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Sample records for cebolla allium cepa

  1. Evaluación de doce materiales de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L. para deshidratación

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    Sandoval A. Héctor L.

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del ensayo fue la introducción de materiales de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L. de día corto para la deshidratación. Se realizaron observaciones de campo y análisis de laboratorio para determinar sus cualidades industriales.The objective of this assay was the introduction of materials of bulb's onion (Allium cepa L., for short day, to dehydrate. Observations to determinate their field behavior, and laboratories analysis to determinate their industrial characteristics were realized.

  2. Actividad antioxidante e inhibidora de a-glucosidasa y a-amilasa de tres variedades de cebolla (Allium cepa L.)

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    Leticia X. López-Martínez; Luisa M. Aguilar Cisneros; Octavio Dublán-García

    2014-01-01

    La cebolla (Allium cepa L.) ha sido cultivada durante miles de años y es utilizada como un componente importante en la dieta del ser humano. Estudios recientes sugieren que su consumo puede reducir o prevenir problemas de salud como asma, enfermedades cardiovasculares y diabetes, debido a sus efectos antioxidantes. En este estudio se determinó el contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales, la capacidad antiradical y la inhibición de las enzimas α-glucosidasa y α-amilasa de extractos acuosos y ...

  3. Actividad antioxidante e inhibidora de a-glucosidasa y a-amilasa de tres variedades de cebolla (Allium cepa L.

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    Leticia X. López-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La cebolla (Allium cepa L. ha sido cultivada durante miles de años y es utilizada como un componente importante en la dieta del ser humano. Estudios recientes sugieren que su consumo puede reducir o prevenir problemas de salud como asma, enfermedades cardiovasculares y diabetes, debido a sus efectos antioxidantes. En este estudio se determinó el contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales, la capacidad antiradical y la inhibición de las enzimas α-glucosidasa y α-amilasa de extractos acuosos y etanólicos de tres variedades de cebolla (blanca, amarilla y morada. El contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales varió de 6.59 a 9.25 mg/100 g y la actividad antiradical expresada como % DPPH- se encontró entre 20.4% a 39.6% y de 46.8 a 89.2% para los extractos acuosos y etanólicos respectivamente. Todos los extractos etanólicos fueron capaces de inhibir la actividad α-glucosidasa y α-amilasa de 58% a 34%% y 33 y 22% respectivamente, mientras que los extractos acuosos fueron menos efectivos. Entre los extractos estudiados, el extracto etanólicos de cebolla morada presenta la mayor concentración de compuestos fenólicos totales y la mayor actividad antiradical e inhibidora de α-glucosidasa. Las diferencias encontradas entre la concentración de compuestos fenólicos y las distintas actividades estudiadas parecen depender del perfil único de compuestos fenólicos que posee cada variedad de cebolla.

  4. Bases ecofisiológicas de la producción de la cebolla (Allium cepa, L.): aportaciones para la mejora de las técnicas de cultivo en el Pla d'Urgell (Lleida)

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    Bosch i Serra, Àngela D.

    1999-01-01

    El presente estudio se plantea a fin de optimizar las prácticas de cultivo de cebolla (Allium cepa L.) a la vez que se profundiza en las bases ecofisiológicas de su producción. La experimentación se ubica en la comarca del Pla d´Urgell (Lleida) donde constituye la principal hortícola . El cultivar más común, con siembra a partir de enero, es Valenciana de Grano (V. de Grano). Se recolecta en la segunda quincena de agosto y se destina a consumo en fresco aunque almacenándose para ser comercial...

  5. Doblehaploides, una estrategia biotecnológica para el mejoramiento genético en cebolla (Allium cepa.

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    Foschi, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The lines used for onion hybrid production are partially homozygous due to the existence of endogamy depression during selfing. The production of haploid plants through in vitro gynogenesis, and later chromosome doubling allows reaching complete homozygosis. There are several factors that influence onion gynogenesis like, the genotype of the donor plant, the conditions and media of the growth culture. The duplication of chromosome number is a necessary step once obtained the haploid embryos, because spontaneous doubling is very low. There are several antimitotic substances that can be used for chromosome doubling, among them colchicine and APM, both with 70 % of efficiency, and others like oryzalin and trifluralin. The principal factors that affect doubling techniques are: the explant type, the antimitotic substances used, the duration and conditions under which the treatments are performed. For these reasons is necessary to optimize the duplication methods adjusting the concentration used and the duration of the treatments. This technique step represents today one of the main constraints for usein the improvement plans.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Las líneas autofecundadas de cebolla utilizadas para la obtención de híbridos son líneas parcialmente homocigotas, debido a que la cebolla presenta alto grado de depresión por endogamia.La producción de plantas haploides mediante ginogénesis in vitro y posterior duplicación de número de cromosomas es una estrategia que permite obtener una completa homocigosis. Existen varios factores que afectan la ginogénesis, entre ellos se encuentran el genotipo de la planta donadora, las condiciones y el medio de cultivo, los cuales han sido ampliamente estudiados en los genotipos locales. Una vez obtenidos los embriones haploides es necesaria la duplicación de los cromosomas, debido a la escasa duplicación espont

  6. LA PRODUCCIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE CEBOLLA (Allium cepa L., UNA REALIDAD EN SANTA CRUZ DEL NORTE, MAYABEQUE

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    Carlos F. de la Fé Montenegro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En consideración con la información existente alrededor de las cualidades y comportamiento de la variedad ́Caribe 71 ́, y su particular relevancia para el desarrollo de la producción de cebollas en Cuba, como consecuencia básicamente de la carencia de semilla, es que fue realizado el presente trabajo, de manera conjunta con agricultores de la Cooperativa de Créditos y Servicios (CCS “José Castellanos” con el objetivo principal de contribuir a la caracterización de la variedad en cuestión y aportar nuevas evidencias de la factibilidad de la producción de sus semillas al nivel de fincas campesinas con un mínimo de recursos, generalmente al alcance de los agricultores del territorio. Entre los principales resultados se destaca una amplia caracterización de la variedad Caribe 71, morfoagronómica y valorativa desde el punto de vista de la factibilidad de la producción de semillas. Se pudo constatar que aún cuando se necesita de una fuerte inversión inicial, para la adquisición del material de siembra y aún cuando el cultivo necesita de cuidados específicos, no resultan limitantes para el normal crecimiento y desarrollo del cultivo al nivel de fincas campesinas. Tal situación, se encuentra en concordancia con la política estratégica del país dirigida a incrementar la producción de cebollas en los próximos años en el sector campesino cooperativo de modo que contribuya a sustituir parte de las importaciones de semillas. Los resultados del trabajo realizado evidencian sin dudas, la factibilidad de la producción de semillas al nivel de fincas. De igual modo, sugieren la ampliación del trabajo a un número mayor de fincas en el territorio, incluyendo fincas de otros municipios de la provincia con condiciones para el desarrollo del trabajo, además de profundizar en alternativas agroecológicas más amigables con el ambiente.

  7. Evaluación de extractos de ocho especies vegetales en el control de mildeo velloso (Peronospora destructor Berk) en cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L.)

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    Pedro Enrique Cubides-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Extractos de ocho especies vegetales: eucalipto (Eucalytus globulus), cola de caballo (Equisetum bogotense), ortiga (Urtica urens), manzanilla (Matricaria chamomilla), caléndula (Calendula officinalis), yerbabuena (Menta viridis), ajo (Allium sativum) y clavo (Syzygum aromaticum), preparados por el método de decocción (100 g/l), fueron evaluados en cuanto a su eficiencia en el control de P. destructor en cebolla de bulbo. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repetic...

  8. Evaluación preliminar de la micorriza versículo-arbuscular en dos sistemas: pastizal y cebolla de bulbo Allium cepa

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    Muñoz F. Jaime Eduardo; Sánchez de Prager Marina; Bastidas Vanessa

    1993-01-01

    Se evaluó durante dos semestres la micorriza en dos sistemas: pastizal y cultivo de Allium cepa, en un mismo sitio con un contenido de P alto. Para el pastizal se tomaron muestras en cinco lotes identificando las especies presentes y su abundancia relativa, en A. cepa se tomaron muestras en cinco edades del cultivo. En ambos sistemas se evaluó porcentaje de infección por MVA (PI), número de esporas por 50 g de suelo (NES), se identificaron las especies de MVA y se obtuvo su frecuencia. En el ...

  9. Evaluación de extractos de ocho especies vegetales en el control de mildeo velloso (Peronospora destructor Berk en cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L.

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    Pedro Enrique Cubides-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extractos de ocho especies vegetales: eucalipto (Eucalytus globulus, cola de caballo (Equisetum bogotense, ortiga (Urtica urens, manzanilla (Matricaria chamomilla, caléndula (Calendula officinalis, yerbabuena (Menta viridis, ajo (Allium sativum y clavo (Syzygum aromaticum, preparados por el método de decocción (100 g/l, fueron evaluados en cuanto a su eficiencia en el control de P. destructor en cebolla de bulbo. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y siete aplicaciones (52, 60, 68, 76,84, 92 y 100 días después del trasplante, incluyendo un testigo químico Ridomil (metalaxil + mancozeb (2 g/l y el testigo absoluto; se evaluaron la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor, y el número y el peso de bulbos cosechados. El ANOVA mostró que de las siete aplicaciones realizadas, la última presentó efectos estadísticos en el control de la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor. El extracto de manzanilla superó al Ridomil en el control de la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor sin diferencias estadísticas entre sí, y fue significativamente mejor al observado con los extractos de eucalipto, cola de caballo, caléndula y el testigo; el extracto de manzanilla superó al testigo químico en el número y peso de bulbos de cebolla sin presentar diferencias estadísticas, y fue significativamente mejor al obtenido con los extractos de eucalipto, cola de caballo, ortiga, caléndula, yerbabuena, clavo y el testigo absoluto. El extracto de manzanilla es una alternativa ecológica que se debe tener en cuenta en el manejo integrado de P. destructor en cebolla de bulbo.

  10. Evaluación preliminar de la micorriza versículo-arbuscular en dos sistemas: pastizal y cebolla de bulbo Allium cepa

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    Muñoz F. Jaime Eduardo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante dos semestres la micorriza en dos sistemas: pastizal y cultivo de Allium cepa, en un mismo sitio con un contenido de P alto. Para el pastizal se tomaron muestras en cinco lotes identificando las especies presentes y su abundancia relativa, en A. cepa se tomaron muestras en cinco edades del cultivo. En ambos sistemas se evaluó porcentaje de infección por MVA (PI, número de esporas por 50 g de suelo (NES, se identificaron las especies de MVA y se obtuvo su frecuencia. En el pastizal la especie predominante Paspalum notatum presentó los mayores PI (16.2 y 15.4 y el mayor NES, Penisetum clandestinulll no adaptada a la zona presentó el menor PI (0.1% y el menor NES; para los dos semestres hubo correlación entre PI y NES y para cada variable a través de semestres, lo que indica que el comportamiento fue similar en las dos épocas. En Allium cepa, para los dos semestres, no se presentó infección por MVA en semillero y los PI de infección fueron muy bajos, menores de 5.3%, no obstante que la especie es considerada de alta dependencia de la MVA; esto puede deberse al alto contenido de P del suelo (167 ppm, y a la aplicación de fungicidas. En ambos sistemas las especies de MVA fueron las mismas, Glomus geosporum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiforme, Acaulospora longula, Glomus monosporum y Glolmus sp; Entrophospora infreguens no se presentó en A. cepa. Las especies predominantes en los dos sistemas fueron Glomus geosporum y Acaulospora longula.

    During two semesters Micorriza (VAM was evaluated in two systems: pastures and Allium cepa culture, in the same place, which had a high P content. For pastures were taken samples in five lots, identifying present species and their relative abundance. In A. cepa samples were taken in five culture ages, In both systems were evaluated infection percentage (lP for VAM, number of spores for 50 g of soil (NSS, were identified the VAM species and was obtained their frequency. At the pastures

  11. Hongos Asociados con el quemado foliar de la cebolla (Allium cepa L. en el estado Lara, Venezuela Fungi associated with leaf blight of onion (Allium cepa L. in Lara State, Venezuela

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    Jenny Cova

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available El quemado foliar de la cebolla es uno de los problemas más importantes del cultivo en el estado Lara. Con el objeto de determinar los patógenos causantes de la enfermedad y la importancia relativa de ellos, se tomaron 22 muestras en 16 localidades correspondientes a cuatro municipios del estado. Las muestras consistieron en hojas de cebolla con síntomas de quemado. Los tejidos sintomáticos de las hojas afectadas fueron procesados y analizados mediante métodos fitopatológicos usuales. Se determinó la presencia de Stemphylium botryosum, S. vesicarium y Alternaria alternata en el 93,7; 12,5 y 50,0 % de las muestras, respectivamente. A. alternata siempre estuvo asociada con S. botryosum . Las pruebas de patogenicidad con S. botryosum y A. alternata , solos o combinados, lograron la reproducción de los síntomas observados en el campo. A diferencia de otras zonas productoras de cebolla en diversos países, en el estado Lara, Venezuela, prevalece la especie S. botryosum como causante del quemado foliar.Leaf blight of onion is one of the most important diseases of the crop in Lara State. To determine the pathogens causing the disease and their relative importance, 22 leaf samples from 16 localities in four counties were analyzed through plant pathological standard techniques. Collected leaves showed visual symptoms of leaf blight. Stemphylium botryosum , S. vesicarium , and Alternaria alternata were isolated in 93.7, 12.5 and 50.0 % of the samples, respectively. A. alternata was always associated with S. botryosum . Pathogenicity tests with S. botryosum and A. alternata , either individually or combined, reproduced disease symptoms similar to those observed in the field. Contrary to what has been observed in different countries, S. botryosum was the main pathogen of onion leaf blight in Lara state, Venezuela.

  12. EFECTO DE LA MICORRIZA Y GALLINAZA SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN Y LA CALIDAD DE CEBOLLA CABEZONA (Allium cepa L. ‘Yellow Granex’ EFFECT OF MYCORRHIZAE AND HEN MANURE FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF ONION (Allium cepa L. ‘YELLOW GRANEX’

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    Maritza Yolima Agudelo Becerra

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En condiciones de campo se evaluó el efecto de hongos micorrizógenos y de gallinaza, comparado con la aplicación de fertilizante mineral, sobre la producción y la calidad de cebolla cabezona (Allium cepa L. ‘Yellow Granex’ en el municipio de Cucaita - Boyacá (Colombia. Las semillas germinaron en suelo, y 70 días después de la germinación, se seleccionaron plántulas de tamaño uniforme, se transplantaron y se inocularon (0,86 ton/ha de Mycofertil o no con hongos micorrícicos. Se aplicaron tres dosis de gallinaza (0 - 1 y 2 ton/ha y 0,5 ton / ha de fertilizante comercial 15 - 15 - 15. Se evaluó la producción total, la producción de bulbos de primera y segunda calidad, así como de los bulbos dañados. Se utilizó el diseño de bloques al azar con tres replicaciones. Se hizo un análisis de varianza (ANOVA para los datos registrados y se realizó la prueba de comparación de medias de Duncan con un nivel de significancia de 0,01. Los resultados mostraron que las micorrizas y la gallinaza incrementaron la producción total y de las cebollas de primera calidad, comparados con la aplicación fertilizante mineral solo o complementado con 1 ó 2 ton/ha de gallinaza. Sin embargo, la producción de cebolla de segunda calidad fue superior en las parcelas tratadas con micorrizas, comparadas con los otros tratamientos sin ellas. Por otro lado, la adición de micorrizas redujo la cantidad de bulbos dañados. El tratamiento con fertilizante mineral solo presentó la producción total más baja y la menor producción de cebolla de primera y segunda calidad, pero la más alta producción de cebollas dañadas, en comparación con los demás tratamientos evaluados. Los resultados se discutieron con base en el incremento en la toma de nutrientes y en la reducción del efecto de patógenos radiculares en las plantas colonizadas con micorrizas.Under field conditions, the effects of mycorrhizae and hen manure fertilization, compared to the application

  13. Caracterización del sistema de producción de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L. en Cucaita, Boyacá

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    Martha Jeanneth Méndez-Zuluaga

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dado que el cultivo de cebolla de bulbo representa la mayor fuente de ingreso para los productores de Cucaita, Boyacá el objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar la tecnología que actualmente se utiliza en este cultivo, para tenerse en cuenta en el planteamiento de proyectos participativos de desarrollo rural alternativo. La información correspondiente a la presente investigación fue recolectada a través de fuentes primarias y secundarias, mediante encuestas y entrevistas a los productores y consulta al Esquema de Ordenamiento Territorial, EOT. Los resultados indican que  la incursión y adopción del modelo de la Revolución Verde, por parte de los productores de cebolla de bulbo en el municipio, ha sido casi total y, en consecuencia, se ha generado gran dependencia tecnológica de insumos externos como semillas, maquinaria agrícola (100% de los agricultores utilizan el arado de disco, fertilizantes (98% de los agricultor es utilizan fertilizantes químicos y pesticidas de categoría toxicológica I, II y III. Además, no hay un manejo preventivo para los problemas fitosanitarios; la siembra del cultivo de cebolla está condicionada al riego y prevalece el minifundio (72% de los productores siembran en áreas de 1600 a 6400 m2 . La mano de obra de la mujer, niños y hombres es muy importante para la economía familiar; no hay un contacto directo entre productores y consumidores, ya que el 100% de los productores venden a intermediarios.

  14. Alternativas de biofertilización para la producción sostenible de cebolla de bulbo (allium cepa) en cucaita, boyacá

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    Méndez, Martha Jeanneth; Viteri, Silvio Edgar

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue validar el potencial de cuatro alternativas de biofertilización para la producción de cebolla de bulbo en Cucaita, Boyacá. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: a) bocashi gallinaza, caldo super cuatro y fertilizante (BgCSF);b) bocashi bovinaza, caldo super cuatro y fertilizante (BbCSF); c) bocashi gallinaza, caldo super cuatro, caldo rizósfera y fertilizante (BgCSCRF); d) bocashi bovinaza, caldo super cuatro, caldo rizósfera y fertilizante (BbCSCRF); e) testigo r...

  15. DETERMINACIÓN DE LAS VARIABLES MÁS IMPORTANTES, HEREDABILIDAD Y CORRELACIONES FENOTÍPICAS, EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE BULBOS DE CEBOLLA (Allium cepa, L.

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    E. Lescay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de determinar las variables más importantes en la producción de bulbos de cebolla, estimar la heredabilidad en cada una de ellas y evaluar las correlaciones fenotípicas entre estas, se estudiaron cuatro variedades de cebolla, durante tres años en la Empresa de Cultivos Varios Niquero y en la Estación Territorial de Investigaciones Agropecuarias de Holguín, sobre los suelos Ferralítico Rojo Mullido Éutrico y Pardo Mullido sin Carbonatos, respectivamente. La siembra fue directa en surcos a doble hilera con un marco de 0.90 m entre surcos, 0.20 m entre hileras y 0.07 m entre plantas. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro réplicas. Los resultados mostraron que las variables que tuvieron mayor contribución a la varianza fenotípica total fueron: rendimiento comercial, masa del bulbo, rendimiento total, bulbos de primera, número de hojas por planta y número de túnicas por bulbo. La masa del bulbo y el número de hojas por planta lograron los mayores coeficientes de regresión positivos y significativos con el rendimiento de bulbos y expresaron alta heredabilidad con valores de 62 y 86 %, respectivamente.

  16. RESPUESTA A LA SEQUÍA DE VARIEDADES DE CEBOLLA (Allium cepa L. UTILIZANDO DIFERENTES ÍNDICES DE SELECCIÓN

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    Wilfredo Estrada Prado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la tolerancia al déficit hídrico de cinco variedades de cebolla en un experimento que se desarrolló en el período 2009-2010 en el Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias “Jorge Dimitrov”, municipio Bayamo, provincia Granma, Cuba. Se evaluaron tres niveles de humedad en el suelo (100, 75 y 50 %. Se emplearon 15 tratamientos, distribuidos en un diseño completamente aleatorizado y se seleccionaron 30 plantas al azar en cada tratamiento donde se evaluaron los índices: pérdida del rendimiento (PR, productividad media geométrica (PMG, productividad media (PM, índice de eficiencia relativa (IER, índice de tolerancia a la sequía (ITS, índice de rendimiento (IY, índice de estabilidad del rendimiento (IEY, índice de susceptibilidad a la sequía (ISS, media harmónica (MH y tolerancia (TOL. Los resultados mostraron que los déficit de humedad evaluados, influyeron significativamente (p≤0,05, donde la variedad Grano-2000 F1 mostró mayor tolerancia al déficit hídrico mientras que la variedad H-222 fue la más susceptible. Todos los índices evaluados tuvieron una alta contribución a la variabilidad total.

  17. Relationship between plant nutrition and severity of damage caused by white rot desease on onion (Allium cepa Relación entre la nutrición mineral y la severidad del daño ocasionado por pudrición blanca en cebolla de bulbo

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    Piraneque G Nelson Virgilio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In a comercial onion crop (Allium cepa located in Tibasosa, Boyacá, Colombia, the relationship between plant nutrition and severity of damage caused by white rot disease was studied. The soil was classified as sulfic endoamept. At 20 days before sowing (DAS and at 45, 90 and 120 days after sowing soil samples and esclerotium were taken plant tissue analysis at 45, 90 and 120 DAS was carried out. Also association among soil chemical parameters and plant percentage of damage was estudied. Results showed direct relationship among cooper content in soil (r=0.71, nitrogen in leaves (r=0.46 and magnesium in leaves (r=0.66 with percentage o damage caused by S. cepivorum. Calcium content in leaves (r=0.52, boron in leaves (r=-0.49 and esclerocios in soil Elg (r=0.56 were inversely proportional to percentage of damage. The treatment with the highest percentage of damage had higher contents of N, P and S in leaves and lower K, Ca, Mg, B, Mn, Cu and Zn.

    Key words: Allium cepa; Sclerotium cepivorum; plant nutrition.

    En un cultivo comercial de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa situado en el municipio de Tibasosa, Boyacá-Colombia, se recolectaron muestras de suelos (sulfic endoaquepts yesclerocios 20 días antes de la siembra, 45, 90 y 120 días después de la siembra (DDS; los análisis de tejidos se realizaron a los 45, 90 y 120 DDS. Se determinó la asociación entre parámetros químicos del suelo y de la planta con el porcentaje de daño. Se estableció asociación directa entre las variables, contenido de cobre en suelo Cu (r=0.71, nitrógeno foliar Nf(r=0.46 y magnesio foliar Mgf (r=0.66 con el porcentaje de daño causado por S. cepivorum. El contenido de calcio foliar Caf (r=-0.52, boro foliar Bf (r=-0.49 y esclerocios por gramo de suelo ES/g (r=-0.56 fueron inversamente proporcionales con el porcentaje de daño. El tratamiento con mayor porcentaje de daño presentó contenidos altos de N, P y S en tejidos y menores

  18. Efecto de tres coberturas plásticas y dos sistemas de siembra en la fenología de la cebolla de bulbo Effect of three polyethylene mulchs and two plant systems on the phenology of the common onion (Allium cepa L. at the Sabana de Bogota

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    Rondón Sandra Yaneth

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Tibaitatá CORPOICA, se cultivo cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L. híbrido Yellow Granex PRR, en siembra directa y trasplante, sobre tres coberturas plásticas (negra, gris y blanca, un testigo en suelo desnudo y un testigo absoluto, durante el segundo semestre de 1995 y los meses de Enero y Febrero de 1996. Para ambos sistemas de siembra, con las coberturas y sin elias, las plantas de cebolla presentaron las mismas fenofases, las cuales fueron: Emergencia, primera hoja verdadera, plántula, iniciación del llenado del bulbo, máximo desarrollo vegetativo y terminación del llenado del bulbo. La duración de cada fenofase fue diferente entre tratamientos, pues las plantas bajo coberturas emergieron primero que en el testigo (suelo desnudo y en el semillero. Para siembra directa, el inicio del llenado del bulbo ocurrió antes que en el transplante; este atraso se relacionó con el estrés causado por el cambio del semillero al lugar definitivo y la adaptación al mismo. En la terminación del llenado del bulbo, los coberturas plásticas negra y gris en siembra directa registraron mayores pesos secos del bulbo, en comparación con el acolchado blanco y el testigo (suelo desnudo.Three polyethylene mulches (black, white and gray and two planting systems (direct seeded and transplant were tested in common onion (Allium cepa L. hybrid Yellow Granex PRR, whit the objective of evaluating the duration of developmental stages. The phenophases established were: Emergence, first true leaf, young plantlet, bulb filling initiation, maximal vegetative development and bulb filling termination. There were differences among planting systems in the duration of phenophases; the least duration occurred with the black and gray polyethylene mulches. The combination of these colored plastics and direct seeding shortened the vegetative cycle in 70 days and the yield per plant was higher than in the white plastic mulch and

  19. Efecto del fosfito de potasio en combinación con el fungicida metalaxyl + mancozeb en el control de mildeo velloso (peronospora destructor berk) en cebolla de bulbo (allium cepa l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Velandia Monsalve, Jorge; Viteri Rosero, Silvio Edgar; Rubio Cárdenas, Nubia Janeth; Tovar Duarte, Fabián Octavio

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. El hongo Peronospora destructor causa considerables pérdidas en la producción de cebolla de bulbo en el mundo. Fosfito de potasio en combinación con el fungicida Metalaxyl + Mancozeb, fue evaluado por su eficiencia en el control de este patógeno en el híbrido de cebolla de bulbo Yellow Granex. Los tratamientos consistieron en una aplicación de fosfito (5 mL L-1) alternada con una de fungicida (2 g L-1); dos y tres aplicaciones consecutivas de fosfito alternadas con una de fungicida; ...

  20. Efecto del Fosfito de Potasio en Combinación con el Fungicida Metalaxyl + Mancozeb en el Control de Mildeo Velloso (Peronospora destructor Berk) en Cebolla de Bulbo (Allium cepa L.) Effect of the Potasium Phosphite in Combination with the Fungicide Metalaxyl plus Mancozeb on the Control of Downy Mildew (Peronospora destructor Berk) in Onion Bulb (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Velandia Monsalve; Silvio Edgar Viteri Rosero; Nubia Janeth Rubio Cárdenas; Fabián Octavio Tovar Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. El hongo Peronospora destructor causa considerables pérdidas en la producción de cebolla de bulbo en el mundo. Fosfito de potasio en combinación con el fungicida Metalaxyl + Mancozeb, fue evaluado por su eficiencia en el control de este patógeno en el híbrido de cebolla de bulbo Yellow Granex. Los tratamientos consistieron en una aplicación de fosfito (5 mL L-1) alternada con una de fungicida (2 g L-1); dos y tres aplicaciones consecutivas de fosfito alternadas con una de fungicida; ...

  1. LA BIOFERTILIZACIÓN CON RIZOBACTERIAS Y HONGOS MICORRÍZICOS ARBUSCULARES EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE POSTURAS DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Y CEBOLLA (Allium cepa L.. I. CRECIMIENTO VEGETATIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Pulido

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En áreas experimentales de la Universidad de Ciego de Ávila, sobre un suelo Ferralítico Rojo compactado eútrico y durante dos campañas hortícolas sucesivas, se estudió el efecto de la inoculación, simple y combinada, mediante recubrimiento de las semillas y prescindiendo de la fertilización mineral, con cuatro y cinco especies, respectivamente, de rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal -RPCV- (Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroococcum, Burkholderia cepacia y Pseudomonas fluorescens y de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares -HMA- (Glomus clarum, G. fasciculatum, G. mosseae, G. agregatum y G. versiculiferum, sobre algunos indicadores del crecimiento de posturas de tomate y cebolla, tomando como criterio de evaluación la altura y la longitud radical de las plántulas. Los resultados mostraron que, para el tomate, la inoculación con Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroococcum y Burkholderia cepacia permitió obtener posturas de calidad equivalente a la alcanzada con la fertilización mineral, mientras que para la cebolla, solo Azospirillum brasilense y Azotobacter chroococcum lograron que las posturas tuvieran dicha calidad. En relación con la inoculación con HMA, las especies Glomus clarum, G. fasciculatum y G. mosseae, para ambos cultivos, produjeron posturas con valores de altura y longitud radical considerados óptimos. Con las coinoculaciones de RPCV + HMA se lograron posturas de calidad superior a la alcanzada con las mejores variantes de inoculación simple, destacándose las combinaciones de G. clarum y G. fasciculatum con A. brasilense para el tomate y de G. clarum y G. fasciculatum con A. chroococcum para la cebolla.

  2. INFLUENCIA DE LOS FACTORES CLIMÁTICOS SOBRE ALGUNAS VARIABLES MORFOAGRONÓMICAS EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE BULBOS DE CEBOLLA (Allium cepa, L. EN LA REGIÓN ORIENTAL DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lescay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron cuatro variedades de cebolla, durante tres campañas, en dos localidades de la región oriental de Cuba. Los experimentos se desarrollaron sobre los suelos Ferralítico Rojo Mulido Éutrico y Pardo mullido sin Carbonatos. Las parcelas estuvieron formadas por cinco surcos de 5.0 m de largo y 4.5 m de ancho, distribuidas en un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro réplicas. Las variables evaluadas fueron: rendimiento comercial, masa del bulbo, rendimiento total, bulbos de primera, número de hojas por planta y número de túnicas por bulbo. Los resultados arrojaron que los factores climáticos que ejercieron mayor influencia sobre el comportamiento de estas fueron la temperatura y las precipitaciones

  3. Uso de fertilizantes químicos y orgánicos en cebolla (Allium cepa L. en Apatzingán, Michoacán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Álvarez-Hernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Como un cultivo alternativo y viable para la región "Valle de Apatzingán", se planteó un experimento para evaluar la respuesta del cultivo de cebolla "criolla" a la aplicación de fertilizantes químicos y orgánicos en Apatzingán, Michoacán (México. El almácigo se estableció en diciembre de 2009 y el trasplante se realizó a los 70 días posteriores, el marco de plantación fue a tres hileras (12.5 cm entre plantas y 15 cm entre hileras. Se utilizó un diseño experimental en bloques al azar con cuatro tratamientos y tres repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron: I. Fertilización química común (fuente: urea simple y superfosfato de calcio triple; II. Fertilización química compleja (fuente: triple 17; III. Abono orgánico (fuente líquida con base en guano de murciélago, y IV. Testigo. Las aplicaciones se efectuaron a los 15, 35 y 55 días después del trasplante (ddt. Se evaluó: el desarrollo fenológico, las características productivas y físico-químicas. El análisis de varianza no mostró diferencia estadística significativa (P>0.05 entre tratamientos. Los niveles y fuentes de fertilización empleadas no influyeron en la respuesta fenológica, productiva y características físico-químicas del cultivo de cebolla en las condiciones ambientales de Apatzingán, Michoacán (México, bajo el esquema utilizado en el experimento.

  4. Estimación del uso del agua en el cultivo de cebolla (allium cepa l. En las condiciones de Quíbor, estado lara, venezuela Water use estimation for onion (Allium cepa L. crop under Quíbor conditions, Lara State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bajo las condiciones locales del sistema de producción de cebolla, en Quíbor, estado Lara, Venezuela, se realizaron estimaciones del uso total del agua. El estudio se llevó a cabo durante dos ciclos de crecimiento para los cultivares Texas Grano 438 y Utopía, tomando en cuenta la evapotranspiración por parte del cultivo de la cebolla y la evaporación directa del agua libre en los surcos. La evapotranspiración se estimó mediante el método original de Penman-Monteith, el cual permite la estimación directa de dicho valor sin el uso del coeficiente de cultivo. En el primer ciclo (abril-julio, el valor total de uso del agua para la cebolla osciló alrededor de 450 mm por ciclo para ambos cultivares, mientras que los valores diarios variaron entre 3,2 y 5,7 mm. En el segundo ciclo (julio-noviembre el uso de agua fue menor. Los valores diarios de consumo de agua fueron siempre menores en la etapa inicial y final del cultivo. La evaporación directa del agua libre en el surco superó siempre a la ET del cultivo.Under conditions of the onion production system, in Quíbor Lara State, Venezuela, estimates were made of total water consumption. The study was carried out during two cycles of growth for the cultivars Texas Grano 438 and Utopia, taking into consideration the evapotranspiration by the onion crop and the free evaporation of the water in the furrows. The evapotranspiration was estimated using the original Penman-Monteith method, which allows for the direct calculation of this value without using the crop coefficient. In the first season (April-July, the total value of water for the onions ranged about 450 mm per cycle for both cultivars, while the daily values ranged between 3.2 and 5.7 mm. In the second season (July-November the use of water was lower. The daily consumption of water was always lower in the initial and final stages of the crop. The free evaporation of water directly from the furrow always exceeded the crop ET.

  5. Estudio de crecimiento y absorción de nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio en cebolla, Allium cepa L., variedad ocañera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdomo G. Carlos E.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available En el CNI Palmira se realizó este estudio utilizando la cebolla de bulbo variedad Ocañera. Se emplearon como tratamientos 6 épocas de crecimiento contados a partir de los 30 días después de la siembra, con intervalos de 10 días. La variedad estudiada presenta entre sus características fundamentales: ciclo vegetativo corto, propagación asexual y altos rendimientos. Los principales parámetros que se determinaron fueron: número de falsos tallos por planta, número de hojas por falso tallo, número de hojas por planta, altura de hojas, peso fresco y seco de hojas y bulbos, porcentajes y gramos de N, P y K en hojas y bulbos. El peso fresco y seco tanto en hojas como en bulbos guardó estrecha relación a través del período vegetativo. Las necesidades de nitrógeno y potasio fueron mayores en las primeras épocas, las de fosfato en todas. La absorción total de nutrimentos para una cosecha de 21.5 t/ha fue de 38.8, 38.6 y 71.3 kg de N, P2 Os y K10 respectivamente.A study with bulb onion, Ocañera variety was carried out at the Experimental Center Palmira. Growing periods were counted from 30 days after sowing with intervals of 10 days, which were used as treatments. The studies variety presents among its main characteristics: asexual propagation, short vegetative cycle, and high yields. Mean determined parameters were: number of false stem/plant, number of  leaves/false stem, number of leaves/plant, leaves height, fresh and dried leaves, and bulbs weight, percentages and grams of N, P and K in leaves and bulbs. Fresh and dried weights of both leaves and bulbs have a narrow ratio throughout the vegetative period N and K needed by onion are greater in the first periods, and P the whole period. For a 21.5 t/ha harvest the nutrient consumption was 38.8,38.6 and 71.3 kg of N, P20S YK20 respectively.

  6. Potencial de los caldos rizósfera y súper cuatro como biofertilizantes para la sostenibilidad del cultivo de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viteri Silvio E.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el potencial de los caldos rizósfera y súper cuatro como biofertilizantes para la sostenibilidad del cultivo de cebolla de bulbo. Los caldos se analizaron química y microbiológicamente y se aplicaron a materas, en concentración del 10% a los 20, 40 y 60 días del trasplante. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar con cinco tratamientos y 30 repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron número y longitud de hojas y diámetro y peso del bulbo. El análisis químico mostró que cada caldo contiene una gran variedad de nutrimentos que son esenciales para la nutrición equilibrada de la planta. Por su parte, el análisis microbiológico indicó que cada caldo representa una fuente muy importante de microorganismos benéficos, especialmente el caldo rizósfera por su mayor población de hongos y de bacterias totales, fijadoras de N2 y solubilizadoras de fósforo. En cuanto a los efectos sobre el crecimiento del cultivo, cada caldo por separado igualó al testigo químico y superó a la mezcla de los dos y al testigo absoluto. Sin embargo, los valores de conductividad eléctrica indican que se debe tener especial cuidado con el número de aplicaciones. Razón por la cual se recomienda que los dos biofertilizantes se apliquen semanalmente, como suplemento de la fertilización, en secuencia rotativa y en integración con prácticas agronómicas que permitan mantener niveles adecuados de materia orgánica, para asegurar la multiplicación y actividad no solamente de los microorganismos introducidos por medio de los biofertilizantes sino también de las poblaciones nativas del suelo.

