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Sample records for cebus

  1. Postconflict behaviour in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Cruz, Mónica G

    2009-01-01

    Postconflict affiliation has been mostly studied in Old World primates, and we still lack comparative research to understand completely the functional value of reconciliation. Cebus species display great variability in social characteristics, thereby providing a great opportunity for comparative studies. We recorded 190 agonistic interactions and subsequent postconflict behaviour in a captive group of brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Only 26.8% of these conflicts were reconciled. Reconciliation was more likely to occur between opponents that supported each other more frequently and that spent more time together. Postconflict anxiety was mostly determined by conflict intensity, and none of the variables thought to measure relationship quality had a significant effect on postconflict stress. PMID:19923844

  2. Analysis of the heterochromatin of Cebus (Primates, Platyrrhini) by micro-FISH and banding pattern comparisons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mariela Nieves; Edivaldo H. C. De Oliveira; Paulo J. S. Amaral; Cleusa Y. Nagamachi; Julio C. Pieczarka; María C. Mühlmann; Marta D. Mudry

    2011-04-01

    The karyotype of the neotropical primate genus Cebus (Platyrrhini: Cebidae), considered the most ancestral one, shows the greatest amount of heterochromatin described among Platyrrhini genera. Banding techniques and restriction enzyme digestion have previously revealed great variability of quantity and composition of heterochromatin in this genus. In this context, we use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to analyse this genomic region and discuss its possible role in the diversification of Cebus. We used a heterochromatin probe for chromosome 11 of Cebus libidinosus (11qHe+ CLI probe), obtained by chromosome microdissection. Twenty-six specimens belonging to the families Atelidae, Cebidae, Callitrichidae and Pithecidae (Platyrrhini) were studied. Fourteen out of 26 specimens were Cebus (Cebidae) individuals of C. libidinosus, C. xanthosternos, C. apella, C. nigritus, C. albifrons, C. kaapori and C. olivaceus. In Cebus specimens, we found 6 to 22 positive signals located in interstitial and telomeric positions along the different species. No hybridization signal was observed among the remaining Ceboidea species, thus reinforcing the idea of a Cebus-specific heterochromatin composed of a complex system of repetitive sequences.

  3. Chronic experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in Cebus apella monkeys

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    A. Riarte

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young male Cebus apella monkeys were infected with CAl Trypanosoma cruzi strain and reinfected with CA l or Tulahuen T.cruzi strains, with different doses and parasite source. Subpatent parasitemia was usually demonstrated in acute and chronic phases. Patent parasitemia was evident in one monkey in the acute phase and in four of them in the chronic phase after re-inoculations with high doses of CAl strain. Serological conversion was observed in all monkeys; titers were low, regardless of the methods used to investigate anti-T. cruzi specific antibodies. Higher titers were induced only when re-inoculations were perfomed with the virulent Tulahuén strain or high doses of CAl strain. Clinical electrocardiographic and ajmaline test evaluations did not reveal changes between infected and control monkeys. Histopathologically, cardiac lesions were always characterized by focal or multifocal mononuclear infiltrates and/or isolated fibrosis, as seen during the acute and chronic phases; neither amastigote nests nor active inflammation and fibrogenic processes characteristic of human acute and chronic myocarditis respectively, were observed. These morphological aspects more closely resemble those found in the "indeterminate phase" and contrast with the more diffuse and progressive pattern of the human chagasic myocarditis. All monkeys survived and no mortality was observed.

  4. Comparative anatomical analyses of the forearm muscles of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al. 2000: manipulatory behavior and tool use.

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    Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira

    Full Text Available The present study describes the flexor and extensor muscles in Cebus libidinosus' forearm and compares them with those from humans, chimpanzees and baboons. The data is presented in quantitative anatomical indices for similarity. The capuchin forearm muscles showed important similarities with chimpanzees and humans, particularly those that act on thumb motion and allow certain degree of independence from other hand structures, even though their configuration does not enable a true opposable thumb. The characteristics of Cebus' forearm muscles corroborate the evolutionary convergence towards an adaptive behavior (tool use between Cebus genus and apes.

  5. A STUDY OF ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF Cebus apella TEETH ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DO CANAL RADICULAR DE DENTES DE Cebus apella

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    Priscilla Rocha Afonso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo anatômico em dentes do Cebus apella, para análise da anatomia interna do canal radicular dessa espécie, normatizando seu uso como modelo experimental. Utilizaram-se doze animais adultos. Após a remoção do tecido orgânico, os dentes foram removidos, seccionados e fotografados, sendo analisados com um estereomicroscópio. Os resultados mostraram que os dentes apresentaram características semelhantes às dos seres humanos, mas com algumas peculiaridades, tais como: a anatomia do canal radicular variou de oval para circular; nos caninos inferiores, os canais são semelhantes a um rim, o que reflete o contorno externo da raiz; nos molares superiores, os canais mesiobucal e distobucal são ovais, seguindo o contorno geral do dente. Os autores concluem que esta espécie pode ser utilizada como modelo em pesquisas odontológicas, principalmente em estudos do tratamento do sistema de canal radicular.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, dentes, Cebus apella. An anatomic study of Cebus apella root teeth was performed to analyze the internal anatomy of permanent dentition, normalizing its use as experimental model endodontic research. Twelve adult animals were used in this study. After the removal of the organic tissue, the all teeth were removed, sectioned, analyzed and photographed with a stereomicroscope. The results showed that the anatomy of root canal of this species are similar to human dental anatomy, considering the shape, pathway and number of canals, but with some peculiarities, such as: the root canal anatomy varied from oval to circular; in the lower canines, the canals are resembled a kidney, reflecting the outside contour of the root; in the upper molars, the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals are oval, following the general contour of the tooth. The authors conclude that this primate can be applied as models for study of root canal treatment in human beings, in special the upper central and lateral incisors

  6. Social learning and behaviour transmission in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    OpenAIRE

    Dindo, Marietta

    2009-01-01

    The research aims of this thesis are to experimentally investigate how behaviours spread socially, and what factors contribute to the development of group-wide social traditions in capuchins (Cebus apella). Given the apparent convergent evolution between such monkeys and great apes, capuchin traditions are of great interest anthropologically and for a biological and psychological understanding of culture. Several studies have investigated social learning in capuchins, but ...

  7. Plasmid profile in oral Fusobacterium nucleatum from humans and Cebus apella monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Marcia O.; GaettiI-Jardim Jr. Elerson; Avilla-Campos Mario J.

    2003-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is a strict anaerobe and is indigenous of the human oral cavity. This organism is commonly recovered from different monomicrobial and mixed infections in humans and animals. In this study, the plasmid profile, the plasmid stability and the penicillin-resistance association in oral F. nucleatum isolated from periodontal patients, healthy subjects and Cebus apella monkeys were evaluated. Forty-five F. nucleatum strains from patients, 38 from healthy subjects and seven fr...

  8. Anatomical aspect of the hard palate of the Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1766) primates

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia Luciana Martins Ramos; Polyana Alves Siqueira; Vanessa da Silva Ferreira; Amanda Rocha Mortoza; Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Fourteen hard palates of neotropical primates were studied (Cebus apella), fixed on formaldehyde (10%) and preserved in ethylic alcohol (70%), collected according to the International Bioethics Committee. The animals were supplied by the Medicine College Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnica of the University of São Paulo in 1994. They originated from the São Paulo Zoo. They had died naturally. Measurement (in centimeters) of the viscerocranium (8 adults and 6 young animals) was made, including ...

  9. Phylogenetic studies of the genus Cebus (Cebidae-Primates using chromosome painting and G-banding

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    Pissinatti A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal painting, using whole chromosome probes from humans and Saguinus oedipus, was used to establish karyotypic divergence among species of the genus Cebus, including C. olivaceus, C. albifrons, C. apella robustus and C. apella paraguayanus. Cytogenetic studies suggested that the species of this genus have conservative karyotypes, with diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 to 2n = 54. Results Banding studies revealed morphological divergence among some chromosomes, owing to variations in the size of heterochromatic blocks. This analysis demonstrated that Cebus species have five conserved human associations (i.e., 5/7, 2/16, 10/16, 14/15, 8/18 and 3/21 when compared with the putative ancestral Platyrrhini karyotype. Conclusion The autapomorphies 8/15/8 in C. albifrons and 12/15 in C. olivaceus explain the changes in chromosome number from 54 to 52. The association 5/16/7, which has not previously been reported in Platyrrhini, was also found in C. olivaceus. These data corroborate previous FISH results, suggesting that the genus Cebus has a very similar karyotype to the putative ancestral Platyrrhini.

  10. Anatomy of the arteries of the arm of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 monkeys = Anatomia das artérias do braço do macaco Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

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    Mário de Souza Lima-e-Silva

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cebus monkey displays a high capacity for adaptation to urbanenvironments, and its high level of encephalization has generated great interest by scientific community to study it. The study of the vascularization of the arm of Cebus is important because of its arboreal habits. Twenty-four animals donated by Ibama (Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources from the city of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and housed in the anatomy collections of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU and the Federal University of Goiás (UFG were used. The arterialsystem of these animals was injected with coloring latex, after which the arteries were dissected using stereoscopic microscope or the naked eye. In general terms, the findings on the brachial vessels of the Cebus monkey are identical to those found in humans and inother primates. In specific terms, the most outstanding variation was the small size or the absence of the brachial artery in Cebus. The arterial model of Cebus corroborates its arboreal behavior and constant use of its thoracic limbs.O macaco Cebus possui alta capacidade de adaptação em ambientes urbanos e o seu elevado índice de encefalização tem gerado grande interesse por parte da comunidade científica em estudá-lo. A importância do estudo da vascularização do braço desses animais éem virtude do seu hábito arbóreo. Foram usados 24 animais doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (Ibama de Sete Lagoas, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, depositados nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial dos espécimes foi injetado com látex corado e, posteriormente, as artérias foram dissecadas com o auxílio de microscópico estereoscópico ou a olhos desarmados. Em termos gerais, os achados em Cebus acerca de vasos braquiais são idênticos aos encontrados em humanos e outros primatas. Em termos

  11. ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DAS ARTÉRIAS DO OMBRO DE Cebus libidinosus (RYLANDS, 2000; PRIMATES – CEBIDAE ANATOMIC STUDY OF ARTERIES OF SHOULDER Cebus libidinosus (RYLANDS, 2000; PRIMATES - CEBIDAE

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    Yandra Cássia Lobato do Prado

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As pesquisas nos Cebus libidinosus têm sido incremAs pesquisas nos Cebus libidinosus têm sido in¬crementadas, em razão do pouco conhecimento de sua morfofisiologia e por terem expressivo desenvolvimento psicomotor comparável ao dos primatas do Velho Mundo. A região do ombro merece especial atenção, em virtude dos hábitos arborícolas e as constantes manipulações de objetos. Neste trabalho utilizaram-se 24 exemplares de Cebus libidinosus doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (IBAMA de Sete Lagoas, MG, Brasil, sacrificados de acordo com as recomendações do Comitê Brasileiro de Experimentação Animal (COBEA e inclu¬ídos nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial destes indivíduos foi injetado com látex corado e posteriormente dissecaram-se as artérias sob lupa estereoscópica. Na maioria dos casos, as artérias encontra¬da, apresentaram relativa correspondência de distribuição e número comparável ao modelo humano e de outros primatas, com variações quanto à frequência e origem dos vasos. De modo geral as artérias do ombro deste Cebídeo se originaram de vasos derivados indiretamente da artéria axilar, uma vez que surgiram como pequenos troncos arte¬riais que se subdividiram, e não como ramos individuais, como descrito nos outros animais estudados, e de modo específico ocorreram variações de todas as estruturas em relação aos outros primatas estudados. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, artérias, Cebus libidinosus, primatas. The researches in Cebus libidinosus has been reali¬zed because less known about your morphophisiology and its expressive psychomotor development comparative with Old World primates. The shoulder regions deserve special attention because behavior paste and objects manipulations. Twenty four Cebus specimens were donated by the “Bra¬zilian Institute for Environment and Recyclable Natural Resources

  12. Paternal kin recognition and infant care in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Elizabeth J; Wikberg, Eva C; Kawamura, Shoji; Jack, Katharine M; Fedigan, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Evidence for paternal kin recognition and paternally biased behaviors is mixed among primates. We investigate whether infant handling behaviors exhibit paternal kin biases in wild white-faced capuchins monkeys (Cebus capucinus) by comparing interactions between infants and genetic sires, potential sires, siblings (full sibling, maternal, and paternal half-siblings) and unrelated handlers. We used a linear mixed model approach to analyze data collected on 21 focal infants from six groups in Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. Our analyses suggest that the best predictor of adult and subadult male interactions with an infant is the male's dominance status, not his paternity status. We found that maternal siblings but not paternal siblings handled infants more than did unrelated individuals. We conclude that maternal but not paternal kinship influence patterns of infant handling in white-faced capuchins, regardless of whether or not they can recognize paternal kin. Am. J. Primatol. 78:659-668, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26815856

  13. Miocardite no macaco Cebus após inoculações repetidas com Schizotrypanum cruzi

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    C. Magarinos Torres

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Chagas disease is realized through contamination of ocular conjunctiva, mucosa or skin with infected dejections eliminated by the insect vectors of Schizotrypanum cruzi (Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Rhodnius prolixus. The triatomid bugs live in holes and craks in the walls, in beds, behind trunks, etc. Found in primitive mud huts covered with thatched roofs, and so the human dwellers have many chances to contract the disease, reinfections being reasonably more to expect than a single inoculation. Experimental work reproducing those natural conditions is welcomed as some important features in the pathologic picture of the disease such as the extensive myocardial fibrosis seen in chronic cases are still incompletely known. Microscopic changes were studied in the heart muscle of seven Cebus monkeys infected by S. cruzi. This animal survives the acute stage of the disease and so is particularly suited to experiments of long duration in which several inoculations of S. cruzi are performed. Three different strains of S. cruzi isolated from acute cases of Chagas' disease were employed. One monkey was injected in the skin with infected blood and necropsied after 252 days. Two monkeys were three times, and one, eight times infected in skin, one of them with contaminated blood, and two with contaminated blood and dejections from infected bugs. The necropsies were performed after 35, 95 and 149 days. One monkey was three times inoculated through the intact ocular conjunctiva (one time with infected blood, two times with dejections from infected bugs, and one time through the wounded buccal mucosa, and necropsied after 134 days. Another monkey was six times inoculated, four times through the intact ocular conjunctiva (one time with contaminated blood, three times with dejections from infected bugs and two times injected in the skin with infected blood, and necropsied after 157 days. Finally, another monkey was nine times

  14. Electrocardiographic parameters of captive tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) under chemical immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maria Helena Matiko Akao; Pellegrino, Arine; Oliveira, Valéria Marinho Costa; Prada, Cristiana Sanctis; Fedullo, José Daniel Luzes; Larsson Junior, Carlos Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the electrocardiogram findings from 97 captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) at the São Paulo Zoo (São Paulo, Brazil) while under ketamine anesthesia. The results did not differ greatly from data of domestic carnivores or other studied primate species. The most common rhythm recorded was normal sinus rhythm, followed by normal sinus rhythm with wandering pacemaker. Electrical axis varied from 0 degrees to -150 degrees but was most commonly between +60 degrees and +90 degrees. QRS complexes were predominantly positive in leads DI, DII, DIII, and AVF. These findings allow for the recognition of abnormal rhythms in these primate species and can contribute to future investigations into the cardiovascular diseases routinely diagnosed in primates and humans. PMID:23272335

  15. The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Mikkelsen, L F; Hau, J

    2010-01-01

    The authors provided different forms of environmental enrichment to six old laboratory male tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and studied the behavior of the monkeys during a baseline period and during three enrichment periods. Each observation period lasted 5 d, with an interval of 6 d...... between periods. During the first enrichment period, the authors provided Buster cubes and wood cylinders with drilled holes filled with gum arabic. During the second enrichment period, monkeys were provided with a deep litter of bark shavings, and during the third enrichment period, they were given...... Buster cubes, wood cylinders and bark shavings. When provided with enrichment, the monkeys engaged in natural, species-specific activities and began to exhibit behavioral profiles that more closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. This suggests that their psychological well-being had...

  16. Levantamento soroepidemiológico para arbovírus em macaco-prego-galego (Cebus flavius) de vida livre no estado da Paraíba e em macaco-prego (Cebus libidinosus) de cativeiro do nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Plautino O. Laroque; Mônica M. Valença-Montenegro; Débora R.A. Ferreira; Chiang, Jannifer O; Marli T. Cordeiro; Vasconcelos, Pedro F.C.; Jean C.R. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Este estudo descreve a primeira investigação de anticorpos para arbovírus em primatas não humanos do Novo Mundo no nordeste brasileiro. No período de março de 2008 a setembro de 2010 foram colhidos soros sanguíneos de 31 macacos-prego-galegos (Cebus flavius) de vida livre na Paraíba e de 100 macacos-prego (Cebus libidinosus) em cativeiro nos estados de Alagoas, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí e Rio Grande do Norte. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos utilizou-se o teste de inibição da hemaglutinação (IH...

  17. Figs Are More Than Fallback Foods: The Relationship between Ficus and Cebus in a Tropical Dry Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Nigel A. Parr; Melin, Amanda D.; Linda Marie Fedigan

    2011-01-01

    In many studies on primate feeding ecology, figs (Ficus spp.) are characterized as fallback foods, utilized only when preferred sources of food are unavailable. However, for white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) living in northwestern Costa Rica, figs are a consistently important resource and may increase groupwide energy intake. We investigated whether visits to figs affect ranging and behavioural patterns of capuchins. Although daily range length and average travel speed do not dif...

  18. Living together: behavior and welfare in single and mixed species groups of capuchin (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Rebecca; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Dufour, Valérie; MacDonald, Charlotte; Whiten, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    There are potential advantages of housing primates in mixed species exhibits for both the visiting public and the primates themselves. If the primates naturally associate in the wild, it may be more educational and enjoyable for the public to view. Increases in social complexity and stimulation may be enriching for the primates. However, mixed species exhibits might also create welfare problems such as stress from interspecific aggression. We present data on the behavior of single and mixed species groups of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) housed at the Living Links to Human Evolution Research Centre in the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland's Edinburgh Zoo. These species associate in the wild, gaining foraging benefits and decreased predation. But Cebus are also predators themselves with potential risks for the smaller Saimiri. To study their living together we took scan samples at > or =15 min intervals on single (n=109) and mixed species groups (n=152), and all occurrences of intraspecific aggression and interspecific interactions were recorded. We found no evidence of chronic stress and Saimiri actively chose to associate with Cebus. On 79% of scans, the two species simultaneously occupied the same part of their enclosure. No vertical displacement was observed. Interspecific interactions were common (>2.5/hr), and equally divided among mildly aggressive, neutral, and affiliative interactions such as play. Only one aggressive interaction involved physical contact and was non-injurious. Aggressive interactions were mostly (65%) displacements and vocal exchanges, initiated almost equally by Cebus and Saimiri. Modifications to the enclosure were successful in reducing these mildly aggressive interactions with affiliative interactions increasing in frequency and diversity. Our data suggest that in carefully designed, large enclosures, naturally associating monkeys are able to live harmoniously and are enriched by each other

  19. Plasmid profile in oral Fusobacterium nucleatum from humans and Cebus apella monkeys

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    Paula Marcia O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium nucleatum is a strict anaerobe and is indigenous of the human oral cavity. This organism is commonly recovered from different monomicrobial and mixed infections in humans and animals. In this study, the plasmid profile, the plasmid stability and the penicillin-resistance association in oral F. nucleatum isolated from periodontal patients, healthy subjects and Cebus apella monkeys were evaluated. Forty-five F. nucleatum strains from patients, 38 from healthy subjects and seven from C. apella were identified and analyzed. Plasmid extraction was performed in all the isolated strains. These elements were found in 26.7% strains from patients and one strain from C. apella. Strains from healthy subjects did not show any plasmid. Most of strains showed two plasmid bands ranging from 4 to 16 Kb, but digestions with endonucleases showed that they belonged to a single plasmid. The plasmid profile was similar and stable in human and monkey strains. Also, plasmids were classified into three groups according to size. Two strains were positive to beta-lactamase production and no plasmid DNA-hybridization with a beta-lactamase gene probe was observed, suggesting a chromosomal resistance.

  20. Solving small spaces: investigating the use of landmark cues in brown capuchins (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kelly D; Mullo, Enma; Santos, Laurie R

    2013-09-01

    Some researchers have recently argued that humans may be unusual among primates in preferring to use landmark information when reasoning about some kinds of spatial problems. Some have explained this phenomenon by positing that our species' tendency to prefer landmarks stems from a human-unique trait: language. Here, we test this hypothesis-that preferring to use landmarks to solve such tasks is related to language ability-by exploring landmark use in a spatial task in one non-human primate, the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). We presented our subjects with the rotational displacement task, in which subjects attempt to relocate a reward hidden within an array of hiding locations which are subsequently rotated to a new position. Over several experiments, we varied the availability and the salience of a landmark cue within the array. Specifically, we varied (1) visual access to the array during rotation, (2) the type of landmark, (3) the consistency of the landmark qualities, and (4) the amount of exposure to the landmark. Across Experiments 1 through 4, capuchins did not successfully use landmarks cues, suggesting that non-linguistic primates may not spontaneously use landmarks to solve some spatial problems, as in this case of a small-scale dynamic spatial task. Importantly, we also observed that capuchins demonstrated some capacity to learn to use landmarks in Experiment 4, suggesting that non-linguistic creatures may be able to use some landmarks cues in similar spatial tasks with extensive training. PMID:23430144

  1. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF DENTINAL TUBULES IN MONKEY DENTIN SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF DENTINAL TUBULES IN Cebus apella DENTIN

    OpenAIRE

    João Humberto Antoniazzi; Kalena Melo Maranhão; Priscilla Rocha Affonso; Leila Marques Araújo; Rafael Rodrigues Lima; Suely Santos Lamarão

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the number and diameter of the Cebus apella dentinal tubules. The roots of the Cebus apella teeth were examined in specific tooth locations: the apical, middle and cervical dentin. The calculations were based on the scanning electron microscope photographs of the fractured surfaces. The results showed that the average number of dentinal tubules for each location was: 74,800 tubules/mm2 for apical root dentin, 90,000 tubules/mm2 for mid-root d...

