium enterprises.

  20. Central and Eastern European Countries Focus on the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Road Economic Belt, a strategic priority of the Chinese foreign policy in 2015, draws the attention to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe through the multiple benefits that it displays (investments, economic growth, trade between the countries along its corridors, job creation, infrastructure development, the strategic importance of being part of a grandiose multi-continental project. Among these benefits an important one is represented by the opportunities of Chinese investments in infrastructure, since the EU is suffering from a credit restraint. Also, The Silk Road Economic Belt could lead to a potential increase in the bilateral trade. Analyzing the literature in the field and the various official information available online, this paper aims to depict the Chinese project form the Eastern European perspective, identifying local priorities, conflicting interests, possible infrastructure projects, routes, focusing on two strategic countries in the region: Romania and Serbia, both displaying advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Effective Exchange Rates in Central and Eastern European Countries: Cyclicality and Relationship with Macroeconomic Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavárek Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of effective exchange rates in nine Central and Eastern European countries in terms of development trends, volatility and cyclicality. Consequently, it provides direct empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship between effective exchange rates and selected macroeconomic fundamentals, addressing a key precondition of numerous exchange rate determination models and theories that attempt to explain the role of exchange rates in the economy. The results suggest that flexible exchange rate arrangements are reflected in both nominal and real effective exchange rates having higher volatility and variability. Furthermore, the results provide mixed evidence in terms of intensity, direction and cyclicality, but show a weak correlation between exchange rates and fundamentals. Sufficiently high coefficients are found only for money supply. Consequently, using fundamentals for the determination of exchange rates and using the exchange rate to explain economic development may be of limited use for the countries analyzed.

  2. Educational Systems and Inequalities in Educational Attainment in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Before exploring the selectivity of educational attainment in detail, this article extensively describes the contours of educational systems in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. These countries provide an interesting setting in view of their post-secondary education expansion and differentiation, as well as their variation in the degree of vocational orientation at the secondary level. Drawing on high quality, national micro data, we find that students from disadvantaged family backgrounds who manage to enter post-secondary education are ʽdivertedʼ to second-tier post-secondary institutions, while long-term university programs are more likely to be dominated by students whose parents have an academic background. At the secondary level, we confirm the patterns of negative selection among students from lower social backgrounds into lower vocational programs. This diversion effect at the secondary level is especially pronounced in CEE countries that inherited a strong secondary vocational system and reinstalled early tracking.

  3. The Eighth Central European Conference “Chemistry towards Biology”: Snapshot†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel, András; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Sklenář, Vladimír; Nováček, Jiří; Papoušková, Veronika; Kadeřávek, Pavel; Žídek, Lukáš; Kozłowski, Henryk; Watły, Joanna; Hecel, Aleksandra; Kołkowska, Paulina; Koča, Jaroslav; Svobodová-Vařeková, Radka; Pravda, Lukáš; Sehnal, David; Horský, Vladimír; Geidl, Stanislav; Enriz, Ricardo D.; Matějka, Pavel; Jeništová, Adéla; Dendisová, Marcela; Kokaislová, Alžběta; Weissig, Volkmar; Olsen, Mark; Coffey, Aidan; Ajuebor, Jude; Keary, Ruth; Sanz-Gaitero, Marta; van Raaij, Mark J.; McAuliffe, Olivia; Waltenberger, Birgit; Mocan, Andrei; Šmejkal, Karel; Heiss, Elke H.; Diederich, Marc; Musioł, Robert; Košmrlj, Janez; Polanński, Jarosław; Jampílek, Josef

    2017-01-01

    The Eighth Central European Conference “Chemistry towards Biology” was held in Brno, Czech Republic, on 28 August–1 September 2016 to bring together experts in biology, chemistry and design of bioactive compounds; promote the exchange of scientific results, methods and ideas; and encourage cooperation between researchers from all over the world. The topics of the conference covered “Chemistry towards Biology”, meaning that the event welcomed chemists working on biology-related problems, biologists using chemical methods, and students and other researchers of the respective areas that fall within the common scope of chemistry and biology. The authors of this manuscript are plenary speakers and other participants of the symposium and members of their research teams. The following summary highlights the major points/topics of the meeting. PMID:27763518

  4. Determinants of FDI into Central and Eastern European Countries: Pull or Push Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Polat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in foreign direct investments (FDI, substantial uncertainty still exists regarding what stimulates foreign investors to operate in a foreign market and uneven distribution of FDI across countries. Using panel data for 2001 -2012 period, the major determinants of the FDI inflows into the Central and Eastern European Countries are analysed in this study. Strong evidence are found that while EU CR indices, EU and USA real GDP growth rates and global financial crisis have power to explain FDI inflows among all other push factors, labour cost, electricity price, real exchange rate and host CR indices have strong influential on FDI as the most effective pull factors. However, study fails to find any effect of openness, tax rates on commercial profits, USA CR indices, interest rate differentials and host real GDP growth on FDI.

  5. Stochastic properties of the consumption-income ratios in central and eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giray Gozgor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate stochastic properties of the consumption-income ratios in eleven central and eastern European (CEE countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The heterogeneous panel unit root tests are used to account for cross-sectional dependence and the Modified Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test over the period March 1997-September 2012. The half-lives are also calculated as to find the strong mean-reversion in the consumption income ratio for nine of eleven CEE economies; and the exceptions are Croatia and Slovenia. In other words, empirical findings provide significant support for the existence of hypothesis that the consumption-income ratio is a mean reversion. Accordingly, the policy implications have permanent effects on the consumption of households only in Croatia and Slovenia.

  6. Financial development and energy consumption in Central and Eastern European frontier economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadorsky, Perry [Schulich School of Business, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    This study examines the impact of financial development on energy consumption in a sample of 9 Central and Eastern European frontier economies. Several different measures of financial development are examined including bank related variables and stock market variables. The empirical results, obtained from dynamic panel demand models, show a positive and statistically significant relationship between financial development and energy consumption when financial development is measured using banking variables like deposit money bank assets to GDP, financial system deposits to GDP, or liquid liabilities to GDP. Of the three stock market variables investigated, only one, stock market turnover, has a positive and statistically significant impact on energy consumption. Both short-run and long-run elasticities are presented. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. (author)

  7. Spatial concentration of economic activity and competitiveness of Central European regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Majewska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles with a still somewhat underdeveloped aspect of regional competiveness which regards to spillover effects stemming from spatial proximity of highly competitive neighbors. Although spillover effects are well recognized in the literature, we focus more on inter-regional concentration of business activity when enterprises are located in a particular district which is not far from the agglomeration center but not the center itself. We check for statistical significance of spatial autocorrelation measures (local Moran’s Ii statistic in order to identify spillovers between districts in Central European countries (Germany, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia. We use variables indicating Knowledge Intensive Services (KIS, in particular hi-tech KIS and information and communication services (including computer science. We compare 2009 with 2015 to notice agglomeration dynamics. We observe statistically significant spillover effects in Central European countries in urbanization-type clusters as well as strengthening of the effect over time. Taking into consideration more detailed data for Poland we conclude that while hi-tech KIS mostly spill over to neighboring districts, the reverse pattern may be observed for computer science (programming and consultancy. One explanation is that this subsector relies on highly demanded workforce and a prestigious localization (in the agglomeration centers works as a bargaining chip to attract programmers. In order to measure the spillover effects more precisely it is recommended to define and measure the neighborhood of agglomeration centers using localization of firms based on GPS coordinates instead of centroids (geometric means of districts – as shown in example of Poland.

  8. Management Effectiveness and Land Cover Change in Dynamic Cultural Landscapes - Assessing a Central European Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Ohnesorge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that - despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately 85% across all zones - differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark. However, some highly desirable targets, such as the conversion of coniferous plantations into seminatural forests or the gain of valuable biotope types, affected larger areas in the nonprotected reference area than in the transition zone.

  9. Social Progress in Romania and other Central and Eastern European Non- Eurozone States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGINIA CÂMPEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our research paper refers to the social progress achieved in the last 10 years by Romania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Poland and Hungary as non- Eurozone members (CEE-6, compared to the minimum and maximum levels in the EU-28, depending on their economic development levels. This analysis isa part of the larger-scale study regarding the readinessassessment of Romania and other five Central and Eastern European countries (CEE-6 for accession to the Eurozone in terms of the real convergence. We extended the analysis of the real economic convergence to the sphere of social convergence. The purpose of the extended analysis is to compare the living standards in Romania, CEE-6 and other European Union member states (EU-28 and to draw conclusions on the social convergence as a complement to real economic convergence. Using a new analytical tool, the global composite index “Social Progress Index” at different levels of disaggregation, this article reveals the social gaps between CEE-6 and the EU and identifies strengths, and weaknesses for these countries to achieve social progress on the road to real economic and social convergence with the EU.The aim is to provide to the national decision-makers some milestones to remove weaknesses and to turn threats into opportunities in the future social and economic policies.

  10. Increasing large scale windstorm damage in Western, Central and Northern European forests, 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregow, H.; Laaksonen, A.; Alper, M. E.

    2017-04-01

    Using reports of forest losses caused directly by large scale windstorms (or primary damage, PD) from the European forest institute database (comprising 276 PD reports from 1951-2010), total growing stock (TGS) statistics of European forests and the daily North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, we identify a statistically significant change in storm intensity in Western, Central and Northern Europe (17 countries). Using the validated set of storms, we found that the year 1990 represents a change-point at which the average intensity of the most destructive storms indicated by PD/TGS > 0.08% increased by more than a factor of three. A likelihood ratio test provides strong evidence that the change-point represents a real shift in the statistical behaviour of the time series. All but one of the seven catastrophic storms (PD/TGS > 0.2%) occurred since 1990. Additionally, we detected a related decrease in September-November PD/TGS and an increase in December-February PD/TGS. Our analyses point to the possibility that the impact of climate change on the North Atlantic storms hitting Europe has started during the last two and half decades.

  11. High-Speed Rail for Central and Eastern European Countries: A Conference Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandová Monika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European transport strategy promotes the role of railways and expects that the key role in passenger transport should be played by high-speed rail (HSR. Although the core network of high-speed lines has already been built and is operating in Western Europe, there has been little coverage so far in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. The aim of the conference “High-Speed Rail for CEE Countries” that took place in Prague in June 2016 was to put together academics, policy-makers, and practitioners interested in HSR and to formulate recommendations for CEE countries based on West European countries’ experience. Based on the conference presentations and subsequent discussion, the following conclusions were formulated. Firstly, there are many crucial differences in national HSR build-up and operation, which means that former experience of Western Europe is not directly applicable to CEE countries. Secondly, in comparing presentations discussing experiences in France, Britain, Italy, and Germany, it was concluded that the German approach-upgrading existing lines where possible and only building new lines for bottleneck sections-was the most likely appropriate solution in CEE. Lastly, CEE has the additional problem of many border crossings, with a reduction of traffic in comparison with purely domestic routes, and this effect has to be taken into account.

  12. Analysis of Fertility in Ten Central And Eastern European Countries After 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ-Vasile JEMNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of democracy in the communist countries, which generated profound social and economic transformation, was accompanied by a decline in fertility. We attempt to provide an overall survey on fertility since 1989 in ten Central and Eastern European Countries, members of the European Union, and to identify the variables which explain the fertility decline. We will use univariate and multivariate statistical analysis to identify disparities between the ten countries, and the variables which explain these differences. Also, we developed a panel econometric model to confirm the hypothesis of a similar pattern of evolution for fertility in these countries and that the decline in fertility can be explained both through demographic and economic variables. The decline in fertility can be explained by economic growth, marriage, divorce, abortion, and migration. The empirical evidence presented in this paper supports the view that the decline in fertility over the 1989s represents the continuation of a longstanding trend of the previous period, according to the demographic transition theory, but its speed and magnitude has been influenced by the new social and economic landscape. These results can be useful for public authorities of the CEE countries to rethinking demographic policies and to ensure the sustainability of demographic growth.

  13. Study of seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Ella; Sanina, Irina; Ivanchenko, Galina; Nesterkina, Margarita; Konstantinovskaya, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    A measurement system for location seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform is situated within the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory of the RAS Institute of Geospheres Dynamics and consists of 12 seismic stations. One vertical station is located in the center of the group in a shaft tunnel. The other stations are located on the periphery in three concentric circles and are almost equally spaced with regard to the terrain to ensure full azimuth coverage to the maximum extent possible. The unique array identifies events with a magnitude up to 3 at the distances until 1000 km within the Central Part of East European platform. Most of the events recorded by the Mikhnevo array at a distance of 60-500 km are man-made events represented by explosions in quarries during the development of mineral deposits. Long-term seismic records of explosions in quarries have been processed for the period from 2004 to 2014 to generate a database containing standard waveforms for each quarry. Some events of unknown origin appear in the records for this period; these do not correspond to the identified seismic forms for explosions in known quarries. Epicenter coordinates for these events do not match the coordinates of the known quarries. A cosmotectonic map of the Central Part of East European Platform was compiled during the studies using the LESSA software package (Lineament Extraction and Stripe Statistical Analysis) and data on the deep crustal structure, which made it possible to define the morphostructural plan and evaluate the geodynamic conditions in the area. The deep basement structure through the sedimentary cover is expressed in the surface texture of the area under study. The region's neotectonics is closely related to the history of deep structures, in particular, aulacogens extending in different directions, which may show in the contemporary morphostructural plan, mainly as inversion and partially inherited forms. Out of events of unknown nature

  14. Web of science coverage and scientific performance of Central and Eastern European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploszaj, A.; Olechnicka, A.

    2016-07-01

    The paper put forward the hypothesis that changes in the list of journals, particularly in the number of periodicals published in specific Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, have a significant impact on bibliometric indicators and, consequently, on the convergence levels they are used to measure. The analyses presented in the article support the argument that countries from Central and Eastern Europe, despite showing fairly consistent convergence trends, achieve noticeably weaker results than Western Europe regarding research and development and scientific activity. The evident impact made by the inclusion of numerous CEE journals in WoS on the values of the indicator analysed, directly supports the hypothesis put forward in this article. The results of the study are important because data on the number of publications and citations in the Web of Science are increasingly used as development indicators of national R&D sectors. By showing how modifications in these databases influence the results obtained, we can better understand and thus make better use of data from these sources. The article concludes with listing the possibilities for furthering and deepening selected themes pointed out in the paper. (Author)

  15. Non-Standard Monetary Policies Implemented By The European Central Bank After The Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Filiz Baştürk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis which began in the U.S. in 2007 influenced all economies on a global scale followingthe collapse of Lehman Brothers in September 2008. As a response to the crisis, central banksstarted to implement non-standard monetary policy tools as well as short-term interest rates alsoknown as standard policy tools in order to help monetary policy transmission channels work effectively.The European Central Bank (ECB implemented non-standard monetary policies as in additionto the standard policy tools during this period. The non-standard monetary policies introducedby the ECB were different from those implemented by other central banks (Fed, Bank of England interms of implementation and results. Firstly, the policies of the ECB were not specific to one singlecountry. Secondly, the banking system was the major source of finance in Europe, which had an impacton the policies. In this regard, the ECB introduced a policy of enhanced credit support consistingof five main elements in order to maintain price stability over the medium term following the crisis.By 2010, public debt in some member countries of the European Union reached high levels, requiringthem to take additional measures. The Securities Markets Programme was introduced to that end.Initially focusing on the debt securities of Greece, Ireland, and Portugal, the Securities Markets Programmewas expanded in August 2011 to cover the debt securities of Italy and Spain. In addition, twoLong-term Refinancing Operations (LTROs were introduced. This article presents a descriptive analysisof the non-standard monetary policy tools introduced by the ECB following the financial crisis.However, the monetary policy implemented in the Euro zone is not specific to one single country, andevery country has a different financial structure, both of which limit the effectiveness of the policiesimplemented. The changing structure of the monetary policy implemented in the aftermath of the crisisaims to

  16. Decreasing soil erosion rates with evolving land-use techniques in a central European catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Annegret; Heckmann, Tobias; Hans-Rudolf, Bork; Alexander, Fuelling

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural societies around the world have caused accelerated soil erosion. Soil erosion and a decrease in soil fertility may also have caused the abandonment of entire landscapes and the collapse of civilizations. In central Europe, Medieval land-use is thought to have lead to the largest loss of top soil in history, which in turn lead to a malnutrition of the population and abandonment of agricultural land. However, this might be only part of the picture, as people are also able to adapt to changing environmental conditions, including the type of land-use they adopt. Within a catchment in the central European mountain belt, we were able to distinguish the evolution between three main types of land-use techniques between ~ 900 AD and 1950 AD: horticulture, agriculture and shifting cultivation. We were able to relate these techniques with different soil erosion rates, which differ by an order of magnitude, ranging from 0.83 ± 0.09 mm/yr to 1.62 ± 0.17 mm/yr. Using high-resolution surface data and chrono-stratigraphical methods in combination with soil charcoal analysis, we were able to reconstruct past land-use techniques on a local scale. This illustrates that less erosive and more sustainable techniques were developed through time, and hypothesize that people were able to adapt to the less favorable environmental conditions by changing the cultivation techniques. Although cultural adaptation to changing environmental conditions has been extensively discussed, this study is able to quantitatively demonstrate improved soil management with evolving land-use in central Europe.

  17. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe. A central and eastern European perspective. The implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, N.E.; Jansen, T.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, "Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective" is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project "Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe". The ETGAGE

  18. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe : a Central and Eastern European perspective : the implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, Nicoleta; Jansen, Theo

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, 'Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective' is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project 'Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe'. The ETGAGE

  19. Il cambio dollaro/euro, il prezzo del petrolio e la Banca Centrale Europea (Dollar/Euro Exchange Rate, Oil Price and the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sylos Labini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis on dollar/euro exchange rate, oil price and European Central Bank monetary policy is worked out. Firstly, data on the main variables related with the exchange rate and an equation to explain the variation of the exchange rate in the period March 1998-September 2000 are presented; secondly, the consequences of oil price growth and eurodevaluation on the US and European economies are taken into account; lastly, different policy strategies to stop eurodevaluation are discussed. The European Central Bank strategy, that consists of small increases of the interest rate, is not reaching any result. An alternative strategy is based on innovative public demand, that should be financed by European bonds using "central bank excess funds" as security. Public demand of infrastructures and new technologies should aim at reducing oil dependence and would stimulate growth and sustainable development in Europe, with positive effects on the exchange rate.       JEL Codes: E58, F31Keywords: Devaluation, Exchange Rates, Monetary

  20. Attractiveness of Central and Eastern European Countries for Foreign Direct Investment in the Context of European Integration: The Case of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Andresson, Kairi; Reiljan, Janno; Reiljan, Ele

    2001-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) flows in the world have increased rapidly during the last decade. Most of the FDI inflows are targeted to developed countries (78% in 1999, about fifth of the flows are going to developing countries and Central and Eastern European transition countries are the host countries for only 2% of the world FDI. The necessity of foreign investments in the transition countries is the result of industrial restructuring in post-socialist Eastern Europe and the Baltic coun...

  1. European Association for Palliative Care: Forging a Vision of Excellence in Palliative Care in Central and Eastern European and Former Soviet Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch, Lukas; Ling, Julie; Hegedus, Katalin; Larkin, Philip

    2018-02-01

    The European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) represents many thousands of health care workers and volunteers working in or with an interest in palliative care. In 2016, the EAPC has individual members from 48 nations across the world, and collective members from 57 national palliative care associations in 32 European countries. Throughout its history, the EAPC has produced guidance on a range of palliative care issues. The biennial congresses and research congresses and the comprehensive Web site (www.eapcnet.eu) are renowned and well utilized platforms for dissemination and exchange of palliative care information. The EAPC has also published a newsletter specifically for Eastern European and Central Asian countries that has been available in both English and Russian from 2005 to 2012. In addition, for a period of time, a Russian Web site (www.eapcspeaksrussian.eu) was also available. A survey of palliative care in Central and Eastern European nations sponsored by Open Society Foundation's International Palliative Care Initiative found that in most countries, the national language is preferred rather than using English or Russian for the provision of information. Accordingly, the EAPC Web site provides translations of white papers, position papers, and blog posts in a number of languages. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined dendro-documentary evidence of Central European hydroclimatic springtime extremes over the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Brázdil, Rudolf; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Hofmann, Jutta; Kontic, Raymond; Kyncl, Tomáš; Pfister, Christian; Chromá, Kateřina; Tegel, Willy

    2011-12-01

    A predicted rise in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and associated effects on the Earth's climate system likely imply more frequent and severe weather extremes with alternations in hydroclimatic parameters expected to be most critical for ecosystem functioning, agricultural yield, and human health. Evaluating the return period and amplitude of modern climatic extremes in light of pre-industrial natural changes is, however, limited by generally too short instrumental meteorological observations. Here we introduce and analyze 11,873 annually resolved and absolutely dated ring width measurement series from living and historical fir ( Abies alba Mill.) trees sampled across France, Switzerland, Germany, and the Czech Republic, which continuously span the AD 962-2007 period. Even though a dominant climatic driver of European fir growth was not found, ring width extremes were evidently triggered by anomalous variations in Central European April-June precipitation. Wet conditions were associated with dynamic low-pressure cells, whereas continental-scale droughts coincided with persistent high-pressure between 35 and 55°N. Documentary evidence independently confirms many of the dendro signals over the past millennium, and further provides insight on causes and consequences of ambient weather conditions related to the reconstructed extremes. A fairly uniform distribution of hydroclimatic extremes throughout the Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age and Recent Global Warming may question the common believe that frequency and severity of such events closely relates to climate mean stages. This joint dendro-documentary approach not only allows extreme climate conditions of the industrial era to be placed against the backdrop of natural variations, but also probably helps to constrain climate model simulations over exceptional long timescales.

  3. The times are changing: temporal shifts in patterns of fish invasions in central European fresh waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabitsch, W; Milasowszky, N; Nehring, S; Wiesner, C; Wolter, C; Essl, F

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the invasion history of alien fish species based on exhaustive national data sets on fish invasions of two contiguous central European countries (Germany and Austria). Fifteen alien fish species are currently established in both countries, constituting 14 and 17% of the total freshwater fish fauna of Germany and Austria, respectively. In both countries, six alien species are present, but not established. The status of five alien species in Germany and three species in Austria remains unknown. Accumulation rates of alien fish species have increased in recent decades with >50% of them reported after 1971. North America and Asia were the primary sources of alien fish species in Germany and Austria up to the 1980s, whereas European species of Ponto-Caspian origin dominate now. Fisheries (including aquaculture) and the animal trade were responsible for most earlier introductions, whereas waterways were the main pathway for recent invaders. The extent of the spatial distribution of alien species was positively correlated with residence time, i.e. the time elapsed since the first national record. Different thermal preferences of early invaders (mostly coldwater species) and new invaders (typically warmwater adapted) may benefit the latter in the face of climate change. It is concluded that new challenges for alien fish management arise and that ecosystem-based approaches as endorsed by the E.U. Water Framework Directive (maintaining or restoring good ecological status of rivers and streams) should become the centrepiece of river management in Europe. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Money supply growth and inflation – the monetary policy strategy of the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Kapounek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to find out whether there is a significant relationship between money supply growth and inflation in the Eurozone. For this reason, the monetary policy strategy of the European Central Bank (ECB has been evaluated. Since the establishment of the ECB in January 1999 to May 2003 the ECB‘s monetary policy strategy consisted of three main elements: a quantitative definition of price stability, a prominent role for money in the assessment of risks to price stability (aggregate M3 as a reference value, and a broadly based assessment of the outlook for price developments. Nevertheless, since May 2003 M3 or any other monetary aggregate has lost its prominent role in the ECB‘s strategy. Therefore the nowadays ECB‘s monetary policy strategy consists of a quantitative definition of the primary objective of price stability and an analytical framework based on two pillars – economic analysis and monetary analysis. These two pillars are used by the ECB‘s Governing Council in the overall assessment of risks to price stability and in monetary policy decisions.The empirical part of this article is based on time series correlation between money supply growth and inflation in selected member countries of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU - Eurozone during the period 1995–2005. The time series are divided into two parts. The first part covers data for selected member countries of the European Union from 1995 till 1998, i.e. before the establishment of the EMU. Whereas the second part includes data for the whole Eurozone since its official start in 1999 to 2005. The time series are adjusted by SARIMA models.

  5. Gender Role Attitudes among Higher Education Students in a Borderland Central-Eastern European Region Called "Partium"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fényes, Hajnalka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the attitudes towards gender roles among higher education students in a borderland Central-Eastern European region. We used the database of "The Impact of Tertiary Education on Regional Development" project (N = 602, 2010). We intend to determine what kind of attitudes towards gender roles the students identify…

  6. Causes of the outbreak of the eurozone crises: the role of the USA and the European Central Bank monetary polic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalia Białek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the loose monetary policy of two of the world’s most important financial institutions—the U.S. Federal Reserve Board and the European Central Bank—were ultimately responsible for the outburst of global financial crisis of 2008-09. Unusually low interest rates in 2001- 05 compelled investors to engage in high risk endeavors. It also encouraged some governments to finance excessive domestic consumption with foreign loans. Emerging financial bubbles burst first in mortgage markets in the U.S. and subsequently spread to other countries. The paper also reviews other causes of the crisis as discussed in literature. Some of them relate directly to weaknesses inherent in the institutional design of the European Monetary Union (EMU while others are unique to members of the EMU. It is rather striking that recommended remedies tend not to take into account the policies of the European Central Bank.

  7. Retracted article: Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Nan Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Retraction (http://www.efri.uniri.hr/prikaz.asp?txt_id=7366 This is to notify our respectful reading public that the Editorial Board of the journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business has retracted the following article from publication: “Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries“, by Hsu-Ling Chang, Chi-Wei Su, Meng-Nan Zhu, published in our journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business, 2011, vol. 29 (1, pp. 51-63 and almost concurrently published in the journal Eastern European Economics, 2011, vol. 49 (3, pp. 54-65. Being in contact with Josef C Brada, Professor Emeritus, Editor of the journal Eastern European Economics (EEE, we realized that the paper had been sent to both journals, although first published in the EEE and then in our Journal. According to professor Brada’s and our analysis, the paper published in these two journals is exactly the same, except for minor differences in wording, most likely due to editing the text before publication. The outstanding differences are in the title and the fact that the paper published in our Journal has three authors and in EEE journal has two. Whatsoever, owing to the fact that the article had been sent to both journals almost at the same time, it had been impossible to find out the case during the review procedure. Due to this unpleasant situation, our Editorial Board would like to inform our valuable readers that all the necessary measures to retract the paper from our publication have been undertaken and according to publishing ethical principles, cooperation with the authors of the retracted paper have been stopped. Although, in this case neither EEE nor our Journal had any

  8. DATA ISSUES IN TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY BENCHMARKING: A CENTRAL EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machek Ondrej

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Total factor productivity is a method of measuring overall productivity of businesses, industries or economies. It is an approach which is recently becoming popular among government regulatory agencies when applying the so-called performance-based regulation. This principle induces regulated companies (for instance, electricity or natural gas distributors to behave efficiently even if their industries are not exposed to competitive pressures, since they are rewarded for being more productive than other firms in the industry, and penalized in the opposite case. The aim of this article is to deal with the question what are the main data issues when comparing total factor productivity among firms or industries with focus on the Central European region, which is very heterogeneous in terms of geographic, social, economic and historic conditions. In the first part, we introduce total factor productivity and the most common methods of its measurement � Malmquist and T�rnqvist indexes. Consequently, we divide the data issues into separate categories and discuss them more in detail. The first category of issues is related to defining the set of comparable firms. Many factors, such as the degree of competition in the market, the extent of government regulation, economies of scale, firm size, geographical conditions and historic development have to be taken into consideration. The second category is associated with specifying the time period. TFP estimates should be based on long time series and the period should include the whole business cycle and be representative and exclude extraordinary events. The third group of issues is related to defining and measuring the inputs and outputs. Since a number of difficulties are associated with labor input measurement, it is often included into operating expenditures along with materials and services. The measurement of capital is even more contentious. The outputs should reflect performance

  9. The Impact of the Public Authorities’ Messages – the European Central Bank Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Talpos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The public authorities (the agency messages could play a key role in the social subjects’ decisions. How and when the agency communicates the path of its future policies influences the present social and economic architecture. The aim of this paper is to advance an explanatory framework for the connections between the transparency and credibility of the public authorities and the volatility of the social output. In order to provide some empirical evidences, the paper will consider the case of the European Central Bank as a representative monetary authority. The main output of the paper resides in the thesis that, with a certain consistency, there are some connections between the agency’s mandates, the types of the messages transmitted by the agency and the volatility of the obtained results, and also in the idea that an agency entrusted with a “strong” mandate could transmit “mixed” type messages (i.e. “informative-persuasive” ones which, in special conditions, could influence the decisions of certain categories of clients and/ or non-members. Of course, the following core question still remains: “How sustainable could be the effects induced by the impact of different agency messages received by the various beneficiaries?” And this, because in the end “The one who knows does not speak and the one who speaks does not know” (LAO ZI - DAO DE JING.

  10. Export Promotion Aims and Reality: A Comparison of the Iberian, Baltic and Central European Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éltető Andrea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the international crisis in 2008-2009, the role of exports in economic growth came into focus in most countries. Exports of EU Member States gained momentum from 2010 onward but with certain changes in their structure and direction. In several countries, the turn towards non-EU areas, such as China or Latin America was part of the state export strategy. On the one hand, our article describes these foreign trade strategies and their institutional framework of the Iberian, Baltic and Central European governments, detecting possible similarities. On the other hand, we analyse recent export data. This way we can get a picture on the structure and direction of exports of periphery economies and this can be compared to the aims of the given states. Our hypothesis is that there is a gap between the reality and the intentions of the governments. The size of this gap varies and is influenced by certain factors such as the different involvement of multinational companies in foreign trade or the different economic structure of these countries. In our paper we list which countries adopted a government strategy and with what aim. We provide a short literature review on state trade promotion policies and discuss these policies and their institutions in the Baltic, Visegrád and Iberian countries.

  11. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-12-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter-gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Breeding Bird Assemblage in a Mosaic of Urbanized Habitats in a Central European City

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    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland. In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8% and insectivores (37.9 %. Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

  13. TRUST, CORRUPTION, BRIBES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    Ana Iolanda Voda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the Western world has drawn on theoretical structures of classical and neoclassical liberalism for its explanatory support and sources of inspiration for centuries. Against this ideological background, institutionalists aim at showing that growth is a process of transformation, a double change: an economic and an institutional one. In this analysis, our purpose is to highlight the importance of informal institutional arrangements and their quality in explaining the disparities of revenues and developments between countries. In our approach, we will consider several indicators meant to highlight various aspects of research. The approach proposed is a transversal-comparative one and static methods pertain to uni- and multivariate analysis. The results obtained suggest the existence of major differences within the Central and East European area as far as informal institutions are concerned; moreover, the analysis conducted confirms the existence of a significant relation between the level of development and the structure of informal arrangements such as: trust level, bribe culture and corruption control.

  14. Neighborhood environment and walking for transport and recreation in Central European older adults

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    Jana Pelclová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neighborhood environment is an aspect that influences physical activity, mainly walking. Hence, built environment research may help to use environmental and policy strategies to increase physical activity. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between perceived neighborhood environment and meeting the recommendation of at least 30 minutes of walking 5 or more days a week within active transportation and leisure-time domains in Central European older adults. METHODS: Four hundred and fifty six healthy ambulatory older adults filled out the modified and culturally adapted version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (ANEWS for obtaining perceived environment information and the self-administrative long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ for assessing physical activity levels. RESULTS: Respondents living in high residential density neighborhoods (OR 1.87, living in flats (OR 2.09 and in location with ≤100,000 inhabitants (OR 1.63 were more likely to meet recommendation within walking for transportation. Owning a dog was associated with meeting recommendation within walking for leisure (OR 1.69. CONCLUSIONS: This study supported the specific impact of environment on meeting PA recommendations within transportation and leisure time walking in older adults. Out of all perceived neighborhood environmental attributes received from ANEWS questionnaire, only high residential density was positively associated with meeting recommendation within total walking and walking for transport.

  15. Central European Vaccination Advisory Group (CEVAG) guidance statement on recommendations for influenza vaccination in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccination in infants and children with existing health complications is current practice in many countries, but healthy children are also susceptible to influenza, sometimes with complications. The under-recognised burden of disease in young children is greater than in elderly populations and the number of paediatric influenza cases reported does not reflect the actual frequency of influenza. Discussion Vaccination of healthy children is not widespread in Europe despite clear demonstration of the benefits of vaccination in reducing the large health and economic burden of influenza. Universal vaccination of infants and children also provides indirect protection in other high-risk groups in the community. This paper contains the Central European Vaccination Advisory Group (CEVAG) guidance statement on recommendations for the vaccination of infants and children against influenza. The aim of CEVAG is to encourage the efficient and safe use of vaccines to prevent and control infectious diseases. Summary CEVAG recommends the introduction of universal influenza vaccination for all children from the age of 6 months. Special attention is needed for children up to 60 months of age as they are at greatest risk. Individual countries should decide on how best to implement this recommendation based on their circumstances. PMID:20546586

  16. Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA 2006 - Opportunities, Trade Relation and Evolution of Macedonian Economic Diplomacy

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    Krum Efremov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Main activity in the foreign trade policy of the Republic of Macedonia during the past 10 years was the integration of the country on the Central European Free Trade Agreement – (CEFTA. The reason for this is the expectation that the membership of the Republic of Macedonia in CEFTA will significantly contribute to the continual efforts for strengthening the regional trade cooperation, further liberalisation of foreign trade exchange, and continuation of activities for harmonisation of trade rules with international standards. Additionally, CEFTA 2006 provides a much more comprehensive framework for development of mutual relations and economic cooperation among the countries of South Easte Europe. We will explain the concept of development of economic diplomacy in the Republic of Macedonia as a tool for supporting Macedonian economy. The purpose of these activities is to present the Republic of Macedonia as an attractive destination for foreign investments through the promotion of business advantages, and giving incentive to Macedonian export, as well as through strengthening of the country’s position as a attractive touristic destination.

  17. Political and Legal Bases of Foreign Policy Activity of the European Union in the Region of Central Asia

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    Turdimurat M. Tursunmuratov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the European Union’s foreign policy in Central Asia. He indicates the basic tendencies of development of the EU cooperation with the countries of Central Asian region. Further, the author analyzes the implementation of joint projects within the framework adopted by the Partnership Agreements. Based on a critical analysis, the researcher highlights a number of constraints to effective development of relations between the EU and Central Asian states. He carries out a structural analysis of conceptual documents of the European Union for the development of bilateral and multilateral relations with Central Asian countries in the region. Scientific novelty of this work lies in the systematization of stages in the evolution of relations between the European Union and the countries of Central Asia. The author divides the formation of cooperation into four main stages. The first stage of the relations between the EU and the countries of Central Asia includes conceptual framework of the legal regulatory structure of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. The second stage is characterized by the realization of a number of joint projects in the field of transport communications, democratic transformations, regional security and stability. The third stage of the relations is determined by acquiring of special geographical significance of the region of Central Asia resulting from the engagement of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan in 2001. The fourth stage has begun in 2015 with the adoption of the EU Strategy for a New Partnership with Central Asia for 2017-2021. These studies serve as a basis for developing some important proposals and recommendations for the improvement of the effectiveness of cooperation between the parties.

  18. Gravity signals from the lithosphere in the Central European Basin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorova, T.; Bayer, U.; Thybo, H.; Maystrenko, Y.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Lyngsie, S. B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the gravity signals from different depth levels in the lithosphere of the Central European Basin System (CEBS). The major elements of the CEBS are the Northern and Southern Permian Basins which include the Norwegian-Danish Basin (NDB), the North-German Basin (NGB) and the Polish Trough (PT). An up to 10 km thick sedimentary cover of Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments, hides the gravity signal from below the basin and masks the heterogeneous structure of the consolidated crust, which is assumed to be composed of domains that were accreted during the Paleozoic amalgamation of Europe. We performed a three-dimensional (3D) gravity backstripping to investigate the structure of the lithosphere below the CEBS. Residual anomalies are derived by removing the effect of sediments down to the base of Permian from the observed field. In order to correct for the influence of large salt structures, lateral density variations are incorporated. These sediment-free anomalies are interpreted to reflect Moho relief and density heterogeneities in the crystalline crust and uppermost mantle. The gravity effect of the Moho relief compensates to a large extent the effect of the sediments in the CEBS and in the North Sea. Removal of the effects of large-scale crustal inhomogeneities shows a clear expression of the Variscan arc system at the southern part of the study area and the old crust of Baltica further north-east. The remaining residual anomalies (after stripping off the effects of sediments, Moho topography and large-scale crustal heterogeneities) reveal long wavelength anomalies, which are caused mainly by density variations in the upper mantle, though gravity influence from the lower crust cannot be ruled out. They indicate that the three main subbasins of the CEBS originated on different lithospheric domains. The PT originated on a thick, strong and dense lithosphere of the Baltica type. The NDB was formed on a weakened Baltica low-density lithosphere formed during the Sveco

  19. The Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragato, Pier Luigi; Costa, Giovanni; Gallo, Antonella; Gosar, Andrej; Horn, Nikolaus; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mucciarelli, Marco; Pesaresi, Damiano; Steiner, Rudolf; Suhadolc, Peter; Tiberi, Lara; Živčić, Mladen; Zoppé, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    The region of the Central and Eastern Europe is an area characterised by a relatively high seismicity. The active seismogenic structures and the related potentially destructive events are located in the proximity of the political boundaries between several countries existing in the area. An example is the seismic region between the NE Italy (FVG, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), Austria (Tyrol, Carinthia) and Slovenia. So when a destructive earthquake occurs in the area, all the three countries are involved. In the year 2001 the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Slovenia, the Department of Mathematics and Geoscience of the University of Trieste (DMG), the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Italy and the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Austria signed an agreement for the real-time seismological data exchange in the Southeastern Alps region. Soon after the Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria projects "Trans-National Seismological Networks in the South-Eastern Alps" and "FASTLINK" started. The main goal of these projects was the creation of a transfrontier network for the common seismic monitoring of the region for scientific and civil defense purposes. During these years the high quality data recorded by the transfrontier network has been used, by the involved institutions, for their scientific research, for institutional activities and for the civil defense services. Several common international projects have been realized with success. The instrumentation has been continuously upgraded, the installations quality improved as well as the data transmission efficiency. In the 2013 ARSO, DMG, OGS and ZAMG decided to name the cooperative network "Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN". The national/regional seismic networks actually involved in the CE3RN network are: • Austrian national BB network (ZAMG - OE) • Friuli Veneto SP network (OGS - FV) • Friuli VG

  20. Employment Performance and Convergence in the European Countries and Regions

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    Cristiano Perugini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the national and regional (NUTS-2 employment performance and convergence for various aggregations of 27 European countries (EU-25, plus Romania and Bulgaria, mainly using the three employment rates (total, female, older worker adopted by the European Employment Strategy (EES. At the national level, this analysis confirmed the existence of considerable differences in employment performance between and within the various country aggregations. Empirical analysis highlighted the remarkable net job creations in the EU-15 (and EMU-12 for the period 1997-2003, accompanied by a (national convergence for all three employment indicators. As regards total employment rates, significant converging trends also emerge at the regional level for both EU-15 and EMU-12 aggregations. In the eight Central European Countries, new EU members (8 CEC-NM, a  diverging trend in the total employment rate began in 1999, whereas converging dynamics were limited to the employment rate of older workers in the period 1998-2001. Regional analyses showed significant  diverging dynamics in the total employment rates (1999-2003 for the eight CEC-NM regions. At the national level of analyses, the relationship between “progress in transition” and employment performance was also briefly examined. Results show that a simple, stable correlation does not exist. However, a weak U-shaped relationship existing in 1998 shifted downward and evolved toward a positive link in 2003. The main results of cluster analysis of the 53 regions of the ten CECs confirmed a high level of regional labour market diversification, and the fact that sector structure affects employment performance significantly

  1. Holocene climate dynamics in the central part of the East European plain (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novenko, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The Holocene climate and vegetation dynamics in the broad-leaved forest zone of the central part of the East European plain have been reconstructed on the base of pollen, plant macrofossil, testate amoebae and radiocarbon data from the mire Klukva (N 53.834812, E 36.252488), located in the kast depression in the Upper Oka River basin (Tula region, European Russia). The reconstruction of main parameters of past climate (the mean annual temperature precipitation) was carried out by the "Best Modern Analog" approach. Reconstructions of vegetation show that in the early Holocene the territory was occupied mainly by birch and pine-birch forests. Significant changes in the plant cover of the Upper Oka River basin are attributed to the 7.5 cal kyr BP). The climatic conditions were favorable for development of the broad-leaved forests those persisted in this area up to industrial period. In the 17th century, when the population density greatly increased and watersheds were ploughed, natural vegetation communities were gradually destroyed and transformed into agricultural landscapes. According to obtained climatic reconstructions the period 10-8.5 cal kyr BP was relatively cold and wet, when the mean annual temperature was in 3°C lower and precipitation was in 50-100 mm higher then nowadays. The significant climate warming occurred in about 7.0-5.0 cal kyr BP (The Holocene thermal maximum): the mean annual temperature in 2°C exceeded the modern value and precipitation was close to that. The environment conditions were drier due to decrease of effective moisture. In the second part of the Holocene the sequence of second-, and even third-order climatic oscillations expressed against the background of the overall slight trend towards cooling have been determined. The most pronounced cool and wet intervals were reconstructed in 2.5-2.0 cal kyr BP and 1.5-1.3 cal kyr BP. The mean annual temperature decreased in 1.5-2 °C and precipitation rose in 200 mm in compare to modern

  2. ‘The Vienna school and Central European art history’: Jan Bakoš, Discourses and strategies: the role of the Vienna School in shaping central European approaches to art history ‡ related discourses, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Mitrović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jan Bakoš’s recent book Discourses and strategies: the role of the Vienna School in shaping central European approaches to art history ‡ related discourses presents a comprehensive picture of the Vienna School of art history from its inception in the mid-nineteenth century to the influence it exercised on Central European scholarship in the second half of the twentieth century. Although the book is a collection of essays that have been published or presented in the past it is very coherent in the perspective it provides. A particularly important merit of the book is the presentation of the works of Slavic- and Hungarian-speaking art historians that are often ignored in contemporary English-speaking scholarship.