  7. Efecto del Fosfito de Potasio en Combinación con el Fungicida Metalaxyl + Mancozeb en el Control de Mildeo Velloso (Peronospora destructor Berk en Cebolla de Bulbo (Allium cepa L. Effect of the Potasium Phosphite in Combination with the Fungicide Metalaxyl plus Mancozeb on the Control of Downy Mildew (Peronospora destructor Berk in Onion Bulb (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Velandia Monsalve

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El hongo Peronospora destructor causa considerables pérdidas en la producción de cebolla de bulbo en el mundo. Fosfito de potasio en combinación con el fungicida Metalaxyl + Mancozeb, fue evaluado por su eficiencia en el control de este patógeno en el híbrido de cebolla de bulbo Yellow Granex. Los tratamientos consistieron en una aplicación de fosfito (5 mL L-1 alternada con una de fungicida (2 g L-1; dos y tres aplicaciones consecutivas de fosfito alternadas con una de fungicida; una aplicación de fungicida alternada con una de fosfito; dos y tres aplicaciones consecutivas de fungicida alternadas con una de fosfito; aplicaciones de sólo fosfito y sólo fungicida y un testigo. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad, el número, tamaño y peso de bulbos de primera, segunda, tercera y peso total de bulbos. Los resultados mostraron que las aplicaciones de fosfito de potasio durante dos semanas consecutivas alternadas en la tercera semana con una de fungicida y las aplicaciones semanales de sólo fosfito, tuvieron efectos altamente significativos en el control de la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor y diferencias significativas en el peso de los bulbos de primera (28,1 y 27,9 t ha-1 y peso total de bulbos (55,5 y 52,1 t ha-1, representando en relación al testigo, un incremento de 200 y 196% en el peso de los bulbos de primera y de 55 y 45,7% en el peso total de bulbos, respectivamente. Se concluye que con el fosfito de potasio se reduce la aplicación de fungicidas y ello es una alternativa viable para el manejo ecológico de P. destructor en la producción de cebolla de bulbo.Abstract. Peronospora destructor fungi causes considerable loses in the production of onion bulb in the world. Potassium phosphite in combination with the fungicide Metalaxyl + Mancozeb was evaluated for its efficiency in the control of this pathogen

  8. Respuesta fisiológica al déficit hídrico in vitro y análisis proteómico preliminar en callos de cuatro cultivares de Allium cepa L. (cebolla Physiologic response to hydric déficit in vitro and preliminary proteomic analysis in calli of four cultivars of Allium cepa L. (Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ysabel Díaz V

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo por objetivo estudiar la respuesta fisiológica y proteómica al déficit hídrico in vitro inducido por el polietilen-glicol (PEG-8000 en callos de cuatro cultivares de cebolla, 'Sivan' y 'Americana' (rojas, 'Ica' y 'Ram' (amarillas. En todos los cultivares sin aclimatamiento (Sin-PEG el porcentaje de sobrevivencia disminuyó conforme se incrementaron las concentraciones de PEG-8000; en contraste, en los callos con aclimatamiento (Con-PEG 10% p/v incrementó el porcentaje de sobrevivencia en 'Ica' y 'Sivan' y disminuyó en 'Americana' y 'Ram', en las más bajas concentraciones de PEG-8000. Los cultivares 'Ica' y 'Americana' presentaron su máximo porcentaje de sobrevivencia en el mayor tratamiento con PEG-8000 (40%, 'Sivan' incrementó a 47% y 'Ram' disminuyó a 22,8% de sobrevivencia. El valor de DHLs, en los callos con-PEG se incrementó significativamente en 'Ica' (11,38% de PEG-8000 p/v y 'Sivan' (10,5% de PEG-8000 p/v. La concentración de carbohidratos solubles totales disminuyó en 'Americana', en 'Sivan' e 'Ica' se incrementaron y en 'Ram' el incremento fue más del doble. La concentración de prolina se aumentó significativamente (p The objective of this investigation was study the physiologic and proteomic response to hydric deficit in vitro induced by PEG-8000, in calli of four cultivars of onion, 'Sivan' and 'Americana' (red, 'Ica' and 'Ram' (yellow. For all the cultivars without acclimatization treatment (without PEG the survival percentage diminished in relation to increasing of concentration of PEG, whereas with acclimatization (10% of PEG-8000 the survival percentage increased in 'Ica' and 'Sivan', and it diminished in 'Americana'and 'Ram' al lowest concentrations of PEG. 'Ica' and 'Americana' presented the highest percentage of survival at 40% of PEG, "Sivan' increased to 47%, and 'Ram' shown its lowest value (22.8%. The value of DHL50 in calli with-PEG, increased significatively in 'Ica' (11

  9. Antimutagenic potential of curcumin on chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAGUNATHAN Irulappan; PANNEERSELVAM Natarajan

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric has long been used as a spice and food colouring agent in Asia. In the present investigation, the antimutagenic potential of curcumin was evaluated in Allium cepa root meristem cells. So far there is no report on the biological properties of curcumin in plant test systems. The root tip cells were treated with sodium azide at 200 and 300 μg/ml for 3 h and curcumin was given at 5, 10 and 20 μg/ml for 16 h, prior to sodium azide treatment. The tips were squashed after colchicine treatment and the cells were analyzed for chromosome aberration and mitotic index. Curcumin induces chromosomal aberration in Allium cepa root tip cells in an insignificant manner, when compared with untreated control. Sodium azide alone induces chromosomal aberrations significantly with increasing concentrations. The total number of aberrations was significantly reduced in root tip cells pretreated with curcumin. The study reveals that curcumin has antimutagenic potential against sodium azide induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa root meristem cells. In addition, it showed mild cytotoxicity by reducing the percentage of mitotic index in all curcumin treated groups, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. The antimutagenic potential of curcumin is effective at 5 μg/ml in Allium cepa root meristem cells.

  10. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion (Allium cepa L.) yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  11. Interaction of Natural Dye (Allium cepa with Ionic Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Chandravanshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium cepa is a natural dye that has been extracted from onion skin with the help of soxhlet apparatus. The pigment in the dye pelargonidin was found to be 2.25%. The interaction of the dye with ionic surfactants, namely, cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and anionic (sodium lauryl sulphate has been studied by spectrophotometrically, conductivity, and surface tension measurements. The thermodynamic and surface parameters have been evaluated for the interaction process. The results indicate {surfactant-dye} complex formation and domination of adsorption in comparison to micellization.

  12. Beneficial effects of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Commiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis--a comparative evaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lata S; Saxena K; Bhasin V; Saxena R; Kumar A; Srivastava V

    1991-01-01

    Oral administration of petroleum ether extract of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and ethylacetate extract of Commiphora mukul in albino rats significantly prevented rise in serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride level, caused by atherogenic diet. All the three agents were also found to confer significant protection against atherogenic diet induced atherosclerosis.

  13. Radiation induction of multiaberrant cells in Allium cepa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Rogue' cells determined by human geneticists as the cells with many chromosome aberrations. The main enigma of this phenomenon is its levels are unexpected higher in many studies. Frequently, these cells emergence in human are linked with radiation or viruses. 'Rogue' cells supposed to be very important in mutagenesis, oncogenesis and even in evolution process. We use plant assay (Allium cepa L.) to analyze the induction of cells with many chromosome aberration of different types. Cytogenetic damage of gamma-irradiation as frequency of multiaberrant cells in the root tip cells of Allium was determined. The empiric numbers of cells with many aberrations were compared with those expected in theoretical distributions (Poisson, geometric and Pascal). The frequency of multiaberrant cells in root tip cells was increased up to 83,33 ± 10,76 % under gamma-irradiation in various doses. Gamma-irradiation induced more multiaberrant cells in A. cepa meristems than expected in theoretical distributions. We supposed dependency of chromosome aberrations origin in the same cell after irradiation. The data obtained elucidate that under gamma-irradiation accumulation of aberrations in aberrant cells are not random, the appearance of one aberration in cell induced the appearance of others in the same cell. (author)

  14. Repairing Effect of Allium Cepa on Testis Degeneration Caused by Toxoplasma Gondii in The Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Yagoob Garedaghi; Seyed Razi Bahavarnia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, infectS a large proportion of the world population yearly. This study was investigated to evaluate the remedial effects of allium cepa on testis degeneration in male rats infected by T.gondii, RH strain. Materials and Methods: Wistar male rats (n=40) divided into control (n=10) and experimental (n=30) groups. The experimental groups were divided into two groups; allium cepa group (n=10) received 1cc of fresh onion juice daily and th...

  15. Chromosomal and Nuclear Alterations in Root Tip Cells of Allium Cepa L. Induced by Alprazolam

    OpenAIRE

    Nefic, Hilada; Musanovic, Jasmin; Metovic, Azra; Kurteshi, Kemajl

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Alprazolam is a triazolobenzodiazepine used in panic disorders and other anxiety states. Target organ of Alprazolam is CNS, causing depression of respiration and consciousness. Aim: This study aimed to estimate the genotoxic potential of Alprazolam using Allium cepa test. Methods: Allium cepa is one of the most suitable plants for detecting different types of xenobiotics. The test enables the assessment of different genetic endpoints making possible damage to the DNA of...

  16. Optimización de la producción y calidad en cebolla cabezona (Allium cepa mediante el balance nutricional con magnesio y micronutrientes (B, Zn y Mn, Valle Alto del Río Chicamocha, Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Manuel Iván

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La ausencia de magnesio y micronutrientes (B, Zn y Mn en planes de fertilización limita el balance nutricional en cebolla, debido a que dichos elementos regulan la expresión del potencial productivo del cultivo y la calidad del producto cosechado. La presente investigación fue realizada en un suelo del Distrito de Riego del Alto Chicamocha (DRAC, clasificado taxonómicamente como Sulfic Endoaquept, familia muy fina sobre orgánica, caolinítica, semiactiva, isomésica (fase ácida, moderadamente profunda. Los resultados mostraron respuestas favorables a la fertilización complementaria específica con 70 kg·ha- 1 de MgO (micromagnesio granulado 40% MgO, donde se reportaron incrementos de 50 % en el rendimiento de primera, mejora en la gravedad específica con diferencias altamente significativas respecto al solo manejo NPK, y se identificó una mayor eficiencia en la absorción foliar del P estableciéndose una relación positiva Mg/P. Respecto al comportamiento de micronutrientes se presentó una interacción positiva Mn·Zn con 4 kg·ha-1 Mn (microman-sulfato de manganeso granulado, 20% Mn y 3,5 kg·ha-1 Zn (microzinc-sulfato de zinc granulado 22% Zn, expresada por incrementos superiores al 18% (P< 0,01 en la producción de cebolla categoría primera. Respecto al manejo NPKMg, las mejoras se observaron directamente en el componente de calidad (diámetro ecuatorial, gravedad específica, características que optimizan la rentabilidad del cultivo; igualmente, se estableció una relación P/Zn importante para el desarrollo, la producción y el manejo nutricional del cultivo. El B no presentó un efecto significativo en las variables evaluadas debido a las altas concentraciones nativas en medios ácidos existentes en este tipo de suelos.

  17. Testicular toxicity and sperm quality following cadmium exposure in rats: Ameliorative potentials of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serah F Ige

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Allium cepa crude extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6. Group 1 was used as control, group 2 was administered 0.3 mg/kgBW of cadmium sulfate (CdSO 4 intraperitoneally for 3 days, group 3 was pretreated with 1 ml/100 g BW of Allium cepa (AcE for 8 weeks followed by intraperitoneal administration of 0.3 mg/kgBW of CdSO 4 in the last 3 days of experiment, and group 4 was administered 1 ml/100 g BW of AcE throughout the experiment. Testicular weight and semen analysis revealing the sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology was carried out. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation status were also carried out in testes. Results: The study demonstrated that Allium cepa ameliorated CdSO 4 -induced alteration in testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. It also showed that Allium cepa attenuated the derangement of lipid peroxidation profile in testicular tissues caused by CdSO 4 exposure. Conclusions: The findings in the study showed that pre-treatment of rat model with Allium cepa extract prevented CdSO 4 -induced reproductive toxicity by improving sperm quality and enhancing testicular lipid peroxidation status.

  18. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation. PMID:23179710

  19. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Mantawy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa on some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice individually and mixed either with or without the currently used drug, praziquantel (PZQ were investigated. These involved some immunological parameters, namely IgM, IgG, interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, some antioxidant enzymes [catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX]. In addition, parasitological and histopathological investigations were performed. No changes were observed in the normal control mice treated with dry extract of onion or garlic, individually or mixed, with or without PZQ, compared to the normal healthy control group. Infection with S. mansoni showed an increase in IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and catalase enzyme, accompanied with a decrease in GPX and SOD antioxidant enzyme activities. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice after administration of the studied extracts. Moreover a significant reduction in worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was noticed which was reflected in normalization of liver architecture.

  20. Configuration of nucleolarDNA in situ in nucleolus ofAllium cepa cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The location and configuration of nucleolar DNA have not beendetermined for a long time. In this paper, we have observed the nucleolar ultrastructure and the character of nucleolar DNA in Allium cepa cells by conventional electron microscopy and the cytochemical NAMA-Ur DNA specific staining method. Furthermore, we have properly improved the NAMA-Ur method so as to analyze the location and configuration of nucleolar DNA in situ. Our results indicated that the nucleolar DNA in Allium cepa cells is mainly located at the border between fibrillar centers and dense fibrillar component, especially distributed in the configuration of encircling the fibrillar centers.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutikno, Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi, Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10-4%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  2. Potency of Allium sativum and Allium cepa Oils against Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia S. Metwally

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been reported that garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa are used all over the world in different diseases, such as infections, injuries, gastrointestinal dysfunctions and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, our aim in this work was to study the ability of garlic and onion oils to offset the infectivity as well as the metabolic disturbances induced by Schistosoma mansoni parasitism. Methods: The two current drugs were given in a dosage of 5ml / kg body weight/ day. Three aspects of drug action were investigated, the effect on S. mansoni infection, the effect on liver functions, and on liver metabolism. The parasitological investigation included worm burden and ova count. Results: Serum biochemical analysis of infected mice revealed a significant increase in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT , ­ glutamyltransferase (GGT , alkaline phosphatase ( ALP, acid phosphatase (AP, while a decrease in glucose, total lipids total cholesterol, high - and low- density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL and LDL, triglycerides, total proteins and albumin was observed. Liver tissue analysis of infected animals showed a marked increase in L- hydroxyproline (HP concentration and xanthine oxidase (XO activity accompanied with a reduction in total adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase and phosphofructokinase (PFK enzymatic activities. Treatment with either garlic or onion oils greatly normalized liver function enzymes and variably improved the other parameters with a noticeable reduction in worm burden and ova count. Conclusions: It could be concluded that garlic or onion may play a role against the metabolic disturbances caused by S. mansoni infection, owing to an effect which may be induced by improving the immunological host system and their antioxidant activities

  3. Factors influencing induction, propagation and regeneration of mature zygotic embryo-derived callus from Allium cepa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.; Henken, B.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic study on the effects of subspecies, cultivar, basal medium, sucrose concentration and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentration on callus induction, propagation and subsequent plant regeneration in Allium cepa has been carried out. Mature zygotic embryos from two onion (cvs. Sturon a

  4. Corn gluten meal as a preemergence herbicide for spring-transplanted onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas. Corn gluten meal is a certified organic material used for preemergence or preplant incorporated weed control. In 2002 and 2003 field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Lane, OK) to determine the ...

  5. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A. sativum ), leek ( A. porrum ) and bunching onion ( A. fistulosum ) are very important vegetable crops on a

  6. GC-MS Investigation of Essential oil and antioxidant activity of Egyptian White Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ahmed El-Wakil; Mortada Mohamed El-Sayed; Ezzat El-Sayed Abdel-Lateef

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study carried out to investigate the chemical constituents of white onion (Allium cepa L.) essential oil as well as evaluate the antioxidant activities, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of their different extracts. Methods: The Essential oil of white onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs were extracted by hydro distillation method and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to determine the chemical composition of the volatile compounds. The an...

  7. Potential therapeutic effect of Allium cepa L. and quercetin in a murine model of Blomia tropicalis induced asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Tatiane Teixeira; Campos, Keina Maciele; Cerqueira-Lima, Ana Tereza; Cana Brasil Carneiro, Tamires; da Silva Velozo, Eudes; Ribeiro Melo, Ingrid Christie Alexandrino; Figueiredo, Eugênia Abrantes; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; de Vasconcelos, Darizy Flávia Silva Amorim; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina

    2015-01-01

    Background Asthma is an inflammatory condition characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and chronic inflammation. The resolution of inflammation is an essential process to treat this condition. In this study we investigated the effect of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) and quercetin (Qt) on cytokine and on smooth muscle contraction in vitro and its therapeutic potential in a murine model of asthma. Methods AcE was obtained by maceration of Allium cepa L. and it was standardized in terms of qu...

  8. Influence of Allium ampeloprasum L. and Allium cepa L. essential oils on the growth of some yeasts and moulds

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    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils extracted from spices, as natural antimicrobial agents, attract particular attention due to their possible role in food protection from microorganisms, and their nontoxicity, in contrast to the synthetic preservatives. In this work, inhibitory effect of Allium ampeloprasum and two onions (Allium cepa, Junski srebrnjak and Kupusinski jabučar, essential oils in different concentrations (1, 4, 7 and 10% on three yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula sp. and three moulds (Aspergillus tamarii, Penicillium griseofulvum and Eurotium amstelodami was investigated. All three essential oils showed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. cerevisiae in concentration of only 1%. Among onions, Kupusinski jabučar essential oil had stronger influence to C. tropicalis, while Allium ampeloprasum essential oil did not show any influence on this yeast. Rhodotorula sp. was influenced only by Allium ampeloprasum essential oil. The strongest inhibitory effect on A. tamarii showed Kupusinski jabučar (57% of inhibition, in concentration of 10%, while on P. griseofulvum, the strongest influence showed Allium ampeloprasum essential oil (78.3% of inhibition, in concentration of 10%. Junski srebrnjak and Kupusinski jabučar essential oils, in concentrations of 7 and 10% respectively, completely inhibited the growth of E. amstelodami.

  9. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF ALLIUM CEPA LINN. (LILIACEAE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Shaik et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have chosen a plant named Allium cepa Linn (Liliaceae to evaluate its hepatoprotective activity in experimental animals. Different pharmacological activities are reported with different parts of this plant. Some of its medicinal properties reported are as stimulant, diuretic, anti-tubercular, anthelmintic, and used for various diseases like diabetes, skin diseases, rheumatism, asthma, nausea and constipation. From the literature we found that A. cepa has also been traditionally indicated for treatment of hepatic disorders. This prompt us to select bulb extracts of this plant for the study of hepatoprotective activity in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals. Phytochemical screening of A. cepa revealed the presence of Saponins, carbohydrate, steroids, Flavonoids. The present study was made to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Allium cepa in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatic injury in experimental animals. Hepatoprotective activity of A. cepa was studied by estimating the serum levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, direct and total bilirubin. The treatment with AEAC and AQEAC showed significant reduction of CCl4 and paracetamol induced elevated serum enzyme and pigment levels. Histopathology of liver shows hepatoprotective effect of these extracts.

  10. The Diversity and Abundance of Small Arthropods in Onion, Allium cepa, Seed Crops, and their Potential Role in Pollination

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, M.K.; Howlett, B. G.; Wallace, A.R.; Mccallum, J. A.; Teulon, D.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width < 3 mm) in particular are rarely assessed. A survey of eight flowering commercial A. cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that sma...

  11. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    OpenAIRE

    S.J. Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A. sativum ), leek ( A. porrum ) and bunching onion ( A. fistulosum ) are very important vegetable crops on a worldwide scale. A. cepa is cultivated mainly as a biennial but some types are treated as perennials. It is propagated by seeds, bulbs, or sets (small bulbs). TThe bulbs of common onion are large, ...

  12. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside and quercetin-4′-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent ligh...

  13. Modulating effect of Allium cepa on kidney apoptosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghub gharadaghi; Saeedeh Shojaee; Arash Khaki; Amir Hatef; Hamid Reza Ahmadi Ashtiani; Hossin Rastegar; Fatemeh Fathiazad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects a broad range of warm blooded animals as well as humans. The present study was investigated to evaluate the effects of allium cepa on renal failur in male rats which experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii, RH strain. Methods: Wistar male rat (n=40) were allocated into four groups, group one that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip) (n=10), group two that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip), plus fresh onion ...

  14. Content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in selected varieties of onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Kavalcová; Judita Bystrická; Pavol Trebichalský; Miriama Kopernická; Miroslava Hrstková; Marianna Lenková

    2015-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops widely consumed in the world. The bulb onion is grown as fresh shoots and as bulbs for consuming uncooked, cooked, and pickled or production of seed and sets. They can be eaten raw, boiled, steamed and roasted. Onion has high nutritional value. Onions are a good source of vitamins, minerals and major component like polyphenols, flavonoids, fructooligosaccharides, thiosulfinates and other sulfur compounds. Polyphen...

  15. POTASSIUM AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Kavalcová; Judita Bystrická; Tomáš Tóth; Beáta Volnová; Miriama Kopernická; Ľuboš Harangozo

    2015-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is rich of chemoprotective compounds as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, sulphur compounds which have potential beneficial properties for human health. Potassium as important mineral abundant plays many vital roles in plant nutrition (reduces respiration, activates enzyme). In generally, potassium increases crop yield and improves quality of onion bulbs. The objectives of this work were to compare and evaluate the impact of potassium on the content of to...

  16. Genotoxic evaluation of infusions of Urera baccifera leaves and roots in Allium cepa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda L. Gindri; Ana Paula D. Coelho; Solange B. Tedesco; Athayde, Margareth L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The aqueous extracts of Urera baccifera Wedd. leaves and roots are used to inflammatory and infectious diseases in Brazilian folk medicine. Oxalic acid, a substance co-related with toxicity and stinging, was already quantified in this plant. Aims: To evaluate the action of leaves and roots infusions (1, 30, 75 g/L) and the oxalic acid standard on mitosis as indicative of presumably antimitotic and genotoxic actions, using the Allium cepa test. Methods: Oxalic acid was quanti...

  17. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak; Harlene Hatterman-Valenti

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND), USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa) to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage) as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA...

  18. Pectic Enzyme Activities of Bacteria Associated with Rotted Onions (Allium cepa)

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Samuel K. C.; Umezurike, Gabriel M.

    1981-01-01

    The aerobic bacteria associated with soft rot in onions (Allium cepa) were isolated and identified as a Vibrio sp., Micrococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas cepacia, an Acinetobacter sp., a Xanthomonas sp., Bacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium. With the cup-plate assay method, no pectin hydrolase could be detected from any of these isolates when they were cultured in pectin medium, but lyase and pectinesterases were detectable. Onion tissue cultures showed pectin hydrolase activity for P. c...

  19. Optimizing the Utility of Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum (sibuyas Tagalog for the Allium Test by Elucidating its Mitotic Periodicity and Rhythmicity Under Varying Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrocio Melvin A. Matias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of pattern of mitotic activity has long been studied in different plants; in the onion Allium cepa, determination of its mitotic activity has led to its utilization in the Allium test for cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of test substances. In this study, the pattern of mitotic activity of A. cepa var. aggregatum and the effect of light exposure on mitotic activity were determined to test the utility of A. cepa L. var. aggregatum as an alternative to the common onion, A. cepa, for the Allium test. Bulblets of A. cepa var. aggregatum were allowed to root for three days in tap water under three different set-ups: constant light exposure set-up (Light, constant dark set-up (Dark and 12 hours light-12 hours dark set-up (Light-Dark. The root tips from the bulblets were then excised and subjected to microscopic observation for the mitotic index (MI every hour after the third day. The results showed no significant difference observed across the three set-ups. However, MI for the Dark and Light set-ups were periodic, showing peaks or maxima of MI falling between 11 AM and 12 PM, whereas that of Light-Dark set-up was rhythmic, having an hourly fluctuation, but also showed maximum between 11 AM and 12 PM. It is recommended that A. cepa var. aggregatum root tips be excised between 11 AM and 12 PM for the Allium test.

  20. Chromosomal and Nuclear Alterations in Root Tip Cells of Allium Cepa L. Induced by Alprazolam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefic, Hilada; Musanovic, Jasmin; Metovic, Azra; Kurteshi, Kemajl

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Alprazolam is a triazolobenzodiazepine used in panic disorders and other anxiety states. Target organ of Alprazolam is CNS, causing depression of respiration and consciousness. Aim: This study aimed to estimate the genotoxic potential of Alprazolam using Allium cepa test. Methods: Allium cepa is one of the most suitable plants for detecting different types of xenobiotics. The test enables the assessment of different genetic endpoints making possible damage to the DNA of humans to be predicted. Results: Alprazolam induced chromosomal (anaphase bridges, breaks, lagging and stickiness, abnormal spiralisation, multipolarity and polyploidy) and cytological aberrations, especially nuclear alterations (nuclear buds, fragmented nucleus and apoptotic bodies, cells without nucleus, binucleated and micronucleated cells), morphological alterations in shape and size of cells, spindle disturbance and polar deviation in root tip meristem cells of Allium cepa at all tested concentrations. Alprazolam also caused significant inhibition of mitotic index in these cells. Conclusion: These changes in cells are indicators of genotoxic potential of Alprazolam suggesting a need for further in vitro studies on animal and human lymphocytes as well as in vivo studies. PMID:25568504

  1. Comparative effect of garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and black seed (Nigella sativa) on gastric acid secretion and gastric ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Bastaki, Salim

    2011-01-01

    Naheed Amir, Amina Al Dhaheri, Najla Al Jaberi, Fatma Al Marzouqi, Salim MA BastakiDepartment of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al Ain, United Arab EmiratesAbstract: Protective roles of raw and boiled garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) in comparison with black seed (Nigella sativa) on acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and gastric acid secretion in rats in vivo have been investigated. Raw or boiled Nigella sativa, gar...

  2. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Wojciechowska; Anna Kołton

    2014-01-01

    The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador...

  3. Genotoxicity and toxicity evaluations of ECF cellulose bleaching effluents using the Allium cepa L. test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, O; Yeber, M C; Venegas, W

    2012-08-01

    Toxicity and genotoxicity tests were performed on root cells of Allium cepa in order to evaluate wastewater quality following an ECF cellulose bleaching process. The results revealed a toxic effect of the effluent, with inhibition of meristem growth and generally lower values of metaphase, anaphase and telophase indices at pH 10.5 than pH 7 for all effluent concentrations. The genotoxicity effect was different from the toxic effect given that the micronucleus and the chromosomal aberration tests in anaphase-telophase cells were low over all ranges of the studied effluent concentrations. PMID:22990817

  4. KERUSAKANKROMOSOM BAWANG MERAH (Allium cepaL. AKIBAT PERENDAMAN DENGAN ETIDIUM BROMIDA

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    Eka Fibayani Imaniar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify thedamage of onion’s(AlliumcepaL. chromosomes causedbyethidiumbromide submersion for 6and12hoursat 500ppm. The methodused to study chromosome damage of onionroot tip wassquash technique. The result showed several types of chromosomedamagesuch as the formation of, micronuclei, nuclear buds and chromosome bridges. At 6 hours submersion,the average percentageof chromosomal damage was 2.99 %, while in submersion for 12 hours, the average percentage of chromosomal damage was 6.81 %. Keywords:Ethidium bromide, chromosome damage, Allium cepa L.

  5. Cytotoxicity of Aloe vera gel extracts on Allium cepa root tip cells

    OpenAIRE

    İLBAŞ, Ali İrfan; GÖNEN, Umut; YILMAZ, Semih; DADANDI, Mehmet Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    Aloe vera L. is a valuable medicinal plant and is currently used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries worldwide. In the present study, the effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera leaf gel extracts was investigated on mitotic and phase indexes of Allium cepa L. root tip cells for 24 and 48 h durations. The EC50 value of gel extracts was found to be 20% and was used to determine the experimental concentrations. The results indicated that the mitotic index and root growth rate ...

  6. EFECTO DE LA DENSIDAD DE SIEMBRA Y DEL APORQUE EN LA PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DE LA CEBOLLA PUERRO (Allium ampeloprasum L. var. porrum J. Gay

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    Fernando Javier Peña Baracaldo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La cebolla puerro y otras liliáceas, tradicionalmente, se han localizado en valles de climas medios y fríos moderados de las regiones andinas y cercanos a los centros de consumo. La producción y consumo de Allium ampeloprasum L. var. porrum J. Gay, se ha incrementado por sus cualidades condimentarias y por los beneficios de carácter medicinal. Los sistemas productivos implementados para esta hortaliza adoptan tecnologías procedentes de países con condiciones diferentes a las nuestras. Por lo tanto, para optimizar el cultivo y satisfacer la demanda creciente de mercados especializados, se requiere evaluar prácticas agronómicas, lo cual, se constituyó en el propósito del presente trabajo. Se determinó el efecto de cinco densidades de siembra y del aporque, sobre el peso, el diámetro y la longitud del tallo. Los resultados mostraron que a mayor densidad, el peso y el diámetro del fuste disminuyeron, sin ser afectadas por el aporque, mientras que la longitud de pseudotallo presentó una relación directamente proporcional: a mayor densidad, mayor longitud. Se obtuvieron puerros con longitudes superiores a la media del mercado, con las distancias de 20 x 25cm y 30 x 25cm, en donde también se lograron los mayores pesos frescos promedios, 354,93g y 354,42g, respectivamente. A una distancia de siembra de 30cm x 5cm, se cosecharon puerros largos y delgados. La práctica del aporque es necesaria dentro del sistema de producción de la cebolla puerro para el blanqueado del tallo; sin embargo, dicha práctica no influyó directamente sobre los parámetros de producción, como el peso y el diámetro del pseudotallo.

  7. POTASSIUM AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kavalcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion (Allium cepa L. is rich of chemoprotective compounds as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, sulphur compounds which have potential beneficial properties for human health. Potassium as important mineral abundant plays many vital roles in plant nutrition (reduces respiration, activates enzyme. In generally, potassium increases crop yield and improves quality of onion bulbs. The objectives of this work were to compare and evaluate the impact of potassium on the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The absorbance was measured at 765 nm of wave length against blank. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm in the spectrophotometer. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 505.6 mg GAE/kg ±25.18 to 621.49 mgGAE/kg ±13.41. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 32.20 %± 0.58 to 44.67 % ±0.68.

  8. Chromosomal aberrations induced by Glycidol in Allium cepa L root meristem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Panneerselvam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycidol is used as a stabilizer in the manufacture of vinyl polymers and natural oils and as an intermediate in the synthesis of glycerol, glycidyl ethers, and amines. It is also used as an alkylating agent,demulsifier, and dye-leveling agent and for sterilizing milk of magnesia. Glycidol is an alkylating agent which reacts readily with glutathione; it causes a decrease in glutathione content in rat liver, probably reflecting its binding to glutathione. It is a suspected reproductive toxicant and exposure to it has the potential to negatively affect the human reproductive system. The study investigated the cytotoxic effects of glycidol in Allium cepa L root meristem cells. Different concentrations of glycidol ranging 10, 20, 40 and 50μg/ml for 1, 2, 3 and 5h were treated with root meristem cells of Allium cepa L. Fuelgen squash technique was used to determine the aberrations in root tip cells. For each concentration 3000 well-spread cells were scored and cytological abnormalities such as break, gap, exchange, multiple breaks and chromosome fragments were observed. One way analysis of variance was used the study the significant different control and treatment exposed root tip cells.Significant difference between control and glycidol exposed cells were observed. Increasing concentrations increased the number of chromosomal aberrations.

  9. RBE of d(50)-Be neutrons for induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa onion roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBE/absorbed dose relationship of d(50)-Be neutrons was determined for the induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa onion roots. Neutrons are produced at the cyclotron 'Cyclone' by bombarding a thick beryllium target with 50 MeV deuterons. Two biological criteria were selected: (1) mean number of aberrations (mainly breaks) per cell in anaphase and telophase, (2) fraction of intact cells in anaphase and telophase. For the two criteria, RBE increases continuously from about 7 to 12 as the neutron absorbed dose decreases from 0.4 to 0.1 Gy. RBE values for the first criterion are slightly higher than for the second one. This observation is interpreted in terms of the analysis of the distribution of the aberrations in the cells. In logarithmic coordinates, RBE/absorbed dose relationships for the two criteria are almost linear with a slope close to - 1/2. RBE values observed for induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa are higher than those generally observed for biological effects related to mammalian cell lethality. (orig.)

  10. In vitro antibacterial activity of onion (allium cepa) against clinical isolates of vibrio cholera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cholera is a major public health problem in developing countries of the world. Bacterial resistance, lack of surveillance data and proper microbiological facilities are major problems regarding diagnosis of cholera. The spread of microbial drug resistance is a global public health challenge that results in increased illness and death rate. Newer antimicrobials or agents are urgently required to overcome this problem. This work was therefore done to investigate the antimicrobial potential of onion against thirty-three clinical isolates of Vibrio cholera. Methods: The extract was prepared by reflux extraction method. Antibacterial screening of clinical isolates of V. cholerae was done by agar well diffusion method. Agar dilution method was used to assess the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Results: All tested strains of V. cholerae were sensitive to onion (Allium cepa) extracts of two types (purple and yellow). Purple type of extract had MIC range of 19.2-21.6 mg/ml. The extract of yellow type onion had an MIC range of 66-68.4 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results indicated that onion (Allium cepa) has an inhibitory effect on V. cholerae. Keeping in view the anti-bacterial activity of this compound can be exploited as a therapeutic agent in an animal model. This finding is a positive point for further investigation of this herb of traditional medicine. (author)

  11. Inhibitive and Adsorption Properties of Ethanolic Extract of Allium Cepa for the Corrosion of -?Brass in HNO3 Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fouda, Abd El-Aziz S.; Nofal, Ashraf M.; Maher, Reham

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol extract of allium cepa has been evaluated as a green corrosion inhibitor for ?-brass in HNO3 solutions using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that this extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the extract concentration, but decreases with raising the temperature. The adsorpt...

  12. Disponibilidade hídrica e germinação de sementes de cebola (Allium cepa L. Water availability and germination of onion seeds (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Piana

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a influência do teor de água do substrato na germinação de sementes de cebola (Allium cepa L., conduziu-se um ensaio sob condições de ambiente de laboratório. Os efeitos de cinco níveis de água no substrato solo x areia (3:1, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% da capacidade de retenção foram avaliados através da porcentagem de emergência no 14° dia da semeadura e pesos da matéria verde e seca das plântulas normais. Para tanto, 200 sementes do cultivar Pira Ouro por tratamento, em quatro repetições de 50, foram semeadas a 1,5 cm de profundidade, mantendo-se constantes os níveis de água no substrato. Os resultados possibilitaram concluir que os níveis de umidade do solo indicados para germinação de sementes de cebola são de 40% e 60% da capacidade de retenção do substrato, por possibilitarem uma melhor emergência, peso da matéria verde e seca das plântulas.One essay was conducted under laboratory conditions, in order to verify the influence of substrate water content on the germination of onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. The effect of five water levels in the medium soil x sand (3:1 - 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% retention capacity-were evaluated through the emergence percentage 14 days after seedling and the weight of fresh and dry matters of normal seedlings. For that purpose, 200 treated seeds of Pira Ouro cultivar were sown 1.5 cm deep in four replicátions of 50, with a constant water content in the medium. The best results showed that the soil moisture levels suggested for the germination of onion seeds were 40% to 60% of the substrate retention capacity, once they provide better emergence, weight of the fresh and dry matters of seedlings.

  13. Relations between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Guvenc; Haluk C. Kaymak; Sibel Duman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine relations occurring between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds. In this study, seeds of six lots ('Kalem', 'Ala', 'Ínegöl-A, B, C and D') from three cultivars of leek and seven onion cultivars ('Early Texas Grano' (ETG), 'Panku', 'Storm', 'Banko', 'Aki', 'Kisagün' and 'Banka') seeds were used as plant material and their viability was evaluated in boiling water test...

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Rąpała-Kozik, Maria; Wężowicz, Katarzyna; Grandin, Anna; Karlsson, Stefan; Ważny, Rafał; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:27318800

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the storage and vitamin C concentration of allium cepa onion samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was done to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storage, germination and vitamin C concentration of local onion (Allium cepa). 5 onion samples were irradiated with 5 different radiation doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 k Gray) using cobalt-60 irradiator (Nor din) compared to non irradiated samples as controls. The irradiated and control onions were stored at room temperature for three months. The results of this study showed that the non irradiated samples were either deteriorated or grown while all the irradiated samples were not. Regarding the concentration of vitamin C it was clear that it decreased with the dose increase from 30.53 to 14.44 mg/100 g. This study concluded that the irradiation is very effective in prevention of spoilage, elongation of germination period and decrease of vitamin C concentration.(Author)

  16. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  17. Molecular and Functional Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologs in Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Kumar Manoharan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion bulbing is an important agricultural trait affecting economic value and is regulated by flowering-related genes. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT-like gene function is crucial for the initiation of flowering in various plant species and also in asexual reproduction in tuber plants. By employing various computational analysis using RNA-Seq data, we identified eight FT-like genes (AcFT encoding PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains in Allium cepa. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of FT-like proteins revealed six proteins that were identical to previously reported AcFT1-6 proteins, as well as one (AcFT7 with a highly conserved region shared with AcFT6 and another (comp106231 with low similarity to MFT protein, but containing a PEBP domain. Homology modelling of AcFT7 proteins showed similar structures and conservation of amino acids crucial for function in AtFT (Arabidopsis and Hd3a (rice, with variation in the C-terminal region. Further, we analyzed AcFT expression patterns in different transitional stages, as well as under SD (short-day, LD (long-day, and drought treatment in two contrasting genotypic lines EM (early maturation, 36101 and LM (late maturation, 36122. The FT transcript levels were greatly affected by various environmental factors such as photoperiod, temperature and drought. Our results suggest that AcFT7 is a member of the FT-like genes in Allium cepa and may be involved in regulation of onion bulbing, similar to other FT genes. In addition, AcFT4 and AcFT7 could be involved in establishing the difference in timing of bulb maturity between the two contrasting onion lines.