  2. Two-dimensional map of direction selectivity in cortical visual area MT of Cebus monkey

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    ANTONIA CINIRA M. DIOGO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the spatial organization of direction of motion in visual area MT of the Cebus apella monkey. We used arrays of 6 (700 µm apart parallel electrodes in penetrations tangential to the cortical layers to record multi-unit responses to moving bars, at 200 µm steps. We determined the direction selectivity at each recording site. The data from single penetrations showed cyclic and gradual changes in the direction selectivity of clusters of cells, intermixed with abrupt 180º discontinuities along the electrode track. In order to obtain maps of direction of motion selectivity, we examined the spatial distribution of direction of motion in MT and we applied a method to determine the location of the centers of radial arrangements of direction selectivity. This tangential organization is characterized by slow continuous changes in direction of motion, interrupted by discontinuities. The changes in direction selectivity are organized radially in a pinwheel fashion and in slabs of linear variation. The pinwheel arrangements have 800-1400 µm in diameter. The size of the radial arrangement is comparable to the point image size in area MT at each eccentricity.Estudamos a organização espacial da seletividade ao sentido do movimento na área visual MT do macaco Cebus apella. Utilizamos um arranjo de 6 eletródios paralelos (separados por 700µm em penetrações tangenciais às camadas corticais para registrar, a cada 200µm, a atividade multi-unitária em resposta a barras em movimento. Determinamos a seletividade ao sentido de movimento em cada sítio de registro. Os dados captados por um único eletródio mostraram uma mudança cíclica e gradual na seletividade ao sentido de movimento dos grupos de neurônios registrados ao longo da trajetória do eletródio, interrompida por mudanças abruptas de 180º ocasionando descontinuidades na seletividade ao sentido do movimento. Para obter mapas de seletividade ao sentido do movimento, examinamos a

  3. Tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) adapt their communicative behaviour to human's attentional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defolie, Charlotte; Malassis, Raphaëlle; Serre, Marion; Meunier, Hélène

    2015-05-01

    Animal communication has become a widely studied field of research, especially because of the associated debates on the origin of human language. Due to their phylogenetic proximity with humans, non-human primates represent a suitable model to investigate the precursors of language. This study focuses on the perception of the attentional states of others, an important prerequisite to intentional communication. We investigated whether capuchins (Cebus apella) produce a learnt pointing gesture towards a hidden and unreachable food reward as a function of the attentional status of the human experimenter. For that purpose, we tested five subjects that we first trained to indicate by a pointing gesture towards the human partner the position of a reward hidden by an assistant. Then, capuchins were tested in two experimental conditions randomly ordered. In the first condition-motivation trial-the experimenter was attentive to the subject gestures and rewarded him immediately when it pointed towards the baited cylinder. During the second condition-test trial-the experimenter adopted one of the following attention states and the subject was rewarded after 10 s has elapsed, regardless of the subject's behaviour. Five attentional states were tested: (1) experimenter absent, (2) experimenter back to the monkey, (3) experimenter's head away, (4) experimenter watching above the monkey, and (5) experimenter watching the monkey face. Our results reveal a variation in our subjects' communicative behaviours with a discrimination of the different postural clues (body and head orientation) available in our experimental conditions. This study suggests that capuchins can flexibly use a communicative gesture to adapt to the attentional state of their partner and provides evidence that acquired communicative gestures of monkeys might be used intentionally. PMID:25630371

  4. Anatomical aspect of the hard palate of the Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1766 primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Luciana Martins Ramos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen hard palates of neotropical primates were studied (Cebus apella, fixed on formaldehyde (10% and preserved in ethylic alcohol (70%, collected according to the International Bioethics Committee. The animals were supplied by the Medicine College Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnica of the University of São Paulo in 1994. They originated from the São Paulo Zoo. They had died naturally. Measurement (in centimeters of the viscerocranium (8 adults and 6 young animals was made, including palatine length (PL, interpremolar distance (ID, intermolar distance (ID, interorbital distance (IDi, and midface height (MH. The palatine anatomy showed complete right crests (7.64 to 1.22, complete left crests (8.07 to 1.71, incomplete right crests (1.71 to 1.43, and incomplete left crests (1.64 to 1.3. The diasten between the lateral incisive teeth was the main anatomical landmark for the anterior end of the crest, and the landmark for the posterior end was the second molar teeth for all the specimens. The palate is very peculiar: mild concave, from the dental arcade to the median line, covered by the non-pigmented mucous tissue, with osseous structure composed of horizontal layers of the maxilar and palatine bones; sub mucous tissue attached to the periosteum and mucous tissue showing relatively prominent palatine crests. The crests appear as a rigid elevation of the mucous tissue, with some variations at the antimers. It may be concluded that the length of the hard palate is strongly related to the maturity of the animal, relative to the interorbital distance, and that the latter is also related to the length of the palate and the labial opening.

  5. Carcinoma mamário pouco diferenciado em macaco-prego, Cebus sp. (Cebidae

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    Liane Ziliotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As neoplasias mamárias são raras em primatas não humanos, enquanto que nas mulheres apresentam alta incidência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência e os resultados do tratamento de um Cebus sp. (fam. Cebidae fêmea, com carcinoma mamário pouco diferenciado encaminhado ao Serviço de Atendimento de Animais Selvagens da Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste. À inspeção o animal apresentava aumento de volume em região mamária direita e ao exame radiográfico foram observados três pontos de radiopacidade, característicos de projétil balístico de arma de pressão, com um deles alojado ao centro da massa de tecido mamário Após estabilização, a paciente foi submetida à exérese cirúrgica de aumento de volume e o material foi encaminhado para análise histopatológica. O diagnóstico obtido foi de carcinoma de alto grau, compatível com carcinoma adenoescamoso. Após a retirada dos pontos a paciente foi encaminhada ao convívio de outros animais. Mais de 20 meses após a terapia cirúrgica não há sinais de recidiva. A paciente alimenta-se bem, convive normalmente com o grupo, sugerindo que a terapia adotada foi eficiente até o momento em alcançar qualidade de vida e aumento de sobrevida do animal.

  6. The effects of observer presence on the behavior of Cebus capucinus in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Katharine M; Lenz, Bryan B; Healan, Erin; Rudman, Sara; Schoof, Valérie A M; Fedigan, Linda

    2008-05-01

    We report on the responses of Cebus capucinus in the Santa Rosa Sector of the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, to the presence of observers over a 4-week period. Study groups were habituated to different degrees: (1) Cerco de Piedra (CP): continuous observations began in 1984; (2) Exclosure (EX): focus of an 18-month study on males from 1998 to 1999; and (3) NBH: never studied/followed but the group frequently encounters researchers. We collected three types of data: group scans (group state was coded as calm or agitated at observer presence), focal animal data (observer-directed behaviors were recorded), and fecal cortisol levels. The two less-habituated groups (NBH and EX) differed significantly from the habituated group (CP) in their behavioral and cortisol responses, and they showed an increase in habituation over the study period (agitation and cortisol levels both dropped). Individuals in NBH also decreased their responses to observers during focal follows; however, at the end of the study the responses of the two less-habituated groups (NBH and EX) remained elevated in comparison to the habituated group (CP), suggesting the need for further habituation. Unlike capuchin groups that rarely encounter humans, NBH and EX never fled from observers and they rarely emitted observer-directed alarm calls. We suggest that the permanence of habituation and the ability to habituate animals passively through a neutral human presence are both important considerations for researchers conducting studies in areas where animal safety from poachers, etc. cannot be guaranteed. PMID:18076061

  7. Comparative anatomical study of the leg's nerves of Cebus (barbed capuchins with baboons, chimpanzees and modern humans Estudo anatômico comparativo dos nervos da perna de Cebus (macaco-prego com babuínos, chimpanzés e humanos modernos

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    Tainá de Abreu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical comparative studies among the primates are important for the investigation of ethology, evolution, taxonomy, and comprehension of tools by hominoids. Especially the anatomical knowledge of Cebus contributes to conservation of the species, and to development of surgical procedures and clinical treatments of these animals, as they frequently are victims of automobile accidents. Recent anatomical studies came to a wrong conclusion regarding behavioral traits of Cebus, ascribed to few data available in previous literature. Therefore, to provide anatomical data and to support the other sciences related to anatomy, and to develop surgical and/or clinical procedures, we described the nerves of the legs of Cebus foccusing on their position and trajectory, as wll as innerved muscles, and compared these results with those of humans and other primates. Eight adult capuchin specimens were used for this study. The anatomical comparative study of the leg's nerves of Cebus demonstrated that, in general, structural organization of the nerves is similar among the four primates analyzed here (Cebus, chimpanzees, baboons and humans, which might be attributed to the fact that the all four primates have similar body structures. However, nerve trajectory and muscles innervation in Cebus was more similar to baboons.Os estudos anatômicos comparativos entre os primatas são importantes para pesquisas associadas com a etologia, evolução, taxonomia e compreensão dos usos de ferramentas pelos hominídeos. Especificamente, o conhecimento anatômico sobre Cebus contribui para sua própria conservação e para o desenvolvimento de procedimentos cirúrgicos e tratamentos clínicos destes animais, pois são frequentemente vítimas de acidentes automobilísticos. Recentemente, estudos sobre características comportamentais de Cebus indicaram conclusões erradas sobre sua anatomia, o que pode ser atribuído aos poucos dados disponíveis sobre a anatomia desses

  8. Toxoplasmose em primatas não humanos: I - Infecções naturais em Macacca Mulatta e Cebus Apella

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    Felippe Nery-Guimarães

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são descritas infecções naturais por Toxoplasma em um Macacca mulatta e em um Cebus apella, ambos tendo apresentado curto período de doença. Ambos se infectaram no cativeiro: o primeiro no biotério do laboratório, onde havia outros mamíferos com toxoplasmose experimental, e o segundo, na casa dos seus donos, em Jacarepaguá, on se habituara a comer carne crua como parte da alimentação. Nessa casa viviam outros platirrinos, entre os quais 2 Cebus libidinosus (um casal, os quais apresentaram Reação de Sabin-Feldman positiva (1:64, do mesmo modo que o tratador dos animais. Microscòpicamente, observaram-se nos 2 animais mortos de toxoplasmose espontânea lesões necróticas no fígado e baço, com a presença de toxoplasmas livres e intracelulares, isolados ou em associação, com maior ou menor número de indivíduos. No Cebus, no qual foi feita autópsia completa, foram observadas lesões e parasitos na suprarenal; e lesões moderadas no encéfalo, mas sem parasitos. É feita uma revisão das infecções naturais por Toxoplasma em primatas não humanos. Em mais de 60 anos de estudos do Txoplasma, foram descritas infecções naturais em apenas 31 exemplares de 18 espécies: 3 Prosimii, 10 Platyrrhinus e 5 Catharrhinus. A baixa freqüência da toxoplasmose no símios em geral é relacionada aos seus hábitos alimentares vegetarianos e insetífagos e à ecologia arborícola. A maior incidência nos platirrinos é relacionada à sua mais fácil domesticação e conseqüente mudança dos hábitos alimentares.

  9. Antischistosomal activity of acridanone- hydrazones in Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with the SJ strain of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four compounds were utilized at the dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight, p.o., to treat Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with about 200 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ strain, via transcutaneous route. The oograms performed with rectal snips, as well as stool examinations carried out periodically, showed no viable eggs of the parasite, from day 29 to 226post-treatment. The perfusion undertaken after killing the animals showed absence of worms in the treated monkeys, whereas 83 worms were recovered from the control, thus corroborating the results obtained by means of oograms and coproscopy. These results confirm the efficacy of 9-acridanone- hydrazones previously tested against the LE strain of S. mansoni. The low curative dose and apparent absence of toxicity render these dmgs an important therapeutic reserve, taking into consideration the reports on the resistance of S. mansoni to the modern drugs oxamniquine and praziquantel.

  10. Manejo de primates en cautiverio: interpretación de marcadores etológicos de adaptación en Cebus libidinosus juveniles Management of Captive Primates: Ethological Bookmarks in Cebus libidinosus

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    A.M Giudice

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los primates mantenidos en cautiverio, evidencian la necesidad de estimular su comportamiento natural y de promover su bienestar. Esta contribución describe los cambios en los marcadores etológicos en Cebus libidinosus (CLI juveniles (1 macho y 2 hembras mantenidos en cautiverio (ECAS, Berazategui, Argentina, bajo dos condiciones de alojamiento. Se utilizó el muestreo de barrido. Se evaluó la conducta "locomoción estereotipada". El tiempo total de observación fue de 290 horas. El nivel de locomoción estereotipada descendió y la jeraquía social se modifico. CLI mantenidos en cautiverio muestran: incremento en el comportamiento de interacción ambiente físico-social luego del cambio de recinto y la frecuencia de locomoción estereotipada se relacionó con las tareas de mantenimiento. Debido a la condición social de las especies de primates, el mantener grupos sociales formados según su estructura social en vida libre, resulta en un aumento de bienestar mayor que cambios en las condiciones físicas del alojamiento.The primates maintained in captivity, highlight the need to encourage their natural behavior and promote their welfare. In this paper we describe the changes in the ethological markers in Cebus libidinosus (CLI juvenile (1 male and 2 females kept in captivity (ECAS, Berazategui, Argentine, under two housing conditions. We used scan sampling. We evaluated the behavior "stereotyped locomotion". The total observing time was 290 hours. Stereotyped locomotion level decrease and the social hierarchy was modified. CLI maintained in captivity shows: an increase in the behavior of the physical environment and social interaction after the change of enclosure and frequency of stereotyped locomotion was associated with maintenance. Because the social status of the species of primates, maintaining in groups formed according to their social structure in the wild, resulting in a greater welfare benefit that changes in the physical conditions

  11. Morfologia da artéria cerebelar superior do macaco prego (Cebus apella L., 1766: divisões e anastomoses Morphology of the superior cerebellar artery of the “macaco prego” (Cebus paella L., 1766: divisions and anastomoses

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    Rosimeire Alves da Silva

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Dando continuidade a estudos já existentes na área de mapeamento da vascularização cerebral do Cebus apella e considerando a semelhança desse animal com outros primatas descritos, inclusive os humanos, estudou-se a morfologia das artérias cerebelares superiores, que destinam a irrigar a superfície superior do cerebelo. 57 hemisférios cerebelares foram injetados com látex corado e fixados em solução de formol a 10%, dissecados sob mesoscopia de luz com microdissecações. As artérias cerebelares superiores são simétricas em 84,21% e assimétricas em 7,01%, ramificam-se em 4 ramos: sendo 1 para o mesencéfalo e 3 troncos principais para a superfície superior do cerebelo e regiões anterior dessa superfície. Estas artérias terminam na fissura póstero-superior ou pós-semilunar após emitir vários ramos colaterais de hierarquia decrescente de calibreIn order to continue studies already done in the area of mapping the cerebral vascularization of Cebus paella and taking into consideration the resemblance of this animal with other primates described, humans included, we studied the morphology of the superior cerebellar arteries determined to perfuse the superior surface of the cerebellum. Fifty-seven cerebellar hemispheres were injected with stained latex, fixed in 10% formol solution and dissected under light mesoscopy. The superior cerebellar arteries are symmetrical in 84,21% and asymmetrical in 7,01%, and give off four branches, one to the mesencephalon and three mains branches to the upper surface of the cerebellum and its anterior portion. These arteries end in the posterior superior or post-semilunar fissure, after giving off many collaterals of decreasing diameter

  12. Agricultural crops in the diet of bearded capuchin monkeys, Cebus libidinosus Spix (Primates: Cebidae, in forest fragments in southeast Brazil Cultivares na dieta de macacos-prego barbados, Cebus libidinosus Spix (Primates: Cebidae, em fragmentos florestais no sudeste do Brasil

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    Carlos Henrique de Freitas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Capuchin monkeys occupy a wide range of habitats where they feed on fruits, arthropods, and vertebrates. Their large home ranges (80-900 ha suggest that living in forest fragments may challenge their adaptability. We identified and quantified the main food items of Cebus libidinosus Spix, 1823 in forests fragments (100 ha in southeastern Brazil. We recorded the feeding activities of two groups using scan sampling over a 13-month period. The diet was composed of fruits, crops, animal prey, seeds, plant matter and undetermined. Fruit was eaten more in the wet season than in the dry season, and maize and sugar cane consumption peaked in the early dry season. The proportion of fruit in the diet was positively correlated with fruiting intensity of zoochorous trees. The plant diet included 54 species, with maize, Rhamnidium elaeocarpus, Acrocomia aculeata, Guazuma ulmifolia and Cariniana, being most important. Although dietary composition and diversity were similar to capuchins in larger forest fragments, feeding on crops attained higher percentages at times when zoochorous fruit production was low in fragments.Macacos-prego ocupam uma vasta gama de ambientes onde alimentam-se de frutos, artrópodes e vertebrados. Suas grandes áreas de vida (80-900 ha sugerem que viver em fragmentos florestais pode ser um desafio a sua adaptabilidade. Foram identificados e quantificados os principais itens alimentares de Cebus libidinosus Spix, 1823 em fragmentos florestais (100 ha no sudeste do Brasil. Registraram-se as atividades alimentares de dois grupos usando a varredura instantânea durante um período de 13 meses. A dieta compôs-se de frutos, presas animais, cultivares, sementes, material vegetal e indeterminado. Os frutos foram consumidos mais na estação chuvosa do que na estação seca e o consumo de milho e cana atingiu um pico no início da estação seca. A proporção de frutos na dieta foi positivamente correlacionada com a intensidade de frutifica

  13. Insights into Intraspecies Variation in Primate Prosocial Behavior: Capuchins (Cebus apella Fail to Show Prosociality on a Touchscreen Task

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    Lindsey A. Drayton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, many researchers have used food donation tasks to test whether nonhuman primates show human-like patterns of prosocial behavior in experimental settings. Although these tasks are elegant in their simplicity, performance within and across species is difficult to explain under a unified theoretical framework. Here, we attempt to better understand variation in prosociality by examining the circumstances that promote and hinder the expression of prosocial preferences. To this end, we tested whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella—a species that has previously demonstrated prosocial preferences—would behave prosocially using a novel touchscreen task. In contrast to previous studies, we found that capuchins as a group did not prosocially deliver food to a partner. Importantly however, data from control conditions revealed that subjects demonstrated limited understanding of the reward contingencies of the task. We also compared individuals’ performance in the current study with their performance in a previously published prosociality study. We conclude by discussing how continuing to explore intraspecies variation in performance on prosocial tasks may help inform debates regarding the existence of other-regarding preferences in nonhuman species.

  14. Leptospira spp detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in clinical samples of captive black-capped Capuchin monkey (Cebus apella

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    Scarcelli Eliana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a widely distributed zoonosis that affects domestic and wild animals, and that has the man as the end point of its epidemiological chain. Leptospirosis diagnosis in primates is more difficult than in other animal species, as clinical signs and lesions are less evident and antibody response is detected only for short periods. The aim of this article was to describe the detection of Leptospira spp using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in clinical samples from one captive black-capped Capuchin monkey (Cebus apella, which presented characteristics compatible with leptospirosis (jaundice and haemorrhagic kdney in the macroscopic post-mortem examination. A friable kidney fragment and urine sample were cultured and submitted to experimental inoculation in guinea pigs and PCR using genus specific primer pair targeting the 16S rRNA region from Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola. Isolation of the agent was negative both in culture and experimental inoculation. The PCR amplification of the clinical samples showed a 330 pb amplified fragment that corresponds to the Leptospira genus. Based on these results PCR was considered an important tool for leptospira detection in nonhumam primates, more sensitive and specific than other techniques, especially considering that the viability of the pathogen was not possible. These advantages enable the detection of the leptospiras in urine and kidney, even when autolysed, frozen or badly conserved, which prevented the isolation and experimental inoculation from positive results.

  15. Ricinus communis biocompatibility histological study in the nose of Cebus apella monkeys Avaliação histológica da biocompatibilidade do polímero da mamona no dorso nasal de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella

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    Paulo Cesar de Jesus Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue lesions can be caused by congenital and acquired factors, and result in nasal deformities with cosmetic and functional repercussion. Surgical treatment in these cases frequently requires complex reconstructions and the use of biomaterials. The polyurethane derived from castor beans (Ricinus communis has a favorable formulation in terms of ease of processing, flexibility, no emission of toxic vapors and low cost. Nonetheless, despite favorable results, studies about the use of castor beam polymer (Ricinus communis assessing tissue reaction on the nasal dorsum are still missing in the literature. AIM: the goal of the present investigation is to histologically assess the Ricinus communis polymer implant biocompatibility with the nasal dorsum. STUDY DESING: experimental. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we used four Cebus appela monkeys, in which we created a nasal dorsal defect in all the animals and there we placed the aforementioned implant. The animals were sacrificed 270 days after surgery and the samples were submitted to histological study. RESULTS: in the histology analysis we did not observe the presence of foreign body granulomas or phagocytic cells. We also observed a progressive bone formation and maturation. CONCLUSION: macroscopic and microscopic results showed that the castor oil polymer implant was biocompatible.Lesões do tecido ósseo podem ser causadas por fatores congênitos e adquiridos e resultar em deformidade nasal com repercussão estética e funcional. O tratamento cirúrgico desses casos requer reconstruções complexas e frequentemente o uso de biomateriais. O poliuretano derivado do óleo da mamona apresenta uma fórmula com aspectos favoráveis de processabilidade, flexibilidade de formulação, ausência de emissão de vapores tóxicos e baixo custo. Entretanto, a despeito dos resultados favoráveis, estudos referentes ao uso do polímero de mamona, avaliando a reação tecidual no dorso nasal, ainda não foram

  16. Grasping primate development: Ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Sapajus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jesse W; Heard-Booth, Amber N

    2016-09-01

    Young primates have relatively large hands and feet for their body size, perhaps enhancing grasping ability. We test the hypothesis that selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for these scaling trends by examining the ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Sapajus apella). If selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for the observed patterns of hand and foot growth in primates, we predicted that fingers and toes would be longer early in life and proportionally decline with age. We measured the lengths of manual and pedal metapodials and phalanges in a mixed-longitudinal radiographic sample. Bone lengths were (a) converted into phalangeal indices (summed non-distal phalangeal length/metapodial length) to test for age-related changes in intrinsic proportions and (b) fit to Gompertz models of growth to test for differences in the dynamics of phalangeal versus metapodial growth. Manual and pedal phalangeal indices nearly universally decreased with age in capuchin monkeys. Growth curve analyses revealed that metapodials generally grew at a faster rate, and for a longer duration, than corresponding phalanges. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that primates are under selection for increased grasping ability early in life. Relatively long digits may be functionally adaptive for growing capuchins, permitting a more secure grasp on both caregivers and arboreal supports, as well as facilitating early foraging. Additional studies of primates and other mammals, as well as tests of grasping performance, are required to fully evaluate the adaptive significance of primate hand and foot growth. PMID:27324663

  17. Ecotourism and primate habituation: Behavioral variation in two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Shasta E; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    The increase of ecotourism operations within Costa Rica during the last 20 yrs has brought more and more humans into close, direct contact with several wildlife species. One of these species is the white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinos), highly gregarious, and with exposure over time, willing to come into close vicinity of humans and their developments. Such contact has its advantages and disadvantages for the ecotourism industry. We observed white-faced monkeys in order to assess the impact of human presence and development on monkey behavior, with a focus on aggressive, affiliative, and foraging behaviors in Curú Wildlife Refuge (CWR), located in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, and to ascertain the degree of over-habituation of capuchin popula- tions at CWR. Though there exists no discrete behavioral parameters that measure over-habituation, it can be defined as an extreme state of habituation in which non-human primates not only lose fear of humans, but also actively include humans in social interactions or treat them as a food resource. We used instantaneous focal animal and group scan sampling during 8 wks in March and April 2012. Two groups (approximately 20-30 individuals each) of capuchins were observed; the first near the tourist development at the Southwestern area of CWR, representing a habituated population that regularly foraged, rested, and groomed in the presence of humans. The second, was observed in the Northeastern area of CWR, did not visit the center of human activity and exhibited fear of humans. The habituated group exhibited significantly fewer instances of threatened behavior in response to human presence (p ecotourism, increases. Over-habituation is a problem that affects capuchins in certain ecotourism sites in Costa Rica. It is critical that the consequences of habituation be studied more carefully, primarily in areas where ecotourism operations draw visitors to wildlife habitats. PMID:25412523

  18. Evaluation of hematological profile, biochemical and peripheral blood smear with a view to the health profile in primates of the Cebus genre maintained in captivity

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    David Baruc Cruvinel Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates serve as a model for studies on the dynamics of transmission routes and natural history of diseases shared between humans and animals. The captive environment is conducive the dissemination of zoonotic diseases. Many of these animals do not present clinical symptomatology, even when infected, which characterize them as an important source of infection for domestic animals and man. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sanity of non-human primates kept in captivity through hematological and biochemical analysis as well as peripheral blood smear, aiming to investigate the presence of zoonotic pathogens, serving as a model for future studies on the dynamics of routes of transmission of diseases shared between humans and animals. Were collected samples of blood from 15 nail monkeys (Cebus sp., adults, clinically healthy and belonging to Park Zoobotanic of Teresina. Were stained smear sanguine blades and obtained the haematological and biochemical profiles of each animal. The data analysis was based on basic statistics. Did not observed any haemoparasite present in peripheral blood. All animals were anemic, 46,7% thrombopenics and 87% of the animals showed some type of pathological process of chronic evolution, due to the high rate of monocytes found. All animals showed high rates of alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases AST and ALT, indicating injury of the hepatic parenchyma. New studies should be conducted to better elucidate of results, seeing that biochemical physiological data primate of the genus Cebus are scarce in literature.