  3. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

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    P. Huszar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001–2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with −20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC. The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3, but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and sulfur dioxide (SO2 is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5–0.8 and 0.4–0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2–0.5. The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5 are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50–70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5, but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10–20 %. Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of % fraction of the

  4. Spatial distribution of caesium-137 in soil cover of background terrestrial ecosystems, Central European Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonova, Tatiana A. [Radioecology and Ecotoxicology Department of Soil Science Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shamshurina, Evgenia N. [Laboratory of soil erosion and fluvial processes of Geography Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    ¹³⁷Cs - the main long-living anthropogenic radionuclide - arrived in mass at Russian terrestrial ecosystems after nuclear tests in the atmosphere in 1960-yy. and after Chernobyl accident in 1986 y., but in spite of a long period since these events soil cover contamination by ¹³⁷Cs is considered as extremely resistant due to its firmly fixation by soil solid matter and a long half-life of the radionuclide. Wide-scale investigation in maximal diversity of natural, semi-natural and anthropogenic landscapes of Central European Russia (more than 400 soils samples from Vologda, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Tver regions which are representative for the southern taiga zone) demonstrates that modern average specific activity of ¹³⁷Cs in the upper 15-cm layer of soil is 11±3 Bq/kg (contamination density 0.05±0.01 Ci/km²), that is fully ecologically acceptable. It is important that the average concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs in the soil cover of individual regions are close to each other. The most likely these average values are approximate assessment of background radioactive contamination of soils in central European Russia outside of the immediate Chernobyl trace. At the same time approximately 3% of soils are characterized by elevated ¹³⁷Cs content - 62-98 Bq/kg (0.24-0.43 Ci/km²), that indicates the presence of low radioactive spots on the territory and may be considered as local Chernobyl fallout. All of them attribute with forest soils which are commonly characterized by considerably more high accumulation of ¹³⁷Cs (18±5 Bq/kg, 0.06±0.01 Ci/km²) due to advanced absorbing surface of trees. Agricultural lands (plagued or under meadows) and soils of industrial plots with scarce vegetation contain only 6±2 Bq/kg (0.03±0.01 Ci/km²) of ¹³⁷Cs. About 84-92% of ¹³⁷Cs are concentrated in the upper 15-cm layer of natural soils or in Ap horizon of plagued soils, thus vertical migration of radionuclide is very slow in spite of ~30 years after Chernobyl

  5. Foliage response of young central European oaks to air warming, drought and soil type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Kuster, T M; Arend, M; Vollenweider, P

    2013-01-01

    Three Central European oak species, with four provenances each, were experimentally tested in 16 large model ecosystem chambers for their response to passive air warming (AW, ambient +1-2 °C), drought (D, -43 to -60% irrigation) and their combination (AWD) for 3 years on two forest soil types of pH 4 or 7. Throughout the entire experiment, the influence of the different ambient and experimental climates on the oak trees was strong. The morphological traits of the Quercus species were affected in opposing ways in AW and D treatments, with a neutral effect in the AWD treatment. Biochemical parameters and LMA showed low relative plasticity compared to the morphological and growth parameters. The high plasticity in physiologically important parameters of the three species, such as number of intercalary veins or leaf size, indicated good drought acclimation properties. The soil type influenced leaf chlorophyll concentration, C/N and area more than drought, whereas foliage mass was more dependent on drought than on soil type. Through comparison of visible symptom development with the water deficits, a drought tolerance threshold of -1.3 MPa was determined. Although Q. pubescens had xeromorphic leaf characteristics (small leaf size, lower leaf water content, high LMA, pilosity, more chlorophyll, higher C/N) and less response to the treatments than Q. petraea and Q. robur, it suffered more leaf drought injury and shedding of leaves than Q. petraea. However, if foliage mass were used as the criterion for sustainable performance under a future climate, Q. robur would be the most appropriate species. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielhofer, Christoph; Leitholdt, Eva; Werther, Lukas; Stele, Andreas; Bussmann, Jens; Linzen, Sven; Schneider, Michael; Meyer, Cornelius; Berg-Hobohm, Stefanie; Ettel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water.

  7. Anticarbohydrate antibodies as markers of inflammatory bowel disease in a Central European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malickova, Karin; Lakatos, Peter L; Bortlik, Martin; Komarek, Viktor; Janatkova, Ivana; Lukas, Milan

    2010-02-01

    The study discusses the role of antichitobioside carbohydrate antibody (ACCA), antilaminaribioside carbohydrate antibodies (ALCA), and antimannobioside carbohydrate antibodies (AMCA) in Central European patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Twohundred and seventy-two serum samples were used - 116 Crohn's disease (CD), 84 ulcerative colitis, and 72 healthy control samples. All samples were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the following four anticarbohydrate assays: ACCA, ALCA, AMCA, and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (gASCA). gASCA antibodies showed the highest sensitivity (67%) for a CD diagnosis, followed by AMCA (31%), ACCA (27%), and ALCA (25%). Positivity of at least one of the four assays increased the overall sensitivity of antibody testing in CD up to 85.5%. Mean serum gASCA levels were significantly higher in CD patients who were younger at diagnosis and had a longer disease duration before blood sampling (PACCA, and ALCA) antibodies and CD location, behavior, age at onset, and disease duration was found; however, that sample size of some of our subgroups was probably too small to make firm conclusions on associations with all CD phenotypes. None of the assessed anticarbohydrate assays was predictive of colonic CD in patients in whom the distinction between CD and ulcerative colitis is not obvious using routine diagnostic methods. There was no relationship between the presence or concentration of anticarbohydrate antibodies and the inflammation measured by C-reactive protein levels. The use of a panel of anticarbohydrate antibodies may provide additional help in distinguishing IBD from non-IBD disease patterns. The addition of AMCA, ALCA, and ACCA assays as IBD serology markers improves the overall sensitivity of immunological examinations in IBD; however, anticarbohydrate assays are not helpful for predicting CD behavior.

  8. Comparison of atmospheric new particle formation events in three Central European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Zoltán; Rosati, Bernadette; Zíková, Naděžda; Salma, Imre; Bozó, László; Dameto de España, Carmen; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Ždímal, Vladimír; Wonaschütz, Anna

    2018-04-01

    Simultaneous particle number size distribution measurements were performed in the urban environment of Budapest, Vienna, and Prague, three Central European cities located within 450 km of each other. The measurement days from the continuous, 2-year long campaign were classified for new particle formation (NPF) events using an adapted classification scheme for urban sites. The total numbers of NPF event days were 152 for Budapest, 69 for Vienna, and 143 for Prague. There were 12 days when new particle formation took place at all three sites; 11 out of these 12 days were in spring and in summer. There were only 2 (Budapest-Vienna), 19 (Budapest-Prague), and 19 (Vienna-Prague) nucleation days, when NPF did not occur on the third site. The main difference was related to source and sink terms of gas-phase sulphuric acid. Air mass origin and back-trajectories did not show any substantial influence on the atmospheric nucleation phenomena. The relative contribution of particles from NPF with respect to regional aerosol to the particles originating from all sources was expressed as nucleation strength factor. The overall mean nucleation strength factors were 1.58, 1.54, and 2.01 for Budapest, Vienna, and Prague, respectively, and showed diurnal and seasonal variations. The monthly mean NSF varied from 1.2 to 3.2 in Budapest, from 0.7 to 1.9 in Vienna, and from 1.0 to 2.3 in Prague. This implies that the new particle formation in cities is a significant source of ultrafine (UF) particles, and the amount of them is comparable to the directly emitted UF particles.

  9. Central European attitudes towards Chinese energy investments: The cases of Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcsanyi, Richard Q.

    2017-01-01

    This article builds on Europe-wide knowledge of EU-China energy investment relations and discusses the cases of three Central European countries’ attitudes towards Chinese energy investments. It focuses on how Chinese investments are perceived compared to investments from other countries, and how the energy sector is perceived compared to other sectors. Media analysis, interviews with experts, and semi-structured questionnaires were used as data sources. It was discovered that these three countries dislike foreign control over strategic assets and Chinese energy investments are seen as falling into this category. The discourse frames on the general level fluctuate between beneficial and threatening at both the political and economic levels, yet the benefits are seen as greater than any potential threats in all three countries. Energy security frames are only just beginning to be discussed within national discourses about Chinese energy investments. In Poland, the Chinese presence in the energy sector is framed as an issue of availability, affordability, and efficiency, and is related to Polish plans for maximizing efficient use of local coal resources. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, China is often perceived ideologically and only the energy frame of environmental stewardship is present in a minor way. - Highlights: • Chinese investments in energy are perceived more negatively than investments in other sectors due to their strategic nature. • Availability, affordability, and efficiency appear in Poland as a result of the special position of coal. • Environmental stewardship appears as an issue in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. • The Polish discourse is most similar to Europe-wide discourse.

  10. Synthesis, extraction and electronic structure of Ce@C2n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Bing; Zou, Guang-Tian; Yang, Hai-Bin; Yu, San; Lu, Jin-Shan; Liu, Zi-Yang; Liu, Shu-Ying; Xu, Wen-Guo

    1997-11-01

    In view of the growing interest in endohedral lanthanide fullerenes, Ce, as a typical+ 4 oxidation state lanthanide element, has been systematically studied. The synthesis, extraction and electronic structure of Ce @ C2n are investigated. Soot containing Ce@C2n was synthesized in high yield by carbonizing CeO2-containing graphite rods and are back-burning the CeC2-enriched cathode deposit in a DC arc plasma apparatus. Ce@C2n dominated by Ce@C82, can be efficiently extracted from the insoluble part of the soot after toluene Soxhlet extraction by pyridine at high temperature and high pressure in a closed vessel. About 60% Ce@C2n(2n = 82, 80, 78, 76) and 35% Ce@C82 can be enriched in the pyridine extract. This fact is identified by desorption electron impact mass spectrometry (DEI MS). The electronic structure of Ce@C2n is analyzed by using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) of pyridine-free film. It is suggested that the encapsulated Ce atom is in a charge state close to+ 3 and was effectively protected from reaction with water and oxygen by the enclosing fullerene cage. Unlike theoretical expectation, the electronic state of Ce@C82 is formally described as Ce+3@C3-82.

  11. Speciated mercury measurements in ambient air from 2009 to 2011 at a Central European rural background monitoring site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigelt A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since January 2009 highly time-resolved mercury speciation measurements in ambient air are carried out at the Central European German EMEP monitoring station and measurement site of the German Federal Environment Agency “Waldhof“, providing the longest Central European dataset for mercury species. First statistical analyses do not indicate long term trends for the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM and particle bound mercury (TPM. A potential increasing trend for reactive gaseous mercury (RGM will have to be verified in the coming years and should be regarded as indicative only at present. A seasonal cycle for TPM could be observed with higher concentrations during winter time. Furthermore a diurnal cycle for RGM is apparent with highest concentrations in the early afternoon.

  12. A decade of proteomics accomplished! Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) celebrates its 10th Anniversary in Budapest, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Drahos, László; Vékey, Károly; Kovarova, Hana

    2017-07-01

    The Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) proudly celebrated its 10th Anniversary with an exciting scientific program inclusive of proteome, proteomics and systems biology in Budapest, Hungary. Since 2007, CEEPC has represented 'state-of the-art' proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe and these series of conferences have become a well-recognized event in the proteomic calendar. Fresher challenges and global healthcare issues such as ageing and chronic diseases are driving clinical and scientific research towards regenerative, reparative and personalized medicine. To this end, proteomics may enable diverse intertwining research fields to reach their end goals. CEEPC will endeavor to facilitate these goals.

  13. Excessive credit growth and countercyclical capital buffers in basel III: an empirical evidence from central and east european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Seidler, Jakub; Gersl, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Excessive credit growth is often considered to be an indicator of future problems in the financial sector. This paper examines the issue of how best to determine whether the observed level of private sector credit is excessive in the context of the “countercyclical capital buffer”, a macroprudential tool proposed in the new regulatory framework of Basel III by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. An empirical analysis of selected Central and Eastern European countries, including the Cz...

  14. A decade of Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC): Credibility, cohesion and vision for the next decade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 153, S1 (2017), s. 2-7 ISSN 1874-3919. [Central and Eastern European Proteomics Conference /10./. Budapest, 11.10.2016-14.10.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1609 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : CEEPC * protein diveristy * proteome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016

  15. Pricing and Reimbursement of Biosimilars in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Paweł; Stawowczyk, Ewa; Tesar, Tomas; Skoupa, Jana; Turcu-Stiolica, Adina; Dimitrova, Maria; Petrova, Guenka I.; Rugaja, Zinta; Männik, Agnes; Harsanyi, Andras; Draganic, Pero

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the requirements for the reimbursement of biosimilars and to compare the reimbursement status, market share, and reimbursement costs of biosimilars in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between November 2016 and January 2017 among experts from the following CEE countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Romania. The requirements for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars were reviewed for each country. Data on the extent of reimbursement of biologic drugs (separately for original products and biosimilars) in the years 2014 and 2015 were also collected for each country, along with data on the total pharmaceutical and total public health care budgets. Results: Our survey revealed that no specific criteria were applied for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars in the selected CEE countries; the price of biosimilars was usually reduced compared with original drugs and specific price discounts were common. Substitution and interchangeability were generally allowed, although in most countries they were at the discretion of the physician after a clinical assessment. Original biologic drugs and the corresponding biosimilars were usually in the same homogeneous group, and internal reference pricing was usually employed. The reimbursement rate of biosimilars in the majority of the countries was the same and amounted to 100%. Generally, the higher shares of expenditures were shown for the reimbursement of original drugs than for biosimilars, except for filgrastim, somatropin, and epoetin (alfa and zeta). The shares of expenditures on the reimbursement of biosimilar products ranged from 8.0% in Estonia in 2014 to 32.4% in Lithuania in 2015, and generally increased in 2015. The share of expenditures on reimbursement of biosimilars in the total pharmaceutical budget differed between the

  16. Antioxidant vitamin intake and mortality in three Central and Eastern European urban populations: the HAPIEE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniak, Urszula; Micek, Agnieszka; Grosso, Giuseppe; Stefler, Denes; Topor-Madry, Roman; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Nikitin, Yuri; Bobak, Martin; Pająk, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between individual-level dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins C, E and beta-carotene with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in three Central and Eastern European (CEE) populations. Data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe cohort study were used. At the baseline survey, between 2002 and 2005, 28,945 men and women aged 45-69 years were examined in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and seven Czech towns. Deaths in the cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Cox regression was used to estimate the association between vitamin consumption and all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD) disease and cancer mortality. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, there were no clear inverse associations between antioxidant vitamin intakes and mortality, although in some groups, several hazard ratios (HRs) were significant. For example, in men, compared with the lowest quintile of vitamin C intake, all-cause mortality in the third and fourth quintiles was lower by 28 % (HR 0.72; 95 % CI 0.61-0.85) and by 20 % (HR 0.80; 95 % CI 0.68-0.95), respectively. CVD mortality was lower by 35 % (HR 0.65; 95 % CI 0.50-0.84) and by 23 % (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.59-0.99) in third and fourth quintile of vitamin C intake, respectively. In women, the third and fourth quintiles of dietary intake of vitamin E were associated with reduced risk of all-cause death by 33 % (HR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.53-0.84) and by 23 % (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.61-0.97), respectively. Consumption of vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene was not related to CVD mortality in women and to cancer mortality in either gender. This large prospective cohort study in CEE populations with low prevalence of vitamin supplementation did not find a strong, dose-response evidence for protective effects of antioxidant vitamin intake.

  17. Multilingual Maps of the Terrestrial Planets and their Moons: the East and Central European Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.; Berczi, Sz.

    A series of Multilingual planetary maps has been published by the Cosmic Materials Space Research Group of the Eötvös Loránd University (Budapest, Hungary) with consultations by Russian and German colleagues. The maps are a result of a cooperation of MIIGAiK (which offered the base maps), ELTE, the Copernicus Observatory and Planetarium in Brno, the Zagreb Astronomical Observatory, the Jagellonian University Observatory, the Tectonics and Geological Cartography Section of the Faculty of Geology at Warsaw University and the University of Architecture, Civil Engeneering and Geodesy in Sofia. The series has been initiated by the International Cartographic Association (ICA), Commission on Planetary Cartography (Shingareva et al. 2006). The now complete series has been published from 2001 to 2006: Mars (2001), Venus (2003), Moon (2003), Mercury (2004) and Phobos and Deimos (2006). (Hargitai et al 2001-2006) These maps are more than outreach posters but less than maps for scientific purposes. These give a good overview of the topography and geology of the planets in a global to regional scale. They contain multilingual information concerning planetary science results and specific characteristics of the planetary body relief, placed on the lower margins of the front sides of the maps and the whole back side (geography, geology, stratigraphy, history of discovery and full index of names). These texts appear in Czech, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Croatian, Polish and English. In some cases it was the first time that a particular term (and its definition) was translated into one of these Central European languages. After compiling the first four maps it can be concluded that such work can effectively draw the attention of earth scientists to the specific features - and the mere existence - of other planetary bodies by simply discussing the translation of their terminology. Apart from circulating the maps in classrooms, this might be the most important scientific result of this

  18. Results of the reliability benchmark exercise and the future CEC-JRC program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendola, A.

    1985-01-01

    As a contribution towards identifying problem areas and for assessing probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methods and procedures of analysis, JRC has organized a wide-range Benchmark Exercise on systems reliability. This has been executed by ten different teams involving seventeen organizations from nine European countries. The exercise has been based on a real case (Auxiliary Feedwater System of EDF Paluel PWR 1300 MWe Unit), starting from analysis of technical specifications, logical and topological layout and operational procedures. Terms of references included both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The subdivision of the exercise into different phases and the rules adopted allowed assessment of the different components of the spread of the overall results. It appeared that modelling uncertainties may overwhelm data uncertainties and major efforts must be spent in order to improve consistency and completeness of qualitative analysis. After successful completion of the first exercise, CEC-JRC program has planned separate exercises on analysis of dependent failures and human factors before approaching the evaluation of a complete accident sequence

  19. CEC quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images and patient exposure trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrstedt, U.; Wall, B.; Maccia, C.; Moores, B.M.; Padovani, R.

    1990-01-01

    The intention of this report has been to present the results of a multinational trial set up by a study group of the radiation protection programme of the CEC. In view of proceeding towards the harmonization and the optimization of the radiological techniques commonly used in different European countries, the relevance of quality criteria for radiographic images together with dose requirements were checked on about 900 examined patients. Due to the type of X-ray projections considered, more than 1 200 questionnaires concerning the real X-ray films were therefore collected and evaluated through a scoring system. Such an approach was relevant and contributed to providing practical considerations on how to reduce and optimize patient received dose while keeping the essential medical information imaged on the film. Indeed the results obtained allowed identification of technical modalities corresponding to that objective. Furthermore, analysis of results revealed two main areas which should be further taken into consideration: - personnel training in radiation protection (radiologists and radiographers), establishment of quality assurance programmes in diagnostic radiology (good usage of radiological equipment and reduction of wasted films)

  20. Summary of the CEC/USDOE workshop on uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elderkin, C.E.; Kelly, G.N.

    1990-06-01

    There is uncertainty in all aspects of assessing the consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material, from understanding and describing the environmental and biological transfer processes to modeling emergency response. The need for an exchange of views and a comparison of approaches between the diverse disciplines led to the organization of a CEC/USDOE Workshop on Uncertainty Analysis held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, in November 1989. The workshop brought together specialists in a number of disciplines, including those expert in the mathematics and statistics of uncertainty analysis, in expert judgment elicitation and evaluation, and in all aspects of assessing the radiological and environmental consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material. In addition, there was participation from users of the output of accident consequences assessment in decision making and/or regulatory frameworks. The main conclusions that emerged from the workshop are summarized in this paper. These are discussed in the context of three different types of accident consequence assessment: probabilistic assessments of accident consequences undertaken as inputs to risk analyses of nuclear installations, assessments of accident consequences in real time to provide inputs to decisions on the introduction of countermeasures, and the reconstruction of doses and risks resulting form past releases of radioactive material

  1. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  2. Interannual variability of Central European mean temperature in January / February and its relation to the large-scale circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, P.C.; Storch, H. von

    1993-01-01

    The Central European temperature distribution field, as given by 11 stations (Fanoe, Hamburg, Potsdam, Jena, Frankfurt, Uccle, Hohenpeissenberg, Praha, Wien, Zuerich and Geneve), is analysed with respect to its year-to-year variability. January-February (JF) average temperatures are considered for the interval 1901-80. An Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis reveals that the JF temperature variability is almost entirely controlled by one EOF with uniform sign. The second EOF represents only 7% of the total variance and describes a north-south gradient. The time coefficient of the first EOF is almost stationary whereas the second pattern describes a slight downward trend at the northern stations and a slight upward trend at the southern stations. The relationship of the temperature field to the large-scale circulation, represented by the North Atlantic/European sea-level pressure (SLP) field, is investigated by means of a Canonical Correlation (CCA) Analysis. Two CCA pairs are identified which account for most of the temperature year-to-year variance and which suggest plausible mechanisms. The CCA pairs fail, however, to consistently link the long-term temperature trends to changes in the large-scale circulation. In the output of a 100-year run with a coupled atmosphere-ocean model (ECHAM1/LSG), the same CCA pairs are found but the strength of the link between Central European temperature and North Atlantic SLP is markedly weaker than in the observed data. (orig.)

  3. Various origins of clinopyroxene megacrysts from basanites from the eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Clinopyroxene megacrysts up to few centimetres in size occur in Cenozoic alkaline lavas forming the north-eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). The megacrysts occur, among other, in the Miocene basanite from Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (bulk rock mg# 0.65-0.66) and in that from Lutynia (Pliocene, K-Ar age: 4.56 +/- 0.2 Ma; Birkenmajer et al. 2002; bulk rock mg# 0.64). The megacrysts typically consist of homogeneous core surrounded by patchy and spongy mantle, which is covered by a thin outermost rim of composition similar to that of the groundmass clinopyroxene occurring in the host basanite. The mantles of the megacrysts have been affected by melting, whereas the cores preserve their primary composition. We compare the core parts of megacrysts in the following. The Ostrzyca clinopyroxene megacrysts contain euhedral apatite intergrowths. The clinopyroxene has the composition of Fe-rich diopside (mg# = 0.61 - 0.70), contain significant sodium (to 0.12 a pfu) and are calcium rich (0.89-0.92 a pfu). The Lutynia megacrysts have the composition of augite and diopside (mg# 0.80-0.83). The sodium content is also high (to 0.12 a pfu), but calcium varies from 0.68 to 0.77 a pfu. The REE concentrations for Lutynia (1-10 x PM) are lower relative to Ostrzyca, enriched 10-100 times relative to PM. In both sites the megacrysts are strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE and TE are characterized by positive Th, La and Ce anomalies, slight negative Sr and Y anomalies and strong Pb anomaly in the PM normalised patterns. The megacrysts from Ostrzyca reveal slight negative Ti and strong positive Zr and Hf anomalies, whereas those Lutynia have negative Zr anomaly and Ti anomaly is absent. Major and trace element composition shows that the megacrysts from Ostrzyca formed as coarse-grained cumulate at significant depth (lower crust?) from the LREE enriched alkaline melt. That melt was very rich in phosphorous which enabled its saturation in

  4. Water and chemical input via hydrometeors in central European mountains with Szrenica as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaś, M.; Sobik, M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Cichała-Kamrowska, K.

    2010-07-01

    of precipitation (880 µMoles•l 1), with nitrates, ammonia and sulphates as major ions (27%, 26% and 11% respectively). It is due to the more polluted nature of the boundary layer than the free atmosphere, as well as fog water originating in low-level air. That is also the reason why chemical composition of low-level clouds forms an appriopriate indicator of the local and regional scale anthropogenic pollution and for larger scale comparisons of chemical components in cloudy environments. Summarizing, direct pollutant deposition via cloud droplets to vegetation is larger than via precipitation because of much higher pollutant concentration of the former. Dew and hoarfrost provide water quantities much lower to fog or rain, but is a modest supplementary source of water (approximately 0,8% when compare with precipitation). They appear especially during the anticyclonic type of weather with no wind and clear night skies, rare at summit position. TIC for dew and hoarfrost samples was a bit higher in comparison with precipitation (346 µMoles•l-1), but chemical composition quite different to others hydrometeors (chloride - 20%, sodium - 19% and calcium - 18%). It might be explained by air subsidence from the upper part of atmosphere, typical for the mountain summits in anticyclonic type of weather. Stable thermal stratification limits vertical air pollutant transport, especially of anthropogenic origin, and the thickness of the atmospheric mixing layer is visibly lessened. Hence, maritime aerosol is much more important in such circumstances. Both climate and landscape in Poland are similar to major part of central and western Europe so you can expect that relationship between different components of water flux and pollutant deposition observed at the Mt. Szrenica are applicable also to other European countries where similar natural conditions are found.

  5. A central European training course on reactor physics and kinetics - the 'Eugene Wigner Course' - Organisers view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Villa, M.; Matejka, K.; Sklenka, L.; Miglierini, M.; Sukods, C.

    2004-01-01

    Initiated by the 5th Framework Program of the European Commission, the European Nuclear Engineering Network (ENEN) is preparing the future European Nuclear Education schemes, degrees and requirements. To fully utilize the benefits of international cooperation and to promote the knowledge of students in nuclear engineering a 2.5 weeks course has been held, both in spring 2003 and 2004. The main emphasis of the course is to perform reactor physics and kinetics experiments on three different research- and training reactors in three different locations (Vienna, Prague, Budapest). The experimental work is preceded by theoretical lectures aiming to prepare the students for the experiments (Bratislava). The students' work will be evaluated, and upon success the students will get a certificate. The finally accepted credit (ECTS) value will be determined by the students' home university. The ENEN-recommended value is between 6 and 8 ECTS. The more detailed description of the course will be given in the full paper. (author)

  6. The role of fire in the Central European lowlands during the Holocene: what we know so far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Elisabeth; Theuerkauf, Martin; Słowiński, Michał; Brauer, Achim

    2017-04-01

    The modern landscape of the Central European lowlands results from the complex interaction between its geological and geomorphological configuration that developed during and after the last glaciation as well as its Holocene vegetation history, climate evolution and human activity. Although also fire is known to play a fundamental role in many ecosystems of the world and to be one of the major tools for anthropogenic land cover change, Holocene paleofire history has only marginally been studied in the area of the Central European lowlands so far. Here, we will present the first attempt to establish a Holocene fire synthesis for the Central European lowlands. In a first step, we aim to reconstruct the regional Holocene fire history by comparing available sedimentary charcoal records from lakes and peatlands of northern Germany, northern Poland and the Baltic countries. We will present the current knowledge on the role of fire during different time windows such as the Neolithic period, the Medieval time and the onset of industrialization. In addition, we will discuss the interaction between fire, human activity, vegetation and climate change during the last 250 years in more detail using high-resolution records of sedimentary charcoal and the fire biomarkers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan from the annually laminated lake sediments of Lake Czechowskie, northern Poland. Teams: CEL synthesis - A. Feurdean, M. Obremska, M. Lamentowicz, K. Marcisz, W. Dörfler, I. Feeser, N. Dräger, F. Ott, T. Giesecke, S. Jahns, L. Shumilovskikh, S. Veski, M. Wieckowska-Lüth, J. Wiethold; Czechowskie fire biomarkers - E.C. Hopmans, L.T. Schreuder, M. Obremska, A. Pieńczewska, O. Blarquez, F. Ott, D. Brykala, S. Schouten

  7. Contagion across and integration of Central and Eastern European stock markets: evidence from intraday data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Égert, B.; Kočenda, Evžen

    -, č. 798 (2005), s. 1-30 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : contagion and spillover effects * market integration * European emerging market s Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.bus.umich.edu/KresgeLibrary/Collections/WorkingPapers/wdinum.htm

  8. The Interpretation of Circular Priorities to Central European Business Environment with Focus on Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogarassy Csaba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there was an increase in economic concepts which defined various concepts for the European Union to leave the economic depression behind. The idea of circular economy boomed into the sight of European Union policy makers in the beginning of 2015. The notion introduced a holistic system planning approach for EU development initiatives. This paper introduces the essential background for the interpretation of circular economy and presents the main priorities throughout its implementation. The size of the European Community leaves many opportunities for the reconsideration of circular processes. The study focuses on circular applications in Hungary which substantially differ from the Western-European practice. The different wage and development levels of the member states in some cases might appear as a possibility to extend product life cycles which otherwise would end sooner. The analysis aims to find the reasons for the variant operations and examines how the extended spatial perspective from national levels to the EU level influences the transition to circular economy.

  9. Effects of simulated historical tree litter raking on the understorey vegetation in a central European forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vild, Ondřej; Kalwij, Jesse; Hédl, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2015), s. 569-578 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : conservation management * litter raking * species diversity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.308, year: 2015

  10. Policy issues surrounding processes of centralization and decentralization in European education systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amelsvoort, H.W.C.H.; Scheerens, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    Four levels of authority within the educational decision‐making structure in seven European countries and states for primary and lower secondary education are analyzed. Next, the results of an investigation on loci, domains and modes of decision making are presented, indicating a slightly higher

  11. 1. Vienna central european seminar on particle physics and quantum field theory. Advances in quantum field theory. Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    2004-01-01

    The new seminar series 'Vienna central European seminar on particle physics and quantum field theory' has been created 2004 and is intended to provide interactions between leading researchers and junior physicists. This year 'Advances in quantum field theory' has been chosen as subject and is centred on field theoretic aspects of string dualities. The lectures mainly focus on these aspects of string dualities. Further lectures regarding supersymmetric gauge theories, quantum gravity and noncommutative field theory are presented. The vast field of research concerning string dualities justifies special attention to their effects on field theory. (author)

  12. Diversity and distibution of Braconidae, a family of parasitoid wasps in the Central European peatbogs of South Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lozan, Aurel; Belokobylskij, S.; van Achterberg, C.; Monaghan, M. T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 16 (2010), s. 1-21 ISSN 1536-2442 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505; GA AV ČR IAA600070501 Grant - others:European Science Foundation(BE) 1667; Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 07-04-00454; EU Synthesys(GB) GB-TAF-2063; EU Synthesys(PL) PL-TAF-3266 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Central Europe * Hymenoptera * Braconidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.014, year: 2010

  13. Correlation of Helicobacter pylori genotypes with gastric histopathology in the central region of a South-European country

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, N; Donato, MM; Romãozinho, JM; Luxo, C; Cardoso, O; Cipriano, MA; Marinho, C; Fernandes, A; Sofia, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outcome of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection results from interaction of multiple variables including host, environmental and bacterial-associated virulence factors. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the correlation of cagA, cagE, vacA, iceA and babA2 genotypes with gastric histopathology and disease phenotype in the central region of a South-European country. METHODS: This prospective study involved 148 infected patients (110 female; mean age 43.5 ± 13.4...

  14. The Mussel Watch California pilot study on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs): synthesis and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Keith A.; Dodder, Nathan G.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; Gregorio, Dominic; Bishop, Jonathan S.; Klosterhaus, Susan; Alvarez, David A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Kimbrough, Kimani L.; Lauenstein, Gunnar G.

    2014-01-01

    A multiagency pilot study on mussels (Mytilus spp.) collected at 68 stations in California revealed that 98% of targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) were infrequently detectable at concentrations ⩽1 ng/g. Selected chemicals found in commercial and consumer products were more frequently detected at mean concentrations up to 470 ng/g dry wt. The number of CECs detected and their concentrations were greatest for stations categorized as urban or influenced by storm water discharge. Exposure to a broader suite of CECs was also characterized by passive sampling devices (PSDs), with estimated water concentrations of hydrophobic compounds correlated with Mytilus concentrations. The results underscore the need for focused CEC monitoring in coastal ecosystems and suggest that PSDs are complementary to bivalves in assessing water quality. Moreover, the partnership established among participating agencies led to increased spatial coverage, an expanded list of analytes and a more efficient use of available resources.

  15. A note on bound constraints handling for the IEEE CEC'05 benchmark function suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tianjun; Molina, Daniel; de Oca, Marco A Montes; Stützle, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The benchmark functions and some of the algorithms proposed for the special session on real parameter optimization of the 2005 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC'05) have played and still play an important role in the assessment of the state of the art in continuous optimization. In this article, we show that if bound constraints are not enforced for the final reported solutions, state-of-the-art algorithms produce infeasible best candidate solutions for the majority of functions of the IEEE CEC'05 benchmark function suite. This occurs even though the optima of the CEC'05 functions are within the specified bounds. This phenomenon has important implications on algorithm comparisons, and therefore on algorithm designs. This article's goal is to draw the attention of the community to the fact that some authors might have drawn wrong conclusions from experiments using the CEC'05 problems.

  16. Circulating endothelial cells (CECs and E-selectin: Predictors of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdous Mehrabian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Circulating endothelial cells (CECs and E-selectin are known as sensitive and specific markers of en-dothelial dysfunction. This study investigated whether CECs and E-selectin are surrogate biomarkers of preeclampsia and if measurement of CECs and E-selectin, early in the third trimester, could be a means of predicting preeclampsia. Methods: In this prospective, descriptive-analytic study, rollover test was performed on 523 pregnant women during 28-30 weeks of gestation. CECs were measured by anti-CD 146-driven immunomagnetic isolation in women with posi-tive rollover test. They were followed up prospectively until delivery without any active intervention. Women with and without preeclampsia were determined. The number of CECs and level of E-selectin were compared in the two studied groups. Results: From the 47 pregnant women with positive rollover test who were selected and followed up, 22 individuals were diagnosed with preeclampsia while the remainder were normotensive. Mean CEC numbers was significantly high-er in preeclamptic women than normal pregnancies (24.7 cells/mL vs. 13 cells/mL. The best cut-off point for CEC numbers was 6.5 with a sensitivity of 78.9% and a specificity of 69.1%. The level of E-selectin was significantly higher in mothers with preeclampsia (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Higher levels of CECs and E-selectin in women with positive rollover test who developed preeclampsia prior to onset of the complication were predictive of preeclampsia. However, larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  17. Preslia: hundred years of exploring central-European flora and vegetation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Kaplan, Zdeněk; Chytrý, M.; Hrouda, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-11 ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : central Europe * botanical research * flora and vegetation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.104, year: 2014

  18. Differences in body fat and central adiposity between Swedes and European immigrants: the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, P H; Lissner, L; Gullberg, B; Berglund, G

    2000-12-01

    Comparative data on ecological differences in body fatness and fat distribution within Europe are sparse. Migration studies may provide information on the impact of environmental factors on body size in different populations. The objective was to investigate differences in adiposity between European immigrants and native Swedes, specifically to examine gender differences and the effect of time since immigration, and to compare two selected immigrant groups with their native countrymen. A cross-sectional analysis of 27,808 adults aged 45 to 73 years participating in the Malmö Diet and Cancer prospective cohort study in Sweden was performed. Percentage body fat (impedance analysis) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were compared between Swedish-born and foreign-born participants. Obesity was 40% more prevalent in non-Swedish Europeans compared with Swedes. Controlling for age, height, smoking, physical activity, and occupation, it was found that women born in the former Yugoslavia, southern Europe, Hungary, and Finland had a significantly higher percentage of body fat, and those from Hungary, Poland, and Germany had more centralized adiposity compared with Swedish women. Men born in the former Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Denmark had a significantly higher mean percentage of body fat compared with Swedish-born men, whereas Yugoslavian, Finnish, and German men differed significantly in mean WHR. Length of residence in Sweden was inversely associated with central adiposity in immigrants. A comparison between German and Danish immigrants, their respective native populations, and Swedes indicated an intermediate positioning of German immigrants with regard to body mass index and WHR. Differences in general and central adiposity by country of origin appear to remain after migration. Central adiposity seems to be more influenced than fatness per se by time of residency in Sweden.

  19. TESTING STOCK MARKETS’ INTEGRATION FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WITHIN EURO ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica CHIRILA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stock market integration gives the opportunity of risk diversification on international level. The main effects of this integration are the development of stock markets and economic growth. This paper analyses the integration of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe using convergence. Beta-convergence gives us information about integration’s speed and sigma-convergence presents information about the degree of integration of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe on the stock market of Euro Zone.

  20. Different trends in euthanasia acceptance across Europe. A study of 13 western and 10 central and eastern European countries, 1981-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    We examined how acceptance of euthanasia among the general public has changed between 1981 and 2008 in western and central and eastern European (CEE) countries using data of the European Values Surveys. Data were collected in 1981, 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 13 western European countries and in 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 10 CEE countries. Euthanasia acceptance increased each decade up until 2008 in 11 of 13 western European countries; in CEE countries, it decreased or did not increase between 1999-2008 in 8 of 10 countries. A number of explanations for and implications of this apparent east-west polarization are suggested.

  1. Harmonisation of Excise Duties on Energy Products and Electricity in Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ma?cu Simona; Burlacu Valentin; Cojocaru Diana

    2013-01-01

    The field of excise duty taxes focuses on the use of these economic instruments designed by the European law in the context of protecting the environment and public health and to establish a prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources. Focusing mainly on deriving and explaining economic impacts of the minimum energy taxes rates corresponding to the EU Directive (2003/96/EC) in CEE countries, this article outlines the degree of harmonisation of excise duty on energy products among th...

  2. A decade of Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC): Credibility, cohesion and vision for the next decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Kovarova, Hana

    2017-02-05

    The Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC), has reached a special milestone as it celebrates its 10th anniversary. Today, an expansive network of proteomics in Central and Eastern Europe stands established to facilitate scientific interactions and collaborations in and around Central and Eastern Europe, as well as with international research institutions worldwide. Currently, when many conferences are struggling to attract participants, CEEPC is thriving in its status and stature as well as expanding by attracting newer member countries. CEEPC's success is driven by mutual respect between scientists sharing interest in proteomics and its applications in multidisciplinary research areas related to biological systems. This effort when interwoven with exciting ambience steeped with culture, and tradition is also a reason why participants enjoy it. CEEPC's careful balance between excellence and cohesion holds the key to its success. It is evident that CEEPC is ready for the next decade of excitement and expectations of multifaceted proteomics in Central and Eastern Europe. Additionally, in the era of emerging personalized medicine where treatment selection for each patient is becoming individualized, CEEPC and proteomics is expected to play a significant role moving forward for the benefit of mankind. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategies for reducing emissions and depositions in Central and Eastern European countries: The case of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; Stoffer, A.; De Kruijk, H.; Salamonova, A.