  18. Repairing Effect of Allium Cepa on Testis Degeneration Caused by Toxoplasma Gondii in The Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagoob Garedaghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, infectS a large proportion of the world population yearly. This study was investigated to evaluate the remedial effects of allium cepa on testis degeneration in male rats infected by T.gondii, RH strain. Materials and Methods: Wistar male rats (n=40 divided into control (n=10 and experimental (n=30 groups. The experimental groups were divided into two groups; allium cepa group (n=10 received 1cc of fresh onion juice daily and the toxoplasmose infected group (n =20 were subdivided into two groups of 10. One of the toxoplasma groups also received 1cc of fresh onion juice daily; however, control group just received distilled water. Animals were kept in a standard condition. On day 30 after inducing Toxoplasmosis infection, 5 ml blood sample of each rat was taken to measure serum protein and total antioxidant capacity (TAC levels. IgG and IgM were tested by the ELISA method. Testicular tissue of each Rat was removed and sperms were collected from the epididymis for analysis. Results: Serum proteins and testis weight were significantly decreased in the T.gondii groups compared with the control and onion groups. Testis degeneration significantly increased in toxoplasmosis group compared with the control group (P<0.05. TAC level was significantly increased in the groups that received onion juice (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study showed T. gondii has diverse effects on serum proteins, TAC, and testis. Results confirmed fresh onion juice could significantly modify harmful effects and increase the sperm number, viability, and motility so it seems eating onion is useful in toxoplasmosis infection.

  19. An Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic, Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentials of Onion (Allium cepa L. on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rabbits

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    G.G. Akunna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism whose prevalence is raising globally, especially the resource -starved countries such as Nigeria. Since antiquity, diabetes has been treated with plant medicines. Several investigations have confirmed the efficacy of many of these traditional preparations, some of which have proven efficacy. In the present study, the hypoglycemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Allium cepa (A.cepa aqueous extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits was investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 15 adult male rabbits, using 200 mg kg-1 of alloxan monohydrate as a single intraperitoneal injection. These alloxan -diabetic rabbits were then divided into three groups; one group was administered aqueous extract of A. cepa 100 mg Kg-1 b.wt. orally daily for 30 days, another group received A. Cepa 300 mg kg-1 b.wt. orally daily for 30 days and the last group of diabetic rabbits received peanut oil (the vehicle instead of A. cepa to serve as the diabetic control. There were also five rabbits which received neither alloxan nor A. cepa (the negative control group. All the liver histological derangements caused by diabetes were attenuated in the A. cepa-treated group. Increasing dosages of A. cepa aqueous extract produced a dose-dependent significant reduction in the blood glucose levels. Additionally, A. cepa remarkably improved the reduction of antioxidant parameters-Superoxide dismutase, catalase (SOD, catalase (CAT Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx , Reduced Glutathione (GSH and increased malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation. It is concluded based on these findings that A. cepa may be effective in ameliorating diabetics related hepatotoxicity and alterations of biochemical parameters.

  20. In Vitro Study of Berberis vulgaris, Actinidia deliciosa and Allium cepa L. Antibacterial Effects on Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Anzabi Younes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: One control method of pathogenic microorganisms is using synthetic chemical preservatives and antibiotics. Because of being generally recognized as safe, antibacterial compounds with organic origin are considered important for health. This study was done in order to investigate the antibacterial effects of methanol extracts of the Berberis vulgaris (Barberry), Actinidia deliciosa (Kiwi) and Allium cepa L. (Onions) on the standard strain (ATCC:19114) of Listeria monocytogenes (L. mo...

  1. Evaluación de la asociación ácaros-hongos causantes del amarillamiento de la cebolla junca Allium fistulosum Evaluation of the mite-fungus association responsible for the yellowing in the Welsh onion Allium fistulosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS ALFONSO MUÑOZ B

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones de campo, invernadero y laboratorio, el estudio evaluó la asociación ácaros-hongosamarillamiento de la cebolla junca Allium fistulosum en cultivos recién establecidos y en cultivos de edad avanzada, en las localidades de San Francisco y Alianza (Pasto, Colombia, ubicadas a 2.650 msnm, con una temperatura de 12°C y precipitación media de 1.100 mm anuales. En los cultivos recién establecidos se encontraron una incidencia de amarillamiento del 11,0% y 14,2% respectivamente, sin presentar diferencias significativas para las dos localidades. De igual manera no hubo diferencias significativas entre localidades para los cultivos de edad avanzada, con una incidencia de 38,4% y 43,4%, respectivamente. En las muestras de cada localidad se encontraron dos tipos de ácaros como causantes de amarillamiento de la cebolla, Rhizoglyphus echinophus y Rhizoglyphus vincatus (Acari: Acaridae, siendo R. echinopus el que presentó el mayor porcentaje de plantas afectadas (56,7%. Los hongos causantes del daño al cultivo de cebolla fueron: Phoma sp., Botrytis sp., Gliocladium sp. y Fusarium oxysporum. En invernadero el mayor porcentaje de plantas afectadas se presentó con F. oxysporum (43,3% y con el complejo F. oxysporum y Phoma sp. (40,0%. La asociación del ácaro R. echinopus y el hongo F. oxysporum, produjo el mayor porcentaje de plantas afectadas (80,0%. Además, se encontró que R. echinopus presentó mayor descendencia en presencia de F. oxysporum (78 individuos a las 72 horas.Under field, greenhouse and laboratory conditions, the study evaluated the mite-fungus-yellowing association in the Welsh onion Allium fistulosum, in recently established and mature crops, in the localities of San Francisco and Alianza (Pasto, Colombia, located at 2650 m elevation, with a temperature of 12°C and an average annual rainfall of 1100 mm annual. In recently established crops, the incidence of yellowing was 11.0% and 14.2%, respectively, with no

  2. Ability of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity and mutagenicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rainho, Claudia R; Kaezer, Andréa; Aiub, Claudia A F; Felzenszwalb, Israel

    2010-12-01

    N-nitroso compounds, such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), can be formed by the reaction of secondary amines with nitrosating agents, and are suspected to be involved in tumors in humans. NDEA has been considered a weak carcinogen in genotoxic assays probably due to the inefficient nitrosamine activation system that is used and/or to the efficient repair system. In this work, we evaluated the sensibility of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SH) using Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea for NDEA (0.1; 0.5; 5 and 25 mM) genotoxicity and mutagenicity induction. Allium cepa L. was treated with different NDEA concentrations for 3h, for 3 consecutive days, including negative control (distilled water) and positive control maleic hydrazide (MH 30 mg/mL). After treatment, the roots were hydrolyzed, squashed, and the mitotic index (MI) and cytological abnormalities were scored. The results revealed a cytostatic effect of NDEA (0.5 and 5mM), showing a significant reduction in the MI. Chromosome stickiness suggests a NDEA toxic effect. T. pallida purpurea did not respond to mutagens with a dose-dependent pattern. In conclusion, our study indicates that the root tips of Allium cepa L. have sensibility to detect NDEA genotoxicity, but not for Trad-SH test. PMID:21152767

  3. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (Ptreatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants. PMID:22239909

  4. Detection irradiated shallot (Allium Cepa) and spices using technique of Photo Stimulated Luminescence (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of Photo Stimulated Luminescence (PSL) in detecting the food that has been irradiated qualitatively and quantitatively. The samples used were onions (Allium Cepa) and spices. The shallots which are from India and Thailand was irradiated using Gamma Cell at dose of 0 kGy, 0.2 kGy, 0.4 kGy and 1.0. While for the spices, there were 10 types of spices used such as powder of paprika, parsley, turmeric, tarragon, coriander, mint leaves, basil, rosemary flower, chives and herbs mixture which was irradiated at the dose of 0 kGy and 8.7 kGy respectively. The result shows that the PSL method could differentiate samples which are irradiated and not irradiated. Even though the PSL value increases proportionally to the radiation dose, the relationship between these two means are not that clearly clarified and needed to be studied furthermore.(author)

  5. Leaf cavity CO2 concentrations and CO2 exchange in onion, Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, G T; Loboda, T; Black, C C; Brown, R H

    1995-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) plants were examined to determine the photosynthetic role of CO2 that accumulates within their leaf cavities. Leaf cavity CO2 concentrations ranged from 2250 μL L(-1) near the leaf base to below atmospheric (CO2 concentrations with minimum values near midday and maximum values at night. Conductance to CO2 from the leaf cavity ranged from 24 to 202 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and was even lower for membranes of bulb scales. The capacity for onion leaves to recycle leaf cavity CO2 was poor, only 0.2 to 2.2% of leaf photosynthesis based either on measured CO2 concentrations and conductance values or as measured directly by (14)CO2 labeling experiments. The photosynthetic responses to CO2 and O2 were measured to determine whether onion leaves exhibited a typical C3-type response. A linear increase in CO2 uptake was observed in intact leaves up to 315 μL L(-1) of external CO2 and, at this external CO2 concentration, uptake was inhibited 35.4±0.9% by 210 mL L(-1) O2 compared to 20 mL L(-1) O2. Scanning electron micrographs of the leaf cavity wall revealed degenerated tissue covered by a membrane. Onion leaf cavity membranes apparently are highly impermeable to CO2 and greatly restrict the refixation of leaf cavity CO2 by photosynthetic tissue. PMID:24307095

  6. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Rajkumar

    Full Text Available Allium cepa (onion is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb. Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  7. Cytogenetic damage in shallot ( Allium cepa) root meristems induced by oil industry "high-density brines".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaković-Cifrek, Z; Pavlica, M; Regula, I; Papes, D

    2002-10-01

    Saturated water solutions of calcium chloride, calcium bromide (densities 1.30 kg x dm(-3) and 1.61 kg x dm(-3), respectively) and their 1:1 mixture have been commonly used as oil industry "high-density brines." In our experiment they were added to tap water in amounts appropriate to achieve concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) to study their cytotoxic effect on the root tip cells of shallot ( Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum). All tested solutions in concentrations of 0.075 and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) caused significant inhibition of shallot root growth. CaBr (2) showed this effect in concentration 0.05 mol x dm(-3). The investigated solutions in all concentrations applied decreased mitotic activity in root tip cells. The most of mitotic abnormalities were the consequence of spindle failure and chromosome stickiness. Furthermore, the cell microtubules were investigated by indirect immunofluorescence to confirm that most abnormalities observed were the consequence of spindle failure. The present study, as well as previously done Lemna tests and Chlorella tests showed that investigated samples have certain effects on plants, so constant control of their presence in the environment is needed. PMID:12202923

  8. Evaluation of the cytogenotoxicity of textile effluents using Allium cepa L.

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    Sandro Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the raw (EB and treated (ET effluents of two textile mills located in south of Minas Gerais State that have their effluents treated at the same Effluent Treatment Plant was investigated using the Allium cepa test system. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the root elongation and mitotic index (MI endpoints and the genotoxicity was assessed by de determination of chromosome aberrations (CA.The effluent samples were tested at the concentrations 0 (ultrapure water, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % (v/v. A Completely Randomized Design with four replicates of 30 seeds was used. The effluent samples in almost all tested concentrations promoted an increase in root elongation compared to the negative control and this effect was probably related to nutrients levels and organic matter in effluent samples. A lower MI at all concentrations of ET compared to EB. The highest MI was observed at 100% (v/v concentration of both effluents. The highest rates of CA occurred at concentrations 75% (v/v of EB and 100% (v/v of both effluents. The effluent samples showed no cytotoxic effect, but cell division occurred disorderly, leading to increase rate of AC, revealing a genetoxic effect. Improvements in the wastewater treatment are needed to reduce environmental impacts.

  9. Effects of Pterocaulon polystachyum DC. (Asteraceae on onion (Allium cepa root-tip cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Frainer Knoll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil leaf infusions of the plant Pterocaulon polystachyum DC (Asteraceae are used to treat digestive problems. We used plants from six P. polystachyum populations to prepare fresh aqueous leaf infusions at the concentration normally used in Brazil (2.5 g L-1 and at twice (5 g L-1 and four times (10 g L-1 this concentration. We rooted onion bulbs in a water control or one of the infusions for 24 h and used the in vivo onion (Allium cepa root-tip cell test to investigate the potential mutagenicity of the infusions by calculating the mitotic index for the control and the experimental treatments and comparing them using the Chi-squared test (chi2, p = 0.05. There was a highly significant decrease in the mitotic index of root-tip cells treated with infusion as compared to those exposed to water only. These results indicate that P. polystachyum infusions present cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity and therefore have therapeutic potential.

  10. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Hancornia speciosa latex in Allium cepa root model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, T P; Sousa, T R; Arruda, A S; Peixoto, N; Gonçalves, P J; Almeida, L M

    2016-02-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangabeira tree) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including diarrhea, ulcer, gastritis, tuberculosis, acne and warts. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of H. speciosa latex on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa were examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to different concentrations of latex and then submitted to microscopic analysis using Giemsa stain. Water was used as a negative control and sodium azide as a positive control. The results showed that, under the testing conditions, the mitotic index (MI) of the onion roots submitted to latex treatment did not differ significantly from the negative control, which suggests that the latex is not cytotoxic. Low incidence of chromosome aberrations in the cells treated with H. speciosa latex was also observed, indicating that the latex does not have genotoxic effect either. The MI and the chromosome aberration frequency responded to the latex concentration, requiring more studies to evaluate the dosage effect on genotoxicity. The results indicate that in tested concentrations H. speciosa latex is probably not harmful to human health and may be potentially used in medicine. PMID:26909640

  11. Cloning and functional identification of the AcLFY gene in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cuicui; Ye, Yangyang; Song, Ce; Chen, Dian; Jiang, Baiwen; Wang, Yong

    2016-05-13

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the important vegetable crops in the world, usually with a two-year life cycle. The bulbs form in the first year after sowing, then bolting and flowering are induced by low temperature in the following year. Previous studies have shown that LEAFY gene is an inflorescence tissue specific gene, and that it is also the ultimate collection channel of all flowering pathway. In this study, using homologous gene cloning and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we isolated an inflorescence meristem specific LEAFY cDNA, AcLFY (JX275962), from onion. AcLFY contains a 1119 bp open reading frame, which encodes a putative protein of 372 amino acids, with ∼70% homology to the daffodils LEAFY and >50% homology to LEAFY proteins from other higher plants. Fluorescence quantitative results showed that AcLFY gene has the highest expression level in inflorescence meristem during early bolting, and is still expressed in leaves after the formation of flower organs. Overexpression of AcLFY gene in Arabidopsis thaliana induced early bolting and flowering, whereas knockdown of the endogenous LEAFY gene by RNAi caused a significant delay in bolting. In addition, transgenic plants also exhibited significant morphological changes in rosette leaves, branches, and plant height. PMID:27074580

  12. Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos mediated genotoxic and cytotoxic assessment on root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibhghatulla Shaikh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are direct recipients of agro – toxics and therefore important materials for assessing environmental chemicals for genotoxicity. The meristematic mitotic cell of Allium cepa is an efficient cytogenetic material for chromosome aberration assay on environmental pollutants. Onion root tips were grown on moistened filter paper in petri dish at room temperature. Germinated root tips were then exposed to three concentrations of each pesticide for 24 h. About 1 – 2 mm length of root tip was cut, fixed in cornoy’s fixative, hydrolyzed in warm 1 N HCL, stained with acetocarmine and squashed on glass slide. About 3000 cells were scored and classified into interphase and normal or aberrant division stage. Cytotoxicity was determined by comparing the mitotic index (MI of treated cells with that of the negative control. The MI of cells treated with Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos at one or more concentration was half or less than that of control are said to be cytotoxic. Genotoxicity was measured by comparing the number of cells/1000 in aberrant division stages at each dose with the negative control using Mann – Whitney U test. Both Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos are genotoxic at higher concentrations i.e. 0.001%, 0.002% and 0.028%, 0.056% inducing chromosome fragment, chromosome lagging and bridges, stick chromosome and multipolar anaphase.

  13. GC-MS Investigation of Essential oil and antioxidant activity of Egyptian White Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmed El-Wakil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study carried out to investigate the chemical constituents of white onion (Allium cepa L. essential oil as well as evaluate the antioxidant activities, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of their different extracts. Methods: The Essential oil of white onion (Allium cepa L. bulbs were extracted by hydro distillation method and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS to determine the chemical composition of the volatile compounds. The antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of white onion and its derived fractions (n-butanol and water fractions were determined by using two different spectrophotometric techniques as DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and phosphomolybdenum assay. Also, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined. Results: In total, GC-MS analysis showed 40 compounds representing 93.89 % of the total oil composition were identified. The major compound in this essential oil was dodecane (28.69 % and the other predominant constituents were represented 65.20% contains hydrocarbons, alkaloids and organosulfur compounds. The antioxidant results showed that the butanolic fraction has the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay (SC50 = 59.21 ± 0.35 μg/ml and phosphomolybdnum assay (127.92 ± 1.00 mg ascorbic acid eq. /g ext.. Also, the butanolic fraction has high total phenolic (41.05± 0.34 mg gallic acid eq. /g ext. and flavonoid contents (3.82± 0.24 (mg rutin eq. /g ext.. Conclusion: The essential oil content and the antioxidant results of white onion (Allium cepa L. may be have great potential for their application in food preservation and natural health products.

  14. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic. PMID:25501210

  15. Chromatographic analysis and antiproliferative potential of aqueous extracts of Punica granatum fruit peels using the Allium cepa test

    OpenAIRE

    Andrielle Wouters Kuhn; Marília Tedesco; Aline Augusti Boligon; Margareth Linde Athayde; Haywood Dail Laughinghouse IV; Solange Bosio Tedesco

    2015-01-01

    Punica granatum L., locally known as romanzeira, is native to Asia but found throughout Brazil. P. granatum is used for treating inflammatory, infectious and respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chromatography and genotoxicity of an aqueous extract of P. granatum (pomegranate) fruit peel using the Allium cepa L. test. The experiment set-up entailed 7 treatments: T1-distilled water, T2-tea 5 g.L-1, T3-tea 10 g.L-1, T4-glyphosate at 9.6%, T5-glyphosate with subsequent...

  16. Ability of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity and mutagenicity evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia R. de Rainho; Andréa Kaezer; Claudia A. F. Aiub; Israel Felzenszwalb

    2010-01-01

    N-nitroso compounds, such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), can be formed by the reaction of secundary amines with nitrosating agents, and are suspected to be involved in tumors in humans. NDEA has been considered a weak carcinogen in genotoxic assays probably due to the inefficient nitrosamine activation system that is used and/or to the efficient repair system. In this work, we evaluated the sensibility of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SH) using T...

  17. Relative biological effectiveness of d(50)-Be neutrons determined for induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa onion roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of d(50)-Be neutrons, as a function of absorbed dose, was determined using as biological criterion induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa onion roots. Two endpoints were used: mean number of aberrations per cell and percentage of intact cells, in anaphase and telophase. For both endpoints, RBE increases regularly from 7 to 12 when neutron absorbed dose decreases from 0.4 to 0.1 Gy. On the other hand, RBE/absorbed dose relationships are almost straight lines, in logarithmic coordinates, with a slope close to -1/2

  18. Cytological effects of single and combined treatments with x-rays, IAA and GA3 in Allium cepa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatments with IAA and GA3 singly and especially after x-irradiation produced significant reduction in mitotic index in root meristem of Allium cepa. Pre- and post-irradiation treatments with IAA and GA3 also showed significant reduction in x-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations. The percentage of protection ranged from 18-55 with IAA and 14-53 with GA3. These growth hormones were considered to have reduced aberrant cells by providing protection against initial radiation damage and also by stimulating restitution presumably by affecting DNA synthesis and also by stimulating protein synthesis respectively. (author)

  19. Investigation of Proline, Chlorophyll and Carotenoids Changes Under Drought Stress in Some Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    HANCI, Fatih; CEBECİ, Esra

    2014-01-01

    Drought is one of the major limitations for vegetable growth and productivity all over the World. In this study the effects of drought stress on proline, chlorophyll a/b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids were investigated in some onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars (Kantartopu-3, Akgun-12 and Texas Early Grano) under the early plant growth phase. Seeds were germinated in peat material and transferred to plastic pots after 21 days of sowing. The plants have been grown in vermiculite by “substrat...

  20. Immunolcocalization of actin in intact and DNA—and histone—depleted nuclei and chromosomes of allium cepa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANLIHONG; MIAOXING

    1998-01-01

    The presence of actin in eukaryotic nuclei and chromosomes,and especially in higher plant nuclei and chromosomes,has not been well established.We detected actin in meristematic cells of Allium cepa with indirect immunofluorescence technique and observed bright fluorescence in the intact nuclei and chromosomes,indicating that actin is present in the nuclei and chromosomes of the higher plant.We labeld sections of the meristematic cells of A.cepa with immunogold technique,gold parti cles were concentrated in condensed chromatin and nucleoli,confirming the results of the immunofluoresence observations.We traeated the nuclei and chromosomes of A.cepa with DNase I and 2M NaCl and obtained DNA-and histone-depleted nuclei and chromosomes.Indirect immunofluorescence tests showed that the DNA-and histonedepleted nuclei and chromosomes reacted positively with the anti-actin antibodies.These results demonstrate that the anti-actin antibodies.These results demonstrate that actin exists not only in intact nuclei and chromosomes,but also in DNA-and histone-depleted nuclei and chrmosomes of the plant.In addition,our immuno-fluorescence tests indicate that tropomyosin is present in the nuclei and chromosomes of A.cepa.

  1. Effect of 5-Aminouracil on mitotic cell division in Allium cepa Efeito de 5-Aminouracil na divisão mitótica de células de Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A exposição de células meristemáticas de Allium cepa por dois ciclos de divisões (48 horas, em soluções contendo concentrações mais baixas de 5-aminouracil (50, 100 e 150μM do que as usualmente empregadas para proceder à sincronização da proliferação celular, mostrou que as concentrações usadas causam anormalidades cromossômicas e formação de micronúcleos, mas não bloqueiam a entrada destas células em mitose. As células em mitose e com micronúcleos podem prosseguir em divisão e assim contribuir para o crescimento das raízes de A. cepa expostas às concentrações de 5-aminouracil estudadas. As células meristemáticas da raiz de A. cepa parecem suportar um certo nível de danos não reparados no DNA, os quais não impedem a divisão celular e o conseqüente crescimento dos tecidos. Esta flexibilidade genética do genoma de vegetais deve se constituir numa resposta metabólica adaptativa para sustentar condições ambientais adversas.Cytological preparations of Allium cepa meristematic cells were examined under a light microscope to evaluate the effect of prolonged exposure (at least two-cell cycle to 5-aminouracil (5-AU on mitotic cell division in the roots. The results are a cytological demonstration that a lower concentration of 5-AU than usually employed for synchronizing proliferating cells in A. cepa root meristems induces chromosomal abnormalities and formation of micronucleus but does not fully block the cell flow into mitosis, and that micronucleated cells can proceed in mitosis and contribute to the enhancement of root length values reported by other authors. A. cepa root tip cells seems to support a certain damage level in DNA (around 10% of micronucleated cells in mitosis without having any negative effect on cellular proliferation and growth of the roots. This genetic flexibility of vegetable genomes may permit an attenuation of the adaptative metabolic-response to sustained adverse environmental conditions.

  2. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador’, ‘Takstar F1’,‘Tęcza’, ‘Warna’, ‘Zorza’, Polan (‘Polanowska’, ‘Topolska’, PlantiCo Gołębiew (‘Alibaba’, ‘Efekt’, ‘Kristine’, ‘Niagara F1’,and PlantiCo Zielonki (‘Bila’, ‘Irka’, ‘Wenta’, ‘Zeta’. Plants produced from seedlings were grown in the experimental field of the University of Agriculture in Kraków. After crop harvesting and additional drying, nitrate and dry matter content in bulbs of all cultivars were measured. The following cultivars: ‘Efekt’, ‘Labrador’ and red-skinned ‘Wenta’, were characterized by the lowest ability to accumulate NO3- in bulbs. The highest nitrate content was noted in bulbs of ‘Takstar F1’ (a very early-season cultivar, followed by ‘Bila’ and ‘Tęcza’. A weak, yet statistically significant negative correlation between nitrate and dry matter content was observed. The highest dry matter content was determined in bulbs of white-skinned ‘Alibaba’, while the lowest – in brown-skinned ‘Labrador’.

  3. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4′-glucoside (Q4′G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4′G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1–256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  4. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND, USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA, oxyfluorfen, and pendimethalin as sub-plots. Neither tillage nor herbicide treatments affected onion stand counts. Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album densities were lower in strip tillage compared to conventional tillage up to three weeks after the post-emergence applied herbicides. In general, micro-rate post-emergence herbicide treatments provided greater early-season broadleaf weed control than pre-emergence herbicide treatments. Onion yield and grade did not differ among herbicide treatments because the mid-season herbicide application provided sufficient control/suppression of the early-season weed escapes that these initial weed escapes did not impact onion yield or bulb diameter. In 2007, onion in the strip tillage treatment were larger in diameter resulting in greater total and marketable yields compared to conventional tillage. Marketable onion yield was 82.1 Mg ha−1 in strip tillage and 64.9 Mg ha−1 in conventional tillage. Results indicate that strip tillage use in direct-seeded onion production was beneficial, especially when growing conditions were conducive to higher yields and that the use of strip tillage in onion may provide an alternative to using a companion crop as it did not interfere with either early-season weed management system.

  5. Genotoxic evaluation of infusions of Urera baccifera leaves and roots in Allium cepa cells

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    Amanda L. Gindri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The aqueous extracts of Urera baccifera Wedd. leaves and roots are used to inflammatory and infectious diseases in Brazilian folk medicine. Oxalic acid, a substance co-related with toxicity and stinging, was already quantified in this plant. Aims: To evaluate the action of leaves and roots infusions (1, 30, 75 g/L and the oxalic acid standard on mitosis as indicative of presumably antimitotic and genotoxic actions, using the Allium cepa test. Methods: Oxalic acid was quantified in the roots and leaves infusions by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD, with the mobile phase of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5: acetonitrile at 95:5 (v/v. To the genotoxicity test, onion bulbs were used. After the rootlets germination, each bulb was submitted for 24 h of the individual treatments. Were analyzed 1000 cells per bulb, in a total of 5000 cells per treatment. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of roots infusions induced chromosomes abnormalities, except for the highest, that caused a substantial inhibition in the mitosis, precluding to be observed abnormalities. In the leaves infusions, only the two higher concentrations caused the highest values of damage in the cellular cycle. The oxalic acid also caused abnormalities in the mitosis, and may be considered responsible by part of the genotoxic action of U. baccifera. Conclusions: Oxalic acid can be responsible by part of the chromosomal abnormalities caused by U. baccifera, although, there must have more metabolites that evoke the same effect promoting the genotoxic effect of this nettle.

  6. Water Quality of Urban Streams: The Allium cepa Seeds/Seedlings Test as a Tool for Surface Water Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gonçalves Athanásio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had various degrees of environmental impact, but substantial impact was seen for the downstream samples of the Preto and Pedras streams. All samples increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (P<0.05. The sample from Pedras downstream site also caused a decrease in mitotic index (P<0.08 and increase in micronuclei (P<0.08 frequency, indicating potential cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. The Pedras stream receives mixed industrial and urban wastewater, while the Lajeado and Preto streams receive wastewater predominantly domestic in nature, which may partially explain the difference in toxicity among the samples. Moreover, the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings were shown to be extremely sensitive in detecting the genotoxicity of environmental water samples and can be applied as the first tool for environmental health hazard identification and prediction.

  7. Molecular characterization of transgenic shallots (Allium cepa L.) by adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) and sequencing of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, G.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Genomic DNA blot hybridization is traditionally used to demonstrate that, via genetic transformation, foreign genes are integrated into host genomes. However, in large genome species, such as Allium cepa L., the use of genomic DNA blot hybridization is pushed towards its limits, because a considerab

  8. Correlation between heavy metal ions (copper, zinc, lead concentrations and root length of Allium cepa L. in polluted river water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Moreno Palacio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was performed using the common onion (Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator of toxicity of heavy metals in river water. The test waters were collected at two sampling sites: at the beginning and the end of the Toledo River. The bulbs of A. cepa L. were grown in test water with nine concentration levels of copper, zinc and lead from 0.1 to 50 ppm. In the laboratory, the influence of these test liquids on the root growth was examined during five days. For test liquids containing below 0.03-ppm dissolved Cu the root growth was reduced by 40% However, the same reduction occurred for 1-ppm dissolved Zn. For dissolved Pb, results reveal toxicity above 0.1 and 0.6 ppm at the beginning and the end of the Toledo river water, respectively.O presente trabalho foi realizado utilizando a cebola comum (Allium cepa L. como bioindicador da toxicidade de metais pesados em água de rio. As águas de teste foram coletadas em dois locais: na nascente e na foz do rio Toledo. Os bulbos de A. cepa L. foram cultivados em água de teste com nove níveis de concentração de cobre, zinco e chumbo de 0,1 a 50 ppm. Em laboratório a influência destes líquidos de teste em crescimento de raiz foi examinada durante cinco dias. Em todos os líquidos de teste o metal dissolvido contido foi medido pela técnica TXRF. Para líquidos de teste contendo 0,1-ppm de Cu dissolvido o crescimento da raiz foi reduzido em 50%. Entretanto, ocorreu a mesma redução para 1-ppm de Zn dissolvido. Para Pb dissolvido, o método do Allium teste revela toxidade acima de 0,1 e 0,5 ppm para a nascente e a foz do rio Toledo, respectivamente.

  9. Microscopic examination on cytological changes in Allium cepa and shift in phytoplankton population at different doses of Atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Finger, Kristen; Usnick, Samantha; Rogers, William J.; Das, A. B.; Smith, Don W.

    2010-06-01

    Atrazine is a wide-range herbicide. For over 50 years, atrazine has been used as a selective broadleaf herbicide in many capacities, from pre-plant to pre-emergence to post-emergence, depending on the crop and application. Currently, 96% of all atrazine used is for commercial applications in fields for the control of broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as sorghum, corn, sugarcane, pineapple and for the control of undesirable weeds in rangeland. Many panhandle wells have also detected atrazine in samples taken. The concern for the public is the long-term effect of atrazine with its increasing popularity, and the impact on public health. We investigated the effect of different concentrations of atrazine on Allium cepa (onion), a standard plant test system. We established a control with the Allium bulbs grown on hydroponics culture. Varying concentrations of atrazine was used on the standard plant test system, Allium cepa grown hydroponically. The mitotic indices varied and with higher doses, we observed various chromosomal abnormalities including sticky bridges, early and late separations, and lag chromosomes with higher doses of treatments. In the second part of the experiment, 0.1ppb, 1ppb, 10ppb, and 100ppb concentrations of atrazine were applied to established phytoplankton cultures from the Lake Tanglewood, Texas. Study with a Sedgwick-Rafter counter, a BX-40 Olympus microscope with DP-70 camera revealed a gradual shift in the phytoplankton community from obligatory to facultative autotroph and finally to a parasitic planktonic community. This explains the periodic fish kill in the lakes after applications of atrazine in crop fields.

  10. In Vivo Cytogenotoxicity of Electronic Waste Leachate from Iloabuchi Electronic Market, Diobu, Rivers State, Nigeria on Allium Cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji Babatunde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The human and environmental impact of electronic waste is increasing due to its careless disposal. Cytogenotoxicity of electronic waste from Iloabuchi electronic market, Diobu, Rivers State was investigated using the Allium cepa bioassay comprised of the root elongation and chromosome aberration tests. Leachate samples of e-waste analysed were above maximum permissible limits. Toxicity to root growth of A. cepa was evaluated at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100% showed root growth inhibition at all concentrations of the samples compared to the control and root growth inhibition was concentration dependent. An effective concentration (EC50 at which root growth amounted to 50 % of control for the sample was 37.5%. Various morphological defects of the onion roots were observed including short, crochet roots, C-tumor roots and severe toxic effects where no growth was observed. In the in vivo genotoxity assay, all samples lowered the frequency of mitotic cells in the meristematic region of the roots at statistically significant levels (P < 0.05 compared to the control and mitotic inhibition was also concentration dependent. There was significant induction of aberrations at all concentrations tested compared to control. The high metal content of the e-waste leachate may be responsible for observed cytotoxicity in A. cepa roots cells.

  11. Ability of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity and mutagenicity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. de Rainho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available N-nitroso compounds, such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, can be formed by the reaction of secundary amines with nitrosating agents, and are suspected to be involved in tumors in humans. NDEA has been considered a weak carcinogen in genotoxic assays probably due to the inefficient nitrosamine activation system that is used and/or to the efficient repair system. In this work, we evaluated the sensibility of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SH using Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea for NDEA (0.1; 0.5; 5 and 25mM genotoxicity and mutagenicity induction. Allium cepa L. was treated with different NDEA concentrations for 3h, for 3 consecutive days, including negative control (distilled water and positive control maleic hydrazide (MH 30mg/mL. After treatment, the roots were hydrolyzed, squashed, and the mitotic index (MI and cytological abnormalities were scored. The results revealed a cytostatic effect of NDEA (0.5 and 5mM, showing a significant reduction in the MI. Chromosome stickiness suggests a NDEA toxic effect. T. pallida purpurea did not respond to mutagens with a dose-dependent pattern. In conclusion, our study indicates that the root tips of Allium cepa L. have sensibility to detect NDEA genotoxicity, but not for Trad-SH test.Nitrocompostos, como N-nitrosodietilamina (NDEA, podem ser formados pela reação entre uma amina secundária e agentes nitrosantes e são suspeitos de estarem envolvidos na formação de tumores em humanos. NDEA é considerada um carcinógeno fraco e ensaios genotóxicos provavelente pela utilização de um sistema de ativação ineficiente e/ou pela utilização de um eficiente sistema de reparo. Neste trabalho, nós avaliamos a sensibilidade de ensaios com Alliu cepa L. e Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-SH à genotoxicidade e mutagenicidade induzidas por diferentes concentrações de NDEA (0,1; 0,5; 5 e 25mM por 3h, por 3 dias consecutivos, incluindo controle

  12. Effect of 5-Aminouracil on mitotic cell division in Allium cepa Efeito de 5-Aminouracil na divisão mitótica de células de Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini; Marcia Flores da Silva; Maria de Fátima Pires da Silva Machado

    1999-01-01

    A exposição de células meristemáticas de Allium cepa por dois ciclos de divisões (48 horas), em soluções contendo concentrações mais baixas de 5-aminouracil (50, 100 e 150μM) do que as usualmente empregadas para proceder à sincronização da proliferação celular, mostrou que as concentrações usadas causam anormalidades cromossômicas e formação de micronúcleos, mas não bloqueiam a entrada destas células em mitose. As células em mitose e com micronúcleos podem prosseguir em divisão e assim con...