  19. Effects of Fragment and Vegetation Structure on the Population Abundance of Ateles hybridus, Alouatta seniculus and Cebus albifrons in Magdalena Valley, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Christopher; Link, Andres; King-Bailey, Gillian; Donati, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Many primate species currently subsist in fragmented and anthropogenically disturbed habitats. Different threats arise depending on the species' life history strategy, dietary requirements and habitat preference. Additionally, anthropogenic disturbance is far from uniform and may affect individual forest fragments in a single landscape in differing ways. We studied the effects of fragmentation on three species of diurnal primate, Cebus albifrons, Alouatta seniculus and Ateles hybridus, in Magdalena Valley, Colombia. We tested the assumption that generalist species are more resilient than specialist species to habitat degradation by examining the fragments' vegetation and spatial structure and how these affected primate presence and abundance patterns. We found C. albifrons, a generalist, to be the most abundant species in 9 of 10 forest fragments, regardless of the level of habitat disturbance. A. hybridus, a large-bodied primate with a specialist diet, was either absent or low in abundance in fragments that had experienced recent disturbances and was found only in higher-quality fragments, regardless of the fragment size. A. seniculus, a species considered to have a highly flexible diet and the ability to survive in degraded habitat, was found in intermediate abundances between those of Cebus spp. and Ateles spp., and was more frequently found in high-quality fragments. PMID:27093602

  20. USE OF COCONUT WATER SOLUTION AT 37°C AS EXTENDER OF CAPTIVE Cebus apella (CAPUCHIN MONKEY SEMEN USO DE SOLUÇÃO À BASE DE ÁGUA DE COCO A 37 °C COMO DILUIDOR DE SÊMEN DE Cebus apella (MACACO-PREGO MANTIDO EM CATIVEIRO

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    Sheyla Farhayldes Souza Domingues

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to evaluate the efficiency of in natura coconut water solution at 37º C as seminal extender. Were analyzed fifteen ejaculates collected from 5 adult Cebus apella by electroejaculation. The means volumes of liquid and coagulated fractions were 0.26 + 0.06 mL and 0.98 + 0.02 mL, respectively. The sperm concentration in the liquid fraction (2.1 x 108 + 0.5 108 mL was lower than liquefied fraction (1.6 x 109+ 0.9 109 mL (p = 0.05. The mean percentage of live spermatozoa after 7 hours incubated at 37 °C was 72 + 3%. Only in one sample was observed sperm motility (20% and vigor (2. The results suggest that electroejaculation protocol using 100mA maximum amperage is efficient to obtain semen from adult Cebus apella. The coconut water extender can be used to maintain sperm viability for up to 7 hours at 37 °C. However, studies are necessary to evaluate the sperm functionality extended in natura coconut water based solution.

    KEY WORDS: Cebus apella, electroejaculation water, extender, semen.
    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência de um diluidor de sêmen à base de água de coco in natura a 37 °C na dissolução da fração coagulada e conservação do sêmen de macacos-prego. Analisaram-se quinze ejaculados colhidos de cinco (n=5 machos adultos de Cebus apella através de eletroejaculação. Os volumes médios das frações líquida e coagulada foram 0,26 + 0,06 mL e 0,98 + 0,02 mL, respectivamente. A fração líquida apresentou baixa concentração média de espermatozoides (210. 106 + 50 106 mL em relação à fração coagulada (1600. 106+ 900 106 mL (p ? 0,05. O percentual médio de espermatozoides vivos após sete horas de incubação a 37°C foi 72 + 3%. Em apenas uma amostra observaram-se 20% de motilidade e vigor 2. Os resultados sugerem que o protocolo de eletroejaculação utilizando amperagem máxima de 100 mA é eficaz para a obtenção de sêmen de Cebus apella e que o diluidor à base

  1. Antischistosomal activity of acridanone- hydrazones in Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with the SJ strain of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four compounds were utilized at the dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight, p.o., to treat Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with about 200 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ strain, via transcutaneous route. The oograms performed with rectal snips, as well as stool examinations carried out periodically, showed no viable eggs of the parasite, from day 29 to 226post-treatment. The perfusion undertaken after killing the animals showed absence of worms in the treated monkeys, whereas 83 worms were recovered from the control, thus corroborating the results obtained by means of oograms and coproscopy. These results confirm the efficacy of 9-acridanone- hydrazones previously tested against the LE strain of S. mansoni. The low curative dose and apparent absence of toxicity render these dmgs an important therapeutic reserve, taking into consideration the reports on the resistance of S. mansoni to the modern drugs oxamniquine and praziquantel.No presente trabalho, quatro compostos foram utilizados na dose de 12,5mg/kg de peso, por via oral, em macacos infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 200 cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni. Os oogramas realizados com fragmentos de mucosa retal e os exames de fezes realizados, periodicamente, demonstraram a ausência de ovos viáveis do parasito a partir do 29- até o 226a dia pós-tratamento. A perfusão, apôs sacrifício dos animais tratados, não detectou vermes, enquanto que do macaco cotztrole 83 vermes foram recuperados, confirmando assim os resultados dos oogramas e da coproscopia. Estes resultados confirmam a eficácia das 9-acridanonas- hydrazonas já observada anteriormente contra a cepa LE de S. mansoni. A baixa dosagem curativa e aparente ausência de toxicidade colocam estas drogas como uma reserva terapêutica importante, tendo em vista o relato de resistência do S. mansoni às drogas modernas oxamniquína e praziquantel.

  2. [Social behavior of the Wedge-capped Capuchin monkey Cebus olivaceus (Primates: Cebidae) in three zoological exhibits of Caracas, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Marie Charlotte; Zaida, Tárano

    2008-09-01

    Captivity represents an extreme situation for primates, especially for those with large home ranges, and its effect on their behavior might be considerable. The Wedge-capped Capuchin Monkey Cebus olivaceus is the most common primate in Venezuelan zoos. To estimate the effect of confinement on C. olivaceus behavior, we analyzed the social behavior of three groups that differed in captivity conditions, in zoological exhibits in Caracas (Caricuao, Parque del Este, El Pinar). Caricuao's group moved freely over a non-fenced area of 15 ha, Parque del Este's and El Pinar's groups lived in relatively small outdoor enclosures. Social behaviors were described using focal-animal sampling, group scans and ad libitum sampling. The frequency, duration and time devoted to each behavior (per focal period per individual) were estimated. Relative dominance between pairs of individuals was established as well as affiliative associations. The repertory of social behaviors was similar between groups and to which has been observed in nature, but the duration and frequency of affiliative and agonistic interactions differed between groups. Affiliative behaviors were less frequent but longer in Caricuao than in the other two groups, while agonistic behaviors were more frequent in El Pinar and Parque del Este. Differences between groups are explained by variation in captivity conditions. We suggest that confinement generates social tension and favors agonism, while affiliative encounters help reduce this tension. On the other hand, differences in agonism between captive and natural groups may result form prolonged association, restrictions to keep optimal spacing or leave the group. All groups had some social structure (e.g., dominance ranks, association and repulsion between individuals) but the social dynamic was partly disrupted. Dominance ranks were not clear throughout the group, the top male was not dominant over the top female, dominant individuals did not interact affiliatively more

  3. Avaliação ultra-sonográfica do sistema urinário, figado e útero do macaco-prego, Cebus apella Ultrasonographic evaluation of the urinary system, liver and uterus of Cebus apella monkey

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    Flávio R. Alves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O macaco-prego, Cebus apella, é muito difundido no norte e sul da Amazônia Legal Brasileira e no Cerrado. Estes animais encontram-se rotineiramente submetidos à caça predatória, aumentando assim a necessidade de preservação desta espécie silvestre. Realizou-se um estudo ultra-sonográfico de 10 macacos-prego como forma de descrever a anatomia ultra-sonográfica normal de sua cavidade abdominal. A vesícula urinária apresentou parede com espessura média 0,2cm e em posição anatômica cuja topografia permitiu contato com as paredes do corpo do útero e cólon descendente. À varredura abdominal caudal foi visualizada a aorta, veia cava caudal e veia ilíaca direita. O fígado foi visto em varredura sagital e transversal, possibilitando a observação da vesícula biliar e vasos hepáticos. A varredura renal demonstrou com precisão a pelve, seio renal e relação cortico-medular. O comprimento médio de ambos os rins foi de 6,24±0,31cm, não existindo diferença estatística entre o rim direito e esquerdo (Teste t de Student e ANOVA. O volume renal foi 2,37±0,18cm³. Os coeficientes de Correlação de Pearson entre os comprimentos renais direito e esquerdo e entre volumes renais direito e esquerdo foram dispostos como r = 0,74 e 0,51. As espessuras médias para a região cortical e medular foram 0,75±0,11cm e 0,39±0,06cm, respectivamente. O coeficiente de correlação para a relação cortico-medular entre os rins direito e esquerdo foi de r = 0,19. O exame ultrasonográfico mostrou-se como uma técnica eficiente, nãoinvasiva, rápida e reprodutível, que provê dados importantes aos profissionais da área de clínica e cirurgia de animais silvestres.The Brown Capuchin, Cebus apella, has a wide distribution in the northern and southern Brazilian Amazon region and in the Cerrado (savanna. These monkeys are usually submitted to predatory chase, increasing the need for preservation of this wild animal species. An ultrasonographic

  4. USE OF COCONUT WATER SOLUTION AT 37°C AS EXTENDER OF CAPTIVE Cebus apella (CAPUCHIN MONKEY) SEMEN USO DE SOLUÇÃO À BASE DE ÁGUA DE COCO A 37 °C COMO DILUIDOR DE SÊMEN DE Cebus apella (MACACO-PREGO) MANTIDO EM CATIVEIRO

    OpenAIRE

    Sheyla Farhayldes Souza Domingues; José Augusto Pereira Carneiro Muniz; Rodrigo del Rio do Valle; Karol Guimarães Oliveira; Julianne Silva de Lima; Luiza Loureiro de Araújo

    2009-01-01

    The aim this study was to evaluate the efficiency of in natura coconut water solution at 37º C as seminal extender. Were analyzed fifteen ejaculates collected from 5 adult Cebus apella by electroejaculation. The means volumes of liquid and coagulated fractions were 0.26 + 0.06 mL and 0.98 + 0.02 mL, respectively. The sperm concentration in the liquid fraction (2.1 x 108 + 0.5 108 mL) was lower than liquefied fraction (1.6 x 109+ 0.9 109 mL) (p = 0.05). The mean percentage of live spermatozoa ...

  5. Ordinal judgments of symbolic stimuli by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): the effects of differential and nondifferential reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Harris, Emily H; Evans, Theodore A; Klein, Emily D; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M; Washburn, David A

    2008-02-01

    Ordinal learning was investigated in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In Experiment 1, both species were presented with pairings of the Arabic numerals 0 to 9. Some monkeys were given food rewards equal to the value of the numeral selected and some were rewarded with a single pellet only for choosing the higher numeral within the pair. Both species learned to select the larger numeral, but only rhesus monkeys that were differentially rewarded performed above chance levels when presented with novel probe pairings. In Experiment 2, the monkeys were first presented with arrays of 5 familiar numerals (from the range 0 to 9) and then arrays of 5 novel letters (from the range A to J) with the same reward outcomes in place as in Experiment 1. Both species performed better with the numerals, suggesting that an ordinal sequence of all stimuli had been learned during Experiment 1, rather than a matrix of two-choice discriminations. PMID:18298281

  6. Performance in a tool-using task by common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalberghi, E; Fragaszy, D M; Savage-Rumbaugh, S

    1995-03-01

    Performance by individual animals of three species of great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, and Pongo pygmaeus) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) was assessed by presenting a food treat inside a clear tube. The subjects readily used a straight stick to obtain the food. When sticks were bundled together, the apes immediately unwrapped the bundle to obtain an individual stick, whereas capuchins attempted to insert the bundled sticks. When a misshapen stick was provided, apes, but not capuchins, showed an improvement in terms of modifying the misshapen stick before insertion. Our results indicate that all these species can solve these tasks. However, only the performance of apes is consistent with emerging comprehension of the causal relations required for the avoidance of errors in the more complex tasks. PMID:7705062

  7. Conservação do sêmen e liquefação do coágulo seminal de macaco-prego (Cebus apella) em água de coco em pó (ACP-118®), em diferentes temperaturas Semen conservation and seminal clot liquefaction of capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) in powdered coconut water extender (PCW) at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Karol Guimarães Oliveira; Paulo Henrique Gomes de Castro; José Augusto Pereira Carneiro Muniz; Sheyla Farhayldes Souza Domingues

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a água de coco em pó (ACP) na conservação do sêmen e liquefação do coágulo seminal de Cebus apella. O sêmen de seis machos adultos foi coletado por eletroejaculação (EEJ), diluído em solução à base de ACP-118® e submetido à incubação em banho-maria a 33, 35 e 37°C, por 24 horas. Avaliou-se a integridade espermática por meio da coloração eosina-nigrosina a cada uma hora durante as seis horas iniciais e após 24 horas de incubação. Os volumes médios e as conc...

  8. Proposal of anatomical terminology to call the arteries of the base of the encephalon in the monkey (Cebus paella L., 1766 Nomenclatura proposta para denominar as artérias da base do encéfalo do macaco-prego (Cebus apella L., 1766

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    Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Arteries of the encephalon basis of 30 monkeys (Cebus paella were studied. Arteries were injected with colored latex, fixed in formaldehyde solution at 10% and dissected under magnifying lenses. Since the animals died from natural causes they had been previously used in other experiments. Human and veterinary anatomical terminology and literature were used as a reference for the determination of vessels studied in the primates. Arteries of the encephalon base represent division branches of three vascular pedicules: the right and left internal carotid arteries and the basilar system. Vessels in the basilar system of the animal were called vertebral arteries; anterior spinal artery; anterior and posterior cerebelar arteries; pontine arteries; satellite cerebelar arteries; caudal and cranial cerebelar arteries. The basilar artery bifurcates into two posterior cerebral arteries (100%. The caudal area of the encephalon’s arterial circuit is thus constituted. Linking between the vertebro-basilar and the carotid segments is done by the posterior communicating artery, that caudally anastomizes (100% with the posterior cerebral artery. The internal carotid artery gives origin to the posterior communicating artery. The right and left internal carotid artery (intracranial portion compounds the carotid system. The following vessels were identified: middle cerebral artery; anterior cerebral artery; interhemispheric artery; olfactory arteries. Results report that Cebus paella presents an arterial pattern of relative morphological stabilityEstudaram-se as artérias da base do encéfalo do Cebus apella em 30 animais, vindos a óbito por morte natural no Zoológico de São Paulo e coletados durante 10 anos. O material recebeu injeção de látex corado, fixado em formol a 10%, e foi dissecado sob lupa. Encontramos dificuldade e denominar estes vasos. As terminologias anatômicas humana e veterinária e a recuperação da literatura nos serviram de base para

  9. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Costa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite protozoan. A large percentage of animals presents specific antibodies caused by a previous exposition, resulting in a chronic infection. Felides are the definitive hosts and the other warm-blooded animals, including primates, are the intermediate hosts. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-living tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station located on Mata de Santa Teresa, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. T. gondii antibodies were analyzed by modified agglutination test (MAT in serum samples of 36 tufted capuchin monkeys, considering eight as cut-off titer. From the studied animals, 3/36 (8.33%; CI95% 3.0-21.9% presented T. gondii antibodies, all with titer 32. No significative difference was observed relating to the sex (1/3 male and 2/3 female, and to the age (1/3 young and 2/3 adult (P>0.05. Thus, these results demonstrate the presence of T. gondii antibodies in primates from São Paulo state.

  10. Distribution of NADPH-diaphorase in the superior colliculus of Cebus monkeys, and co-localization with calcium-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J G M; Mendez-Otero, R; Gattass, Ricardo

    2003-08-01

    We examined the distribution of the enzyme dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the superior colliculus (SC) of the New World monkey Cebus apella, and the co-localization of this enzyme with the calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) calbindin-D28K, parvalbumin and calretinin. Despite the intensely labeled neuropil, rare NADPH-d-positive cells were observed in the stratum griseum superficiale (SGS). Most of the labeled cells in the SC were found in the intermediate layers, with a great number also in the deeper layers. This pattern is very similar to that described in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and in the cat, and different from the pattern found in the rat, which shows labeled cells mainly in the SGS. Cells doubly stained for NADPH-d and CaBPs were observed throughout the SC, although in a small number. Of the NADPH-d-positive cells, 20.3% were doubly labeled for NADPH-d and parvalbumin, 10.2% revealed co-localization with calretinin, and 5.6% with calbindin. The low number of double-stained cells for NADPH-d and the CaBPs indicates that these molecules must participate in different functional circuits within the SC. PMID:12871769

  11. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism

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    Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology.

  12. The effects of provisioning and crop-raiding on the diet and foraging activities of human-commensal white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Tracie

    2011-05-01

    Non-human primates are coming into increasingly frequent contact with humans and with human-modified environments. The potential for monkeys to survive in such modified landscapes is questionable, and is likely related to a species' behavioral plasticity, particularly as it relates to diet. In this study, I explore the ways in which white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) adjust their diet and foraging behaviors in response to anthropogenic impact. I compare a troop of human-commensal monkeys and a similar troop of wild-feeding monkeys living within the Curú Wildlife Refuge in western Costa Rica for differences in overall diet composition and activity budgets to evaluate the impact of habitat change in this context. The commensal-living white-faced capuchins rely on raided coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) crops and provisioned or stolen human foods for over one-half of their total diet. Regardless of this highly anthropogenic diet, the two study troops do not significantly differ in their activity budgets, and the human-commensal troop maintains wild-foraging activities consistent with those of the wild-feeding troop. These data suggest that the white-faced capuchins at this site are responding to anthropogenic disturbance primarily through the exploitation of human food resources, but they do not yet appear to have lost the foraging skills required to survive in this modified landscape on their own. This study adds to our growing body of knowledge on primate survival in matrix habitats, and will hopefully inform primate management plans throughout the Neotropics. PMID:21432873

  13. Ocorrência de anticorpos e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Leptospira spp. em Cebus spp. mantidos em cativeiro no Nordeste do Brasil

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    Débora R.A. Ferreira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Leptospira e os fatores de risco associados à infecção em primatas do gênero Cebus mantidos em cativeiro no Nordeste do Brasil. Foram analisadas 139 amostras de soro sanguíneo de diferentes espécies de primatas de ambos os sexos e idades variadas. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos empregou-se a técnica de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (SAM e para estudo dos fatores de risco utilizou-se análise multivariada. Foram observados anticorpos anti-Leptospira, sorovar Patoc em 6,5% dos primatas (09/139. O fator de risco identificado nesse estudo foi a não higienização diária de bebedouros (Odds ratio=12,095; IC 95% = 1,73-84,52; p=0,012,. Conclui-se que a população de Cebus mantidos em cativeiros no Nordeste do Brasil está exposta à infecção por anticorpos anti-Leptospira e que medidas corretivas de manejo dos animais, especificamente aquelas relacionadas à higienização diária de bebedouros devem ser implementadas para reduzir o risco de infecção por sorovares de Leptospira spp.

  14. Uso de ferramentas por Cebus Apella (Linnaeus (Primates, Cebidae para obtenção de larvas de coleoptera que parasitam sementes de syagrus romanzoffianum (Cham. Glassm. (Arecaceae Tool use in Cebus apella (Linnaeus (Primate, Cebidae to get coleoptera larvae tiiat parasite seeds of Syagrus romanzoffianum (Cham. glassm. (Arecaceae

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    Vlamir José Rocha

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the behavior of the black capped capuchin monkey, Cebus apella, using tools to break seeds of Syagrus romanzoffianum in search of coleoptera larvae that live inside. The study area was the Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (85,47 ha located in the city of Londrina, Paraná state. In one year of study, using the ad libitum method, the monkeys were observed using rocks pretty much in the same way as if they were hammer and anvil. Individuais of both sexes including adults, subadults and juveniles with more than two years of age, were involved in such activity. The behavior of the animais consisted of they place the seeds on a large rock in the ground, and using a smaller rock which was hold among the hands, the seeds were beaten repeatedly until breaking. Then they ate the larvae and/or endosperm. The use of tools is thought to have brought benefits to the animais by allowing the access to a source of food that would not normally be used.

  15. Ontogeny of Foraging Competence in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus capucinus for Easy versus Difficult to Acquire Fruits: A Test of the Needing to Learn Hypothesis.