    1995-06-01

    A detailed case study on developments and reduction of acidifying SO 2 and NO x emissions from the energy system was conducted for Slovakia. Scenarios and the Energy Flow Optimization Model - Environment (EFOM-ENV) of the European Union (DG 12) were applied for the first time in Slovakia and were similar to those that were used in the other European country studies in preparation of the Second Sulphur Protocol. Slovak SO 2 emissions can be reduced at low marginal costs but high total national costs compared with e.g. the Netherlands. The main reasons for this are the high sulphur content of (brown) coal that has a high share in national energy consumption, a relatively high energy intensity, lower wages, and the fact that most Western countries already have reduced their SO 2 emissions in the past. Marginal NO x emission reduction costs are similar to those of Western countries and national total NO x reduction costs are relatively high. In contrast with fuel switching, retrofitting of existing technologies is an attractive SO 2 and NO x reduction option in the short term. High interest and discount rates due to capital scarcity increases emissions and emission reduction costs. Therefore, short term involvement of Western investors could lead to European cost-effective emission reduction. 17 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 20 refs

  4. Technical cooperation with Central and Eastern European countries with special focus on engineering aspects of lifetime optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trampus, P.

    2002-01-01

    A regional Technical Cooperation project for Central and Eastern European countries was established and funded by the IAEA as a response to the region's need. Majority of these countries are now in the process of establishing/strengthening their infrastructure for assessment of structural integrity of primary circuit components for an appropriate level of safety and reliability. Moreover, extension of the operational life of the WWER nuclear power plants (NPPs) became part of the generation strategy in most of these countries. The overall objective of the project is to improve long term integrity of primary circuit components as a fundamental technical prerequisite to ensure plant operation until and beyond the design lifetime. In a series of workshops and technical meetings issues relevant to primary circuit component structural integrity with special regard to operational life optimization have been being addressed. The works under the project are coordinated with the European Commission's integrity related assistance projects, and some of the activities are jointly organized with the WANO Moscow Center. Main conclusions of the central topics are summarized in this paper

  5. Petrology and deformation style of lithospheric mantle beneath the Heldburg Dike swarm (Central Germany) subset of Central European Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuła, Anna; Puziewicz, Jacek; Hidas, Károly; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Milke, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    The Heldburg Dike swarm is a set of Cenozoic alkali basalt dikes occurring in the central part of Germany at the border between Thuringia and Bavaria. We studied xenoliths from Strauf, Feldstein, Bramberg and from the active quarry in Zeilberg. The peridotites from Strauf, Feldstein and Bramberg have the composition of spinel lherzolite (15), spinel harzburgite (9) and dunite (3). They vary in size from 1.5 cm (Strauf) up to 20 cm (Zeilberg). We distinguish groups (A, A- and B) of peridotites based on different forsterite content in olivine. Group A consists of olivine (89.6 - 91.8 Fo), orthopyroxene (Mg# 0.90-0.93, Al 0.05-0.18 a pfu), clinopyroxene (Mg# 0.87-0.95, Al 0.06-0.26 a pfu) and spinel (Cr# 0.13-0.65, Mg# 0.54-0.78). Clinopyroxene rare earth elements (REE) patterns are S-shaped (Feldstein, Bramberg) or U-shaped (Strauf); spoon-shaped patterns occur occasionally. Trace element (TE) patterns show negative Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Ti and positive Th, U anomalies. The most magnesian clinopyroxene (xenolith 3140, Feldstein) is strongly aluminous and LREE depletedwith weak anomalies in TE patterns. Group A- is contains olivine (88.9-89.5 Fo), orthopyroxene (Mg# 0.89-0.90, Al 0.10-0.13 a pfu) and clinopyroxene (Mg# 0.90-0.92, Al 0.10-0.17 a pfu). Clinopyroxene is increasingly enriched in REEs from Lu to La. TE patterns are similar to those of group A but with less pronounced anomalies. Group B (3 xenoliths only) consists of olivine Fo 86.7-88.9, orthopyroxene (Mg# 0.88-0.89, Al 0.07-0.19 a pfu), clinopyroxene (Mg# 0.88-0.90, Al 0.10-0.26 a pfu). Clinopyroxene is enriched in LREE, concave upward in Pr. TE patterns are similar to those in group A. One of group B harzburgites contains grains (up to 0.5 mm) of Ca-Mg carbonate located in interstices. The clinopyroxene chemical composition plots away from the melting trend in the MgO-Al2O3 diagram of Upton et al. (2011), suggesting a later addition of the clinopyroxene. The composition of orthopyroxene corresponds to ca. 15

  6. Uniparental genetic heritage of belarusians: encounter of rare middle eastern matrilineages with a central European mitochondrial DNA pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniarevich, Alena; Sivitskaya, Larysa; Danilenko, Nina; Novogrodskii, Tadeush; Tsybovsky, Iosif; Kiseleva, Anna; Kotova, Svetlana; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Metspalu, Ene; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Reidla, Maere; Rootsi, Siiri; Parik, Jüri; Reisberg, Tuuli; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Gandini, Francesca; Olivieri, Anna; Behar, Doron M; Torroni, Antonio; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Belarusians make up more than 80% of the nine and half million people inhabiting the Republic of Belarus. Belarusians together with Ukrainians and Russians represent the East Slavic linguistic group, largest both in numbers and territory, inhabiting East Europe alongside Baltic-, Finno-Permic- and Turkic-speaking people. Till date, only a limited number of low resolution genetic studies have been performed on this population. Therefore, with the phylogeographic analysis of 565 Y-chromosomes and 267 mitochondrial DNAs from six well covered geographic sub-regions of Belarus we strove to complement the existing genetic profile of eastern Europeans. Our results reveal that around 80% of the paternal Belarusian gene pool is composed of R1a, I2a and N1c Y-chromosome haplogroups - a profile which is very similar to the two other eastern European populations - Ukrainians and Russians. The maternal Belarusian gene pool encompasses a full range of West Eurasian haplogroups and agrees well with the genetic structure of central-east European populations. Our data attest that latitudinal gradients characterize the variation of the uniparentally transmitted gene pools of modern Belarusians. In particular, the Y-chromosome reflects movements of people in central-east Europe, starting probably as early as the beginning of the Holocene. Furthermore, the matrilineal legacy of Belarusians retains two rare mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, N1a3 and N3, whose phylogeographies were explored in detail after de novo sequencing of 20 and 13 complete mitogenomes, respectively, from all over Eurasia. Our phylogeographic analyses reveal that two mitochondrial DNA lineages, N3 and N1a3, both of Middle Eastern origin, might mark distinct events of matrilineal gene flow to Europe: during the mid-Holocene period and around the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, respectively.

  7. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910) in medieval central europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüttli, Annina; Bouwman, Abigail; Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  8. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910 in medieval central europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Krüttli

    Full Text Available Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72% exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic

  9. Viewls - Possibilities and performance of international biofuel trade from CEEC to WEC[Central and Eastern European Countries; Western European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zeebroeck, B. van [Transport and Mobility Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Falkenberg, D.; Hein, M.; Schroeder, G.; Thraen, D.; Weber, M. [Inst. of Energy and Environment, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-05-13

    The EU has set high targets to increase the use of renewable energy sources from which a large part has to come from biomass. To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed, which requires large areas of land in the EU for energy crop production. However, the availability of good land for energy crop production is limited in Western European countries (WEC). This means that the potential from indigenous biomass resources is not sufficient to meet the set bioenergy targets. At the same time, the expansion of the EU and the inclusion of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) in agricultural and energy EU policies create potential difficulties as well as opportunities. Agriculture plays an important role in the CEEC furthermore, the share of agricultural employment is still large. In the future rationalization of the current agriculture in the CEEC is expected. This will lead to increased productivity and economic performance. On the other hand, unemployment and an increase in abandoned land are expected as well. A study of the technical biomass production potentials in the CEEC shows that in some scenarios the biomass production potential exceeds the current final energy consumption on a country level. The main objectives of this study are: 1) Define the critical factors to set up a stable international biofuel trade between CEEC and WEC, 2) Estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered in the WEC from the CEEC, 3) Analyze the regional differences in cost performance of the energy carriers in the CEEC. (BA)

  10. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevegmid, Khaliunaa; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies), where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Chronic bee paralysis virus) were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km). Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research.

  11. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliunaa Tsevegmid

    Full Text Available Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies, where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV and Chronic bee paralysis virus were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km. Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research.

  12. Comparison of Atmospheric New Particle Formation Events Events in Three Central European Cities.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Németh, Z.; Rosati, B.; Zíková, Naděžda; Salma, I.; Bozó, L.; Dameto de España, C.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Ždímal, Vladimír; Wonaschütz, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 178, APR 2018 (2018), s. 191-197 ISSN 1352-2310 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015037 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654109 - ACTRIS-2 Grant - others:HSRFK(HU) K116788; HSRFK(HU) PD124283; NRDIO(HU) GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00055 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : urban environment * ultrafine particles * new particle formation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.629, year: 2016

  13. Central and East European migrant men who have sex with men in London: a comparison of recruitment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Christopher J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the expansion of the European Union, there has been a large influx of Central and East European (CEE migrants to the UK. CEE men who have sex with men (MSM represent a small minority within this population that are none-the-less important to capture in sexual health research among the CEE migrant community. This paper examines the feasibility of recruiting CEE MSM for a survey of sexual behaviour in London using respondent driven sampling (RDS, via gay websites and in GUM clinics. Methods We sought CEE MSM to start RDS chain referral among GUM clinic attendees, our personal contacts and at gay events and venues in central London. We recruited CEE MSM (n = 485 via two popular websites for gay men in Britain (March-May 2009 and at two central London GUM clinics (n = 51 (July 2008-March 2009. Results We found seventeen men who knew other CEE MSM in London and agreed to recruit contacts into the study. These men recruited only three men into the study, none of whom recruited any further respondents, and RDS was abandoned after 7 months (July 2008-January 2009. Half of the men that we approached to participate in RDS did not know any other CEE MSM in London. Men who agreed to recruit contacts for RDS were rather more likely to have been in the UK for more than one year (94.1% vs 70.0%, p = 0.052. Men recruited through gay websites and from GUM clinics were similar. Conclusions The Internet was the most successful method for collecting data on sexual risk behaviour among CEE MSM in London. CEE MSM in London were not well networked. RDS may also have failed because they did not fully understand the procedure and/or the financial incentive was not sufficient motivation to take part.

  14. The impact of macro news and central bank communication on emerging European forex markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Égert, B.; Kočenda, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2014), s. 73-88 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP403/11/0020 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : exchange rate * macroeconomic news * central bank communication Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2014

  15. Ecological hybrid speciation in central-European species of Bolboschoenus: genetic and morphological evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Píšová, Soňa; Hroudová, Zdenka; Chumová, Zuzana; Fér, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2017), s. 17-39 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : AFLP * Bolboschoenus * central Europe * speciation * model-based clustering * morfometrics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2016

  16. EU-China Trade Partnership: Strategic Importance of Central and Eastern European Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Jitaru

    2016-01-01

    the increase of Chinese investment in Europe. This paper aims to analyze trade flows betweenChina and the EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe in the framework of the EU-Chinatrade partnership and how these countries can be considered a strategic partner in EU-Chinatrade relations.

  17. Phylogenetic diversity of central-European urban plant communities: effects of alien species and habitat types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeplová, N.; Lososová, Z.; Zelený, D.; Chytrý, M.; Danihelka, Jiří; Fajmon, K.; Láníková, Deana; Preislerová, Z.; Řehořek, V.; Tichý, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-16 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : archaeophytes * biological invasions * Central Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2015

  18. Family businesses and their anchorages in Central European society in the 19th century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavačka, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2016), s. 1-22 ISSN 1210-6860 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-19640S Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Family Business * Central Europe * 19th century Subject RIV: AB - History

  19. The European Union’s Military Operation in the Central African Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte; Norvanto, Elisa; Mandrup, Thomas

    Since the Central African Republic (CAR) gained its independence from France in 1960, the country has been troubled with internal conflicts. The country’s instability is characterised by post-colonial ethnic tensions, poverty, crime, military coups, government corruption and a weak security secto...

  20. Hot Central-European summer of 2013 in a long-term context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 14 (2015), s. 4399-4407 ISSN 0899-8418 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : summer of 2013 * climate variability * temperature records * heat waves * effective precipitation * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2015

  1. Invasion of central-European habitats by the moss Campylopus introflexus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulášková, E.; Fajmonová, Zuzana; Hájek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 4 (2012), s. 863-886 ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Campylopus introflexus * central Europe * invasive species * plant communities * threat * cultivation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  2. Toward a more professional and practical medical education: a novel Central European approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel, Heinz; Vonbank, Alexander; Fraunberger, Peter; Riesen, Walter F; Saely, Christoph H

    2015-01-01

    We here present an innovative curriculum for a complete medical education that conforms to the current European Bologna system of academic training. The curriculum aims at raising doctors who are excellently prepared for clinical work over as short a time as 5 years; it provides a comprehensive, yet shorter than usual, education that strongly pronounces the importance of increasing the students' practical clinical competences and rigorously excludes superfluous contents. The curriculum encompasses 52 modules, 32 at the bachelor's and 20 at the master's level. Already at the level of the bachelor degree, full employability is given; the students finish the master's course as medical doctors optimally prepared to manage patients at the level of postgraduate medical education. The structure of the curriculum is modular; each modular component is essential for medical education and contains an average of five European Credit Transfer System credits, amounting to 150 hours of education. Depending on the subspecialty, the courses include lectures, seminars, practical laboratory training, and clinical training at varying quantities. In addition to attendance times, sufficient time slots are prepared for self-study in lectures, seminars, and practical work. With our curriculum, we provide an easily applicable backbone for a modern course of medicine that can be installed also at smaller academic institutions.

  3. The European idea in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a part of the security and peaceful co-existence policy in the framework of the postwar planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Yevgeny

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the development of European unity in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a mechanism of collective security and intergovernmental cooperation development. The cultural and historical features of Central Europe and Scandinavia emphasize the need for a comparative study into the European idea. This article considers the tendencies and factors which affected the development of the European idea in the framework of the post-war planning. This research sets out to compare and identify similar or analogous features and elements of the theoretical bases of movements for European unity in Central and Northern Europe. The author comes to the conclusion about the correlation between the “Europe of regions” model and the European unity concept. The ideas of Scandinavian and Central European integration rested on national, cultural and historical connections of the neighbouring countries were expected to constitute such formations, which contradicted and were opposed to by the theoretical framework of Western European integration. On the other hand, regional integration implied that a federation or union of the neighbouring states could be considered a step towards a more universal organisation, which would not mean the isolation of Scandinavia and Central Europe from the rest of the world. The theoretical and practical significance of this work lies in the comparative approach to the analysis of the phenomena which have been considered individually in the framework of historiography. It is the major contribution of the article to the research on history of ideas and European diplomacy. Moreover, the subject of research is immediately connected to the problem of security in the Baltic region and the Soviet factor, as well as political stereotypes produced in this field. The author employed historical comparative and inductive types of the historical typological method.

  4. The energy system of Central and Eastern European Countries: what does the future hold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1992-01-01

    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have inherited an energy supply and demand system that was forged by centralized command planning and an administrative-type organization and management mode. The two strongest features of this landscape are without doubt the energy-intensive economic growth and over-investment in the energy sector, that is becoming more and more difficult to sustain in light of declining economic performance. In this context, one of the stakes in the economic transition and reforms is to push for new energy management on both the supply and demand sides. Although the objectives are clear, the ways and means of achieving them are less so, because they depend essentially on the broader economic reform options that are currently in the making

  5. Gesture as the Expresion of the Pascal Mystery in the Central European Medieval Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Tabor

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paschal Mystery is the central reality of the Christianity. This is a series of historical events, presented in the canonical Gospels, in which Jesus from Nazaret was submit to the suffering, death, but was revived and bas ascend 10 the glory. These events was full of meanings and significations. This significations of paschal event has been meditated and analyzed in the Christian text, - in Gospels, in Paul’s Letters, but in the sermon of Fathers of the Church. Meliton of Sardes, Orygenes, Pseudo-Hypolite, and others are known as the interpreters of paschal events. The liturgical texts - Exultet and Victimae Paschali explain the profound sense of the Death and the resurrection of Christ All these works inspired the iconography. This presentation has to review the some works of art in Central Europeand interpretations their theological sense. The gestures will be the key to discovery of meaning.

  6. NATO Nuclear Reductions and the Assurance of Central and Eastern European Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security Between NATO and the Russian Federation, signed in Paris , May 27, 1997, Section IV. Political...in Central Europe,” in Bruno Tertrais, ed., Perspectives on Extended Deterrence, Researches and Documents No. 3 ( Paris : Fondation pour la Rescherche...I. • • • • • • Wrodaw 0 Lo~t Radom L bl’ o u 1n ·= ... 0 Brest 0 Pinsk

  7. Hot Central-European summer of 2013 in a long-term context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 14 (2015), s. 4399-4407 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/2265 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : summer of 2013 * climate variability * temperature records * heat waves * effective precipitation * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.4277/abstract

  8. Validation of models using Chernobyl fallout data from the Central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic. Scenario CB. First report of the VAMP Multiple Pathways Assessment Working Group. Part of the IAEA/CEC Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Validation of Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The VAMP Multiple Pathways Assessment Working Group is an international forum for the testing and comparison of model predictions. The emphasis is on evaluating transfer from the environment to human via all pathways which are relevant in the environment being considered. This document is the first report of the Group and contains the results of the first test exercise on the validation of multiple pathways assessment models using Chernobyl fallout data obtained from the Central Bohemia (CB) region of the Czech Republic (Scenario CB). The report includes the following three appendixes: Documentation and evaluation of model validation data used in scenario CB (3 papers), Description of models used in scenario CB (1 paper), Individual evaluations of model predictions for scenario CB (13 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs.

  9. Validation of models using Chernobyl fallout data from the Central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic. Scenario CB. First report of the VAMP Multiple Pathways Assessment Working Group. Part of the IAEA/CEC Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Validation of Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The VAMP Multiple Pathways Assessment Working Group is an international forum for the testing and comparison of model predictions. The emphasis is on evaluating transfer from the environment to human via all pathways which are relevant in the environment being considered. This document is the first report of the Group and contains the results of the first test exercise on the validation of multiple pathways assessment models using Chernobyl fallout data obtained from the Central Bohemia (CB) region of the Czech Republic (Scenario CB). The report includes the following three appendixes: Documentation and evaluation of model validation data used in scenario CB (3 papers), Description of models used in scenario CB (1 paper), Individual evaluations of model predictions for scenario CB (13 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. A critical reassessment of cultural taxonomies in the Central European Late Palaeolithic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Florian Rudolf; Riede, Felix

    2018-01-01

    and economic criteria in the definition of selected groups. We subject three different archaeological taxonomic units, the Bromme culture from Denmark, the Fürstein group from Switzerland and the Atzenhof group from Germany, to particularly detailed scrutiny and highlight that the classificatory criteria used...... European Late Palaeolithic (ca. 12,000–9700 cal BC) has a long research history and many regionally and temporally specific units—groups and cultures—are recognised. In this paper, we examine the complex taxonomic landscape of this period and critically analyse the use of typological, functional...... in their definition are inconsistent across units and most likely unsuitable for circumscribing past sociocultural units. We suggest a comprehensive re-examination of the overarching taxonomic system for the Late Palaeolithic, as well as a re-evaluation of the methodologies used to delineate sociocultural units...

  11. The potential of military training areas for bird conservation in a central European landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bušek, Ondřej; Reif, Jiří

    2017-10-01

    European biodiversity has suffered from serious declines during the past few decades, with alterations of land use practices resulting in a loss of fine-scale habitat heterogeneity being a dominant driver. This heterogeneity was maintained by extensive landscape management, which has gradually been replaced by either intensive exploitation or land abandonment. It has been suggested that military training can generate habitat heterogeneity that may support the existence of species of conservation concern, but studies rigorously testing the real importance of military training areas for biodiversity are lacking. Here we address this issue by analyses of two datasets. First, we compared land cover classes between all large military training areas (MTAs) and surrounding control areas (CAs) of the same size in the Czech Republic using multivariate redundancy analysis. We found that the difference in land cover between MTAs and CAs was significant and represented the strongest gradient in land cover classes: from various farmland and artificial habitats typical for CAs to forest and scrubland-grassland mosaic typical for MTAs. Second, we selected one of these areas and compared bird species richness between the MTA and the nearby CA using generalized linear mixed effects models. We found that the number of species of conservation concern was significantly higher in the MTA than in the CA. With respect to habitats, bird species richness was significantly higher in the MTA than in the CA for open habitats, but not for forest habitats. Our results are thus consistent with the view that military training creates areas that are different from the surrounding landscape in terms of land cover, and that this difference translates to a suitability for species of conservation concern. It is remarkable that the positive influence of military training is confined to open habitats, which are subject to the most intensive military activities and also suffer the highest degree of

  12. Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Bechu, Olivier; Carrie, Remi; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Fisk, William; Franconi, Ellen; Kristiansen, Oyvind; Levinson, Ronnen; McWilliams, Jennifer; Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark; Webster, Tom; Ring, Erik; Zhang, Qiang; Huizenga, Charlie; Bauman, Fred; Arens, Ed

    1999-12-01

    According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning energy passes through thermal distribution systems in these buildings. In addition, 8600 GWh per year is consumed by fans and pumps in commercial buildings, most of which is used to move the thermal energy through these systems. Research work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been ongoing over the past five years to investigate the energy efficiency of these thermal distribution systems, and to explore possibilities for improving that energy efficiency. Based upon that work, annual savings estimates of 1 kWh/ft{sup 2} for light commercial buildings, and 1-2 kWh/ft{sup 2} in large commercial buildings have been developed for the particular aspects of thermal distribution system performance being addressed by this project. Those savings estimates, combined with a distribution of the building stock based upon an extensive stock characterization study (Modera et al. 1999a), and technical penetration estimates, translate into statewide saving potentials of 2000 GWh/year and 75 million thermal/year, as well as an electricity peak reduction potential of 0.7 GW. The overall goal of this research program is to provide new technology and application knowledge that will allow the design, construction, and energy services industries to reduce the energy waste associated with thermal distribution systems in California commercial buildings. The specific goals of the LBNL efforts over the past year were: (1) to advance the state of knowledge about system performance and energy losses in commercial-building thermal distribution systems; (2) to evaluate the potential of reducing thermal losses through duct sealing, duct

  13. Comparing alcohol consumption in central and eastern Europe to other European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Zatonski, Witold

    2007-01-01

    To give an overview of the volume of alcohol consumption, beverage preference, and patterns of drinking among adults (people 15 years and older) in central and eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) and to compare it to southern and western Europe, Russia and Ukraine. Secondary data analysis. Consumption and preferred beverage type data for the year 2002 were taken from the WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol and the WHO Global Alcohol Database. Average consumption in central and eastern Europe is high with a relatively large proportion of unrecorded consumption ranging from one litre in Czech Republic and Estonia to 10.5 l in Ukraine. The proportion of heavy alcohol consumption (more than 40 g of pure alcohol per day) among men was the lowest in Bulgaria (25.8%) and the highest in Czech Republic (59.4%). Among women, the lowest proportion of heavy alcohol consumption was registered in Estonia (4.0%) and the highest in Hungary (16.0%). Patterns of drinking are detrimental with a high proportion of binge drinking, especially in the group of countries traditionally drinking vodka. In most countries, beer is now the most prevalent alcoholic beverage. Other studies suggest that the population drinking levels found in central and eastern Europe are linked with higher levels of detrimental health outcomes. Known effective and cost-effective programs to reduce levels of risky drinking should, therefore, be implemented, which may, in turn, lead to a reduction of alcohol-attributable burden of disease.

  14. The Relationship between Youth Unemployment and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern European Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman ERDAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study has analyzed the relationship between youth unemployment and economic growth, in the context of Okun law, by using new generation panel data analysis and cointegration tests. In this study, 18 Central and Eastern European country have been selected as subject matter whose youth unemployment rate is above the EU-28 average (25 % for the period 2006-2012. The results show that, if youth unemployment is quite severe; even an exclusive economic growth will not be enough to reduce the youth unemployment rate in the country. It is recommended that the global and country-specific policies which are effective, result-driven on youth (Un employment and labour market issues, should be developed. This study is expected to make a significant contribution to the literature on unemployment and social conflict.

  15. Relationship between particular dendrobiometrical indicators of natural European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. dendrocenoses in Central Balkan Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferezliev Angel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In parallel studies, different regression models were tested to identify relationships between particular dendrobiometrical indicators on two sample plots representing forests dominated by the European beech in the Central Balkan Range (Bulgaria. The presence of incomplete multicollinearity was studied through correlation matrix for factor variables. To avoid multicollinear negative impact, step multiple regression was applied and adequate regression equations of the relationships under consideration were formulated. The results of statistical analysis confirmed that the link between the investigated indicators is strong and that the ’cloud‘ data show some ’sphericity‘ and distribution close to normal. In one of the sample plots, one major volume-forming factor – height does not participate in the obtained regression equation, so it is not possible to estimate its influence. By testing linear and several nonlinear regression dependencies and by mediating widely used statistical criterions for model selection, the optimal linear model of the considered link was chosen.

  16. Management effectiveness and land cover change in dynamic cultural landscapes-assessing a central European biosphere reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnesorge, B.; Plieninger, Tobias; Hostert, P.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims...... at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework...... in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-)desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that-despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately...

  17. A view on ''On-the-Job Training'' in the central and eastern European countries, Russia and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffrennes, M.

    1996-01-01

    The G-24 Training Working Group visited the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEESs), Russia and Ukraine in the course of 1993/94, in order to define priorities for further financial support by the Donor Countries. As a result, it appeared that Nuclear Training needed strong improvements since it is mainly based on OJT (On the Job Training), not SAT (Systematic Approach to Training) oriented and relying essentially on the line supervisor of the trainee. Recommendations were provided to support a SAT based approach development and to provide adequate equipment. In view of the importance of OJT in the training courses, and that probably for some more years, a specific effort should be made in better defining the goals and objectives of the OJT and its coherent integration in the overall training system. In addition, the OJT ''instructors'' have to be trained in the specific teaching skills required to successfully run OJT. (author). 3 figs

  18. The impact of the crisis on the energy demand and energy intensity in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila HUGYECZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to analyze the impact of the recent crisis on the oil and electricity demand and the energy intensity of different Central and Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Furthermore, we would like to reveal whether there is a lag in the adjustment of energy consumption. In analyzing energy intensity, we use motor gasoline, diesel oil and electricity consumption data and ignore coal and natural gas data. By so doing, we avoid failures arising from changing coal/gas consumption due to changing weather conditions. Our results show that the crisis did impact energy consumption and reveal that the improvement of energy intensity halted in 2009, implying that the economic players did not immediately adjust their energy consumption according to their economic activity. The gasoline and diesel intensity, however, deteriorated (increased only in the Czech Republic and in Hungary. In Slovakia and Poland there were no significant changes.

  19. The extraordinary windstorm of 7 December 1868 in the Czech Lands and its central European context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Szabó, Péter; Stucki, P.; Dobrovolný, Petr; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Kotyza, O.; Valášek, H.; Melo, M.; Suchánková, Silvie; Dolák, Lukáš; Chromá, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, S1 (2017), s. 14-29 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-19831S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11805S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : windstorm of 7 December 1868 * documentary data * Twentieth Century Reanalysis * meteorological situation * damage * forestry * Czech Lands * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BU-J) OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences; Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) (BU-J) Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2016

  20. The economic recovery in the Central and Eastern European EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena GURGU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the recession in 2008-09, the economies of the eight EU countries in central and Eastern Europe outside the euro area (CEE are recovering gradually, albeit with significant differences across countries. The expansion in economic activity is currently being driven primarily by exports as domestic demand remains subdued. Those countries that accumulated relatively more substantial internal and external imbalances before the financial crisis suffered more severe contractions in output during the crisis, and most of them face a more sluggish economic recovery.

  1. Sediment of a Central European Mountain Lake Implies an Extraterrestrial Impact at the Younger Dryas Onset

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, D.; Kletetschka, G.; Hrubá, J.; Nábělek, L.; Procházka, V.; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; Bobek, Přemysl; Hořická, Zuzana; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Takáč, M.; Stuchlík, Evžen

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, S1 (2017), A373-A373, č. článku 6230. ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /80./. 23.07.2017-28.07.2017, Santa Fe] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05935S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : Younger Dryas * Extraterrestrial Impact * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology; DA - Hydrology ; Limnology (BC-A); DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (GFU-E) OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  2. Ecological restoration of Central European mining sites: a summary of a multi-site analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prach, K.; Rehounkova, K.; Rehounek, J.; Konvalinkova, P. [University of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    Sites disturbed by mining were surveyed in the Czech Republic, central Europe. The sites included spoil heaps from coal mining, sand and gravel pits, extracted peatlands and stone quarries. The following main conclusions emerged: I) potential for spontaneous succession to be used in restoration projects is between 95 and 100% of the total area disturbed; ii) mining sites, if mining is properly designed and then the sites are left to spontaneous succession, often act as refugia for endangered and retreating organisms, and may contribute substantially to local biodiversity.

  3. Labour Market Trends and Problems in the EU’s Central and Eastern European Member States: Is Flexicurity the Answer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Funk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 1990s, international organisations, such as the International Monetary Fund mainly based their policy proposals for transition economies and the high unemployment, low growth countries in Western Europe, on economic “orthodoxy”. This approach predominantly followed neoclassical economics in which market liberal solutions predominate. These suggestions were controversial; the early results of these policies appeared to be disappointing. Policymakers sought alternative reform proposals and the idea of “flexicurity” has gradually emerged to the political buzzword. Flexicurity combines flexibility with security and suggests that rather generous unemployment benefits and spending on active labour market policies can be aligned with a flexible, employment-friendly labour market. Originating in Denmark, the European Commission and the International Labour Organisation have promoted flexicurity more or less independent of specific single country cases, and based their approach on more abstract, generalised relationships between flexibility and security. These bodies argue for an alternative policy to pure orthodox deregulation and liberalisation for the member states of the European Union (EU and the former transition economies that joined the EU since 2004. After a review of common labour market-related characteristics and problems of the EU’s central and eastern European members, the article summarises and critically evaluates the main elements of flexicurity suggestions. It further compares them to the relevant policy proposals based primarily on more orthodox economic analysis. The analysis shows that several preconditions for a successful flexicurity strategy are still lacking across the new member states. Moreover, the article demonstrates that current proposals by the critics of a single-minded flexicurity approach by no means always disregard potentially positive effects of improving the supposed trade-offs between

  4. Energy consumption, human well-being and economic development in central and eastern European nations: A cautionary tale of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Alekseyko, Alina; Giedraitis, Vincentas

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability is fundamentally a challenge of tradeoffs. In order to improve human well-being through economic development we consume nonrenewable energy and other natural resources, relying on a broad range of ecosystem services. Enhancing sustainability requires reducing the “energy intensity of human well-being (EIWB)”: the amount of energy used per unit of human well-being. In this study we employ longitudinal analysis techniques to assess the temporally dynamic relationship between EIWB and economic development for a sample of 12 Central and Eastern European (CEE) nations for the 1992 to 2010 period. These are nations that have recently transitioned, which is still an ongoing process, from socialist command economies to market demand economies. During this ongoing transition, many of them have experienced declines in energy intensity, coupled with increased energy efficiency, while human well-being has improved considerably. The results of the analysis indicate that the relationship between EIWB and economic growth in CEE nations is complex and has changed dramatically through time. Of particular importance, the later years of the study exhibit an increasingly sustainable relationship between EIWB and economic development. The findings point to future possibilities for relatively more harmonious relationships between development, human well-being, and the natural environment. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy intensity of well-being in Central and Eastern European nations. • The effect of economic development is time-dynamic. • Other factors influence the energy intensity of well-being. • The results highlight possibilities for enhanced sustainability policies

  5. Transferability of results of cost utility analyses for biologicals in inflammatory conditions for Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulácsi, László; Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Brodszky, Valentin; Lopert, Ruth; Hevér, Noémi V; Baji, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Several Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries require cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to support reimbursement formulary listing. However, CUAs informed by local evidence are often unavailable, and the cost-effectiveness of the several currently reimbursed biologicals is unclear. To estimate the cost-effectiveness as multiples of per capita GDP/quality adjusted life years (QALY) of four biologicals (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab) currently reimbursed in six CEE countries in six inflammatory rheumatoid and bowel disease conditions. Systematic literature review of published cost-utility analyses in the selected conditions, using the United Kingdom (UK) as reference country and with study selection criteria set to optimize the transfer of results to the CEEs. Prices in each CEE country were pro-rated against UK prices using purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted per capita GDP, and local GDP per capita/QALY ratios estimated. Central and Eastern European countries list prices were 144-333% higher than pro rata prices. Out of 85 CUAs identified by previous systematic literature reviews, 15 were selected as a convenience sample for estimating the cost-effectiveness of biologicals in the CEE countries in terms of per capita GDP/QALY. Per capita GDP/QALY values varied from 0.42 to 6.4 across countries and conditions (Bulgaria: 0.97-6.38; Czech Republic: 0.42-2.76; Hungary: 0.54-3.54; Poland: 0.59-3.90; Romania: 0.77-5.07; Slovakia: 0.55-3.61). While results must be interpreted with caution, calculating pro rata (cost-effective) prices and per capita GDP/QALY ratios based on CUAs can aid reimbursement decision-making in the absence of analyses using local data.

  6. Age assessment based on third molar mineralisation : An epidemiological-radiological study on a Central-European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Elisabeth; Robold, Matthias; Proff, Peter; Kirschneck, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The method published in 1973 by Demirjian et al. to assess age based on the mineralisation stage of permanent teeth is standard practice in forensic and orthodontic diagnostics. From age 14 onwards, however, this method is only applicable to third molars. No current epidemiological data on third molar mineralisation are available for Caucasian Central-Europeans. Thus, a method for assessing age in this population based on third molar mineralisation is presented, taking into account possible topographic and gender-specific differences. The study included 486 Caucasian Central-European orthodontic patients (9-24 years) with unaffected dental development. In an anonymized, randomized, and blinded manner, one orthopantomogram of each patient at either start, mid or end of treatment was visually analysed regarding the mineralisation stage of the third molars according to the method by Demirjian et al. Corresponding topographic and gender-specific point scores were determined and added to form a dental maturity score. Prediction equations for age assessment were derived by linear regression analysis with chronological age and checked for reliability within the study population. Mineralisation of the lower third molars was slower than mineralisation of the upper third molars, whereas no jaw-side-specific differences were detected. Gender-specific differences were relatively small, but girls reached mineralisation stage C earlier than boys, whereas boys showed an accelerated mineralisation between the ages of 15 and 16. The global equation generated by regression analysis (age = -1.103 + 0.268 × dental maturity score 18 + 28 + 38 + 48) is sufficiently accurate and reliable for clinical use. Age assessment only based on either maxilla or mandible also shows good prognostic reliability.

  7. Comparative care and outcomes for acute coronary syndromes in Central and Eastern European Transitional countries: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fraser G D; Brogan, Richard A; Alabas, Oras; Laut, Kristina G; Quinn, Tom; Bugiardini, Raffaele; Gale, Chris P

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to compare quality of care and outcomes following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Central and Eastern European Transitional (CEET) countries. This was a review of original ACS articles in CEET countries from PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Medline and Embase databases published in English from November 2003 to February 2014. Seventeen manuscripts fulfilled the search criteria. Of 19 CEET countries studied, there were no published ACS management or outcome data for four countries. In-hospital mortality for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) ranged from 6.3% in the Czech Republic to 15.3% in Latvia. In-hospital mortality for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) ranged from 3.0% in Poland to 20.7% in Romania. For STEMI, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) ranged from 1.0% to over 92.0%, fibrinolytic therapy from 0.0% to 49.6%, and no reperfusion therapy from 7.0% to 63.0%. Many CEET countries do not have published ACS care and outcomes data. Of those that do, there is evidence for substantial geographical variation in early mortality. Wide variation in emergency reperfusion strategies for STEMI suggests that acute cardiac care is likely to be modifiable and if addressed could reduce mortality from ACS in CEET countries. The collection of ACS care and outcomes data across Europe must be prioritised. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  8. Effect of summer fire on cursorial spider (Aranei and beetle (Coleoptera assemblages in meadow steppes of Central European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polchaninova Nina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an important structuring force for grassland ecosystems. Despite increased incidents of fire in European steppes, their impact on arthropod communities is still poorly studied. We assessed short-term changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages after a summer fire in the meadow steppe in Central European Russia. The responses of spider and beetle assemblages to the fire event were different. In the first post-fire year, the same beetle species dominated burnt and unburnt plots, the alpha-diversity of beetle assemblages was similar, and there were no pronounced changes in the proportions of trophic groups. Beetle species richness and activity density increased in the second post-fire year, while that of the spiders decreased. The spider alpha-diversity was lowest in the first post-fire year, and the main dominants were pioneer species. In the second year, the differences in spider species composition and activity density diminished. The main conclusion of our study is that the large-scale intensive summer fire caused no profound changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages of this steppe plot. Mitigation of the fire effect is explained by the small plot area, its location at the edge of the fire site and the presence of adjacent undisturbed habitats with herbaceous vegetation.

  9. CEC thermal-hydraulic benchmark exercise on Fiploc verification experiment F2 in Battelle model containment. Experimental phases 2, 3 and 4. Results of comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.; Schall, M.; Wolf, L.

    1993-01-01

    The present final report comprises the major results of Phase II of the CEC thermal-hydraulic benchmark exercise on Fiploc verification experiment F2 in the Battelle model containment, experimental phases 2, 3 and 4, which was organized and sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities for the purpose of furthering the understanding and analysis of long-term thermal-hydraulic phenomena inside containments during and after severe core accidents. This benchmark exercise received high European attention with eight organizations from six countries participating with eight computer codes during phase 2. Altogether 18 results from computer code runs were supplied by the participants and constitute the basis for comparisons with the experimental data contained in this publication. This reflects both the high technical interest in, as well as the complexity of, this CEC exercise. Major comparison results between computations and data are reported on all important quantities relevant for containment analyses during long-term transients. These comparisons comprise pressure, steam and air content, velocities and their directions, heat transfer coefficients and saturation ratios. Agreements and disagreements are discussed for each participating code/institution, conclusions drawn and recommendations provided. The phase 2 CEC benchmark exercise provided an up-to-date state-of-the-art status review of the thermal-hydraulic capabilities of present computer codes for containment analyses. This exercise has shown that all of the participating codes can simulate the important global features of the experiment correctly, like: temperature stratification, pressure and leakage, heat transfer to structures, relative humidity, collection of sump water. Several weaknesses of individual codes were identified, and this may help to promote their development. As a general conclusion it may be said that while there is still a wide area of necessary extensions and improvements, the

  10. Impact of hydraulic and carbon loading rates of constructed wetlands on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, Fariya; Westerhoff, Paul; Herckes, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands remove trace organic contaminants via synergistic processes involving plant biomass that include hydrolysis, volatilization, sorption, biodegradation, and photolysis. Wetland design conditions, such as hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) and carbon loading rates (CLRs), influence these processes. Contaminant of emerging concern (CEC) removal by wetland plants was investigated at varying HLRs and CLRs. Rate constants and parameters obtained from batch-scale studies were used in a mechanistic model to evaluate the effect of these two loading rates on CEC removal. CLR significantly influenced CEC removal when wetlands were operated at HLR >5 cm/d. High values of CLR increased removal of estradiol and carbamazepine but lowered that of testosterone and atrazine. Without increasing the cumulative HLR, operating two wetlands in series with varying CLRs could be a way to improve CEC removal. -- Highlights: • A fate-predictive model was developed to evaluate the effect of loading rates on CEC removal in constructed wetlands. • Carbon loading rates (CLRs) can influence CEC removal when wetlands are operated at higher hydraulic loading rates (HLRs). • The effect of CLRs varies among CECs with different physico-chemical properties. • Combination of wetlands with different CLRs can optimize CEC removal without changing the net HLR. -- This article evaluates the effect of design loading rates on contaminant of emerging concern (CEC) removal in constructed wetlands

  11. TuBaFrost 5: multifunctional central database application for a European tumor bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, M; Teodorovic, I; Morente, M M; Jaminé, D; Passioukov, A; Lejeune, S; Therasse, P; Dinjens, W N M; Oosterhuis, J W; Lam, K H; Oomen, M H A; Spatz, A; Ratcliffe, C; Knox, K; Mager, R; Kerr, D; Pezzella, F; van de Vijver, M; van Boven, H; Alonso, S; Kerjaschki, D; Pammer, J; Lopez-Guerrero, J A; Llombart Bosch, A; Carbone, A; Gloghini, A; van Veen, E-B; van Damme, B; Riegman, P H J

    2006-12-01

    Developing a tissue bank database has become more than just logically arranging data in tables combined with a search engine. Current demand for high quality samples and data, and the ever-changing legal and ethical regulations mean that the application must reflect TuBaFrost rules and protocols for the collection, exchange and use of tissue. To ensure continuation and extension of the TuBaFrost European tissue bank, the custodianship of the samples, and hence the decision over whether to issue samples to requestors, remains with the local collecting centre. The database application described in this article has been developed to facilitate this open structure virtual tissue bank model serving a large group. It encompasses many key tasks, without the requirement for personnel, hence minimising operational costs. The Internet-accessible database application enables search, selection and request submission for requestors, whereas collectors can upload and edit their collection. Communication between requestor and involved collectors is started with automatically generated e-mails.