  13. Fertilizer nitrogen recovery by onion (Allium cepa) as influenced by N and S application in a sulphur deficient soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted in a sulphur deficient sandy loam soil to evaluate the fertilizer N-utilization by onion (Allium cepa) using 15N-labelled urea. The fresh bulb yield of onion significantly increased with the application of both nitrogen and sulphur. The recovery of fertilizer N by onion was 23.4 to 34.4 per cent at 60 kg N/ha and between 17.5 and 19.3 per cent at 120 kg/ha level. Application of nitrogen with sulphur at 20 kg S/ha through gypsum resulted in significant increase in per cent utilization of urea nitrogen. Nearly 57 to 68 per cent of the residual fertilizer N could be traced in soil after the harvest of onion crop, whereas, 9 to 14 per cent of the applied fertilizer N could not be accounted for. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  14. RBE of 650-MeV helium ions at different depths for chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa onion roots has been used as biological criterion in order to determine the RBE of 650-MeV helium ions as a function of depth. These experiments were carried out at the synchrotron Saturne at Saclay (France). The Bragg peak of the helium ion beam was spread out, over a depth of about 5 cm, by means of a 'ridge filter'. RBE of the 650-MeV helium ions was determined at the beginning (13 cm in depth), middle (15 cm) and end (17 cm) of the spread-out Bragg peak using as reference radiation quality the initial plateau (2 cm in depth). (orig./MG)

  15. Genotoxicity of Thermopsis turcica on Allium cepa L. roots revealed by alkaline comet and random amplified polymorphic DNA assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Cenkci, Süleyman; Kargıoğlu, Mustafa; Konuk, Muhsin

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate genotoxic potential of Thermopsis turcica aqueous extracts on the roots of onion bulb (Allium cepa L.) by comet assay and random amplified polymorphic DNA technique. The Allium root growth inhibition test indicated that the EC50 and 2×EC50 values were 8 and 16 mg/ml concentrations of T. turcica aqueous extracts, respectively. The negative control (distilled water), positive control (methyl methane sulfonate, 10 mg/l) and 8 and 16 mg/ml concentrations of T. turcica extracts were introduced to the roots of onion bulbs for 24 and 96 h. The root growth, DNA damage in root cells and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of root tissue were used as endpoints of the genotoxicity. The comet assay clearly indicated that dose-dependent single strand DNA breaks in the root nuclei of onions were determined for the treatment concentrations of T. turcica extracts. In comparison to RAPD profile of negative control group, RAPD polymorphisms became evident as disappearance and/or appearance of RAPD bands in treated roots. The diagnostic and phenetic numerical analyses of RAPD profiles obviously indicated dose-dependent genotoxicity induced by Thermopsis extracts. In conclusion, the results clearly indicated that water extract of T. turcica has genotoxic potential on the roots of onion bulbs as shown by comet assay and RAPD technique. PMID:25550040

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF SULPHUR ON THE CONTENT OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystrická

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur is essential in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites with high nutritional value that typically accumulate in Allium species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sulphur on the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of onion (Allium cepa L. variety Mundo. The content of total polyphenols was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR and the content ranged from 352.46±16.22 to 899.16±33.84 mg.kg-1. At II. a III. collection we found a slight statistically positive correlation between the content of sulphur in soil and the content of total polyphenols in onion (P-value = 5.57.10-2, P-value = 1.80.10-2. Antioxidant activity (AOA in plant material was determined by free radical DPPH•. The results shown a slight increase in the value of the antioxidant activity compared to the control variant, but no statistically significant relationship was not recorded (P-value 0.05.

  17. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L. cells

    OpenAIRE

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohamed, Kamaruzaman Bin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Sofiman, Othman Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    In this study, freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay. Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg. Onions (A. cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark. Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhy...

  18. Investigation of protective effects of Erythrina velutina extract against MMS induced damages in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah S. B. S. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, is a medicinal plant that can be found in the tropics and subtropics, including in the semi-arid northeastern Brazil. It is commonly used in folk medicine to treat anxiety, agitation and insomnia. E. velutina has been known to present analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities, however, it is unknown if this plant present a protective effect on DNA. We assessed the antigenotoxic effect of E. velutina against the genotoxic effects induced by MMS in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Three concentrations of the aqueous extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/L of this medicinal plant were used in three different types of treatment (pre-, post- and simultaneous. The effects of the extracts on the root meristem cells of A. cepa were analyzed at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Protective effects were observed at higher concentrations in pre-treatment and in simultaneous treatment. The results suggest that E. velutina may present antigenotoxic properties and demonstrate its chemopreventive potential.

  19. In Vitro Evaluation Of Selected Plant Extracts As Biocontrol Agents Against Black Mold Aspergillus Niger Van Tieghem Of Onion Bulbs Allium Cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    SAIFELDIN A. F. EL-NAGERABI; Awad H. M. Ahmed; ABDULKADIR E. ELSHAFIE

    2015-01-01

    Black mold disease caused by Aspergillus niger V. Tiegh. is the most devastating infection occurs in onions Allium cepa L. under field and store conditions. The use of biocontrol agents is ecofriendly approach for controlling seedborne and soilborne diseases compared to the use of toxic synthetic fungicides. This study has been designed to assess the contamination levels of onion seeds with A. niger and its effect on seed germination and to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Prunus ...

  20. Integrative structural annotation of de novo RNA-Seq provides an accurate reference gene set of the enormous genome of the onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seungill; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kim, Yong-Min; Yeom, Seon-In; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jeon, Jongbum; Kim, Sunggil; Kim, Do-Sun; Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2014-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. Although a considerable amount of onion transcriptome data has been deposited into public databases, the sequences of the protein-coding genes are not accurate enough to be used, owing to non-coding sequences intermixed with the coding sequences. We generated a high-quality, annotated onion transcriptome from de novo sequence assembly and intensive structural annotation using the integra...

  1. The Application of the Cluster Analysis in Recognizing Weather Patterns Conducive to Large and Small Crops of Mid-late Onion Cultivars (Allium cepa L.) in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Robert KALBARCZYK

    2010-01-01

    This study uses 40 years valuable of data (1966-2005) obtained by the Polish Research Centre for Cultivar Testing and the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management to recognize weather conditions conducive to large and small crops of onion (Allium cepa L.), more specifically-its mid-late cultivars cultivated in Poland. We found three clusters of agrometeorological conditions, determining different sizes of onion crops. Cluster no. 1 included observations which were characterized by...

  2. Binding of 1-nitro-9- (3-dimethylaminopropylamino-acridine to the DNA of the apical meristem cells of adventitious onion (Allium cepa L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Antosiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was established that one half of the ledakrin (I-nitro-9-(3-dimethylaminopropylamino-acridine bound to the DNA in the cells of the studied onion root tips (Allium cepa L., forms labile complexes with it, the remaining half is covalently attached to only one strand of the DNA. One molecule of covalently bound ledakrin falls on average to 104-2X104 pairs of bases.

  3. Valgomojo svogūno (Allium cepa L.) ginogenezė ir homozigotinių linijų kūrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Juškevičienė, Danguolė

    2006-01-01

    Peculiarities of edible onions (Allium cepa L.) gynogenesis investigated in the dissertation work. Conditions for creation of dihaploid plants evaluated. Biological assumptions for preparation of methodical suggestions, that would enable improving of gynogenesis, determined. Stimulation effect of using TDZ and NAR in media on the formation of edible onion embryogenic tissue has been revealed for the first time. Characteristic higher frequency of gynogenesis of unfertilized flower of edible on...

  4. Uptake of cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead and zinc by hydroponically cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa L. ) and leak (Allium por-rum L. ) plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šárka; Lenikusová, Ivana; Kotyza, Jan; Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Tsinghua: Tsinghua University Press, 2007 - (Zhu, Y.; Lepp, N.; Naidu, R.), s. 435-436 ISBN 978-7-302-15627-7. [International Conference for the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements (ICOBTE). Beijing (CN), 15.07.2007-19.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05ME730 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Allium sp * uptake * eavy metal Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  5. Certain antioxidant enzymes of Allium cepa as biomarkers for the detection of toxic heavy metals in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utility of antioxidant enzymes, viz glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in water was investigated using the Allium cepa (onion) system. These antioxidant enzymes were assayed in onion bulbs exposed to certain heavy metals taken separately, the test metals taken in combination as well as the industrial wastewater especially found to contain these metals. GST exhibited significantly enhanced activity upon treatment with individual heavy metals. However, GR, SOD and CAT did not show such a pronounced increase in activities. At higher heavy metal concentrations, GR, SOD and CAT showed a steep decline while GST activity still showed a rise. Moreover, APX, GPX and MDHAR also exhibited remarkable induction with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals. However, there was no significant change in DHAR activity with respect to the controls. Metabolites like ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) exhibited significant decline with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals while the level of H2O2 continued to display the rise up to a heavy metal concentration of 100 μM, after which it showed a gradual decline. A. cepa bulbs treated with wastewater sample showed enzyme activity profiles similar to that shown with heavy metals, thereby suggesting the presence of heavy metals in the test wastewater. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry also detected large amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the test water sample. The metal mixture, containing the amounts of heavy metals equivalent to those found in the wastewater, resulted in steep declines in GR, SOD and CAT activities in A. cepa while GST showed a rise. However, when this metal mixture was diluted to 2000-fold, GR, SOD and CAT also showed enhanced

  6. Certain antioxidant enzymes of Allium cepa as biomarkers for the detection of toxic heavy metals in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatima, Riffat A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, Aligarh 202002 (India); Ahmad, Masood [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, Aligarh 202002 (India)]. E-mail: smasood_ahmad@lycos.com

    2005-06-15

    The utility of antioxidant enzymes, viz glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in water was investigated using the Allium cepa (onion) system. These antioxidant enzymes were assayed in onion bulbs exposed to certain heavy metals taken separately, the test metals taken in combination as well as the industrial wastewater especially found to contain these metals. GST exhibited significantly enhanced activity upon treatment with individual heavy metals. However, GR, SOD and CAT did not show such a pronounced increase in activities. At higher heavy metal concentrations, GR, SOD and CAT showed a steep decline while GST activity still showed a rise. Moreover, APX, GPX and MDHAR also exhibited remarkable induction with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals. However, there was no significant change in DHAR activity with respect to the controls. Metabolites like ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) exhibited significant decline with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals while the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} continued to display the rise up to a heavy metal concentration of 100 {mu}M, after which it showed a gradual decline. A. cepa bulbs treated with wastewater sample showed enzyme activity profiles similar to that shown with heavy metals, thereby suggesting the presence of heavy metals in the test wastewater. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry also detected large amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the test water sample. The metal mixture, containing the amounts of heavy metals equivalent to those found in the wastewater, resulted in steep declines in GR, SOD and CAT activities in A. cepa while GST showed a rise. However, when this metal mixture was diluted to 2000-fold, GR, SOD and CAT also

  7. The effect of oleander glycosides on the germination of pollen grains and the mitosis of the generative nucleus in Tradescantia bracteata Small and Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tarkowska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water solution of a mixture of glycosides from oleander (Nerium oleander L. on the germination of pollen grains and on the mitosis of the generative nucleus in Tradescantia bracteata Small and Allium cepa L. has been studied. An inhibition of the germination and of the growth of pollen tubes was observed, proportionally to the concentration of glycosides. The pollen grains of A. cepa are more sensitive. The disturbances in mitosis lead to the formation of two or more uneven-sized doughter nuclei, or to the formation of restitution nuclei. These anomalies are more numerous in T. bracteata. From these results d t appears that pollen grains of A. cepa are characterized by a generally high physiological sensitivity and a small mitotic sensitivity, wheras for T. bracteata the opposite is true.

  8. Relations between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Guvenc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine relations occurring between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. In this study, seeds of six lots ('Kalem', 'Ala', 'Ínegöl-A, B, C and D' from three cultivars of leek and seven onion cultivars ('Early Texas Grano' (ETG, 'Panku', 'Storm', 'Banko', 'Aki', 'Kisagün' and 'Banka' seeds were used as plant material and their viability was evaluated in boiling water test (BWT, standard germination test (SGT and field emergence (FE. The percentage of field emergence was evaluated at three sowing times: 20 May (FE-I, 10 June (FE-II and 20 July (FE-III. The mean germination of leek seeds varied from 77.5% to 100.0% and from 36.0% to 61.0% in SGT and BWT, respectively. While the range of results obtained in the boiling water test was from 38.5% to 60.0%, the range of results of the standard germination test was from 81.0% to 100.0% in onion seeds. The range of field emergence was between 18.5% ('Kisagün', FE-III and 72.0% (İnegöl-C', FE-II. Besides, the boiling water test was correlated highly significantly with SGT (r = 0.670**, FE-I (r = 0.923**, FE-II (r = 0.906** and FE-III (r = 0.939** in leek seeds. Similarly, BWT showed positive correlation with SGT (r = 0.568**, FE-I (r = 0.844**, FE-II (r = 0.933** and FE-III (r = 0.858** in onion seeds. In conclusion, the boiling water test is a new and reliable technique to test seed viability and it has a great potential to test rapidly germination and field emergence of leek and onion seeds at different sowing times.

  9. Genotypic variation in the sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) I. Plant composition and transcript accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    McCallum, John A.

    2011-06-01

    Organosulfur compounds are major sinks for assimilated sulfate in onion (Allium cepa L.) and accumulation varies widely due to plant genotype and sulfur nutrition. In order to better characterise sulfur metabolism phenotypes and identify potential control points we compared plant composition and transcript accumulation of the primary sulfur assimilation pathway in the high pungency genotype \\'W202A\\' and the low pungency genotype \\'Texas Grano 438\\' grown hydroponically under S deficient (S-) and S-sufficient (S+) conditions. Accumulation of total S and alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide flavour precursors was significantly higher under S+ conditions and in \\'W202A\\' in agreement with previous studies. Leaf sulfate and cysteine levels were significantly higher in \\'W202A\\' and under S+. Glutathione levels were reduced by S- treatment but were not affected by genotype, suggesting that thiol pool sizes are regulated differently in mild and pungent onions. The only significant treatment effect observed on transcript accumulation in leaves was an elevated accumulation of O-acetyl serine thiol-lyase under S-. By contrast, transcript accumulation of all genes in roots was influenced by one or more treatments. APS reductase transcript level was not affected by genotype but was strongly increased by S-. Significant genotype × S treatment effects were observed in a root high affinity-sulfur transporter and ferredoxin-sulfite reductase. ATP sulfurylase transcript levels were significantly higher under S+ and in \\'W202A\\'. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of GLV, OYDV and LYSV in potato onion (Allium cepa L.,Aggregatum group) by RT-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qijiang; CHEN Dian; TONG Youli; LI Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    Three pairs of primers were designed and synthesized from nucleotide sequences of garlic latent virus (GLV), onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), and leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV) by using PCR primer design software. The expected fragments about 170 bp,287 bp, and 191 bp were amplified by RT-PCR for GLV, OYDV, and LYSV, respectively in disease-infected plants of potato onion(Allium cepa L., Aggregatum group), but such fragments were not obtained from healthy-looking plants and virus-free seedlings of shoot-tips. The amplified products ofGLV, OYDV and LYSV were cloned into pGEM-T vectors, and transformed into Escherichia coli.JM109. The recombinant plasmids were obtained and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank by performing a NCBI BLAST. The analysis showed that their homology attained 75% toplants was diluted to a series of 10-1 to 10-5 and the detection sensitivity of RT-PCR was 10-4 (about 4 ng). Thus, a method of identification and detection by RT-PCR of GLV, OYDV, and SLYV was established.

  11. Nuclear lamina—like filaments and nuclear matrix in allium cepa as revealed by scanning electron microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOSHUI

    1992-01-01

    In this study,freeze-fractured specimens of allium cepa root tip meristems were examined under the scanning electron microscope(SEM),This technique permitted the visualization of the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope with nuclear pore complexes and polyribosomes.Some of the cell nuclei prepared with this procedure had fissures of various widths on their nuclear envelopes through which the nuclear lamina-like filaments(LLF) undernearth the nucleoplasmic side of the envelopes were clearly visible.The diameters of these filaments veried between 25 and 125nm.Many of the LLFs showed granular thickenings at places,and were attached to the inner surface of nuclear envelope in some regions .Similar LLFs were also seen at the peripheries of the freeze-fractured faces of nuclei.Meanwhile,the spatial relation between the nuclear matrix filaments(NMF) and other nuclear structures(nucleoli,chromation and peripheral lamina-like filaments) was revealed in these fractured preparations.In addition,the methods and techniques in studying the nuclear lamina morphology and the roles played by NMFs in activities of various nuclear sturctures were discessed in brief.

  12. RBE/dose relationship for neutrons produced by 50MeV deuterons determined by chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBE of neutrons produced at ''CYCLONE'' (Louvain-la-Neuve) was investigated for chromosome aberrations in onion roots (Allium Cepa). In experimental conditions, it was observed that the best criteria for evaluation of RBE were: criterion 1: the % of cells in anaphase or telophase showing at least one aberration or; criterion 2: the average number of aberrations per cell in anaphase or telophase. Five independent experiments were performed. For the first criterion, following RBE values were obtained as a function of the (neutron) absorbed dose; RBE=11, 8, 7 and 6.5 for 10, 20, 30 and 40 rad (neutron absorbed dose) respectively. RBE values obtained for the second criteria were somewhat higher: RBE=12, 10, 8 and 7 for 10, 20, 30 and 40 rad (neutron absorbed dose) respectively. When plotted in a logarithmic scale as a function of the neutron absorbed dose, RBE values obtained for the two criteria are situated on two rather parallel straight lines with a slope slightly less than -1/2

  13. Subcellular localization of cadmium in the root cells of Allium cepa by electron energy loss spectroscopy and cytochemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Donghua Liu; Ingrid Kottke

    2004-09-01

    The ultrastructural investigation of the root cells of Allium cepa L. exposed to 1 mM and 10 mM cadmium (Cd) for 48 and 72 h was carried out. The results indicated that Cd induced several obvious ultrastructural changes such as increased vacuolation, condensed cytoplasm with increased density of the matrix, reduction of mitochondrial cristae, severe plasmolysis and highly condensed nuclear chromatin. Electron dense granules appeared between the cell wall and plasmalemma. In vacuoles, electron dense granules encircled by the membrane were aggregated and formed into larger precipitates, which increase in number and volume as a consequence of excessive Cd exposure. Data from electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) confirmed that these granules contained Cd and showed that significantly higher level of Cd in vacuoles existed in the vacuolar precipitates of meristematic or cortical parenchyma cells of the differentiating and mature roots treated with 1 mM and 10 mM Cd. High levels of Cd were also observed in the crowded electron dense granules of nucleoli. However, no Cd was found in cell walls or in cells of the vascular cylinder. A positive Gomori-Swift reaction showed that small metallic silver grains were abundantly localized in the vesicles, which were distributed in the cytoplasm along the cell wall.

  14. Cytotoxicity of zinc nanoparticles fabricated by Justicia adhatoda L. on root tips of Allium cepa L.--a model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranath, T C; Patil, Bheemanagouda N; Santosh, T U; Sharath, B S

    2015-06-01

    Zinc nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of Justicia adhatoda L. The characterization of nanoparticles was done by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The characteristic absorption peak of the UV spectrum was recorded at 379 nm. The FTIR data revealed the possible biomolecules involved in bioreduction and capping of zinc nanoparticles for efficient stabilization. AFM and HR-TEM images have shown that the size of zinc nanoparticles ranges from 55 to 83 nm and they are spherical in shape. The biogenic zinc nanoparticles were evaluated for their toxic effect on mitotic chromosomes of Allium cepa as a model system. Experiments were conducted in triplicate to assay the effect of 25, 50, 75, and 100 % of zinc nanoparticles on mitotic chromosomes at an interval of 6 h duration for 24 h. The investigation revealed that the mitotic index (MI) was decreased with increased concentration of zinc nanoparticles and exposure duration. The results revealed that zinc nanoparticles have induced abnormalities like anaphase bridge formation, diagonal anaphase, C-metaphase, sticky metaphase, laggards, and sticky anaphase at different percentages and times of exposure. It is evident from the observation that mitotic cell division becomes abortive at 100 % treatment of zinc nanoparticles. PMID:25586613

  15. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system. PMID:26694086

  16. Towards a framework PCR-based map of onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    McCallum, J; Pither-Joyce, M.; Clarke, A; Kik, C.; Heusden, van, A.W.; Jakse, J.; Havey, M.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic analysis of onion has been hampered by a lack of portable co-dominant markers based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The public release of a relatively large set of non-redundant onion expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in 2003 has provided the opportunity to develop such markers for use in Allium research and industry. We have mined this collection for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and screened over 200 primer sets designed to flank SSRs for their ability to amplify low-copy poly...

  17. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of zinc oxide-eugenol cement to Allium cepa L. - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.17925

    OpenAIRE

    Elisângela de Fátima Rezende; Maria Cristina Mendes-Costa; Johnson Campideli Fonseca; Alex de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement in Allium cepa L. Dental materials can induce local and systemic effects. The Allium cepa assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity and/or cytotoxicity of zinc oxide and eugenol (ZOE) at different proportions. The ZOE solution was tested at the concentration of 1 drop of eugenol (in each drop of liquid, the approximate concentration of eugenol is 85%) and 1 portion of zinc oxide cement (treatment I), and twice the concentration of ...

  18. EFFECT OF CYANAZINE AND LINURON ON WEEDS AND PRODUCTIVITY IN ONION CROP (Allium cepa L. EFEITO DE CYNAZINE E LINURON NO CONTROLE DE PLANTAS DANINHAS E NA PRODUTIVIDADE DA CEBOLA (Allium cepa L.d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Perino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This work presents the results of a field experiment carried out in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil, to estimate the efficiency of herbicides in controlling weeds in onion crop of Texas Early Grano 502. Cyanazine controlled Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus spp. till 45 days, and Commelina virginica. Eleusine indica and Brachiaria plantaginea till 30 days after application. Linuron controlled P. oleracea, Amaranthus spp. and B. plantaginea during 45 days. Both herbicides showed phytotoxicity decreasing the onion productivity.

    Foi realizado um experimento com cebola (Allium cepa L. cv . Texas Early Grano - 502, transplantada em Goiânia, Goiás, no período de junho a novembro de 1988, visando ao controle de plantas daninhas com cyanazine e linuron aplicados após o transplante da cultura. Nas condições em que o ensaio foi realizado, concluiu-se que cyanazine e linuron provocaram fitotoxicidade na cultura da cebola, causando redução na produção em relação à testemunha. Cyanazine controlou Portulaca oleracea e Amaranthus spp. até 45 dias e Commelina virginica, Eleusine indica e Brachiaria plantaginea até 30 dias após a aplicação. Linuron controlou P. oleracea, Amaranthus spp. e B. plantaginea até 45 dias após a aplicação, mas não controlou eficientemente C. virginica, E. indica e Digitaria horizontalis.

  19. Evaluation of DNA damage in the root cells of Allium cepa seeds growing in soil of high background radiation areas of Ramsar - Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghirzadeh, M. [Department of Basic Science, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharaati, M.R. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Sh. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Radiation Applications Research School, Tehran 11365-3486 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: smohammadi@aeoi.org.ir; Ghiassi-Nejad, M. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Plants are unique in their ability to serve as in situ monitors for environmental genotoxins. We have used the alkaline comet assay for detecting induced DNA damage in Allium cepa to estimate the impact of high levels of natural radiation in the soils of inhabited zones of Ramsar. The average specific activity of natural radionuclides measured in the soil samples for {sup 226}Ra was 12,766 Bq kg{sup -1} whereas in the control soils was in the range of 34-60 Bq kg{sup -1}. A positive strong significant correlation of the DNA damage in nuclei of the root cells of A. cepa seeds germinated in the soil of high background radiation areas with {sup 226}Ra specific activity of the soil samples was observed. The results showed high genotoxicity of radioactively contaminated soils. Also the linear increase in the DNA damage indicates that activation of repair enzymes is not triggered by exposure to radiation in HBRA.

  20. Cyanamide mode of action during inhibition of onion (Allium cepa L.) root growth involves disturbances in cell division and cytoskeleton formation

    OpenAIRE

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Kurek, Wojciech; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Sliwinska, Elwira; Bogatek, Renata

    2011-01-01

    Cyanamide is an allelochemical produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.). Its phyotoxic effect on plant growth was examined on roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Water solution of cyanamide (2–10 mM) restricted growth of onion roots in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of onion roots with cyanamide resulted in a decrease in root growth rate accompanied by a decrease in accumulation of fresh and dry weight. The inhibitory effect of cyanamide was reversed by its removal from the enviro...

  1. Alterations in the blood glucose, serum lipids and renal oxidative stress in diabetic rats by supplementation of onion (Allium cepa. Linn)

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Hyeon-A; Cho, Young-Ja

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the anti-diabetic effect of onion (Allium cepa. Linn) in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal rats fed control diet or supplemented with onion powder (7% w/w) and diabetic rats fed control diet or supplemented with onion powder. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) in citrate buffer. The animals were fed each of the experimental diet for 5 weeks. Blood glucose levels of rats supplement...

  2. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Aracelli de Sousa Leite; Alisson Ferreira Dantas; George Laylson da Silva Oliveira; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L.; Sidney Gonçalo de Lima; Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó; de Freitas, Rivelilson M.; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C.; José Arimateia Dantas Lopes

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems’ root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuS...

  3. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L)

    OpenAIRE

    Chand, Subodh K.; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in gar...

  4. Efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de Mikania cordifolia (L. F.) Willd. (Asteraceae) sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, M G; T.S. Canto-Dorow; A.P.D. Coelho; S.B. Tedesco

    2014-01-01

    As plantas com potencial medicinal têm sido muito utilizadas para o tratamento de doenças no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de infusões de Mikania cordifolia (L.F.) Willd. sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L. Foram coletadas duas populações no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, e, para cada uma, foram preparados dois tratamentos em duas concentrações: 4g/500mL e 16g/500mL, além de um controle positivo composto por 10% de glifos...

  5. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp. monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 +/- 7.90 mu g/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 +/- 0.69 mu g/g DW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 +/- 0.21 mu g/g 1.65 +/- 0.61 mu g/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 +/- 0.10...

  6. In Vitro Study of Berberis vulgaris, Actinidia deliciosa and Allium cepa L. Antibacterial Effects on Listeria monocytogenes

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    Anzabi Younes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One control method of pathogenic microorganisms is using synthetic chemical preservatives and antibiotics. Because of being generally recognized as safe, antibacterial compounds with organic origin are considered important for health. This study was done in order to investigate the antibacterial effects of methanol extracts of the Berberis vulgaris (Barberry, Actinidia deliciosa (Kiwi and Allium cepa L. (Onions on the standard strain (ATCC:19114 of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes, as it seems that it is possible to find some important organic and health safe anti-Listerial compounds. Materials and Methods: After collecting the mentioned plants phytology study was done. Then methanol extracts of named plants were prepared and antibacterial effects of these plants against the mentioned strain of L. monocytogenes by the Disk Diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC methods were performed. Also Ampicillin (10 μg/disc was used as the reference antibacterial substance. In order to find the relationship between antibacterial properties of plants extracts independent t test, chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA tests were used. Results: Results showed that the extracts of all the three studied plants had antibacterial effects on L. monocytogenes. Average diagonal of growing area in disk diffusion test for barberry, kiwi and onions in order was 12, 15.5 and 11 mm. Also MIC of mentioned plants extracts in order was 125, 62.5, and 125 μg/ml and MBC of named plants was 500, 250 and 500 μg/ ml, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this work showed that methanol extracts of kiwi had stronger anti-Listerial effect than barberry’s and onion’s extracts.

  7. Estudo da atividade mutagênica das plantas, Euphorbia milii Des Moulins e Ricinus communis L através do teste de Allium cepa

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    Sueli A. da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a mutagenicidade e o grau de toxicidade de duas plantas tóxicas, a "mamona" (Ricinus communis e a "coroa-de-cristo" (Euphorbia milii, utilizando infusões das sementes de mamona e o látex da coroa-de-cristo, em células meristemáticas de Allium cepa. Foram analisados: o índice mitótico (IM, as anomalias do ciclo mitótico (ACM, anomalias interfásicas, (AI e o total de anomalias (TA. As soluções testes foram preparadas em três concentrações: MT1 - 0,5 g/l, MT2 - 1,0 g/l, MT3 - 2,0 g/l, e MT4 como controle. Da coroa-de-cristo extraiu-se o látex e dissolveu-se em água destilada nas concentrações CT1 -0,5 ml/l, CT2 - 1,0 ml/l, CT3 - 2,0 ml/l, e CT4 controle. Os resultados constataram que somente a mamona aumentou a freqüência de anomalias do ciclo mitótico, assim como, as anomalias interfásicas, demonstrando, dessa forma, uma ação tóxica para o material genético, através do teste de Allium cepa.

  8. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of zinc oxide-eugenol cement to Allium cepa L. - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.17925

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    Elisângela de Fátima Rezende

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement in Allium cepa L. Dental materials can induce local and systemic effects. The Allium cepa assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity and/or cytotoxicity of zinc oxide and eugenol (ZOE at different proportions. The ZOE solution was tested at the concentration of 1 drop of eugenol (in each drop of liquid, the approximate concentration of eugenol is 85% and 1 portion of zinc oxide cement (treatment I, and twice the concentration of eugenol (treatment II. Treated roots appeared to be yellowish-brown, fewer in number, thicker and less turgid compared with the control, suggesting a cytotoxic activity of ZOE. A significant difference was found in the root size between the control and treatment II. This treatment reduced by 79% the size of the root compared with the control, and the mitotic index was 66%, indicating a 22.4% reduction relative to the control, which in turn evidenced the cytotoxicity of ZOE. The significant increase in anaphase bridges suggests a genotoxic effect.

  9. Mutagenic potential of pollutans in the water of the Paraíba do Sul river, Tremembé, SP, Brazil, using the Allium cepa test

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    Agnes Barbério

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenicity can be related to chromosomic breaks induced by environmental pollutants. The aim of this research was to characterize the mutagenic potential of the pollutants in the water of the Paraíba do Sul river, in Tremembé city, São Paulo State, Brazil, analyzing chromosomal changes in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa, in the summer (April and winter (August of 2008. The bulbs were exposed for 72 h to the treatments: water from river, Hoagland solution (negative control and 15 µg/L from MMS – methyl methanesulfonate (positive control. In each treatment, three bulbs were exposed and for each bulb, five slides were prepared. For mitotic index (MI and micronucleus (MN frequency rate, a total of 2,000 cells per root/slide were analyzed and 100 cells for the chromosome aberrations (CA. In April, the pollutants induced a high mutagenic potential in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa, the frequency rate of MN, stickiness and CA from non-identified type were greater than the negative control. In August, the only significant change found was the chromosome bridges. There was no significant change for MI. These results indicate that the effluents which have varied sources are inducing harmful effects on the bioindicator, therefore, it is important to keep biomonitoring and adopting effluents control measures. The measures are important because these waters are used primarily for public supply and irrigation.

  10. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

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    Jigna G. Tank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  11. Cytological changes in meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. root tip treated with extracts from callus of Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don

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    Agnieszka Pietrosiuk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an ethanolic extract from callus of Catharanthus roseus on Allium cepa root cells divisions was investigated. Two lines: white and green callus, were established on solid B5 medium with IAA 1 mg/l and kinetin 0.1 mg/l. The HPLC analysis of callus extracts showed the presence of indole alkaloids, however not known pharmacologically active alkaloids or derivatives used in semisynthesis (vinblastine, ajmalicine, serpentine, yohimbine, vindoline and catharanthine have been found. The ethanolic extract of C. roseus callus inhibited the number of mitoses in Allium cepa root tip cells. Short (1-3 hours treatment resulted in an increase in the index of late prophases, with characteristic light spaces, and the index of metaphases with twisted chromosomes forming an equatorial plate or irregular structures of c-metaphases. At the same time, the percentage of anaphases and telophases decreased significantly. Longer treatment of the root tip inhibited mitotic activity, stopping it completely already after 12 hours. Interphase nuclei became at first denser and homogeneous, eventually their structure became , partitioned into zones and formation of chromatin territories, with distinct large nucleoli has been observed. Electron microscope observations revealed well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and thick, invaginating cell membrane.

  12. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100

  13. Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of natural and technical cashew nut shell liquids using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used. PMID:25861638

  14. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

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    Aracelli de Sousa Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL. There are both natural (iCNSL and technical (tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O on the meristems’ root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-, during (co-, and after (post- treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used.

  15. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristicafragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L.cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akeem AKINBORO; Kamaruzaman Bin MOHAMED; Mohd Zaini ASMAWI; Shaida Fariza SULAIMAN; Othman Ahmad SOFIMAN

    2011-01-01

    In this study,freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay.Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500,1000,2000,and 4000 mg/kg.Onions (A.cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark.Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation.2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals' scavenging power of the extract was tested using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standards.Water extract of Myristica fragrans scavenged free radicals better than BHA,but worse than BHT.The extract alone,as well as in combination with CP suppressed cell division,and induced chromosomal aberrations that were insignificantly different from the negative control (P≤0.05).However,cytotoxic and mutagenic actions of CP were considerably suppressed.The observed effects on cell division and chromosomes of A.cepa may be principally connected to the antioxidant properties of the extract.The obtained results suggest mitodepressive and antimutagenic potentials of water extract of the leaves of M.fragrans as desirable properties of a promising anticancer agent.

  16. Cyanamide mode of action during inhibition of onion (Allium cepa L.) root growth involves disturbances in cell division and cytoskeleton formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Kurek, Wojciech; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Sliwinska, Elwira; Bogatek, Renata

    2011-09-01

    Cyanamide is an allelochemical produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.). Its phyotoxic effect on plant growth was examined on roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Water solution of cyanamide (2-10 mM) restricted growth of onion roots in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of onion roots with cyanamide resulted in a decrease in root growth rate accompanied by a decrease in accumulation of fresh and dry weight. The inhibitory effect of cyanamide was reversed by its removal from the environment, but full recovery was observed only for tissue treated with this chemical at low concentration (2-6 mM). Cytological observations of root tip cells suggest that disturbances in cell division may explain the strong cyanamide allelopathic activity. Moreover, in cyanamide-treated onion the following changes were detected: reduction of mitotic cells, inhibition of proliferation of meristematic cells and cell cycle, and modifications of cytoskeleton arrangement. PMID:21573814

  17. A comparison study on the anti-leech effects of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole

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    Bahmani Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leech may indwell in mucosa of the pharynx, tonsil, esophagus, nose, nasopharyngeal and rarely in larynx of hosts, however, the effective drugs against this parasite is scarce. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 leeches (Limnatis nilotica were collected from south of Ilam. The anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion and ginger in comparison with levamisole and triclabendazole drugs (positive controls were evaluated. Distilled water was used as negative control. Paralysis and death of leeches were recorded in 720 minutes. Results: Lethal effect of methanolic extract of ginger against Limnatis nilotica was equal to levamisole and more than triclabendazole and methanolic extract of onion. Conclusion: Ginger equal to levamisole has anti-leech activity and its methanolic extract might be used against Limnatis nilotica.