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    Elizabeth Christine Eadie

    Full Text Available Which factors select for long juvenile periods in some species is not well understood. One potential reason to delay the onset of reproduction is slow food acquisition rates, either due to competition (part of the ecological risk avoidance hypothesis, or due to a decreased foraging efficiency (a version of the needing to learn hypothesis. Capuchins provide a useful genus to test the needing to learn hypothesis because they are known for having long juvenile periods and a difficult-to-acquire diet. Generalized, linear, mixed models with data from 609 fruit forage focal follows on 49, habituated, wild Cebus capucinus were used to test two predictions from the needing-to-learn hypothesis as it applies to fruit foraging skills: 1 capuchin monkeys do not achieve adult foraging return rates for difficult-to-acquire fruits before late in the juvenile period; and 2 variance in return rates for these fruits is at least partially associated with differences in foraging skill. In support of the first prediction, adults, compared with all younger age classes, had significantly higher foraging return rates when foraging for fruits that were ranked as difficult-to-acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.30-0.41, p-value range 0.008-0.016, indicating that the individuals in the group who have the most foraging experience also achieve the highest return rates. In contrast, and in support of the second prediction, there were no significant differences between age classes for fruits that were ranked as easy to acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.97-1.42, p-value range 0.086-0.896, indicating that strength and/or skill are likely to affect return rates. In addition, fruits that were difficult to acquire were foraged at nearly identical rates by adult males and significantly smaller (and presumably weaker adult females (males relative to females: 1.01, p = 0.978, while subadult females had much lower foraging efficiency than the similarly-sized but more

  16. Ontogeny of Foraging Competence in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus capucinus) for Easy versus Difficult to Acquire Fruits: A Test of the Needing to Learn Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Elizabeth Christine

    2015-01-01

    Which factors select for long juvenile periods in some species is not well understood. One potential reason to delay the onset of reproduction is slow food acquisition rates, either due to competition (part of the ecological risk avoidance hypothesis), or due to a decreased foraging efficiency (a version of the needing to learn hypothesis). Capuchins provide a useful genus to test the needing to learn hypothesis because they are known for having long juvenile periods and a difficult-to-acquire diet. Generalized, linear, mixed models with data from 609 fruit forage focal follows on 49, habituated, wild Cebus capucinus were used to test two predictions from the needing-to-learn hypothesis as it applies to fruit foraging skills: 1) capuchin monkeys do not achieve adult foraging return rates for difficult-to-acquire fruits before late in the juvenile period; and 2) variance in return rates for these fruits is at least partially associated with differences in foraging skill. In support of the first prediction, adults, compared with all younger age classes, had significantly higher foraging return rates when foraging for fruits that were ranked as difficult-to-acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.30-0.41, p-value range 0.008-0.016), indicating that the individuals in the group who have the most foraging experience also achieve the highest return rates. In contrast, and in support of the second prediction, there were no significant differences between age classes for fruits that were ranked as easy to acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.97-1.42, p-value range 0.086-0.896), indicating that strength and/or skill are likely to affect return rates. In addition, fruits that were difficult to acquire were foraged at nearly identical rates by adult males and significantly smaller (and presumably weaker) adult females (males relative to females: 1.01, p = 0.978), while subadult females had much lower foraging efficiency than the similarly-sized but more experienced

  17. Conservação do sêmen e liquefação do coágulo seminal de macaco-prego (Cebus apella em água de coco em pó (ACP-118®, em diferentes temperaturas Semen conservation and seminal clot liquefaction of capuchin monkey (Cebus apella in powdered coconut water extender (PCW at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Guimarães Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a água de coco em pó (ACP na conservação do sêmen e liquefação do coágulo seminal de Cebus apella. O sêmen de seis machos adultos foi coletado por eletroejaculação (EEJ, diluído em solução à base de ACP-118® e submetido à incubação em banho-maria a 33, 35 e 37°C, por 24 horas. Avaliou-se a integridade espermática por meio da coloração eosina-nigrosina a cada uma hora durante as seis horas iniciais e após 24 horas de incubação. Os volumes médios e as concentrações espermáticas das frações coagulada e líquida foram de 0,20±0,02 e 0,20±0,10mL; 1,1±0,3x10(8 e 1,3±0,9x10(7 espermatozoides mL-1, respectivamente. Somente em uma amostra da fração líquida foram verificados espermatozoides com motilidade (20% e vigor (4, perdurando por 40 minutos. A maior parte do coágulo liquefez em ACP-118® após 12 horas de incubação. O melhor tratamento observado foi sob 33°C, por manter até 47±12,8% de espermatozoides vivos após 24 horas. Conclui-se que o diluente à base de ACP é eficiente na liquefação do coágulo seminal e na manutenção da integridade espermática até 24 horas após a EEJ, nas temperaturas de 33, 35 e 37°C.The aim of this study was to evaluate the powdered coconut water (PCW in the semen conservation and seminal clot liquefaction. The semen of six adult male Cebus apella was collected by electroejaculation (EEJ, diluted in ACP-118® extender and stayed in water bath at 33, 35 and 37°C for 24 hours. The sperm integrity was evaluated by eosin-nigrosine staining every one hour during the six initial hours and after 24 hours of incubation. The average volumes and sperm concentrations of clotted and liquid fractions were 0.20±0.02 and 0.20±0.10mL, 1.1±0.3x108 and 1.3±0.9x107 sperm mL-1, respectively. Immediately after collection, only in a sample of liquid fraction was observed 20% motility and vigor 4, which stopped after 40 minutes. Most of the clot was

  18. Etude des prérequis de la théorie de l’esprit chez les primates non humains‎ : approche expérimentale de la compréhension des intentions chez les capucins moines, Cebus capucinus et les capucins bruns, Sapajus apella

    OpenAIRE

    Llerena, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Discriminer les intentions d’autrui est une part fondamentale de la cognition sociale humaine. Des études révèlent que nos plus proches cousins, les chimpanzés, en sont également capables. Mais partageons-nous également cette capacité avec d’autres primates non humains, dont les singes du Nouveau Monde ? La présente étude propose des éléments de réponse à cette question en testant si les capucins bruns (Sapajus apella) et les capucins moines (Cebus capucinus) sont capables de percevoir les in...

  19. Infecção experimental de macacos cebus apella sp pelo Trypanosoma cruzi: avaliação clínica, eletrocardiqgráfica e anatomopatológica

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    Eros Antonio de Almeida

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Dos trinta e dois macacos capturados no interior do Estado de São Paulo e mantidos em laboratório em gaiolas individuais (24 a 25 C° e 70% de umidificação após vários xenodiagnósticos negativos, 12 foram infectados por via intraperitoneal com diferentes cepas de Trypanosoma cruzi, cujas formas tripomastigotas injetadas variaram de 1.10(5 a 5.10(6 Os 20 macacos restantes foram mantidos como controle. No período de 1 a 6 anos tanto os animais inoculados como os não inoculados, foram submetidos axenodiagnóstico e teste soro lógico de aglutinação direta, exame clínico e o eletrocardiograma. Posteriormente os macacos foram necropsiados e todos os órgãos submetidos a exame macro e microscópico. O exame clínico e o eletrocardiograma não revelaram alterações. Dos 12 macacos infectados, 4 apresentaram evidências de infecção ao exame histopatológico: utn com formas amastigotas nos tecidos e 3 com miocardite crônica de grau leve. A parasitemiafoi comprovada em 66,66% dos animais na fase aguda e a sorologia em 91,66% na fase crônica. Concluiu-se que os macacos Cebus não expressaram susceptibilidade ao desenvolvimento das lesões que caracterizam a fase . crônica da doença de Chagas mas poderiam ser usados para manter as cepas de T. cruzi e estudos de pesquisa sorológico a longo termo.

  20. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic representation.

  1. Experimental Gastric Carcinogenesis in Cebus apella Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tanielly Cristina Raiol; Andrade Junior, Edilson Ferreira; Rezende, Alexandre Pingarilho; Carneiro Muniz, José Augusto Pereira; Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos Cunha; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Demachki, Samia; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9th day though on the 14th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the tolerability and duration of anticancer treatments. PMID:21811552

  2. The elusive illusion: Do children (Homo sapiens) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) see the Solitaire illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Agrillo, Christian; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    One approach to gaining a better understanding of how we perceive the world is to assess the errors that human and nonhuman animals make in perceptual processing. Developmental and comparative perspectives can contribute to identifying the mechanisms that underlie systematic perceptual errors often referred to as perceptual illusions. In the visual domain, some illusions appear to remain constant across the lifespan, whereas others change with age. From a comparative perspective, many of the illusions observed in humans appear to be shared with nonhuman primates. Numerosity illusions are a subset of visual illusions and occur when the spatial arrangement of stimuli within a set influences the perception of quantity. Previous research has found one such illusion that readily occurs in human adults, the Solitaire illusion. This illusion appears to be less robust in two monkey species, rhesus macaques and capuchin monkeys. We attempted to clarify the ontogeny of this illusion from a developmental and comparative perspective by testing human children and task-naïve capuchin monkeys in a computerized quantity judgment task. The overall performance of the monkeys suggested that they perceived the numerosity illusion, although there were large differences among individuals. Younger children performed similarly to the monkeys, whereas older children more consistently perceived the illusion. These findings suggest that human-unique perceptual experiences with the world might play an important role in the emergence of the Solitaire illusion in human adults, although other factors also may contribute. PMID:26513327

  3. Sex differences in play behavior in juvenile tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    OpenAIRE

    Paukner, Annika; Stephen J. Suomi

    2008-01-01

    According to the motor training hypothesis, play behavior in juvenile primates improves motor skills that are required in later adult life. Sex differences in juvenile play behavior can therefore be expected when adult animals assume distinct sexually dimorphic roles. Tufted capuchin monkeys show sexually dimorphic levels of physical antagonism in both inter- and intragroup encounters. Accordingly, it can be predicted that juvenile capuchins also show sex differences in social play behavior. ...

  4. Do Social Conditions Affect Capuchin Monkeys’ (Cebus apella Choices in a Quantity Judgment Task?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MichaelBeran

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Beran et al. (2012 reported that capuchin monkeys closely matched the performance of humans in a quantity judgment test in which information was incomplete but a judgment still had to be made. In each test session, subjects first made quantity judgments between two known options. Then, they made choices where only one option was visible. Both humans and capuchin monkeys were guided by past outcomes, as they shifted from selecting a known option to selecting an unknown option at the point at which the known option went from being more than the average rate of return to less than the average rate of return from earlier choices in the test session. Here, we expanded this assessment of what guides quantity judgment choice behavior in the face of incomplete information to include manipulations to the unselected quantity. We manipulated the unchosen set in two ways: first, we showed the monkeys what they did not get (the unchosen set, anticipating that “losses” would weigh heavily on subsequent trials in which the same known quantity was presented. Second, we sometimes gave the unchosen set to another monkey, anticipating that this social manipulation might influence the risk-taking responses of the focal monkey when faced with incomplete information. However, neither manipulation caused difficulty for the monkeys who instead continued to use the rational strategy of choosing known sets when they were as large as or larger than the average rate of return in the session, and choosing the unknown (riskier set when the known set was not sufficiently large. As in past experiments, this was true across a variety of daily ranges of quantities, indicating that monkeys were not using some absolute quantity as a threshold for selecting (or not the known set, but instead continued to use the daily average rate of return to determine when to choose the known versus the unknown quantity.

  5. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  6. Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, V; Lefevre, C. E.; Morton, F. B.; Brosnan, S.F.; Paukner, A.; Bates, T C

    2013-01-01

    Personality has important links to health, social status, and life history outcomes (e.g. longevity and reproductive success). Human facial morphology appears to signal aspects of one’s personality to others, raising questions about the evolutionary origins of such associations (e.g. signals of mate quality). Studies in non-human primates may help to achieve this goal: for instance, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) in the male face has been associated with dominance not only in humans but ...

  7. Attending to the outcome of others: disadvantageous inequity aversion in male capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Grace E

    2008-09-01

    Brosnan and de Waal [Nature 425:297-299, 2003] reported that capuchin monkeys responded negatively to unequal reward distributions between themselves and another individual when comparing their own rewards with that of their partner. It was suggested that social emotions provided the underlying motivation for such behavior and that this inequity aversion is specific to the social domain. However, alternative hypotheses such as the "frustration effect" or the "food expectation hypothesis" may provide more parsimonious explanations for Brosnan and de Waal's [Nature 425:297-299] results, while others have argued that these findings are not congruent with the Fehr-Schmidt inequity aversion model cited by the authors. The claim that inequity aversion behavior is specific to the social domain has also been questioned, as primates also develop expectations about rewards in the absence of partners, and react negatively when those expectations are violated. In this study, a modified Dictator game was used to investigate whether capuchins would exhibit either disadvantageous inequity aversion behavior or reference-dependent expectancy violation in social and nonsocial conditions, respectively. When given the choice between an equitable and an inequitable outcome, the subjects showed disadvantageous inequity aversion behavior, choosing the equitable outcome significantly more in the social condition. In the nonsocial condition, however, subjects did not show negative expectancy violation resulting from the formation of reference-dependent expectations, choosing the equitable outcome at chance levels. These results suggest that capuchins attend to differential payoffs and that they are averse to inequity, which is disadvantageous to themselves. PMID:18521838

  8. An assessment of memory awareness in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Murray, Elisabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Humans, apes, and rhesus monkeys demonstrate memory awareness by collecting information when ignorant and acting immediately when informed. In this study, five capuchin monkeys searched for food after either watching the experimenter bait one of four opaque tubes (seen trials), or not watching (unseen trials). Monkeys with memory awareness should look into the tubes before making a selection only on unseen trials because on seen trials they already know the location of the food. In Experiment...

  9. Ontogeny of Manipulative Behavior and Nut-Cracking in Young Tufted Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus Apella"): A Perception-Action Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Resende, Briseida Dogo; Ottoni, Eduardo B.; Fragaszy, Dorothy M.

    2008-01-01

    How do capuchin monkeys learn to use stones to crack open nuts? Perception-action theory posits that individuals explore producing varying spatial and force relations among objects and surfaces, thereby learning about affordances of such relations and how to produce them. Such learning supports the discovery of tool use. We present longitudinal…

  10. The hybrid delay task: Can capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) sustain a delay after an initial choice to do so?

    OpenAIRE

    Paglieri, Fabio; Focaroli, Valentina; Bramlett, Jessica; Tierno, Valeria; McIntyre, Joseph M.; Addessi, Elsa; Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Choosing to wait for a better outcome (delay choice) and sustaining the delay prior to that outcome (delay maintenance) are both prerequisites for successful self control in intertemporal choices. However, most existing experimental methods test these skills in isolation from each other, and no significant correlation has been observed in performance across these tasks. In this study we introduce a new paradigm, the hybrid delay task, which combines an initial delay choice with a subsequent d...

  11. Variación heterocromática del cariotipo, en el Género Cebus que habita en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leibovici M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El entendimiento de la diversidad de los primates es esencial para establecer prioridades en losplanes de su conservación, la taxonomía precede la conservación y en la mayoría de los génerosde los primates Platyrrhini, la taxonomía aún es controvertida. (Rylans y colaboradores 2000.Por otra parte, son numerosos los ejemplos en los cuales los cariotipos de primates destacancaracterísticas, que contribuyen al reconocimiento de diferentes formas y así pueden aclararproblemas taxonómicos.

  12. Memoria espacial de árboles frutales de Cebus apella nigritus en el Parque Nacional Iguazú, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Tujague, María Paula; Lahitte, Héctor Blas

    2009-01-01

    Durante el desplazamiento diario los primates integran información sobre la localización, calidad, cantidad y estado de maduración del alimento. La diversidad extrema de árboles de fruta y la forma en que éstos se distribuyen en tiempo y espacio ha sido señalada como la mayor fuerza selectiva en el desarrollo de la memoria espacial. Modelos y experimentación sugieren que la misma ofrece una mejor explicación de los patrones de detección de comida observados en el campo, por encima de los sist...

  13. Contextualised behavioural measurements of personality differences obtained in behavioural tests and social observations in adult capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    OpenAIRE

    Uher, Jana; Addessi, Elsa; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    We applied a new framework for behavioural research on personality differences in 26 adult tufted capuchin monkeys. Using the Behavioural Repertoire x Environmental Situations Approach, we generated systematically 20 non-lexical emic personality constructs that have high ecological validity for this species. For construct operationalisation, we obtained 146 contextualised behavioural measures repeatedly in 15 experimental situations and 2 group situations using computerised and video-assisted...

  14. Leptospira spp detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in clinical samples of captive black-capped Capuchin monkey (Cebus apella)

    OpenAIRE

    Scarcelli Eliana; Piatti Rosa Maria; Fedullo José Daniel Luzes; Simon Faiçal; Cardoso Maristela Vasconcellos; Castro Vanessa; Miyashiro Simone; Genovez Margareth Élide

    2003-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a widely distributed zoonosis that affects domestic and wild animals, and that has the man as the end point of its epidemiological chain. Leptospirosis diagnosis in primates is more difficult than in other animal species, as clinical signs and lesions are less evident and antibody response is detected only for short periods. The aim of this article was to describe the detection of Leptospira spp using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in clinical samples from one captive black...

  15. The substituted (S)-3-phenylpiperidine (-)-OSU6162 reduces apomorphine- and amphetamine-induced behaviour in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Andersen, M B; Fink-Jensen, A;

    2006-01-01

    Low affinity dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists such as the substituted (S)-3-phenylpiperidine (-)-OSU6162 have been proposed to be putative antipsychotic agents not endowed with extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). In the present study we investigated the effects of (-)-OSU6162 on (-)-apomorphine and d-...

  16. Cardiothoracic ratio and vertebral heart size (VHS to standardize the heart size of the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella Linnaeus, 1758 in computerized radiographic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio J. Rocha-Neto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The VHS and CTR were assessed using computerized thoracic radiographs of ten clinically healthy tufted capuchin monkeys (five males and five females from the Wild Animal Screening Center in São Luís (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de São Luís-MA-CETAS. Radiographs were taken in laterolateral and dorsoventral projections to calculate the cardiothoracic ratio (VHS and vertebral heart size (CTR. The VHS showed mean values of 9.34±0.32v (males and 9.16±0.34v (females and there was no statistical difference between males and females (p>0.05. The CTR showed mean values of 0.55±0.04 (males and 0.52±0.03 (females and there was no statistical difference between the sexes (p>0.05. There was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.78. The thoracic and heart diameters showed mean values of 5.70±0.48cm and 2.16±0.40cm in the males, respectively. In the females they measured 5.32±0.39cm and 2.94±0.32cm. There was no statistical difference between the sexes. Our results show that the high correlation found between VHS and CTR permitted the verification with similar clinical precision between the two methods to estimate alterations in the heart silhouette by radiographic examination of tufted capuchin, making it an easy technique to apply that can be considered in the investigation of heart problems for this wild species.

  17. Comportamiento espacial y memoria en el mono caí (Cebus apella) en contexto de grupo: semejanzas entre primates no-humanos y humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Tujague, María Paula

    2013-01-01

    La memoria espacial se considera un factor selectivo en la evolución de la inteligencia. Los estudios en animales permiten pensar que los procesos cognitivos descriptos en los seres humanos tienen mucho en común con los de otras especies. En el caso de los primates sudamericanos, la diversidad de plantas que son fuente de alimento, y la forma en que éstas se distribuyen en tiempo y espacio, han sido señaladas como la mayor fuerza selectiva en el desarrollo de las complejidades cerebrales avan...

  18. Effects of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonism and antagonism on SKF81297-induced dyskinesia and haloperidol-induced dystonia in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten V; Peacock, Linda P; Werge, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs may cause extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as dyskinesia and dystonia. These effects are believed to involve dysfunctional striatal dopamine transmission. Patients with schizophrenia show increased prevalence of cannabis abuse and this has been linked to severity of EPS....... Endocannabinoids modulate striatal dopamine activity via type 1 cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptors, and studies in rats and humans suggest beneficial effects of CB(1) ligands on EPS. The present study explored the effects of CB(1) receptor ligands on oral dyskinesia induced by the dopamine D(1) receptor agonist SKF...

  19. Leptospira spp detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in clinical samples of captive black-capped Capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) Detecção de Leptospira spp pela técnica da reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR) em amostras clínicas de macaco prego (Cebus apella) criado em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Scarcelli; Rosa Maria Piatti; José Daniel Luzes Fedullo; Faiçal Simon; Maristela Vasconcellos Cardoso; Vanessa Castro; Simone Miyashiro; Margareth Élide Genovez

    2003-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a widely distributed zoonosis that affects domestic and wild animals, and that has the man as the end point of its epidemiological chain. Leptospirosis diagnosis in primates is more difficult than in other animal species, as clinical signs and lesions are less evident and antibody response is detected only for short periods. The aim of this article was to describe the detection of Leptospira spp using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in clinical samples from one captive black...

  20. Determinación de niveles de variabilidad genética y de números efectivos en ocho especies de primates neotropicales en Colombia mediante los microsatélites AP6, AP68, AP40, AP74, D5S111, D5S117, D6S260, D8S165, D14S51, y D17S804

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-García M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de 8 especies de primates neotropicales directamente muestreados en el campo (Cebus albifrons, Cebus apella, Cebus capucinus, Saimiri sciureus, Aotus nancymae, Alouatta seniculus,
    Ateles fusciceps y Lagothrix lagotricha con 10 marcadores microsatélites reveló una serie de características genético poblacionales de todas ellas. En todas se determinó la posible existencia de equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg, desequilibrio gamético y adicionalmente, se midieron los niveles de diversidad génica (heterocigosis esperada en las 8 especies citadas.

  1. Determinación de niveles de variabilidad genética y de números efectivos en ocho especies de primates neotropicales en Colombia mediante los microsatélites AP6, AP68, AP40, AP74, D5S111, D5S117, D6S260, D8S165, D14S51, y D17S804

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-García M.

    2001-01-01

    El análisis de 8 especies de primates neotropicales directamente muestreados en el campo (Cebus albifrons, Cebus apella, Cebus capucinus, Saimiri sciureus, Aotus nancymae, Alouatta seniculus,
    Ateles fusciceps y Lagothrix lagotricha) con 10 marcadores microsatélites reveló una serie de características genético poblacionales de todas ellas. En todas se determinó la posible existencia de equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg, desequilibrio gamético y adicionalmente, se midieron los niveles de div...

  2. Validity of animal models for the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee diterpenes in human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, de, B.; Sawyer, J K; Katan, M.B.; Rudel, L L

    1999-01-01

    Cafestol and kahweol, coffee lipids present in unfiltered coffee brews, potently increase LDL-cholesterol concentration in human subjects. We searched for an animal species in which cafestol similarly increases LDL-cholesterol. Such an animal model could be used subsequently as a model to study the mechanism of action of cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol increased serum lipids in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), cebus (Cebus apella) and rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys,...

  3. Architectonic mapping of somatosensory areas involved in skilled forelimb movements and tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Andrei; Nascimento-Silva, Márcio L; Keher, Natalia B; Bittencourt-Navarrete, Ruben Ernesto; Gattass, Ricardo; Franca, João G

    2016-05-01

    Cebus monkeys stand out from other New World monkeys by their ability to perform fine hand movements, and by their spontaneous use of tools in the wild. Those behaviors rely on the integration of somatosensory information, which occurs in different areas of the parietal cortex. Although a few studies have examined and parceled the somatosensory areas of the cebus monkey, mainly using electrophysiological criteria, very little is known about its anatomical organization. In this study we used SMI-32 immunohistochemistry, myelin, and Nissl stains to characterize the architecture of the parietal cortical areas of cebus monkeys. Seven cortical areas were identified between the precentral gyrus and the anterior bank of the intraparietal sulcus. Except for areas 3a and 3b, distinction between different somatosensory areas was more evident in myelin-stained sections and SMI-32 immunohistochemistry than in Nissl stain, especially for area 2 and subdivisions of area 5. Our results show that cebus monkeys have a relatively complex somatosensory cortex, similar to that of macaques and humans. This suggests that, during primate evolution, the emergence of new somatosensory areas underpinned complex manual behaviors in most Old World simians and in the New World cebus monkey. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1399-1423, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26477782

  4. Preliminary early evaluation of radiation acute syndrome severity in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the knowledge of Radiation Acute Syndrome radiopathological picture, whole body x-rays irradiation at 2Gy of a primate (Cebus apella paraguayanus) used as model has been performed. Early evaluations of clinical symptoms and dose and damage biological indicators have shown that this primate has given out similar responses to those of man. (author)

  5. Polyspecific associations between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and other primates in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2011-11-01

    One of the most common types of polyspecific association observed in Neotropical primate communities is that between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and capuchins (Cebus). The present study focused on association patterns in two Saimiri sciureus groups in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, between March and October, 2009. The associations were analyzed in terms of the species involved, the degree of association, and niche breadth and overlap. The study involved two S. sciureus groups (B4 and GI) on the right and left bank of the Tocantins River, respectively, within the area of the Tucuruí reservoir in southeastern Pará. Relations between species were classified as associations (individuals within 50 m and moving in the same direction), and encounters (individuals within 50 m and no coordinated movement). Group B4 was in association with Cebus apella during 100% of monitoring, and with Chiropotes satanas in 20.2%. By contrast, Group GI associated with Cebus 54.8% of the time, and with Chiropotes utahickae 2.5%. Encounters with Alouatta belzebul and Saguinus niger were recorded at both sites, with Aotus azarae and Dasyprocta prymnolopha at B4, and with Callicebus moloch, Dasyproct aleporina, Mazama gouazoubira, and Nasua nasua at GI. Overall, Saimiri had a broader niche than Cebus in terms of vertical spacing and diet, but not for substrate use. This pattern did not appear to be affected by association. While group GI spent significantly (P foraging patterns at the two sites, and the varying potential benefits of association for Saimiri. PMID:21809365

  6. Comparative and functional myology of the prehensile tail in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, P

    1995-06-01

    The caudal myology of prehensile-tailed monkeys (Cebus apella, Alouatta palliata, Alouatta seniculus, Lagothrix lagotricha, and Ateles paniscus) and nonprehensile-tailed primates (Eulemur fulvus, Aotus trivirgatus, Callithrix jacchus, Pithecia pithecia, Saimiri sciureus, Macaca fascicularis, and Cercopithecus aethiops) was examined and compared in order to identify muscular differences that correlate with osteological features diagnostic of tail prehensility. In addition, electrophysiological stimulation was carried out on different segments of the intertransversarii caudae muscle of an adult spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) to assess their action on the prehensile tail. Several important muscular differences characterize the prehensile tail of New World monkeys compared to the nonprehensile tail of other primates. In atelines and Cebus, the mass of extensor caudae lateralis and flexor caudae longus muscles is more uniform along the tail, and their long tendons cross a small number of vertebrae before insertion. Also, prehensile-tailed monkeys, especially atelines, are characterized by well-developed flexor and intertransversarii caudae muscles compared to nonprehensile-tailed primates. Finally, Ateles possesses a bulkier abductor caudae medialis and a more cranial origin for the first segment of intertransversarii caudae than do other prehensile-tailed platyrrhines. These myological differences between nonprehensile-tailed and prehensile-tailed primates, and among prehensile-tailed monkeys, agree with published osteological and behavioral data. Caudal myological similarities and differences found in Cebus and atelines, combined with tail-use data from the literature, support the hypothesis that prehensile tails evolved in parallel in Cebus and atelines. PMID:7595958