  12. Dominant psychoactive drugs in the Central European region: A wastewater study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Bodík, Igor; Hasan, Jamal; Grabic, Roman; Golovko, Oksana; Vojs-Staňová, Andrea; Gál, Miroslav; Naumowicz, Monika; Tichý, Jozef; Brandeburová, Paula; Híveš, Ján

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze 26 various illicit drugs, psychopharmaceuticals and metabolites thereof in sewer from 17 selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Slovak and Czech Republics. Urinary bio-markers used were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with the tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We then compared our results with data obtained in other parts of Europe and the world. The present study shows that the Slovak and Czech Republics have one of the highest methamphetamine consumption rates in Europe. Within Slovakia, the highest level of methamphetamine consumption was found in Dunajská Streda with the mean specific load of the drug in sewage being up to 479mg/day/1000 inhabitants; the next highest load was detected in Trnava (354mg/day/1000 inhabitants). The methamphetamine, ecstasy and cannabis consumptions in our study were comparable to those found in other European cities, whereas cocaine consumption was lower. Among all of the studied psychopharmaceuticals, tramadol and venlafaxine were represented in the highest concentrations. The highest mean specific load of tramadol was detected in the spa town of Piešťany (371mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and Košice (372mg/day/1000 inhabitants), while the highest mean loads of venlafaxine were recorded for the towns of Trenčín (230mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and Piešťany (108mg/day/1000 inhabitants). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Practical decommissioning experience with nuclear installations in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skupinski, E.

    1992-01-01

    Initiated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), this seminar was jointly organized by the AEA, BNFL and the CEC at Windermere and the sites of Windscale/Sellafield, where the former Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor and the Windscale piles are currently being dismantled. The meeting aimed at gathering a limited number of European experts for the presentation and discussion of operations, results and conclusions on techniques and procedures currently applied in the dismantling of large scale nuclear installations in the European Community

  14. Cecília, antero e os caminhos para a perfeição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margarida Maia Gouveia

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Na formação literária de Cecília, a literatura portuguesa desempenhou um papel importante, nomeadamente o caso exemplar da poesia e da prosa metafísica de Antero. Porém, enquanto em Antero as preocupações com a morte e o Além assumem uma forma dramática, com diálogos, espectros e “cavalgadas ideais”, em Cecília nota-se uma serena e amarga aceitação da vida. Em Antero pesam ainda fórmulas românticas de expressão poética; em Cecília verifica-se uma linguagem mais elaborada e herdeira do simbolismo. 

  15. Morphology and ecological characteristics of Sparganium × longifolium (Typhaceae in the Central part of European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Belyakov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing impact of anthropogenic factors and climate change affect the growth of a number of taxa of hybrid nature. These taxa are widespread among various taxonomic groups of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants. The genus Sparganium L. В is not an exception. In that regard, the aim of this study is to conduct biomorphological investigation of Sparganium × longifolium Turcz. ex Ledeb., evaluate qualitative and quantitative criteria for the hybrid similarities and differences with its parental species, as well as to analyze data on its habitat characteristics. Samples were collected in 2014–2016 from waterbodies in European Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl oblasts. In the study on biomorphology of S. × longifolium we used live and fixed materials, as well as herbarium funds of IBIW, MXA and MW. To establish and specify taxonomic features of the hybrid under study, indicating to its similarity with a certain ancestral species, our data on the morphology and ecology of S. emersum Rehm. and S. gramineum Georgi. are used. During field studies, the type of water object where the hybrid was detected, ecological characteristics of its habitat (type of soil, depth, water temperature and pH are determined; the list of taxa which enter into the cenosis composition is compiled. The biomorphological investigation of S. × longifolium shows that by life form this hybrid, as well as its parental species, is a vegetative-mobile evidently-polycentric annual or biennial plant of vegetative origin with a racemose root system. The following should be attributed to the characteristic features justifying the hybrid origin of S. × longifolium: 1 a wider, slightly carinated lamina (as in S. emersum; 2 a branched inflorescence (as in S. gramineum; 3 the lower covering leaf of inflorescence, often exceeding the total length of the latter; 4 fruits with a straight (as in S. emersum as well as bent (as in S. gramineum style. Interestingly, some populations of S.

  16. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alexandru; Cherecheş, Răzvan M; Ungureanu, Marius I; Marton-Vasarhelyi, Emanuela O; Valentine, Marissa A; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Gray, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 19. srednjeevropska konferenca o informatiki in inteligentnih sistemih = 19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Faganel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the 19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems, CECIIS 2008, which took place between 24th and 26th September in Varaždin and was organised by the Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in Varaždin. The central theme of this year’s conference was e-government. During those 3 days, 250 participants could attend presentations of 90 scientific and professional works in 15 sections and 9 invited lectures on the newest trends in the area of information and communication technology management, information technologies, security of information systems, multimedia systems, strategic planning of information systems, education for information society. Two other parallel events were held within the international conference, namely the workshop ‘Activities towards ICT professionalism’ and a round table on the subject ‘Competences of ICT Professionals’. Experts in the field of human resources, leaders of information centres and managers of the leading Croatian companies participated in the latter.

  18. CLO-PLA: a database of clonal and bud-bank traits of the Central European flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimešová, Jitka; Danihelka, Jiří; Chrtek, Jindřich; de Bello, Francesco; Herben, Tomáš

    2017-04-01

    This dataset presents comprehensive and easy-to-use information on 29 functional traits of clonal growth, bud banks, and lifespan of members of the Central European flora. The source data were compiled from a number of published sources (see the reference file) and the authors' own observations or studies. In total, 2,909 species are included (2,745 herbs and 164 woody species), out of which 1,532 (i.e., 52.7% of total) are classified as possessing clonal growth organs (1,480, i.e., 53.9%, if woody plants are excluded). This provides a unique, and largely unexplored, set of traits of clonal growth that can be used in studies on comparative plant ecology, plant evolution, community assembly, and ecosystem functioning across the large flora of Central Europe. It can be directly imported into a number of programs and packages that perform trait-based and phylogenetic analyses aimed to answer a variety of open and pressing ecological questions. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Coman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance.

  20. Central European Acer- and Salicaceae-feeding aphids of the genus Stomaphis (Insecta: Aphidoidea: Lachnidae) -separate species or populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depa, Lukasz; Mróz, Ewa

    2013-06-01

    In Europe, there are three aphid species of the genus Stomaphis Walker that feed on trees in the genus Acer and one that feeds on trees in the family Salicaceae. Although these species are considered morphologically distinct, their uncertain host specificity and variation in morphological features has led to misidentifications or questionable attribution of subspecies status. The aim of the present study was to clarify the identity of the Central European representatives on the basis of morphological and molecular analyses. Our study is based on 42 samples from Central Europe and Northern Italy. Mitochondrial markers COXI and COXII were used to determine the molecular identity of the specimens studied. Our molecular analyses revealed the existence of three clades (two on Acer, one on Salicaceae) as defined by both molecular markers. Morphological analysis showed a broad range of variability of the key morphological features in all three clades. Despite significant differences in the mean values of morphometric traits, their range of variability strongly overlapped. Samples from COXI clades on Acer showed two different patterns of geographical distribution. Host specificity is recognized only at the level of host plant genera (Acer) and family (Salicaceae), excluding the possibility of the existence of separate subspecies on single host plant species.

  1. Asymmetric design for Compound Elliptical Concentrators (CEC) and its geometric flux implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland

    2015-08-01

    The asymmetric compound elliptical concentrator (CEC) has been a less discussed subject in the nonimaging optics society. The conventional way of understanding an ideal concentrator is based on maximizing the concentration ratio based on a uniformed acceptance angle. Although such an angle does not exist in the case of CEC, the thermodynamic laws still hold and we can produce concentrators with the maximum concentration ratio allowed by them. Here we restate the problem and use the string method to solve this general problem. Built on the solution, we can discover groups of such ideal concentrators using geometric flux field, or flowline method.

  2. The lending channel and budget balance: empirical evidences from Central and Eastern European economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Gabriel MOINESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to deepen the analysis on the indirect dependence of government budget balance on private sector credit flow in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The added value of this approach consists of two elements. First, the analysis suggests developing the traditional analytical framework of assessing risks to public finance stability by including second round effects of negative fiscal impulses on credit to private sector during recession periods. Second, the study provides empirical evidence on the importance of economic growth transmission channel for the impact of credit accelerator effects on primary deficit. At the same time, nonperforming loans channel proved to be insignificant, especially in relation to the persistency of last year’s budget deficit and the effects of budget allocations pro-cyclicality. However, loan portfolio quality seems to be more relevant in the case of public debt service, through its influence on the evolution of the yield on long-term government securities that is closely related to sovereign risk premium. Nevertheless, strengthening the financial safety net by the introduction of resolution funds will most probably break the link investors saw between credit portfolio quality and the impending increase in budget spending. This expected development across not only CEE countries, but at the EU level also, will facilitate the isolation of sovereign risk premium from non-performing loans’ dynamics.

  3. The Impact of International Financial Crisis on Bank Performance in Eastern and Central European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin-Marius Andrieș

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the determinants of bank profitability in 10 countries from Central and Eastern Europe, in the period between 2004 and 2013. We proxy the profitability of banks with more commonly used ratio: the return on assets (ROA, computed as a ratio of the net profit to the total bank assets. We used multiple regression with bank specific variables, banking industry variables and macroeconomic variables. Moreover, we added a global financial crisis dummy to highlight the crisis impact on asset return. OLS is the main estimation method, but we also used difference-in-difference in order to test if the crisis impact was amplified or diminished by the bank specific characteristics. The evidence shows significant differences between the profit levels of the CEEC banks. Our results are in line with the empirical literature. The impact of the international financial crisis on ROA was negative and statistically significant, as expected. The second part of the analysis we separate the banks sample in three categories: banks with high capital adequacy, large banks by total assets and foreign-owned banks. Our findings show that the three selected variables both amplified and decreased the crisis effect.

  4. Survey of otolaryngology services in Ukraine and neighbouring Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, M M; Wagner, R; Fishchuk, R; Fagan, J J

    2017-11-01

    The present humanitarian crisis in Ukraine is putting strains on its healthcare system. This study aimed to assess services and training in otolaryngology, audiology and speech therapy in Ukraine and its geographical neighbours. Survey study of 327 otolaryngologists from 19 countries. Fifty-six otolaryngologists (17 per cent) from 15 countries responded. Numbers of otolaryngologists varied from 3.6 to 12.3 per 100 000 population (Ukraine = 7.8). Numbers of audiologists varied from 0, in Ukraine, to 2.8 per 100 000, in Slovakia, and numbers of speech therapists varied from 0, in Bulgaria, to 4.0 per 100 000, in Slovenia (Ukraine = 0.1). Ukraine lacks newborn and school hearing screening, good availability of otological drills and microscopes, and a cochlear implant programme. There is wide variation in otolaryngology services in Central and Eastern Europe. All countries surveyed had more otolaryngologists per capita than the UK, but availability of audiology and speech and language therapy is poor. Further research on otolaryngology health outcomes in the region will guide service improvement.

  5. Dissecting the genetic architecture of frost tolerance in Central European winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Würschum, Tobias; Longin, C Friedrich H; Korzun, Viktor; Kollers, Sonja; Schachschneider, Ralf; Zeng, Jian; Fernando, Rohan; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Reif, Jochen C

    2013-11-01

    Abiotic stress tolerance in plants is pivotal to increase yield stability, but its genetic basis is still poorly understood. To gain insight into the genetic architecture of frost tolerance, this work evaluated a large mapping population of 1739 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines and hybrids adapted to Central Europe in field trials in Germany and fingerprinted the lines with a 9000 single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Additive effects prevailed over dominance effects. A two-dimensional genome scan revealed the presence of epistatic effects. Genome-wide association mapping in combination with a robust cross-validation strategy identified one frost tolerance locus with a major effect located on chromosome 5B. This locus was not in linkage disequilibrium with the known frost loci Fr-B1 and Fr-B2. The use of the detected diagnostic markers on chromosome 5B, however, does not allow prediction of frost tolerance with high accuracy. Application of genome-wide selection approaches that take into account also loci with small effect sizes considerably improved prediction of the genetic variation of frost tolerance in wheat. The developed prediction model is valuable for improving frost tolerance because this trait displays a wide variation in occurrence across years and is therefore a difficult target for conventional phenotypic selection.

  6. Specifics of IFRS Adoption by Central and Eastern European Countries: Evidence from Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procházka David

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews recent literature on the specifics of adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS by the new EU members from the Central and Eastern Europe. Despite being members of the EU or OECD, the transition to a standard developed economy has not yet finished. The first part of the paper presents macroeconomic statistics and capital market data, which underline a unique economic structure of the region (relative unimportance of capital markets for raising capital, strong dependence on foreign direct investments combined with the lacks in institutional environment. Under such conditions, the economic consequences of IFRS adoption can be unpredictable and adverse. The second part of the paper analyses the reflection of specifics of the IFRS adoption in the CEE region in research studies covered by the Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science database. The analysis reveals (a cross-country disproportion in the research coverage of the area; (b relatively low coverage of the IFRS research focusing on these transition countries in top journals.

  7. Review of Research into Enterprise Bankruptcy Prediction in Selected Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Prusak

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, the first studies on forecasting bankruptcy date to the early 20th century. In Central and Eastern Europe, due to, among other factors, the geopolitical situation and the introduced economic system, this issue became the subject of researcher interest only in the 1990s. Therefore, it is worthwhile to analyze whether these countries conduct bankruptcy risk assessments and what their level of advancement is. The main objective of the article is the review and assessment of the level of advancement of bankruptcy prediction research in countries of the former Eastern Bloc, in comparison to the latest global research trends in this area. For this purpose, the method of analyzing scientific literature was applied. The publications chosen as the basis for the research were mainly based on information from the Google Scholar and ResearchGate databases during the period Q4 2016–Q3 2017. According to the author’s knowledge, this is the first such large-scale study involving the countries of the former Eastern Bloc—which includes the following states: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Hungary, Russia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Bulgaria, and Belarus. The results show that the most advanced research in this area is conducted in the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Estonia, Russia, and Hungary. Belarus Bulgaria and Latvia are on the other end. In the remaining countries, traditional approaches to predicting business insolvency are generally used.

  8. Socio-economic circumstances and food habits in Eastern, Central and Western European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Sinéad; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Pikhart, Hynek; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bragina, Oksana; Stepaniak, Urszula; Gillis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Simonova, Galina; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2011-04-01

    To assess the relationship between several socio-economic indicators and frequency of consumption of seven predefined healthy foods (consumption of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain bread, vegetable-fat spread, vegetable cooking fat, low-fat milk and low-fat cheese) in populations from Eastern, Central and Western Europe. Analysis of baseline data collected in two cross-sectional cohort studies between 2000 and 2005: the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study and the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (HHS). Urban populations in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Finland. In the HAPIEE study, random samples of men and women aged 45-69 years were drawn from population registers and electoral lists of selected cities. In the HHS, men and women aged 40-60 years employed by the City of Helsinki were recruited. Data on 21,326 working subjects from both cohorts were analysed. Healthy food habits were, in general, positively associated with higher education, occupational position and fewer economic difficulties, but there were differences in the strength of the gradient by food and country. Fruit consumption showed the most consistent gradients, especially in relation to socio-economic status among men (country-specific relative index of inequality (RII)=2.02-5.17) and women (RII=2.09-3.57). The associations between socio-economic indicators and healthy food habits showed heterogeneity between countries. Future studies of dietary behaviours should consider multiple measures of socio-economic position.

  9. Institutional aspects of decentralized electricity production. Orientations of the CEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibal, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the european commission is to remove the legal and administrative obstacles blocking the development of consumer production on the basis of combined production and waste combustion, and to oblige the public service to purchase the surplus electricity generated by consumer production at a price based on the avoided costs. The main difficulty faced by the Commission will be to develop a relatively flexible framework defining exactly how consumer production is to be integrated into the public service, given the diversity of the procedures existing in the different member states (projects THERMIE and SAVE)

  10. The Competitiveness of Settlements with SPAS in Some Central European Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Bakucz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers two topics which are, broadly, inseparable. The first has as its main target the competitiveness of Spa Tourism in two Regions of Hungary - in settlements with different characteristics; the second, recognising the need for a new way to measure competitiveness in the sector, deals with the creation of a new competitiveness index. The benefits of virtually all forms of Tourism - economic or social – are well enough known to need no repetition. This is especially true of such fields as Spa or Health Tourism, in which there is a natural trend towards longer stays and higher expenditure by visitors. For a relatively poor country such as Hungary – weak in natural resources apart from agricultural land – the basic presence of a generous supply of easily accessible thermal or medicinal water below a huge proportion of its surface area (70% is a remarkable gift. Nevertheless, many factors are to be studied if a rational, sustainable development policy is to be elaborated by public and private interests. There are many spas – settlements with thermal or medicinal waters (or both - spread across Hungary, and their variety is extraordinary. There are huge differences in terms of size, visitor numbers, accommodation facilities, overnights, leisure or treatment facilities and location – that is, their closeness to favourable population areas (domestic or foreign. The critical decisions on investment and development need comprehensive data on all factors of all locations. The essential issue is competitiveness: in Central Europe, where spas have a great tradition and history (e.g., Germany, Austria and today’s Czech Republic, does or can Hungary offer a product which will sell? There are numerous factors and as many bases on which to judge. In 2013 a team from the Faculty of Business and Economics at Pécs University - supported by Hungary’s National Scientific Research Foundation (OTKA – embarked on a study of the

  11. [Problem issues related to HIV/AIDS in Eastern European and Central Asian countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    HIV has been spreading over the territories of our countries for 18 years, and it is still possible to resist the epidemic in a unique and efficient way. In June 2001, the UNO General Assembly Special Session was devoted to the problem of HIV/AIDS in full. Its Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (Resolution S-26/2) defines main directions of this work both in world-wide, regional, and international scopes. It should be stressed that first of all the Declaration emphasizes the necessity to improve management and coordination of efforts at the global, regional, and national levels, which is of special importance to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where a new phase of HIV infection epidemic has begun and the spread of the virus grows and very soon may gain uncontrollable character. As for the countries of our region, here the epidemic process has been developing mostly through sexual way of transmission for 8 years since 1987, when the first case of HIV infection was revealed. More than 350000 HIV-infected people, including more than 15,000 children, have been registered in Russian Federation. More than 9000 people have died. The proportion of childbearing age women constantly grows, and the number of children born to mothers with AIDS has now exceeded 15,000. To realize the component "Prevention of HIV infection, B and C hepatitis, and revealing and treatment of HIV patients" of the priority national health project, 3.1 billion rubles are allocated for the prophylaxis of and fight against HIV and AIDS. The measures that are planned to take will allow for principle changes in the present situation with medical aid providence of contemporary antiretroviral medicines. Russian Orthodox Church with its parishes, monasteries etc. carries out numerous projects of primary HIV prophylaxis among children and young people in different regions; these projects are directed towards forming moral values.

  12. Family-friendly policy in Central European countries [Polityka rodzinna w krajach Europy Środkowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław ZDULSKI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The demographic changes in Central Europe which started in the 80s of the 20th century began to resemble the changes which were noticed earlier in the countries of Western Europe. Fertility gradually decreased, sometimes even below the simple reproduction rate, the number of marriages dropped and the age when they were made was changing. The model of the family underwent transformations which caused changes in family structures. What followed was a fast change from the so called traditional reproduction to modern reproduction. Demographers are looking for the causes of the above mentioned changes in the influence of economic factors and changes the world view. They also emphasised the need for a family-friendly policy. An important influence on the type of policy of a given country is tradition, the implemented socio-economic policy (e.g., conservative, liberal, the economic situation and public opinion. In a narrower sense it is defined as benefits and services for people with children and single parents. Such an approach means the readiness and constant support in the form of financial transfers made to the families, tax relief for families with children, maternity leaves, the creation and maintenance of institutions which offer child care and family law. In a broad sense, familyfriendly policy covers all areas of social policy which can potentially have an influence on the good of the family (subsidies towards children’s travel costs, education, safety, housing, etc.. The aim of this paper is to describe the changes in the field of demography which took place after 1989 and their effects on families, as well as the policies implemented in the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary in order to increase reproduction and the number of marriages.

  13. A Climate Information Portal for Copernicus: a central portal for European climate services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckes, Martin; Swart, Rob; Thysse, Peter; Som de Cerff, Wim; Groot, Annemarie; Bennett, Victoria; Costa, Luis; Lückenkötter, Johannes; Callaghan, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    The FP7 project "Climate Information Portal for Copernicus" (CLIPC) is developing a demonstration portal for the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S). This project is one of a suite of FP7 research activities which are administratively independent of Copernicus, focussed on creating the technical and scientific building blocks needed for the service. It is to be expected that at EGU 2015 there will be many presentations describing portals delivering new and innovative ranges of services. It would be unwise to seek to replace all this creative activity with a single portal -- instead CLIPC is designing a portal to make distributed resources more accessible through flexible discovery systems. CLIPC needs to deliver more than a directory of resources: resources need to be presented in common protocols so that users can access multiple datasets. More information about the project objectives is available at www.clipc.eu. The gulf between the climate science communities and the end user communities is a central challenge being addressed in the project. It is important to understand that there is significant diversity and multiple communication barriers within these two sets of communities as well as between them. The CLIPC services must presentation will provide a review of progress towards this ambitious goal, through a discussion of user requirements activities, an overview of the proposed architecture, work on assessing and adjusting model biasses, and a discussion of the climate impact indicators which will be provided through the portal. When looking at the usability of data for the various users, CLIPC will implement a set of services functioning as a "knowledge base" supplying information to users about the data, including definitions of terminology used, quality of datasets, versioning, and user annotations.

  14. A MACROPRUDENTIAL SUPERVISION MODEL. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenca Ioan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the positive effects of the financial crises is the increasing concern of the supervisors regarding the financial system’s stability. There is a need to strengthen the links between different financial components of the financial system and the macroeconomic environment. Banking systems that have an adequate capitalization and liquidity level may face easier economic and financial shocks. The purpose of this empirical study is to identify the main determinants of the banking system’s stability and soundness in the Central and Eastern Europe countries. We asses the impact of different macroeconomic variables on the quality of capital and liquidity conditions and examine the behaviour of these financial stability indicators, by analyzing a sample of 10 banking systems during 2000-2011. The availability of banking capital signals the banking system’s resiliency to shocks. Capital adequacy ratio is the main indicator used to assess the banking fragility. One of the causes of the 2008-2009 financial crisis was the lack of liquidity in the banking system which led to the collapse of several banking institutions and macroeconomic imbalances. Given the importance of liquidity for the banking system, we propose several models in order to determine the macroeconomic variables that have a significant influence on the liquid reserves to total assets ratio. We found evidence that GDP growth, inflation, domestic credit to private sector, as well as the money and quasi money aggregate indicator have significant impact on the banking stability. The empirical regression confirms the high level of interdependence of the real sector with the financial-banking sector. Also, they prove the necessity for an effective macro prudential supervision at country level which enables the supervisory authorities to have an adequate control over the macro prudential indicators and to take appropriate decisions at the right time.

  15. The wind and fire disturbance in Central European mountain spruce forests: the regeneration after four years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Budzáková

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A strong windstorm in November 2004 resulted in a huge blown-down spruce forest area in the southern part of the Tatra National Park in the Western Carpathians in Slovakia, Central Europe. The aim of this work is to study the vegetation composition of spruce forest at differently managed sites four years after this disturbance. Four study areas were selected for this purpose: (i an area where the fallen trees were extracted and new seedlings were planted; (ii an area, which was hit by a forest fire after the extraction; (iii an area where no active management was applied; (iv a reference forest unaffected by such disturbance. A total of 100 plots were selected, 25 of each area type. The result of DCA and CCA analyses consistently indicated that after this short period the non-extracted and extracted areas are currently most similar to the reference forest area, while the fire affected area differed. A one-way ANOVA comparing species cover for the different plot sizes indicated some significant differences between the extracted and non-extracted plots. The abundance of certain species commonly occurring in spruce forests, such as Dyopteris carthusiana agg., Vaccinium myrtillus and Avenella flexuosa, correlated weli with the non-extracted plots, compared to the extracted plots. Coverage of these species was lowest on burned plots. The lowest Shannon-Wiener’s diversity values were recorded in burned plots. This was most likely a consequence of mono-dominant competitive species spread, (mainly Chamerion angustifolium which profited from the altered ecological conditions following the fire. Although some differences were also registered in the Shannon-Wiener diversity index between the remaining research plots, however these were not statistically significant. The most important results of our investigations include the extensive influence of fire disturbance on vegetation. Study revealed that the wind-disturbed area is able to regenerate

  16. Selection strategy for the most Suitable CEC method for clay barrier characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) is one of the most relevant properties of clay barriers. CEC results often are used for characterization of the clay host rock or for sensitive detection of degradation of the barrier material, e.g. bentonite buffer. Numerous methods exist for the determination of the CEC and exchangeable cations. However, a lot of methods suffer from systematic errors. These errors are caused by interactions (that differ from cation exchange) of the exchange solutions used with minerals in the barrier material: i) Dissolution of soluble minerals such as calcite, gypsum, or dolomite which causes inflated exchangeable calcium (magnesium) values. Other reactions of carbonates or gypsum not only affect exchangeable cations but also the CEC (index cation) values in a way that ii) witherite (barium carbonate) is formed and dissolved later (barium chloride method) which causes inflated CEC values or iii) rests of gypsum are present during reexchange with magnesium chloride (barium chloride method) which then leads to drastic CEC underestimation by formation of barium sulphate (here simultaneously barium ions are desorbed from exchange positions and sulphate enters the solution due to gypsum dissolution). When the ammonium acetate method is used for CEC determination of calcareous clays/bentonites another mechanism for a systematic CEC decrease occurs: iv) ammonium acetate is first used to saturate the clay components in a regular way (cation exchange), but during washing for removal of excess salt, ammonium is desorbed again from exchange positions by calcium which is liberated (dissolved) from remaining calcite of calcareous clays studied. Other errors may be v) the degradation of cationic complexes (silver thiourea, if pH > 8) or vi) substances which are added to adjust the pH of the exchange solutions such as triethanolamine in barium chloride exchange solution which may be protonated and adsorbed in

  17. Central obesity and risk for type 2 diabetes in Maori, Pacific and European young men in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, E.; Laulu, M.S.; Mitchelson, E.; Plank, L.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18 and 27 and of a wide range of fatness were recruited for this study. Equal numbers (10) self identified as belonging to each of the Maori Pacific and European ethnic groups. Originally it was intended that 90 men(30 in each group) should be measured but the cost and availability of the doubly-labelled water prevented this. Specific measurements undertaken included resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, total energy expenditure over 14 days by the doubly-labelled water technique; total and regional body fat from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; anthropometry (body mass index, skinfold thicknesses and girths); fat and carbohydrate utilisation from respiratory quotients and from carbon-13 analysis of expired breath; and dietary intake of macronutrients. Glucose tolerance, insulin, thyroid hormone, leptin and blood lipid determinations were also performed. The groups did not differ significantly in BMI, height body mass or fat mass - but the European group had significantly lower subscapular to triceps skinfolds and fat free mass than the Maori and Pacific group. Resting metabolic rate adjusted for fat mass and fat free mass was not different among the groups. Carbon-13 in expired breath was positively correlated to the subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio and insulin. Reported intake of dietary fibre was negatively related to blood lipids and subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio. Central obesity showed strong associations with biochemical measures of Type 2 diabetes risk These findings emphasise the relationships between body composition and fat distribution with risk of diabetes independent of ethnicity. (author)

  18. Central obesity and risk for type 2 diabetes in Maori, Pacific and European young men in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, E; Laulu, M S [Department of Applied Science, Auckland Institute of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand); Mitchelson, E [Department of Nursing, Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand); Plank, L [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2002-07-01

    Thirty healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18 and 27 and of a wide range of fatness were recruited for this study. Equal numbers (10) self identified as belonging to each of the Maori Pacific and European ethnic groups. Originally it was intended that 90 men(30 in each group) should be measured but the cost and availability of the doubly-labelled water prevented this. Specific measurements undertaken included resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, total energy expenditure over 14 days by the doubly-labelled water technique; total and regional body fat from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; anthropometry (body mass index, skinfold thicknesses and girths); fat and carbohydrate utilisation from respiratory quotients and from carbon-13 analysis of expired breath; and dietary intake of macronutrients. Glucose tolerance, insulin, thyroid hormone, leptin and blood lipid determinations were also performed. The groups did not differ significantly in BMI, height body mass or fat mass - but the European group had significantly lower subscapular to triceps skinfolds and fat free mass than the Maori and Pacific group. Resting metabolic rate adjusted for fat mass and fat free mass was not different among the groups. Carbon-13 in expired breath was positively correlated to the subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio and insulin. Reported intake of dietary fibre was negatively related to blood lipids and subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio. Central obesity showed strong associations with biochemical measures of Type 2 diabetes risk These findings emphasise the relationships between body composition and fat distribution with risk of diabetes independent of ethnicity. (author)

  19. CEC submission to INFCE Working Group 5/SG-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    To provide a possible baseline for fast reactors and fast reactor fuel reprocessing, the paper reviews what has already been achieved for liquid and gaseous effluent discharges from LWR operations. For LWR nuclear power stations discharges from the five most recently commissioned in the European Community with tangible operating experience at the end of 1976 are briefly reviewed and the available data for Phenix compared. Discharges are expressed in Ci/GWa produced and estimates of dose implications using conservative models are presented. Discharge levels attained by operational reprocessing plants are similarly discussed and dose estimates presented. It is concluded that the dose levels attained with already proven LWR fuel cycle technology represent only a small fraction of permissible levels and of natural background. Further, there is no reason to suspect that the fast reactor cycle would cause any deterioration; indeed, with advances in technology, even lower dose levels are to be expected

  20. C.E.C. - cod for calculus of the evolution fuel for thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biciolla, L.; Marcu, G.; Mociornita, G.

    1975-01-01

    The study of ''burnup'' into thermal reactor involves two main aspects: the economic one and another regarding the reactor operation, its stability and control. In the CEC-code written in FORTRAN IV language was analysed the change of the isotopic composition of nuclear fuel from thermal reactor during its operation

  1. Determinants of Capital Integration among Strategic Alliance Members in the Retail Sector: Evidence from Central and Southeast European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Butigan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survival of firms requires continuous search for new and a restructuring of the existing competitive advantages. These can come either from firms’ internal factors or from cooperation with the environment. Cooperation among firms commonly takes place through the formation of strategic alliances. However, such form of cooperation presents only one stage in the integration of business entities. In the long run, strategic alliances can cease to exist or transform into a higher form of association based on capital integration. The objective of this paper is to explore the determinants of capital integration among strategic alliance member firms in retail sectors of several Central and Southeast European countries. Overall, the obtained findings suggest that business entities engage in integration with the aim of reaching hidden knowledge and skills, accessing distribution and supply channels, and developing new products and services. Integration is also driven with the aim of risk diversification and possible better market positioning, achieving the economies of scale, and improving organization and marketing. The opportunistic behavior of partners and limited managerial control represent its strongest barriers.

  2. Central and Eastern European countries between the 16+1 platform and Chinese OBOR - One Belt, One Road - Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cornel Dumitrescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the projects and the initiatives of the Central and Eastern European countries that have been finalised, are in progress or will be developed in the near future with the help of the existing or future financial instruments specific to the 16+1 platform and the One Belt, One Road complex program. For our research we selected four countries, namely: Poland, Romania, Serbia and Hungary, the group being relevant from the perspective of the transportation corridors connected to the ”One Belt, One Road” initiative: (1 - Piraeus, Skopje, Belgrade, Budapest, Western Europe; (2 - Suez Canal, Constanta and then Danube, Western Europe, or through Moldova towards Ukraine and Poland; (3 – Constanta, through the Black Sea and Caspian Sea and then the corridors mentioned at the previous point. We based our analysis on the data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, China-CEEC think-tank network and the literature in the field.

  3. Changing prevalence patterns in endoscopic and histological diagnosis of gastritis? Data from a cross-sectional Central European multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Eva-Maria; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Geppert, Michael; Wigginghaus, Bernd; Höss, Gabriele M; Eherer, Andreas; Schneider, Nora I; Hauer, Almuthe; Rehak, Peter; Vieth, Michael; Langner, Cord

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, Helicobacter infection is considered to be the most common cause of gastritis. In the cross-sectional Central European histoGERD trial, we assessed the prevalence of different types of gastritis, correlating histological and endoscopic diagnoses. A total of 1123 individuals participated in an observational multicentre study. Endoscopists classified individuals as positive or negative for gastritis and rendered the putative cause. Pathologists evaluated biopsy specimens based upon the Updated Sydney System. Histological diagnosis of gastritis was made in 639 (56.9%) participants. In all, 210 (18.7%) individuals were diagnosed with Helicobacter gastritis, 215 (19.1%) with post Helicobacter gastritis, 234 (20.8%) with reactive gastropathy, 26 (2.3%) with autoimmune gastritis, and 6 (0.5%) with focally enhanced gastritis related to Crohn's disease. In 46 out of 639 (7.2%) individuals diagnosed with gastritis, combinations of different histological subtypes were noted the most common being reactive gastropathy and post Helicobacter gastritis. Endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis was made in 534 (47.6%) individuals. Reactive gastropathy was more common than active Helicobacter gastritis, and the majority of cases attributable to Helicobacter infection were no longer ongoing, i.e. post Helicobacter gastritis. Agreement between histological and endoscopic diagnoses was better in reactive gastropathy than in Helicobacter gastritis. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Flousek

    Full Text Available Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta. It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  5. Properly pricing country risk: a model for pricing long-term fundamental risk applied to central and eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Revoltella

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The private sector has used proxies such as sovereign credit ratings, spreads on sovereign bonds and spreads on sovereign credit default swaps (CDS to gauge country risk, even though these measures are pricing the risk of default of government bonds, which is different from the risks facing private participants in cross-border financing. Under normal market conditions, the CDS spreads are a very useful source of information on country risk. However, the recent crisis has shown that the CDS spreads might lead to some underpricing or overpricing of fundamentals in the case of excessively low or excessively high risk aversion. In this paper we develop an alternative measure of country risk that extracts the volatile, short-term market sentiment component from the sover eign CDS spread in order to improve its reliability in periods of market distress. We show that adverse market sentiment was a key driver of the sharp increase in sovereign CDS spreads of central and eastern European (CEE countries during the most severe phase of the crisis. We also show that our measure of country risk sheds some light on the observed stability of cross-border bank flows to CEE banks during the crisis.

  6. Access to Strong Opioid Analgesics in the Context of Legal and Regulatory Barriers in Eleven Central and Eastern European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B; Scholten, Willem K; Jünger, Saskia; Medic, Dr Rer; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2018-04-06

    In 2011-2013, >95% of the global opioid analgesics consumption occurred in three regions, accounting for 15% of the world population. Despite abundant literature on barriers to access, little is known on the correlation between actual access to opioid analgesics and barriers to access, including legal and regulatory barriers. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between access to strong opioid analgesics and barriers to access in national legislation and regulations in 11 central and eastern European countries that participated in the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe (ATOME) project. Two variables were contrasted to assess their correlation: the country level of access to strong opioid analgesics indicated by the Adequacy of Consumption Measure (ACM) and the number of potential legal and regulatory barriers identified by an external review of legislation and regulations. A linear correlation was evaluated using a squared linear correlation coefficient. Evaluation of the correlation between the ACM and the number of potential barriers produces an R 2 value of 0.023 and a correlation plot trend line gradient of -0.075, indicating no correlation between access to strong opioid analgesics and the number of potential barriers in national legislation and regulations in the countries studied. No correlation was found, which indicates that other factors besides potential legal and regulatory barriers play a critical role in withholding prescribers and patients essential pain medication in the studied countries. More research is needed toward better understanding of the complex interplay of factors that determine access to strong opioid analgesics.

  7. Eustatic control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M.; Nowak, K.; Berner, U.; Heunisch, C.; Bandel, K.; Röhling, H.-G.; Wolfgramm, M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of the Stuttgart Formation ('Schilfsandstein'), commonly considered as a type-example of the Carnian Pluvial Event, was controlled by high frequent 4th order sequences that resulted in pre-, intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions from Tethyan waters into the epicontinental Central European Basin (CEB). The pre-Schilfsandstein transgression flooded the CEB trough gates to the Southeast and resulted in a wide-spread inland sea that was characterised by increased biological productivity, predominantly oxic conditions and enabled the immigration of euryhaline marine fauna with plankton, ostracodes, fishes, bivalves and the gastropods Omphaloptychia suebica n. sp. and Settsassia stuttgartica n. sp. The rather short-term intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions flooded the CEB from the Southwest and Southeast and established a shallow brackish inland sea that stretched up to North Germany. Both, the 4th and 3rd order sequences derived from the succession in the CEB correlate well with those derived from successions of Tethyan shelfs. Therefore pronounced circum-Tethyan eustatic cycles are evidenced and may have had considerable impact on prominent middle Carnian events: Reingraben turnover, Carnian Pluvial Event, Carnian Crisis and Mid Carnian Wet Intermezzo. The broad circum-Tethyan evidence of 106-year scale cycles suggests glacioeustatic sea-level changes even in the Triassic Greenhouse period.

  8. The Effects of Detritus Input on Soil Organic Matter Content and Carbon Dioxide Emission in a Central European Deciduous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEKETE, István

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major objective of our research was to survey soil biological activity and organic mattercontent reduction in a Central European oak forest during treatments of various detritus inputs within theSíkfkút DIRT (Detritus Input and Removal Treatments Project. Beside the control, three detritusremoval and two detritus duplication treatments were applied. Our examinations have proven that soilorganic matter content declined relatively fast in detritus removal treatments. The reduction wasespecially remarkable in root detritus removal treatments, where – due to the lack of transpiration – soilswere moister during the whole year than in the other treatments. The higher moisture content, despite ofthe reduction of detritus input, produced an intense soil respiration. This can be explained by the fact thatdecomposing organisms have increased the use of soil organic matter. Detritus input reduction had asignificantly greater effect on soil respiration and organic matter content than detritus input duplicationof the same extent. The latter did not cause any significant change compared to the control.

  9. On the occurrence of cyclones with low central pressures in the Atlantic-European area from 1930 to 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinke, H.