  18. Effects of water soluble oncostatic fraction from Rheum officinale Baill. rhizomes on Allium cepa root meristem. III. Morphological changes in cytoplasm

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    A. Dawidowicz-Grzegorzewska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spiral concentric and linear configurations of membraneous structures were observed in the cytoplasm of fixed meristematic cells from the root apex of Allium cepa under the light microscope. They appeared after incubation in sublethal and lethal conditions in Rheum ofiicinale rhizome extracts. During postincubation these structures disappeared. They were interpreted as ER membranes. On the basis of literature data the physiological significance of these structures is discussed. It would seem that they are an indication of enhanced metabolic activity evoked either exogenously by various injuries as a form of defence reaction of the protoplast or endogenously during cytodifferentiation. Prolonged treatment in ,noxious conditions causes the ER membranes to transform into inactive myelin structures

  19. DIAGNOSTICS OF PESTICIDES USE AND MANAGEMENT IN PRODUCTIVE GREEN ONION Allium fistulosum FARMS IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF PASTO / DIAGNÓSTICO DEL USO Y MANEJO DE PLAGUICIDAS EN FINCAS PRODUCTORAS DE CEBOLLA JUNCA Allium fistulosum EN EL MUNICIPIO DE PASTO

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    Aracelly Arévalo C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pests and diseases control in green onion cultivation in the department of Nariño is characterized by the use of chemical control. Therefore, the objective of the investigation was to identify the use and management conditions of pesticides on this crop in the small township of Buesaquillo, municipality of Pasto. To determine the type of products used, an empty agrochemical containers collection was carried out during six months. Two hundred surveys, with 38 questions related to socio-economic aspects, crop management, pesticide use and management and its potential risks, were carried out in the study zone. The data were submitted to multiple correspondence analyses. A total of 4710 empty containers were recollected, of which 46.3% corresponded to fungicides, 12.4% to fertilizers, and 9.3% to insecticides. The main criterion of application was the one recommended by the agrochemicals warehouse sale (72%; frequency of application depends on environmental conditions ranging between 8 and 15 days, and the grace period in 80% of the surveys is 15 days prior to the harvest. 74% of farmers exposed to pesticides are men and most of them (85.5% have completed their primary school studies; 53.5% do not understand the product’s label, some of them (19% claim to have suffered intoxication symptoms and most producers (70% burn the pesticide containers. Under the conditions of this study it can be concluded that the use of pesticides is similar among the surveyed farmers, and is characterized by inadequate management, which puts farmers’ health at risk and threatens this agro ecosystem equilibrium. RESUMEN: El control de plagas y enfermedades en el cultivo de la cebolla en Nariño, se caracteriza por el uso del control químico. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar las condiciones de uso y manejo de plaguicidas de este cultivo en el corregimiento Buesaquillo, del municipio de Pasto. Para determinar el tipo de productos

  20. Analysis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on E. coli, human blood cells and Allium cepa suggests a greater toxic potential of hair dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Swati; Sasmal, Kankaayan; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are among the most important emerging environmental contaminants in recent time. PPCPs include wide range of cosmetics, among which hair dyes, are immensely popular in modern society. However, impact of hair dye and its residual discharged to the environment in relation to human health and ecological imbalance have not been widely studied. Based on the result of initial survey among the group of populations of eastern India, three most popular and commonly used permanent hair dyes are selected. Working sample of dye is prepared as recommended on the instructions booklet of the hair dye. The effect of three dyes is studied on Escherichia coli, human red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and Allium cepa bulbs by growth inhibition, hemolysis, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and A. cepa micronuclei assays respectively. The Lethal dose (LD) demonstrated significant differences among three dyes and the model systems. In vitro hemolytic assays performed on RBC, and MTT assays on WBC show the cytotoxic effects of hair dye. Significant growth inhibition of E. coli has also been noted. In addition, the root tips of A. cepa treated with the dye have shown major chromosomal abnormalities coupled with cell division retardation. Here low mitotic index confirm cell division retardation. Finally, results of in vitro studies of dye-DNA interactions demonstrate electrostatic interaction. Combing all these results it confirms that hair dyes are cytotoxic and may cause mutagenic effect on living cells irrespective of microbes, plant and animal system. PMID:26544094

  1. The Allium cepa chromosome aberration test reliably measures genotoxicity of soils of inhabited areas in the Ukraine contaminated by the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, O; Kovalchuk, I; Arkhipov, A; Telyuk, P; Hohn, B; Kovalchuk, L

    1998-07-01

    The accident on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant reactor IV in April 1986 led to the release of an enormous amount of radioactive material into the biosphere and to the formation of a complex pattern of nuclear contamination over a large area. As a consequence more than 5 million km2 of the soil in the Ukraine became contaminated with more than 1 Ci/km2 [1,2]. An assessment of the genetic consequences of the nuclear pollution is one of the most important problems. We applied the Allium cepa test to estimate the impact on plant chromosomes of nuclear pollution in the inhabited zones of the Ukraine. We tested soil from the obligatory resettlement zone (zone 2), where the mean density of pollution is 15-40 Ci/km2; zones of enhanced radiological control-zone 3, 5-15 Ci/km2 and zone 4, 1-5 Ci/km2. We found a dose-dependent increase in the fraction of aberrant mitoses from control values of 1.6 +/- 0.9% up to 23.8 +/- 5.0%, and a corresponding monotonous decrease of the mitotic index from 49.4 +/- 4.8% to a limiting value of 22.5 +/- 4.0% at pollution levels exceeding 35 Ci/km2 (activity of the soil samples exceeding 6000 Bq/kg, respectively). We observed a strong, significant correlation of 137Cs activity of soil samples with the percentage of chromosomal abnormalities, r = 0.97 (P < 0.05), and with the mitotic index, r = -0.93 (P < 0.05), in the roots of A. cepa, respectively. The results showed high toxicity and genotoxicity of radioactively polluted soils and confirmed the efficiency of the A. cepa test as a quick and inexpensive biological test for ecological and genetic risk assessment in the 'Chernobyl' zones. PMID:9711261

  2. Atividade antiproliferativa e mutagênica dos extratos aquosos de Baccharis trimera (Less. A. P. de Candolle e Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. (Asteraceae sobre o sistema teste de Allium cepa Antiproliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous extract of Baccharis trimera (Less. A. P. de Candolle and Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. (Asteraceae on the Allium cepa test system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Fachinetto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies medicinais Baccharis trimera e Baccharis articulata, nativas no sul do Brasil, são muito utilizadas na medicina popular. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o potencial efeito citotóxico destas infusões sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa. Ramos de duas populações de cada espécie coletados durante os estádios vegetativo e reprodutivo (floração foram usados para preparar infusões em duas concentrações: 15 mg mL-1 e 75 mg mL-1. Células das pontas de raízes Allium cepa são usadas como sistema teste in vivo. Foram preparadas lâminas através da técnica de esmagamento. As células foram analisadas em todo o ciclo celular de A. cepa, totalizando 4000 células para cada grupo de bulbos. O índice mitótico (IM foi calculado e realizado análise estatística através do teste Qui-quadrado (c² = 0,05. Os resultados mostraram que as infusões de B. trimera nas duas populações causaram redução do IM em relação ao controle, mas não entre as concentrações, em ambos estádios utilizados. Os extratos de B. articulata também apresentaram redução do IM em relação ao controle, sendo que uma das populações apresentou diferença do IM entre as concentrações nos dois estádios, o que não ocorreu na outra população. Com relação à presença de células com aberrações cromossômicas, esta ocorreu em todas as populações estudadas. Os resultados indicaram que os extratos dessas espécies apresentaram efeito antiproliferativo e mutagênico para as concentrações estudadas, não possuindo diferença nesses efeitos quanto ao estádio de desenvolvimento das plantas.The medicinal species Baccharis trimera and Baccharis articulata, which are native to the south of Brazil, are extensively used in popular medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effect of these infusions on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. Branches of two populations of each species collected during the vegetative and reproductive

  3. Evolution of nutrients element content in soils dedicated to onion crop Evolución del contenido de elementos nutrientes en suelos cultivados con cebolla de bulbo

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    Aguirre Sonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the evolution of nutrient content in soils dedicated to commercial onion crop (Allium. cepa in the municipality of Tibasosa, Boyacá,Colombia, in a Sulfic endoaquepts soil, three treatments established: Without fertilization (T1, conventional fertilization used in the area (T2 and fertilization according to analysis of soils (T3. Samples were collected for analysis 20 days before plantation and 45, 90 and 120 days after sowing. The of contents macroelements showed the following order N>Ca>K>Mg>S>P and those of micronutrients, Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>B. There were positive interactions among N/Fe, P/K, P/Ca, P/Mg, K/Mg, K/S, Mg/S, B/Zn and Cu/Mn and negative interactions among N/K, N/S, P/Fe, K/Fe, Mg/Fe, B/Fe, S/Fe, Cu/Zn and Zn/Mn affecting their concentration and availability. The results evidence that a balanced content of nutrients can increase the yield. Key words: Allium cepa, Sulfic endoaquepts, Fertility.El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la evolución del contenido de nutrientes en suelos destinados al cultivo comercial de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa en el municipio de Tibasosa, Boyacá. En un suelo sulfic endoaquepts se establecieron tres tratamientos: Sin fertilización (T1, con fertilización convencional de la zona (T2 y fertilización con base en el análisis de suelos (T3. Se recolectaron muestras para análisis 20 días antes de la siembra y a los 45, 90 y 120 días después de la siembra (DDS. Los contenidos de macroelementos se presentaron en el orden N>Ca>K>Mg>S>P y los de micronutrientes Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>B existiendo interacciones positivas entre N/Fe, P/K, P/Ca, P/Mg, K/Mg, K/S, Mg/S, B/Zn y Cu/Mn y negativas entre N/K, N/S, P/Fe, K/Fe, Mg/Fe, B/Fe, S/Fe, Cu/Zn y Zn/Mn afectando su concentración y disponibilidad. Los análisis permitieron inducir que un contenido adecuado de nutrientes incrementa el rendimiento en la zona. Palabras claves: Allium cepa, Sulfic endoaquepts, Fertilidad.

  4. Micronucleus test of varying amounts of potassium bromate (KBrO3) on the meristematic cells of Allium cepa var. aggregatum root tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four hundred twenty onion bulbs of the multiplier variety Allium cepa var. aggregatum were used as test materials to assay the micronucleus induction capacity of potassium bromate doses of 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 parts per million. Microscopic analyses were done using onion root tips prepared according to a modified technique of Medina (1994). These analyses were done on root tips taken from onions grown in KBrO3 for three days and for five days. The study was conducted following a completely randomized design and the data were statistically analyzed using a non-parametric equivalent of the analysis of variance. A significant amount of micronucleated cells (MCN) were found among treated onions compared with the almost non-occurrence in the control groups (0 ppm). The Kruskal-Wallis H-test and the Wilcoxon two-samples tests revealed significant differences among treatment means and that a significant increase in the number of MCN occurs as the dose of KBr03 increased in both day experiments. Results from the higher doses of 50, 75, and 100 ppm were found to be significantly the same for the day 3 experiments while those of the day 5 higher doses are characterized by lack of clear cellular and nuclear outline such that scoring is difficult. Differences in MCN averages for the day 3 and 5 experiments appear to be insignificant. However, day 3 results show averages that are more significantly different from each other. These prove that the MCN can be used as an efficient and time-saving parameter for the allium test of chemicals with chromosome breaking capacities. (Author)

  5. Occurrence of fungus Rhizopus sp in bioassays with Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium to study the effect of natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demographic and global economic growth has promoted increasing power consumption. In this context, several studies point to nuclear energy as being promising to meet such demand. Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by countless chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long. As a result, growth of the fungus Rhizopus sp was observed, in the experiments where uranium ore was added. It is important to mention according to the literature, this fungus can cause serious infections (and often fatal) in humans and animals, due to its high growth rate and also to their ability on surviving in relatively high temperatures. (author)

  6. Occurrence of fungus Rhizopus sp in bioassays with Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium to study the effect of natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Magno N.; Oliveira, Andressa L.; Maffei, Eliane M.D.; Campos, Simara S., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Gennari, Roseli F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The demographic and global economic growth has promoted increasing power consumption. In this context, several studies point to nuclear energy as being promising to meet such demand. Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by countless chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long. As a result, growth of the fungus Rhizopus sp was observed, in the experiments where uranium ore was added. It is important to mention according to the literature, this fungus can cause serious infections (and often fatal) in humans and animals, due to its high growth rate and also to their ability on surviving in relatively high temperatures. (author)

  7. Efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de Mikania cordifolia (L. F. Willd. (Asteraceae sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L.

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    M.G. Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas com potencial medicinal têm sido muito utilizadas para o tratamento de doenças no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de infusões de Mikania cordifolia (L.F. Willd. sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L. Foram coletadas duas populações no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, e, para cada uma, foram preparados dois tratamentos em duas concentrações: 4g/500mL e 16g/500mL, além de um controle positivo composto por 10% de glifosato em 90% água, um herbicida amplamente utilizado com conhecido potencial genotóxico, e de um controle negativo composto por água destilada. Após período de 24 horas, as radículas foram coletadas das infusões, fixadas em etanol-ácido acético (3:1 por 24 horas e estocadas em etanol 70%. Foram analisadas células em todas as fases do ciclo celular de A. cepa, totalizando 2500, para cada grupo de bulbos. Os índices mitóticos (IM foram calculados e submetidos à análise estatística pelo teste χ² a 5%. Os resultados mostraram que, em ambas as populações de M. cordifolia, houve redução do IM de todos os tratamentos em relação ao controle negativo. Em ambas as populações, obteve-se aumento nos valores dos índices mitóticos em função do aumento da concentração da infusão. Ocorreram aberrações cromossômicas em ambas as populações estudadas. Concluiu-se que as infusões de M. cordifolia, nas concentrações estudadas, possuem efeito antiproliferativo e mutagênico sobre o ciclo celular de A. cepa.

  8. Citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade da água do rio Subaé (Humildes, Bahia, Brasil usando Allium cepa L. como bioindicador

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    Jacqueline Ramos Machado Braga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo dos anos, o rio Subaé na Bahia tem sido impactado por atividade industrial pelo lançamento de efluentes tóxicos em suas águas. O presente estudo analisou os efeitos citotóxicos e genotóxicos provocados pela água do trecho deste rio que banha o município de Humildes-BA, utilizando o teste do Allium cepa. Amostras de água foram obtidas em três pontos de coleta (PI, PII e PIII para as análises de parâmetros fisico-químicos. Bulbos de A. cepa foram colocados por 72 h para germinação nas amostras de água em triplicata. As radículas foram submetidas por 12-h a 4 oC, fixadas em Carnoy por 12-h e coradas com técnica de Feulgen. Foram analisadas 6.500 células/tratamento. A citotoxicidade foi avaliada pelo índice mitótico (IM e a genotoxicidade, por anormalidades cromossômicas (AC. Os testes fisico-químicos revelaram que PI e PIII apresentavam valores de OD, DBO5 e DQO alterados. O teste de toxicidade indicou que houve inibição do crescimento das raízes nos pontos PI (10,3 % e PII (10,6 %, quando comparados ao controle negativo (11,9 %. No PI, foram encontrados 6,2 % de ACs, 6 % em PII e 5,4 % em PIII, valores acima do controle positivo (3 %, evidenciando o efeito genotóxico nos pontos estudados. A partir dos resultados, pode-se inferir que as águas do Rio Subaé podem conter substâncias que provavelmente estão afetando o ciclo celular do A. cepa, sendo importante que outras análises sejam realizadas em diferentes estações do ano, para melhor monitoramento das condições ambientais locais.

  9. Dissection of Trichoderma longibrachiatum-induced defense in onion (Allium cepa L.) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa by target metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdel-Motaal, Fatma; El-Sayed, Magdi; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts that can cause substantial changes in the metabolism of host plants, thereby increasing plant growth and activating plant defense to various diseases. Target metabolite profiling approach was selected to demonstrate that Trichoderma longibrachiatum isolated from desert soil can confer beneficial agronomic traits to onion and induce defense mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (FOC), through triggering a number of primary and secondary metabolite pathways. Onion seeds primed with Trichoderma T1 strain displayed early seedling emergence and enhanced growth compared with Trichoderma T2-treatment and untreated control. Therefore, T1 was selected for further investigations under greenhouse conditions, which revealed remarkable improvement in the onion bulb growth parameters and resistance against FOC. The metabolite platform of T1-primed onion (T1) and T1-primed onion challenged with FOC (T1+FOC) displayed significant accumulation of 25 abiotic and biotic stress-responsive metabolites, representing carbohydrate, phenylpropanoid and sulfur assimilation metabolic pathways. In addition, T1- and T1+FOC-treated onion plants showed discrete antioxidant capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) compared with control. Our findings demonstrated the contribution of T. longibrachiatum to the accumulation of key metabolites, which subsequently leads to the improvement of onion growth, as well as its resistance to oxidative stress and FOC. PMID:26993243

  10. Effects of Lead on the Morphology and Structure of the Nucleolus in the Root Tip Meristematic Cells of Allium cepa L.

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    Ze Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the toxic mechanisms of lead (Pb in plants, the effects of Pb on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. were investigated. Fluorescence labeling, silver-stained indirect immunofluorescent microscopy and western blotting were used. Fluorescence labeling showed that Pb ions were localized in the meristematic cells and the uptake and accumulation of Pb increased with treatment time. At low concentrations of Pb (1–10 μM there were persistent nucleoli in some cells during mitosis, and at high concentration (100 μM many of the nucleolar organizing regions were localized on sticky chromosomes in metaphase and anaphase cells. Pb induced the release of particles containing argyrophilic proteins to be released from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. These proteins contained nucleophosmin and nucleolin. Pb also caused the extrusion of fibrillarin from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Western blotting demonstrated the increased expression of these three major nucleolar proteins under Pb stress.

  11. Vermistabilization of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) waste produced from sugar factory using earthworm Eisenia fetida: Genotoxic assessment by Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, sugar beet mud (SBM) and pulp (SBP) produced as a waste by-products of the sugar industry were mixed with cattle dung (CD) at different ratios on dry weight basis for vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida. Minimum mortality and highest population of worms were observed in 20:80 (SBM20) mixture of SBM and 10:90 (SBP10) ratios. However, increased percentages of wastes significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, increased from initial feed mixture to final products (i.e., vermicompost), while organic carbon (OC), C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC) declined in all the products of vermicomposting. Although there was an increase in the contents of all the heavy metals except copper, chromium, and iron in SBM, the contents were less than the international standards for compost which indicates that the vermicompost can be used in the fields without any ill effects on the soil. Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of pre- and post-vermicomposted SBM to understand the effect of vermicomposting on the reduction of toxicity. Genotoxicity analysis of post-vermicomposted samples of SBM revealed 18-75% decline in the aberration frequencies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was recorded to identify the changes in texture in the control and vermicomposted samples. The vermicomposted mixtures in the presence of earthworms confirm more numerous surface irregularities that prove to be good manure. PMID:25794577

  12. Energy-dependent RBE of neutrons to induce micronuclei in root-tip cells of Allium cepa onion irradiated as dry dormant seeds and seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of various energy neutrons produced from a Schenkel-type accelerator at the Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University (HIRRAC), compared with 60Co gamma-ray radiation was determined. The neutron radiations and gamma-ray radiation produced good linear changes in the frequency of micronuclei induced in the root-tip cells of Allium cepa onion irradiated as dry dormant seeds (seed assay) and seedlings (seedling assay) with varying radiation doses. Therefore the RBE for radiation-induced micronuclei can be calculated as the ratio of the slopes of the fitted linear dose response for the neutron radiations and the 60Co gamma-ray radiation. The RBE values by seed assay and seedling assay decreased to 174±7, from 216±9 and to 31.4±1.0, from 45.3±1.3 (one standard error), respectively, when neutron energies increased to 1.0 MeV, from 0.2 MeV, in the present study. Furthermore, the ratio of the micronucleus induction rates of seed assay to seedling assay by gamma-ray radiation was much lower than that by neutron radiations. (author)

  13. Investigation of Volatiles Emitted from Freshly Cut Onions (Allium cepa L. by Real Time Proton-Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS

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    Mette Marie Løkke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in cut onions (Allium cepa L. were continuously measured by PTR-MS during the first 120 min after cutting. The headspace composition changed rapidly due to the very reactive volatile sulfurous compounds emitted from onion tissue after cell disruption. Mass spectral signals corresponding to propanethial S-oxide (the lachrymatory factor and breakdown products of this compound dominated 0–10 min after cutting. Subsequently, propanethiol and dipropyl disulfide predominantly appeared, together with traces of thiosulfinates. The concentrations of these compounds reached a maximum at 60 min after cutting. Propanethiol was present in highest concentrations and had an odor activity value 20 times higher than dipropyl disulfide. Thus, propanethiol is suggested to be the main source of the characteristic onion odor. Monitoring the rapid changes of VOCs in the headspace of cut onion necessitates a high time resolution, and PTR-MS is demonstrated to be a very suitable method for monitoring the headspace of freshly cut onions directly after cutting without extraction or pre-concentration.

  14. Avaliação da atividade mutagênica e antimutagênica da Aloe vera em teste de Allium cepa e teste de micronúcleo em linfócitos humanos binucleados

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    Régis T. Sturbelle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Algumas das substâncias presentes nos vegetais podem ter efeitos mutagênicos, enquanto outras podem atenuar ou anular estes efeitos. Estima-se que mais de 200 substâncias ativas façam parte do gel de Aloe vera, sendo que os polissacarídeos chegam a 30%, e muitos dos benefícios terapêuticos, nutricionais e cosméticos são a eles atribuídos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito mutagênico e antimutagênico da solução de Aloe vera, em teste de Allium cepa e teste de micronúcleos em linfócitos humanos binucleados. Para as soluções, as folhas de Aloe vera foram trituradas, filtradas e esterilizadas. O teste de Allium cepa foi constituído de oito tratamentos e o de linfócitos, de cinco (com quatro repetições. Observou-se que na dose usual, a solução de Aloe vera não foi mutagência para o sistema de teste vegetal e nem para o humano. Já na dose dez vezes mais concentrada provocou um efeito citotóxico e mutagênico em Allium cepa. Em células vegetais a solução foi antimutagênica apenas quando colocada depois do paracetamol, enquanto que nas células humanas, essa ação se manifestou quando a solução foi utilizada ao mesmo tempo com o paracetamol.

  15. Allium cepa L. and Quercetin Inhibit RANKL/Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating NF-κB Signaling Pathway

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    Tatiane Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We evaluated the in vitro modulatory effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE and quercetin (Qt on osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced. Methods. RAW 264.7 cells were differentiated with 30 ng/mL of RANKL, costimulated with PgLPS (1 µg/mL, and treated with AcE (50–1000 µg/mL or Qt (1.25, 2.5, or 5 µM. Cell viability was determined by alamarBlue and protein assays. Nuclei morphology was analysed by DAPI staining. TRAP assays were performed as follows: p-nitrophenyl phosphate was used to determine the acid phosphatase activity of the osteoclasts and TRAP staining was used to evaluate the number and size of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclast cells. Von Kossa staining was used to measure osteoclast resorptive activity. Cytokine levels were measured on osteoclast precursor cell culture supernatants. Using western blot analysis, p-IκBα and IκBα degradation, inhibitor of NF-kappaB, were evaluated. Results. Both AcE and Qt did not affect cell viability and significantly reduced osteoclastogenesis compared to control. We observed lower production of IL-6 and IL-1α and an increased production of IL-3 and IL-4. AcE and Qt downregulated NF-κB pathway. Conclusion. AcE and Qt may be inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced via attenuation of RANKL/PgLPS-induced NF-κB activation.

  16. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L

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    Subodh Kumar Chand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of post transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, 6 conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L. were analysed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450 family proteins were predicted and verified using 5’ RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars.

  17. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Subodh K; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5' RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars. PMID:26973694

  18. Evapotranspiración y calendarización del riego para cebolla con aguas residuales del Río Apatlaco, Morelos, México

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    Ernesto Cuenca-Adame

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo generar información acerca del cuándo y cuánto regar el cultivo de cebolla (Allium cepa L. por surcos empleando aguas residuales, a fin de mejorar la producción y hacer eficiente el uso de agua, ya que en la actualidad se pierde entre 35 y 50% con el riego por gravedad. Se empleó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cinco tratamientos de tensiones de humedad en el suelo y cuatro repeticiones. Se utilizó la variedad Contessa, que se trasplantó a 45 días después de la siembra. Se aplicó la dosis de fertilización 140-60-00 (N-P205-K2O. Las tensiones de humedad del suelo en el momento del riego fueron: 15, 5.6, 2.4, 1.2 y 0.6 atmósferas. La unidad experimental fue de 6 x 2.5 m y 0.5 m entre surcos, trasplantándose a una densidad de 200 000 plantas ha-1. Los rendimientos más altos, 73 047 y 70 370 kg ha-1, se obtuvieron con las tensiones de humedad 0.6 y 1.2 atmósferas, respectivamente. Se concluyó que para alcanzar el máximo rendimiento de bulbo de cebolla en la región sur de Morelos, se recomienda aplicar nueve riegos durante el ciclo del cultivo, siendo el primero de 93.3 mm y los subsecuentes de 57.4 mm.

  19. Biologie, diversité et outils pour l'analyse de la diversité génétique de l'oignon, Allium cepa L. (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdou, R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biology, diversity and tools for diversity analysis of the onion (Allium cepa L.. A review. Description of the subject. This study explores important information on biology, genetic resources, taxonomy, as well as morphological, biochemical and molecular markers in order to provide a better understanding of the genetic diversity of the onion (Allium cepa L.. The study has a particular focus on the plant as grown in Africa. The onion is a monocotyledonous, allogamous, and entomophilous plant, with a one-year production cycle for bulb production, and a two-year production cycle for seeds. The onion is one of the most significant vegetables in the world because of its use as both a food and a medicine. Literature. Twenty-eight morphological markers, linked to seed, leaf, flower and bulb traits, were identified as the most discriminant phenotypical criteria. Biochemical and molecular markers were also developed to characterize genetic variations between and within onion varieties. Previous studies examining West Africa onion varieties showed that only six enzyme systems are polymorphic. However, only twenty-four isozymes have been used to compare the onion to other Allium species. This low number of polymorphic biochemical markers makes it more difficult to determine the genetic diversity of onions. On the other hand, molecular markers at DNA level, such as RAPD, RFLP, AFLP, SSR, are very useful to analyze diversity at varietal and species level, using cultivated and spontaneous forms, and to analyze the level of introgression between the onion and the other species of the genus. Conclusions. Genetic diversity analysis showed an important variability between and within Africa onion landraces. It would be useful to combine in situ and ex situ conservation, using these genetic resources to improve the production and the appropriate use of African onion cultivars.

  20. Avaliação da atividade mutagênica da infusão de Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. em teste de Allium cepa e teste de aberrações cromossômicas em linfócitos humanos Evaluation of mutagenic activity resulting from the infusion Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. using the Allium cepa test and a chromosomal test for aberrations in human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane S. de Pinho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A carqueja (Baccharis trimera(Less. DC. é uma planta medicinal da família Asteraceae muito utilizada como chá no sul do Brasil no tratamento de doenças renais, intestinas, estomacais e principalmente como emagrecedora. O objetivo desde trabalho foi de avaliar a mutagenicidade in vivoe in vitrodo chá e para isso foi realizado o teste de Allium cepaL. e o de aberrações cromossômicas em linfócitos humanos utilizando quatro tratamentos: T1 (água; T2 (20 g/L de carqueja; T3 (200 g/L de carqueja, e T4 (paracetamol, a 400 mg/L. Ambos os procedimentos foram analisados pelo teste Mann-Whitney U. Este estudo evidencia um efeito mutagênico do chá em células vegetais (Allium cepa e em células humanas (aberrações cromossômicas cultivadas, pois em ambos os testes, T2 e T3 obteve-se uma média mais elevada que nos outros tratamentos. Este estudo demonstra que o efeito é dependente da dose, portanto recomenda-se que o chá de carqueja seja consumido com moderação.Broom (Baccharis trimera(Less. DC. is a medicinal plant from Asteraceae that is commonly used as a tea in the south of Brazil for the treatment of renal, intestinal and stomach diseases. It is also used as a slimming agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of the tea in vivoand in vitro. In order to do this, the Allium cepatest was carried out and the chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes were tested using four treatments: T1 (water; T2 (20 g/L of broom; T3 (200 g/L of broom and T4 (paracetamol at 400 mg/L. Both procedures were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. This study provided evidence of a mutagenic effect of the tea in vegetable cells (Allium cepa and in cultivated human cells. In tests T2 and T3 there was a higher average than the other treatments. This study shows that the effect is dependent on the dose. It is therefore recommended that broom tea be consumed with moderation.

  1. Effects of Onion (Allium cepa L. Extract Administration on Intestinal α-Glucosidases Activities and Spikes in Postprandial Blood Glucose Levels in SD Rats Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ho Kim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes,α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Korean onion (Allium cepa L. extract against rat intestinal α-glucosidases, such as sucrase, maltase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The content of quercetin in ethyl alcohol extract of onion skin (EOS was 6.04 g/100 g dried weight of onion skin. The in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of EOS and quercetin, a major phenolic in onion, on rat intestinal sucrase were 0.40 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The postprandial blood glucose lowering effects of EOS and quercetin were compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose, a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, EOS significantly reduced the blood glucose spike after sucrose loading. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUClast in EOS-treated SD rats (0.5 g-EOS/kg was significantly lower than in untreated SD rats (259.6 ± 5.1 vs. 283.1 ± 19.2 h·mg/dL. The AUClast in quercetin-treated SD rats (0.5 g-quercetin/kg was similar to in EOS-treated group (256.1 ± 3.2 vs. 259.6 ± 5.1 h·mg/dL. Results from this study indicates that although quercetin does have blood glucose lowering potential via α-glucosidase inhibition, there are other bioactive compounds present in onion skin. Furthermore, the effects of two weeks administration of EOS in a high carbohydrate-dietary mixture (Pico 5053 on sucrase and maltase activities in intestine were evaluated in SD rat model

  2. Cytotoxicity of Spent Pot Liner on Allium cepa root tip cells: A comparative analysis in meristematic cell type on toxicity bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Marcel José; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Campos, José Marcello Salabert; Dos Santos Gedraite, Leonardo; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2016-11-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a waste generated during the production of aluminum. It is comprised of a mixture of substances most of which, like cyanide, aluminum and fluoride, are toxic. Previous studies indicate the highly toxic nature of SPL. However studies using cells of the differentiation/elongation zone of the root meristem (referred as M2 cells in this study) after a proper recovery period in water were never considered. Using these cells could be useful to further understanding the toxicity mechanisms of SPL. A comparative approach between the effects on M2 cells and meristematic cells of the proximal meristem zone (referred as M1 cells in this study) could lead to understanding how DNA damage caused by SPL behaves on successive generations of cells. Allium cepa cells were exposed to 4 different concentrations of SPL (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10gL(-1)) mixed with soil and diluted in a CaCl2 0.01M to simulate the ionic forces naturally encountered on the environment. A solution containing only soil diluted on CaCl2 0.01M was used as control. M1 and M2 cells were evaluated separately, taking into account four different parameters: (1) mitotic alterations (MA); (2) presence of condensed nuclei (CN); (3) mitotic index (MI); (4) presence of micronucleus (MCN). Significant differences were observed between M1 and M2 roots tip cells for these four parameters accessed. M1 cells was more prompt to reveal citogenotoxicity through the higher frequency of MA observed. Meanwhile, for M2 cells higher frequencies of MCN and CN was noticed, followed by a reduction of MI. Also, it was possible to detect significant differences between the tested treatments and the control on every case. These results indicate SPL toxic effects carries on to future cells generations. This emphasizes the need to properly manage this waste. Joint evaluation of cells from both M1 and M2 regions was proven valuable for the evaluation of a series of parameters on all toxicity tests. PMID:27517141

  3. Relative biological effectiveness of a 650 MeV helion beam as a function of depth determined for growth delay in Vicia faba and induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of a 650 MeV helion beam was determined as a function of depth in the irradiated medium. Two biological criteria were used: growth delay in Vicia faba bean roots and induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa onion roots. For both systems, RBE increases as a function of depth; on the other hand, RBE values observed for chromosome aberrations are higher than for growth delay. RBE/absorbed dose relationships were determined. For an absorbed dose of 0.5 Gy of the test radiation quality (ref.: initial plateau region), RBE values for growth delay are 1.45, 1.5 and 1.95 at 13, 15 and 17 cm in depth respectively. In the same conditions, RBE values are 1.4, 2.0 and 2.5 for chromosome aberrations

  4. Avaliação da atividade mutagênica e antimutagênica da Aloe vera em teste de Allium cepa e teste de micronúcleo em linfócitos humanos binucleados

    OpenAIRE

    Régis T. Sturbelle; Daiane S. de Pinho; Rossana G. Restani; de Oliveira, Gisele R.; Gilberto L. Garcias; Maria da Graça Martino-Roth

    2010-01-01

    Algumas das substâncias presentes nos vegetais podem ter efeitos mutagênicos, enquanto outras podem atenuar ou anular estes efeitos. Estima-se que mais de 200 substâncias ativas façam parte do gel de Aloe vera, sendo que os polissacarídeos chegam a 30%, e muitos dos benefícios terapêuticos, nutricionais e cosméticos são a eles atribuídos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito mutagênico e antimutagênico da solução de Aloe vera, em teste de Allium cepa e teste de micronúcleos em li...

  5. BIOFERTILIZATION USING RHIZOBACTERIA AND AMF IN THE PRODUCTION OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. AND ONION (Allium cepa L. SEEDLINGS. II. ROOT COLONIZATION AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Pulido

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Como complemento a estudios precedentes de la biofertilización en posturas de plantas hortícolas sobre suelos Ferralíticos Rojos compactados, eútricos y en áreas experimentales de la Universidad de Ciego de Ávila, se evaluaron los efectos de la inoculación simple y la coinoculación, mediante el recubrimiento de semillas y sin aplicar fertilizantes minerales, con rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal -RPCV- (Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroococcum y Burkholderia cepacia y hongos micorrízicos arbusculares - HMA- (Glomus clarum y G. fasciculatum en algunos indicadores de la colonización radical por los microorganismos y el estado nutricional de plántulas de tomate y cebolla. A partir de los resultados, se evidenció que, para ambos cultivos, las poblaciones de A. chroococcum, B. cepacia y A. brasilense se incrementaron significativamente en aquellos tratamientos inoculados con estas rizobacterias, encontrando, en general, los mayores valores en los tratamientos que fueron coinoculados. Respecto a la micorrización, los mayores porcentajes de colonización micorrízica y masa del endófito en tomate se obtuvieron mediante la coinoculación de A. brasilense con ambas especies de HMA y, para la cebolla, la máxima colonización la realizó G. fasciculatum aplicada de forma independiente, mientras que la masa del endófito fue mayor en la coinoculación de G. clarum + A. chroococcum. En relación con el estado nutricional de las plantas, en tomate, los tratamientos con presencia conjunta de A. brasilense y ambas especies de HMA fueron los que hicieron mayores extracciones de N y estuvieron entre los que realizaron mayores extracciones de P y K. En cebolla, todos los tratamientos inoculados con ambos tipos de microorganismos fueron capaces de extraer mayores cantidades de N, P y K. Todos estos resultados permiten explicar las causas de la obtención de posturas de adecuada calidad mediante la biofertilización sin el uso

  6. Allium cepa anaphase-telophase root tip chromosome aberration assay on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, maleic hydrazide, sodium azide, and ethyl methanesulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, J; Nielsen, M H

    1997-04-24

    The Allium anaphase-telophase assay was used to show genotoxicity of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), maleic hydrazide (MH), sodium azide (NaN3) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). All agents induced chromosome aberrations at statistically significant levels. The rank of the lowest doses with positive effect was as follows: NaN3 0.3 mg/l Allium test for NaN3 and EMS were in a lower range than that found for the other plant assays. EMS and MMS (methyl methanesulfonate), two chemicals used as positive controls in mutagenicity testing, were compared in the Allium test, and MMS was found to be about ten times more potent in inducing chromosome aberrations than EMS. Recording of micronuclei in interphase cells showed that this endpoint does not give more information of clastogenicity than recording of chromosome aberrations in anaphase-telophase cells. PMID:9150760

  7. Haploid Plant Induction via in Vitro Gynogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Onion (Allium cepa L.)%离体雌核发育诱导洋葱单倍体与植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰江; 缪军; 霍雨猛; 杨妍妍; 徐坤; 吴雄

    2012-01-01

    以来自日本的3个中日照型洋葱(Allium cepa L.)杂交种的未开放花蕾为外植体材料,研究了2,4-D和6-BA浓度及配比对单倍体诱导培养的影响,以建立洋葱单倍体诱导技术体系。研究结果表明,含有1.5 mg · L^-1 2,4-D + 1.5 mg · L^-1 6-BA和2.0 mg · L^-1 2,4-D + 2.0 mg · L^-1 6-BA的B5培养基适于洋葱单倍体的诱导,诱导率最高达到4.00%。共获得了43枚雌核发育胚,雌核发育胚转移至不含激素的B5基本培养基中即可发育成完整植株,再生植株驯化移栽成活率达到100%。利用根尖染色体计数和流式细胞仪鉴定有42株是单倍体。%The flower buds of three intermediate-day hybrid cultivars of onion(Allium cepa L.)from Japanese seed company were cultured in vitro using B5 medium which supplied with 100 g · L-1 sucrose and 2,4-D and 6-BA. The suitable media for haploid induction of onion were B5 medium with 1.5 mg · L-1 2,4-D + 1.5 mg · L-1 6-BA and B5 medium with 2.0 mg · L-1 2,4-D + 2.0 mg · L-1 6-BA. The highest induction rate was 4.00%. Forty-three gynogenic embryos were obtained and each of them developed into the whole plant on the B5 medium with no any plant growth regulators. The regenerated plantlets were domesticated and transplanted in greenhouse. The survival rate was 100%. Ploidy analysis of the regenerants with chromosome counts of root tip cells and flow cytometry analysis of leaf tissue revealed that 42 of them are haploid.