  7. Primate diversity, habitat preferences, and population density estimates in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R B; Painter, R L; Taber, A B

    1998-01-01

    This report documents primate communities at two sites within Noel Kempff Mercado National Park in northeastern Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. Diurnal line transects and incidental observations were employed to survey two field sites, Lago Caiman and Las Gamas, providing information on primate diversity, habitat preferences, relative abundance, and population density. Primate diversity at both sites was not particularly high, with six observed species: Callithrix argentata melanura, Aotus azarae, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, A. seniculus, and Ateles paniscus chamek. Cebus showed no significant habitat preferences at Lago Caiman and was also more generalist in use of forest strata, whereas Ateles clearly preferred the upper levels of structurally tall forest. Callithrix argentata melanura was rarely encountered during surveys at Lago Caiman, where it preferred low vine forest. Both species of Alouatta showed restricted habitat use and were sympatric in Igapo forest in the Lago Caiman area. The most abundant primate at both field sites was Ateles, with density estimates reaching 32.1 individuals/km2 in the lowland forest at Lago Caiman, compared to 14.1 individuals/km2 for Cebus. Both Ateles and Cebus were absent from smaller patches of gallery forest at Las Gamas. These densities are compared with estimates from other Neotropical sites. The diversity of habitats and their different floristic composition may account for the numerical dominance of Ateles within the primate communities at both sites. PMID:9802511

  8. Utilisation des sécrétions de myriapodes chez les lémurs et les sapajous : fonction curative ou signalisation sociale ? Fur-rubbing with millipedes in lemurs and capuchin monkeys: social function or zoopharmacognosy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Simmen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available L’utilisation des myriapodes en friction sur le pelage et d’autres zones corporelles est documentée chez les primates en conditions naturelles, notamment à partir des observations récurrentes menées chez le genre Cebus. La typologie de ces comportements suggère différentes hypothèses, fonctionnelles (zoopharmacognosie, alimentaire, sociale ou non (sensorielle, auto-stimulation. Nous présentons des observations qualitatives comparées de l’utilisation non alimentaire de myriapodes diplopodes chez une forme hybride du genre Eulemur au Sud de Madagascar (occurrences en janvier 2005 et chez le sapajou Cebus apella en Guyane Française (occurrences en mars-avril 1996. L’application des sécrétions à benzoquinones sur une large partie du pelage chez Cebus contraste avec la friction exclusive de la zone périgénitale faisant suite au flairage du diplopode chez Eulemur qui manifeste en outre une réponse stéréotypée analogue au flehmen. Dans notre étude, l’imprégnation de fluides à forte intensité olfactive potentialiserait la signalisation de l’identité individuelle chez Eulemur alors que le "fur-rubbing" chez Cebus est compatible avec l’hypothèse commune d’une forme d’appropriation des défenses antiparasitaires de ces invertébrés. La sécrétion de ces défenses chimiques n’est pas automatiquement déclenchée par la manipulation des diplopodes. Le stress induit par les morsures légères (Eulemur et Cebus et l’arrachage des pattes sur plusieurs segments (Cebus augmente la probabilité de sécrétion, ce qui témoignerait d’un apprentissage d’autant plus efficace des conditions d’émission de ces fluides que l’usage est spécifique et très opportuniste.Body-rubbing with millipedes is repeatedly documented in primates living under natural conditions, mainly in capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp.. Various functional (zoopharmacognosy, ingestion, social and non-functional hypotheses (sensory, auto

  9. Efficacy of niclosamide as a potential antipenetrant (TAP) against cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    John I. Bruce; Robert Miller; Lawrence Lightner; Subbiah Yoganathan

    1992-01-01

    A 1% (W/V) formulation of Niclosamide (2', 5-Dichloro-4-nitrosalicylanilide) (TAP) was tested on Cebus apella monkeys as a topical prophylatic against schistosomiasis mansoni. Two experiments were conducted using the same formulation. In the first experiment, the TAP provided complete protection against schistosomiasis for 3 days. Of the 4 monkeys treated with TAP 7 days before exposure to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, 2 were completely protected. The remaining 2 monkeys of the 7 day treatme...

  10. The Primate Community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia): A Model to Decipher Ecological Partitioning among Extinct Species

    OpenAIRE

    Anusha Ramdarshan; Thomas Alloing-Séguier; Gildas Merceron; Laurent Marivaux

    2011-01-01

    International audience Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil), in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate signi...

  11. The Primate Community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia): A Model to Decipher Ecological Partitioning among Extinct Species

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdarshan, Anusha; Alloing-Seguier, Thomas; Merceron, Gildas; Marivaux, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil), in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate significant differences between...

  12. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species

    OpenAIRE

    Bronikowski, Anne M.; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B.; William F. Morris

    2016-01-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei...

  13. Serological survey for Leishmania sp. infection in wild animals from the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil

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    EM Voltarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania sp. infection was investigated in wild animals from the Ingá Park, in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil, where American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is an endemic disease. Sixty-five mammals, comprising Didelphis albiventris, Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua, were captured. Blood samples were collected for parasite cultivation. Antibodies were investigated by direct agglutination test (DAT using Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis as antigen. Flagellates were observed in blood cultures of 14 (35.9% Didelphis albiventris. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 31 (51.6% specimens of Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua. These results suggest that Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex vetulus (crab-eating fox, Cebus apella (capuchin monkey, Dasyprocta azarae (agouti, Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon and Nasua nasua (coati play an important role in the ACL transmission cycle in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

  14. Utilización de variables citogenéticas y antropométricas para un eficiente manejo de primates neotropicales en cautiverio Use of cytogenetic and anthropometric variables for an efficient management of Neotropical Primates in captivity

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    D Ferre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los monos neotropicales de la colección del Zoológico de la Ciudad de Mendoza (ZMA, Argentina, fueron objeto de un estudio colaborativo que incluyó la toma de medidas antropométricas y el análisis citogenético básico (alfa. Se estudiaron 13 ejemplares del género Alouatta sp. (10 hembras y 3 machos, 2 Cebus sp. (una hembra y un macho y 3 hembras Saimiri sp. Mediante la cariología se confirmó que los Cebus del ZMA se corresponderían con C. paraguayanus (2N=54, XX/XY y los Saimiri, con Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis (2N= 44,XX. En los aulladores se corroboró su asignación de especie como A. caraya y se observó una morfología cromosómica, compatible con el ya descrito sistema de determinación sexual múltiple X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y1Y2. La oportunidad permitió que el ZMA implementara por primera vez la identificación de los ejemplares a través de la colocación de microchips numerados que permitirán su seguimiento y manejo en el tiempo.The neotropical primates which are part of the collection of the Mendoza Zoological Garden (ZMA were object of a collaborative study that included the performance of anthropometrical measurements and classic cytogenetic analysis (alpha. Thirteen specimens of the genus Alouatta (10 females and 3 males, 2 Cebus sp. (1 male and 1 female and 3 females of Saimiri sp. were studied. The karyological study allowed to confirm that the Cebus of ZMA corresponded to Cebus paraguayanus (2N=54, XX/XY and the Saimiri to Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis species (2N = 44, XX. In the howler monkeys the species assignment was confirmed to A. caraya and a chromosomal morphology in the mitotic metaphases, compatible with the previously described and confirmed by meiosis, multiple sex determination system X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y1Y2, was observed. This opportunity allowed the ZMA to implementthe identification through the injection of numerated microchips that will facilitate its following and management.

  15. ASPM and the evolution of cerebral cortical size in a community of New World monkeys.

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    Fernando A Villanea

    Full Text Available The ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated gene has been proposed as a major determinant of cerebral cortical size among primates, including humans. Yet the specific functions of ASPM and its connection to human intelligence remain controversial. This debate is limited in part by a taxonomic focus on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we expand the comparative context of ASPM sequence analyses with a study of New World monkeys, a radiation of primates in which enlarged brain size has evolved in parallel in spider monkeys (genus Ateles and capuchins (genus Cebus. The primate community of Costa Rica is perhaps a model system because it allows for independent pairwise comparisons of smaller- and larger-brained species within two taxonomic families. Accordingly, we analyzed the complete sequence of exon 18 of ASPM in Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus, and Saimiri oerstedii. As the analysis of multiple species in a genus improves phylogenetic reconstruction, we also analyzed eleven published sequences from other New World monkeys. Our exon-wide, lineage-specific analysis of eleven genera and the ratio of rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (d(N/d(S on ASPM revealed no detectable evidence for positive selection in the lineages leading to Ateles or Cebus, as indicated by d(N/d(S ratios of <1.0 (0.6502 and 0.4268, respectively. Our results suggest that a multitude of interacting genes have driven the evolution of larger brains among primates, with different genes involved in this process in different encephalized lineages, or at least with evidence for positive selection not readily apparent for the same genes in all lineages. The primate community of Costa Rica may serve as a model system for future studies that aim to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive capacity and cortical size.

  16. Isolation of Madre de Dios Virus (Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae), an Oropouche Virus Species Reassortant, from a Monkey in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Hernandez, Rosa; Auguste, Albert J; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C; Montañez, Humberto; Liria, Jonathan; Lima, Anderson; Travassos da Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares; da Silva, Sandro P; Vasconcelos, Janaina M; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Vianez, João L S G; Nunes, Marcio R T

    2016-08-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an important cause of human illness in tropical South America. Herein, we report the isolation, complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of an OROV species reassortant, Madre de Dios virus (MDDV), obtained from a sick monkey (Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk) collected in a forest near Atapirire, a small rural village located in Anzoategui State, Venezuela. MDDV is one of a growing number of naturally occurring OROV species reassortants isolated in South America and was known previously only from southern Peru. PMID:27215299

  17. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Brasil; Roberta Parentoni; Roberto Farias; Thiago Nery; Sílvio Vasconcellos; Sérgio Santos de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the spec...

  18. Capuchin Monkeys Exercise Self-control by Choosing Token Exchange Over an Immediate Reward

    OpenAIRE

    Judge, Peter G.; Essler, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Self-control is a prerequisite for complex cognitive processes such as cooperation and planning. As such, comparative studies of self-control may help elucidate the evolutionary origin of these capacities. A variety of methods have been developed to test for self-control in non-human primates that include some variation of foregoing an immediate reward in order to gain a more favorable reward. We used a token exchange paradigm to test for self-control in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Anima...

  19. Ocorrência de protozoários gastrintestinais em primatas mantidos em cativeiro na região sul do Brasil Occurrence of gastrointestinal protozoa in primates kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil

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    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar o parasitismo gastrintestinal por protozoários em macacos mantidos em cativeiro na região Sul do Brasil. Foram analisadas amostras de fezes de 18 primatas de quatro espécies, Cebus apella, Macaca mulata, Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata pelo método de centrífugo flutuação com sulfato de zinco. Nos animais avaliados, foram verificados infecções simples e mistas pelos protozoários dos gêneros Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cystoisospora e Balantidium. Analisando a água oferecida aos primatas foi detectada a presença elevada de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp.This research aimed at evaluating the gastrointestinal parasitism by protozoa in monkeys kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples from 18 primates of the species Cebus apella, Macaca mulata, Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata were analyzed by the zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation method. Simple and mixed infections by protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cystoisospora and Balantidium were observed. The water offered to the primates had elevated presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp.

  20. Presença de anticorpos da classe IgM de Leptospira interrogans em animais silvestres do Estado do Tocantins, 2002 Presence of IgM antibodies for Leptospira interrogans in wild animals from Tocantins State, 2002

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    Milton Formiga de Souza Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Quatrocentos e vinte e sete amostras de soro provenientes de animais silvestres foram testadas frente a 18 sorovariedades de Leptospira interrogans. De 286 amostras de Cebus apella, 46 (16,1% foram positivas para as sorovariedades pomona, brasiliensis, mini, swajizak, grippothyphosa, sarmin, fluminense, autumnalis, hebdomadis, guaratuba, javanica e icterohaemorhagiae. Das 82 de Alouatta caraya, 2 (2,4% foram positivas para as sorovariedades mangus e fluminense. Das 31 de Nasua nasua, 4 (12,9% foram positivas para as sorovariedades fluminense e javanica. Das 10 amostras de Cerdocyon thous, 2 (20% foram positivas para as sorovariedades fluminense e brasiliensis. Sete de Dasyprocta sp, 6 de Tamandua tetradactila e 5 de Euphractus sexcintus não apresentaram reatividade.Four hundred and twenty-seven serum samples of wild animals were tested against 18 serovars of Leptospira interrogans. Of 286 samples of Cebus apella, 46 (16.1% were positive for the serovars pomona, brasiliensis, mini, swajizak, grippotyphosa, sarmin, fluminense, autumnalis, hebdomadis, guaratuba, javanica and icterohaemorrhagiae. Of 82 samples of Alouatta caraya, 2 (2.4% were positive for the serovars mangus and fluminense. Of 31 samples of Nasua nasua, 4 (12.9% were positive for the serovars fluminense and javanica, and of 10 samples of Cerdocyon thous, 2 (20 % were positive for the serovars fluminense and brasiliensis. Seven samples of Dasyprocta sp, 6 of Tamandua tetradactyla and 5 of Euphractus sexcintus did not present reactivity.

  1. Estudio de la composición genética de las colecciones de primates de cuatro parques zoológicos colombianos y de una institución peruana mediante el uso de 10 loci microsatélites.

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    Carrillo L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron parte de las colecciones de Primates de cuatro zoológicos colombianos y del Proyecto de Primatología de Iquitos, Perú mediante el uso de diez marcadores microsatélites hipervariables. Zoológico de Cali: las colecciones de primates de este zoológico estudiadas fueron Alouatta seniculus, que mostró una heterocigosis promedio de 0.44+0.17, el cual es un valor intermedio, Saimiri sciureus (H=0.46 + 0.20, que presentó dos marcadores (AP74 y D6S260 con un exceso significativo de homocigotos, posiblemente por efecto Wahlund por contener dos subespecies, S. s. macrodon y S. s. albigena, Cebus albifrons (H=0.375+0.195, con una variabilidad genética ligeramente inferior a las otras especies, Cebus albifrons (H=0.253+0.179, siendo la especie que menor variabilidad genética presentó en esta colección, Ateles fusciceps (H=0.50+0.179, que, por el contrario, es la especie de primates que presentó la más elevada
    diversidad genética de esta colección y Lagothrix lagotricha (H=0.372+0.138.

  2. Abundance, diversity, and patterns of distribution of primates on the Tapiche River in Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C L; Leonard, S; Carter, S

    2001-06-01

    This work presents data on the relative diversity, abundance, and distribution patterns of primates in a 20 km2 area of the Tapiche River in the Peruvian Amazon. Population data were collected while the study area was both inundated and dry (March to September 1997) using conventional line-transect census techniques. Survey results reflected the presence of 11 primate species, but population parameters on only eight of the species will be presented, including saddleback tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis), Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis), brown capuchins (Cebus apella), white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons), monk sakis (Pithecia monachus), red titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), red uakaris (Cacajao calvus), and red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha), night monkeys (Aotus nancymaae), and pygmy marmosets (Callithrix pygmaea) were also seen in the area. The data for the smaller-bodied primates is similar to that reported almost 18 years earlier, but the data for the larger-bodied primates reflect a loss in the number of animals present in the area. Pressure from hunters and the timber industry may account for declining numbers of large-bodied primates, while it appears that natural features peculiar to the conservation area contribute to the patchy pattern of distribution. PMID:11376449

  3. The early development of the nervous system in staged insectivore and primate embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F; O'Rahilly, R

    1980-10-01

    The early development of the nervous system was studied in stage embryos of hemicentetes semispinosus, Microcebus murinus, Alouatta seniculus, Cebus appella, Cebus albifrons, macaca mulatta, and Homo sapiens. The specimens were assigned to Carnegie stages 11-13. Serial transverse sections were examined and graphic reconstructions were prepared. The early development of the neural tube is basically similar in all the species investigated but differences in detail are noticeable. The mesencephalic flexure serves in all cases as a landmark for malpighi's tripartite subdivision of the brain. The nonhuman embryos seem to show a little more variation than the human in the closure of the neuropores in relation to somitic count. With the exception of the later-appearing terminal-vomeronasal component, all major portions of the neural crest as classified by O'Rahilly ('65) are represented in both the nonhuman and the human embryos studied. No crest is present at the level of rhombomere 1, nor at rhombomere 3 except in the platyrrhines and some human embryos, nor at rhombomere 5 except in certain human specimens. An indication of the division of the trigeminal ganglion into its primary divisions is rare at stage 11 (C. apella), may be visible at stage 12 (Alouatta, macaca, Homo), and is definite (in Homo) at stage 13. Ganglionic contributions from head ectoderm (epipharyngeal placodes), as previously described in the human and some other vertebrate embryos, were sought and found in Cebus apella. In both nonhuman and human, a tendency is noted whereby the rostral limit of the occipitospinal crest, high at stage 11, seems to descend relatively at stage 12, and ascend again at stage 13 (at least in the human) to become associated with the appearance of the accessory and hypoglossal nerves. In general, the motor components of the nerves are identifiable before the sensory elements, and, in the present study, nerve fibers were first observed in the human at stage 13 in some of

  4. Hemorrhoids: an experimental model in monkeys

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    Plapler Hélio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hemorrhoids are a matter of concern due to a painful outcome. We describe a simple, easy and reliable experimental model to produce hemorrhoids in monkeys. METHODS: 14 monkeys (Cebus apella were used. After general anesthesia, hemorrhoids were induced by ligation of the inferior hemorrhoidal vein, which is very alike to humans. The vein was located through a perianal incision, dissected and ligated with a 3-0 vicryl. The skin was sutured with a 4-0 catgut thread. Animals were kept in appropriate cages and evaluated daily. RESULTS: Nine days later there were hemorrhoidal piles in the anus in fifty percent (50% of the animals. Outcome was unremarkable. There was no bleeding and all animals showed no signs of pain or suffering. CONCLUSION: This is an affordable and reliable experimental model to induce hemorrhoids for experimental studies.

  5. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

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    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  6. Associations between primates and other mammals in a central Amazonian forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Peres, Carlos A

    2008-07-01

    Little information exists on mixed-species groups between primates and other mammals in Neotropical forests. In this paper, we describe three such associations observed during an extensive large-vertebrate survey in central Amazonia, Brazil. Mixed-species groups between a primate species and another mammal were observed on seven occasions between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri cf. ustus) and either South American coatis (Nasua nasua) or tayras (Eira barbara) and between brown capuchins (Cebus apella) and coatis. All associations were restricted to floodplain forest during its dry stage. We suggest that the associations involving the coatis are connected to foraging and vigilance but may be induced by a common alternative food resource at a time of food shortage. PMID:18306981

  7. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) predation on primates in Caratinga Biological Station, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Rita De Cassia; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2007-10-01

    This study demonstrates that ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) extensively use primates as a food resource at the Caratinga Biological Station (CBS) in Southeast Brazil. Analysis of 60 fecal samples collected over 4 years revealed predation upon the brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba), the muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), and the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). The most frequent items found in the fecal samples analyzed were Calomys (n=16) and non-identified Aves (n=15), followed by A. guariba (n=12). Although Rodentia was the most common group consumed (n=52) Primates were found in 27% of total fecal samples and were the third most consumed group in relation to the total items. Particularly, predation of A. guariba by ocelots (20% of the total fecal samples) was not an isolated event; our results showed that this species was preyed on across several months. Predation on primates was far higher at CBS than at other sites where comparable studies have been carried out. PMID:17330310

  8. Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Claudio R M; Schneider, Fabio K; Dos Santos, Leonilda Correia

    2010-01-01

    An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter observer visual counting method, i.e., around 10%. Smaller errors (e.g., 3%) can be obtained in regions with less grid artifacts. These promising results allow the use of the proposed method either as a complete automatic counting tool in laboratories for wild animal's blood analysis or as a first counting stage in a semi-automatic counting tool. PMID:21096766

  9. Alimentación de mamíferos de caza en los «aguajales» de la Reserva Nacional de Pacaya-Samiria (Iquitos, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Aquino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo contiene información relacionada a los mamíferos de caza que habitan los aguajales de los bosques inundables de la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria y su interrelación con las plantas alimenticias. Está basado en censos por transectos en aguajales de origen reciente y aguajales semi-eutrofizados. Fueron registrados 24 especies de mamíferos de caza haciendo uso de los aguajales; de ellas, los primates fueron los más representativos y de mayor abundancia en ambos tipos de aguajales. Entre los primates, el fraile (Saimiri boliviensis E. Geoffroy & R. de Blainville y el machín negro (Cebus apella Linnaeus fueron los más abundantes en aguajales de origen reciente (350 individuos/km2 y 90 individuos/km2 , respectivamente, mientras que el machín blanco (Cebus albifrons Humboldt fue el más abundante en aguajales semi-eutrofizados (90 individos/ km2 . En términos de biomasa, los ungulados tuvieron la mayor biomasa y estuvieron representados por el pecarí labiado (Tayassu pecari Link con 825 kg/km2 y el tapir (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus con 126,6 kg/km2 . Finalmente, en los aguajales fueron registradas 16 especies de plantas alimenticias, la mayoría habitando en los aguajales semi-eutrofizados; de ellas, el aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L.f., la shapaja (Scheelea cephalotes Poepp. Ex Mart y los renacos (Ficus spp., constituyeron los recursos alimenticios más importantes, de cuyos frutos y semillas se alimentaron alrededor de 14 especies de mamíferos de caza.

  10. The primate community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia: a model to decipher ecological partitioning among extinct species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Ramdarshan

    Full Text Available Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil, in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate significant differences between taxa, but are somewhat insufficient when it comes to discriminating between ecologically similar taxa. The primates of Cachoeira Porteira all incorporate a certain amount of fruit in their diet, entailing a definite amount of inter-specific competition as they must share food resources. Alouatta is the most folivorous taxon of this community, which is corroborated by dental microwear analysis. Ateles, although of a similar size to Alouatta, limits inter-specific competition by incorporating more fruit in its diet. Cebus has a very diverse omnivorous diet, which is highlighted in this study, as it compares to both fruit and leaf eating taxa. In some cases, microwear results need to be supplemented by other methods. For example, dental microwear seems insufficient to distinguish between Pithecia and Chiropotes, which eat foods with similar physical properties. However, other methods (i.e. shearing quotients and body mass provide enough complimentary information to be able to highlight differences between the two taxa. On the other hand, dental microwear can highlight differences between primates which have similar diets, such as Saimiri and Saguinus. In this case, differences could be due to other exogenous factors.