    1992-01-01

    Large natural disasters increased dramatically in the last three decades, both with regard to number and damage scale. Large storm events contribute considerably to this. In the context of climate changes it is of interest whether the frequency and/or the regional and temporal distribution of storm cyclones of the temperate latitudes are also subject to specific changes. The definition of storm cyclones with the aid of weather maps which served as basis of investigation is only possible with considerable time expenditure. All low-pressure areas with central pressures equal to, or less than 990 hPa were therefore included in the investigation. The wind velocities were not analyzed. The investigation area covers the area from the 60th degree of easter longitude to the 60th degree of western longitude and from the 30th degree of northern latitude to the North Pole. It comprises the hole of the European mainland as well as large parts of the North Atlantic. The period of 1930 to 1991 is considered. (orig./KW) [de

  10. The Aspects of Managing Risks in Connection with the Internationalization of Smes from Selected Central European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Toulová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient domestic demand and increasing competition force small and medium‑sized enterprises (SMEs to engage in internationalization process and enter to foreign markets. This process, however, carries risks that should be appropriate managed. In order to identify similarities and differences in the approach of SMEs from selected Central European countries towards managing these risks and find out whether perception of risks differ based on domestic country of the SMEs, questionnaire survey among Czech, Slovak, German, Austrian and Poland SMEs was performed in 2014. It was found that more Austrian and German SMEs, compared to Czech, Slovak and Polish SMEs, do not apply any method of risk analysis but are more focused on some form of protection in international operations. As the most common form was identified payment in advance. It was also found that Austrian and German SMEs prefer to use bank products rather that conclude long‑term contracts or verify the credibility of their foreign business partners used by Czech, Slovak and Poland SMEs. Based on statistical testing, significant differences appeared in risk perception of SMEs from different countries. Especially perception of market risks, transportation risks and risk of natural disasters.

  11. Central Banking and the Crisis. A Comparison of the Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank Measures, and the ECB’s Changing Role in the EU Economic Governance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Roman Czubala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Central Bank (ECB has received a lot of criticism for its too little, too late performance to ease market pressures during the economic crisis. At the same time, the ECB and the Federal Reserve (FED have managed the new economic realities that have emerged in the international context differently. Despite the criticisms, the European Central Bank is the European Union institution that has assumed more control due to the new model of economic governance of the EU. Why did the Federal Reserve act so nimbly and quickly to calm the markets, while the ECB was so cautious in managing monetary policy? The aim of this paper is to perform a comparative analysis of the management of interest rates and other monetary policy measures undertaken by the Central Bank and the Federal Reserve during the economic crisis, as well as to understand the changes in the context of the ECB and the emergence of its authority within the European Union’s economic governance model since 2011. Thus, in order to carry out a scrupulous exposition, we will also limit the time frame of this study to the 2007-2014 period.

  12. Comparison of External Exposure of Central and Eastern-European States as a Factor Threatening Financial Security of Their Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Redo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Central and Eastern-European countries are strongly linked to the international economic and financial systems, which results in their dependence on foreign capital and on the upturn in the global markets. This situation also makes them vulnerable to external shocks. Resilience of the economies of CEE countries was additionally diminished by their relatively quick and uncompromising opening up to the process of globalization and European integration. All the economies subject to scrutiny have quite a substantial external debt level (reaching 55–139% of GDP, their net international investment position is quite strongly in the negative (constituting 25–71% of GDP. They are also characterized by high level of foreign liabilities (85–350% of GDP, a significant degree of trade openness (export and import of goods and services amounting to 41–94% of GDP, considerable rate of foreign liquid portfolio investments (even as much as 32% of GDP. Another common feature is the strong financial support received from the EU budget, with CEE countries being its net beneficiaries (with the accumulated value of funds received from the EU budget in 2004–2015 at the level of 21–42% of GDP. It should be borne in mind that Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Slovenia and Slovakia are members of the Eurozone, i.e. operate an international currency, which improves their creditworthiness and augments the trust of the global markets. What seems not without significance for investors is the fact that the IMF classified these five CEE countries – as well as the Czech Republic – as advanced economies. In light of the above, it should be stated that the Polish economy is characterized by a relatively strong external exposure relative to the creditworthiness the country boasts. This exposure increases Poland’s vulnerability to shocks and makes it less immune thereto. These circumstances partially explain the higher estimation of the risk premium for investments in

  13. Functional interpretation of representative soil spatial-temporal variability at the Central region of European territory of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, I.

    2012-04-01

    The essential spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest and forest-steppe soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis, modeling and functional-ecological interpretation of representative soil cover patterns spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from scientific society, private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. On basis of long-term different-scale soil mapping, key plot investigation, land quality and land-use evaluation, soil forming and degradation processes modeling, functional-ecological typology of the zonal set of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) has been done in representative natural and man transformed ecosystems of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones at the Central region of European territory of Russia (ETR). The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of functional quality and ecological state have been made for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of local GIS, traditional regression kriging and correlation tree models. Development, zonal-regional differentiation and verification of the basic set of criteria and algorithms for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature forests mutual for them the windthrow impacts and lateral processes make SFPs more active and complex both in

  14. Isotope composition of bulk carbon in replicated Sphagnum peat cores from three central European high-elevation wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Martin; Zemanova, Leona; Jackova, Iva; Buzek, Frantisek; Adamova, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Several processes may contribute to systematic downcore trends in δ 13 C of bulk Sphagnum peat. Whereas changes in water availability during C assimilation may change δ 13 C values in both a negative and positive direction, other processes would always cause a uni-directional shift in δ 13 C. Selective preservation of isotopically light lignin C may lead to more negative δ 13 C values with an increasing depth and age of peat. Anthropogenic change toward lower δ 13 C of atmospheric CO 2 due to massive coal burning since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution would result in lower δ 13 C of the youngest past layers, and in higher δ 13 C of older peat layers. Emissions of low-δ 13 C methane from wetlands should result in a progressive enrichment of the residual peat substrate in the heavier isotope 13 C. Consequently, deeper peat would have higher δ 13 C. In a specific peat profile, the downcore trend in δ 13 C will be the result of an interplay between all these isotope-sensitive processes. Most Central European wetlands studied previously show a 13 C enrichment (i.e., higher δ 13 C values) with an increasing depth and age. Here we focus on sites which showed lower δ 13 C with an increasing depth and age when a single peat core was taken. Replication did not confirm this negative downcore δ 13 C shift. A positive downcore δ 13 C shift is more widespread than previously believed. We suggest that decreasing δ 13 C of atmospheric CO 2 and emissions of low-δ 13 C methane belong to the main controls of the downcore δ 13 C trends in young peat substrate. (author)

  15. Gender Role Attitudes among Higher Education Students in a Borderland Central-Eastern European Region called ‘Partium’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnalka Fényes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the attitudes towards gender roles among higher education students in a borderland Central-Eastern European region. We used the database of ‘The Impact of Tertiary Education on Regional Development’ project (N=602, 2010. We intend to determine what kind of attitudes towards gender roles the students identify themselves with, what affects these attitudes (gender, faculty type, social background of students, locality type, religiosity, and finally what kind of educational policy implications could be relevant concerning our findings. We have used cluster analysis and a logistic regression model, and formulated several hypotheses that were controlled by these methods. Our results show that there are a large number of students who belong to the more traditional attitude cluster in this region, but women more frequently identify themselves with modern gender roles than men do. The faculty-type effect has only been partly detected. We have found that with ‘male-dominated’ majors, both women and men identify themselves with more traditional attitudes and that with ‘female-dominated’ majors all students have more modern attitudes. The effect of social background is contradictory. Those whose parents had larger numbers of books had increased modern attitudes, but the factor ‘regular financial problems in the family’ also increased it. Our next result is that students who live in villages are not more traditional than others, because they live in cities during their studies. Our final result is that churchly religious students think more traditionally regarding gender roles than others do, but those who are religious in their own way do not.

  16. Investigation of the climate-driven periodicity of shallow groundwater level fluctuations in a Central-Eastern European agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamhegyi, Tamás; Kovács, József; Pongrácz, Rita; Tanos, Péter; Hatvani, István Gábor

    2018-05-01

    The distribution and amount of groundwater, a crucial source of Earth's drinking and irrigation water, is changing due to climate-change effects. Therefore, it is important to understand groundwater behavior in extreme scenarios, e.g. drought. Shallow groundwater (SGW) level fluctuation under natural conditions displays periodic behavior, i.e. seasonal variation. Thus, the study aims to investigate (1) the periodic behavior of the SGW level time series of an agriculturally important and drought-sensitive region in Central-Eastern Europe - the Carpathian Basin, in the north-eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain, and (2) its relationship to the European atmospheric pressure action centers. Data from 216 SGW wells were studied using wavelet spectrum analysis and wavelet coherence analyses for 1961-2010. Locally, a clear relationship exists between the absence of annual periodic behavior in the SGW level and the periodicity of droughts, as indicated by the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index and the Aridity Index. During the non-periodic intervals, significant drops in groundwater levels (average 0.5 m) were recorded in 89% of the wells. This result links the meteorological variables to the periodic behavior of SGW, and consequently, drought. On a regional scale, Mediterranean cyclones from the Gulf of Genoa (northwest Italy) were found to be a driving factor in the 8-yr periodic behavior of the SGW wells. The research documents an important link between SGW levels and local/regional climate variables or indices, thereby facilitating the necessary adaptation strategies on national and/or regional scales, as these must take into account the predictions of drought-related climatic conditions.

  17. CEC mechanism in electrochemical oxidation of nitrocatechol-boric acid complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, Mohammad; Nematollahi, Davood; Salehzadeh, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Nitrochetechol and its anionic form undergo complex reaction with boric acid. → The electron transfer of complex is coupled with both proceeding and following chemical reactions. → Electrochemical behavior of complex is resolved by diagnostic criteria and digital simulation. - Abstract: The electrochemical behavior of nitrocatechols-boric acid complexes in aqueous solution has been studied using cyclic voltammetry. The results indicate that nitrocatechol-boric acid complex derivatives are involved in the CEC mechanism. In this work, the impact of empirical parameters on the shape of the voltammograms is examined based on a CEC mechanism. In addition, homogeneous rate constants of both the preceding and the following reactions were estimated by comparing the experimental cyclic voltammograms with the digitally simulated results. The calculated dissociation constants for the complexes (K d ) and for ring cleavage of nitroquinone (k f2 ) were found to vary in the following order: 4-nitrocatechol > 3-methylnitrocatechol > 3-metoxynitrocatechol.

  18. Measurement of cation exchange capacity (CEC) on natural zeolite by percolation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiyantoko, Bayu; Rahmah, Nafisa

    2017-12-01

    The cation exchange capacity (CEC)measurement has been carried out in natural zeolite by percolation method. The natural zeolite samples used for cation exchange capacity measurement were activated beforehand with physical activation and chemical activation. The physically activated zeolite was done by calcination process at 600 °C for 4 hours. The natural zeolite was activated chemically by using sodium hydroxide by refluxing process at 60-80 °C for 3 hours. In summary, cation exchange capacity (CEC) determination was performed by percolation, distillation and titration processes. Based on the measurement that has been done, the exchange rate results from physical activated and chemical activated of natural zeolite were 181.90cmol (+)/kg and 901.49cmol (+)/kg respectively.

  19. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in Poland compared with that in other Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Adler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia, Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and i AA homozygote (n = 650, giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588; the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559, mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819; the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410. Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791, between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17. We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.

  20. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in Poland compared with that in other Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Grażyna; Clark, Jeremy S C; Loniewska, Beata; Czerska, Ewa; Salkic, Nermin N; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2012-05-01

    The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia), Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine) and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria) European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y) from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and 1 AA homozygote (n = 650), giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588); the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559), mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819); the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410). Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791), between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17). We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.

  1. CEC project Mirage - Second phase on migration of radionuclides in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.

    1989-01-01

    A second phase of the Community coordinated project Mirage (migration of radionuclides in the geosphere) was launched in 1986. The present report brings together reviews of work done in the four research areas of this phase for 1988, and therefore constitues an update of the previous report, ref. EUR 11589. This project is part of the CEC R and D programme on radioactive waste management (1985-89)

  2. Multimedia screening of contaminants of emerging concern (CECS) in coastal urban watersheds in southern California (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Sengupta, Ashmita; Smith, Deborah J; Lyons, J Michael; Heil, Ann T; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-08-01

    To examine the occurrence and fate of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and inform future monitoring of CECs in coastal urban waterways, water, sediment, and fish tissue samples were collected and analyzed for a broad suite of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), commercial and/or household chemicals, current use pesticides, and hormones in an effluent-dominated river and multiple embayments in southern California (USA). In the Santa Clara River, which receives treated wastewater from several facilities, aqueous phase CECs were detectable at stations nearest discharges from municipal wastewater treatment plants but were attenuated downstream. Sucralose and the chlorinated phosphate flame retardants tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were most abundant in water, with maximum concentrations of 35 μg/L, 3.3 μg/L, 1.4 μg/L, and 0.81 μg/L, respectively. Triclocarban, an antimicrobial agent in use for decades, was more prevalent in water than triclosan or nonylphenol. Maximum concentrations of bifenthrin, permethrin, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and degradates of fipronil exceeded CEC-specific monitoring trigger levels recently established for freshwater and estuarine sediments by factors of 10 to 1000, respectively. Maximum fish tissue concentrations of PBDEs varied widely (370 ng/g and 7.0 ng/g for the Santa Clara River and coastal embayments, respectively), with most species exhibiting concentrations at the lower end of this range. These results suggest that continued monitoring of pyrethroids, PBDEs, and degradates of fipronil in sediment is warranted in these systems. In contrast, aqueous pharmaceutical concentrations in the Santa Clara River were not close to exceeding current monitoring trigger levels, suggesting a lower priority for targeted monitoring in this medium. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1986-1994. © 2016 SETAC

  3. Cec-CHECIR ECP-4 optimization of intervention strategies for the recovery of radioactive contaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, C.; Gutierrez, J.; Trueba, C.; Savkin, M.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate different options of intervention for the recovery of contaminated environments. It will consider not only the efficiency of the countermeasures in terms of dose reduction, but also in terms of costs, wastes and other possible secondary consequences, in order to obtain the best possible strategy for each particular circumstance. This paper summarizes the methodology of optimization of intervention, which has been carried out in the framework of CEC-CHECIR ECP-4 Project

  4. Refocusing Mussel Watch on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs): the California pilot study (2009-10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Keith A.; Dodder, Nathan G.; Schaffner, Rebecca A.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; Gregorio, Dominic; Klosterhaus, Susan; Alvarez, David A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kimbrough, Kimani L.; Lauenstein, Gunnar G.; Christensen, John D.

    2014-01-01

    To expand the utility of the Mussel Watch Program, local, regional and state agencies in California partnered with NOAA to design a pilot study that targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Native mussels (Mytilus spp.) from 68 stations, stratified by land use and discharge scenario, were collected in 2009–10 and analyzed for 167 individual pharmaceuticals, industrial and commercial chemicals and current use pesticides. Passive sampling devices (PSDs) and caged Mytilus were co-deployed to expand the list of CECs, and to assess the ability of PSDs to mimic bioaccumulation by Mytilus. A performance-based quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) approach was developed to ensure a high degree of data quality, consistency and comparability. Data management and analysis were streamlined and standardized using automated software tools. This pioneering study will help shape future monitoring efforts in California’s coastal ecosystems, while serving as a model for monitoring CECs within the region and across the nation.

  5. Comparison between the European Central Bank as a New Monetary Experiment and other Major - Central Banks - US Federal Reserve and Bank of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to make a survey of three major central banks practices and to emphasize both the different national characteristics and the similarities derived from the global changes of financial environment. Using a descriptive methodology, the comparison will concern the central banks’ goals, the institutional and organizational structures, strategies and tools of monetary policy

  6. Adoption of in-vessel retention concept for VVER-440/V213 reactors in Central European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejovic, Peter, E-mail: peter.matejovic@ivstt.sk [Inzinierska Vypoctova Spolocnost (IVS), Jana Holleho 5, 91701 Trnava (Slovakia); Barnak, Miroslav; Bachraty, Milan; Vranka, Lubomir [Inzinierska Vypoctova Spolocnost (IVS), Jana Holleho 5, 91701 Trnava (Slovakia); Berky, Robert [Integrita a Bezpecnost Ocelovych Konstrukcii, Rybnicna 40, 831 07 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Design of in-vessel retention concept for VVER-440/V213 reactors. • Thermal loads acting on the inner reactor surface. • Structural response of reactor pressure vessel. • External reactor vessel cooling. - Abstract: An in-vessel retention (IVR) concept was proposed for standard VVER-440/V213 reactors equipped with confinement made of reinforced concrete and bubbler condenser pressure suppression system. This IVR concept is based on simple modifications of existing plant technology and thus it was attractive for plant operators in Central European Countries. Contrary to the solution that was adopted before at Loviisa NPP in Finland (two units of VVER-440/V213 reactor with steel confinement equipped with ice condenser), the coolant access to the reactor pressure vessel from flooded cavity is enabled via closable hole installed in the centre of thermal shield of the reactor lower head instead of lowering this massive structure in the case of severe accident. As a consequence, the crucial point of this IVR concept is narrow gap between torispherical lower head and thermal and biological shield. Here the highest thermal flux is expected in the case of severe accident. Thus, realistic estimation of thermal load and corresponding deformations of reactor wall and their impact on gap width for coolant flow are of primarily importance. In this contribution the attention is paid especially to the analytical support with emphasis to the following points: 1) {sup ∗}Estimation of thermal loads acting on the inner reactor surface; 2) {sup ∗}Estimation of structural response of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) with emphasis on the deformation of outer reactor surface and its impact on the annular gap between RPV wall and thermal/biological shield; 3) {sup ∗}Analysis of external reactor vessel cooling. For this purpose the ASTEC code was used for performing analysis of core degradation scenarios, the ANSYS code for structural analysis of reactor vessel

  7. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE MARKETS EFFICIENCY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoş Horia Mircea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of the Global financial crisis on the efficiency of four Central and Eastern European emerging unit-linked insurance markets, applying the automatic variance ratio (AVR test of Kim (2009 and variance ratio tests using ranks and signs by Wright (2000 for entire, pre-crisis and crisis periods. This study contributes to the existing literature on efficient market hypothesis with several distinct features: it provides a systematic review of the weak-form market efficiency literature that examines return predictability of the daily ING unit-linked funds prices; also the article aims at monitoring any improvement in the degree of efficiency in time and also examines the relative efficiency of unit-linked insurance markets in pre-crisis and crisis periods. Unit linked insurance are life insurance policies with investment component. In the literature there are few studies investigating the effects of a financial crisis on the potential of predictability and implicitly on the degree of efficiency of financial markets. The occurrence of a market crash or financial crisis is a possible contributing factor of market inefficiency. Most of the studies are focused on the Asian crisis in 1997: Holden et al. (2005 examined the weak-form efficiency of eight emerging Asian stock markets using VR tests before, during and after the Asian crisis; Kim and Shamsuddin (2008 used three different types of multiple VR tests for nine Asian stock markets; the findings reported by Lim et al. (2008 are consistent with those reported by Cheong et al. (2007, in which the highest inefficiency occurs during the crisis period. Todea and Lazar (2010 investigated the effects of the Global crisis on the relative efficiency of ten CEE stock markets, using Generalized Spectral test of Escanciano and Velasco (2006. Wright (2000 proposes the alternative non-parametric variance ratio tests using ranks and signs of return and demonstrates that

  8. New evidence for an old idea: Geochronological constraints for a paired metamorphic belt in the central European Variscides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, T. M.; Schmädicke, E.; Ling, X.-X.; Li, X.-H.; Li, Q.-L.

    2018-03-01

    New geochronological data reveal a prolonged tectonothermal evolution of the Variscan Odenwald-Spessart basement, being part of the Mid-German Crystalline Zone in central Europe. We report the results from (i) secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon, rutile and monazite, (ii) SIMS zircon oxygen isotope analyses, (iii) laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) zircon Lu-Hf isotope analyses and, (iv) LA-ICPMS zircon and rutile trace element data for a suite of metamorphic rocks (five amphibolite- and eclogite-facies mafic meta-igneous rocks and one granulite-facies paragneiss). The protoliths of the mafic rocks formed from juvenile as well as depleted mantle sources in distinct tectonic environments at different times. Magmatism took place at a divergent oceanic margin (possibly in a back-arc setting) at 460 Ma, in an intraoceanic basin at ca. 445 Ma and at a continental margin at 329 Ma. Regardless of lithology, zircon in eclogite, amphibolite and high-temperature paragneiss provide almost identical Carboniferous ages of 333.7 ± 4.1 Ma (eclogite), 329.1 ± 1.8 to 328.4 ± 8.9 Ma (amphibolite), and 334.0 ± 2.0 Ma (paragneiss), respectively. Rutile yielded ages of 328.6 ± 4.7 and 321.4 ± 7.0 Ma in eclogite and amphibolite, and monazite in high-temperature paragneiss grew at 330.1 ± 2.4 Ma (all ages are quoted at the 2σ level). The data constrain coeval high-pressure eclogite- and high-temperature granulite-facies metamorphism of the Odenwald-Spessart basement at ca. 330 Ma. Amphibolite-facies conditions were attained shortly afterwards. The lower plate eclogite formed in a fossil subduction zone and the upper plate high-temperature, low-pressure rocks are the remains of an eroded Carboniferous magmatic arc. The close proximity of tectonically juxtaposed units of such radically different metamorphic conditions and thermal gradients is characteristic for a paired metamorphic belt sensu Miyashiro

  9. Lessons from the Central European History – Wars and Changes of Ethnic and National Relations in Central Europe during the 20th Century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 60 (2015), s. 91-106 ISSN 1586-4197 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : World War I * World War II * Central Europe * Czechoslovakia * National Relations Subject RIV: AB - History

  10. The Pushkin Myth and Cult in Central European Literature: Gyula Krúdy’s A vörös postakocsi [‘The Crimson Coach’] (1913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsófia Kalavszky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While the myth and cult surrounding Pushkin are phenomena unique to Russian culture, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries both were prevalent in Central European literatures as well, albeit to a lesser extent and intensity. For example, within Central Europe Pushkin’s biographical myth has generated several literary sujets within the literary traditions of Hungary, Poland, or Serbia, for example. Once Pushkin’s works had been translated into the region’s national languages, some cultic manifestations surrounding the poet also appeared. My study unravels the exciting process in which a work by the Hungarian author, Gyula Krúdy, expropriates and rewrites the Pushkin myth, thereby placing this Russian national icon into a Central European cultural, historical and linguistic context. In contrast to the analytical methods generally applied to literary cult research, I argue that examining Krúdy underscores the possibility that some literary works require an approach based on poetic analysis, a technique not generally applied to literary cult research. It is my intent to trace the influence Pushkin’s cult had on Krúdy’s text via cultural poetics.

  11. First Central and Eastern European Workshop on Quality control, patient dosimetry and radiation protection in diagnostic and interventional radiology and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Frederic Joliot-Curie Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene

    2007-01-01

    First Central and Eastern European Workshop on Quality Control, Patient Dosimetry and Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, scientifically supported and accredited as a CPD event for medical physicists by EFOMP, National 'Frederic Joliot-Curie' Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene (NRIRR), Budapest, Hungary, April 25-28, 2007. Topics of the meeting included all areas of medical radiation physics except radiation therapy. A unique possibility was realized by inviting four European manufacturers of quality control instrumentation, not only for exhibiting but they also had 45 minutes individual presentations about each manufacturer's product scale and conception. Further sessions dealt with dosimetry, optimization, quality control and testing, radiation protection and standardization, computed tomography and nuclear medicine, in 29 oral presentations and 1 poster of the participants. (S.I.)

  12. Antibiotics as CECs: An Overview of the Hazards Posed by Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Ivan Scott

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMonitoring programs have traditionally monitored legacy contaminants but are shifting focus to Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs. CECs present many challenges for monitoring and assessment, because measurement methods don't always exist nor have toxicological studies been fully conducted to place results in proper context. Also some CECs affect metabolic pathways to produce adverse outcomes that are not assessed through traditional toxicological evaluations. Antibiotics are CECs that pose significant environmental risks including development of both toxic effects at high doses and antibiotic resistance at doses well below the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC which kill bacteria and have been found in nearly half of all sites monitored in the US. Antimicrobial resistance has generally been attributed to the use of antibiotics in medicine for humans and livestock as well as aquaculture operations. The objective of this study was to assess the extent and magnitude of antibiotics in the environment and estimate their potential hazards in the environment. Antibiotics concentrations were measured in a number of monitoring studies which included Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP effluent, surface waters, sediments and biota. A number of studies reported levels of Antibiotic Resistant Microbes (ARM in surface waters and some studies found specific ARM genes (e.g. the blaM-1 gene in E. coli which may pose additional environmental risk. High levels of this gene were found to survive WWTP disinfection and accumulated in sediment at levels 100-1000 times higher than in the sewerage effluent, posing potential risks for gene transfer to other bacteria.in aquatic and marine ecosystems. Antibiotic risk assessment approaches were developed based on the use of MICs and MIC Ratios [High (Antibiotic Resistant/Low (Antibiotic Sensitive MIC] for each antibiotic indicating the range of bacterial adaptability to each antibiotic to help define the No

  13. Holocene re-colonisation, central-marginal distribution and habitat specialisation shape population genetic patterns within an Atlantic European grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, D E V; Jentsch, A; Durka, W

    2015-05-01

    Corynephorus canescens (L.) P.Beauv. is an outbreeding, short-lived and wind-dispersed grass species, highly specialised on scattered and disturbance-dependent habitats of open sandy sites. Its distribution ranges from the Iberian Peninsula over Atlantic regions of Western and Central Europe, but excludes the two other classical European glacial refuge regions on the Apennine and Balkan Peninsulas. To investigate genetic patterns of this uncommon combination of ecological and biogeographic species characteristics, we analysed AFLP variation among 49 populations throughout the European distribution range, expecting (i) patterns of SW European glacial refugia and post-glacial expansion to the NE; (ii) decreasing genetic diversity from central to marginal populations; and (iii) interacting effects of high gene flow and disturbance-driven genetic drift. Decreasing genetic diversity from SW to NE and distinct gene pool clustering imply refugia on the Iberian Peninsula and in western France, from where range expansion originated towards the NE. High genetic diversity within and moderate genetic differentiation among populations, and a significant pattern of isolation-by-distance indicate a gene flow drift equilibrium within C. canescens, probably due to its restriction to scattered and dynamic habitats and limited dispersal distances. These features, as well as the re-colonisation history, were found to affect genetic diversity gradients from central to marginal populations. Our study emphasises the need for including the specific ecology into analyses of species (re-)colonisation histories and range centre-margin analyses. To account for discontinuous distributions, new indices of marginality were tested for their suitability in studies of centre-periphery gradients. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. THE ANALYTICAL INSIGHT INTO CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF QUALITY DETERMINANTS OF THE E-COMMERCE MODEL BUSINESS-TO-CONSUMER SUBJECTS IN THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan Bačík; Zsuzsanna Katalin Szabo; Richard Fedorko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to describe the specific aspects of the e-commerce model business-to-consumer as a constantly developing field of an economic life in the Central European countries according to their customers. The current state of e-business and business-to-consumer e-commerce issue was identified by the research in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia.Methodology/Approach: For the purposes of collecting primary data the crucial factor for the selection of e-shop...

  15. Cecília Meireles e o temário da escola nova Cecília Meireles and the progressivism themes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius da Cunha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A poetisa Cecília Meireles foi signatária do Manifesto dos Pioneiros da Educação Nova, histórico documento de 1932 redigido por Fernando de Azevedo e assinado por vinte e seis intelectuais, no qual se encontram as principais formulações do movimento educacional renovador denominado Escola Nova. O presente trabalho analisa a literatura já produzida sobre Meireles e textos da autora publicados entre 1930 e 1933 na coluna "Comentário" da "Página de Educação", seção dirigida por ela no jornal Diário de Notícias da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. O objetivo do trabalho é mostrar que a poetisa expressava ideias e posicionamentos da Escola Nova no início da década de 1930, dentre os quais figuram a relação entre família e escola e o uso das artes como recursos educativos. Tendo por base a teoria da análise retórica, e considerando a peculiaridade do veículo de comunicação utilizado por Meireles, o trabalho abre perspectivas para a investigação das estratégias argumentativas que compõem o discurso pedagógico da autora.The poet Cecília Meireles subscribed the Manifesto of the Pioneers of New Education, a historic document expressing the main principles of the Brazilian educational movement New School written in 1932 by Fernando de Azevedo and signed by 26 well known intellectuals. This article analyses the literature about Meireles and some of her texts published between 1930 and 1933 in the column "Comentário" of "Página de Educação", a section she directed in Diário de Notícias, a newspaper of Rio de Janeiro. The purpose of this study is to show that the poet expressed ideas of New School such as the relations school and family, and the meaning of arts for educational purposes in the early 1930s. Considering the peculiarity of the media used by Meireles, this analysis based on the rhetoric theory, suggests a new perspective for the research about the argumentative strategies of her pedagogical discourse.

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF THE SIZE OF THE ECONOMY AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN THE CENTRAL, SOUTHEASTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES 1994-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kurecic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the interdependence of the economy size and foreign direct investments (FDI in the transitional economies of Central, Southeastern and Eastern Europe. In the global capitalist economy, foreign direct investments (FDI represent one of the key determinants of economic growth. Among some transitional economies, in the last 20 years, FDI represented one of factors that increased the economic growth, and in other transitional economies, the influence of FDI was minor or even negligible. In the literature devoted to the influence of FDI on economies, the research about the determinants of geographical pattern of FDI distribution usually focuses on the factors that determine why some states manage to draw FDI in higher levels than some other states. Our research focused on the transitional economies of Central, Southeastern and Eastern Europe, which were for the most part of the last 20 years net receivers of the FDI. Only a couple of these countries in the years of the current economic crisis have experienced FDI net outflow. Among the states studied, we have equally studied the EU members, as well as the non-EU members. We have tried to find similarities and differences between these two groups of states in order to determine the influence of EU membership on FDI per capita and how it correlates with the size of the state’s economy. We have also tried to answer the question of how much the GDP growth rate correlates to the FDI net inflow share in GDP for EU and non-EU members. The methodology is based on the statistical correlation between FDI in current US dollars and GDP per capita in current US dollars (World Bank data for each represented state, through the surveyed period from 1994 until 2013. The statistical correlation matrix (Pearson method determined whether any correlation between the average GDP growth rate (chain index and the average share of FDI in GDP per each state exists for each state surveyed.

  17. Nanostructured pillars based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes as the stationary phase in micro-CEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-Guei; Yang, Chung-Shi; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2009-06-01

    We present a micro-CEC chip carrying out a highly efficient separation of dsDNA fragments through vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a microchannel. The vertically aligned MWCNTs were grown directly in the microchannel to form straight nanopillar arrays as ordered and directional chromatographic supports. 1-Pyrenedodecanoic acid was employed for the surface modification of the MWCNTs' stationary phase to adsorb analytes by hydrophobic interactions. This device was used for separating dsDNA fragments of three different lengths (254, 360, and 572 bp), and fluorescence detection was employed to verify the electrokinetic transport in the MWCNT array. The micro-CEC separation of the three compounds was achieved in less than 300 s at a field strength of 66 V/cm due to superior laminar flow patterns and a lower flow resistance resulting from the vertically aligned MWCNTs being used as the stationary phase medium. In addition, a fivefold reduction of band broadening was obtained when the analyte was separated by the chromatographic MWCNT array channel instead of the CE channel. From all of the results, we suggest that an in situ grown and directional MWCNT array can potentially be useful for preparing more diversified forms of stationary phases for vertically efficient chip-based electrochromatography.

  18. Factors controlling the export of nitrogen from agricultural land in a large central European catchment during 1900−2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Posch, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2013), s. 6400-6407 ISSN 0013-936X. [ASLO 2013. New Orleans, 17.02.2013-22.02.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 - REFRESH Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : reactive nitrogen * mass budgets * agricultural land * forest * modelling Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 5.481, year: 2013

  19. Ancient DNA Analysis Reveals High Frequency of European Lactase Persistence Allele (T-13910) in Medieval Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Krüttli, Annina; Bouwman, Abigail; Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations re...

  20. Strategies for reducing emissions and depositions in Central and Eastern European countries: The case of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; De Kruijk, H.; Stoffer, A.; Maly, M.

    1995-06-01

    A detailed case study on developments and reduction of acidifying SO 2 and NO x emissions from the energy system was conducted for the Czech Republic. Scenarios and the Energy Flow Optimization Model - Environment (EFOM-ENV) of the European Union (DG 12) were applied for the first time in the Czech Republic and were similar to those that were used in the other European country studies in preparation of the Second Sulphur Protocol. Czech SO 2 emissions can be reduced at low marginal costs, but at high total national costs compared with e.g. the Netherlands. The main reasons for this are the high sulphur content of (brown) coal, that has a high share in national energy consumption, a relatively high energy intensity, low wages, and the fact that most Western countries already have reduced their SO 2 emissions in the past. Marginal NO x emission reduction costs are similar to those of Western countries and national total NO x reduction costs are relatively high. In contrast with fuel switching, retrofitting of existing technologies is an attractive SO 2 and NO x reduction option in the short term. High interest and discount rates due to capital scarcity increases emissions and emission reduction costs. Therefore, short term involvement of Western investors could lead to European cost-effective emission reduction. 17 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 20 refs

  1. Admixture of Eastern and Western European Red Deer Lineages as a Result of Postglacial Recolonization of the Czech Republic (Central Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Koubek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Due to a restriction of the distributional range of European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) during the Quaternary and subsequent recolonization of Europe from different refugia, a clear phylogeographical pattern in genetic structure has been revealed using mitochondrial DNA markers. In Central Europe, 2 distinct, eastern and western, lineages of European red deer are present; however, admixture between them has not yet been studied in detail. We used mitochondrial DNA (control region and cytochrome b gene) sequences and 22 microsatellite loci from 522 individuals to investigate the genetic diversity of red deer in what might be expected to be an intermediate zone. We discovered a high number of unique mtDNA haplotypes belonging to each lineage and high levels of genetic diversity (cyt b H = 0.867, D-loop H = 0.914). The same structuring of red deer populations was also revealed by microsatellite analysis, with results from both analyses thus suggesting a suture zone between the 2 lineages. Despite the fact that postglacial recolonization of Central Europe by red deer occurred more than 10000 years ago, the degree of admixture between the 2 lineages is relatively small, with only 10.8% admixed individuals detected. Direct translocations of animals by humans have slightly blurred the pattern in this region; however, this blurring was more apparent when using maternally inherited markers than nuclear markers. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Current and past smoking patterns in a Central European urban population: a cross-sectional study in a high-burden country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narine K. Movsisyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have examined the socioeconomic variations in smoking and quitting rates across the European region; however, data from Central and East European countries, where the tobacco burden is especially high, are sparse. This study aimed to assess the patterns in current and past smoking prevalence based on cross-sectional data from a Central European urban population sample. Methods Data from 2160 respondents aged 25–64 years in Brno, Czech Republic were collected in 2013–2014 using the Czech post-MONICA survey questionnaire to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including smoking status. The age- and sex-stratified randomized sample was drawn using health insurance registries. Descriptive statistics and quit ratios were calculated, and chi-square and multivariate logistic analyses conducted to examine relationships between current and past smoking and demographic (age, gender, marital status and socioeconomic variables (education, income, occupation. Results The prevalence of current and past smoking was 23.6 and 31.3 % among men and 20.5 and 23.2 % among women, respectively. Education reliably predicted smoking and quitting rates in both genders. Among men, being unemployed was associated with greater odds of smoking (OR 3.6; 1.6–8.1 and lower likelihood of quitting (OR 0.2: 0.1–0.6; the likelihood of quitting also increased with age (OR 1.8; 1.2–2.8. Among women, marital status (being married decreased the odds of current smoking (OR 0.6; 0.4–0.9 and increased the odds of quitting (OR 2.2; 1.2–3.9. Quit ratios were the lowest in the youngest age group (25–34 years where quitting was more strongly associated with middle income (OR 2.7; 95 % CI 1.2–5.9 than with higher education (OR 2.9; 95 % CI 0.9–8.2. Conclusions Interventions to increase cessation rates and reduce smoking prevalence need to be gender-specific and carefully tailored to the needs of the disadvantaged groups

  3. An improbable partnership: Spanish and Kazakh efforts to bring Central Asia to the fore of European politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licinia Simao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo discute sobre el potencial de la actual Presidencia española del Consejo de la UE y la Presidencia kazaja de la OSCE para coordinar esfuerzos en convertir a Asia Central en un área de interés más prominente para la política europea. Aporta un análisis de los intereses y de las principales áreas de interacción de las dos organizaciones en Asia Central y propone una reflexión sobre el impacto que tan improbable asociación podría tener en cambiar las perspectivas mutuas y en desarrollar una visión a largo plazo para la UE y la OSCE en Asia Central.

  4. Overall satisfaction of health care users with the quality of and access to health care services: a cross-sectional study in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepurko, Tetiana; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2016-08-02

    The measurement of consumer satisfaction is an essential part of the assessment of health care services in terms of service quality and health care system responsiveness. Studies across Europe have described various strategies health care users employ to secure services with good quality and quick access. In Central and Eastern European countries, such strategies also include informal payments to health care providers. This paper analyzes the satisfaction of health care users with the quality of and access to health care services. The study focuses on six Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine). We use data on past experience with health care use collected in 2010 through uniform national surveys in these countries. Based on these data, we carry out a multi-country analysis to investigate factors associated with the satisfaction of health care users in the six countries. The results indicate that about 10-14 % of the service users are not satisfied with the quality of, or access to health care services they used in the preceding year. However, significant differences across countries and services are observed, e.g. the highest level of dissatisfaction with access to outpatient services (16.4 %) is observed among patients in Lithuania, while in Poland, the level of dissatisfaction with quality of outpatient and inpatient services are much lower than dissatisfaction with access. The study also analyses the association of users' satisfaction with factors such as making informal payments, inability to pay and relative importance of service attributes stated by the service users. These multi-country findings provide evidence for health policy making in the Central and Eastern European countries. Although the average rates of satisfactions per country are relatively high, the results suggest that there is ample room for improvements. Specifically, many service-users still report dissatisfaction especially those

  5. Implication of new CEC recommendations for individual monitoring for external radiation doses to the skin and the extremities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Julius, H.W.; Marshall, T.O.

    1991-01-01

    A drafting group consisting of the above authors has assisted the CEC in revising the CEC document Technical Recommendations for Monitoring the Exposure to Individuals to External Radiation, EUR 5287, published in 1975. The paper highlights sections of the revised version relating particularly...... to irradiation of the skin and the extremities and focusses on problems connected to exposure to weakly penetrating radiations. Concepts of individual monitoring for external radiation exposures to the skin of the whole body and to the extremities are discussed and guidance is given as regards dose quantities...

  6. Temporal changes in the climate sensitivity of Norway spruce andEuropean beech along an elevation gradient in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Tomáš; Čermák, P.; Trnka, Miroslav; Žid, T.; Rybníček, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 239 (2017), s. 24-33 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) EHP-CZ02-0V-1-066-01-2014 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : czech republic * drought * fagus sylvatica * picea abies * temperature * tree-ring width chronology Subject RIV: GK - Forestry OBOR OECD: Forestry Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  7. Alien wetland annual Lindernia dubia (Scrophulariaceae): the first recently mentioned localities in Slovakia and their central European context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrivnák, R.; Kochjarová, J.; Šumberová, Kateřina; Schmotzer, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 3 (2016), s. 281-286 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : wetland vegetation * neophyte * central Slovakia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  8. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend

  9. CLO-PLA: a database of clonal and bud-bank traits of the Central European flora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Danihelka, J.; Chrtek, Jindřich; de Bello, Francesco; Herben, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 4 (2017), s. 1179 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Clonal traits * Central Europe * CLO-PLA database * bud-bank traits Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.809, year: 2016

  10. Distribution of central corneal thickness and its association with ocular parameters in a large central European cohort: the Gutenberg health study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther M Hoffmann

    Full Text Available MAIN OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the distribution of central corneal thickness (CCT in a large German cohort and to analyse its relationship with intraocular pressure and further ocular factors. DESIGN: Population-based, prospective, cohort study. METHODS: The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS cohort included 4,698 eligible enrollees of 5,000 subjects (age range 35-74 years who participated in the survey from 2007 to 2008. All participants underwent an ophthalmological examination including slitlamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, central corneal thickness measurement, fundus examination, and were given a questionnaire regarding glaucoma history. Furthermore, all subjects underwent fundus photography and visual field testing using frequency doubling perimetry. RESULTS: Mean CCT was 557.3 ± 34.3 µm (male and 551.6±35.2 µm in female subjects (Mean CCT from right and left eyes. Younger male participants (35-44 years presented slightly thicker CCT than those older. We noted a significant CCT difference of 4 µm between right and left eyes, but a high correlation between eyes (Wilcoxon test for related samples: p<0.0001. Univariable linear regression stratified by gender showed that IOP was correlated with CCT (p<0.0001. A 10 µm increase in CCT led to an increase in IOP between 0.35-0.38 mm Hg, depending on the eye and gender. Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed correlations between gender, spherical equivalent (right eyes, and CCT (p<.0001 and p=0.03, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We observed positive correlations between CCT and IOP and gender. CCT was not correlated with age, contact lens wear, positive family history for glaucoma, lens status, or iris colour.