  8. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. PMID:27209118

  9. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  10. Valinia INIA, a New Early Storage Onion Variety for Central South Chile Valinia INIA, una Nueva Variedad de Cebolla de Guarda Precoz para la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés González A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Central South Chile, storage onion varieties (Allium cepa L. sold domestically usually begin the maturation process in March, which implies that a large proportion of bulbs do not mature adequately and do not resist prolonged storage. This situation led the Quilamapu vegetable program of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA to select an early maturing onion variety. This breeding method involved a recurrent selection with free plant crossing that began in 1994 on a population of 2000 plants of the 'Valenciana' commercial variety. Plants were first selected when they reached physiological maturity (tops down before 28 February, and then for shape, size, storage capacity, and single-centered bulbs. The result of the program was 'Valinia INIA', a type of Valenciana onion variety: early maturing, medium-sized bulb, spherical, yellow, and resistant to sprouting during storage. From the 2001-2002 to the 2008-2009 season, variety assays were carried out to compare 'Valinia INIA' with commercial cultivars, i.e., 'Sintética 14', 'Grano de Oro', and 'Valenciana Cobra'. 'Valinia INIA' precocity exceeded the other varieties in all seasons with a mean of 1.5 wk ahead of 'Sintética 14', which is the earliest commercial variety and more than 2 wk ahead of the other two. Its yield is similar to 'Valenciana Cobra' and higher than the other two varieties. Its storage capacity is similar to 'Grano de Oro' and 'Sintética 14', but greater than 'Valenciana Cobra'.En la zona centro sur de Chile es habitual que las variedades de cebolla (Allium cepa L. de guarda que se comercializan en el pais inicien el proceso de maduración preferentemente en marzo, lo que conlleva a que una gran proporción de bulbos no madure adecuadamente, no resistiendo el almacenaje por un tiempo prolongado. Esta situación llevó al programa de hortalizas del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Quilamapu a la selección de una variedad de cebolla de madurez

  11. Sélection de variétés d'oignon (Allium cepa L. adaptées au nord de la Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly, MY.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection of Varieties Onion (Allium cepa L. Adapted to the North of Ivory Coast. Sixteen varieties of onion from the collection of the National Agronomical Research Center were evaluated on the basis of their performance in the North of Ivory Coast, during the agricultural season 1998- 1999. This evaluation was made in the presence of a local control, Violet de Galmi, at the station of production of onion seeds of the Rural Development Support National Agency. Varieties Rouge de Tana, RCS1903, RCS2211 and RCS2302 gave a higher rate of healthy bulbs (64.07% on average than the others. For the total yield, varieties RCS1903, RCS2211 and RCS2302 produced more (18.18 t/ha on average than Violet de Galmi (14.58 t/ha. The latter was more productive than Rouge de Tana (12.56 t/ha. However only the purple variety, Rouge de Tana had a high content of dry matter (20.86% and was good preserved with nearly 95% of healthy bulbs after 3 months of storage, like the local control. Significant correlations appeared between the various studied characters. The most significant correlation was observed between the date of harvest and the percentage of layering at 100 days (r= -0.858; and the rate of healthy bulbs after 3 months of storage and the content of dry matter (r= 0.847.

  12. RBE as a function of depth in a 650 MeV He++ beam determined for growth delay in Vicia faba and for induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variation of RBE as a function of depth in the irradiated medium was determined for a 650 MeV He++ beam. Two biological systems were investigated: growth delay in Vicia faba bean roots and induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa onion roots. Irradiations were performed at four depths: in the initial plateau region (taken as a reference radiation quality); at the beginning: at the middle, and at the end of the spread-out Bragg peak (2 cm, 13 cm, 15 cm and 17 cm in depth respectively). The spread-out Bragg peak was about 5 cm broad. For both vegetal systems investigated, RBE increases with depth, but RBE values observed for chromosome aberrations are systematically higher than for growth delay. For an absorbed dose of 0.5 Gy of the test radiation quality, RBE values for growth delay are 1.45, 1.5 and 1.95 at 13 cm, 15 cm and 17 cm in depth respectively. For chromosome aberrations, RBE values are 1.4, 2.0 and 2.5 respectively. Present results are compared with those previously obtained for d(50)-Be neutrons. Biological results are correlated with microdosimetric data obtained for the same radiation qualities

  13. Regeneration and transformation by particle bombardment in leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the results are presented of experiments aiming at the genetic modification of leek ( Allium ampeloprasum L.). Leek is a vegetable grown for its edible (false) stem and belongs to the Alliaceae, together with onion ( Allium cepa ) and garlic ( Allium sativum ). The production of leek

  14. Influência de sanificantes nas características microbiológicas, físicas e físico-químicas de cebola (Allium cepa L. minimamente processada Effect of sanitizers on the microbial, physical and physical-chemical characteristics of fresh-cut onions (Allium cepa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Michalsky Carvalho Beerli

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar a influência dos sanificantes peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 e dicloro isocianurato de sódio (NaDCC sobre a vida de prateleira da cebola (Allium cepa L. minimamente processada, com base no desenvolvimento da microbiota e características físicas e físico-químicas. As cebolas foram previamente lavadas, descascadas e fatiadas. Foram testados 6 tratamentos em 3 blocos casualizados. Os tratamentos foram: controle, H2O2 (2%, H2O2 (4%, H2O2 (6%, NaDCC (50ppm e NaDCC (100ppm. Após a sanificação, as cebolas foram embaladas e armazenadas durante 7 dias a 4ºC. A cada dia, uma bandeja de cada tratamento foi retirada e utilizada para coleta de amostras, para realização das seguintes análises: contagem padrão de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos, contagem total de microrganismos aeróbios psicrotróficos, quantificação de fungos e leveduras, quantificação de coliformes a 35ºC e a 45ºC, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, pH, determinação da acidez total titulável (ATT, textura e perda de massa. Menores contagens de aeróbios mesófilos foram encontradas nos tratamentos com H2O2; todos os tratamentos, exceto o controle, foram eficientes para redução dos aeróbios psicrotróficos e coliformes a 35ºC; não foram encontrados coliformes a 45ºC em nenhum dos tratamentos; apenas os tratamentos com 4% e 6% de H2O2 reduziram os valores de fungos e leveduras; não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos para as análises de SST e perda de massa; foram obtidos maiores valores de pH para os tratamentos com NaDCC; menores valores de ATT foram encontrados nos tratamentos com H2O2 (4%, H2O2 (6% e NaDCC (50 ppm e maiores resultados de textura foram obtidos nos tratamentos com H2O2 (4% e H2O2 (6%. De acordo com as condições deste experimento, concluiu-se que o H2O2, nas concentrações de 4% e 6%, foi mais eficiente como sanificante para cebolas minimamente processadas do que o NaDCC; segundo os par

  15. The effects of anti-DNA topoisomerase II drugs, etoposide and ellipticine, are modified in root meristem cells of Allium cepa by MG132, an inhibitor of 26S proteasomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żabka, Aneta; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-11-01

    DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II), a highly specialized nuclear enzyme, resolves various entanglement problems concerning DNA that arise during chromatin remodeling, transcription, S-phase replication, meiotic recombination, chromosome condensation and segregation during mitosis. The genotoxic effects of two Topo II inhibitors known as potent anti-cancer drugs, etoposide (ETO) and ellipticine (EPC), were assayed in root apical meristem cells of Allium cepa. Despite various types of molecular interactions between these drugs and DNA-Topo II complexes at the chromatin level, which have a profound negative impact on the genome integrity (production of double-strand breaks, chromosomal bridges and constrictions, lagging fragments of chromosomes and their uneven segregation to daughter cell nuclei), most of the elicited changes were apparently similar, regarding both their intensity and time characteristics. No essential changes between ETO- and EPC-treated onion roots were noticed in the frequency of G1-, S-, G2-and M-phase cells, nuclear morphology, chromosome structures, tubulin-microtubule systems, extended distribution of mitosis-specific phosphorylation sites of histone H3, and the induction of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD). However, the important difference between the effects induced by the ETO and EPC concerns their catalytic activities in the presence of MG132 (proteasome inhibitor engaged in Topo II-mediated formation of cleavage complexes) and relates to the time-variable changes in chromosomal aberrations and AL-PCD rates. This result implies that proteasome-dependent mechanisms may contribute to the course of physiological effects generated by DNA lesions under conditions that affect the ability of plant cells to resolve topological problems that associated with the nuclear metabolic activities. PMID:26233708

  16. Evaluación del potencial mutagénico de biocidas (vertimec y pentacloro) sobre cebolla

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo M Berrocal; Raúl H Blas; Joel Flores; Siles, María A

    2013-01-01

    Título en ingles: Evaluation of the mutagenic potential of biocides (vertimec and pentachloro) on onionTítulo corto: Genotoxicidad en Allium cepa producida por biocidas.Resumen: El uso de biocidas es una constante en el campo agronómico, el daño ocasionado a los cultivos y por consiguiente el gran potencial de daño para los consumidores es conocido, sin embargo su uso sigue en marcha. Por ello se realizaron pruebas citogenéticas para la observación de aberraciones cromosómicas en Allium cepa,...

  17. Induction and Proliferation Conditions of Onion(Allium cepa L.) Embryogenic Callus%洋葱胚性愈伤组织的诱导及增殖条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代月; 吴雄; 朴炫春; 霍雨猛; 缪军; 廉美兰

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨洋葱离体培养的最佳条件,为建立其高频再生体系及转基因研究奠定技术基础.[方法]以洋葱(Allium cepa L.)种子为外植体,对洋葱愈伤组织的诱导、胚性愈伤组织获得及增殖的培养条件进行了初步研究.[结果]不同培养基种类对愈伤组织的诱导有影响,BDS优于MS和B5培养基;当培养基中2,4-D浓度为0.5 mg,/L时种子出愈率最高;适当降低生长素浓度,添加分裂素BA能够促进胚性愈伤组织的发生,且无分化现象产生,胚性愈伤组织诱导最佳培养基为BDS+2,4-D 0.25 mg/L+BA 2.0 mg/L,增殖最佳培养基为BDS+2,4-D O.25 mg/L+BA 1.0 mg/L.[结论]该试验建立的基因转化受体系统为洋葱基因转化奠定了良好基础.%[Objective] To explore the best conditions for the in vitro culture of onion, so as to lay technical foundation for its trangenic research and the establishment of high frequency regeneration system. [ Method] With the onion seeds as explants, the induction and proliferation conditions of onion (Alliiim r.epa L. ) callus and embryogenic callus were preliminarily studied. [ Result] The types of callus produced certain impact on the induction of callus, BDS was better than MS and B5; the callus rate was the highest at the concentrations of 0. 5 mg/L 2,4-D; the appropriate reduction of auxin concentration and addition of cytokinin BA could promote the induction of enbryogenic callus without differentiation, the best embryogenic callus induction medium was BDS +2,4-D 0. 25 mg/L + BA 2.0 mg/L and the best proliferation medium was BDS + 2,4-D 0.25 mg/L + BA 1.0 mg/L. [Conclusion] Hie transgenic receptor system established in this experiment lays good foundation for the genetic transformation of onion.

  18. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz Abdel-Gawad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion, the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic, Allium porrum L. (leek and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi. The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have the highest phenolic contents. On the other hand, in vitro antioxidant activity using three methods, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, phosphomolybdate and reducing power assays revealed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high antioxidant activities. Moreover, there was positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of the tested Allium species. Therefore, the two plant species A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum were submitted to fractionation process using chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of the two plants have high phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as have high antioxidant activities. Also, the preliminary phytochemical screening of the tested Allium species showed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high quantities of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins.

  19. Regeneration and transformation by particle bombardment in leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Schavemaker, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the results are presented of experiments aiming at the genetic modification of leek ( Allium ampeloprasum L.). Leek is a vegetable grown for its edible (false) stem and belongs to the Alliaceae, together with onion ( Allium cepa ) and garlic ( Allium sativum ). The production of leek is mainly confined to Europe. In the last few years production has increased along with consumer demands. It is propagated through seeds and gives rise to heterogeneous progeny. Problems in cultiva...

  20. Two Novel Alliin Lyase (Alliinase Genes from Twisted-Leaf Garlic (Allium obliquum and Mountain Garlic (Allium senescens var. montanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DRUGĂ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliinase (Alliin lyase EC 4.4.1.4, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent lyase, represents one of the major protein components of Allium species. The enzyme is a homodimeric glycoprotein and catalyzes the synthesis of allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate, a biologically active compound, pyruvate, and ammonia starting from the specific non-protein sulfur-containing amino acid alliin ((+S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide. Using newly developed specific primers two new alliinase genes from Allium obliquum and Allium senescens ssp. montanum were amplified and sequenced, as well as their homologs, from Allium fistulosum and Allium schoeonoprasum. The G+C content of the alliinase region ranges between that of other dicot plants and that reported in monocot cereal plants, in all four species. Investigations of gene expression revealed a significantly higher enzyme expression level in bulbs than in leaves in all four taxa. The deduced alliinase sequences displayed a high variability among different species, since the lowest sequence similarity was found to be 55.5% between Allium senescens var. montanum and Allium cepa, while the highest similarity is 77.5%, between Allium senescens var. montanum and Allium fistulosum. Leucine is the most common amino acid in all four alliinases, while cysteine is also more frequent that in other enzymes, suggesting a high stability of the molecules due to the possible disulfide bonds.

  1. The Potential Impact of Genomics for Allium Crop Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most economically important monocot outside of the grasses and is a member of the family Alliaceae in the order Asparagales. The Asparagales are a monophyletic order sister to the Commelinanae, which carries the grasses, palms, and bananas. These two important groups of...

  2. Estudio in vitro de la viabilidad de células Caco-2 en presencia de componentes del aceite esencial de Allium spp

    OpenAIRE

    M. Llana Ruiz-Cabello; Puerto, M.; D. Gutiérrez-Praena; S. Pichardo; Jos, A.; Cameán, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    El aceite esencial de los componentes del género Allium, principalmente ajo y cebolla, presenta propiedades antioxidantes y antibacterianas debidas a la presencia de compuestos azufrados en su composición. La industria alimentaria ha comenzado a desarrollar nuevos sistemas de envasado activo a partir de polímeros seleccionados, a los que se incorporan aceites esenciales que, por sus propiedades, contribuyen a aumentar la vida útil de los alimentos perecederos. En este sentido, se hace necesar...

  3. Mancha y Seca de las Hojas de la Cebolla

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    Mejía Franco Ramón

    1940-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo sistemático de la cebolla por parte de nuestros agricultores, representa un buen renglón en el comercio y una fuente de entrada para un gran número de campesinos pobres que habitan en comarcas de baja temperatura en la mayoría de los Departamentos del país. La forma continuada de cultivo que se emplea en todas las regiones propias para el desarrollo de la cebolla, empieza ya a mostrar sus dificultades por la presencia de varias condiciones patológicas que hacen temer el sostenimiento y desarrollo de tan importante factor de la economía agrícola.

  4. Evaluation of Green Manure Amendments for the Management of Fusarium Basal Rot (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae) on Shallot

    OpenAIRE

    Assefa Sintayehu; Seid Ahmed; Chemeda Fininsa; Sakhuja, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Shallot (Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum) is the most traditional vegetable crop in Ethiopia. Shallot is susceptible to a number of diseases that reduce yield and quality, among which fusarium basal rot (FBR) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae (Foc) is one of the most important yield limiting factors in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Brassica crops for the management of shallot FBR on shallot. The experiments were carried out at Debre Zeit Agri...

  5. CARIBE 71, UNA VARIEDAD DE CEBOLLA PARA CLIMA TROPICAL

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Muñoz; Prats, A

    2004-01-01

    En la Estación Experimental Agronómica de Santiago de las Vegas, actual Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical "Alejandro de Humbolt" (INIFAT) del Ministerio de la Agricultura (MINAG), se desarrollaron una serie de investigaciones con el objetivo de mejorar la producción de cebolla en el país. Se determinó la problemática que presentaba el cultivo para la producción comercial y se consideró que era necesario desarrollar variedades para condiciones tropicales, de la...

  6. RAPD and ISSR analysis of some economically important species, varieties, and cultivars of the genus Allium (Alliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    MUKHERJEE, Ashutosh; SIKDAR, Biswanath; Ghosh, Biplab; Banerjee, Anuradha; GHOSH, Enakshi; BHATTACHARYA, Moimee; ROY, Satyesh Chandra

    2013-01-01

    RAPD and ISSR markers have been used to reveal the genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of some economically important species of Allium. Two plants related to Allium were also included for better understanding of the phylogeny. ISSR showed more polymorphism within A. cepa and A. sativum, while RAPD showed more polymorphism within A. porrum. Overall, RAPD revealed more intraspecific diversity than ISSR, while ISSR showed more interspecific diversity than RAPD. This showed the usefulnes...

  7. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium. A report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Gene-Tox Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, W F

    1982-11-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for the clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction (i.e., causing chromosome aberrations), 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals. PMID:7177154

  8. Correlation of some onion (Allium cepa L. traits

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    Roch W. Doruchowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in 1977 and 1978. Investigations on the correlation of 6 bulb traits showed that bulb weight was determine by bulb diameter in particular. The bulb diameter increased together with the increase in bulb hegiht, collar thickness and diameter of the root disc.

  9. Treatment Effects of Onion (Allium cepa) and Ginger

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Nikniaz; Arash Davatgar Badie; Alireza Farnam; Arash Khaki

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial degree of sexual behavior in male rats after inducement of onion and ginger in lamotrigine receiving groups. Material and Methods: Wistar rats (n=70) (male=35, female=35) were allocated so that males were divided into seven groups: control (n=5) and test groups (n=35). Control group used normal Saline (3 cc for each rat). Lamotrigine group were given Lamotrigine (10 mg/kg). Onion group used onion fresh juice (3 cc for eac...

  10. Sifat Antirayap Ekstrak Kulit Bawang merah (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Margaretha Uliartha

    2013-01-01

    The problem of termites attack in the building is estimated be the most high because of the high rate of development, land conversion, development of settlements in the area in addition a very dense population so as disturbed the life of termites. The alternative to solve the problem was used natural biotermiticida like onion husk extract. This research aims to find out rate of extract and onion husk lost weight percentage test sample, evaluate the toxicity level of onion husk ...

  11. Treatment Effects of Onion (Allium cepa and Ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Nikniaz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial degree of sexual behavior in male rats after inducement of onion and ginger in lamotrigine receiving groups. Material and Methods: Wistar rats (n=70 (male=35, female=35 were allocated so that males were divided into seven groups: control (n=5 and test groups (n=35. Control group used normal Saline (3 cc for each rat. Lamotrigine group were given Lamotrigine (10 mg/kg. Onion group used onion fresh juice (3 cc for each rat/daily. Ginger group was fed on ginger powder (100 mg/kg/daily. Onion & Lamotrigine group used both onion juice (3 cc fresh onion juice for each rat/day and Lamotrigine (10 mg/kg. Ginger & Lamotrigine group used both ginger powder (100 mg/kg/day and Lamotrigine (10 mg/kg/day. Onion, ginger & Lamortigine group jointly used ginger powder (100 mg/kg/day and onion juice (3 cc juice for each rat and Lamotrigine (10 mg/kg/day. All groups were given treatments orally. For sexual behaviors, Estradiolbenzoate (50 microgram and 6 hours before test (500 microgram progesterone was injected to the female rats subcutaneously. Then rats were viewed for erection, ejaculation and cup.Results: There was maximum Serum total testosterone level in the onion group, there was maximum malondialdehyde (MDA in the Lamotrigine group and there was maximum total antioxidant capacity in both the onion group and ginger group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results revealed that administration of (100 mg/kg/day of ginger powder, and freshly prepared onion juice (3 cc for each rat, significantly lowered the adverse effects of lamotrigine, and can have beneficial effects on sexual behavior in male rat.

  12. Phylogeny of Chinese Allium (Liliaceae) using PCR-RFLP analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Eighteen representative species were selected from all the nine sections of Chinese Allium on the basis of the classification of morphology and cytotaxonomy. The trnK and rpL16 gene fragments of chloroplast DNA were amplified from 18 species by PCR method. The two cpDNA fragments were digested by 26 restriction enzymes, and 303 polymorphic restriction sites were found, of which 163 were informative. The restriction site data were analyzed with PAUP (version 3.1.1) and MEGA (version 1.01) as well as PHYLIP. As a result, the genus Allium could be classified into six subgenera. The recognition of Sect. Anguinum in the Flora of China is reasonable, Sect. Rhizirideum, Sect. Haplostemon and Sect. Cepa are not monophyletic. The infrageneric system of this genus was also discussed.

  13. Efectos del Fitomas - E en el cultivo de cebolla

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    José Yumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se informan los resultados que se obtienen con la aplicación de tres dosis (1,0; 1,5 y 2 L/ha del bionutriente FitoMas-E, derivado de la industria azucarera, a los 10, 25 y 40 días después del trasplante. Las respuestas analizadas están relacionadas con componentes del rendimiento agrícola y algunas variables fisiológicas del cultivo de la cebolla, en condiciones de producción. Las muestras se tomaron en diferentes momentos de forma aleatoria y los datos se procesaron en el centro de cálculo del Instituto Nacional de Frutales de Cuba, mediante un paquete estadístico, en el que se empleó la prueba de Duncan a un 0,05% de error. El experimento se llevó a cabo en la finca Gavilán de la CCSF Niceto Pérez, provincia La habana. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que la dosis de 2 L/ha tiene el mejor comportamiento. Con esta dosis todos los parámetros medidos son superiores y tienen significación estadística, comparados con la variante fertilizada. Se destaca la influencia positiva que FitoMas-E ejerce en la fisiología de los vegetales al potenciar el desarrollo de las estructuras botánicas que garantizan un incremento del flujo de fotosintatos hacia el bulbo. Se informan incrementos de 15% en diámetro del bulbo, 61% en el peso y 29% en materia seca.

  14. CARIBE 71, UNA VARIEDAD DE CEBOLLA PARA CLIMA TROPICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Muñoz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En la Estación Experimental Agronómica de Santiago de las Vegas, actual Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical "Alejandro de Humbolt" (INIFAT del Ministerio de la Agricultura (MINAG, se desarrollaron una serie de investigaciones con el objetivo de mejorar la producción de cebolla en el país. Se determinó la problemática que presentaba el cultivo para la producción comercial y se consideró que era necesario desarrollar variedades para condiciones tropicales, de las cuales se pudiera producir la semilla en Cuba. Aplicando tratamiento de invernación a los bulbos se lograron floraciones y semillas, pudiéndose iniciar los trabajos de mejoramiento genético en esta especie, producto de los cuales se obtiene la variedad Caribe 71, de color rojo de los tipos secas picantes, con buen grado de tolerancia en condiciones de campo al hongo Alternaria porri (Ell Cif. y conservación en condiciones de almacenamiento por más de cinco meses. Su ciclo económico es de 140 días, muy estable en la producción y desarrolla bulbos de buena forma y tamaño en más del 90 % de las plantas. El potencial de rendimiento es superior a las 40 t.ha-1 y puede producirse la semilla en el país, con rendimientos entre 300 y 400 kg.ha-1, los cuales son rentables en las condiciones de Cuba.

  15. Evaluación del potencial mutagénico de biocidas (vertimec y pentacloro sobre cebolla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo M Berrocal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Evaluation of the mutagenic potential of biocides (vertimec and pentachloro on onionTítulo corto: Genotoxicidad en Allium cepa producida por biocidas.Resumen: El uso de biocidas es una constante en el campo agronómico, el daño ocasionado a los cultivos y por consiguiente el gran potencial de daño para los consumidores es conocido, sin embargo su uso sigue en marcha. Por ello se realizaron pruebas citogenéticas para la observación de aberraciones cromosómicas en Allium cepa, usando muestras de raíces de plantas expuestas y no expuestas a biocídas. Los tratamientos se realizaron con el objetivo de comparar el grado de afectación de los biocídas sobre la mitosis y la ocurrencia de mutaciones cromosómicas. El ANOVA para los datos de desarrollo radicular al finalizar la experimentación, mostraron un CV de 9.88, se observo diferencias significativas entre el control y los tratamientos, los porcentajes de inhibición llegaron a tener valores máximos de 84.2% para vertimec X8 y 76.5% para pentacloro X8, y valores mínimos de 38.2% para vertimec X0.5 y 43.8% para pentacloro 0.5 X. El índice mitótico fue mayor para el control (0.193 y menores para el tratamiento con menor desarrollo radicular, vertimec X8 (0.021 y pentacloro X8 (0.028. Las pruebas citogenéticas mostraron la ocurrencia de anomalías en el ciclo celular siendo la más frecuente la C-mitosis. Se puede concluir que el test Allium es un buen indicador de citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad. Los biocidas ocasionan cambios en la estructura genómica de un cultivo, estos cambios podrían acumularse y ocasionar cambios de expresión génica, pudiendo dañar regiones de interés agronómico para una especie y afectar su estabilidad genética. Palabras clave: test Allium, anomalía mitótica, estabilidad genética, genotoxicidad, citotoxicidad.Abstract: The use of biocides is a constant in the agronomic field. The damage to crops and therefore, the potential harm for

  16. The evaluation of waste, surface and ground water quality using the Allium test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaka-Kincl, V; Stegnar, P; Lovka, M; Toman, M J

    1996-07-01

    The bulbs of Allium cepa were grown in test liquids of various pollution levels as follows: undiluted industrial and municipal waste water; biological treatment plant output water; water from the Drava river upstream and downstream of the city of Maribor; and non-chlorinated drinking water as a negative control test. The paper presents the response of the Allium cepa genetic material to the presence of potential cytotoxic and genotoxic substances in test liquids and the suitability of the Allium cepa testing procedure as a method for short-term determination of water pollution level. The suitability of the Allium test procedure as a system for environmental monitoring is presented. The influence of water pollution on macroscopic and cytologic parameters of the common onion by application of the biological testing method was examined. The macroscopic parameter was inhibition of root growth. The cytological parameters were: aberrant cells in metaphase and anaphase, index of micronuclei appearance and inhibition of cell division. The possibility of categorization the different polluted test liquids into quality classes is presented according to the influence of the test liquids on macroscopic and cytologic parameters. Test liquids are divided into 8 quality classes: the first class is the least polluted surface waters, the second and the third classes are more polluted surface water, the fourth and the fifth classes are biological treatment plant output waters, the sixth till the eighth quality classes are untreated waste waters. The most polluted test liquids (untreated industrial and municipal waste waters) caused sublethal and even lethal effects. The most polluted tested liquids cause the inhibition of root growth over 50% (even up to 74%), decrease of mitotic index over 36% (even up to 66%), increase of presence of interphase cells with micronuclei over 3% and increase of presence of aberrant cells for more than 10 times in comparison to control test. PMID

  17. Pudrición blanca de la cebolla: Una enfermedad difícil de combatir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar\\u00EDa del Milagro Granados

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo una revisión bibliográfica sobre la pudrición blanca o torbó de la cebolla, enfermedad causada por el hongo Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. Se tomó en cuenta aspectos como la distribución de la enfermedad a escala mundial, la sintomatología típica, el agente causal y los hospederos, así como el ciclo de vida del patógeno y la epidemiología de la enfermedad, además de las principales estrategias de combate. Se menciona brevemente la importancia del cultivo de la cebolla en el país, las zonas de siembra y el impacto de la enfermedad.

  18. Accumulation of heavy metals in hydroponically cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), leek (Allium porrum L.) and chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Kotyza, Jan; Lenikusová, Ivana; Petrová, Šárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 7, 3-4 (2009), s. 761-769. ISSN 1459-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP522/06/P002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Onion * leek * garlic Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.349, year: 2009 www.isfae.org/scientficjournal/2009/issue3/abstracts/abstract142.php

  19. Complejos tecnológicos para cebolla, ajo, col, pepino, lechuga, zanahoria y remolacha

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Valdés Roque; Jesús Cárdenas Rubio

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conformar los complejos tecnológicos para cultivos varios (hortalizas menores: cebolla, ajo, col, pepino, lechuga, zanahoria y remolacha). Para la conformación de los mismos se realizó una revisión bibliográfica relacionada con las temáticas de mecanización, donde se obtuvieron los criterios y orientaciones fundamentales para la selección de los equipos componentes de los complejos tecnológicos, así como las características técnicas que deben tene...

  20. Conservation of Allium germplasm collection by cryopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Zámečník, Jiří; Grospietsch, Martin; Kotková, Renata; Faltus, Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Allium is important crop in the Czech Republic. Allium sativum L. germplasm is maintained in the field collection and this fact increases risk of accidental lost of genotype. Conservation of Allium sativum L. germplasm by means cryopreservation decreases risks of genotype lost. Allium sativum L. samples are stored at ultralow temperature that stopped all biochemical processes and the samples are stored without any changes for many years. This methodology describes procedure of material prepar...

  1. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura de cebola (Allium cepa transplantada Periods of weed interference with transplanted onion crop (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Soares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de períodos de convivência (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias após o transplantio de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade de quatro cultivares de cebola (Mercedes, Granex 33, Superex e Serrana, em sistema de transplantio de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em Jaboticabal-SP, de abril a outubro de 2000, utilizando delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 8. As principais populações de plantas daninhas no final dos períodos de convivência foram de Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus e Cyperus rotundus. Os cultivares Mercedes (2,90 kgm-2 e Granex 33 (2,64 kgm-2 foram os mais produtivos, independentemente da interferência das plantas daninhas. A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante os primeiros 98 dias reduziu a produtividade da cebola em 95% e o peso médio de bulbos em 91%. O período anterior à interferência (PAI foi de 42 dias, não havendo diferença entre os cultivares de cebola.This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of weed coexistence periods (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting on the productivity of four onion cultivars (Mercedez, Granex 33, Superex and Serrana. The experiment was installed in Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil, from April to October 2000, arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications, in a factorial design 4 x 8. The main weed populations at the end of the coexistence periods were Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus and Cyperus rotundus. The cultivars Mercedez (2.90 kg m-2 and Granex-33 (2.64 kg m-2 were the most productive, under the conditions of weed interference.Weed interference during the first 98 days reduced production weight around 95% and the average weight of bulbs was reduced by 91%. For all the cultivars, weed coexistence the during the first 42 days after transplanting did not reduce the total bulbal weight or the average weight by bulb, being defined as the period before interference (PBI. There was no difference in the PBI extension of the onion cultivars studied.

  2. Intoxicação experimental por cebola, Allium cepa (Liliaceae, em gatos Experimental onion Allium cepa (Liliaceae poisoning in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Fighera

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A intoxicação por cebola é relatada em várias espécies animais em muitas partes do mundo. O princípio tóxico (n-propil dissulfito presente na cebola causa a transformação da hemoglobina em metemoglobina. Para estudar os achados laboratoriais, de necropsia e histopatológicos da intoxicação por cebola em gatos, cinco gatos de quatro meses de idade receberam cada um uma dose única de 10g/kg de cebola desidratada por via oral. Um outro gato de mesma idade não recebeu a refeição com cebola e serviu como controle. Todos os cinco gatos desenvolveram sinais clínicos da toxicose; um deles morreu dentro de 24 horas após a ingestão da cebola. Os sinais clínicos incluíram apatia, taquicardia, taquipnéia e cianose. Os achados laboratoriais se caracterizavam por anemia hemolítica associada a corpúsculos de Heinz e metemoglobinemia. Os principais achados de necropsia foram esplenomegalia e sangue de cor marrom. Os achados histopatológicos foram hemossiderose e hematopoese extramedular no baço e fígado.Onion poisoning is reported worlwide in several animal species. The toxic principle (n-propyl dissulfide present in onions causes the transformation of hemoglobin in methemoglobin. In order to study the laboratory, gross and histopathological findings in onion poisoning in cats, five 4-month-old cats were fed a single dose of 10g/kg of dried-onion each. Another cat of the same age did not receive the onion meal and served as control. All five cats developed clinical signs of the toxicosis; one of them died within 24 hours of the ingestion of the onion meal. Clinical signs included apathy, tachycardia, tachypnea, and cyanosis. Laboratory findings included hemolytic anemia associated with Heinz bodies and methemoglobinemia. Main necropsy findings were splenomegaly and brown discoloration of blood. Histopathological findings included splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis and multifocal extramedullary hematopoiesis.

  3. Assessment of antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of nigerian cultivars of onions (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeoziri, Ukoha Pius; Romanus, Ekere Nwachukwu; Onyekachukwu, Uzodinma Irene

    2016-07-01

    This report assessed and compared the antioxidant potentials, quantities of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in methanolic extract of varieties of onions and garlic cultivars in Nigeria. The pH and total acidity of the extracts were equally determined. Antioxidancy of the cultivars were analysed using the in vitro assay techniques with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacity. Ascorbic acid phenolic content were determined by volumetric and Folin-Ciocalteu's method respectively. The pH and total acidity were respectively 5.65 and 0.150mmol/L (red onion), 5.69 and 0.123mmol/L (white onion) and 6.94 and 0.105mmol/L (garlic). Red onion had the highest value of total phenols, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity of 14.25±0.35mg GAE/ml, 229.098mg/100g, 66.44% respectively. In DPPH assay, red and white onion showed higher tendency to inhibit auto-oxidation when compared to garlic. The ferric reducing ability was greatest in garlic and least in white onions. These data indicate that with respect to antioxidant activity, red onion variety has highest health promoting potential among others. PMID:27393431

  4. Efecto del coeficiente de estrés hídrico sobre los rendimientos del cultivo de cebolla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E. Duarte Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del coeficiente de estrés hídrico (Kc sobre los rendimientos del cultivo de cebolla, a través de un gradiente de evapotranspiración (Etc, que incluyó condiciones estándar, (100% de la Etc, determinada experimentalmente y cuatro niveles de reducciones simuladas de la Etc (Etc-aj para las condiciones no estándar. Las simulaciones se realizaron con auxilio del programa CROPWAT 8.0, que incorpora el modelo Penman Montheith, modificado por FAO. Para cada variante, se calcularon los coeficientes de cultivo (Kc, siendo los coeficientes de cultivos globales de de la cebolla, 0,64; 0,57; 0,53, 0,51 y 0,45 además se determinaron los coeficientes de estrés hídrico (Ks (1, 0,55; 0,45; 0,37 y 0,33 respectivamente; y se evaluó la influencia de los mismos sobre el rendimiento fresco de la cebolla los cuales oscilaron entre 18,7 y 13,1 kg/m2 en función de la variación relativa de la evapotranspiración, con reducciones hasta el 68% de la producción para la variante más extrema. El conocimiento sobre las potencialidades del uso del agua en diferentes escenarios de suministro, constituyen las bases científicas para proyectar medidas de adaptación y mitigación para la producción de cebolla, en condiciones de sequía.

  5. Accumulation and stress responce on heavy metals treatment by hydroponically cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa L.) and chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Valenová, Šárka; Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Kuala Lumpur : The Institution of Engineers, 2006, s. 295. [Brownfield ASIA 2006. International Conference on Remediation and Management of Contaminated Land: Focus on Asia. Kuala Lumpur (MY), 05.09.2006-07.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC042; GA ČR(CZ) GP522/06/P002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : heavy metals * garlic * onion * chive Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  6. ACTIVIDAD DE ENZIMAS ANTIOXIDANTES Y CONTENIDO DE COMPUESTOS FENÓLICOS Y FLAVONOIDES EN LA INTERACCIÓN CEBOLLA – Trichoderma spp. – Sclerotium rolfsii

    OpenAIRE

    Peñaloza Jimenez, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    La producción de cebolla es afectada por la enfermedad conocida como “tizón sureño" causada por el hongo Sclerotium rolfsii. Una alternativa de control biológico para reducir la severidad de la enfermedad es la aplicación del hongo Trichoderma spp. que es un antagonista de S. rolfsii y que induce la respuesta de defensa de las plantas. Por lo cual, en éste trabajo para comprender los mecanismos de defensa que se inducen en las plantas de cebolla por la aplicación de Trichoderma spp. se evaluó...

  7. Estudio in vitro de la viabilidad de células Caco-2 en presencia de componentes del aceite esencial de Allium spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Llana Ruiz-Cabello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El aceite esencial de los componentes del género Allium, principalmente ajo y cebolla, presenta propiedades antioxidantes y antibacterianas debidas a la presencia de compuestos azufrados en su composición. La industria alimentaria ha comenzado a desarrollar nuevos sistemas de envasado activo a partir de polímeros seleccionados, a los que se incorporan aceites esenciales que, por sus propiedades, contribuyen a aumentar la vida útil de los alimentos perecederos. En este sentido, se hace necesario evaluar la seguridad asociada al uso de estas sustancias en envases alimentarios que van a estar en contacto con el consumidor a través del alimento. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la citotoxicidad producida por dipropil sulfuro y dipropil disulfuro, dos de los componentes del aceite esencial de ajo y cebolla, en la línea celular Caco-2, células humanas procedentes de carcinoma de colon. Los biomarcadores ensayados fueron el contenido total de proteínas, la captación de rojo neutro y la reducción de la sal de tetrazolio (3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il-5-(3-carboximetoxifenil-2-(4sulfofenil-2H-tetrazolio. Las células fueron expuestas durante 2, 4 y 8 h a concentraciones comprendidas entre 0 y 200 µM. Los resultados no mostraron diferencias significativas frente al control para ninguno de los tres marcadores, lo que demuestra que bajo las condiciones de los ensayos ambos compuestos azufrados no son citotóxicos para esta línea celular gastrointestinal y podrían ser útiles en la industria alimentaria para desarrollar envases activos.