  11. The primate community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia): a model to decipher ecological partitioning among extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdarshan, Anusha; Alloing-Séguier, Thomas; Merceron, Gildas; Marivaux, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil), in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate significant differences between taxa, but are somewhat insufficient when it comes to discriminating between ecologically similar taxa. The primates of Cachoeira Porteira all incorporate a certain amount of fruit in their diet, entailing a definite amount of inter-specific competition as they must share food resources. Alouatta is the most folivorous taxon of this community, which is corroborated by dental microwear analysis. Ateles, although of a similar size to Alouatta, limits inter-specific competition by incorporating more fruit in its diet. Cebus has a very diverse omnivorous diet, which is highlighted in this study, as it compares to both fruit and leaf eating taxa. In some cases, microwear results need to be supplemented by other methods. For example, dental microwear seems insufficient to distinguish between Pithecia and Chiropotes, which eat foods with similar physical properties. However, other methods (i.e. shearing quotients and body mass) provide enough complimentary information to be able to highlight differences between the two taxa. On the other hand, dental microwear can highlight differences between primates which have similar diets, such as Saimiri and Saguinus. In this case, differences could be due to other exogenous factors. PMID:22076156

  12. Morphological adaptation to diet in platyrrhine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anapol, F; Lee, S

    1994-06-01

    Morphological features of the jaws and teeth are examined in eight species of platyrrhine monkeys that coexist in the Suriname rainforest. Z-scores calculated from geometric predictions for several features of the feeding apparatus thought to have some functional significance (e.g., tooth dimensions, jaw robusticity, leverage of primary jaw elevators) are compared to a profile of the naturalistic dietary behavior of these species (i.e., proportions of fruit mesocarp, seeds, leaves, and fauna eaten). Several features are found exclusively in those platyrrhines whose dietary preferences are the most limited. Such specializations appear to be associated with a particular protein source exploited by a species to supplement a largely frugivorous diet. Ateles paniscus, which feeds primarily on the mesocarp of ripe fruit, has an adaptive morphology that emphasizes broad incisors. Chiropotes satanas (and to a slightly lesser extent, Pithecia pithecia) is a frugivore/seed predator with large upper and lower canines and a robust mandible. The frugivore/folivore Alouatta seniculus has a relatively large total molar area and effective mandibular condyle height. In all four of these strictly vegetarian species, the leverage of the masseter muscle is greater than that of temporalis. Of the omnivorous species, Cebus apella and C. nigrivittatus exploit both fauna and seeds for protein and exhibit an array of many of the above features, such as large teeth and thick mandibles. Saimiri sciureus, not particularly known for seed predation, departs from Cebus in having less robust canines and a more gracile mandible. All three cebid omnivores have a temporalis with greater leverage than the masseter, indicating a requirement for resisting anteriorly directed forces, for example, using the jaws for vigorous foraging. The lack of any enlarged features, other than incisors, in the omnivorous Saguinus midas may be attributable to the functional constraints of small body size. Because the

  13. Dominance style of female white-faced capuchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Mackenzie L; Fedigan, Linda M

    2013-04-01

    Dominance style, the level of tolerance displayed by dominant individuals toward subordinate ones, is exhibited along a continuum from despotic to relaxed. It is a useful concept to describe the nature of dominance relationships in macaque species and it bridges among multiple features of dominance hierarchies, aggression, kinship and conflict resolution. Capuchins share many behavioral similarities with Old World monkeys and like macaques, may exhibit a suite of covarying characteristics related to dominance. Here, we provide an assessment of dominance style by examining measures of aggression and kin bias in 22 adult female white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in three social groups at Santa Rosa Sector, Costa Rica. We found that bidirectionality of aggression was low (mean = 6.9% ± SE 1.6). However, there were few significant correlations between kin relatedness and social behavior (approaching, grooming, proximity, and co-feeding), even though the intensity of kin bias in grooming was moderate and higher in the larger group. We conclude that patterns of aggression and kin-biased behavior in our study animals are dissimilar to the patterns of covariation observed in macaque species. While unidirectional aggression suggests a despotic dominance style, the moderate expression of kin bias suggests an intermediate to relaxed classification when compared with results from an analysis of 19 macaque species. Additional studies of capuchin species and behaviors associated with dominance style (i.e., conciliatory tendencies) would help to create a comparative framework for the genus Cebus, and allow for more detailed cross-species comparison of dominance relationships across all primates. PMID:23446907

  14. Inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe Serological survey of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in neotropical wild mammals from Aracaju Zoo, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert S. Pimentel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os zoológicos modernos são instituições destinadas à manutenção da fauna selvagem com o objetivo de promover a conservação, pesquisa científica, lazer, recreação e educação ambiental. A ampla variedade de espécies selvagens, vivendo em condições diferentes do seu habitat natural, representa um ambiente propício à disseminação de doenças, muitas delas zoonóticas. Devido à escassez de dados e à relevância dos mamíferos selvagens neste contexto epidemiológico, tanto na toxoplasmose, quanto na leptospirose, foi efetuado o inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe, Brasil. Para tanto foram colhidas amostras sanguíneas de 32 animais, adultos, de ambos os sexos incluindo: 14 macacos-prego (Cebus libidinosus, quatro macacos-prego-do-peito-amarelo (Cebus xanthosternus, três onças-suçuaranas (Puma concolor, uma onça-pintada (Pantheraonca, uma raposa (Cerdocyon thous, seis guaxinins (Procyon cancrivorus, dois quatis (Nasua nasua e um papa-mel (Eira barbara. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii foi utilizado o Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT ³"1:25 e para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. foi utilizado o teste de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (ponto de corte ³1:100 com uma coleção de antígenos vivos que incluiu 24 variantes sorológicas de leptospiras patogênicas e duas leptospiras saprófitas. Dentre os 32 mamíferos, 17 (53,1% apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii e quatro (12,5% foram positivos para anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. De acordo com o sexo, 60% (9/15 dos machos e 47,1% (8/17 das fêmeas foram soropositivos para T. gondii e 26,7% (4/15 dos machos apresentaram anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. Dos mamíferos que apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii, 47% (8/17 nasceram no zoológico, 41,2% (7/17 foram oriundos de outras instituições e dois (11,8% foram provenientes da natureza. Em rela

  15. Preliminary observations on habitat utilization and diet in eight Surinam Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermeier, R A; van Roosmalen, M G

    1981-01-01

    The eight monkey species occurring in Surinam were studied in the Raleigh-vallen-Voltzberg Nature Reserve along the Coppename River. Special emphasis was placed on determining how these eight species divide up available habitat and food resources within a 300-ha study area. Cebus apella apella is probably the most adaptable of the Surinam monkeys. It was found mainly in the understory and lower to middle parts of the canopy of all five forest types (high rain forest, low rain forest, mountain savanna forest, liane forest, pina swamp forest) in the study area, and entered a variety of edge habitats. Saguinus midas midas, the only callitrichid in Surinam, also occurred mainly in the understory and lower to middle parts of the canopy of all five forest types, but was the only species to spend more time in edges than in non-edge habitats. Alouatta seniculus was most often seen in the middle to upper strata of high forest, but occasionally entered the four other forest types and a variety of edges. Cebus nigrivittatus is apparently less adaptable than its congener and was largely restricted to the understory and lower to middle strata of high forest. It occasionally entered two other forest types as well, but was rarely seen in edges. Chiropotes and Pithecia were both found almost exclusively in high forest and mountain savanna forest, but Chiropotes was mainly in the upper part of the canopy and in emergents, whereas Pithecia occupied the lower to middle parts of the canopy and the understory. Neither species made much use of edges. Ateles paniscus paniscus and Saimiri sciureus represent the extremes of primate adaptation in the Voltzberg area. Ateles was the most restricted species, and was found almost exclusively in high forest. It very rarely entered edges and was most often seen in the uppermost forest strata. In contrast, Saimiri was the only species that was not found most often in high forest, and it occurred consistently lower than any other monkey in the area

  16. Diversidade de helmintos intestinais em mamíferos silvestres e domésticos na Caatinga do Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Sudeste do Piauí, Brasil Diversity of wild and domestic mammal's intestinal helminths from the Caatinga of the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Southeast of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandão Martha Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre biodiversidade permitem avaliações ecossistêmicas e monitoramentos de impactos e mudanças ambientais. A diversidade parasitária pode refletir o processo coevolutivo entre parasitos e hospedeiros, e mudanças ambientais que permitem a perda, ganho ou a manutenção das espécies nesse processo. O presente trabalho utilizou espécies/morfotipos de ovos de helmintos encontrados em fezes de sete mamíferos silvestres (os grupos Dasypodidae e grandes felinos, e as espécies: Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu e dois domésticos (Canis familiaris e Sus scrofa, que cohabitam o Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara (PNSC e seu entorno, para analisar a diversidade dos helmintos intestinais desses mamíferos. Neste trabalho, utilizou-se achados da fauna helmintológica de mamíferos silvestres e domésticos, para avaliar um possível fluxo de helmintos entre estes dois grupos hospedeiros usando Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA dos hospedeiros com base na composição de suas faunas helmintológicas. Os resultados indicam que a região do PNSC, ainda mantém condições ambientais que ainda propiciam a manutenção da composição da fauna de helmintos de mamíferos silvestres, diferente da encontrada nos animais domésticos.Biodiversity studies allow ecosystem assessment and monitoring of environmental changes and impacts. Parasite diversity could reflect the host/ parasite coevolutionary process and the environment changes that permit the loss, gain or maintenance of species. This survey used species/morphotypes of helminths eggs found in feces from seven wild mammal species (the groups Dasypodidae and Large Cats, and Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu and from two domestic species (Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa, which occur within the Serra da Capivara National Park (PNSC and surrounding areas in order to analise

  17. System for the automation of building's lighting; Sistema para la automatizacion de la iluminacion en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Vazquez, Jose de Jesus

    1996-06-01

    With this work it is desired to diminish the energy consumption, by means of the automation of the building's lighting, implementing for this purpose a pilot network, using as communication media the electrical supply lines (127 ACV) of the building, since they are a communication media of wide coverage, do not cause modifications to the facilities already established and facilitate the access through a mechanical interface in plug form. The communication protocol used in the control network, comes near to the CEBus. In order to carry out the communication media, there is the Master-Slave protocol, applied to a local area network (LAN = Local Area Network), using a bus topology, with the technique of modulation by Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK). In addition to performing the control and regulation functions of the illumination, natural light and occupation sensors are used, to turn on and turn off the lamps in sequential form, according to the amount of light that is needed in the controlled area, with the purpose of maintaining the space illumination as constant as possible. [Spanish] Con este trabajo se desea disminuir el consumo energetico, mediante la automatizacion de la iluminacion en los edificios, implementando para ello una red piloto, utilizando como medio de comunicacion las lineas de suministro electrico (127 VCA) del edificio, ya que son un medio de comunicacion de amplia cobertura, no ocasionan modificaciones a las instalaciones ya establecidas y facilitan el acceso a traves de una interfaz mecanica en forma de clavija. El protocolo de comunicacion empleado en la red de control, se aproxima al CEBus. Para llevar a cabo el acceso al medio de comunicacion, se cuenta con el protocolo de comunicacion Maestro-Esclavo aplicado a una red de area local (LAN= Local Area Network), utilizando una topologia de cana (Bus), con la tecnica de modulacion por corrimiento en la frecuencia (FSK: Frequency-Shift Keying). Ademas para realizar las funciones de control y

  18. Detección de Rickettsia spp. en Suero y Garrapatas de Mamíferos Silvestres en Cautiverio en Montería, Córdoba -resumen-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Wehdeking-Hernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas son causadas por bacterias intracelulares pertenecientes al grupo de las fiebres manchadas del género Rickettsia. Estas zoonosis son algunas de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores de más antiguo conocimiento‚ e incluyen dentro de su ciclo de transmisión diversas especies de mamíferos. No obstante‚ en Colombia existen pocos trabajos enfocados a conocer la dinámica de las rickettsiosis en animales silvestres. El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar‚ por medio de la técnica de PCR en tiempo real‚ la presencia de Rickettsia spp.‚ en muestras de suero y garrapatas colectadas en mamíferos mantenidos en cautiverio en el Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna Silvestre de la Corporación autónoma Regional de los Valles del Sinú y San Jorge CAV-CVS‚ entre los años 2009 y 2014. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de 14 felinos‚ de las especies Leopardus pardalis (10‚ Puma concolor (3 y Panthera onca (1; de 58 primates‚ correspondientes a las especies Ateles geofroyii (17‚ Alouatta seniculus (14‚ Cebus capucinus (14‚ Saguinus oedipus (6‚ Cebus albifrons (4 Aotus sp. (2 y Ateles belzebuth (1; y de otros mamíferos: Tayassu pecari (1‚ Procyon cancrivorous (1 y Cerdocyon thous (1. En cuanto a las garrapatas‚ se colectaron e identificaron individuos del género Haemaphysalis sp. en un ejemplar de Sylvilagus sp.‚ y de las especies Amblyomma ovale‚ Riphicephalus microplus y Dermacentor nitens en P. concolor. Posteriormente fueron organizadas en pool. No se encontraron muestras de suero positivas a Rickettsia spp. (0/72. Se detectó un pool de garrapatas de la especie A. ovale positivo a este microorganismo. Este es el primer reporte en Colombia de ectoparásitos de Puma concolor positivos a Rickettsia spp. Se requiere continuar con los muestreos de ectoparásitos para determinar si este microorganismo se encuentra circulante entre mamíferos silvestres en el país.

  19. Bacteriocin-like activity of oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from human and non-human primates Atividade semelhante a bacteriocina de Fusobacterium nucleatum orais isolados de primatas humanos e não-humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elerson Gaetti-Jardim Júnior

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium nucleatum is indigenous of the human oral cavity and has been involved in different infectious processes. The production of bacteriocin-like substances may be important in regulation of bacterial microbiota in oral cavity. The ability to produce bacteriocin-like substances by 80 oral F. nucleatum isolates obtained from periodontal patients, healthy individuals and Cebus apella monkeys, was examinated. 17.5% of all tested isolates showed auto-antagonism and 78.8% iso- or hetero-antagonism. No isolate from monkey was capable to produce auto-inhibition. In this study, the antagonistic substances production was variable in all tested isolates. Most of the F. nucleatum showed antagonistic activity against tested reference strains. These data suggest a possible participation of these substances on the oral microbial ecology in humans and animals. However, the role of bacteriocins in regulating dental plaque microbiota in vivo is discussed.Fusobacterium nucleatum é indígena da cavidade oral humana e tem sido envolvido em diferentes processos infecciosos. A produção de substâncias semelhantes a bacteriocinas pode ser importante na regulação da microbiota bacteriana da cavidade oral. A capacidade de produzir substâncias tipo bacteriocina de 80 isolados de F. nucleatum orais, obtidos de pacientes com doença periodontal, indivíduos sadios e macaco Cebus apella, foi avaliada. 17,5% de todos os isolados mostrou auto-antagonismo e 78,8% iso- ou hetero-antagonismo. Nenhum isolado de macaco foi capaz de produzir auto-inibição. Neste estudo, a produção de substâncias antagonístas foi variável em todos os isolados testados. A maioria dos F. nucleatum mostrou atividade antagonísta para as cepas de referência testadas. Esses dados sugerem a possível participação dessas substâncias sobre a ecologia microbiana em humanos e animais. Entretanto, o papel das bacteriocinas na regulação da microbiota da placa dental in vivo

  20. Dietary proclivities of Paranthropus robustus from Swartkrans, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L’Engle Williams Frank

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene Paranthropus robustus fossils from Swartkrans have yielded stable isotope values suggesting some foraging on C4 plants possibly including underground storage organs. Dental microwear texture analysis on P. robustus (SK 6, SK 34 and SK 47 from Swartkrans Member 1 is performed to examine whether tooth surface damage from mastication agrees with prior dietary inferences from carbon isotopes. There is considerable variation in textural characteristics among the P. robustus specimens. Specifically, adult SK 34 stands apart from the two subadult specimens, SK 6 and SK 47, suggesting life history could be reflected in patterns of dental microwear texture characteristics, although seasonality and availability of fallback foods may also explain the variation observed in P. robustus. The fossils all exhibit elevated surface texture complexity, resembling the values for Lophocebus albigena and Cebus apella, and to a lesser extent, Pan troglodytes. Paranthropus robustus is dissimilar to primary folivores, such as Trachypithecus cristatus or folivore- frugivores such as Alouatta palliata suggesting leaves comprised very little of its diet. The textural fill volume of P. robustus differs from that observed in extant primates from tropical forests indicating extreme durophagy, perhaps a function of differences in habitat. Ingestion of extraneous grit on the underground parts of plants and from terrestrial resources, perhaps as fallback foods or as dietary staples, may account for these enamel textural properties and may help explain the mixed C3/C4 isotopic signal in P. robustus.

  1. The effects of dopamine D3 agonists and antagonists in a nonhuman primate model of tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Peter; Andersen, Maibritt B; Peacock, Linda

    2004-08-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD), a serious complication of antipsychotic dopamine (DA) antagonist treatment, has been hypothesised to develop due to a dominant DA D1 relative to DA D2 receptor function. Recent genetic and pharmacological studies implicate the DA D3 receptor in TD. The present study examined the role of the DA D3 receptor in relation to the DA D1/D2 imbalance hypothesis of TD in nonhuman primates. Eight Cebus monkeys displaying mild to severe TD due to previous chronic exposure to DA D2 antagonists were acutely injected with SKF 81297 (DA D1 agonist) 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg, pramipexole (DA D3>D2 agonist) 0.025-0.1 mg/kg, CIS-8-OH-PBZI (DA D3 agonist) 5-10 mg/kg and SB-27701-A (DA D3 antagonist) 1-5 mg/kg and rated for oral dyskinesia. SKF 81297, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg, exacerbated TD. Pramipexole and CIS-8-OH-PBZI reduced SKF 81297-induced TD, while SB-27701-A had no effect. When administered alone, SB-27701-A increased TD relative to placebo, while pramipexole and CIS-8-OH-PBZI had no significant effect. Pramipexole did, however, ameliorate TD in those monkeys with severe TD. These results point towards a role of the DA D3 receptor in TD, but indicate that the DA D2 receptor may also play an essential role. PMID:15301939

  2. [Diversity of wild and domestic mammal's intestinal helminths from the Caatinga of the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Southeast of Piauí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha Lima; Chame, Marcia; Cordeiro, José Luis Passos; de Miranda Chaves, Sérgio Augusto

    2009-12-01

    Biodiversity studies allow ecosystem assessment and monitoring of environmental changes and impacts. Parasite diversity could reflect the host/ parasite coevolutionary process and the environment changes that permit the loss, gain or maintenance of species. This survey used species/morphotypes of helminths eggs found in feces from seven wild mammal species (the groups Dasypodidae and Large Cats, and Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu) and from two domestic species (Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa), which occur within the Serra da Capivara National Park (PNSC) and surrounding areas in order to analise the diversity of mammal intestinal helminths. This work used the helminthological fauna findings of wild and domestic mammals, to consider a possible helminth flux between these two host groups using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) of the hosts based on helminthological fauna composition. The results indicate that the region of the PNSC still maintains environmental conditions that still keep wild mammal helminthological fauna composition different from the one found for domestic mammals. PMID:20040186

  3. The LiveWire Project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.D.; Nelson, T.T. [Enova Technology, San Diego, CA (United States); Kelly, J.C.; Dominguez, H.A. [Paragon Consulting Services, La Verne, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Utilities across the US have begun pilot testing a variety of hardware and software products to develop a two-way communications system between themselves and their customers. Their purpose is to reduce utility operating costs and to provide new and improved services for customers in light of pending changes in the electric industry being brought about by deregulation. A consortium including utilities, national labs, consultants, and contractors, with the support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), initiated a project that utilized a hybrid fiber-coax (HFC) wide-area network integrated with a CEBus based local area network within the customers home. The system combined energy consumption data taken within the home, and home automation features to provide a suite of energy management services for residential customers. The information was transferred via the Internet through the HFC network, and presented to the customer on their personal computer. This final project report discusses the design, prototype testing, and system deployment planning of the energy management system.

  4. Spatiotemporal structure of intracranial electric fields induced by transcranial electric stimulation in humans and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Alexander; Falchier, Arnaud; Yan, Chao-Gan; Yeagle, Erin M; Linn, Gary S; Megevand, Pierre; Thielscher, Axel; Deborah A, Ross; Milham, Michael P; Mehta, Ashesh D; Schroeder, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial electric stimulation (TES) is an emerging technique, developed to non-invasively modulate brain function. However, the spatiotemporal distribution of the intracranial electric fields induced by TES remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how much current actually reaches the brain, and how it distributes across the brain. Lack of this basic information precludes a firm mechanistic understanding of TES effects. In this study we directly measure the spatial and temporal characteristics of the electric field generated by TES using stereotactic EEG (s-EEG) electrode arrays implanted in cebus monkeys and surgical epilepsy patients. We found a small frequency dependent decrease (10%) in magnitudes of TES induced potentials and negligible phase shifts over space. Electric field strengths were strongest in superficial brain regions with maximum values of about 0.5 mV/mm. Our results provide crucial information of the underlying biophysics in TES applications in humans and the optimization and design of TES stimulation protocols. In addition, our findings have broad implications concerning electric field propagation in non-invasive recording techniques such as EEG/MEG. PMID:27535462

  5. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling. PMID:25520677

  6. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species. PMID:26581319

  7. Same/different concept learning by capuchin monkeys in matching-to-sample tasks.

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    Valentina Truppa

    Full Text Available The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions.

  8. Evaluation of dental pulp repair using low level laser therapy (688 nm and 785 nm) morphologic study in capuchin monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretel, H.; Oliveira, J. A.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Ramalho, L. T. O.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) 688 nm and 785 nm accelerate dentin barrier formation and repair process after traumatic pulp exposure. The sample consisted of 45 premolars of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with pulp exposure Class V cavities. All premolars were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), divided in groups of 15 teeth each, and analyzed on 7th, 25th, and 60th day. Group GI - only Ca(OH)2, GII - laser 688 nm, and GIII - laser 785 nm. Laser beam was used in single and punctual dose with the parameters: continuous, 688 nm and 785 nm wavelength, tip's area of 0.00785 cm2, power 50 mW, application time 20 s, dose 255 J/cm2, energy 2 J. Teeth were capped with Ca(OH)2, Ca(OH)2 cement and restored with amalgam. All groups presented pulp repair. On 25th day the thickness of the formed dentin barrier was different between the groups GI and GII (p < 0.05) and between groups GI and GIII (p < 0.01). On 60th day there was difference between GI and GIII (p < 0.01). It may be concluded that, LLLT 688 nm and 785 nm accelerated dentin barrier formation and consequently pulp repair process, with best results using infrared laser 785 nm.

  9. Evaluation of dental pulp repair using low level laser therapy (688 nm and 785 nm) morphologic study in capuchin monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) 688 nm and 785 nm accelerate dentin barrier formation and repair process after traumatic pulp exposure. The sample consisted of 45 premolars of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with pulp exposure Class V cavities. All premolars were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), divided in groups of 15 teeth each, and analyzed on 7th, 25th, and 60th day. Group GI – only Ca(OH)2, GII – laser 688 nm, and GIII – laser 785 nm. Laser beam was used in single and punctual dose with the parameters: continuous, 688 nm and 785 nm wavelength, tip's area of 0.00785 cm2, power 50 mW, application time 20 s, dose 255 J/cm2, energy 2 J. Teeth were capped with Ca(OH)2, Ca(OH)2 cement and restored with amalgam. All groups presented pulp repair. On 25th day the thickness of the formed dentin barrier was different between the groups GI and GII (p th day there was difference between GI and GIII (p < 0.01). It may be concluded that, LLLT 688 nm and 785 nm accelerated dentin barrier formation and consequently pulp repair process, with best results using infrared laser 785 nm

  10. The Analysis and Application of Short Distance Home Communication Protocol Based on FSM%基于FSM的短距离家居通讯协议的分析及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏成悦; 李文杰; 庄伟林

    2013-01-01

    Facing the rapid development of Smart-House and the diversification of communication protocol,it introduces the popular communication protocols,X-10 and CEBus,and compares their advantages and disadvantages.Then,it established a short distance communication protocol,based on FSM.With the power line carrier used,the protocol is characteristic of low cost,and it has good openness as well as security.Furthermore,this protocol uses the technology of finite state machine so as to resolve the problem of communication conflicts,ensuring communication with stability in real time.%面对智能家居快速发展以及家居通讯协议多样化的特点,介绍了主流X-10、CEBus协议,并比较其各自优缺点;针对这些优缺点制定出基于FSM的短距离家居通讯协议,该协议应用电力线载波方式,成本低廉,具有很强的开放性和很好的保密性,同时充分运用有限状态机有效地解决了各用电器间的通讯冲突问题,确保通讯的实时性和稳定性.