  11. Diverse replication-associated protein encoding circular DNA viruses in guano samples of Central-Eastern European bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemenesi, Gábor; Kurucz, Kornélia; Zana, Brigitta; Földes, Fanni; Urbán, Péter; Vlaschenko, Anton; Kravchenko, Kseniia; Budinski, Ivana; Szodoray-Parádi, Farkas; Bücs, Szilárd; Jére, Csaba; Csősz, István; Szodoray-Parádi, Abigél; Estók, Péter; Görföl, Tamás; Boldogh, Sándor; Jakab, Ferenc

    2018-03-01

    Circular replication-associated protein encoding single-stranded DNA (CRESS DNA) viruses are increasingly recognized worldwide in a variety of samples. Representative members include well-described veterinary pathogens with worldwide distribution, such as porcine circoviruses or beak and feather disease virus. In addition, numerous novel viruses belonging to the family Circoviridae with unverified pathogenic roles have been discovered in different human samples. Viruses of the family Genomoviridae have also been described as being highly abundant in different faecal and environmental samples, with case reports showing them to be suspected pathogens in human infections. In order to investigate the genetic diversity of these viruses in European bat populations, we tested guano samples from Georgia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine. This resulted in the detection of six novel members of the family Circoviridae and two novel members of the family Genomoviridae. Interestingly, a gemini-like virus, namely niminivirus, which was originally found in raw sewage samples in Nigeria, was also detected in our samples. We analyzed the nucleotide composition of members of the family Circoviridae to determine the possible host origins of these viruses. This study provides the first dataset on CRESS DNA viruses of European bats, and members of several novel viral species were discovered.

  12. Recent results from CEC cost sharing research programme on LWR fuel behaviour under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbairn, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The present structure and intentions of the CEC sponsored cost sharing programme for LWR safety research are outlined. Detailed results are reported for two projects from this programme. The first project concerns experimental data on the thermohydraulic effects of flow diversion around ballooned fuel rods. Data are presented on single and two phase heat transfer in an electrically heated rod bundle. Detailed photographic data on droplet behaviour are also given. The second project is an investigation of the effects of zircaloy oxidation on rewetting during reflood. It is shown that as oxide thickness increases from 1μm to 76μm that rewet rates can increase by up to 40%. A systematic effect of oxidation on rewet temperatures is also noted. (author)

  13. Occupational and environmental risk assessment problems in central European countries, needs and what has been achieved - Poland as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suklowski, Tadeusz

    1992-07-01

    The externally imposed system of planified economy inhibited the development of methods of risk assessment in the countries of Central Europe. The trends in using the experience of other countries and the help of foreign experts is determining realistic hygienic norms at the workplace, limiting the hazards for the natural environment, increasing the safety of industrial installations and transporting dangerous substances will be discussed. (author)

  14. Occupational and environmental risk assessment problems in central European countries, needs and what has been achieved - Poland as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suklowski, Tadeusz

    1992-01-01

    The externally imposed system of planified economy inhibited the development of methods of risk assessment in the countries of Central Europe. The trends in using the experience of other countries and the help of foreign experts is determining realistic hygienic norms at the workplace, limiting the hazards for the natural environment, increasing the safety of industrial installations and transporting dangerous substances will be discussed. (author)

  15. Comparison of Heat and Cold Stress Effects on Cardiovascular Mortality and Morbidity in Central European Urban and Rural Populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyncl, J.; Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan; Davídkovová, Hana; Kříž, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44 (2015), s. 86 ISSN 0300-5771. [IEA World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE) /20./. 17.08.2014-21.08.2014, Anchorage] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1985 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : heat stress * cold stress * Central Europe * cardiovascular mortality and morbidity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology https://wce.confex.com/wce/2014/webprogram/Paper1480.html

  16. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, M; Witthöft, C M; Tepšić, J; Ranić, M; Hulshof, P J M; Hollman, P C; Porubska, J; Gohar, A; Debeljak-Martačić, J; Petrović-Oggiano, G; Novaković, R; Glibetić, M; Oshaug, A

    2010-11-01

    Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations. Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised. Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary

  17. Think Aloud in Groups: Mediating Poetry for Children with Cecília Meireles, Paulo Freire, and John Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Telma Franco

    2018-01-01

    As suggested by its title, this article reports on a Think Aloud in Group (TAG) practice in which a group of Y5 children thought aloud the poem "The Blue Boy", written in Portuguese by Cecília Meireles and translated into English by Sarah Rebecca Kersley. As a dialogical and collaborative literacy practice, TAG aims to transform the…

  18. The UK contribution to the CEC PACOMA Project: far-field modelling of radioactive waste disposal in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, K.H.; Jackson, C.P.; Clark, C.M.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes a study of groundwater flow and radionuclide migration in the far field of a hypothetical repository located in the clay beneath Harwell Laboratory. The work forms part of the assessment of the radiological impact of disposal in a clay formation, carried out as the UK contribution to the CEC PACOMA project. (Author)

  19. Elements of European Political Culture in the Central Asian National Outskirts of the Russian Empire: Perception Specifics of Foreign Cultural Innovations (late 19th – early 20th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main results of political modernization in the Central Asian national outskirts of the Russian Empire taken place in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The concept “Central Asian national outskirts” includes Stepnoy and Turkistan Governorate Generals, the two administrative-territorial entities founded in the 1860s as a result of a complete joining of the Kazakh camping grounds of the Junior, Middle and Elder zhuzhes; after the Kokand and Khivinsk khanates inhabited by nomads ( the Kirghiz, the Kara-Kalpaks as well as the settled population (the Uzbeks were conquered. The analysis of the sources and materials conducted by the authors asserts that the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts proposed by the Russian Empire was carried out in line with the fundamental characteristics of West European civilization and the basis of its political culture. Thus the system of local government was established and the democratic electoral system was introduced by means of expanding the voter’s base, with the region’s population participating in social and political life. The principles of bourgeois ideology based on such concepts as “equality”, “freedom”, “self-determination” were also formed. However, the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts should not be considered as complete. Up to 1917 the political sphere of the region’s population was characterized by the predominance of traditional mores, values and laws, whereas clan ideology, tribalism and Muslim ethno-consciousness were characteristic of the social sphere. All these factors affected the process of adapting to western political culture. The institutionalization of the new structures did not go along with the de-institutionalization of the traditional ones, and so resulted in the combination and coexistence of the traditional and modern structures.

  20. A comparison of methodological guides for creating microregional strategies of Central European rural areas. Case study: Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Trojan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the complementarity of methodological guides dealing with microregional development in Central Europe. As an example, the Czech Republic framework has been selected. This study compares seven common methodologies written in Czech, which the author has divided into three groups, namely manual-like methodologies, semi-scientific texts and hybrid texts dealing with other complementary aspects. The result is a comparison of methodologies, their usage and implications for the practices of regional development. The paper also includes a brief analysis of sustainable development elements incorporated into the methodological texts. The final part outlines links to the four-capital model of regional development.

  1. Development, features and application of DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP) software in supporting public health nutrition research in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Kadvan, Agnes; Nikolić, Marina; Zeković, Milica; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet growing public health nutrition challenges in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC) and Balkan countries, development of a Research Infrastructure (RI) and availability of an effective nutrition surveillance system are a prerequisite. The building block of this RI is an innovative tool called DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP), which is a platform for standardized and harmonized food consumption collection, comprehensive dietary intake assessment and nutrition planning. Its unique structure enables application of national food composition databases (FCDBs) from the European food composition exchange platform (28 national FCDBs) developed by EuroFIR (http://www.eurofir.org/) and in addition allows communication with other tools. DAP is used for daily menu and/or long-term diet planning in diverse public sector settings, foods design/reformulation, food labelling, nutrient intake assessment and calculation of the dietary diversity indicator, Minimum Dietary Diversity-Women (MDD-W). As a validated tool in different national and international projects, DAP represents an important RI in public health nutrition epidemiology in the CEEC region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The installation of KAYZERO-assisted NAA for use in industry and environmental sanitation in three Central European countries. Plans and achievements of a COPERNICUS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Corte, F.; De Wispelaere, A.; van Sluijs, R.; Bossus, D.; Simonits, A.; Smodis, B.; Jacimovic, R.

    1997-01-01

    At the 'Special Session k 0 ' of the MTAA-8 (Vienna, 1991), and later on at the 'International k 0 Users Workshop - Gent' (1992), progress was reported with respect to the development and use of computer codes in order to mould the k 0 -standardization of neutron activation analysis into an effective working instrument. Among others, this resulted in the software package KAYZERO for PC DOS, which was designed and distributed by DSM Research (Geleen, NL), and which is based on the k 0 -methodology, algorithms and nuclear data file developed and created at the INW (Gent, B) and the KFKI (Budapest, H), the traditional 'k 0 -centres'. One of the most recent initiatives is a project in the framework of the COPERNICUS programme of the Commission of the European Union. It uses the synergism of a Joint Research Project to give an impulse to the exploitation of KAYZERO-assisted NAA as a manageable and competitive analytical tool in industry and environmental sanitation in Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovenia. An outline is given of the strategy worked out in this JRP, emphasizing the procedures applied in the three institutes for the calibration of their irradiation facilities and Ge-detectors, quality control and assurance procedures following the implementation of the method, and the identification and tackling of the practical analytical problems which are of relevance to the Central European partner countries. (author)

  3. International conference “Intellectuals and the First World War: Central European Perspective” (Kraków, Poland, 20–22 Oct., 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pudłocki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available “Intellectuals and the First World War: Central European Perspective”, a conference organized on October 20–22, 2016 in Kraków, was a perfect opportunity to discuss the phenomenon of the 1914–1918 conflict and its impact on the lives of intellectuals and the creators of culture. Many important scientific studies or cultural activities were interrupted by the war as a result of the conscription of the intellectuals and their death either on the WW1 fronts or as civilian victims. On the other hand, the war was also an opportunity for many to redirect professional careers in new directions e.g. in the service of military propaganda. The conference was organized by the Institute of History of the Jagiellonian University with the financial support of the Kraków City Council – City of Kraków. The conference brought together nearly 30 speakers from the European Union and the United States of America.

  4. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  5. Soil compaction of various Central European forest soils caused by traffic of forestry machines with various chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Allman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The primary objective of this paper was to compare the effects of different types of forestry machine chassis on the compaction of the top layers of soil and to define the soil moisture content level, at which machine traffic results in maximum compaction.Area of study: Measurements were conducted in eight forest stands located in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The soil types in the stands subjected to the study were luvisols, stagnosols, cambisols, and rendzinas.Material and Methods: The measurements were focused on tracked and wheeled (equipped with low pressure tyres cut-to-length machines, and skidders equipped with wide and standard tyres. The bulk density of soil was determined from soil samples extracted from the ruts, the centre of the skid trail, and the undisturbed stand. To determine soil moisture content, at which the soil is the most susceptible to compaction, the Proctor standard test was employed.Main results: The moisture content for maximal compaction fluctuated from 12% to 34.06%. Wheeled machines compacted the soil to 1.24 – 1.36 g.cm-3 (30.3 – 35.4 % compaction in dried state. Bulk density of soil in stands where tracked machine operated was lower, ranging from 1.02 to 1.06 g.cm-3 (25.3 % compaction.Research highlights: All wheeled machines caused the same amount of soil compaction in the ruts, despite differences in tyres, machine weight, etc. Maximum compaction caused by forestry machines occurred at minimal moisture contents, easily achievable in European climatic conditions.  Keywords: soil compaction; bulk density; soil moisture content limits; cut-to-length machines; skidders.

  6. Beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas: evidence of central European glacial refugia for a temperate forest mammal species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffontaine, V; Libois, R; Kotlík, P; Sommer, R; Nieberding, C; Paradis, E; Searle, J B; Michaux, J R

    2005-05-01

    This study details the phylogeographic pattern of the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus, a European rodent species strongly associated with forest habitat. We used sequences of 1011 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene from 207 bank voles collected in 62 localities spread throughout its distribution area. Our results reveal the presence of three Mediterranean (Spanish, Italian and Balkan) and three continental (western, eastern and 'Ural') phylogroups. The endemic Mediterranean phylogroups did not contribute to the post-glacial recolonization of much of the Palaearctic range of species. Instead, the major part of this region was apparently recolonized by bank voles that survived in glacial refugia in central Europe. Moreover, our phylogeographic analyses also reveal differentiated populations of bank voles in the Ural mountains and elsewhere, which carry the mitochondrial DNA of another related vole species, the ruddy vole (Clethrionomys rutilus). In conclusion, this study demonstrates a complex phylogeographic history for a forest species in Europe which is sufficiently adaptable that, facing climate change, survives in relict southern and northern habitats. The high level of genetic diversity characterizing vole populations from parts of central Europe also highlights the importance of such regions as a source of intraspecific genetic biodiversity.

  7. Correlates of overall and central obesity in adults from seven European countries: findings from the Food4Me Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Morales, Carlos; Livingstone, Katherine M; Affleck, Alexander; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Martinez, J Alfredo; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Saris, Wim H M; O'Donovan, Clare B; Forster, Hannah; Woolhead, Clara; Gibney, Eileen R; Walsh, Marianne C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Mike; Moschonis, George; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Mavrogianni, Christina; Manios, Yannis; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Lovegrove, Julie A; Kolossa, Silvia; Daniel, Hannelore; Traczyk, Iwona; Drevon, Christian A; Mathers, John C

    2018-02-01

    To identify predictors of obesity in adults and investigate to what extent these predictors are independent of other major confounding factors. Data collected at baseline from 1441 participants from the Food4Me study conducted in seven European countries were included in this study. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity levels (PA), whereas participants self-reported their body weight, height and waist circumference via the internet. The main factors associated (p < 0.05) with higher BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were age (β:1.11 kg/m 2 ), intakes of processed meat (β:1.04 kg/m 2 ), red meat (β:1.02 kg/m 2 ), saturated fat (β:0.84 kg/m 2 ), monounsaturated fat (β:0.80 kg/m 2 ), protein (β:0.74 kg/m 2 ), total energy intake (β:0.50 kg/m 2 ), olive oil (β:0.36 kg/m 2 ), sugar sweetened carbonated drinks (β:0.33 kg/m 2 ) and sedentary time (β:0.73 kg/m 2 ). In contrast, the main factors associated with lower BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were PA (β:-1.36 kg/m 2 ), intakes of wholegrains (β:-1.05 kg/m 2 ), fibre (β:-1.02 kg/m 2 ), fruits and vegetables (β:-0.52 kg/m 2 ), nuts (β:-0.52 kg/m 2 ), polyunsaturated fat (β:-0.50 kg/m 2 ), Healthy Eating Index (β:-0.42 kg/m 2 ), Mediterranean diet score (β:-0.40 kg/m 2 ), oily fish (β:-0.31 kg/m 2 ), dairy (β:-0.31 kg/m 2 ) and fruit juice (β:-0.25 kg/m 2 ). These findings are important for public health and suggest that promotion of increased PA, reducing sedentary behaviours and improving the overall quality of dietary patterns are important strategies for addressing the existing obesity epidemic and associated disease burden.

  8. Effects of solar UVB radiation on growth, flowering and yield of central and southern European maize cultivars (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, U.; Saile-Mark, M.; Tevini, M.

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.) originating from Central and South Europe were grown from June to September 1994 for 16 weeks in two greenhouses covered with different UVB-absorbing (280-320 nm) plastic foils. Using the ambient UVB radiation level of a southern location (Portugal, 38.7 o N) in one of the greenhouses as an enhanced radiation compared to the reduced radiation in the second greenhouse, an increase of about 12% of UVB was simulated. Six of the eight cultivars examined showed significant reductions in height of up to 18.9% at all developmental stages under increased UVB. In contrast to this, the fresh and dry weight as well as the leaf area was reduced under UVB only at early developmental stages, but with ongoing development the UVB stressed plants caught up. The total content of absorbing compounds of the maize cultivars was completely unaffected by UVB. A flowering delay up to a maximum of 5 days was observed under higher UVB in several cultivars. Probably due to this delay in the cob development the yield decreased to 27.7% under higher UVB at the first harvest after 12 and 14 weeks, whereas at the second harvest after 14 and 16 weeks yield reduction levelled off. (Author)

  9. Molecular species identification of Central European ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae using nuclear rDNA expansion segments and DNA barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raupach Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of vast numbers of unknown organisms using DNA sequences becomes more and more important in ecological and biodiversity studies. In this context, a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene has been proposed as standard DNA barcoding marker for the identification of organisms. Limitations of the COI barcoding approach can arise from its single-locus identification system, the effect of introgression events, incomplete lineage sorting, numts, heteroplasmy and maternal inheritance of intracellular endosymbionts. Consequently, the analysis of a supplementary nuclear marker system could be advantageous. Results We tested the effectiveness of the COI barcoding region and of three nuclear ribosomal expansion segments in discriminating ground beetles of Central Europe, a diverse and well-studied invertebrate taxon. As nuclear markers we determined the 18S rDNA: V4, 18S rDNA: V7 and 28S rDNA: D3 expansion segments for 344 specimens of 75 species. Seventy-three species (97% of the analysed species could be accurately identified using COI, while the combined approach of all three nuclear markers provided resolution among 71 (95% of the studied Carabidae. Conclusion Our results confirm that the analysed nuclear ribosomal expansion segments in combination constitute a valuable and efficient supplement for classical DNA barcoding to avoid potential pitfalls when only mitochondrial data are being used. We also demonstrate the high potential of COI barcodes for the identification of even closely related carabid species.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon hunted in central Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heddergott Mike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing consumption of mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon meat in Germany, there is currently no surveillance of Toxoplasma gondii infection in populations of these animals and generally little knowledge about the prevalence of this protozoan in German wild ungulates. Between 2011 and 2015, we collected 138 blood samples from a free-living mouflon population in central German and tested sera for the presence of T. gondii antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:20. Antibodies were detected in 31 of the 138 samples (22.46%. There was a significant difference in seroprevalence between the different age classes, with antibodies to T. gondii more frequent in adults. In contrast, there was no significant difference in seroprevalence depending on sex and year of sample collection. Game meat is frequently consumed as raw or undercooked meat and may therefore represent a potential source of human infection with T. gondii.

  11. Prioritizing environmental issues around the world: opinions from an international Central and Eastern European environmental health conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Elena S; Donnelly, Kirby C; Neamtiu, Iulia; McCarty, Kathleen M; Bruce, Erica; Surkova, Irina; Kim, David; Uhnakova, Iveta; Gyorffy, Erika; Tesarova, Eva; Anderson, Beth

    2006-12-01

    As the next generation of scientists enters the field of environmental health, it is imperative that they view their contributions in the context of global environmental stewardship. In this commentary, a group of international graduate students facilitated by three experienced environmental health scientists present their views on what they consider to be the global environmental health concerns of today. This group convened initially in October 2004 at an international health conference in Prague, Czech Republic. In this report we identify perceived environmental health concerns that exist around the world, with a focus on Central and Eastern Europe. Additionally, we address these perceived problems and offers some potential solutions. At the meeting, students were invited to participate in two panel discussions. One group of young international scientists identified several significant global environmental health concerns, including air pollution, occupational hazards, and risk factors that may exacerbate current environmental health issues. The second panel determined that communication, education, and regulation were the mechanisms for addressing current environmental challenges. In this commentary we expand on the views presented at the meeting and represent the concerns of young investigators from nine different countries. We provide ideas about and support the exchange of information between developed and developing countries on how to handle the environmental health challenges that face the world today.

  12. Molecular species identification of Central European ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) using nuclear rDNA expansion segments and DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J; Astrin, Jonas J; Hannig, Karsten; Peters, Marcell K; Stoeckle, Mark Y; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2010-09-13

    The identification of vast numbers of unknown organisms using DNA sequences becomes more and more important in ecological and biodiversity studies. In this context, a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene has been proposed as standard DNA barcoding marker for the identification of organisms. Limitations of the COI barcoding approach can arise from its single-locus identification system, the effect of introgression events, incomplete lineage sorting, numts, heteroplasmy and maternal inheritance of intracellular endosymbionts. Consequently, the analysis of a supplementary nuclear marker system could be advantageous. We tested the effectiveness of the COI barcoding region and of three nuclear ribosomal expansion segments in discriminating ground beetles of Central Europe, a diverse and well-studied invertebrate taxon. As nuclear markers we determined the 18S rDNA: V4, 18S rDNA: V7 and 28S rDNA: D3 expansion segments for 344 specimens of 75 species. Seventy-three species (97%) of the analysed species could be accurately identified using COI, while the combined approach of all three nuclear markers provided resolution among 71 (95%) of the studied Carabidae. Our results confirm that the analysed nuclear ribosomal expansion segments in combination constitute a valuable and efficient supplement for classical DNA barcoding to avoid potential pitfalls when only mitochondrial data are being used. We also demonstrate the high potential of COI barcodes for the identification of even closely related carabid species.

  13. THE USE OF CAPITAL AND CONDITION OF ECONOMICALLY WEAK FARMS IN THE SELECTED CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona SKARŻYŃSKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the economic situation of economically weak farms in 8 countries of Central and Eastern Europe(CEE in 2010. The data were obtained from the survey on EU farms carried out under the FADN system. The studyincluded countries in which economically weak farms were the dominant farm type (i.e. Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary,Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. The aim of the study was to assess the economic performance ofthose farms and indicate advantages of the competing farm types. The analysis was performed in terms of totalfactor productivity, income levels, assets and debt level. The influence of CAP instruments on managementefficiency was also demonstrated. The study found a high diversity in terms of production potential as well asfinancial condition of farms in particular countries, whereas one point of correspondence between farms is theprevalence of fixed assets, i.e. an excessive assets-to-area ratio, and the dominance of own capital in financingthose assets. Romanian, Polish and Bulgarian farms are characterised by the highest efficiency of use of currentoutlays and, in turn, a lower cost of the production unit, which accounted for 66%, 86% and 87% of the outputvalue respectively. In Latvia, Estonia and Slovenia, the costs exceeded the output value by 6%, 7% and 23%respectively and, as a result, the income of those farms was generated exclusively due to subsidies.

  14. Evropejskaja ideja v Central'noj Evrope i Skandinavii kak chast' politiki bezopasnosti i mirnogo sosushhestvovanija v ramkah poslevoennogo planirovanija [The European idea in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a part of the security and peaceful co-existence policy in the framework of the postwar planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Yevgeny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the development of European unity in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a mechanism of collective security and intergovernmental cooperation development. The cultural and historical features of Central Europe and Scandinavia emphasize the need for a comparative study into the European idea. This article considers the tendencies and factors which affected the development of the European idea in the framework of the post-war planning. This research sets out to compare and identify similar or analogous features and elements of the theoretical bases of movements for European unity in Central and Northern Europe. The author comes to the conclusion about the correlation between the “Europe of regions” model and the European unity concept. The ideas of Scandinavian and Central European integration rested on national, cultural and historical connections of the neighbouring countries were expected to constitute such formations, which contradicted and were opposed to by the theoretical framework of Western European integration. On the other hand, regional integration implied that a federation or union of the neighbouring states could be considered a step towards a more universal organisation, which would not mean the isolation of Scandinavia and Central Europe from the rest of the world. The theoretical and practical significance of this work lies in the comparative approach to the analysis of the phenomena which have been considered individually in the framework of historiography. It is the major contribution of the article to the research on history of ideas and European diplomacy. Moreover, the subject of research is immediately connected to the problem of security in the Baltic region and the Soviet factor, as well as political stereotypes produced in this field. The author employed historical comparative and inductive types of the historical typological method.

  15. Cecília Donnangelo: pioneira na construção teórica de um pensamento social em saúde Cecília Donnangelo: a pioneer in the theoretical construction of social thinking in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Duarte Nunes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa aspectos do percurso intelectual de Maria Cecília Ferro Donnangelo e seus principais trabalhos. Destaca-se no texto o papel inovador e pioneiro da sua obra nos momentos iniciais das ciências sociais no campo da saúde, na segunda metade dos anos 1960, contextualizados no momento em que ocorriam mudanças no ensino médico e na prática da medicina no Brasil.The present article analyzes aspects of the intellectual trajectory of Maria Cecília Ferro Donnangelo and her principal works. The text emphasizes the innovating and pioneer role her work played in the first moments of social sciences in the field of health in the mid sixties, occurring just together with changes in medical education and medical practice in Brazil.

  16. Changes in the Expandability, Layer charge, and CEC of Smectitic Clay due to a Illitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Cho, Won Jin

    2007-01-01

    In a high-level waste(HLW) repository, the major fucntions of the smectitic clay for use as a buffer material are to inhibit the penetration of groundwater and to retard the release of radionuclides from the radioactive wastes to the surrounding environment. However, when the smectite clay is exposed to an elevated temperature due to radioactive decay heat and geochemical conditions for a long time, its physicochemical and mineralogical properties may be degradated and thus lose its barrier functions. It has been known in literature that the degradation of these properties of the smectitic clay occurs by a illitization in which the smectite transforms into illite. Therefore, an understanding of the illitization is essential to evaluate the long-term barrier performance of smectitic clay for the buffer of a HLW repository. This paper will carry out hydrothermal reaction tests with domestic smectitic clay which will be favorably considered for the buffer material of a Korean HLW repository, and investigate changes in the expandibility, layer charge and cation exchange capacity(CEC) of the smectitic clay due to a illitization

  17. Efeito dos complexos enzimáticos clarificantes Clarex e CEC1-CTAA sobre a qualidade do suco de banana Effect of enzymatic clarifier complexes Clarex and CEC1-CTAA on the quality of banana juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Helena Cardoso

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi observado o efeito dos complexos enzimáticos clarificantes Clarex e CEC1-CTAA, adicionados na proporção de 0,03% v/p sobre purê de banana (Musa cavendishii, em condições amenas de hidrólise (40ºC, 15 minutos visando determinar a qualidade, aqui representada pelos indicadores: rendimento; viscosidade; Brix; pH; composição centesimal; contagens de bolores e leveduras e de mesófilos, e propriedades sensoriais de cor, aroma, sabor e corpo dos sucos de banana clarificados. O suco clarificado com Clarex apresentou-se significativamente (p The effect of the clarifier enzymatic complexes Clarex and CEC1-CTAA, used in the proportion 0.03% v/w in industrialized banana (Musa cavendishii pulp, at the conditions of gentle hydrolysis 40 degree Celsius, 15 minutes, was observed to determine the quality here represented by indicators such as yield, viscosity, Brix, pH, centesimal composition, counts of moulds and yeasts and of mesophilics, and sensorial properties of color, aroma, flavor and body by both clarified banana juices. The juice clarified by Clarex was significantly (p < 0.01 more yellow, less grey, less opaque and less viscous than that obtained with CEC1-CTAA. There was no significant difference between the means of aroma of fresh banana and flavor in these juices. Furthermore, the values obtained for flavor for both juices were judged good (6.72 and 6.05 for the juices clarified with Clarex and CEC1- CTAA, respectively, because they were up the middle of the scale (from 0 to 10.

  18. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wäger, Patrick A.; Hischier, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses

  19. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  20. Budget impact analysis of biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodszky, Valentin; Baji, Petra; Balogh, Orsolya; Péntek, Márta

    2014-05-01

    The first biosimilar monoclonal antibody (infliximab, CT-P13) was registered by the European Medicines Agency in 2013 for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Biosimilar infliximab is first being marketed in the Central and Eastern European countries. This paper presents the estimated budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar infliximab in RA over a 3-year time period in six selected countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. A prevalence-based model was constructed for budget impact analysis. Two scenarios were compared to the reference scenario (RSc) where no biosimilar infliximab is available: biosimilar scenario 1 (BSc1), where interchanging the originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab is disallowed, and only patients who start new biological therapy are allowed to use biosimilar infliximab; as well as biosimilar scenario 2 (BSc2), where interchanging the originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab is allowed, and 80% of patients treated with originator infliximab are interchanged to biosimilar infliximab. Compared to the RSc, the net savings are estimated to be €15.3 or €20.8 M in BSc1 and BSc2, respectively, over the 3 years. If budget savings were spent on reimbursement of additional biosimilar infliximab treatment, approximately 1,200 or 1,800 more patients could be treated in the six countries within 3 years in the two biosimilar scenarios, respectively. The actual saving is most sensitive to the assumption of the acquisition cost of the biosimilar drug and to the initial number of patients treated with biological therapy. The study focused on one indication (RA) and demonstrated that the introduction of biosimilar infliximab can lead to substantial budget savings in health care budgets. Further savings are expected for other indications where biosimilar medicines are implemented.

  1. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE CULTURAL HERITAGE, TRAVEL n TOURISM, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugulan Diana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cultural heritage, including, according to the UNESCO definition, the assembly of monuments, groups of buildings, and sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view, represents an important asset that can be engaged and capitalized in order to support the sustainable development. Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs in order to provide a better quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come, has become a concern and, in the same time, a priority for all the stakeholders of the society. Turning to the best account of the cultural heritage also represents an important driver for the sustainable development of the travel and tourism industry, as the cultural sites, institutions, goods and services, appropriately capitalized, represent significant attractions for the international and domestic tourists. The integration of the principles of sustainable development in the current functioning of the travel and tourism industry led to the development and implementation of the concept of sustainable tourism. The paper explores in a distinctive manner the relationships between the cultural heritage and the travel and tourism industry, respectively the cultural heritage and the sustainable development based on a set of related statistical indicators, and the specific secondary data, expressing the extent of the cultural heritage, the development of the travel and tourism industry, and the attained level of sustainable development in ten Central and Eastern European countries, members of the European Union. There are two major research questions the paper aims to answer: (1 How significant is the relationship between the cultural heritage and the development of the travel and tourism industry? (2 Is there a noteworthy connection between the cultural heritage and the sustainable

  2. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nopcsa, Baron Franz. 2014. Traveler, Scholar, Politician, Adventurer – A Transylvanian Baron at the Birth of Albanian Independence (ed. and trans. from German Robert Elsie. Budapest: Central European University Press. 227 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mandler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nopcsa, Baron Franz. 2014. Traveler, Scholar, Politician, Adventurer – A Transylvanian Baron at the Birth of Albanian Independence (ed. and trans. from German Robert Elsie. Budapest: Central European University Press. 227 pp.  Reviewed by David Mandler, Independent Scholar

  4. State-Sponsored Homophobia and the Denial of the Right of Assembly in Central and Eastern Europe : The "Boomerang" and the "Ricochet" between European Organizations and Civil Society to Uphold Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    State-sponsored homophobia emerged in certain Central and Eastern European states in the past decade, with the denial of the right of assembly for gay pride marches. However, more recently there has been progress in the recognition of the fundamental democratic right of assembly. What accounts for

  5. Depletion, cryptic metasomatism, and modal metasomatism of central European lithospheric mantle: evidence from elemental and Li isotope compositions of spinel peridotite xenoliths, Kozákov volcano, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medaris Jr., L. G.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Jelínek, E.; Magna, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2015), s. 1925-1956 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Central European lithospheric mantle * geochemistry * geothermometry * Li isotopes * spinel peridotite xenoliths Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2015

  6. Implication of new CEC recommendations for individual monitoring for external radiation doses to the skin and the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.; Julius, H.W.; Marshall, T.O.

    1991-01-01

    A drafting group consisting of the above authors has assisted the CEC in revising the CEC document Technical Recommendations for Monitoring the Exposure to Individuals to External Radiation, EUR 5287, published in 1975. The paper highlights sections of the revised version relating particularly to irradiation of the skin and the extremities and focusses on problems connected to exposure to weakly penetrating radiations. Concepts of individual monitoring for external radiation exposures to the skin of the whole body and to the extremities are discussed and guidance is given as regards dose quantities and dosemeter calibration procedures. A method of quantifying the overall accuracy of the dose measurements as a result of the various uncertainty components connected with the dosimetry system is suggested and requirements on the accuracy of the dose measurements complying with the ICRP requirements on overall accuracy for individual monitoring are specified. Moreover, implications of the accuracy requirements for the design and type testing of the dosemeter are discussed. (author)

  7. The height increments and BMI values of elite Central European children and youth in the second half of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlos, John

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal height measurements on children and youth are very rare prior to the 20th century, as are BMI values. Growth increments and BMI values were determined among elite (select) Habsburg children and youth in the late 19th century and compared with other extant historical and contemporary data. Archival data on height and weight were collected for approximately 3500 students attending Habsburg Military schools. The students were measured once a year for 4 years. Because of the minimum height requirement, truncated regression was used in order to estimate height trends, but standard procedures were used to determine height increments and BMI values. Heights increased at most 0.9-1.6 cm between the birth cohorts of circa 1870s and 1900. These future officers were about the same size as their counterparts in the USA and France, but smaller than those attending the Royal Military Academy in Sandhurst, England, who were taller and probably the tallest in the world at the time. Height increments were markedly smaller than those experienced by German students in the 18th century after age 15. Central European BMI values were above those obtained in the USA in the 19th century but well below modern values. Although peak height velocity was experienced as early as ages 13 and 14, the height increments were very small compared even to other historical populations. The military academy selected mainly precocious applicants (with probably larger height increments at younger ages and smaller increments at older ages). BMI values in this sample were well below modern standards, but they were unexpectedly as high as those of contemporary US West Point cadets, a well nourished group. There were significant differences in the height of elites in Central Europe in the 19th century, pointing to substantial socio-economic inequality, but at least the elites were as well nourished as the US population.

  8. The near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis of the central European flood in June 2013 - A graphical representation of the main results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Kai; Elmer, Florian; Trieselmann, Werner; Kreibich, Heidi; Kunz, Michael; Khazai, Bijan; Dransch, Doris; Wenzel, Friedemann; Zschau, Jochen; Merz, Bruno; Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Bessel, Tina; Fohringer, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Central European flood of June 2013 is one of the most severe flood events that have occurred in Central Europe in the past decades. All major German river basins were affected (Rhine, Danube, and Elbe as well as the smaller Weser catchment).In terms of spatial extent and event magnitude, it was the most severe event at least since 1950. Within the current research focus on near real time forensic disaster analysis, the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) assessed and analysed the multiple facets of the flood event from the beginning. The aim is to describe the on-going event, analyse the event sources, link the physical characteristics to the impact and consequences of the event and to understand the root causes that turn the physical event into a disaster (or prevent it from becoming disastrous). For the near real time component of this research, tools for rapid assessment and concise presentation of analysis results are essential. This contribution provides a graphical summary of the results of the CEDIM-FDA analyses on the June 2013 flood. It demonstrates the potential of visual representations for improving the communication and hence usability of findings in a rapid, intelligible and expressive way as a valuable supplement to usual event reporting. It is based on analyses of the hydrometeorological sources, the flood pathways (from satellite imagery, data extraction from social media), the resilience of the affected regions, and causal loss analysis. The prototypical representation of the FDA-results for the June 2013 flood provides an important step in the development of graphical event templates for the visualisation of forensic disaster analyses. These are intended to become a standard component of future CEDIM-FDA event activities.

  9. Palaeoecological data as a tool to predict possible future vegetation changes in the boreal forest zone of European Russia: a case study from the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novenko, E. Yu; Tsyganov, A. N.; Olchev, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    New multi-proxy records (pollen, testate amoebae, and charcoal) were applied to reconstruct the vegetation dynamics in the boreal forest area of the southern part of Valdai Hills (the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve) during the Holocene. The reconstructions of the mean annual temperature and precipitation, the climate moisture index (CMI), peatland surface moisture, and fire activity have shown that climate change has a significant impact on the boreal forests of European Russia. Temperature growth and decreased moistening during the warmest phases of the Holocene Thermal Maximum in 7.0-6.2 ka BP and 6.0-5.5 ka BP and in the relatively warm phase in 3.4-2.5 ka BP led to structural changes in plant communities, specifically an increase in the abundance of broadleaf tree species in forest stands and the suppression of Picea. The frequency of forest fires was higher in that period, and it resulted in the replacement of spruce forests by secondary stands with Betula and Pinus. Despite significant changes in the climatic parameters projected for the 21st century using even the optimistic RCP2.6 scenario, the time lag between climate changes and vegetation responses makes any catastrophic vegetation disturbances (due to natural reasons) in the area in the 21st century unlikely.

  10. Opening the treasure chest: A DNA-barcoding primer set for most higher taxa of Central European birds and mammals from museum collections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Schäffer

    Full Text Available DNA-barcoding is a rapidly developing method for efficiently identifying samples to species level by means of short standard DNA sequences. However, reliable species assignment requires the availability of a comprehensive DNA barcode reference library, and hence numerous initiatives aim at generating such barcode databases for particular taxa or geographic regions. Historical museum collections represent a potentially invaluable source for the DNA-barcoding of many taxa. This is particularly true for birds and mammals, for which collecting fresh (voucher material is often very difficult to (nearly impossible due to the special animal welfare and conservation regulations that apply to vertebrates in general, and birds and mammals in particular. Moreover, even great efforts might not guarantee sufficiently complete sampling of fresh material in a short period of time. DNA extracted from historical samples is usually degraded, such that only short fragments can be amplified, rendering the recovery of the barcoding region as a single fragment impossible. Here, we present a new set of primers that allows the efficient amplification and sequencing of the entire barcoding region in most higher taxa of Central European birds and mammals in six overlapping fragments, thus greatly increasing the value of historical museum collections for generating DNA barcode reference libraries. Applying our new primer set in recently established NGS protocols promises to further increase the efficiency of barcoding old bird and mammal specimens.

  11. Nuclear policies in Central Europe. Environmental policy and enlargement of the European Union: Austria's policies towards Nuclear Reactors in neighboring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getzner, M.

    2003-01-01

    Austria's anti-nuclear policies are rooted in the successful anti-nuclear referendum on the Zwentendorf nuclear power plant (Lower Austria) in 1978 and the great impact of the Chernobyl catastrophe on Austria in 1986. Since about 1990, official Austria has pursued anti-nuclear policies not only at home but also abroad. In particular, reactors in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) are the focal points of Austria's foreign anti-nuclear policies. Strategies include increasing nuclear safety, promoting energy efficiency and sustainable energy sources (such as renewable resources), and extending international legal frameworks to account for nuclear safety. Involvement in domestic energy issues in other countries is not an easy task, and while Austrian policy makers have had some success in increasing awareness of nuclear safety in Europe, they have also made a number of strategic mistakes. Notwithstanding real and substantiated concerns regarding nuclear safety, Austrian policies have lost credibility during recent years. This book explores the history and the development of Austrian anti-nuclear policies, and discusses the political economy of such policies. Particular emphasis is laid on the 2002 referendum against the Temelin reactor in the neighboring Czech Republic. (orig.)

  12. Environment vs. Plant Ontogeny: Arthropod Herbivory Patterns on European Beech Leaves along the Vertical Gradient of Temperate Forests in Central Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Stiegel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and leaf trait effects on herbivory are supposed to vary among different feeding guilds. Herbivores also show variability in their preferences for plant ontogenetic stages. Along the vertical forest gradient, environmental conditions change, and trees represent juvenile and adult individuals in the understorey and canopy, respectively. This study was conducted in ten forests sites in Central Germany for the enrichment of canopy research in temperate forests. Arthropod herbivory of different feeding traces was surveyed on leaves of Fagus sylvatica Linnaeus (European beech; Fagaceae in three strata. Effects of microclimate, leaf traits, and plant ontogenetic stage were analyzed as determining parameters for herbivory. The highest herbivory was caused by exophagous feeding traces. Herbivore attack levels varied along the vertical forest gradient for most feeding traces with distinct patterns. If differences of herbivory levels were present, they only occurred between juvenile and adult F. sylvatica individuals, but not between the lower and upper canopy. In contrast, differences of microclimate and important leaf traits were present between the lower and upper canopy. In conclusion, the plant ontogenetic stage had a stronger effect on herbivory than microclimate or leaf traits along the vertical forest gradient.