  8. Relative susceptibility of onion (allium cepa) genotypes of pakistan to onion thrips (thrips tabaci) (thysanoptera: thripidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present studies were conducted during 2008-2010, to test the susceptibility of onion crop to a globally recognized pest of onion Thrips tabaci Lindeman. The results revealed that genotype VRIO-3 was highly susceptible one having 181.7 thrips per plant. The genotype Desi Large was moderately resistant having 94.2 thrips per plant. Survey of susceptibility of onion cultivars revealed that there is a scarcity of thrips resistant varieties in agro-ecosystem of Punjab, Pakistan. So, thrips resistant varieties must be developed to combat the menace to thrips attack. This study provides a guideline to the genetic engineers and conventional breeders. (author)

  9. Influence of irradiation on results of storage of onions (Allium cepa L.) in different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found high efficiency of irradiation on the lowering storage losses caused by sprouting and rooting of onion. The best results were achieved when dose 60 Gy was used. Percentage of marketable onion reached nearly 90 percent of initial mass after 8 months storage compared with 38 percent in nonirradiated control. Irradiation did not change level of vitamin C, dry matter, and sugar contents in treated onions

  10. Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.

    OpenAIRE

    Gurmail Singh; Reenu Takker; Gurminder Singh Chahil; Gaganjyot; Sanjay Kumar Sahoo; Balwinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG) was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin ...

  11. Investigations on the cytotoxic influence of zinc on Allium cepa L. roots

    OpenAIRE

    Halina Kocik; Barbara Wojciechowska; Alicja Liguzińska

    2014-01-01

    The influence of various (0.1, 0.08, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.00125 M) zinc chloride and zinc acetate concentrations on the mitotic activity of the apical meristem of onion adventitious roots was investigated after 24 h of incubation. It was found that the tested compounds have a mitodepressive action and distinctly inhibit root elongation. The results of topochemical analysis are reported.

  12. Effect of Arsenic on Photosynthesis, Growth and its Accumulation in the Tissues of Allium cepa (Onion)

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Sushant, K.; Ghosh A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is a well known carcinogenic element, that can harm not only human health but, plant and bacteria as well. Replicated experiments confirmed that, Arsenic accumulates in the different tissues in different parts of the plant and, adversely affects the growth and productivity of the plants. It is a threat for millions of population in terms of health and food security both. Therefore, a pot experiment was designed and conducted to investigate the effect of arsenic on photosynthetic pigme...

  13. Drying kinetics and quality aspects during heat pump drying of onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Ranjan Sahoo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A prototype heat pump dryer has been developed for drying of fruits and vegetables at low temperature and relative humidity to maintain the quality of dried product. Onions, of Nasik red variety were peeled, trimmed and sliced to 2 mm thickness. The onion slices were dried in the heat pump dryer at 35ºC (32 % R.H., 40ºC (26 % R.H., 45ºC (19 % R.H. and 50ºC (15 % R.H.. Samples were also dried in a hot air dryer at 50ºC (52 % R.H. for comparison. The drying rate increased with increase in drying air temperature, associated with reduced R.H., in the heat pump dryer. Drying took place mainly under the falling rate period. The Page equation, resulting in a higher coefficient of determination and lower root mean square error, better described the thin-layer drying of onion slices than the Henderson and Pabis equation. Heat pump drying took less drying time of 360 min and yielded better quality dried product, with higher retention of ascorbic acid and pyruvic acid and lower colour change, as compared to a hot air dryer at the same drying air temperature of 50ºC.

  14. Identification and biological activity of antifungal saponins from shallot ( Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Imada, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Kazunori; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2013-08-01

    The n-butanol extract of shallot basal plates and roots showed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. The purified compounds from the extract were examined for antifungal activity to determine the predominant antifungal compounds in the extract. Two major antifungal compounds purified were determined to be alliospiroside A (ALA) and alliospiroside B. ALA had prominent antifungal activity against a wide range of fungi. The products of acid hydrolysis of ALA showed a reduced antifungal activity, suggesting that the compound's sugar chain is essential for its antifungal activity. Fungal cells treated with ALA showed rapid production of reactive oxygen species. The fungicidal action of ALA was partially inhibited by a superoxide scavenger, Tiron, suggesting that superoxide anion generation in the fungal cells may be related to the compound's action. Inoculation experiments showed that ALA protected strawberry plants against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , indicating that ALA has the potential to control anthracnose of the plant. PMID:24138065

  15. Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmail Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on onion were 0.52 and 0.82 mg kg-1 following three applications of Nativo 75 WG at the recommended and the double of the recommended dose, respectively. Similarly, the average initial deposits of tebuconazole were 0.76 and 1.32 mg kg-1 at the two dosages, respectively. The residues dissipated more than 60% at both dosages after 3 days. The half-life (t1/2 of trifloxystrobin was 1.86 and 1.18 days, while for tebuconazole 2.13 and 1.98 days, for single and double dosages, respectively. Mature onion collected at harvest did not reveal the presence of trifloxystrobin or its metabolite, CGA 32113, at a detection limit of 0.05 mg kg-1. An assessment of the intake of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole, resulting from the consumption of onion, and its comparison with acceptable daily intake revealed that recommended application of Nativo 75WG (trifloxystrobin 25%+ tebuconazole 50% is quite safe from the consumer point of view.

  16. Effect of agricultural countermeasures on the transfer factor of caesium-137 in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment, with onion cv. Rampur as the test crop, was conducted to study the effect of two levels (3.7 and 7.4 MBq m-2) of 137Cs and three countermeasures (application of farmyard manure at 12.5 t ha-1, application of extra potassium 100% in excess of that recommended for onion, and deep ploughing with a mold board plough). The crop was harvested at maturity and separated into bulb and sheath and analysed for 137Cs activity using a NaI (Tl) gamma ray spectrometer. The level of 137Cs significantly influenced the transfer factor (TF) in bulbs and sheaths. The levels of 137Cs and TF values were inversely related. The countermeasures had significantly influenced the TF of 137Cs from soil to onion: the values ranged from 0.0009 to 0.0025 m2 kg-1. The TF was highest for the control and the three countermeasures had significantly reduced values. Application of FYM was the most effective of the countermeasures. The other two countermeasures were on a par. They greatly reduced the TF also in onion sheaths; all three countermeasures had similar effects, and recorded significantly lower TF values than did the control

  17. ESTIMATING THE PREVALENCE OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN ONIONS (ALLIUM CEPA L. AND THEIR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lachowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Onion is vegetable with good nutrition and its growth could stand different kinds condition. It’s medical properties attract researchers attention. The author characterized the preparations and the phenolic compounds from fresh onions (red, yellow, white and shallots mild pickles in brine and syrup using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (UPLC-PDA-MS. The results are reasonable and analysis is acceptable. The test material was identified: quercetin, isorhamnetin and derivatives of these compounds. The total content of phenolic compounds in fresh onions ranged from 0.72 to 89.47 mg.100g-1 dry weight, mild pickles in brine from 5.39 to 0.31 mg.100g-1, syrup from 2.85 to 0.31 mg.l-1. Polyphenol content was highest in fresh onions, and much lower in the material subjected marinating process.

  18. Effect of Arsenic on Photosynthesis, Growth and its Accumulation in the Tissues of Allium cepa (Onion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh Sushant, K.; Ghosh A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is a well known carcinogenic element, that can harm not only human health but, plant and bacteria as well. Replicated experiments confirmed that, Arsenic accumulates in the different tissues in different parts of the plant and, adversely affects the growth and productivity of the plants. It

  19. PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF REPLICASE GENE OF TOBACCO STREAK ILARVIRUS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA.L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujitha A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco streak virus (TSV is an important emerging virus belongs to the genus Ilarvirus and family Bromovidae. The Onion crop is infected by Tobacco streak ilar virus and it is major problem in different places of Andhra Pradesh in South India and also transmitted by thrips vector. TSV suspecting onion samples were identified by direct antigen coating enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using TSV polyclonal antiserum. The Replicase gene from each isolate was amplified using TSV replicase gene specific primers by using the RT-PCR. The ~530 bp product was amplified, cloned, sequenced and determined its length as 534 nucleotides and codes for 178 amino acids. The partial sequence of TSV-Rep shared identity of 87.6 -99.8% at nucleotide levels and 67.8- 99.4% at amino acid levels respectively with other reported TSV isolates. The phylogenetic tree relationship based on the nucleotide sequence of present study isolate (AP-Onion-Chittoor from different geographical regions was also analyzed in this study.

  20. Influence of hydroxyurea on cell divisions and microtubular cytoskeleton in Allium cepa root meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Q. Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In onion roots, hydroxyurea (HU causes a gradual depression of mitotic activity which ceases after 24-36 hrs. The effect is reversible; divisions begin after several hours of recovery and after 12-14 hrs about 90% cells undergo mitosis. Mitotic activity commences in the distal region of the apical meristem, and as a wave it spreads towards the apex. In the roots treated with HU for a short time, the tubulin immunofluorescence method reveals normal arrays of microtubules (MTs. After 36 hrs of HU treatment there are only cortical and endocytoplasmatic MTs. In the recovering roots, preprophase bands (PB mitotic spindles and phragmoplasts appear. Some PBs are split into two parallel rings. These abnormal PBs mostly occur in elongated cells. Apart from this, HU does not appear to have any significant influence on microtubular organization.

  1. Investigations on the cytotoxic influence of zinc on Allium cepa L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Kocik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various (0.1, 0.08, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.00125 M zinc chloride and zinc acetate concentrations on the mitotic activity of the apical meristem of onion adventitious roots was investigated after 24 h of incubation. It was found that the tested compounds have a mitodepressive action and distinctly inhibit root elongation. The results of topochemical analysis are reported.

  2. Influence of selenite and selenate supplementation on the chromium uptake and translocation in Allium cepa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pot experiments were conducted on onion plant to study the effects of selenite and selenate treatments (0.5-6.0) μg ml-1 on the uptake and translocation of root absorbed chromium irrigated with 2 and 5 μg ml-1 of chromium in sand and soil. Both the form of selenium (SeO32-, and SeO42-) were found equally effective in reducing the chromium burden of the plant. No significant difference (p>0.05) in dry matter yields among various selenium treatments exist suggesting no salt injury occurred in the plants under prevailing conditions. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab

  3. Macroscopic and microscopic effects of gamma radiation on the shallot onions, Allium cepa var. aggregatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is a study on the relationship between irradiation dose and the macroscopic and microscopic parameters and chromosomal aberrations in the onions. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance or F-test to determine significant differences among treatments as affected by does of radiation followed by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT). LSD test was also used in comparing means when the F-ratio was significant. 23 refs.; 19 figs.; tabs

  4. SCREENING OF LOCAL AND EXOTIC ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L. CULTIVARS FOR SEED PRODUCTION POTENTIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Aminul Islam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted aiming to find out the seed production potentiality of 19 local and exotic onion cultivars. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among the genotypes for all characters except sprouting percentage, number of flowers per umbel and number of umbel per bulb. Maximum number of days to 50% bolting (52.67 was exhibited by the genotype G2 and minimum by G6 (27.00 days. The larger bulb size after harvest was obtained from G14 and G19 (18.11 g. Genotypes G4 and G11 required the maximum (16.66 and the minimum (9.00 days for 100% sprouting, respectively. The highest stalk length was found in the genotype G1 (67.23 cm and the lowest in G8 (38.47 cm. Maximum number (5.75 of stalk was produced by the genotype G7 and minimum number (2.09 of stalk by the genotype G11. The genotype G1 produced the highest number of seeds per umbel (1395.92 and seed yield per plant (4.29 g. The lowest (0.45 g seed yield per plant and maximum bulb weight was obtained by the genotype G8.

  5. Performance of Eight Varieties of Onion (Allium cepa L. Cultivated under Open Field in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ABDELKADER ABOU AZOOM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted from September 2010 to July 2011 at Research Station Farm of Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Mariem, Sousse (Tunisia in order to evaluate the performance of seven onion varieties: ‘GIZA 6’, ‘Red Amposta’, ‘Z6’, ‘Morada de Amposta’, ‘Yellow Dessex’, ‘Early Yellow Texas Grano 502’ and ‘Keep Red’ against the commonly grown variety ‘Blanc Hâtif de Paris’ under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results obtained showed that onion varieties were significantly different when it comes to the plant and bulb morphological characteristics. Variety ‘Morada de Amposta’ recorded the highest leaf length (68.06 cm, pseudostem diameter (8.63 cm, number of leaves (8.71, plant height (76.95 cm,  in addition to the greatest yields (32.88 t/ha which were significantly (p≤0.05 increased by respectively 66.2,  88.8,  2.1,  61.2, 63, 27.9  and 28.4%  compared to those obtained from the regular variety ‘Blanc Hâtif de Paris’. Variety ‘Blanc Hâtif de Paris’ was the earliest to maturity and recorded the most preferment bulb weight (155.02 g and diameter (8.21 cm. ‘Keep Red’ variety had the highest height of the bulb (7.19 cm. Variety ‘Z6’ recorded the minimum data in all measured parameters.

  6. Organization of the cytoplasmic reticulum in the central vacuole of parenchyma cells in Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Wodzicki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An elaborate and complex cytoplasmic reticulum composed of fine filaments and lamellae ranging from 0.1 to 4 microns in size is revealed by viewing the central vacuole of onion bulb parenchyma cells with the scanning election microscope. The larger cytoplasmic strands, visible with the light microscope, are composed of numerous smaller filaments (some tubular which might explain the observed bidirectional movement of particles in these larger strands. The finely divided cytoplasmic network of filaments is continuous with the parietal cytoplasm inclosing the vacuolar sap. In these highly vacuolated cells the mass of the protoplast is in the form of an intravacuolar reticulum immersed in the cell sap. The probable significance of the vacuolar sap in relation to physiological processes of the cell is discussed.

  7. Structural components of the nuclear body in nuclei of Allium cepa cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear bodies have long been noted in interphase nuclei of plant cells,but their structural component,origin and function are still unclear by now.The present work showed in onion cells the nuclear bodies appeared as a spherical structure about 0.3 to 0.8 μm in diameter.They possibly were formed in nucleolus and subsequently released,and entered into nucleoplasm.Observation through cytochemical staining method at the ultrastructural level confirmed that nuclear bodies consisted of ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) and silver-stainable proteins.Immunocytochemical results revealed that nuclear bodies contained no DNA and ribosomal gene transcription factor (UBF).Based on these data,we suggested that nuclear bodies are not related to the ribosome or other gene transcription activities,instead they may act as subnuclear structures for RNPs transport from nucleolus to cytoplasm,and may also be involved in splicing of pre-mRNAs.

  8. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  9. CEPA:物流业的机遇%CEPA:opportunities for logistics industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Chinese mainland/Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA) became effective from zero hour Thursday, January 1,2004, with the support of the central government and joint efforts of the industry and commerce circles on both sides.

  10. Geno-toxicity assay of sediment and water samples from the Upper Silesia post-mining areas, Poland by means of Allium-test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, S.; Oudalova, A.; Michalik, B.; Dikareva, N.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology & Agroecology RAAS, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    Genotoxic potential of two environmental compartments (water and sediment) from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (USCB), Poland were evaluated and compared by employing root meristem cells of Allium cepa. The clear genotoxic effect of water and sediment sampled was shown, with an important contribution of severe types of cytogenetic abnormalities. The most biologically relevant pollutants were revealed through multivariate statistical analysis of relationships between biological effects registered and the environment contamination. Overall, results of simultaneous use of conventional monitoring methods and biological tests suggested that contemporary levels of persistent pollutants in post-mining areas of the USCB may enhance the risk both for human health and biological components of natural ecosystems.

  11. CEPA--opportunities for logistics industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Chinese mainland/HongKong CloserEconomic Partnership Arrangement(CEPA)became effective from zero hour Thursday,January 1,2004,with the support of the cen-tral government and joint efforts of the indus-try and commerce circles on both sides.

  12. Tradescantia-SH and Allium-assays as biomonitors of radiation pollutions genotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We used Tradescantia stamen hair (Trad-SH) assay on induction of the pink mutations to test the samples of polluted soils were taken from Chernobyl and Kopachi. The levels of radionuclide cesium 137 and americium 241 in Kopachi soil sample was approximately ten times as big as those in Chernobyl soil sample (20.8+0.1 kBq/kg for radionuclide cesium 137 and 87+7 kBq/m2 for radionuclide americium 241 versus 1.12+0.1 kBq/kg and 13+2 kBq/m2 accordingly). The plants of Tradescantia clone 02 on tested and control soil samples were grown and Trad-SH assay during 20-25 days were analyzed. The clastogenic effects of gamma-irradiation in Allium-assay on induction of chromosome aberrations in model experiments were estimated. Air-dry seeds of A. cepa L. were gamma-irradiated in dose range 1-40 and 50-300 Gy using arrangement with the Cobalt 60 isotopes. The root tip cells test-system for the cytogenetic effects studying was used. All results were statistically processed, comparison between the experimental variants and controls were conducted by kappa2method and t-test. The level of pink mutation events in Tradescantia-SH induced by soil samples from Chernobyl 0.30+0.08% was lower then that induced by sample from Kopachi 0.48+0.04%, but both levels were statistically higher then compared with control (0.16+0.08%). In addition to high level of gene mutations the plants which were grown on most polluted soils samples from Kopachi demonstrated the morphological abnormalities such as stamen union and alteration, flowers underdevelopment etc. In Allium-test the effects on all parameters analyzed were shown. Statistically reliable increase of chromosome aberrations level was shown when dose of gamma-irradiation was risen to 5 Gy and effects were intensified gradually when dose increased. It is interestingly, then the dose was 40 Gy and higher the cells with unidentified plural chromosome aberrations were detected and theirs the number of gradually increased with dose

  13. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A G; Santana, G M; Ferreira, P M P; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-06-01

    Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion) are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05). No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic. PMID:26959949

  14. Formación in vitro del bulbo del ajo morado (Allium sativum L. In vitro formation of purple garlic (Allium sativum L. bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mujica

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar la bulbificación in vitro del ajo morado (Allium sativum L. se extrajeron ápices caulinares de los "dientes" del bulbo previamente grelados y desinfectados. Estos ápices se cultivaron en el medio de Murashige y Skoog con 2,0 mg.L-1 de 2 isopenteniladenina (2ip; 0,1 mg.L-1 de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA y 30 g.L-1 de sacarosa. Los cultivos crecieron a 41,54 mmol.m-2 s-1 de luminosidad, fotoperíodo de 16 horas luz y 23 ±2ºC. Las vitroplantas regeneradas fueron seccionadas a 2 cm de longitud desde la corona de la planta, se eliminaron sus raíces y se cultivaron en un medio para inducir la bulbificación, constituido por los mismos componentes anteriores, excluyendo el ANA y aumentando la sacarosa a 90 g.L-1. Para los estudios histológicos se realizaron cinco muestreos de tres vitroplantas cada uno, entre los 0 y 28 días de cultivo. En la bulbificación in vitro se distinguieron dos etapas de desarrollo. La primera correspondió al estado morfogénico iniciado desde el día 0 hasta los 20 días de cultivo, y la segunda, al llenado y maduración del bulbo a partir del día 7 de la inducción a la bulbificación. El bulbo se desarrolló por organogénesis directa, siendo su estructura similar al de cebolla hasta los 21 días, para luego diferenciarse por la formación de los "dientes". Las raíces adventicias se originaron de los meristemos en una región cerca al ápice del tallo.With the purpose of studying the in vitro bulb formation of the purple garlic (Allium sativum L. shoot tips of the "teeth" of the bulbs were extracted, sprouted, and disinfected. These shoot tips were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog medium with 2.0 mg.L-1 of isopenteniadenine (2ip; 0.1 mg.L-1 of naphthalene acetic acid (ANA and 30 g.L-1 of sucrose. The cultures grew up at 41.54 mmol.m-2.s-1 luminosity, 16 hours of light, and 23 + 2ºC. The in vitro regenerated plants were cut off at 2 cm of length from the plant neck; their roots were cut off and

  15. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging. PMID:26607106

  16. Evaluación de caldo super cuatro y agroplux en el control de Peronospora destructor en cebolla de bulbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Daniel Rodríguez-Lagos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de cebolla de bulbo es muy importante en  la  economía  de muchos  agricultores  de Boyacá  y  otros  departamentos  del  país;  sin embargo, es afectado por varias enfermedades, entre  las  cuales  se destaca  el mildeo  velloso, como  una  enfermedad  que  causa  grandes pérdidas  económicas  por  sus  efectos devastadores; además, la dependencia exclusiva del control químico, hace que la contaminación ambiental y los costos de producción aumenten. Por  esta  razón,  se  evaluaron  10  tratamientos consistentes en cuatro concentraciones de caldo super cuatro  (5%, 10%, 20% ý 30% de CS4 y cuatro de Agroplux  (5%, 10%, 15% ý 20% de Ap, un  testigo químico (metalaxil+mancozeb y uno absoluto, cada uno con tres repeticiones, para un total de 30 unidades experimentales de 9 m2,  donde  fueron  sembradas  plántulas  de cebolla Yellow granex, con un diseño en bloques al  azar.  Las  aplicaciones  se  hicieron decenalmente  y  con  esta misma  frecuencia fueron medidas  la  incidencia y severidad de  la enfermedad. Se registró  la  temperatura, humedad relativa  y  precipitación;  en  la  cosecha  se determinó el  rendimiento y se hizo un análisis económico. Al final, la incidencia fue del 100% y  la  severidad  no  presentó  diferencias estadísticas, pero  fue menor  con  el químico  y los tratamientos de Ap. Con la aplicación de CS4 al  20%  se obtuvo mayor  producción,  ingreso neto y rentabilidad. Además, el desarrollo de la enfermedad  dependió  directamente  de  la precipitación  y  se  pudo  concluir  que  los biopreparados  tienen potencial para el control del mildeo velloso y aumento de la rentabilidad del cultivo de cebolla de bulbo.

  17. Pharmaceutical and chemical analysis of the components carrying the antiplatelet activity of extracts from allium ursinum and allium sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Sabha, Dina Talat Tawfiq

    2012-01-01

    Allium sativum has a long tradition in medicine. While much is known about its potential healthy effects, nearly nothing is known about wild garlic (allium sativum, ramson), which is very common in the area of Leipzig and has been used as a herbal remedy since centuries. The goal of the present study was to assess a potential anti-platelet activity of these two allium species and to try to identify the chemical active principle. For that purpose various extracts (hydrophilic and lipophil...

  18. Alternativas de control en la pudrición radical de cebolla para el Valle de la Trinidad, Baja California Control Alternatives for Onion root rot in the Trinity Valley, Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Pulido-Herrera; Emma Zavaleta-Mejía; Lourdes Cervantes-Díaz; Onécimo Grimaldo-Juárez

    2012-01-01

    La pudrición radical en cebolla es la enfermedad más importante en el Valle de la Trinidad, Baja California, México. Con el propósito de evaluar estrategias de control para la enfermedad se realizaron tres experimentos durante 2007, 2008 y 2009. En el experimento I (2007) los tratamientos fueron: 1) Tiofanato metílico; 2) Smicobac (Trichoderma + Bacillus sp. + Azospirillum sp. + Pseudomonas sp.); 3) estiércol de bovino (EB); 4) residuos de cebolla (RC); 5) solarización plástico transparente (...

  19. Biocontrol con Trichoderma spp. de Fusarium oxysporum causal del “mal de almácigos” en pre y post emergencia en cebolla

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Aixa D.; Barrera, Viviana; Reybet, Graciela; Sosa, M. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    En Argentina, la “podredumbre basal” y el “mal de almácigos” causados por el complejo Fusarium spp. constituyen uno de los problemas más serios en cebolla. En este trabajo se estudió el uso de especies del género Trichoderma como agentes de control biológico (ACB) de F. oxysporum, causal del “mal de almácigos” en cebolla. Se identificaron y caracterizaron morfológica, cultural y fisiológicamente a 10 aislamientos de Trichoderma spp. del cepario de Fitopatología. Por secuenciación del gen TEF-...

  20. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant properties of some selected onions (Allium cepa L. and garlic (Allium sativum L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Benkeblia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The radical scavenging activity (RAS, chain-breaking activity, H2O2-scavenging, reducing capacity and total phenolics of four types of onions (Green onion, Yellow, Red and Purple and garlic were investigated. Total phenolics varied from 30 mg (green onion to 49 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight (garlic. Garlic extract showed the highest RAS, while green onion showed the lowest one. The chain-breaking activity of green onion extract was higher (0.48 than garlic extract (0.029. Chain-breaking activity of yellow, red and purple onion extracts was 0.19, 0.048 and 0.032 respectively. However, heating treatment (90 ºC, 3h caused an increase in this activity. Low ability of green onion extract to scavenge hydrogen peroxide was noted (35%, whereas high ability was noted in other onion and garlic extracts and ranged from 60 to 90%. The lowest reducing capacity was noted in green onion extract (18%, whereas the highest in garlic extract (196%. Statistically, high significant correlations were observed between total phenolics content and reducing power, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and chain-breaking activity of extract

  1. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant properties of some selected onions (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Benkeblia

    2005-01-01

    The radical scavenging activity (RAS), chain-breaking activity, H2O2-scavenging, reducing capacity and total phenolics of four types of onions (Green onion, Yellow, Red and Purple) and garlic were investigated. Total phenolics varied from 30 mg (green onion) to 49 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight (garlic). Garlic extract showed the highest RAS, while green onion showed the lowest one. The chain-breaking activity of green onion extract was higher (0.48) than garlic extract (0.029). Chain-breaking activ...

  2. Sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa L.) by gamma irradiation. Part of a coordinated programme on pre-commercial scale radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of verifying the possibilities and circumstances of sprout inhibition and storage life extension of onion and garlic by gamma irradiation, onion bulbs of variety Valenciana Sintetica 14 and garlic bulbs of a coloured locally grown variety were subjected to irradiation with 3 Krad of 60Co gamma rays. The dose rate was 2440 rad/min; the irradiation conditions warranted a Dsub(max)/Dsub(min) ratio of 1.25. The irradiated bulbs and control samples of non-irradiated bulbs were investigated for a period of 270 to 330 days. Weight loss, external and internal sprouting, signs of decay, and the percentage of commercial bulbs were observed with the following results. Weight loss was found to be less in irradiated bulbs than in controls - 22% against 40% for onion and 33% against 65% for garlic. The dose of gamma radiation employed was proved to be sufficient for sprout inhibition in both species and for partial inhibition of decay and softening. The aroma of garlic was not impaired by irradiation. For both products, gamma irradiation was found to prolong the period of commercial utilizability

  3. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation

  4. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini

    2015-09-01

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  5. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini [Biology Study Program, School of Life Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  6. Competitividad del sistema agroalimentario de la cebolla de bulbo con enfoque de cadena productiva en el distrito de riego del alto chicamocha (boyacá)

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Ligia Ines; Melo, María Mercedes; Rodríguez, Luis Felipe

    2010-01-01

    El análisis de la competitividad plantea una pregunta lógica sobre los determinantes que la originan, percibida ésta como un objeto móvil y, por tanto, que debe ser comprendida en términos de su dinámica. Por su importancia, el presente artículo se orienta al análisis de la competitividad del sistema agroalimentario de la cebolla de bulbo en el Distrito de riego del Alto Chicamocha (Boyacá), bajo el enfoque de cadena productiva, haciendo énfasis en los eslabones de producción y comercializaci...

  7. Sistemas de producción tradicional de maíz, cebolla y frijol de mata practicados en Copanatoyac, Guerrero.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosendo Rosendo, Gil Andrés

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación se desarrolló en seis localidades del municipio de Copanatoyac, estado de Guerrero, México. El objetivo fue evaluar los sistemas de producción agrícola que se practican en la zona. El tamaño de muestra fue de 62 entrevistas, aplicada con la técnica de bola de nieve, bajo el método de muestreo por cuotas. Se encontró que en la zona de estudio se cultivan 13 especies vegetales, dentro de las cuales con el maíz, frijol de mata y cebolla se generan tres sistemas de prod...

  8. GENOTOXICIDAD DE PLAGUICIDAS EN SISTEMAS VEGETALES

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Juana SÁNCHEZ ALARCÓN; Sandra GÓMEZ-ARRROYO; Cortés Eslava, Josefina; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Socorro FERNÁNDEZ; Rafael VILLALOBOS-PIETRINI

    2013-01-01

    La presente revisión comprende el análisis de publicaciones que evalúan la capacidad genotóxica de plaguicidas, empleando diversos organismos vegetales como sistemas de prueba desarrollados a partir de 1990. Incluye un total de 149 trabajos en donde se analizaron 167 plaguicidas. Fueron usadas 28 especies vegetales dentro de las cuales destacan Allium cepa (cebolla), Vicia faba (haba) y Hordeum vulgare (cebada). Los grupos de plaguicidas más evaluados son los organofosforados, seguidos por lo...

  9. USO DE BIOINSECTICIDAS PARA EL CONTROL DE PLAGAS DE HORTALIZAS EN COMUNIDADES RURALES

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriano García-Gutiérrez; María Berenice González-Maldonado

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó el uso de bioinsecticidas elaborados a base de hongos entomopatógenos (Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae y Paecilomyces fumosoroseus); la producción se hizo de manera artesanal en comunidades rurales y se utilizaron para el control de plagas de hortalizas. Los productos fueron formulados con celite® y se usaron a dosis de 240g (1.2x1012 esporas/ha), para el control de plagas sobre plantaciones de lechuga Lactuca sativa L., rábano Rhapanus sativus, cebolla Allium cepa L., re...

  10. Efeito anti-proliferativo das infusões de Achyrocline satureioides DC (Asteraceae sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa Anti-proliferative effect of infusions of Achyrocline satureioides on the Allium cepa cell cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. Fachinetto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (marcela é utilizada na medicina popular brasileira, na forma de chá, como tratamento de patologias digestivas e inflamatórias. O efeito anti-proliferativo de infusões de marcela sobre o ciclo celular da cebola foi avaliado, utilizando-se inflorescências de marcela recém coletadas (2005 e após armazenamento por 30 meses (2003. Preparou-se as infusões em duas concentrações: 5,0 mg/mL (concentração usual como chá e 20 mg/mL. Utilizaram-se 3 grupos de 6 bulbos de cebola para cada população de marcela. Retirou-se um grupo de bulbos controle de cada população. Todos os bulbos enraizados em água destilada foram transferidos para os extratos de marcela e permaneceram por 24 horas, (os bulbos controle permaneceram em água. As radículas foram coletadas, fixadas em etanol-ácido acético (3:1 por 24 h e estocadas em álcool 70%. Foram analisadas 6000 células por grupo de bulbos, e os índices mitóticos calculados submetidos a análise estatística pelo teste chi2 a 5%. Conclui-se que as infusões de marcela possuem ação antiproliferativa sobre o ciclo celular da cebola e que essa ação inibitória da divisão celular aumenta conforme aumento da concentração, bem como após o armazenamento.Achyrocline saturoides (marcela is used in Brazilian folk medicine as a tea in the treatment of digestive and inflammatory diseases. The anti-proliferative effect of infusions of marcela on onion cell cycle was evaluated by using the inflorescences of recently collected marcela and after the storage for 30 months. Marcela inflorescences were collected for the infusion preparations in 2003 and in 2005 (used still fresh. We prepared the infusions at two concentrations 5.0 mg/mL (concentration used as tea and 20 mg/mL. We used two groups of six onion bulbs for each population of marcela, and one group of bulbs of each population was withdrawn as a control group. All bulbs rooted in distilled water and after they were transferred to the extracts of marcela and they were kept there for 24 hours (control bulbs remained under water. The root tips were collected, after fixed in ethanol acetic acid (3:1 for 24 hours and, stored under alcohol 70%. A total of 6000 cells per group of bulbs was analyzed, and the mitotic indexes were calculated and undergone to statistical analysis by using chi2 at 5%. The conclusions were that the infusions of marcela have anti-proliferative action on the cell cycle of onion and that this inhibitory action on the cell division increases according to the increase of the infusion concentration, after storage as well.

  11. Evaluación de pérdidas en la postcosecha de la cebolla junca (Allíum Fistolosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Medina Díaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados obtenidos de las pérdidas postcosecha de la cebolla junca (cebolla larga o de rama, como parte de un proyecto interdisciplinario de "Precosecha, cosecha y postcosecha de frutas y hortalizas" adelantado por varias facultades de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, el Departamento de Ingeniería Agrícola y el ICTA con la colaboración de COLCIENCIAS. La investigación se realizó en las poblaciones de Aquitania (Boyacá, zona de mayor producción en el país, la cual tiene 1.500 Há. sembradas durante todo el año, con rendimientos cercanos a las 27 toneladas por hectárea, y Usme (Cundinamarca, zona de minifundio que también siembra permanentemente esta cebolla, en aproximadamente 36.5 Há. con una producción de 146,4 toneladas por corte. Se tuvieron en cuenta estos dos sitios ya que surten diariamente el mercado de la capital del país, pero se aplican diferentes técnicas de producción y manejo entre ellos. El cultivo es económicamente representativo para los agricultores de las dos regiones, presenta distancias de transporte diferentes y con distinta topografía en su recorrido hasta llegar al sitio de comercialización en Bogotá. El objetivo principal del estudio consistió en determinar y cuantificar las pérdidas postcosecha, en la fase recolección-comercialización, en las dos zonas, analizando las pérdidas sufridas en la calidad de la cebolla debido a factores de manejo, empaque y condiciones de transporte entre las fincas y el centro de comercialización, comparando el sistema tradicional de los agricultores, con otro mejorado que se ha propuesto. Se seleccionaron 3 fincas en cada zona, en donde se hizo la cuantificación de la calidad inicial y posteriormente en el laboratorio, la de la calidad final. La caracterización física del producto se realizó inicialmente, y luego la evaluación de la calidad fue medida en índices de 0-100% de integridad y defectos. Los resultados

  12. Investigation into the healing properties of walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum leaf and onion (Allium cepa bulb residues in Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OS Bello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion levels of walnut leaf (WL and onion bulb (OB residues on dermal wound healing of Clarias gariepinus. The experiment was carried out in 9 experimental tanks (1.8 m x 2 m x 1.2 m for 14 days. Nine experimental diets were formulated at 40% crude protein representing the following inclusion levels: Control (0%, OB2 (0.5%, OB3 (1.0%, OB4 (1.5%, OB5 (2.0%, WL6 (0.5%, WL7 (1.0%, WL8 (1.5% and WL9 (2.0%. Fish (mean weight of 1kg were fed twice daily at 3% body weight. Percentage healing and daily healing rate on lateral and caudal parts of the male and female Clarias gariepinus were investigated at 0, 7 and 14 days. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at P < 0.05. The results demonstrated that the fish fed with walnut leaf and onion bulb residues showed better performance than the control. Dermal wound healing of Clarias gariepinus was better on lateral and caudal parts (100%, 14.29; 100%, 14.29 in WL 8 compared to the control (98%, 14.00; 80%, 11.43 respectively. The results obtained showed that the male Clarias gariepinus had better healing compared to the female (100%, 14.29; 82%, 11.71, respectively. Diets with walnut leaf and onion bulb residues had wound healing properties and they could be use in fish farming. Also, the inclusion of 1.5% of walnut leaf residue in fish feed promotes wound healing in Clarias gariepinus.

  13. Variability and heritability of some onion (Allium cepa L. characteristics of parental forms, F1 hybrids and F2 generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roch W. Doruchowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the studies in 1977 was a population of 15 F1 hybrids, 11 F2 progenies and 16 parental forms (8 male-sterile A lines and 8 inbred C lines - Table 2. Variability and heritability of some onion characteristic weight, height diameter of the bulbs and their shape, collar thickness, adherence and color of dry outer skin, bulb firmness, shape of the collar and position of root disc were studied. Variability and heritability estimates of bulb weight, diameter and shape of the collar were relatively high (30-70%.Variability of the skin thickness was also high, but heritability of this trait was low. The lowest variability and heritability were shown for bulb firmness. The high heritability of some traits indicates the possibility of increasing the effects of selection and improvement, especially of the weight and shape of bulbs.

  14. Antioxidant, Radical Scavenging and Antimicrobial Activities of Red Onion (Allium cepa L) Skin and Edible Part Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Škerget, M.; Majhenič, L.; Bezjak, M.; Knez, Ž.

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant, radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of extracts from skin and edible part of red onion have been investigated. Crude extracts of red onion were obtained separately with acetone, ethanol and mixtures of solvents with water. The amounts of isolated phenolic compounds and quercetin from onion skin were approximately 3 to 5 times higher as from the onion edible part. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of onion skin extracts were generally high, results were...