  11. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhia eCatapano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good’s price can have irrational effects on people’s preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased, we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human price effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  12. Ensaio laboratorial e clínico com Hycanthone, nôvo agente esquistossomicida

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    Naftale Katz

    1967-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir do Miracil D, um derivado hidroximetílico (Hycanthone pode ser obtido através da atividade biológica do Aspergillus sclerotiorum. Êste derivado mostrou-se muito ativo quando administrado a camundongos, hamsters e macacos Cebus experimentalmente infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. Ensaios clínicos com o Hycanthone foram feitos em 52 pacientes com esquistossomose mansoni ativa. A droga foi administrada, nas doses de 2 e 3 mg/kg/ dia, junto com um anti-ácido, duas vêzes ao dia, durante 5 dias consecutivos. Com exceção de 2 casos, todos os pacientes completaram o tratamento. Náusea e/ou vômito, anorexia, tonturas e cefaléia foram os efeitos colaterais mais comuns. Atividade terapêutica foi avaliada através de repetidos exames de fezes (4 a 6 e uma biópsia retal realizada a partir do 4.° mês após o tratamento. As percentagens de cura foram de 83,3 e 80,0% com o esquema de 2 e 3 mg/kg, respectivamente. Os dados laboratoriais e clínicos sôbre a atividade esquistossomicida do Hycanthone até agora obtidos mostram a necessidade de novos ensaios com êste promissor medicamento.

  13. Supplementary motor area and presupplementary motor area: targets of basal ganglia and cerebellar output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkal, Dalila; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2007-10-01

    We used retrograde transneuronal transport of neurotropic viruses in Cebus monkeys to examine the organization of basal ganglia and cerebellar projections to two cortical areas on the medial wall of the hemisphere, the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the pre-SMA. We found that both of these cortical areas are the targets of disynaptic projections from the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum and from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi). On average, the number of pallidal neurons that project to the SMA and pre-SMA is approximately three to four times greater than the number of dentate neurons that project to these cortical areas. GPi neurons that project to the pre-SMA are located in a rostral, "associative" territory of the nucleus, whereas GPi neurons that project to the SMA are located in a more caudal and ventral "sensorimotor" territory. Similarly, dentate neurons that project to the pre-SMA are located in a ventral, "nonmotor" domain of the nucleus, whereas dentate neurons that project to the SMA are located in a more dorsal, "motor" domain. The differential origin of subcortical projections to the SMA and pre-SMA suggests that these cortical areas are nodes in distinct neural systems. Although both systems are the target of outputs from the basal ganglia and the cerebellum, these two cortical areas seem to be dominated by basal ganglia input. PMID:17913900

  14. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  15. The spinothalamic system targets motor and sensory areas in the cerebral cortex of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dum, Richard P; Levinthal, David J; Strick, Peter L

    2009-11-11

    Classically, the spinothalamic (ST) system has been viewed as the major pathway for transmitting nociceptive and thermoceptive information to the cerebral cortex. There is a long-standing controversy about the cortical targets of this system. We used anterograde transneuronal transport of the H129 strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the Cebus monkey to label the cortical areas that receive ST input. We found that the ST system reaches multiple cortical areas located in the contralateral hemisphere. The major targets are granular insular cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex and several cortical areas in the cingulate sulcus. It is noteworthy that comparable cortical regions in humans consistently display activation when subjects are acutely exposed to painful stimuli. We next combined anterograde transneuronal transport of virus with injections of a conventional tracer into the ventral premotor area (PMv). We used the PMv injection to identify the cingulate motor areas on the medial wall of the hemisphere. This combined approach demonstrated that each of the cingulate motor areas receives ST input. Our meta-analysis of imaging studies indicates that the human equivalents of the three cingulate motor areas also correspond to sites of pain-related activation. The cingulate motor areas in the monkey project directly to the primary motor cortex and to the spinal cord. Thus, the substrate exists for the ST system to have an important influence on the cortical control of movement. PMID:19906970

  16. Divergent evolution and purifying selection of the H (FUT1 gene in New World monkeys (Primates, Platyrrhini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara do Nascimento Borges

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the coding region of the H gene was sequenced and analyzed in fourteen genera of New World primates (Alouatta, Aotus, Ateles, Brachyteles, Cacajao, Callicebus, Callithrix, Cebus, Chiropotes, Lagothrix, Leontopithecus, Pithecia, Saguinus, and Saimiri, in order to investigate the evolution of the gene. The analyses revealed that this coding region contains 1,101 nucleotides, with the exception of Brachyteles, the callitrichines (Callithrix, Leontopithecus, and Saguinus and one species of Callicebus (moloch, in which one codon was deleted. In the primates studied, the high GC content (63%, the nonrandom distribution of codons and the low evolution rate of the gene (0.513 substitutions/site/MA in the order Primates suggest the action of a purifying type of selective pressure, confirmed by the Z-test. Our analyses did not identify mutations equivalent to those responsible for the H-deficient phenotypes found in humans, nor any other alteration that might explain the lack of expression of the gene in the erythrocytes of Neotropical monkeys. The phylogenetic trees obtained for the H gene and the distance matrix data suggest the occurrence of divergent evolution in the primates.

  17. Estado actual de la investigación sobre comunicación sonora de primates colombianos

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    Zerda Ordóñez Enrique

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia existen 12 géneros de primates neotropicales y todos ellos emiten algún tipo de vocalización para
    comunicarse, algunos aspectos de estos sonidos se han evaluado y publicado. Este trabajo recopila las publicaciones más importantes, sintetizándolas y muestra los géneros con vacíos de información. En Saguinus se
    encontraron 19 trabajos sobre vocalizaciones, en Saimiri 14, seguido por Cebuella con nueve, Cebus con siete y
    Ateles y Callimico con dos publicaciones. De los géneros de Allouata, Aotus, Lagothrix, Callicebus, Cacajao y Pithecia, se encontró la descripción de sus vocalizaciones en un solo trabajo de cada género. Los trabajos se refieren a llamados asociados a alimento, de contacto y alarma; aspectos como ontogenia, desarrollo de las respuestas y percepción; en contextos sociales, medioambientales y a nivel cerebral.

  18. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini

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    Cristiani Gifalli-Iughetti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus, Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62. The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates.

  19. Diversidad y estado de conservación de primates en las Sierras de Contamana, Amazonía peruana

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    Rolando Aquino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo contiene información del inventario, abundancia y estado de conservación de las especies de primates que habitan en los bosques de las Sierras de Contamana. Hemos registrado 87 grupos correspondientes a 11 especies. De ellas, Saguinus mystax Spix, Ateles chamek Humboldt, Cebus apella Linnaeus y Lagothrix poeppigii Schinz fueron las más avistadas con 14, 13, 13 y 11 grupos, respectivamente. El rango de variación del tamaño de grupo resultaron similares a los registrados para otras áreas, con excepción de A. chamek, cuyos grupos en la mayoría de los casos estuvieron compuestos por más de 16 individuos. En el área de estudio, las poblaciones más abundantes correspondieron al Cacajao calvus ucayalii Thomas (479 individuos/100 km, L. poeppigii (178,5 individuos/100 km y A. chamek (148,2 individuos/100 km. los mayores avistamientos ocurrieron en los bosques de terraza alta (46% y de colina baja (27%, constituyéndose así en los hábitats de mayor uso por los primates. Entre las especies registradas, C. calvus ucayalii y S. mystax aún no están protegidas en ninguna de las actuales áreas naturales protegidas del Perú.

  20. Defining reward value by cross-modal scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Anna H; Silberberg, Alan; Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Researchers in comparative psychology often use different food rewards in their studies, with food values defined by a pre-experimental preference test. While this technique rank orders food values, it provides limited information about value differences because preferences may reflect not only value differences, but also the degree to which one good may "substitute" for another (e.g., one food may substitute well for another food, but neither substitutes well for water). We propose scaling the value of food pairs by a third food that is less substitutable for either food offered in preference tests (cross-modal scaling). Here, Cebus monkeys chose between four pairwise alternatives: fruits A versus B; cereal amount X versus fruit A and cereal amount Y versus fruit B where X and Y were adjusted to produce indifference between each cereal amount and each fruit; and cereal amounts X versus Y. When choice was between perfect substitutes (different cereal amounts), preferences were nearly absolute; so too when choice was between close substitutes (fruits); however, when choice was between fruits and cereal amounts, preferences were more modest and less likely due to substitutability. These results suggest that scaling between-good value differences in terms of a third, less-substitutable good may be better than simple preference tests in defining between-good value differences. PMID:23771492

  1. Contribución al conocimiento de los reservorios del Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas,1909 en la Provincia de Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bar María Esther

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de identificar a reservorios del Trypanosoma cruzi se investigaron 60 mamíferos en los Departamentos Capital y San Luis del Palmar. Se examinaron: primates, roedores, marsupiales, carnívoros y edentados; 40 vivían en cautiverio y 20 fueron capturados mediante trampas en una comunidad rural forestal. Los mamíferos fueron analizados por xenodiagnóstico, empleándose ninfas de 3o o 4o estadío de Triatoma infestans ayunadas durante 2 semanas. Las heces de los triatominos fueron observadas al microscopio (400x a los 30, 60 y 90 días post-alimentación. En 2 Saimiri sciureus y en 1 Cebus apella se constató infección por tripanosomas cruziformes. Se concluye que la parasitemia detectada fue baja. La presencia de Didelphis albiventris, reservorio potencial del Trypanosoma cruzi , en una zona de transmisión activa del parásito representa un factor de riesgo, por lo que son necesarias futuras investigaciones epidemiológicas para determinar la real diagnosis de esta parasitosis en la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina.

  2. Conservation value of a native forest fragment in a region of extensive agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello

    2000-05-01

    A survey of mammals and birds was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of 150 ha located in a zone of intensive agriculture in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. Line transect sampling was used to census mammals and birds during six days, totalling 27.8 km of trails and 27.8 hours of observation. Twenty mammal species were confirmed in the area (except bats and small mammals), including rare or endangered species, such as the mountain lion (Puma concolor), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) were found frequently, suggesting high population density in the fragment. Regarding the avifauna, 49 bird species were recorded, most of them typical of open areas or forest edges. Some confirmed species, however, are becoming increasingly rare in the region, as for example the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) and the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco). The results demonstrate that forest fragment of this size are refuges for native fauna in a region dominated almost exclusively by sugar-cane plantations. Besides faunal aspects, the conservation of these fragments is of great importance for the establishment of studies related to species preservation in the long term, including reintroduction and translocation projects, as well as studies related to genetic health of isolated populations. PMID:10959107

  3. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

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    Arthur Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

    2013-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species. PMID:24063119

  5. Valor de algunas prácticas agrícolas para la conservación de poblaciones de primates en paisajes fragmentados en Mesoamérica

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    A. Estrada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Es generalmente aceptado que las actividades agrícolas son la amenaza principal para la diversidad de primates en el mundo. El argumento de este trabajo es que en los paisajes fragmentados en el Neotrópico existen algunas prácticas agrícolas que favorecen la persistencia de poblaciones de primates, y que merecen estudio y evaluación. La presencia y actividades de poblaciones de primates fueron investigadas en agrosistemas en Los Tuxtlas, México, Lachuá, Guatemala, y en tres localidades en Costa Rica. Esta reveló la presencia de poblaciones de cinco especies de primates (Alouatta palliata, A. pigra, Ateles geoffroyi, Saimiri oerstedii, Cebus capucinus en 15 tipos de agrosistemas. Algunas poblaciones de estos primates se distribuyeron de modo permanente o temporal en el 50% de los agrosistemas. Otras, usan los agrosistemas como sitios de forrajeo temporal o de paso en sus movimientos en el paisaje. En la mayoría de los casos, el daño a los cultivos por parte de los primates es inexistente. La presencia y actividades de los primates en el agrosistema pueden favorecer la productividad primaria y la persistencia de las especies arbóreas que aportan la sombra a los cultivos y enriquecer de nutrientes el suelo del agrosistema.

  6. The impact of moving to a novel environment on social networks, activity and wellbeing in two new world primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, V; Sueur, C; Whiten, A; Buchanan-Smith, H M

    2011-08-01

    Among the stressors that can affect animal welfare in zoos, the immediate effect of relocation to a novel environment is one that has received little attention in the literature. Here, we compare the social network, daily activity and the expression of stress-related behavior in capuchins (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) before and just after they were relocated to a new enriched enclosure. Results showed similar immediate responses to the move in the two species. Both showed a substantial increase in the time spent resting and spent more time in the highest and "safest" part of their enclosure after relocation. Both capuchins and squirrel monkeys spent significantly more time in close proximity to other group members after relocation, compared to before. In squirrel monkeys, the structure of the social network, which was initially correlated to affiliation, was no longer so after the move. In capuchins, the network analysis showed that individuals regrouped by age, with the youngsters who were potentially more affected by stress being in the center of the network. Social network analysis helped to achieve a more complete picture of how individuals were affected by relocation. We suggest that this type of analysis should be used alongside traditional methods of observation and analysis to encompass the most complex aspects of animal behavior in times of stress and to improve welfare. PMID:21381071

  7. Interspecific infanticide and infant-directed aggression by spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a fragmented forest in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Pardo-Martinez, Alejandra; Montes-Rojas, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony; Link, Andres

    2012-11-01

    Interspecific aggression amongst nonhuman primates is rarely observed and has been mostly related to scenarios of resource competition. Interspecific infanticide is even rarer, and both the ultimate and proximate socio-ecological factors explaining this behavior are still unclear. We report two cases of interspecific infanticide and five cases of interspecific infant-directed aggression occurring in a well-habituated primate community living in a fragmented landscape in Colombia. All cases were initiated by male brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) and were directed toward infants of either red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus: n = 6 cases) or white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons: n = 1 case). One individual, a subadult spider monkey male, was involved in all but one case of interspecific infanticide or aggression. Other adult spider monkeys participated in interspecific aggression that did not escalate into potentially lethal encounters. We suggest that competition for food resources and space in a primate community living in high population densities and restricted to a forest fragment of ca. 65 ha might partly be driving the observed patterns of interspecific aggression. On the other hand, the fact that all but one case of interspecific infanticide and aggression involved the only subadult male spider monkey suggests this behavior might either be pathological or constitute a particular case of redirected aggression. Even if the underlying principles behind interspecific aggression and infanticide are poorly understood, they represent an important factor influencing the demographic trends of the primate community at this study site. PMID:22767357

  8. Fruit availability, frugivore satiation and seed removal in 2 primate-dispersed tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratiarison, Sandra; Forget, Pierre-Michel

    2011-09-01

    During a mast-fruiting event we investigated spatial variability in fruit availability, consumption, and seed removal at two sympatric tree species, Manilkara bidentata and M. huberi (Sapotaceae) at Nouragues Natural Reserve, French Guiana. We addressed the question of how Manilkara density and fruits at the community level might be major causes of variability in feeding assemblages between tree species. We thus explored how the frugivore assemblages differed between forest patches with contrasting relative Manilkara density and fruiting context. During the daytime, Alouatta seniculus was more often observed in M. huberi crowns at Petit Plateau (PP) with the greatest density of Manilkara spp. and the lowest fruit diversity and availability, whereas Cebus apella and Saguinus midas were more often observed in M. bidentata crowns at both Grand Plateau (GP), with a lowest density of M. bidentata and overall greater fruit supply, and PP. Overall, nearly 53% and 15% of the M. bidentata seed crop at GP and PP, respectively, and about 47% of the M. huberi seed crop were removed, otherwise either spit out or defecated beneath trees, or dropped in fruits. Small-bodied primates concentrated fallen seeds beneath parent trees while large-bodied primate species removed and dispersed more seeds away from parents. However, among the latter, satiated A. seniculus wasted seeds under conspecific trees at PP. Variations in feeding assemblages, seed removal rates and fates possibly reflected interactions with extra-generic fruit species at the community level, according to feeding choice, habitat preferences and ranging patterns of primate species. PMID:21910838

  9. Meiosis and chromosome painting of sex chromosome systems in Ceboidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudry, M D; Rahn, I M; Solari, A J

    2001-06-01

    The identity of the chromosomes involved in the multiple sex system of Alouatta caraya (Aca) and the possible distribution of this system among other Ceboidea were investigated by chromosome painting of mitotic cells from five species and by analysis of meiosis at pachytene in two species. The identity of the autosome #7 (X2) involved in the multiple system of Aca and its breakage points were demonstrated by both meiosis and chromosome painting. These features are identical to those described by Consigliere et al. [1996] in Alouatta seniculus sara (Assa) and Alouatta seniculus arctoidea (Asar). This multiple system was absent in the other four Ceboidea species studied here. However, data from the literature strongly suggest the presence of this multiple in other members of this genus. The presence of this multiple system among several species and subspecies that show high levels of chromosome rearrangements may suggest a special selective value of this multiple. The meiotic features of the sex systems of Aca and Cebus apella paraguayanus (Cap) are strikingly different at pachytene, as the latter system is similar to the sex pair of man and other primates. The relatively large genetic distances between species presently showing this multiple system suggest that its origin is not recent. Other members of the same genus should be investigated at meiosis and by chromosome painting in order to know the extent and distribution of this complex sex-chromosome system. PMID:11376445

  10. Evaluación del impacto de la caza en mamíferos de la cuenca del río Alto Itaya, Amazonía peruana

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    Rolando Aquino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se informa sobre la abundancia, presión de caza y el impacto de la caza en mamíferos que habitan los bosques de la cuenca del río Alto Itaya. La información procede de censos por transectos y registros de caza llevados a cabo en seis comunidades. Entre los mamíferos de caza, el choro (Lagothrix poeppigii Schinz fue el más abundante con 15,4 individuos/km², mientras que el mono aullador (Alouatta seniculus Linnaeus y el venado colorado (Mazama americana Erxleben fueron los menos abundantes con 0,15 individuos/km² y 0,5 individuos/ km2, respectivamente. Por otro lado, del área fueron cosechados un promedio anual de 1176 mamíferos, equivalente a 14184,6 kg. Finalmente, el modelo de cosecha sugiere sobrecaza del tapir (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus, huangana (Tayassu pecari Link, choro (L. poeppigii, mono aullador (A. seniculus y machín negro (Cebus apella Linnaeus, cuyas cosechas en algunos casos alcanzaron el 100% de la producción anual.

  11. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Anne M; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K; Fedigan, Linda M; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B; Morris, William F

    2016-01-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated reproductive value, life expectancy, and mortality hazards for females. We used bootstrapping to place confidence intervals on life-table summary metrics (R0, the net reproductive rate; λ, the population growth rate; and G, the generation time). These data have high potential for reuse; they derive from continuous population monitoring of long-lived organisms and will be invaluable for addressing questions about comparative demography, primate conservation and human evolution. PMID:26928014

  12. Molecular genetic analysis of the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey: recommendations for ex situ conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C G; Gaiotto, F A; Costa, M A; Martinez, R A

    2011-01-01

    The yellow-breasted capuchin monkey, Cebus xanthosternos, is one of the most endangered species of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. In situ conservation for this species is problematic due to habitat destruction; therefore, captive conservation has been considered as an alternative strategy. A Studbook for C. xanthosternos has been kept for more than 20 years; however, no genetic data has been collected. Our aim was to provide a preliminary assessment of the genetic variability of C. xanthosternos in captivity in Brazil and compare it with data from the wild. Microsatellite and mtDNA sequencing were carried out in 40 samples from five Brazilian institutions registered in the international Studbook and compared with 8 samples collected in a wild population from REBIO-Una/BA. DNA for analysis was extracted from hair, feces and blood. Our results showed that two of the five captive groups assessed had a genetic variability comparable to wild animals. However, the other three groups apparently require urgent management to improve its genetic variability. Considering that inbreeding effects are more pronounced in captivity due to lack of gene flow, our data indicate a need to increase population size by introducing newly rescued individuals into these captive groups. Our results are the first attempt to provide genetic information for captive C. xanthosternos in Brazil. PMID:21823097

  13. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua

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    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work were used three euthanized animals, from the Scientific Breeding Center (CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB authorized by IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%. This work describes the morphology of the muscles of the forelimb of the coati, through dissection and photographic documentation. In the studied species, we found anatomical adaptations of thoracic limb muscles which had a mass volume much greater than in other species (puma, alpaca, dog, cat, lhama and Cebus apella monkeys, and this fact was found to be directly related to their abilities in climbing and handicraft.