  13. Contribution of the CEC in structural analysis applied to LMFBR problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.H.; Terzaghi, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents both the activity of DG XII in field of Codes and Standards (harmonization) and the research activity carried out at the JRC in Ispra. The first part describes the activity performed in the field of structural analysis by the Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee of the CEC and its Working Group Codes and Standards. This activity, which is aimed at resolving difficulties encountered in using design procedures based on ASME Code Case N-47, has made good progress in most areas. Results from recent inelastic and seismic benchmark calculations are presented as well as future computational exercises and investigations related to piping analysis, defect analysis, material behaviour and life prediction at elevated temperature. In the second part of the paper results of recent research and future plans in the area of structural mechanics at the JRC Ispra are discussed. In the past years, a large effort was devoted to the COVA (code validation) program intended to validate dynamic fluid/structure codes necessary for predicting the response of LMFBR containments. The main conclusions that can be drawn from COVA which finishes this year are presented, and some still open questions related to the prediction of containment response to an HCDA are discussed. The paper then describes the identification technique which is applied for the determination of constitutive equations for the dynamic behaviour of materials. In the field of fracture mechanics JRC has mostly concentrated its efforts on the elastic-plastic fracture toughness properties of irradiated austenitic steels. In the future, also dynamic ductile fracture problems will be investigated, for these a large dynamic test facility with a max. force of 5 MN will be used. The numerical analysis methods associated with these tests are discussed. (author)

  14. Fission product release during MCCI. CEC nuclear safety program: MCCI project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenerino, G [CEA Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Cordfunke, E H.P. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Hunterlaar, M E [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    The assessment of the consequences of severe accidents in nuclear reactors involving molten core-concrete interactions (MCCls) requires estimates of the quantities and physicochemical forms of the radioactive species released from the melt into the cavity atmosphere. Such estimates in turn require a detailed knowledge of the complex chemical interactions which would occur between the fission products, fuel and the components of the core structural materials and the concrete. In recent years, effort has been put into the thermodynamic characterization of these processes. The results of such studies are important for predicting several aspects of MCCls, including: 1. The release of species by vaporization; 2. the extent of concrete penetration: a. The melt solidus and liquidus temperatures, which in turn affect the heat transfer processes and hence tile predictions of the melt temperature and the onset of solidification, b. the amounts of the solid and liquid phases and the respective compositions, which determines the viscosity of the melt, and c. the composition of the crust formed following the addition of water to quench the interaction. d. the distribution of fission products among metallic and oxidic phases. This SOAR is devoted to thermochemical calculations in the context of MCCI where most fission products and the metallic components of the melt are transferred into an oxidic form sooner or later. Calculations on fission product release from a molten pool without MCCI are underway in the source term project of the CEC-RCA. The following conditions have to be taken into account in order to be able to perform reliable thermodynamic calculations. (orig./HP).

  15. Fission product release during MCCI. CEC nuclear safety program: MCCI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenerino, G.; Hunterlaar, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The assessment of the consequences of severe accidents in nuclear reactors involving molten core-concrete interactions (MCCls) requires estimates of the quantities and physicochemical forms of the radioactive species released from the melt into the cavity atmosphere. Such estimates in turn require a detailed knowledge of the complex chemical interactions which would occur between the fission products, fuel and the components of the core structural materials and the concrete. In recent years, effort has been put into the thermodynamic characterization of these processes. The results of such studies are important for predicting several aspects of MCCls, including: 1. The release of species by vaporization; 2. the extent of concrete penetration: a. The melt solidus and liquidus temperatures, which in turn affect the heat transfer processes and hence tile predictions of the melt temperature and the onset of solidification, b. the amounts of the solid and liquid phases and the respective compositions, which determines the viscosity of the melt, and c. the composition of the crust formed following the addition of water to quench the interaction. d. the distribution of fission products among metallic and oxidic phases. This SOAR is devoted to thermochemical calculations in the context of MCCI where most fission products and the metallic components of the melt are transferred into an oxidic form sooner or later. Calculations on fission product release from a molten pool without MCCI are underway in the source term project of the CEC-RCA. The following conditions have to be taken into account in order to be able to perform reliable thermodynamic calculations. (orig./HP)

  16. Quantitative XRD analysis: tools to investigate link between hydrous strain and clay mineral CEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oueslati, W.; Ammar, M.; Ben Rhaiem, H.; Ben Haj Amara, A.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. This work aims at examining, by quantitative XRD analysis, the effect of an applied hydrous strain in the cationic exchange process of a di-octahedral smectite (Na-rich montmorillonite SWy-2). The hydrous constraint was created by a continuous, in situ, hydration-dehydration cycles using a variation of the %RH rate. Respectively, The starting, the intermediate and the final stressed samples was deposed in contact with saturated Me 2+ (i.e. Cd 2+ , Co 2+ , Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ ) chloride solutions respectively in order to examine the effect of the retained materials stress on the CEC of the host materials. An XRD profile modelling approach is adopted to describe all structural changes created by the environmental evolution of the %RH rate. This investigation allowed us to determine several structural parameters related to the nature, abundance, size, position and organization of exchangeable cation and water molecule in the inter-lamellar space along the c* axis. The obtained qualitative results show a considerable change in the hydration behaviour, versus the number of hydration - dehydration cycle, from homogeneous '2W' to heterogeneous '1W-2W' hydration state indicating an interstratified hydration phases and due probably to a new organization of the inter-lamellar space content. Quantitatively, the theoretical Mixed Layer Structure MLS suggest the coexistence of more one 'crystallite' species. Which are saturated by more than one exchangeable cations, indicating a partial saturation of all exchangeable sites. Using optimum structural parameter values, deduced from XRD modelling profile approach, some equations which described the evolution of exchangeable cation amount versus the applied hydrous strain were derived. (authors)

  17. Avrupa Merkez Bankası'nın (AMB Euro Yönetimindeki Etkinlik Sorununun Analizi ( Efficiency Management Problem Of European Central Bank (ECB About The Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin ÖZDEŞER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of a monetary integration process in the European Union is inarguable. Monetary Union has a corner stone role for letting Economy in the EU to act as a whole. Only 19 members of the EU take place in the Euro Zone. In this case; there is a long time needed for completion the monetary integration process. European Central Bank (ECB which is responsible for the monetary policy application in Euro Zone, will have serious weakness and desperation and having them is inevitable; because the economic and political integration of the EU is not completed yet. All kinds of conflicts in political and economic integration process of the EU and economic crises, will have negative impacts on the EU and also on Euro. ECB is helpless about any negative developments that take place or may take place in European Monetary Union (EMU Area and it does not have an efficient intervention chance for preventing the negative impacts occurring on the Euro. The aim of the study is to present the weakness and desperation of the ECB about applying policies for a stable Euro. Avrupa Birliği'nde (AB Parasal Birlik sürecinin gerekliliği tartışılmazdır. Parasal Birlik; ekonominin AB içerisinde bir bütünsel olarak hareketliliğinin sağlanabilmesi açısından köşe taşı niteliğindedir. AB'nde şu an için toplam 28 olan AB üyesi ülkeden yalnızca 19 üye euro bölgesinde yer almaktadır. Bu durum parasal entegrasyonun tamamlanabilmesi için uzun süreye ihtiyaç olduğunun göstergesidir. Euro bölgesinde para politikalarının uygylanmasından sorumlu olan Avrupa Merkez Bankası (AMB, AB'nin ekonomik ve siyasi entegrasyonunun tamamlanmamasından dolayı ciddi zaaflar ve çaresizlikler yaşamaktadır; ve yaşaması da kaçınılmazdır. AB ve euro bölgesinde yaşanan her türlü sayasi ve ekonomik entegrasyon süreçlerindeki çatışmalar ve aynı zamanda ekonomik krizler; AB'ni ve euroyu olumsuz etkilemektedir. Yalnızca euronun y

  18. Lithospheric Structure of Central Europe: Puzzle Pieces from Pannonian Basin to Trans-European Suture Zone Resolved by Geophysical-Petrological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielik, M.; Tašárová, Z. A.; Fullea, J.; Sroda, P.

    2017-12-01

    We have analysed the thermochemical structure of the mantle in Central Europe comprising the Western Carpathians, Pannonian Basin and parts of the European Platform, Bohemian Massif and easternmost Eastern Alps. This area is very complex and characterized by a highly heterogeneous lithospheric structure reflecting the interplay of contraction, strike slip, subduction, and extension tectonics. Our modelling is based on an integrative 3-D approach (LitMod) that combines in a self-consistent manner concepts and data from thermodynamics, mineral physics, geochemistry, petrology, and solid Earth geophysics. This approach minimizes uncertainties of the estimates derived from modelling of various data sets separately. To further constrain our 3-D model we have made use of the vast geophysical and geological data (2-D and 3-D, shallow/crustal versus deep lithospheric experiments) based on experiments performed in Central Europe in the past decades. Given the amount and the different nature/resolution of the available constraints, one of the most challenging tasks of this study was to consistently combine them. Our goal was to find a trade-off between all local and regional data sets available in a way that preserves as many structural details as possible and summarizes those data sets into a single robust regional model. The resulting P/T-dependent mantle densities are in LitMod 3-D calculated based on a given mineralogical composition. Therefore, they provide more reliable estimates compared to pure gravity models and enhance modelling of the crustal structures. Our results clearly indicate presence of several lithospheric domains characterized by distinct features, Pannonian Basin being one of the most outstanding ones. It has the thinnest crust and lithosphere in the area modelled, characterized by relatively fertile composition. Z. Alasonati Tašárová's research project was financed by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (project TA553/1-2); M. Bielik was funded by the

  19. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    In early June 2013, severe flooding hit Central and Eastern Europe, causing extensive damage, in particular along the Danube and Elbe main watersheds. The situation was particularly severe in Eastern Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Based on the Post Event Review Capability (PERC) approach, developed by Zurich Insurance's Flood Resilience Program to provide independent review of large flood events, we examine what has worked well (best practice) and opportunities for further improvement. The PERC overall aims to thoroughly examine aspects of flood resilience, flood risk management and catastrophe intervention in order to help build back better after events and learn for future events. As our research from post event analyses shows a lot of losses are in fact avoidable by taking the right measures pre-event and these measures are economically - efficient with a return of 4 Euro on losses saved for every Euro invested in prevention on average (Wharton/IIASA flood resilience alliance paper on cost benefit analysis, Mechler et al. 2014) and up to 10 Euros for certain countries. For the 2013 flood events we provide analysis on the following aspects and in general identify a number of factors that worked in terms of reducing the loss and risk burden. 1. Understanding risk factors of the Central European Floods 2013 We review the precursors leading up to the floods in June, with an extremely wet May 2013 and an atypical V-b weather pattern that brought immense precipitation in a very short period to the watersheds of Elbe, Donau and partially the Rhine in the D-A-CH countries and researched what happened during the flood and why. Key questions we asked revolve around which protection and risk reduction approaches worked well and which did not, and why. 2. Insights and recommendations from the post event review The PERC identified a number of risk factors, which need attention if risk is to be reduced over time. • Yet another "100-year flood" - risk

  20. Comparative ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of energy and mass in a European Russian and a central Siberian bog II. Interseasonal and interannual variability of CO2 fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneth, A.; Kolle, O.; Lloyd, J.; Schulze, E.D.; Kurbatova, J.; Vygodskaya, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    Net ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CO 2 (NEE) was measured in two boreal bogs during the snow-free periods of 1998, 1999 and 2000. The two sites were located in European Russia (Fyodorovskoye), and in central Siberia (Zotino). Climate at both sites was generally continental but with more extreme summer-winter gradients in temperature at the more eastern site Zotino. The snow-free period in Fyodorovskoye exceeded the snow-free period at Zotino by several weeks. Marked seasonal and interannual differences in NEE were observed at both locations, with contrasting rates and patterns. Amongst the most important contrasts were: (1) Ecosystem respiration at a reference soil temperature was higher at Fyodorovskoye than at Zotino. (2) The diurnal amplitude of summer NEE was larger at Fyodorovskoye than at Zotino. (3) There was a modest tendency for maximum 24 h NEE during average rainfall years to be more negative at Zotino (-0.17 versus -0.15 mol/m 2 /d), suggesting a higher productivity during the summer months. (4) Cumulative net uptake of CO 2 during the snow-free period was strongly related to climatic differences between years. In Zotino the interannual variability in climate, and also in the CO 2 balance during the snow-free period, was small. However, at Fyodorovskoye the bog was a significant carbon sink in one season and a substantial source for CO 2 -C in the next, which was below-average dry. Total snow-free uptake and annual estimates of net CO 2 -C uptake are discussed, including associated uncertainties

  1. A comprehensive DNA barcode database for Central European beetles with a focus on Germany: adding more than 3500 identified species to BOLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrich, Lars; Morinière, Jérôme; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Hebert, Paul D N; Hausmann, Axel; Köhler, Frank; Balke, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Beetles are the most diverse group of animals and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. In many countries, they are well established for environmental impact assessment, but even in the well-studied Central European fauna, species identification can be very difficult. A comprehensive and taxonomically well-curated DNA barcode library could remedy this deficit and could also link hundreds of years of traditional knowledge with next generation sequencing technology. However, such a beetle library is missing to date. This study provides the globally largest DNA barcode reference library for Coleoptera for 15 948 individuals belonging to 3514 well-identified species (53% of the German fauna) with representatives from 97 of 103 families (94%). This study is the first comprehensive regional test of the efficiency of DNA barcoding for beetles with a focus on Germany. Sequences ≥500 bp were recovered from 63% of the specimens analysed (15 948 of 25 294) with short sequences from another 997 specimens. Whereas most specimens (92.2%) could be unambiguously assigned to a single known species by sequence diversity at CO1, 1089 specimens (6.8%) were assigned to more than one Barcode Index Number (BIN), creating 395 BINs which need further study to ascertain if they represent cryptic species, mitochondrial introgression, or simply regional variation in widespread species. We found 409 specimens (2.6%) that shared a BIN assignment with another species, most involving a pair of closely allied species as 43 BINs were involved. Most of these taxa were separated by barcodes although sequence divergences were low. Only 155 specimens (0.97%) show identical or overlapping clusters. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. THE ANALYTICAL INSIGHT INTO CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF QUALITY DETERMINANTS OF THE E-COMMERCE MODEL BUSINESS-TO-CONSUMER SUBJECTS IN THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Bačík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to describe the specific aspects of the e-commerce model business-to-consumer as a constantly developing field of an economic life in the Central European countries according to their customers. The current state of e-business and business-to-consumer e-commerce issue was identified by the research in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia.Methodology/Approach: For the purposes of collecting primary data the crucial factor for the selection of e-shops was identification of the suitable  online portals focused on post-purchase evaluation of e-shops in Visegrad group countries. Automatic data collection method was used for the observed variables (evaluations within selected online portals of the identified e-shops. The total of 5,228,127 evaluations of 9,260 e-shops were analysed. The main focus was given to customer overall satisfaction with an e-shop in relation to communication with a customer or overall satisfaction with an e-shop and delivery quality.Findings: The results of the research showed that there exists a direct relation between overall satisfaction with an e-shop and communication with customers or overall satisfaction with an e-shop and delivery quality.Originality/Value of paper: The ambition of this paper through the findings is to help subjects of e-commerce in their marketing decisions in order to even better understand the factors that influence customers’ satisfaction. 

  3. Barriers to access to opioid medicines for patients with opioid dependence: a review of legislation and regulations in eleven central and eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Radbruch, Lukas; Scholten, Willem; Lisman, John A; Subataite, Marija; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    2017-06-01

    Barriers linked to drug control systems are considered to contribute to inequitable access to controlled medicines, leaving millions of people in pain and suffering. Most studies focus on access to opioids for the treatment of severe (cancer) pain. This study aims to identify specific access barriers for patients with opioid dependence in legislation and regulations of 11 central and eastern European countries. This study builds on a previous analysis of legislation and regulations as part of the EU 7th Framework Access To Opioid Medication in Europe (ATOME) project. An in-depth analysis was undertaken to determine specific barriers for patients with opioid dependence in need of opioid analgesics or opioid agonist therapy (OAT). For each country, the number and nature of specific potential barriers for these patients were assessed according to eight categories: prescribing; dispensing; manufacturing; usage; trade and distribution; affordability; penalties; and other. An additional keyword search was conducted to minimize the omission of barriers. Barriers in an additional category, language, were recorded qualitatively. Countries included Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Turkey. Ten of the 11 countries (all except Estonia) showed specific potential barriers in their legislation and regulations. The total number of barriers varied from two (Slovenia) to 46 (Lithuania); the number of categories varied from one (Slovenia) to five (Lithuania). Most specific potential barriers were shown in the categories 'prescribing', 'usage' and 'other'. The total number in a single category varied from one to 18 (Lithuania, prescribing). Individual differences between countries in the same specific potential barrier were shown; for example, variation in minimum age criteria for admission to OAT ranging from 15 (Lithuania, in special cases) to 20 years (Greece). All countries had stigmatizing language in their legislation

  4. Genome-wide association study and genetic diversity analysis on nitrogen use efficiency in a Central European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Monostori

    Full Text Available To satisfy future demands, the increase of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. yield is inevitable. Simultaneously, maintaining high crop productivity and efficient use of nutrients, especially nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, are essential for sustainable agriculture. NUE and its components are inherently complex and highly influenced by environmental factors, nitrogen management practices and genotypic variation. Therefore, a better understanding of their genetic basis and regulation is fundamental. To investigate NUE-related traits and their genetic and environmental regulation, field trials were evaluated in a Central European wheat collection of 93 cultivars at two nitrogen input levels across three seasons. This elite germplasm collection was genotyped on DArTseq® genotypic platform to identify loci affecting N-related complex agronomic traits. To conduct robust genome-wide association mapping, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium were examined. Population structure was investigated by various methods and two subpopulations were identified. Their separation is based on the breeding history of the cultivars, while analysis of linkage disequilibrium suggested that selective pressures had acted on genomic regions bearing loci with remarkable agronomic importance. Besides NUE, genetic basis for variation in agronomic traits indirectly affecting NUE and its components, moreover genetic loci underlying response to nitrogen fertilisation were also determined. Altogether, 183 marker-trait associations (MTA were identified spreading over almost the entire genome. We found that most of the MTAs were environmental-dependent. The present study identified several associated markers in those genomic regions where previous reports had found genes or quantitative trait loci influencing the same traits, while most of the MTAs revealed new genomic regions. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat

  5. Credit risk determinants in Sub-Saharan banking systems: Evidence from five countries and lessons learnt from Central East and South East European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftychia Nikolaidou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have grown notably over the past decades due to benign macroeconomic, regulatory and financial trends. Nonetheless, downside risks remain elevated by structural issues, commodity price fluctuations, reversal of capital flows and spill-over effects from external shocks in a manner similar to the Central East and South East European (CESEE countries. In the light of the 2008–2009 Global Financial Crisis, great attention has been given to understanding the causes of banking instability with most of the research focusing on advanced economies and, to a lesser extent, large emerging markets while little attention has been paid to the bank-based financial sectors of Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, there is scarcity of studies aiming at knowledge-sharing among different emerging economies. This paper aims to identify the determinants of bank credit risk by focusing on five SSA countries: Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Uganda. Using the ARDL approach to cointegration, findings indicate that increased money supply conditions have a decreasing effect on NPLs in all counties, banking industry-specific variables play a significant role in the case of South Africa and Uganda while NPLs are driven by country-specific variables in the case of Kenya, South Africa and Zambia. The effect of the Global Financial Crisis is evidenced indirectly. Drawing on evidence from CESEE countries with long experience in banking crises, reforms and financial deepening process, the paper provides lessons for SSA countries and offers policy recommendations in the direction of strengthening banks’ balance sheets to ensure financial stability.

  6. Towards a stakeholders' consensus on patient payment policy: the views of health-care consumers, providers, insurers and policy makers in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2015-08-01

    Although patient charges for health-care services may contribute to a more sustainable health-care financing, they often raise public opposition, which impedes their introduction. Thus, a consensus among the main stakeholders on the presence and role of patient charges should be worked out to assure their successful implementation. To analyse the acceptability of formal patient charges for health-care services in a basic package among different health-care system stakeholders in six Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine). Qualitative data were collected in 2009 via focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health-care consumers, providers, policy makers and insurers. The same participants were asked to fill in a self-administrative questionnaire. Qualitative and quantitative data are analysed separately to outline similarities and differences in the opinions between the stakeholder groups and across countries. There is a rather weak consensus on patient charges in the countries. Health policy makers and insurers strongly advocate patient charges. Health-care providers overall support charges but their financial profits from the system strongly affects their approval. Consumers are against paying for services, mostly due to poor quality and access to health-care services and inability to pay. To build consensus on patient charges, the payment policy should be responsive to consumers' needs with regard to quality and equity. Transparency and accountability in the health-care system should be improved to enhance public trust and acceptance of patient payments. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Early Childhood in Central and Eastern Europe: Issues and Challenges. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood. UNESCO Education Sector Monograph No. 13/2000. First Central and Eastern European Early Childhood Care and Development Meeting (Budapest, Hungary, October 24-28, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korintus, Marta

    This document is comprised of the proceedings from the first Central and Eastern European Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) meeting in Budapest, Hungary, October 24-28, 1999, convened to begin the development of an ECCD network in the region to address the similar needs and concerns of children in these countries. Following an…

  8. Household appliance data collection and market survey in central and eastern european countries; Raccolta dati e analisi del mercato sugli apparecchi elettrodomestici nei paesi dell'Europa centrale e orientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presutto, M. [ENEA, Funzione Centrali Studi, Centro Ricerche Ispra, Vercelli (Italy); Ricci, A. [Istituto di Studi per l' Integrazione dei Sistemi, Rome (Italy); Meli, L. [ANIE, Federazione delle Imprese Elettrotecniche ed Elettroniche, International Affaires Direction, Milan (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Since 1995 the European Commission, through the SAVE programme, and the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations, through the Energy Efficiency 2000 Project, jointly sponsored the so called SACHA projects in Central and Eastern European Countries regarding major household appliances. Consistently, the main objective of the projects was to analyse and interpret the situation of refrigerators, freezers and washing machines in seven CEEC, so as to increase the knowledge and understanding of the issues at stake in the area of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness, and therefore to identify possible scenarios of improvement. This paper describes the work accomplished and the results achieved in this context, focusing more on the data collection and market survey moments and illustrates, with an abundant series of exhibits, the quantitative picture resulting form the analyses carried out. Possibility exists for replication in Latin America, where ENEA and Italian experience could be fruitfully applied. Reliable and complete information is in fact one of the prerequisites to overcome potential barriers and facilitate a successful enforcement of any energy efficiency policy. Effective implementation and regional harmonisation are necessary, even if projects can facilitate the fulfilment of these goals as it provides a consolidated methodology and an integrated scheme for basic data collection and analysis. [Italian] A partire dal 1995 la Commissione Europea e la Commissione Economica per l'Europa delle Nazioni Unite hanno congiuntamente promosso lo studio dei piu' importanti apparecchi domestici nei paesi dell'Europa centrale ed orientale. Principale obiettivo di questi progetti, piu' noti come progetti con SACHA, dall'acronimo del titolo, era analizzare e soprattutto interpretare la situazione dei frigoriferi, congelatori e lavatrici in sette PECO, per migliorare da un lato la conoscenza e la comprensione delle problematiche

  9. Eine neue Rolle für die Europäische Zentralbank? Anmerkungen zu einem spezifisch Deutschen Konflikt. A new role for the European Central Bank? Remarks on a special German conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlev Ehrig

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent European debt crisis has generated a growing importance of the ECB. The central bank was forced to take measures far beyond its traditional role to stabilize monetary markets and inflation. The European central bank has adopted a new function as lender of last resort, providing banks and governments with almost unlimited liquidity. The new and unconventional monetary policy has been hotly debated. In Germany the debate even reached the Constitutional Court. The article will give a survey of the debate referring to the arguments of the ECB versus Deutsche Bundesbank. It is indeed questionable whether the ECB has a mandate for its new role in monetary and by the way also fiscal policy. Whatever the arguments are convincing, new steps towards fiscal arrangements and a deeper political cooperation are needed to stabilize the euro area.

  10. Novel use of magnetic biochars for the remediation of soils contaminated by contaminants of emerging concerns (CECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Badruddeen; Mrozik, Wojciech; Werner, David

    2016-04-01

    The advantage of using magnetic biochar over nonmagnetic biochar in amendments of contaminated soils is in the fact that the former can be easily removed from the soil matrix whenever the need arises, using simple principles of magnetism. In this study, magnetic biochar was produced using a simple co-precipitation technique. The resulting composite has about 33% (w/w) magnetic iron oxides, the presence of which resulted in modification of the biochar's surface characteristics such as BET surface area, porosity and point of zero charge. Modifications in these properties will most likely alter the CEC sorption properties of the biochar, hence the necessity for the proper evaluation of the possible trade off that exist between the need for magnetisation and altered sorption characteristics of the biochar. To achieve this, bottle point sorption experiments in aqueous solutions were conducted using activated and non-activated biochars in magnetic and nonmagnetic forms as sorbents and two pharmaceuticals -ibuprofen and diclofenac- as representative CECs. Sorption isotherms were evaluated and the data was fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Dubinin-Ashtakov and Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes isotherm models. Removal efficiencies and sorption capacities correlated well with the effective mass of pristine biochar used, therefore the sorption characteristics of both magnetic and nonmagnetic biochars are not detrimentally affected by the magnetite impregnation. Biochars in activated form show superior sorption capacities due to amplified surface area and better developed pores. Also, non-activated biochars needed to be used in higher amounts to achieve considerable level of CEC removal, thus they are more easily exhausted. Sorption was observed to decrease with a corresponding increase in solution pH. This suggests that sorption is favoured within the acidic pH range when the surfaces of the sorbents have net positive charge and the sorbates are in their neutral forms.

  11. Commission of the European Communities: Review of fast reactor activities performed during 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1991-01-01

    In the field of fast reactors the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) is conducting coordination and harmonization activities at the Brussels headquarters and performing research in its Joint Research Center. The Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee (FRCC) is performing coordination and harmonization activities taking account of the collaboration agreements within the European Fast Reactor (EFR) context. Since the EFR collaboration does not involve all Member States of the European Community the FRCC should establish a link between the EFR countries and other countries. The FRCC discussed R and D activities suitable for a concerted action in a community frame. The Committee also discussed actinide transmutation aspects in LMFBRs. The discussions were based on the results of a study sponsored by the CEC to assess the characteristics of a large core (3600 MWth) with variable actinide content (3-15%). The FRCC received regularly reports on results from current R and D programmes, especially from those related to EFR. (author). 2 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Indicative properties on snow cover based on the results of experimental studies in the winter 2011/12 in the central part of the East European Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kitaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and regional differences in the snow formation were studied in different landscapes of the central part of the East European Plain – within reserves in the Moscow and Tver’ regions (south-north direction; the study period is the winter 2011/12. The observed increase of snow storage in 1.3–1.5 times in the direction south-north is connected, apparently. The difference in the five-day appearance of snow cover maximum is related to differences in regional winter air temperature. Throughout the snow depth and snow storage in spruce are smaller than in deciduous forest – in the ratio of 0.81 in south area and 0.93 in north area; in spruce the large part of solid precipitation is intercepted by the crowns pine trees. Snow stratigraphy at south areas has four layers, six layers at the north area are more variable in snow density and snow storage. Perhaps, gravitational conversion is more noticeable due to larger snow depth. Snow density and snow storage at the open areas are more heterogeneous than in the forest. This is due to sharp fluctuations in air temperature, wind transport and compaction of snow, evaporation from the snow surface. The stratigraphy of snow also reflects the history of winter changes of air temperature and snow accumulation. Common feature for reserves at south and north is the availability of layers with maximum snow storage in the middle of the snow thickness, which were formed during the air temperature drops to the lowest seasonal values in period with increase of snow depth to maximum. Formation of depth hoar in snow thickness are touched everywhere the bottom and middle layers, respectively, it was formed both before and during the period with minimal air temperature. Thus, the results of experimental studies confirm the significance of the differences of individual components of the landscape setting. Analytical conclusions are largely qualitative in nature due to the lack to date of initial information, and

  13. Modelling of the transfer of CS-137 from air to crops, milk, beef and human body following the Chernobyl accident, in a location in Central Bohemia. Test of the model PRYMA T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, E.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Suanez, A.; Robles, B. Simon, I.; Cancio, D.

    1994-01-01

    This work was made in the frame of the research programme on validation of models for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments. The acronym of this programme is VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) and is coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). The scenario was named CB and was presented by the Multiple Pathway Working group. The scenario description was at the beginning a blind test, that is without knowing the location or the measured concentrations and doses. The input information included data of contamination in Cs-137 from the Chernobyl accident in Central Europe, in air and soils and more description of the scenario (data about crops, cattele, demography, human diet, etc.). The aim of the exercise was the contrast between model results and between observed data and model predictions. In this work the results obtained by the CIEMAT-IMA group of modelers are shown and discussed

  14. Estátuas, um mysterium tremendum, em Cecília Meireles e Dora Ferreira da Silva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enivalda Nunes Freitas e Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aproxima a temática da estatuária nas poéticas de Dora Ferreira da Silva e Cecília Meireles, explorando o simbolismo da pedra relacionado à morte e a alma das coisas na forma fria das estátuas. Nos poemas dessas autoras, as imitações da pedra evocam o mysterium tremendum. Mensageiras do sagrado intocável que incita e invade o reino dos mortais, as estátuas parecem resistir à vida aprisionada no mármore com seu tanto de terrífico e fascinante que ponteia o divino e o humano. Daí a recorrência das poetas a esse simbolismo – que imita a vida sem ter vida – como uma forma de diminuir a intensidade de um mistério que só os deuses conhecem, o sentido da eternidade.Palavras-chave: Poesia brasileira; Cecília Meireles; Dora Ferreira da Silva; Estatuária; Mysterium tremendum.

  15. Preparation of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane based hybrid monoliths by ring-opening polymerization for capillary LC and CEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Zhang, Zhenbin; Dong, Jing; Liu, Zhongshan; Ou, Junjie; Zou, Hanfa

    2013-09-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid monolith was prepared by the ring-opening polymerization of octaglycidyldimethylsilyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) with 1,4-butanediamine (BDA) using 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol, and PEG 10,000 as a porogenic system. Benefiting from the moderate phase separation process, the resulting poly(POSS-co-BDA) hybrid monolith possessed a uniform microstructure and exhibited excellent performance in chromatographic applications. Neutral, acidic, and basic compounds were successfully separated on the hybrid monolith in capillary LC (cLC), and high column efficiencies were achieved in all of the separations. In addition, as the amino groups could generate a strong EOF, the hybrid monolith was also applied in CEC for the separation of neutral and polar compounds, and a satisfactory performance was obtained. These results demonstrate that the poly(POSS-co-BDA) hybrid monolith is a good separation media in chromatographic separations of various types of compounds by both cLC and CEC. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Progress report of the CEC project Rodos system development. Period: 1 september 92-31 august 93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, O.

    1994-01-01

    Within the context of the Radioprotection program of the CEC, the RODOS project (Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support system) aims at the development of a decision support system for nuclear emergencies. RODOS involves 22 research teams, divided in 4 sub-projects: 'Meteorology and Atmospheric Dispersion, 'System Development', 'Decision Aiding Techniques'. The fourth sub-project is a Joint Study Project of the Agreement between CEC ad the CIS republics. EDF is working in the 'System Development' sub-project and namely in the 'training' group. This group aims at the creation of a specific training course for health physics managers, based on RODOS. This note reproduces the progress report of the 'Development System' project. The reporting period is: September 92 - August 93. Progress bas been made within the reporting period in the: - development of data assimilation methods incorporating both monitoring data and model predictions for obtaining consistent pictures of the environmental contamination and the source term ; - improvement and extension of the modules ATSTEP-CORA (atmospheric dispersion and deposition), EMERSIM (simulation of emergency actions), ECOAMOR (exposure pathways and dose calculation) and FRODO (simulation of relocation and agricultural countermeasures) ; - preparation of training courses using RODOS as illustrative tool ; - extension of the functions of the RODOS operating system OSY, in particular of RoGIS, its geographical information system. (author). 2 figs

  17. The radioactive waste management program of the C.E.C. Achievements, planning and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Orlowski, S.

    1986-01-01

    The achievements of twelve years of waste management research, carried out by shared-cost actions with laboratories of member countries of the European Communities and by direct research at its Joint Research Center are being reviewed. Activities were essentially directed to reach three goals: (a) to develop the necessary waste treatment and conditioning technologies, (b) to study disposal concepts in various types of geological formations in the European Community, (c) to address problems connected with their implementation such as safety assessment, quality assurance, financing, etc., which are particularly suited to the Community framework. Planning and perspectives for the next decade are also given. Implementation and optimization of concepts presently under development is indicated as the prevailing objective

  18. Measuring networks for environmental radioactivity monitoring in the European Community, - a pattern of diversity as varying as the peoples?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1991-01-01

    A new study entitled 'Monitoring of Environmental Radioactivity in the European Community', (RAES, 90), shows a survey of the methods currently applied in every country. The study compiles available quality assurance programs and makes suggestions for CEC initiatives. The study refers to the current practice of monitoring in European countries as 'enormous diversity of methods' in member countries. Further suggestions for standardization of the data measuring networks are put forward by a manufacturer of monitoring equipment. (orig./DG) [de

  19. Catalogue of European earthquakes and an atlas of European seismic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gils, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Catalogue of European earthquakes and an atlas of European seismic maps has been prepared in the framework of the activities of the CEC Working Group on the safety of ligh-water reactors. Seismic hazards are considered to be an important element of possible external accidents to be taken into account in the design, construction, and operation of nuclear power plants. The report relies on the data base available, the historical as well as the present-day data. After a short historical review, actually-used intensity scales are discussed. The scale applied in European countries and the one proposed in the United States of America are compared. The different seismic maps of interest are explained and a mathematical procedure presented which allows, under certain conditions, to draw seismic maps by computer facilities

  20. Um estudo das edições de Ou isto ou aquilo, de Cecília Meireles A study of Cecília Meirelles' Ou isto ou aquilo editions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sandra de Almeida Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Localizar em sua materialidade a obra Ou isto ou aquilo, de Cecília Meireles, em suas edições - 1964; 1969; 1977; 1987; 1990; 2002 -; cotejá-las para compreender as formas pelas quais os textos são apresentados aos seus leitores, em diferentes tempos; e indagar como e por que essas formas são pensadas e concretizadas são desafios deste artigo. Esta pesquisa de cunho exploratório, à luz, principalmente, dos estudos da História Cultural, privilegia, no exame das diferentes edições, as partes externas que envolvem os poemas (o texto propriamente dito e suas ilustrações. Identifica e discute a produção de sentidos e valores ligados à educação do leitor, ao reconhecimento de uma escritora consagrada pela tradição literária, à singularidade da linguagem, à importância de uma prática prazerosa da leitura.This article brings the challenges of locating Cecília Meireles' book Ou isto ou aquilo (Either this or that in its materialness, with considerations on its 1964, 1969, 1977, 1987, 1990 and 2002 editions, as well as comparing these editions in order to understand the forms in which texts are presented to their readers at different times, and questioning how and why these forms are conceived and put into practice. In the light of studies on cultural history, in the analysis of the different editions, this exploratory research prioritizes the external parts that involve poems (the texts themselves and their illustrations. It provides identification and a discussion on the production of senses and values related to readers' education, the recognition of a writer who is consecrated by literary tradition, the uniqueness of the language used, and the importance of pleasant reading practice.

  1. The CEC contribution to radioactive waste management, decommissioning and related radiation protection issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finzi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities has, for more than 15 years, supported Research and Development (R and D) programmes on ''Radioactive Waste Management'' (since 1975) as well as on ''Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations'' (since 1979), which are carried out by research laboratories, universities, public organisations and private companies of the EC Member states, under shared-cost contracts. Under these contracts, the Commission of the European Communities generally funds up to 50% of the total cost of a research project. The main objective of the ''Radioactive Waste Management Programme'' is to ensure the safety of the waste management and disposal systems with the goal that the scientific and technological results can be used in practice on industrial scale with full respect for safety and environmental protection requirements. Studies have been performed on three main components of the radioactive waste management system, (i) the waste packages, (ii) the geological repository and (iii) the performance assessment, either through experiments or by theoretical evaluation. The current programme which has two main components, one on waste management, the other on the construction and operation of underground storage facilities, is discussed. (author)

  2. Maria Cecília Puntel de Almeida: builder of bridges between Nursing and Public Health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scochi, Maria José; Mishima, Silvana Martins; Peduzzi, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Professor Maria Cecília Puntel de Almeida (1944-2009) built a professional and academic career of which the main feature was her attempt to create and strengthen the interface between Nursing and Public Health in Brazil. From the beginning of her career she recognized this connection and understood the complexity of health problems and peoples' needs when seeking care. Her commitment took the form of both scientific output and also her contributions to the various fields in which she worked. As well as her contribution to the concept of the work process of nursing, she contributed to thinking on health practices and multi-professional training in the construction of a differentiated body of knowledge, which she approached from the perspective of the struggle for democracy in health and understanding of this as a right of citizenship.

  3. A review of the status of nuclear safety in the Central and East European Countries with special reference to the evaluation of the situation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Simon

    2001-01-01

    This paper briefly presents the status of nuclear safety in the candidate countries in the light of the progress towards accession to the European Union, and draws particular attention to the recent evaluation made by the Atomic Questions Group of the Council of Ministers by reference to the general recommendations and the specific recommendations addressed to Romania appearing in the evaluation report. (author)

  4. Programme on radioactive waste management of the C.E.C.: orientations, motivations, organization and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities favours the development of nuclear energy to contribute to the solution of the energy problems. The Commission favours also the development of a complete nuclear fuel cycle including reprocessing and fast breeders. Thus the Commission is interested in the setting-up of effective solutions to problems of radioactive waste management. The Commission is operating by means of a Direct Action Programme, developed in the Joint Research Centre, and of an Indirect Action Programme, developed under contracts with national laboratories and industries. The programmes of the Commission cover all of the most important aspects of radioactive waste conditioning and disposal. The Commission is operating in strict connection with international organizations; collaboration agreements are in preparation with non-Community countries. The Plan of Action (1980 to 1992) in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management, recently approved by the Council, entrusts to the Commission a wider role in the implementation of the waste management policies

  5. The on-line European Community urgent radiological information exchange (ECURIE) information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cort, M.; Breitenbach, L.; De Vries, G.

    1998-01-01

    Immediately after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP, both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) set up a system to meet the requirements for early warning and exchange of information. The Environment Institute of the CEC JRC-Ispra provides technical assistance for the European community Urgent Radiological Information Exchange system (ECURIE). By this system, Member State contact points can exchange information in a coded format. In order to facilitate the use and to assure the data quality, a Coding-Decoding Software (CDS) was developed in collaboration with the I.A.E.A. A new version, called CoDecS, is under development. An ECURIE data bank is under construction, which will automatically recognize and store incoming ECURIE messages. Further on, query and reporting software will be developed. The background objectives and the conceptual basis for the structure of the on-line information system is described. (author)

  6. The European community and its standardization efforts in medical informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheus, Rudy A.

    1992-07-01

    A summary of the CEN TC 251/4 ''Medical Imaging and Multi-Media'' activities will be given. CEN is the European standardization institute, TC 251 deals with medical informatics. Standardization is a condition for the wide scale use of health care and medical informatics and for the creation of a common market. In the last two years, three important categories-- namely, the Commission of the European Communities with their programs and the mandates, the medical informaticians through their European professional federation, and the national normalization institutes through the European committee--have shown to be aware of this problem and have taken actions. As a result, a number of AIM (Advanced Informatics in Medicine), CEC sponsored projects, the CEC mandates to CEN and EWOS, the EFMI working group on standardization, the technical committee of CEN, and the working groups and project teams of CEN and EWOS are working on the subject. On overview of the CEN TC 251/4 ''Medical Imaging and Multi-Media'' activities will be given, including their relation to other work.