  14. Conservation value of a native forest fragment in a region of extensive agriculture Valor conservacionista de um fragmento de mata nativa em região de agricultura intensiva

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    A. G. CHIARELLO

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey of mammals and birds was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of 150 ha located in a zone of intensive agriculture in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. Line transect sampling was used to census mammals and birds during six days, totalling 27.8 km of trails and 27.8 hours of observation. Twenty mammal species were confirmed in the area (except bats and small mammals, including rare or endangered species, such as the mountain lion (Puma concolor, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, and the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis. The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella and the black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata were found frequently, suggesting high population density in the fragment. Regarding the avifauna, 49 bird species were recorded, most of them typical of open areas or forest edges. Some confirmed species, however, are becoming increasingly rare in the region, as for example the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata and the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco. The results demonstrate that forest fragment of this size are refuges for native fauna in a region dominated almost exclusively by sugar-cane plantations. Besides faunal aspects, the conservation of these fragments is of great importance for the establishment of studies related to species preservation in the long term, including reintroduction and translocation projects, as well as studies related to genetic health of isolated populations.Um levantamento da fauna de mamíferos e aves foi realizado em um fragmento de mata mesófila semi decídua com cerca de 150 ha de área localizado na zona de agricultura intensiva da região de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo. O levantamento foi feito por meio de censos em trilhas durante seis dias, totalizando 27,8 km de trilhas e 27,8 horas de observacão. Foram confirmadas 20 espécies de mamíferos (exceto quirópteros e pequenos mamíferos, incluindo espécies ameaçadas ou raras na região, como a on

  15. Efecto del corredor vial Buga-Buenaventura, ubicado en la reserva natural bosque de Yotoco (Valle del Cauca, Colombia en la comunidad de mamíferos y fundamento para una propuesta de corredores artificiales

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    López Meneses Wendy Francy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A través de algunas de las metodologías de campo estándares para el muestreo de pequeños mamíferos
    terrestres, voladores, medianos y grandes se determinaron los sitios de paso más frecuentes y las tendencias
    de movilidad de la fauna, por la carretera Buga-Buenaventura que pasa a través de la Reserva Natural Bosque de Yotoco, Valle del Cauca. La caracterización topográfica y fisionómica de la vegetación mostró un mosaico de diez ambientes asociados a la carretera los cuales se asociaron con los puntos captura, de observación y de atropellamiento. Se encontró que individuos de Melanomys caliginosus, Oryzomys talamancae, Rhipidomys mastacalis y Marmosa robinsoni, recapturados en más de tres ocasiones, tienden a moverse paralelamente a la carretera, sin ninguna evidencia de cruce. A pesar de que no hubo recapturas de individuos de las especies de mamíferos voladores Anoura cauddifer, Artibeus jamaicensis, Artibeus sp., Carollia brevicauda, Desmodus rotundus, Glosophaga Soricina, Sturnira luisi y Myotis riparius se puede afirmar que cruzan indiferentemente la carretera, viven en los desagues bajo esta y algunos forrajean en el borde. Particularmente Myotis riparius se ve atraída por los insectos que llegan por efecto de la luz vehicular. Los mamíferos medianos y grandes Cebus capucinus, Alouatta seniculus, Potos flavus, Aotus sp., Bradypus variegatus y Choloepus hoffmanni, forrajean en el día y en la noche cerca del borde, algunos individuos de Cebus capucinus y Alouatta seniculus fueron vistos cruzando la carretera del fragmento pequeño al grande. La fragmentación de hábitat ocasionada por dicha carretera es evidente y está ocasionando un aislamiento total en las especies de pequeños mamíferos y genera peligro de atropellamiento para algunas especies de murciélagos y monos que la cruzan. Ambientes hostiles como helechales, pastizales, cañaduzales y deslizamientos penetran cada vez más hacia el interior de cada

  16. Mamíferos do município de Fênix, Paraná, Brasil: etnozoologia e conservação Mammals of the municipality of Fênix, Paraná, Brazil: ethnozoology and conservation

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    Fabiana Rocha-Mendes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com base na abordagem etnozoológica foram resgatadas informações históricas e atuais sobre a mastofauna do município de Fênix, mesorregião centro-ocidental do estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Para tanto, no ano de 2004, foram realizadas entrevistas com 19 moradores locais por meio de uma conversa informal que tinham por objetivo o preenchimento de um questionário básico e a apresentação de fotografias da fauna potencial da região. Como resultado, foram registradas 39 espécies de mamíferos, sendo que destas, pelo menos seis são novos registros para a área. Informações obtidas em relação à caça indicam que esta atividade, muito comum no passado, ainda é presente, inclusive em unidades de conservação, como o Parque Estadual Vila Rica do Espírito Santo. As espécies que sofreram e sofrem maior pressão de caça são as mesmas citadas para outras partes do neotrópico. Atualmente, Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae é a espécie mais procurada, dada à facilidade de encontrá-la em diversas áreas naturais ou parcialmente antropizadas do município. No que se refere à predação causada por animais silvestres sobre animais domésticos, quase 80% dos entrevistados relataram ter sofrido perdas em suas criações, principalmente galinhas, resultantes de ataques de carnívoros de médio porte. Dados sobre alterações temporais na composição da mastofauna também foram obtidos junto aos entrevistados, como a extinção local de alguns mamíferos de grande porte (Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758 (Felidae, Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 (Tapiridae e Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795 (Tayassuidae e o aumento populacional de Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809 (Cebidae e de Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766 (Procyonidae, supostamente relacionado ao consumo de plantações como o milho.Based on an ethnozoological approach we obtained historical and present information on the mammalian fauna of the municipality of Fênix

  17. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae associados com o ambiente em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Marcos Valério Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle, which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti, 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.Neste trabalho são descritas as espécies de carrapatos de animais selvagens e domésticos e do ambiente coletados por um ano na EMBRAPA Gado de Corte localizado na área urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Dos 55 hospedeiros selvagens de seis espécies diferentes (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla e Dasyprocta aguti foram coletados 323 carrapatos. Amblyomma ovale foi encontrado apenas em quatis e Amblyomma nodosum apenas sobre tamanduás. Nenhum carrapato foi encontrado sobre macacos-prego. Por outro lado, Amblyomma cajennense foi encontrado em todos os hospedeiros

  18. Atropelamentos de vertebrados na Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Pará, Brasil Roadkills of vertebrates in Carajas National Forest, Para, Brazil

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    Fabiano Gumier-Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vários pesquisadores têm avaliado impactos de estradas. Estes podem envolver aspectos paisagísticos, degradação do solo, poluição do ar e impactos sobre a fauna, como atropelamentos. Na estrada Raimundo Mascarenhas, que atravessa a Floresta Nacional de Carajás (ca. 400 mil hectares, há intenso tráfego de veículos automotores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar se há diferenças entre trechos da estrada, em três escalas espaciais; se há alteração ao longo dos anos; se alguns táxons são mais freqüentemente atropelados, e se a freqüência de atropelamentos aumenta com a precipitação mensal. Analisamos a freqüência de atropelamentos de vertebrados de abril/2003 até outubro/2006 ao longo dos 25 km iniciais da estrada. Registramos 155 atropelamentos. O número de atropelamentos diminui ao longo dos anos (P=0,01, e com a distância do início da estrada (P=0,0002. Serpentes (Ophidia e gambás Didelphis marsupialis foram mais atropelados (7,5/ano, seguidos de aves, raposas Cerdocyon thous, quatis Nasua nasua, roedores (Rodentia, e não identificados (4,9/ano; cuíca Marmosops sp., tapeti Sylvilagus brasiliensis, guariba Alouatta sp., irara Eira barbara, jabuti Geochelone sp., lagartos (Lacertilia e macaco prego Cebus apella (1/ano. Não houve relação significativa entre o número mensal de atropelamentos e a precipitação mensal.Several researchers have evaluated impacts of highways. These can involve landscape aspects, soil degradation, air pollution, and impacts upon wildlife, such as roadkills. At the Raimundo Mascarenhas highway, that crosses the Carajás National Forest (ca. 400.000 ha, there is intense traffic of automotive vehicles. The aim of this work was to test if there were differences among higway sections on three spatial scales; if there was alteration along the years; if some taxa suffered more frequently roadkills; and if roadkill frequency increased with monthly precipitation. We analysed roadkill

  19. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Saguinus (Platyrrhini, Primates based on the ND1 mitochondrial gene and implications for conservation

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    Claudia Helena Tagliaro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The systematics of the subfamily Callitrichinae (Platyrrhini, Primates, a group of small monkeys from South America and Panama, remains an area of considerable discussion despite many investigations, there being continuing controversy over subgeneric taxonomic classifications based on morphological characters. The purpose of our research was to help elucidate the phylogenetic relationships within the monkey genus Saguinus (Callitrichinae using a molecular approach to discover whether or not the two different sections containing hairy-faced and bare-faced species are monophyletic, whether Saguinus midas midas and Saguinus bicolor are more closely related than are S. midas midas and Saguinus midas niger, and if Saguinus fuscicollis melanoleucus and Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli really are different species. We sequenced the 957 bp ND1 mitochondrial gene of 21 Saguinus monkeys (belonging to six species and nine morphotypes and one Cebus monkey (the outgroup and constructed phylogenetic trees using maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and maximum likelihood methods. The phylogenetic trees obtained divided the genus Saguinus into two groups, one containing the small-bodied species S. fuscicollis and the other, the large-bodied species S. mystax, S. leucopus, S. oedipus, S. midas, S. bicolor. The most derived taxa, S. midas and S. bicolor, grouped together, while S. fuscicollis melanoleucus and S. f. weddelli showed divergence values that did not support the division of these morphotypes into subspecies. On the other hand, S. midas individuals showed divergence compatible with the existence of three subspecies, two of them with the same morphotype as the subspecies S. midas niger. The results of our study suggest that there is at least one Saguinus subspecies that has not yet been described and that the conservation status of Saguinus species and subspecies should be carefully revised using modern molecular approaches.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the acanthocephalan Prosthenorchis elegans in Colombia based on cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Ana Carolina; Brieva, Claudia; Bloor, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Prosthenorchis elegans is a member of the Phylum Acanthocephala and is an important parasite affecting New World Primates in the wild in South America and in captivity around the world. It is of significant management concern due to its pathogenicity and mode of transmission through intermediate hosts. Current diagnosis of P. elegans is based on the detection of eggs by coprological examination. However, this technique lacks both specificity and sensitivity, since eggs of most members of the genus are morphologically indistinguishable and shed intermittently, making differential diagnosis difficult, and coprological examinations are often negative in animals severely infected at death. We examined sequence variation in 633 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequence in 37 isolates of P. elegans from New World monkeys (Saguinus leucopus and Cebus albifrons) in Colombia held in rescue centers and from the wild. Intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 1.6% and was comparable with corresponding values within other species of acanthocephalans. Furthermore, comparisons of patterns of sequence divergence within the Acanthocephala suggest that Prosthenorchis represents a separate genus within the Oligacanthorhynchida. Six distinct haplotypes were identified within P. elegans which grouped into one of two well-supported mtDNA haplogroups. No association between haplogroup/haplotype, holding facility and species was found. This information will help pave the way to the development of molecular-based diagnostic tools for the detection of P. elegans as well as furthering research into the life cycle, intermediate hosts and epidemiological aspects of the species. PMID:26759793

  1. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the acanthocephalan Prosthenorchis elegans in Colombia based on cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene sequence

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    Ana Carolina Falla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosthenorchis elegans is a member of the Phylum Acanthocephala and is an important parasite affecting New World Primates in the wild in South America and in captivity around the world. It is of significant management concern due to its pathogenicity and mode of transmission through intermediate hosts. Current diagnosis of P. elegans is based on the detection of eggs by coprological examination. However, this technique lacks both specificity and sensitivity, since eggs of most members of the genus are morphologically indistinguishable and shed intermittently, making differential diagnosis difficult, and coprological examinations are often negative in animals severely infected at death. We examined sequence variation in 633 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI sequence in 37 isolates of P. elegans from New World monkeys (Saguinus leucopus and Cebus albifrons in Colombia held in rescue centers and from the wild. Intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 1.6% and was comparable with corresponding values within other species of acanthocephalans. Furthermore, comparisons of patterns of sequence divergence within the Acanthocephala suggest that Prosthenorchis represents a separate genus within the Oligacanthorhynchida. Six distinct haplotypes were identified within P. elegans which grouped into one of two well-supported mtDNA haplogroups. No association between haplogroup/haplotype, holding facility and species was found. This information will help pave the way to the development of molecular-based diagnostic tools for the detection of P. elegans as well as furthering research into the life cycle, intermediate hosts and epidemiological aspects of the species.

  2. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: I. Snake-species discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of species than adults. Our field study examined age-related differences in the snake-directed antipredator behavior of infant, juvenile, and adult white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in terms of alarm calling, looking behavior, and aggressive behavior. In the first experiment, we exposed infant and juvenile white-faced capuchins to realistic-looking inflatable models of their two snake predators, the boa constrictior (Boa constrictor) and neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) and a white airplane as a novel control. In the second experiment, infants, juveniles, and adults were presented photographic models of a coiled boa constrictor, rattlesnake, indigo snake (Drymarchon corais), a noncapuchin predator, and a white snake-like model. We found that antipredator behavior changed during the immature stage. Infants as young as 4 months old were able to recognize snakes and display antipredator behavior, but engaged in less snake-model discrimination than juveniles. All age classes exhibited a lower response to the white snake-like model, indicating that the absence of color and snake-scale patterns affected snake recognition. Infants also showed a higher level of vigilance after snake-model detection as exhibited by a higher proportion of time spent looking and head cocking at the models. Aggressive antipredator behavior was found in all age classes, but was more prevalent in juveniles and adults than infants. This study adds to the knowledge of development of antipredator behavior in primates by showing that, although alarm calling behavior and predator recognition appear at a very young age in capuchins, snake-species discrimination does not become apparent until the juvenile stage. PMID:23229464

  3. Parallel Cortical Networks Formed by Modular Organization of Primary Motor Cortex Outputs.

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    Hamadjida, Adjia; Dea, Melvin; Deffeyes, Joan; Quessy, Stephan; Dancause, Numa

    2016-07-11

    In primates, the refinement of motor behaviors, in particular hand use, is associated with the establishment of more direct projections from primary motor cortex (M1) onto cervical motoneurons [1, 2] and the appearance of additional premotor and sensory cortical areas [3]. All of these areas have reciprocal connections with M1 [4-7]. Thus, during the evolution of the sensorimotor network, the number of interlocutors with which M1 interacts has tremendously increased. It is not clear how these additional interconnections are organized in relation to one another within the hand representation of M1. This is important because the organization of connections between M1 and phylogenetically newer and specialized cortical areas is likely to be key to the increased repertoire of hand movements in primates. In cebus monkeys, we used injections of retrograde tracers into the hand representation of different cortical areas of the sensorimotor network (ventral and dorsal premotor areas [PMv and PMd], supplementary motor area [SMA], and posterior parietal cortex [area 5]), and we analyzed the pattern of labeled neurons within the hand representation of M1. Instead of being uniformly dispersed across M1, neurons sending projections to each distant cortical area were largely segregated in different subregions of M1. These data support the view that primates split the cortical real estate of M1 into modules, each preferentially interconnected with a particular cortical area within the sensorimotor network. This modular organization could sustain parallel processing of interactions with multiple specialized cortical areas to increase the behavioral repertoire of the hand. PMID:27322001

  4. Preladenant, a selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, is active in primate models of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Robert A; Bedard, Paul J; Varty, Geoffrey B; Kazdoba, Tatiana M; Di Paolo, Therese; Grzelak, Michael E; Pond, Annamarie J; Hadjtahar, Abdallah; Belanger, Nancy; Gregoire, Laurent; Dare, Aurelie; Neustadt, Bernard R; Stamford, Andrew W; Hunter, John C

    2010-10-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Extrapyramidal Syndrome (EPS) are movement disorders that result from degeneration of the dopaminergic input to the striatum and chronic inhibition of striatal dopamine D(2) receptors by antipsychotics, respectively. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are selectively localized in the basal ganglia, primarily in the striatopallidal ("indirect") pathway, where they appear to operate in concert with D(2) receptors and have been suggested to drive striatopallidal output balance. In cases of dopaminergic hypofunction, A(2A) receptor activation contributes to the overdrive of the indirect pathway. A(2A) receptor antagonists, therefore, have the potential to restore this inhibitor imbalance. Consequently, A(2A) receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential in diseases of dopaminergic hypofunction such as PD and EPS. Targeting the A(2A) receptor may also be a way to avoid the issues associated with direct dopamine agonists. Recently, preladenant was identified as a potent and highly selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, and has produced a significant improvement in motor function in rodent models of PD. Here we investigate the effects of preladenant in two primate movement disorder models. In MPTP-treated cynomolgus monkeys, preladenant (1 or 3 mg/kg; PO) improved motor ability and did not evoke any dopaminergic-mediated dyskinetic or motor complications. In Cebus apella monkeys with a history of chronic haloperidol treatment, preladenant (0.3-3.0 mg/kg; PO) delayed the onset of EPS symptoms evoked by an acute haloperidol challenge. Collectively, these data support the use of preladenant for the treatment of PD and antipsychotic-induced movement disorders. PMID:20655910

  5. Antagonism of the adenosine A2A receptor attenuates akathisia-like behavior induced with MP-10 or aripiprazole in a novel non-human primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleickardt, Carina J; Kazdoba, Tatiana M; Jones, Nicholas T; Hunter, John C; Hodgson, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    Akathisia is a subset of the larger antipsychotic side effect profile known as extrapyramidal syndrome (EPS). It is associated with antipsychotic treatment and is characterized as a feeling of inner restlessness that results in a compulsion to move. There are currently no primate models available to assess drug-induced akathisia; the present research was designed to address this shortcoming. We developed a novel rating scale based on both the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS) and the Hillside Akathisia Scale (HAS) to measure the objective, observable incidence of antipsychotic-induced akathisia-like behavior in Cebus apella non-human primates (NHPs). To induce akathisia, we administered the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole (1 mg/kg) or the selective phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor MP-10 (1-3 mg/kg). Treatment with both compounds produced significantly greater akathisia scores on the rating scale than vehicle treatment. Characteristic behaviors observed included vocalizations, stereotypies, teeth grinding, restless limb movements, and hyperlocomotion. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists have previously been shown to be effective in blocking antipsychotic-induced EPS in primates. The selective A2A receptor antagonist, SCH 412348 (10-30 mg/kg), effectively reduced or reversed akathisia-like behavior induced by both aripiprazole and MP-10. This work represents the first NHP measurement scale of akathisia and demonstrates that NHPs are responsive to akathisia-inducing agents. As such, it provides a useful tool for the preclinical assessment of putative antipsychotics. In addition, these results provide further evidence of the utility of A2A receptor antagonists for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders. PMID:24211858

  6. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the acanthocephalan Prosthenorchis elegans in Colombia based on cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Ana Carolina; Brieva, Claudia; Bloor, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Prosthenorchis elegans is a member of the Phylum Acanthocephala and is an important parasite affecting New World Primates in the wild in South America and in captivity around the world. It is of significant management concern due to its pathogenicity and mode of transmission through intermediate hosts. Current diagnosis of P. elegans is based on the detection of eggs by coprological examination. However, this technique lacks both specificity and sensitivity, since eggs of most members of the genus are morphologically indistinguishable and shed intermittently, making differential diagnosis difficult, and coprological examinations are often negative in animals severely infected at death. We examined sequence variation in 633 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequence in 37 isolates of P. elegans from New World monkeys (Saguinus leucopus and Cebus albifrons) in Colombia held in rescue centers and from the wild. Intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 1.6% and was comparable with corresponding values within other species of acanthocephalans. Furthermore, comparisons of patterns of sequence divergence within the Acanthocephala suggest that Prosthenorchis represents a separate genus within the Oligacanthorhynchida. Six distinct haplotypes were identified within P. elegans which grouped into one of two well-supported mtDNA haplogroups. No association between haplogroup/haplotype, holding facility and species was found. This information will help pave the way to the development of molecular-based diagnostic tools for the detection of P. elegans as well as furthering research into the life cycle, intermediate hosts and epidemiological aspects of the species. PMID:26759793

  7. Protection from radiation enteritis by an absorbable polyglycolic acid mesh sling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with malignant tumors of the pelvis who cannot be cured surgically often are treated with radiation after surgery. A devastating side effect of this treatment is radiation-associated small bowel injury (RASBI). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that removal of the small bowel from the radiation field would protect it against RASBI. Twenty cebus monkeys underwent low anterior resection. In 10 animals an absorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh was sewn circumferentially around the interior of the abdominal cavity as a supporting apron, which prevented the small bowel's descent into the pelvis. The other 10 monkeys did not receive the mesh. All animals received 2000 rads by linear acceleration in a single dose. Twenty-four-hour stool fat, serum vitamin B12, and other serum values were obtained during the study. Animals were sacrificed after 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months, and the small bowel and rectum were examined histologically in a blind manner. Two monkeys who did not undergo surgery, or exposure to radiation served as controls. At all sacrifice periods, the animals with PGA mesh slings demonstrated normal small bowel function and histologic structure. Animals without mesh slings had abnormal stool and blood values at 1 month, and by 2 months all had died of small bowel necrosis. The animals that received the slings had no evidence of infection or obstruction, and by 6 months all evidence of the mesh was gone. Support of the small bowel out of the pelvis by an absorbable PGA mesh sling protects against RASBI and is without apparent complications

  8. Convergencia en las proporciones craneanas entre primates del nuevo y el viejo mundo: un análisis craneofuncional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocatti, Guido

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los humanos modernos han sido caracterizados por una morfología craneana extremadamente lobulada, considerada como una respuesta al aumento significativo en el tamaño del cerebro, que los diferencia de manera marcada del resto de los Primates. Otras especies, como algunos clados de platirrinos, cambiaron independientemente a lo largo de su historia evolutiva y alcanzaron valores elevados de tamaño relativo del cerebro. Este aumento del tamaño del cerebro ofrece una oportunidad para estudiar a escala macroevolutiva en qué medida existió una convergencia en la evolución de la morfología craneana externa de los Primates y qué cambios son particulares del linaje humano. En este trabajo estudiamos los cambios globales en la morfología craneofacial de varias especies de Primates de los infraórdenes Lemuriformes, Platyrrhini y Catarrhini y su relación con los cambios en el tamaño del cerebro empleando técnicas morfométricas, filogenéticas y comparativas. Un análisis de componentes principales mostró que existe una superposición en la distribución en el espacio de forma de Homo sapiens principalmente con los géneros Ateles, Saimiri y Cebus de Platyrrhini. Los análisis comparativos mostraron la falta de estructura filogenética en el eje de mayor variación morfométrica y su asociación con los cambios en el tamaño relativo del cerebro. Esto sugiere la existencia de convergencia evolutiva en la morfología externa del cráneo y señala al cambio relativo en el tamaño del cerebro como un factor intrínseco importante para comprender la variación morfológica en todo el orden Primates.

  9. Fluorinated benzamide neuroleptics--III. Development of (S)-N-[(1-allyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2,3- dimethoxybenzamide as an improved dopamine D-2 receptor tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have prepared five new analogs (n-propyl, iso-propyl, allyl, n-butyl, and iso-butyl) of the dopamine D-2 receptor antagonist, FPMB which result from modifications of the ethyl group at the pyrrolidine nitrogen in FPMB. As expected, all new derivatives showed higher apparent lipophilicity (log kw), with iso-butyl being the most lipophilic (log kw = 2.52), followed by the allyl derivative (log kw = 2.43). The allyl group showed the largest increase in affinity (from 0.26 nM for the ethyl substituent to 0.03 nM for the allyl substituent, almost 10-fold), followed by the n-propyl substituent which showed approximately five-fold better affinity than did the ethyl substituent. Radiosynthesis of (S-N-[(1-allyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2,3- dimethoxybenzamide ([18F]fallypride) was carried out by nucleophilic substitution reaction of (S)-N-[(1-allyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-tosyloxypropyl)-2,3- dimethoxybenzamide with no carrier added 18F-. [18F]Fallypride was obtained in approximately 20-40% yields (EOS/EOB, decay corrected) in specific activities of 900-1700 Ci/mmol after reverse phase HPLC purification in 60 min from EOB. High striatal uptake (upto 2.5% injected dose/g) of [18F]fallypride in rats was observed with striatal/cerebellar ratios of 17, 42, 63 and 122 at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min post-injection, respectively. PET experiments with [18F]fallypride in a cebus monkey showed a brain uptake of 0.10% injected dose/cc. In rhesus monkeys [18F]fallypride showed rapid specific uptake in the striata (0.04-0.06% injected dose/cc) with striata/cerebellum ratios of approx. 3.0 at 14 min, 5.0 at 35 min and 8 at 70 min post-injection. Specifically bound [18F]fallypride was displaced with haloperidol (1 mg/kg) with a half-life of 18 min in the rhesus monkey

  10. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis social learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Hopper

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23. Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”. Two thirds (67% of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions and paired controls (28% were successful but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert

  11. Estudos sôbre a excitação química da córtex cerebral (Ação da acetilcolina

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    H. Mcussatché

    1945-04-01

    Full Text Available The author has studied the influence of acetylcholine solutions directly applied on the motor cortex of dogs, cats monkeys and rabbits. For this purpose small squares of filter paper were soaked in the acetylcholine solution and soon afterwards laid on the motor cortex. Solutions varying from 0,2 to 10 per cent have been experimented. It has been shown that local application of the solutions on the motor points, previously localized by induction coil, produced motor reactions. It has been found, in the dogs that 10 per cent acetylcholine solutions cause localized muscular twitchings (clonus in almost all the animals experimented. Generalised epileptiform convulsions were obtained in44,4% of the dogs. Convulsions were also obtained by employing 1 per cent solution of acetylcholine. Definite response has been obtained with 0,2 per cent solution. Failure of motor action, pointed out by other authors, has been related to the use of anesthetics. Convulsions were easily produced by rapid light mechanical stimulations of the skin covering the muscles in conection with the excited motor point, and the application on the motor point of acetylcholine. The results on monkeys can be summarized as follows. Two species of monkeys were experimented: Cebus capucinus and Macaca mulata. In the monkeys C. capucinus generalised convulsive reactions were induced with actylcholine solutions in a concentration as low as 0,5 per cent. Motor reaction or convulsive seizeres were obtained in seven of the eight monkeys used. Three monkeys M. mulata were stimulated with 10 per cent acetylcholine solution but only localized muscular contraction hae been observed. Similar results has been obtained on the motor cortex of cats and rabbits. One of the three cats employed has shown epileptiform convulsions and the remaining only localized muscular contractions. In the rabbits muscular twitchings have been also induced. The sensitizing power of eserine on the action of