  7. Exploring health, safety and environment in central and Eastern Europe: an introduction to the European Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and the Environment (ECOHSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M; Robson, M; Watterson, A; Woolfson, C

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of the European Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and the Environment (ECOHSE) at the University of Glasgow. ECOHSE recently has been designated a Thematic Network by the European Union which is providing administrative support through 2004. The de facto de-regulation that accompanied emergent capitalism in Eastern Europe created opportunities for exploitation of the work force. Voluntary efforts of a loose network of occupational and environmental health academics led to a series of yearly conferences to discuss these problems and the lack of research about them. Then, in 1999, a more formal organization was established at Glasgow to pursue continuity and funding. The first occupational and environmental health conference under ECOHSE was held last year in Lithuania, and selected presentations of that meeting are offered in this journal. A second ECOHSE conference will be held this fall in Romania.

  8. Depleted genetic variation of the European ground squirrel in Central Europe in both microsatellites and the major histocompatibility complex gene: implications for conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říčanová, Štěpánka; Bryja, Josef; Cosson, J.-F.; Gedeon, C.; Choleva, Lukáš; Ambros, M.; Sedláček, F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2011), s. 1115-1129 ISSN 1566-0621 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:European Science Foundation(XE) ConGen EX/1141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Souslik * Endangered species * Habitat fragmentation * DRB * MHC Class II Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2011

  9. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of leaf-spinning moths (Lepidoptera) feeding on Vaccinium uliginosum L. along an ecological gradient in central European peat bogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lozan, Aurel; Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef; Khalaim, A.; Rizzo, M. C.; Guerrieri, E.; Bezděk, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2010), s. 243-253 ISSN 0785-8760 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Grant - others:EU Synthesys(BE) GB-TAF-4159; European Science Foundation(BE) 1667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Vaccinium uliginosum L. Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.321, year: 2010

  10. Central obesity and risk for type 2 diabetes in Maori, Pacific and European young men in New Zealand. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight gain is associated with the incidence of Type 2 diabetes. Maori and Pacific people in New Zealand have a greater prevalence of obesity and Type 2 diabetes compared to NZ European people. We hypothesised that this difference is related to metabolic and fat distribution differences as previously demonstrated in a study of Polynesian and European women. Thirty healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18 and 27 years were selected for a wide range of fatness. Equal numbers, 10 in each group, self-identified as belonging to either the Maori, Pacific or European ethnic groups. Specific measurements undertaken included resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry; total energy expenditure over 14 days by the doubly-labelled water technique; total and regional body fat from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; anthropornetry (body mass index, skinfold thicknesses and girths); fat and carbohydrate utilisation from respiratory quotients and from carbon-13 analysis of expired breath; and dietary intake of macronutrients. Glucose tolerance, insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin, thyroid hormone, leptin and blood lipid determinations were also performed and HOMA and ISIO-120 indices calculated

  11. ALARA in European nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.; Croft, J.; Pfeffer, W.; Zeevaert, T.

    1995-01-01

    For over a decade the Commission of the European Community has sponsored research projects on the development and practical implementation of the Optimization principle, or as it is often referred to, ALARA. These projects have given rise to a series of successful international Optimization training courses and have provided a significant input to the periodic European Seminars on Optimization, the last one of which took place in April 1993. This paper reviews the approaches to Optimization that have development within Europe and describes the areas of work in the current project. The on-going CEC research project addresses the problem of ALARA and internal exposures, and tries to define procedures for ALARA implementation, taking account of the perception of the hazard as well as the levels of probability of exposure. The relationships between ALARA and work management, and ALARA and decommissioning of installations appear to be other fruitful research areas. Finally, this paper introduces some software for using ALARA decision aiding techniques and databases containing feed back experience developed in Europe

  12. ALARA in European nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, C. [CEPN, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Croft, J. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Pfeffer, W. [GRS, Koeln (Germany); Zeevaert, T. [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1995-03-01

    For over a decade the Commission of the European Community has sponsored research projects on the development and practical implementation of the Optimization principle, or as it is often referred to, ALARA. These projects have given rise to a series of successful international Optimization training courses and have provided a significant input to the periodic European Seminars on Optimization, the last one of which took place in April 1993. This paper reviews the approaches to Optimization that have development within Europe and describes the areas of work in the current project. The on-going CEC research project addresses the problem of ALARA and internal exposures, and tries to define procedures for ALARA implementation, taking account of the perception of the hazard as well as the levels of probability of exposure. The relationships between ALARA and work management, and ALARA and decommissioning of installations appear to be other fruitful research areas. Finally, this paper introduces some software for using ALARA decision aiding techniques and databases containing feed back experience developed in Europe.

  13. Risk of Central Nervous System Tumors in Children Related to Parental Occupational Pesticide Exposures in three European Case-Control Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Febvey, Olivia; Schüz, Joachim; Bailey, Helen D; Clavel, Jacqueline; Lacour, Brigitte; Orsi, Laurent; Lightfoot, Tracy; Roman, Eve; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Olsson, Ann

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors associated with parental occupational pesticide exposure. METHODS: We pooled three population-based case-control studies from France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Cases were children below 15

  14. Central nervous system involvement in mantle cell lymphoma : clinical features, prognostic factors and outcomes from the European Mantle Cell Lymphoma Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheah, C. Y.; George, A.; Gine, E.; Chiappella, A.; Kluin-Nelemans, H. C.; Jurczak, W.; Krawczyk, K.; Mocikova, H.; Klener, P.; Salek, D.; Walewski, J.; Szymczyk, M.; Smolej, L.; Auer, R. L.; Ritchie, D. S.; Arcaini, L.; Williams, M. E.; Dreyling, M.; Seymour, J. F.

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is uncommon, and the manifestations and natural history are not well described. We present the data on 57 patients with MCL who developed CNS involvement, from a database of 1396 consecutively treated patients at 14 institutions.

  15. On landscapes, maps and Upper Paleolithic lifestyles in the Central European corridor: The images of Pavlov and Předmostí

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, jaro (2017), s. 67-74 ISSN 0213-2095 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Central Europe * knowledge of the landscape * planning * Gravettian Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.ehu.eus/ojs/index.php/Veleia/article/view/18074

  16. Beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas: evidence of central European glacial refugia for a temperate forest mammal species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deffontaine, V.; Libois, R.; Kotlík, Petr; Sommer, R.; Nieberding, C.; Paradis, E.; Searle, J. B.; Michaux, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2005), s. 1727-1739 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP206/05/P032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : central Europe Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.301, year: 2005

  17. European Community initiatives and experience in scientific and technical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven, G [Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    1990-05-01

    Scientific and technical information (STI) is an increasingly important resource for R and D and industrial development. The rapid development of the market for electronic information and the increasing potential offered through new information technologies require new approaches for the collection and dissemination of STI. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in this area are reviewed. More recent CEC initiatives in the areas of biotechnology information and factual materials data banks have proved the need for international collaboration and for the implementation of infrastructural measures as a basis for such collaboration. The implementation of the EC Demonstrator Programme on materials property data systems has evaluated the potential of eleven European materials data banks against the market requirements and has helped to launch wide international collaboration. The concluding European workshop on materials data systems has developed a set of recommendations for future initiatives. These are shortly reviewed together with initial findings of a study aimed at developing a business plan for the establishment of a biotechnology information infrastructure for the bio-industries and research base in Europe. (author). 3 refs.

  18. European Community initiatives and experience in scientific and technical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven, G.

    1990-05-01

    Scientific and technical information (STI) is an increasingly important resource for R and D and industrial development. The rapid development of the market for electronic information and the increasing potential offered through new information technologies require new approaches for the collection and dissemination of STI. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in this area are reviewed. More recent CEC initiatives in the areas of biotechnology information and factual materials data banks have proved the need for international collaboration and for the implementation of infrastructural measures as a basis for such collaboration. The implementation of the EC Demonstrator Programme on materials property data systems has evaluated the potential of eleven European materials data banks against the market requirements and has helped to launch wide international collaboration. The concluding European workshop on materials data systems has developed a set of recommendations for future initiatives. These are shortly reviewed together with initial findings of a study aimed at developing a business plan for the establishment of a biotechnology information infrastructure for the bio-industries and research base in Europe. (author). 3 refs

  19. Probability estimates of heavy precipitation events in a flood-prone central-European region with enhanced influence of Mediterranean cyclones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, Jan; Picek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2007), s. 43-50 ISSN 1680-7340 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300420601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : extreme precipitation event * region al frequency analysis * Generalized Extreme Value distribution * Generalized Logistic distribution * central Europe * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology www.adv-geosci.net/12/43/2007/

  20. Participation in the international comparison of probabilistic consequence assessment codes organized by OECD/NEA and CEC. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.

    1994-02-01

    Probabilistic Consequence Assessment (PCA) methods are exploited not only in risk evaluation but also to study alternative design features, reactor siting recommendations and to obtain acceptable dose criteria by the radiation safety authorities. The models are programmed into computer codes for these kind of assessment. To investigate the quality and competence of different models, OECD/NEA and CEC organized the international code comparison exercise, which was participated by the organizations from 15 countries. There were seven codes participating in the exercise. The objectives of the code comparison exercise were to compare the results by the codes, to contribute to PCA code quality assurance, to harmonize the codes, to provide a forum for discussion on various approaches and to produce the report on the exercise. The project started in 1991 and the results of the calculations were completed in autumn 1992. The international report consists of two parts: the Overview Report for decision makers and the supporting detailed Technical Report. The results of the project are reviewed as an user of the ARANO-programme of VTT and trends of it's further development are indicated in this report. (orig.) (11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.)

  1. p-Phenylenediamine sensitization is more prevalent in central and southern European patch test centres than in Scandinavian: results from a multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruze, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Positive patch test reactions to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are common. PPD is used in oxidative hair dyes and is also present in dark henna temporary 'tattoos'. Cross-sensitization to other contact allergens may occur. Because subjects sensitized to PPD are at risk of clinically severe...... reactions upon hair dyeing, there is a need for 'current' prevalence data on PPD sensitization. OBJECTIVES: To compare PPD patch test results from dermatitis patients tested between 2003 and 2007 in 10 European patch test centres and to analyse the causes and determine relevance of positive PPD patch test...... reactions. MATERIALS: Patch testing was performed using PPD (1% free base in petrolatum from Trolab (Almirall Hermal GmbH, Reinbeck, Germany) or Chemotechnique (Malmö, Sweden), equivalent to 0.090 mg/cm(2) in the TRUE test from MEKOS Laboratories AS). Statistical analysis was performed using the chi...

  2. A satellite-based climatology (1989-2012) of lake surface water temperature from AVHRR 1-km for Central European water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The temperature of lakes is an important parameter for lake ecosystems influencing the speed of physio-chemical reactions, the concentration of dissolved gazes (e.g. oxygen), and vertical mixing. Even small temperature changes might have irreversible effects on the lacustrine system due to the high specific heat capacity of water. These effects could alter the quality of lake water depending on parameters like lake size and volume. Numerous studies mention lake water temperature as an indicator of climate change and in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements it is listed as an essential climate variable. In contrast to in situ observations, satellite imagery offers the possibility to derive spatial patterns of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) and their variability. Moreover, although for some European lakes long in situ time series are available, the temperatures of many lakes are not measured or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyze time series which cover more than 20 years. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and on the Meteorological Operational Satellites (MetOp) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present the results from a study initiated by the Swiss GCOS office to generate a satellite-based LSWT climatology for the pre-alpine water bodies in Switzerland. It relies on the extensive AVHRR 1-km data record (1985-2012) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern (RSGB) and has been derived from the AVHRR/2

  3. European pain management discussion forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Harald

    2012-12-01

    Queries from European physicians about analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from the author are presented. Topics addressed in this issue pertain to epidural injection for painful central lumbar stenosis and epicondolysis.

  4. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  5. Comparative study between a ceramic evaporative cooler (CEC) and an air-source heat pump applied to a dwelling in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Francisco Javier Rey; Gomez, Eloy Velasco; Gonzalez, Ana Tejero [University of Valladolid, Dept. of Energy and Fluidmechanics, School of Engineering, Paseo del Cauce s/n, C. P. 47011, Valladolid (Spain); Murrieta, Fernando Enrique Flores [University of Quintana Roo, Science and Engineering Division, Blvd. Bahia s/n esq. I. Comonfort. Col. Del Bosque. 77019, Chetumal, Quintana Roo (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The study described in this paper aims to evaluate comparatively the interest of an implementation of a ceramic evaporative cooler (CEC) compared to the use of a conventional device such as an air-source heat pump. This comparison is presented in three closely related ways: energy consumption, environmental impact and economic costs. This analysis is based on the hypothetical cooling of a specific room in a dwelling in six Spanish cities, each characterised by a different climate. The behaviour of the CEC in each climate is determined experimentally, reproducing the typical air conditions by an air-treatment unit. The total cooling demand in each city during the summer months is obtained from the data of the thermal load evolution in the room, provided by thermal load calculation software. (author)

  6. The Fate of Atmospherically Derived Pb in Central European Catchments: Insights from Spatial and Temporal Pollution Gradients and Pb Isotope Ratios

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohdálková, Leona; Novák, M.; Štěpánová, M.; Foltová, D.; Chrastný, V.; Miková, J.; Kuběna, Aleš Antonín

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 8 (2014), s. 4336-4433 ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : AMBIENT AIR-QUALITY * LEAD BIOGEOCHEMISTRY * DEPOSITION TRENDS * NORTHERN ENGLAND * CENTRAL ONTARIO * FOREST SOILS * PEAT BOGS * WATERS * ELEMENT * METALS Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (UEK-B) Impact factor: 5.330, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/kubena-0433722.pdf

  7. CEC project Mirage - second phase on migration of radionuclides in the geosphere. Third (and final) summary progress report (work period 1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.

    1990-01-01

    A second phase of the Community coordinated project Mirage (migration of radionuclides in the geosphere) was launched in 1986. The present report brings together reviews of work done in the four research areas of this phase for 1989, and therefore constitutes an update of the previous reports, ref. EUR 11589 and 12229. This project is part of the CEC R and D programme on radioactive waste management (1985-89)

  8. Commissioning of the 112 MHz SRF Gun and 500 MHz bunching cavities for the CeC PoP Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belomestnykh, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Brutus, J. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Litvinenko, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); McIntosh, P. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Daresbury (United Kingdom). Daresbury Lab.; Moss, A. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Daresbury (United Kingdom). Daresbury Lab.; Narayan, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Orfin, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pinayev, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rao, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tuozzolo, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wheelhouse, A. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Daresbury (United Kingdom). Daresbury Lab.; Wu, Q. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xiao, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xin, T. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Xu, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The Coherent electron Cooling Proof-of-Principle (CeC PoP) experiment at BNL includes a short electron linac. During Phase 1, a 112 MHz superconducting RF photo-emission gun and two 500 MHz normal conducting bunching cavities were installed and are under commissioning. The paper describes the Phase1 linac layout and presents commissioning results for the cavities and associated RF, cryogenic and other sub-systems

  9. Key issues in european reactor seismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicognani, G.; Martelli, A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper focuses on the main problems which have arisen in FBR design in Europe due to seismic conditions. Its first part, derived from the final report of a CEC-Belgonucleaire study contract, clarifies how ''real'' is the seismic problem for each site. Then, the second and main part deals with the studies carried out in the european countries on the relevant subjects, typical of FBRs or related to specific needs of single FBRs: these studies, for which contributions were provided by ENEA, CEA, NNC and INTERATOM, concern mainly the numerical and experimental analysis of the core, the reactor vessel, the shut-down system and the reactor building of FBRs under construction or in advanced design phase. Attention is also paid to the studies started for future purposes, the feed-backs on the design due to seismic conditions, and the instructions for future reactors

  10. Significance, prospects and limits of breeding smoke-resistant tree species in the light of central European studies on the ecological effects of fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wentzel, K F

    1967-01-01

    Damage to tree stands in central Europe from atmospheric pollution will become more extensive with time, thus, the breeding of pollution-resistant tree species assumes increasing importance. Since no differences in resistance could be detected in individual pine trees by experiments, interest focused on spruce trees where such differences exist and were proven. But no spruce specimens were ever found which in resistance would have surpassed deciduous trees, whose regenerative power is a factor governing their considerable resistance to damge from pollution. Resistant spruce specimens were found to have comparatively massive needles, which also applies to other species of conifers. Thus there seems to be a connection between the anatomical structure of the needles and their degree of of hardiness in a polluted atmosphere. Breeding of relatively resistant spruce trees by selection was started in 1956 and the first planting experiments in polluted areas were carried out in 1960. This work is of great importance for the reafforestation of approximately 100,000 hectares h of forests in central Europe which are affected by chronic damage from pollution. Resistant spruce trees, under conditions of a mildly polluted atmosphere, should produce for 20 years longer than less resistant strains. In areas exposed to severe pollution, only deciduous trees should be planted.

  11. The radioisotopically constrained Viséan onset of turbidites in the Moravian-Silesian part of the Rhenohercynian foreland basin (Central European Variscides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirásek, Jakub; Otava, Jiří; Matýsek, Dalibor; Sivek, Martin; Schmitz, Mark D.

    2018-03-01

    The Březina Formation represents the initiation of siliciclastic flysch turbidite sedimentation at the eastern margin of Bohemian Massif or within the Rhenohercynian foreland basin. Its deposition started after drowning of the Devonian carbonate platform during Viséan (Mississippian) times, resulting in a significant interval of black siliceous shale and variegated fossiliferous shale deposition in a starved basin. Near the top of the Březina Formation an acidic volcanoclastic layer (tuff) of rhyolitic composition has been dated with high precision U-Pb zircon chemical abrasion isotope dilution method at 337.73 ± 0.16 Ma. This new radiometric age correlates with the previously inferred stratigraphic age of the locality and the current calibration of the Early Carboniferous geologic time scale. Shales of the Březina Formation pass gradually upwards into the siliciclastics of the Rozstání Formation of the Drahany culm facies. Thus our new age offers one of the few available radioisotopic constraints on the time of onset of siliciclastic flysch turbidites in the Rhenohercynian foreland basin of the European Variscides.

  12. The coupling algorithm between fuel pin and coolant channel in the European Accident Code EAC-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, G. van; Lassmann, K.

    1989-01-01

    In the field of fast breeder reactors the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) is conducting coordination and harmonisation activities as well as its own research at the CEC's Joint Research Centre (JRC). The development of the modular European Accident Code (EAC) is a typical example of concerted action between EC Member States performed under the leadership of the JRC. This computer code analyzes the initiation phase of low-probability whole-core accidents in LMFBRs with the aim of predicting the rapidity of sodium voiding, the mode of pin failure, the subsequent fuel redistribution and the associated energy release. This paper gives a short overview on the development of the EAC-2 code with emphasis on the coupling mechanism between the fuel behaviour module TRANSURANUS and the thermohydraulics modules which can be either CFEM or BLOW3A. These modules are also briefly described. In conclusion some numerical results of EAC-2 are given: they are recalculations of an unprotected LOF accident for the fictitious EUROPE fast breeder reactor which was earlier analysed in the frame of a comparative exercise performed in the early 80s and organised by the CEC. (orig.)

  13. Progress report of the 600 m borehole project of the CEC programme on management and storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.F.M.

    1991-07-01

    In the framework of the CEC Programme on Radioactive Waste Disposal (1990-1994), in situ experiments in salt deposits are conducted. The experimental results will be used to validate analytical techniques and computer models for prediction of salt behaviour. The experiments take place in the Asse II salt mine in Germany. Progress of the work during the first half of 1990 is reported. Convergence data measured during the first phase of the project will be reported in the final report of phase I, issued mid 1991. Convergence measurement devices have been removed from the borehole and are temporarily stored to be used in a new 600 m deep borehole to be drilled begin 1992. The experiment with the Variable Pressure Device (VPD) started March 1991. During first 2 months it has been shown that low pressure build-up due to convergence could not be registrated. The system, which is basically designed for higher depths and thus higher convergence rates, showed more hysteresis than expected on the applied pressure levels. The measuring programme defined earlier is therefore modified. It will be concentrated first on high pressure changes which are started July 1991. A preliminary conclusion of the first pressure step is that the in-situ measured elasticity of salt is significantly lower than elasticity measured in the laboratory on small samples. More detailed analysis of the measurement results and repeated pressure steps are necessary to verify this conclusion. The predictive analyses planned for the first half of 1991 could not be made since the measuring programme was modified. FE-analyses have been concentrated on interpretation of the measurement result during the first months. Influence of the heat production of the exothermally hardening salt concrete in the behaviour of the borehole is analysed in detail. Predictions of the modified measuring programme (topical report) will be reported later. (author). 4 refs.; 3 figs

  14. Maria Cecília Puntel de Almeida: a trajetória de uma protagonista da enfermagem brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Martins Mishima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo de reflexión tiene como objetivo relacionar la trayectoria de la Profa. Dra. Maria Cecília Puntel de Almeida con la historia más reciente de la enfermería, mostrando sus contribuciones para la comprensión de la enfermería como trabajo. En los últimos cuarenta años ha dedicado sus estudios y su práctica a la formación de investigadores en enfermería, a la construcción de la reforma sanitaria brasileña, a la consolidación de una perspectiva política de la enfermería brasileña en el proceso de construcción de una práctica de salud y de enfermería más democrática y a la formación de enfermeros involucrados en las transformaciones de las prácticas de enfermería y de los servicios de salud. Su producción constituye una demarcación de la enfermería como resultado y resultante de las relaciones históricas, sociales, económicas y culturales. Concluimos que su legado es producto y productor del movimiento de participación de la enfermería brasileña en luchas por la democracia y por la salud como derecho.

  15. The Europeanization of National Judiciaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaremba, Urszula; Mayoral, Juan A.

    2018-01-01

    judiciaries is still somewhat scattered and fragmented. The central ambition of this article is to provide a theoretical framework that would contribute to the understanding of Europeanization of judiciaries by: 1) offering a definition and theoretical developments useful for the study Europeanization and its......The article is underpinned by the idea that the national courts/judges are expected to act as decentralized European Union judges. However, the general knowledge concerning the impact of EU law on the functioning of national courts as EU judges and the process of Europeanization of national...

  16. Changes in the species inventory of the vegetation in a Central European city (Osnabrueck). Veraenderungen des Arteninventars der Vegetation in einer mitteleuropaeischen Grossstadt (Osnabrueck)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdieck, D.; Scheitenberger, A. (Osnabrueck Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Biologie/Chemie)

    1989-01-01

    From the Osnabrueck town area (within the borders of 1987) floristic and phytosociological lists and herbarical material of 23 authors and collectors were compared by means of the computer program dBASE III PLUS for the time span 1805-1987. Thus in total 10,789 findings were evaluated. In spite of increasing numbers of findings (+ 116%) only 42% of the number of these vascular plant species occurring until 1900 were still registered from 1959 to 1987. In gardens, agricultural areas, heaths, meagre grasslands, flat bogs and swampy areas the number of findings decreased. The indicator values of vascular plants in Central Europe showed the tendency for downtown soils to become drier, more acid and richer in nitrogen. One third of the species that vanished from the total species inventory of Osnabrueck until 1958 is not registered in the current 'red books'. 657 vascular plant species were documented for the Osnabrueck town area of 120 km{sup 2} from 1959 to 1987. (orig.).

  17. Practical decommissioning experience with nuclear installations in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skupinski, E.

    1993-01-01

    Initiated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), this seminar was jointly organized by Kernkraftwerke RWE Bayernwerk GmbH (KRB) and the CEC at Gundremmingen-Guenzburg (D), where the former KRB-A BWR is presently being dismantled. The meeting aimed at gathering a limited number of European experts for the presentation and discussion of operations, the results and conclusions on techniques and procedures presently applied in the dismantling of large-scale nuclear installations in the European Community. Besides the four pilot dismantling projects of the presently running third R and D programme (1989-93) of the European Community on decommissioning of nuclear installations (WAGR, BR-3 PWR, KRB-A BWR and AT-1 FBR fuel reprocessing), the organizers selected the presentation of topics on the following facilities which have a significant scale and/or representative features and are presently being dismantled: the Magnox reprocessing pilot plant at Sellafield, the HWGCR EL4 at Monts d'Arree, the operation of an on-site melting furnace for G2/G3 GCR dismantling waste at Marcoule, an EdF confinement conception of shut-down LWRs for deferred dismantling, and the technical aspects of the Greifswald WWER type NPPs decommissioning. This was completed by a presentation on the decommissioning of material testing reactors in the United Kingdom and by an overview on the conception and implementation of two EC databases on tools, costs and job doses. The seminar concluded with a guided visit of the KRB-A dismantling site. This meeting was attended by managers concerned by the decommissioning of nuclear installations within the European Community, either by practical dismantling work or by decision-making functions. Thereby, the organizers expect to have contributed to the achievement of decommissioning tasks under optimal conditions - with respect to safety and economics - by making available a complete and updated insight into on-going dismantling projects and by

  18. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  19. Estimating the tritium input to groundwater from wine samples: Groundwater and direct run-off contribution to Central European surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roether, W.

    1967-01-01

    A model is derived which allows a quantitative evaluation of wine tritium data. It is shown that the tritium content of a wine sample is not determined exclusively by water taken up by the roots, but is also influenced to a large extent by direct exchange with atmospheric moisture. The soil-water fraction amounts normally to not more than 40%. Thus, wine is a sample partly of atmospheric moisture at ground level, partly of soil moisture, integrated over a period around three weeks before vintage. The tritium content of two sets of wine samples originating from two selected sites in the Federal Republic of Germany and dating back to 1949 is reported. For the period since records of the tritium content of rain in Europe have become available comparisons of wine tritium with reported tritium activities of rain are in favour of the model outlined. The first distinguishable influence of bomb tritium shows up in the 1953 wine, whilst no detectable response to Castle tritium is found in 1954. By comparison with recorded rain activities at Ottawa, Canada, it is concluded that Castle influenced the tritium fall-out in Central Europe much less than it did at Ottawa. For the period before 1955 the tritium activity of the annual groundwater recharge, including pre-thermonuclear recharge in Central Europe, is estimated from the wine data. An estimation of the total assimilation of pre-thermonuclear tritium into the ocean at 50 degrees N is also given, which points to a value of 1-1.5 atoms/cm 2 s. It is shown that in further uses of pre-thermonuclear wines the possibility that samples have been contaminated by penetration of thermonuclear tritium through the bottle seals must be considered. The estimates of the tritium activities of groundwater recharge are based on the fact that in our climate the main contribution to groundwater is made up by autumn and winter precipitation. Because of this correlation with season the groundwater recharge is much lower in tritium than the

  20. Discrimination between acute and chronic decline of Central European forests using map algebra of the growth condition and forest biomass fuzzy sets: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samec, Pavel; Caha, Jan; Zapletal, Miloš; Tuček, Pavel; Cudlín, Pavel; Kučera, Miloš

    2017-12-01

    Forest decline is either caused by damage or else by vulnerability due to unfavourable growth conditions or due to unnatural silvicultural systems. Here, we assess forest decline in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) using fuzzy functions, fuzzy sets and fuzzy rating of ecosystem properties over a 1×1km grid. The model was divided into fuzzy functions of the abiotic predictors of growth conditions (F pred including temperature, precipitation, acid deposition, soil data and relative site insolation) and forest biomass receptors (F rec including remote sensing data, density and volume of aboveground biomass, and surface humus chemical data). Fuzzy functions were designed at the limits of unfavourable, undetermined or favourable effects on the forest ecosystem health status. Fuzzy sets were distinguished through similarity in a particular membership of the properties at the limits of the forest status margins. Fuzzy rating was obtained from the least difference of F pred -F rec . Unfavourable F pred within unfavourable F rec indicated chronic damage, favourable F pred within unfavourable F rec indicated acute damage, and unfavourable F pred within favourable F rec indicated vulnerability. The model in the 1×1km grid was validated through spatial intersection with a point field of uniform forest stands. Favourable status was characterised by soil base saturation (BS)>50%, BCC/Al>1, C org >1%, MgO>6g/kg, and nitrogen depositionforests had BS humus 46-60%, BCC/Al 9-20 and NDVI≈0.42. Chronic forest damage occurs in areas with low temperatures, high nitrogen deposition, and low soil BS and C org levels. In the Czech Republic, 10% of forests were considered non-damaged and 77% vulnerable, with damage considered acute in 7% of forests and chronic in 5%. The fuzzy model used suggests that improvement in forest health will depend on decreasing environmental load and restoration concordance between growth conditions and tree species composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  1. Diversity and biotic homogenization of urban land-snail faunas in relation to habitat types and macroclimate in 32 central European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsák, Michal; Lososová, Zdeňka; Čejka, Tomáš; Juřičková, Lucie; Chytrý, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of non-native species invasions on community diversity and biotic homogenization have been described for various taxa in urban environments, but not for land snails. Here we relate the diversity of native and non-native land-snail urban faunas to urban habitat types and macroclimate, and analyse homogenization effects of non-native species across cities and within the main urban habitat types. Land-snail species were recorded in seven 1-ha plots in 32 cities of ten countries of Central Europe and Benelux (224 plots in total). Each plot represented one urban habitat type characterized by different management and a specific disturbance regime. For each plot, we obtained January, July and mean annual temperature and annual precipitation. Snail species were classified into either native or non-native. The effects of habitat type and macroclimate on the number of native and non-native species were analysed using generalized estimating equations; the homogenization effect of non-native species based on the Jaccard similarity index and homogenization index. We recorded 67 native and 20 non-native species. Besides being more numerous, native species also had much higher beta diversity than non-natives. There were significant differences between the studied habitat types in the numbers of native and non-native species, both of which decreased from less to heavily urbanized habitats. Macroclimate was more important for the number of non-native than native species; however in both cases the effect of climate on diversity was overridden by the effect of urban habitat type. This is the first study on urban land snails documenting that non-native land-snail species significantly contribute to homogenization among whole cities, but both the homogenization and diversification effects occur when individual habitat types are compared among cities. This indicates that the spread of non-native snail species may cause biotic homogenization, but it depends on scale and

  2. Book Review: Diversity in European Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Machková

    2012-01-01

    The case book “Diversity in European Marketing” is the result of the scientific cooperation of the CEMS Marketing Faculty Group. Prestigious Central European Universities - Corvinius University of Budapest and University of Economic, Prague - are members of CEMS - the Global Alliance in Management Education of 26 leading business schools and 70 multinational companies. Four authors from these two Universities share in this book their experience of Central European Marketing specifics.

  3. Implications for behavior of volatile elements during impacts—Zinc and copper systematics in sediments from the Ries impact structure and central European tektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodovská, Zuzana; Magna, TomáÅ.¡; Žák, Karel; Kato, Chizu; Savage, Paul S.; Moynier, Frédéric; Skála, Roman; Ježek, Josef

    2017-10-01

    Moldavites are tektites genetically related to the Ries impact structure, located in Central Europe, but the source materials and the processes related to the chemical fractionation of moldavites are not fully constrained. To further understand moldavite genesis, the Cu and Zn abundances and isotope compositions were measured in a suite of tektites from four different substrewn fields (South Bohemia, Moravia, Cheb Basin, Lusatia) and chemically diverse sediments from the surroundings of the Ries impact structure. Moldavites are slightly depleted in Zn ( 10-20%) and distinctly depleted in Cu (>90%) relative to supposed sedimentary precursors. Moreover, the moldavites show a wide range in δ66Zn values between 1.7 and 3.7‰ (relative to JMC 3-0749 Lyon) and δ65Cu values between 1.6 and 12.5‰ (relative to NIST SRM 976) and are thus enriched in heavy isotopes relative to their possible parent sedimentary sources (δ66Zn = -0.07 to +0.64‰; δ65Cu = -0.4 to +0.7‰). In particular, the Cheb Basin moldavites show some of the highest δ65Cu values (up to 12.5‰) ever observed in natural samples. The relative magnitude of isotope fractionation for Cu and Zn seen here is opposite to oxygen-poor environments such as the Moon where Zn is significantly more isotopically fractionated than Cu. One possibility is that monovalent Cu diffuses faster than divalent Zn in the reduced melt and diffusion will not affect the extent of Zn isotope fractionation. These observations imply that the capability of forming a redox environment may aid in volatilizing some elements, accompanied by isotope fractionation, during the impact process. The greater extent of elemental depletion, coupled with isotope fractionation of more refractory Cu relative to Zn, may also hinge on the presence of carbonyl species of transition metals and electromagnetic charge, which could exist in the impact-induced high-velocity jet of vapor and melts.

  4. Modelling CEC variations versus structural iron reduction levels in dioctahedral smectites. Existing approaches, new data and model refinements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Jebril; Tournassat, Christophe; Ignatiadis, Ioannis; Greneche, Jean Marc; Charlet, Laurent

    2013-10-01

    tetrahedral bearing nontronites (SWa-1, GAN and NAu-1) all exhibit the same behaviour at low reduction levels. Consequently, we restricted our model to the case of moderate reduction (structure as a function of the amount of Fe reduction. Two equations enable the investigated systems to be described: p=m/(1+Kr·ω·mrel) and ni=Kr·ω·m·mrel/(1+Kr·ω·mrel); where m is the Fe(II) content, mrel, the reduction level (m/mtot), ω, the cation exchange capacity (CEC, and Kr, an empirical constant specific to the system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  6. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  7. Variation in whole DNA methylation in red maple (Acer rubrum) populations from a mining region: association with metal contamination and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in podzolic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalubi, K N; Mehes-Smith, M; Spiers, G; Omri, A

    2017-04-01

    Although a number of publications have provided convincing evidence that abiotic stresses such as drought and high salinity are involved in DNA methylation reports on the effects of metal contamination, pH, and cation exchange on DNA modifications are limited. The main objective of the present study is to determine the relationship between metal contamination and Cation exchange capacity (CEC) on whole DNA modifications. Metal analysis confirms that nickel and copper are the main contaminants in sampled sites within the Greater Sudbury Region (Ontario, Canada) and liming has increased soil pH significantly even after 30 years following dolomitic limestone applications. The estimated CEC values varied significantly among sites, ranging between 1.8 and 10.5 cmol(+) kg -1 , with a strong relationship being observed between CEC and pH (r = 0.96**). Cation exchange capacity, significantly lower in highly metal contaminated sites compared to both reference and less contaminated sites, was higher in the higher organic matter limed compared to unlimed sites. There was a significant variation in the level of cytosine methylation among the metal-contaminated sites. Significant and strong negative correlations between [5mdC]/[dG] and bioavailable nickel (r = -0.71**) or copper (r = -0.72**) contents were observed. The analysis of genomic DNA for adenine methylation in this study showed a very low level of [6N-mdA]/dT] in Acer rubrum plants analyzed ranging from 0 to 0.08%. Significant and very strong positive correlation was observed between [6N-mdA]/dT] and soil bioavailable nickel (r = 0.78**) and copper (r = 0.88**) content. This suggests that the increased bioavailable metal levels associated with contamination by nickel and copper particulates are associated with cytosine and adenine methylation.

  8. The CEC benchmark interclay on rheological models for clays results of pilot phase (January-June 1989) about the boom clay at Mol (B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.

    1990-01-01

    A pilot phase of a benchmark exercise for rheological models for boom clay, called interclay, was launched by the CEC in January 1989. The purpose of the benchmark is to compare predictions of calculations made about well-defined rock-mechanical problems, similar to real cases at the Mol facilities, using existing data from laboratory tests on samples. Basically, two approaches were to be compared: one considering clay as an elasto-visco-plastic medium (rock-mechanics approach), and one isolating the role of pore-pressure dissipation (soil-mechanics approach)

  9. Steam side corrosion-erosion monitoring and control improvements performed at the Kalinin NPP in the frame of the CEC Tacis'92 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The TACIS program (Technical Assistance to the Community of Independent States), funded by the CEC, is aimed at improving the reliability and safety of the VVER NPPs operation. The program consists of the following two phases: upgrading the on-line water chemistry monitoring and laboratory analytical equipment; implementation of generic studies to assess the corrosion risks in the steam side sensitive areas and to set-up the most appropriate strategy to monitor and to control the corrosion-erosion phenomena in the secondary side. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Cardiac mucosa at the gastro-oesophageal junction: indicator of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease? Data from a prospective central European multicentre study on histological and endoscopic diagnosis of oesophagitis (histoGERD trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Cord; Schneider, Nora I; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Schmack, Bertram; Bordel, Hartmut; Höfler, Bernd; Eherer, Andreas J; Wolf, Eva-Maria; Rehak, Peter; Vieth, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The origin and significance of cardiac mucosa at the gastro-oesophageal junction are controversial. In the prospective Central European multicentre histoGERD trial, we aimed to assess the prevalence of cardiac mucosa, characterized by the presence of glands composed of mucous cells without parietal cells, and to relate its presence to features related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). One thousand and seventy-one individuals (576 females and 495 males; median age 53 years) were available for analysis. Overall, in biopsy specimens systematically taken from above and below the gastro-oesophageal junction, cardiac mucosa was observed in 713 (66.6%) individuals. Its presence was associated with patients' symptoms and/or complaints (P = 0.0025), histological changes of the squamous epithelium (P gastro-oesophageal junction. Its association with reflux symptoms, histological changes indicating GORD and the endoscopic diagnosis of oesophagitis suggests that injury and repair related to GORD contribute to its development and/or expansion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  12. The role of employee share ownership for corporate governance\\ud in the aftermath of the financial crisis – a closer look at the\\ud Central Eastern European EU Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Lowitzsch, Jens; Hashi, Iraj; HASHANI, Alban

    2016-01-01

    Following a 2010 initiative opinion by the European Economic and Social\\ud Committee and a 2012 study on employee financial participation (EFP)\\ud commissioned by the European Parliament, in December 2012 the European\\ud Commission included the promotion of employee share ownership\\ud (ESO) in its Action Plan to reform European company law and corporate\\ud governance (European Commission, COM/2012/0740). This marks an extension\\ud in the perception of the issue of EFP in general and ESO in pa...

  13. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  14. The European project Trappist: transfer, processing and interpretation of 3D NDT data in a standard environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.; Nockemann, C.

    1994-01-01

    The European CEC-funded project TRAPPIST aims to provide the pre-requisites to combination of various NDT-methods. The key components to achieve this goal are a multi-method NDT standard data format and a platform-independent software environment. Another important feature is communication of both NDT data and expertise between remote workstations through state-of-the-art European ISDN broadband network. A full scale prototype is under development to demonstrate feasibility of this system. A survey on recent literature showing originality of the TRAPPIST features is included in the paper. (authors). 2 figs., 12 refs

  15. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  16. Lithuania eyeing Swedish, Central European grid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Leedu valitsus kordas, et ühendab Leedu elektrivõrgu Rootsi, Poola ja Tsehhi süsteemidega. Ka Soome elektrivõrk ühendatakse Balti riikidega. Tabel: Millistest allikatest tuleb Baltimaade elektrienergia

  17. Are Central European countries’ financial institutions embedded?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Hooijdonk, C.J.J. van

    2010-01-01

    The fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989 was one of the causes of an increased interest in the relation between economics and culture. An important idea of this literature is that social and economic systems will function properly if they are embedded in a corresponding value system. Although some

  18. Exchange rate risk in Central European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Poghosyan, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2010), s. 22-39 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/08/1376; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : foreign exchange risk * time-varying risk premium * stochastic discount factor Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.278, year: 2010 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1178_str_22_39_-_ko%C4%8Denda.pdf

  19. Molecular prey identification in Central European piscivores

    OpenAIRE

    Thalinger, Bettina; Oehm, Johannes; Mayr, Hannes; Obwexer, Armin; Zeisler, Christiane; Traugott, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diet analysis is an important aspect when investigating the ecology of fish?eating animals and essential for assessing their functional role in food webs across aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The identification of fish remains in dietary samples, however, can be time?consuming and unsatisfying using conventional morphological analysis of prey remains. Here, we present a two?step multiplex PCR system, comprised of six assays, allowing for rapid, sensitive and specific detection o...

  20. Nuclear safety and the European Community: Broadening perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkhorst, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    The European Community's activities in harmonizing of regulations and practices in the field of nuclear safety are described. The issues of aid to Central and Eastern European countries as well as of public information, within this context, are discussed