  15. Dyeing of γ-irradiated cotton with natural flavonoid dye extracted from irradiated onion shells (Allium cepa) powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powder of Onion shells as a source of natural flavonoid dye (Quercetin) and cotton fabrics were exposed to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Irradiated and un-irradiated dye powder was used for extraction of quercetin as well as antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant activities were also determined to observe the effect of radiation. Furthermore, color strength and colourfastness of irradiated fabrics were improved by using pre and post-mordants such as alum and iron. It is found that 4 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose for extraction of natural quercetin extracted from onion shells while maximum color strength and acceptable fastness properties are obtained on dyeing of irradiated fabric at 60 °C keeping M:L of 1:30 using 10% alum as pre-mordant and 6% alum as post-mordant. Gamma irradiation has not only improved the color strength of the dye using irradiated cotton but also that of colourfastness properties. - Highlights: • The optimal absorbed dose obtained for surface modification of cotton (RC) is 4 kGy. • The optimal absorbed dose for extraction of colorant from onion shell powder (RP) is 4 kGy. • Optimum dying conditions: 60 °C, 1 30 as M:L. • Optimum pre-mordant 10% alum and 6% alum as post-mordant. • At these optimum conditions: color strength and fastness properties are improved

  16. Effect of drying, freezing and storage of dried and frozen onion (Allium cepa L.) on its pungency

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Horbowicz; Józef Bąkowski

    2013-01-01

    The paper contains results of studies of drying and freezing effects, as well as storage of dried and frozen onion on its pungency. The effect of onion bulbs preparation on pungency was estimated as well. The pungency measurements were based on determination of pyruvate produced enzymatically by alliinase. Storage at 20°C of skinned onion decreases sligthly pungency, however three weeks storage at 0-2°C did not change it. Other results indicate that freezing at -25°C, and followed thawing led...

  17. Isolation and Structural Analysis In Vivo of Newly Synthesized Fructooligosaccharides in Onion Bulbs Tissues (Allium cepa L.) during Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Masaki Fujishima; Kensuke Furuyama; Yojiro Ishihiro; Shuichi Onodera; Eri Fukushi; Noureddine Benkeblia; Norio Shiomi

    2009-01-01

    Fructooligosaccharides are involved in physiological activities and quality attributes of onion bulbs. This work describes structures of newly synthesized oligosaccharides formed by fructose moieties in onion bulb tissues during storage. Onion bulbs were stored for four weeks at 10 ∘ C . HPAEC-PAD analysis showed that saccharide 1 was eluted after 1-kestose while saccharide 2 was eluted after nystose ( a ) . Saccharides 1 and 2 have R-sucrose values of 1.55 and 2.15 by HPAEC, a reducing ter...

  18. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn) Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Shagufta Mufti; Jaudah Al-Maghrabi; Essam Abdel Sattar; Ghareib, Salah A; Mosli, Hisham A.; Salah A. Gabr

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every...

  19. Isolation and structural analysis in vivo of newly synthesized fructooligosaccharides in onion bulbs tissues (Allium cepa L.) during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Fujishima, Masaki; Furuyama, Kensuke; Ishihiro, Yojiro; Onodera, Shuichi; Fukushi, Eri; Benkeblia, Noureddine; Shiomi, Norio

    2009-01-01

    Fructooligosaccharides are involved in physiological activities and quality attributes of onion bulbs. This work describes structures of newly synthesized oligosaccharides formed by fructose moieties in onion bulb tissues during storage. Onion bulbs were stored for four weeks at 10C°. HPAEC-PAD analysis showed that saccharide 1 was eluted after 1-kestose while saccharide 2 was eluted after nystose (4a). Saccharides 1 and 2 have R-sucrose values of 1.55 and 2.15 by HPAEC, a reducing terminal,...

  20. Exploring genetic diversity and quality traits in a collection of onion (Allium cepa L) landraces from north-west Spain

    OpenAIRE

    González-Pérez Susana; Mallor Cristina; Garcés-Claver Ana; Merino Fuencisla; Taboada Alfredo; Rivera Antonio; Pomar Federico; Perovic Dragan; Silvar Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen onion landraces from North-West Spain were evaluated using microsatellites markers. Eleven polymorphic markers identified 32 alleles in the whole collection, with an average of 2.9 alleles per locus. High values of observed (mean of 0.45) and expected heterozigosity (mean of 0.51) were detected for the majority of loci. Wright’s fixation index confirmed an excess of heterozygotes and a low level of inbreeding within the collection. Multivariate an...

  1. Investigation into the healing properties of walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) leaf and onion (Allium cepa) bulb residues in Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    OS Bello; BO Emikpe; AK Olaifa; FE Olaifa

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion levels of walnut leaf (WL) and onion bulb (OB) residues on dermal wound healing of Clarias gariepinus. The experiment was carried out in 9 experimental tanks (1.8 m x 2 m x 1.2 m) for 14 days. Nine experimental diets were formulated at 40% crude protein representing the following inclusion levels: Control (0%), OB2 (0.5%), OB3 (1.0%), OB4 (1.5%), OB5 (2.0%), WL6 (0.5%), WL7 (1.0%), WL8 (1.5%) and WL9 (2.0%). Fish (mean weight of 1kg) were fe...

  2. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties of Allium cepa on Serum Antioxidants and Spermatogenesis After Consuming Tartrazine in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseinpouran Manuchehr

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the antioxidant properties of onion on biochemical serum factors, antioxidants and testicular tissues in Wistar rats after consuming tartrazine. Materials and Methods: Forty male Wistar were divided into four groups of 10. The first group was used as the control group and were given only water without additives, group 2 were given tartrazine, group 3 were given tartrazine plus onion juice and the fourth group which was given only onion juice through gastric gavage. The experiment was conducted for 60 days, then the antioxidant activities superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and biochemical parameters namely high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and testosterone together with the histopathological studies (sperm count and testicular weight were measured. Results: Tartrazine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPX and a decrease in the level of testosterone and HDL and also a decrease in sperm count and testicular tissue weight. Tartrazine caused an increase in the LDL levels. Conclusion: Results showed that consumption of tartrazine is associated with production of free radicals and in turn causes significant decrease in antioxidant activities and biochemical serum factors which damage the cellular compartments of the testis. Onion as an antioxidant in this study reduces the damaging effects of tartrazine on the enzymatic activities of antioxidant and biochemical serum factors.

  3. Genotypic variation in sulphur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.). II: Characterisation of ATP sulphurylase activity

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Ludivine

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the regulation of sulphur (S)-assimilation in onion further at the biochemical level, the pungent cultivar W202A and the milder cultivar Texas Grano 438 PVP (TG) have been grown in S-sufficient (S +; 4 meq S -1) or S-deficient (S -; 0.1 meq S -1) growth conditions, and tissues excised at the seedling stage (pre-bulbing; ca. 10-weeks-old) and at the mature stage (bulbing; ca. 16-weeks-old). S-supply negatively influenced adenosine-5′-phosphosulphate (APS) reductase (APR) enzyme activity in both cultivars at bulbing only, and a higher abundance of APR was observed in both cultivars at bulbing in response to low S-supply. In contrast, S-supply significantly influenced ATP sulphurylase (ATPS) activity in leaf tissues of W202A only, and only at bulbing, while an increase in abundance in response to high S-supply was observed for both cultivars at bulbing. To investigate the regulation of the ATPS enzyme activity and accumulation further, activity was shown to decrease significantly in roots at bulbing in the S-deficient treatment in both cultivars, a difference that was only supported by western analyses in W202A. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AcATPS1 groups in a broad monocot clade with the closest sequences identified in Sorghum bicolour, Zea mays and Oryza sativa, but with some support for a divergence of AcATPS1. Detection of ATPS in leaf extracts after two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed that the protein may undergo post-translational modification with a differential pattern of ATPS accumulation detected in both cultivars over the developmental progression from the seedling to the bulbing stage. Treatment of leaf extracts of W202A to dephosphorylate proteins resulted in the loss of immuno-recognised ATPS spots after 2-DE separation, although enzyme activity was not influenced. These results are discussed in terms of the tiers of control that operate at the biochemical level in the reductive S-assimilation pathway in a S-accumulating species particularly during the high-S-demanding bulbing stage. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Elberry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red onion scales (ROS contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  5. Shallot (Allium cepa var. ascolonicum) responses to plant nutrients and soil moisture in a sub-humit tropical climate

    OpenAIRE

    Woldetsadik, Kebede

    2003-01-01

    Shallot requirements of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers were studied under rain-fed and irrigated conditions on heavy clay soils with low to medium organic matter contents in a sub-humid tropical climate of eastern Ethiopia. Influences of varying levels of irrigation water in combination with nitrogen fertilizer were assessed. Impacts of soil moisture stresses at different growth stages of the plant were evaluated in greenhouse and under field conditions. Different types of mul...

  6. Mutagenic effect of gamma rays, ethyl methanesulphonate and their combination in top-onion (Allium cepa var. viviparum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulbils of top onion plant were subjected to mutagenic treatments with gamma rays and/or ethyl methanesulphonate to induce wide spectrum of variability in quantitative traits. The present study was undertaken to observe phenotypic/chromosomal changes due to induced mutations. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  7. Influence of Sulfur Induced Stress on Oxidative Status and Antioxidative Machinery in Leaves of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Neelam; Pandey, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to assess the effect of sulfur stress on growth, oxidative status, and antioxidative metabolism. Onion plants were treated with three different levels of sulfur, namely, 1.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mM S L(-1). Plants raised with 4.0 mM S L(-1) represent sufficient growth for the best vegetative yield. Plants supplied with 1.0 and 8.0 mM S L(-1) showed retarded growth, chlorosis, and reduction in biomass and photoassimilatory pigments. Tissue sulfur concentration and cysteine were increased with increasing sulfur supply. Carbohydrates (sugars and starch) were accumulated in sulfur stressed plants. Hydrogen peroxide levels were increased in sulfur stressed plants. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels were also increased which was an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and nonenzymatic (asorbate) antioxidative components were enhanced in sulfur stressed plants. Glutathione was increased with increasing sulfur supply. The present study showed that the adverse effects of inadequate sulfur supply result in irregular metabolic activities and antioxidant machinery. PMID:27379315

  8. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L. germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreto eFayos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2 to 3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09% and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%. These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%, whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20-23%. Different amiprofos-methyl (APM treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 µM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 µM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the 4 regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their gynogenesis efficie

  9. Influence of 1-p-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine on mitotic activity of apical meristem of onion (Allium cepa L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kuraś

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of increasing cytosine arabinoside (ara-C concentration (50, 100, 300 and 500 μg/ml on the mitotic activity of the apical meristem of onion adventitious roots was investigated during 24-h incubation in ara-C and postincubation in water. Incubation in ara-C inhibits reversibly mitosis, the degree of inhibition being dependent on the concentration used. 50 μg/ml ara-C causes only a slight and transitional mitotic depression, while 100—500 μg/ml reduces the per cent of mitoses in various degrees after 12-h incubation whereas after 24 h all concentrations (100—500 reduce mitosis to the same level of about 2 per cent (80% inhibition. During postincubation in water there occurs after treatment with 100—500 μg/ml ara-C, a wave of highly synchronized mitoses with a peak after 12 h. The highest frequency of synchronized mitoses (60°/o appeared in roots treated with 300 μg/ml ara-C. The main wave is preceded by a small one with a peak after 2-4 h of postincubation. This seems to be the consequence of phases S and G2 inhibition by ara-C. It was found that under the influence of ara-C the per cent of mitoses with chromosome aberration and of cells with micronuclei increased only slightly.

  10. Influence of Sulfur Induced Stress on Oxidative Status and Antioxidative Machinery in Leaves of Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Neelam; Pandey, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to assess the effect of sulfur stress on growth, oxidative status, and antioxidative metabolism. Onion plants were treated with three different levels of sulfur, namely, 1.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mM S L−1. Plants raised with 4.0 mM S L−1 represent sufficient growth for the best vegetative yield. Plants supplied with 1.0 and 8.0 mM S L−1 showed retarded growth, chlorosis, and reduction in biomass and photoassimilatory pigments. Tissue sulfur concentration and c...

  11. Dyeing of γ-irradiated cotton with natural flavonoid dye extracted from irradiated onion shells (Allium cepa) powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Nasir, Faiza; Akhtar, Nasim; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2013-11-01

    Powder of Onion shells as a source of natural flavonoid dye (Quercetin) and cotton fabrics were exposed to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Irradiated and un-irradiated dye powder was used for extraction of quercetin as well as antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant activities were also determined to observe the effect of radiation. Furthermore, color strength and colourfastness of irradiated fabrics were improved by using pre and post-mordants such as alum and iron. It is found that 4 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose for extraction of natural quercetin extracted from onion shells while maximum color strength and acceptable fastness properties are obtained on dyeing of irradiated fabric at 60 °C keeping M:L of 1:30 using 10% alum as pre-mordant and 6% alum as post-mordant. Gamma irradiation has not only improved the color strength of the dye using irradiated cotton but also that of colourfastness properties.

  12. Effects of plant density and cultivar on yield responses in onions (Allium cepa L. grown from seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rumpel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted to study the effect of plant density on yield, size grading and maturity of onion bulbs grown from seeds. In the first experiment carried out during 1991-1993, three onion cultivars (Hysam F1 , Mercato F1 and Sochaczewska were sown for intended densities of 20, 40, 60, 80,100 and 140 plants m-2, whereas in the second one, in 1996, six onion cultivars (Spirit F1, Summit F1, Hyduro F1, Armstrong F1, Renate F1 and Robusta were sown for intended densities of 40, 60 and 80 plants m-2. The onions were grown on beds, 1,35 m wide, in 4 rows per bed (27+27+27+54 cm. Marketable yield increased with plant density, and depending on year was highest at 80 or 100 plants m-2. The average marketable yield of the 1991-1993 experiment increased from 20.5 t·ha-1 at 20 plants m-2 to 32.8 t·ha-1 at 80 plants m-2, whereas that of the 1996 experiment increased from 48,9 t-ha-1 at 40 plants m-2 to 59.0 t·ha-1 at 80 plants m-2, respectively. Yield of large bulbs decreased with density and was highest at 20-40 plants m-2, oposite to the yield of small bulbs, which was highest at the highest density of 140 plants·m-2. The medium bulb yield increased with density, at the some way as compared the total marketable yield. No greater effect of cultivar on bulb size grades was found and the existing differences were proportional to the total marketable yield . Plant density hastened maturity of onions, and at density of 140 plants m-2 the leaf fall-over occurred 9-10 days earlier as compared at density of 20 plants m-2. The cultiwars used. can be placed in the following order of decreasing productivity: 1 . Mercato F1, 2. Hysam F1 and 3. Sochaczewska, - in the first expeiiment (1991-93 and 1. Annstrong F1, 2. Spirit F1, 3. Robusta, 4. Renate F1, 5. Hyduro F1 and 6. Summit F1 - in the second experiment (1996, respectively.

  13. Phenotypic Diversity and Genetic Variation within a Collection of Onion (Allium cepa L. Germplasm from Peninsular India

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    Neelam Sunil, Vinod Kumar, Medagam Thirupathi Reddy, Venkateshwaran Kamala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three diverse germplasm lines collected from varying agro-ecological regions of Peninsular India during 2007-08 were characterized and evaluated along with three controls viz. Nasik Red, Light Red and White Marglobe, in an augmented block design during kharif 2009-10, at NBPGR Regional Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. The accessions exhibited good variation for qualitative traits like early seedling vigour, leaf cross section, leaf arrangement, stem shape, bulb shape, bulb skin color, bulb size, bulb hearting and bulb flesh colour and quantitative traits like plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf length, leaf girth, number of scales per bulb, total soluble solids (TSS (°Brix, bulb weight and bulb yield per plant. Correlation study revealed that high significant positive correlation was recorded between number of scales per bulb and bulb weight (r=0.71 and significant negative correlation was observed between leaf length and leaf girth (r= -0.88, leaf length and bolting (-0.63 among others. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the first four principal components explained 99.76% of the total variation among the 23 accessions and three controls. PCA I accounted for 97.04% of variation, had maximum influence on bulb weight followed by plant height. The PCA II traits were leaf length and plant height which accounted for 1.97 % of the variance. The PCA III and PCA IV have contributed for 0.39 and 0.39% of total variance. The cluster analysis revealed that dendrogram formed four distinct clusters and cluster III was found to be the largest including controls. The promising accessions for bulb weight were IC 571959, IC 564056, IC 571927, IC 571919 and IC 564059, which may be effectively tapped in sound breeding and conservation program.

  14. Powdery mildew of Allium species caused by Oidiopsis taurica in Brazil Oídio em espécies do gênero Allium, causado por Oidiopsis taurica, no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Oidiopsis taurica Salmon (Syn. Oidiopsis sicula Scalia was identified as the causal agent of a powdery mildew disease occurring on distinct Allium species in Brazil. This disease was initially observed in plastic house and field-grown garlic (Allium sativum and leek (A. porrum accessions in Brasília (Federal District and in field-grown and greenhouse onion (A. cepa cultivars in Belém do São Francisco (Pernambuco State and Brasília, respectively. Typical symptoms consisted of chlorotic areas on the leaf surface corresponding to a fungal colony. These lesions turned to a brownish color with the progress of the disease. Fungi morphology was similar to that described for O. taurica. Endophytic mycelium emerging through estomata, light pale conidia were dimorphic (lanceolate primary conidia and somewhat cylindrical secondary conidia, fibrosin bodies were absent, conidia formed predominantly single (not in chains, and appressoria were non-lobed. Its sexual stage, Leveillula taurica (Lev. Arnaud, was not observed. Inoculations were performed with the O. taurica isolates from distinct Allium hosts. These isolates were also pathogenic to sweet pepper and tomato, indicating an apparent absence of host specialization. One bunching onion (A. fistulosum accessions was not infected by O. taurica suggesting that this species might carry useful resistance alleles to this pathogen. This is the first formal report of a powdery mildew disease on species of the genus Allium in Brazil. This disease might become important on these vegetable crops especially in hot and dry areas such as those in the Central and Northeast regions of Brazil.O fungo Oidiopsis taurica Salmon (= Oidiopsis sicula Scalia foi identificado como sendo o agente causal de uma nova doença do tipo oídio em alho (Allium sativum, alho porró (A. porrum e cebola (A. cepa no Brasil. Esta doença foi observada tanto em condições de casa de vegetação quanto a campo em Brasília e Pernambuco. O

  15. Fumigant Toxicity of Crushed Bulbs of Two Allium Species to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Toxicidad Fumigante para Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabriciu (Coleoptera: Bruchidae de Bulbos Trozados de Especies Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I Ofuya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of crushed fresh bulbs of Allium sativum L. and A. cepa L. to the Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, a major pest of stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds was assessed under laboratory conditions in Akure, Nigeria. In the tests, 20 g of infested cowpea seeds were suspended in a piece of muslin cloth, over an amount of crushed bulb in a container with a tightly fitted lid. Adult emergence was completely prevented from freshly laid eggs of C. maculatus on cowpea seeds that was fumigated with 6.0 g or more of crushed bulbs of A. sativum. Such fumigated seeds were not holed at all. Other amounts of A. sativum tested (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. Crushed A. sativum was ineffective in preventing adult emergence from fumigated C. maculatus larvae in seeds. The fumigant effect of crushed A. cepa did not kill all C. maculatus eggs. An amount of 7.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. There is good prospect in using crushed bulbs of A. sativum> as fumigant in C. maculatus control in stored cowpea seeds.Se evaluó la toxicidad fumigante de bulbos frescos trozados de Allium sativum L. y A. cepa L. sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, una importante plaga de semilla almacenada de caupí Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bajo condiciones de laboratorio en Akure, Nigeria. En las pruebas, 20 g de semillas infestadas se suspendieron en un trozo de tela sobre cierta cantidad de bulbos trozados en un contenedor con una tapa ajustada. Se previno completamente la emergencia de adultos desde huevos recién puestos de C. maculatus en semillas de caupí que se fumigaron con 6,0 g o más de bulbos de A. sativum. Estas semillas fumigadas no estaban ahuecadas. Otras cantidades de A. sativum probadas (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 y 5.0 g redujeron

  16. Antioxidant Action and Therapeutic Efficacy of Allium sativum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Capasso

    2013-01-01

    Allium sativum (L.) is rich in antioxidants which help destroy free radicals particles that can damage cell membranes and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause over time. The antioxidant activity of fresh Allium sativum L. (garlic) is well known and is mainly due to unstable and irritating organ...

  17. Production of Fully Homozygous Genotypes from Various Edible Alliums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. ALAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Allium is a very large genus containing over 700 distinct species including the various edible onions, garlics, chives, and leeks. About a dozen of the species are economically important as crops or garden vegetables where as many others are cultivated as ornamental plants. Allium breeding programs generally take very long time with low success due to problems such as long life cycle, sterility, polyploidy, high levels of heterozygosity. Development of inbreed lines is a very difficult process due to severe inbreeding depression. Doubled haploid (DH techniques can be utilized to obtain fully homozygous Allium materials. In Alliums, gynogenesis is the major technique used to produce haploid and DH plants from unfertilized female gamets with reduced chromosome number. We are in the process of developing gynogenesis induction protocols for several edible Allium species. We showed that gynogenic embryos can be obtained from a wide range of Allium materials. About half of the gynogenic embryos continue to grow and become plantlets. In general, gynogenic plantlets are green, but some of them show chlorophyll abnomalities. Results obtained from flow cytometric analysis of nuclei isolated from gynogenic materials indicate that majority of the gynogenic Allium materials are haploid and DH plants. DH onion lines developed in our program are generally vigorous plants with high levels of fecundity. The seeds obtained from DH onions show high germination. Plants of DH onion lines grow uniformly and produce bulbs very uniform in size, shape, color and quality features. These DH lines are excellent inbreds to be used as male parents in the production of F1 hybrid onion lines. Success obtained in DH onion materials indicates that a similar approach can be applied in the breeding programs of other important Alliums.

  18. Production of Fully Homozygous Genotypes from Various Edible Alliums

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. ALAN; A. KASKA; F. CELEBI TOPRAK

    2014-01-01

    Allium is a very large genus containing over 700 distinct species including the various edible onions, garlics, chives, and leeks. About a dozen of the species are economically important as crops or garden vegetables where as many others are cultivated as ornamental plants. Allium breeding programs generally take very long time with low success due to problems such as long life cycle, sterility, polyploidy, high levels of heterozygosity. Development of inbreed lines is a very difficult proces...

  19. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kwon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2005-06-01

    Plant essential oils from 29 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with plant material, exposure time, and concentration. Good insecticidal activity against the Japanese termite was achived with essential oils of Melaleuca dissitiflora, Melaleuca uncinata, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus polybractea, Eucalyptus radiata, Eucalyptus dives, Eucalyptus globulus, Orixa japonica, Cinnamomum cassia, Allium cepa, Illicium verum, Evodia officinalis, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Cacalia roborowskii, Juniperus chinensis var. horizontalis, Juniperus chinensis var. kaizuka, clove bud, and garlic applied at 7.6 microL/L of air. Over 90% mortality after 3 days was achieved with O. japonica essential oil at 3.5 microL/L of air. E. citriodora, C. cassia, A. cepa, I. verum, S. tenuifolia, C. roborowskii, clove bud, and garlic oils at 3.5 microL/L of air were highly toxic 1 day after treatment. At 2.0 microL/L of air concentration, essential oils of I. verum, C. roborowskik, S. tenuifolia, A. cepa, clove bud, and garlic gave 100% mortality within 2 days of treatment. Clove bud and garlic oils showed the most potent antitermitic activity among the plant essential oils. Garlic and clove bud oils produced 100% mortality at 0.5 microL/L of air, but this decreased to 42 and 67% after 3 days of treatment at 0.25 microL/L of air, respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of three major compounds from garlic oil and two from clove bud oils. These five compounds from two essential oils were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied with compound and dose. Diallyl trisulfide was the most toxic, followed by diallyl disulfide, eugenol, diallyl sulfide, and beta-caryophyllene. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite

  20. AISLAMIENTO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE CEPAS DE Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoania Ríos Rocafull

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus es un microorganismo endófito que presenta, dentro de sus características, mecanismos directos e indirectos de estimulación del crecimiento vegetal. A pesar de sus grandes perspectivas para constituir el principio activo de un bioproducto de uso agrícola, en Cuba no existe ninguno elaborado a partir de esta especie bacteriana. El aislamiento de cepas del microorganismo y su caracterización constituyen pasos importantes para la obtención de un biopreparado, pues permiten la selección inicial de cepas que tengan características adecuadas para la estimulación del crecimiento. En la presente investigación se purificaron 85 aislados de microorganismos endófitos, a partir de los diferentes órganos de 24 especies vegetales. Cuatro de ellos fueron identificados como Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, al comparar sus características con las de cepas patrones de la especie bacteriana. Los microorganismos seleccionados provenían de frutos de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. y mango (Mangifera indica L., así como de tallos de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz. y remolacha (Beta vulgaris L.. Se destacó la presencia del microorganismo en los dos primeros cultivos para Cuba y el aislamiento en la guayaba a nivel internacional. Las cuatro cepas mostraron diferencias en su capacidad de solubilizar fósforo, producir ácido indol acético y en su actividad antagonista frente a Fusarium moniliforme y Fusarium incarnatum. Al agruparse las cepas por sus características, se diferenciaron los microorganismos provenientes de mango y remolacha, los que se consideran promisorios para realizar estudios en condiciones in vivo del efecto de su interacción con otros cultivos.

  1. CEPA - Changing of the guard and 1998 in review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-05-01

    Appointment of Celine Belanger as president of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) was announced, effective June 1, 1999. The occasion was also used to review the organisation`s activities during 1998/1999. During this period CEPA has led a number of initiatives that have established the Canadian pipeline industry as a world leader in operational safety and integrity. Major achievements included: developing the industry`s first set of recommended practices for managing stress corrosion cracking; collaborating with international groups in a $ 5.3 million U.S. research project aimed at developing a state-of-the-art internal inspection tool; creating the industry`s first database to record incidents and findings on stress corrosion cracking; evaluating new ways of streamlining existing economic and facility regulations to enable the industry to respond to increasing customer demand for flexible, low-cost, competitive transportation services; developing an enhanced Landowner Participation Process and mediation mechanism to provide the public with greater access to industry planning processes and to avoid the need for intervener funding legislation; providing input to the Alberta Special Places 2000 Project, and to the review of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and Endangered Species Protection legislation. CEPA also provided the federal government with valuable information about the effects of various climate change measures on the pipeline industry and the Canadian economy; presented a seminar at the Banff Centre for Management on relationship building with Aboriginal communities and Canada`s resource sector; and advised CEPA members on Y2K problems. True to its original mandate, CEPA also continued to promote greater understanding of the role played by Canada`s pipeline companies in the Canadian economy.

  2. Genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mayak PA was the first enterprise for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia and it incorporates uranium-graphite reactors for plutonium production and radiochemical facilities for its separation. Radiochemical processing resulted in huge volumes of liquid radioactive wastes of different specific activities. To reduce the radionuclides release into the environment, a system of bypasses and ponds (the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system) to store low-activity liquid wastes has been constructed in the upper reaches of the Techa River. Currently, industrial reservoirs of Mayak PA contain over 350 million m3 of low-level radioactive liquid wastes with total activity over 7.4 x 1015 Bq. Reservoir R-11 is the final reservoir in the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system. The average specific activity of main radionuclides in the water of R-11 are: 90Sr - 1.4x103 Bq/l; 137Cs - 3 Bq/l; 3H - 7x102 Bq/l; α-emitting radionuclides - 2.6 x 10-1 Bq/l. In our study the Allium-test was employed to estimate reservoir R-11 water genotoxic effects. In 2012, 3 water samples were collected in different parts of reservoir R-11. Water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (artificial reservoir on the Miass River designed for Chelyabinsk city water supply) were used as natural control. Samples of distilled and bottled water were used as an additional laboratory control. The common onion, Allium cepa L. (Stuttgarter Riesen) was used. Healthy equal-sized bulbs were soaked for 24 hours at +4±2 deg. C to synchronize cell division. The bulbs were maintained in distilled water at +23 deg. C until roots have grown up to 2±1 mm length and then plunged into water samples. Control samples remained in distilled and bottled water as well as in water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (natural control). Roots of the 18±3 mm length were randomly sampled and fixed in an alcohol/acetic acid mixture. For microscopic analysis, squashed slides of root tips meristem were dyed with aceto

  3. Genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukatich, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Geraskin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Mayak PA was the first enterprise for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia and it incorporates uranium-graphite reactors for plutonium production and radiochemical facilities for its separation. Radiochemical processing resulted in huge volumes of liquid radioactive wastes of different specific activities. To reduce the radionuclides release into the environment, a system of bypasses and ponds (the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system) to store low-activity liquid wastes has been constructed in the upper reaches of the Techa River. Currently, industrial reservoirs of Mayak PA contain over 350 million m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive liquid wastes with total activity over 7.4 x 10{sup 15} Bq. Reservoir R-11 is the final reservoir in the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system. The average specific activity of main radionuclides in the water of R-11 are: {sup 90}Sr - 1.4x10{sup 3} Bq/l; {sup 137}Cs - 3 Bq/l; {sup 3}H - 7x10{sup 2} Bq/l; α-emitting radionuclides - 2.6 x 10{sup -1} Bq/l. In our study the Allium-test was employed to estimate reservoir R-11 water genotoxic effects. In 2012, 3 water samples were collected in different parts of reservoir R-11. Water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (artificial reservoir on the Miass River designed for Chelyabinsk city water supply) were used as natural control. Samples of distilled and bottled water were used as an additional laboratory control. The common onion, Allium cepa L. (Stuttgarter Riesen) was used. Healthy equal-sized bulbs were soaked for 24 hours at +4±2 deg. C to synchronize cell division. The bulbs were maintained in distilled water at +23 deg. C until roots have grown up to 2±1 mm length and then plunged into water samples. Control samples remained in distilled and bottled water as well as in water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (natural control). Roots of the 18±3 mm length were randomly sampled and fixed in an alcohol/acetic acid mixture. For microscopic analysis, squashed

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: onion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=NS ...

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Allium ursinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Elena PÂRVU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate Allium ursinum leaves and flowers extract anti-inflammatory effect. Plant extract 1:1 (w:v was prepared from A. ursinum leaves by a modified Squibb repercolation method. The in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated on a rat turpentine oil-induced inflammation (i.m. 6 mL/kg BW. The animals were randomly assigned to nine groups (n=8: negative control, inflammation, A. ursinum flower extract (AUF, A. ursinum leaves extract (AUL, indomethacin (INDO (20 mg/kg BW, aminoguanidine (AG (50 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a selective NOS2 inhibitor, NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (NAME (5 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a nonselective NOS inhibitor, L-arginine (ARG (100 mg/kg b.w./d i.p., NO synthesis substrate, and Trolox (20 mg/kg b.w./d i.p as an antioxidant. At 24h from inflammation induction total oxidative status (TOS, oxidative stress index (OSI, nitric oxide (NOx and in vitro phagocytosis test were reduced and the total antioxidative reactivity (TAR was increased by the testes plant extracts. AUF had a better inhibitory effect than AUL. In conclusion, we provided evidence for the hypothesis that A. ursinum leaves and flowers extract exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the phagocytosis through the reduction of the nitro-oxidative stress.

  6. Fenoloxidasa Modificada: Clave para identificar cepas de Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Canelo D

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans es la única levadura patógena capaz de sintetizar pigmentos como la melanina mediante la actividad de su enzima llamada fenoloxidasa. El objetivo del presente estudio fue implementar y estandarizar la prueba de la fenoloxidasa, como técnica complementaria en la identificación de cepas de C. neoformans. Se estudiaron 21 cepas, identificadas previamente con métodos convencionales. La prueba de la fenoloxidasa fue modificada debido a que su empleo originaba 9,6% (2/21 de falsa negatividad. Esta prueba modificada se optimizó a 28°C a partir de un medio con baja concentración de glucosa. Ningún aislamiento falso negativo fue encontrado luego de repetir tres veces el ensayo, y el pigmento melanina fue detectado con mayor rapidez.

  7. CEPA and interrelationship between Chinese yuan and Hong Kong dollar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore the interrelated impacts of the economical communications between China and Hong Kong SAR, especially after the closer economic partnership arrangement (CEPA) and the Chinese yuan offshore financial business in Hong Kong banks in 2004, the exchange rates of the Chinese yuan and the Hong Kong dollar are investigated as well-performing market signals that should reflect this historical transformation. With vector autoregressive models (VAR), the Johansen cointegration test and the Granger ...

  8. Environmental emergency planning regulations under section 200 of CEPA, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The federal government is under pressure to adopt adequate emergency management programs which are in agreement with international standards and best practices to address incidents of any kind. It is expected that regulations will be put into effect in early 2003 by the federal government under section 200 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999 (CEPA 1999). These regulations would require the development and implementation of Environmental Emergency Plans covering 174 substances (with their associated thresholds) that could harm human health or environmental quality if released. Sixteen of the substances are already in the List of Toxic Substances under CEPA 1999 or proposed for addition to the List. As work is concluded on the assessment of the remaining CEPA toxics and other hazardous substances, amendments will be submitted to the regulations. The intent and development process of this regulation was reviewed by the author. The requirements for Canadian facilities that would be subjected to the proposed regulation concerning environmental emergency prevention, preparedness, response and recovery (PPRR) plans were also outlined. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Detección del virus del enanismo amarillo de la cebolla (OYDV y el virus latente común del ajo (GCLV en ajo (Allium sativum L costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Vannesa Guillén Watson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades virales son responsables de pérdidas importantes en el rendimiento del cultivo de ajo alrededor del mundo, ya que limitan su producción. En esta investigación se analizó material de ajo costarricense para determinar la incidencia de los virus: Garlic Common Latent Virus (GCLV y Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV, mediante la técnica DAS-ELISA, con el fin de conocer el estado fitosanitario del material criollo. Se utilizaron bulbos de campo de apariencia normal (N, normales con túnica amarilla (TA y con deformaciones (D; y hojas de campo normales (N, sintomáticas (S y con presencia de posibles vectores  virales (VT. Se analizaron vitroplantas producto de la introducción de ápices de 1,0 y 0,5cm de longitud procedentes de dientes normales (N y con túnica amarilla (TA; así como dos lotes de bulbillos obtenidos in vitro de introducciones de ápices de 1,0cm de largo a partir de bulbos de apariencia normal. Se encontró que el 33% de los bulbos de campo analizados para GCLV fueron positivos (TA, mientras que OYDV se detectó en el 100%, sin importar la apariencia. El 100% de las hojas fue positivo para GCLV, y para OYDV soloaquellas de apariencia normal (33%. El 100% de las vitroplantas no presentaron infección de GCLV, mientras que para OYDV solo las introducidas de ápices de 1,0cm provenientes de bulbos con túnica amarillenta no mostraron incidencia. Se determinó GCLV en el 100% de lasmuestras para ambos lotes de bulbificación in Vitro, y OYDV solo en el 50%. Se concluye que los virus OYDV y GCLV están presentes en el ajo costarricense y se detectaron mediante la técnica DASELISA, con una alta incidencia en el material local y con infección diferencial según el órgano analizado. Se recomienda combinar diversas metodologías junto con el cultivo de ápices in vitro, para obtener mayor eficacia en la limpieza viral, lo que contribuiría a incrementar el valor y potenciar el cultivo de la semilla local.

  10. Evidence for some prostaglandins in Allium sativum extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Nagdy, Sohair A.; Abdel-Rahman, M. O.; Heiba, H. I. [حلمي اسماعيل هيبة

    1988-01-01

    Homogenized garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) was extracted successively with organic solvents and the prostaglandin-rich fraction separated. Fractionation of the extract with column chromatography was performed. TLC of the extract indicated that prostaglandin like materials could be present. GC analysis detected prostaglandins A2 and F1? in the extract. This conclusion was confirmed by enrichment procedures using GC. Wiley Online Library

  11. Total phenolic levels in diverse garlics (Allium sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a specialty crop that is highly responsive to growth environment with respect to bulb size and coloration. Ten genetically diverse garlic cultivars were grown at twelve locations for two consecutive years. Soil characteristics and bulb phenotypic characters including ...

  12. Supplementation with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) expressing a single alien chromosome from shallot increases the antioxidant activity of Kamaboko fish jelly paste in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Wada, Ritsuko; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Maeda, Toshimichi; Date, Rie; Tokunaga, Takushi; Kazumura, Kimiko; Shimada, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Misato; Wako, Tadayuki; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-05-01

    Kamaboko is a traditional type of processed seafood made from fish jelly paste that is unique to Japan. We supplemented Kamaboko with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with an alien monosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) and we measured in vitro the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value, an index of antioxidant activity. We also evaluated the results of sensory testing. The ORAC value of plain Kamaboko was 166±14 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g fresh weight (FW). The values of the edible Alliaceae powder, i.e., Japanese bunching onion (JBO, genome FF, 2n=2x=16) and the alien addition line of JBO carrying the 6A chromosome from shallot (FF+6A, 2n=2x+1=17), were 6,659±238 and 14,096±635 μmol TE/100 g dry weight (DW). We hypothesized that the 6A chromosome encoded the enhancement of polyphenol production. Subsequently, we created Kamaboko containing 4.8% JBO powder or 4.8% FF+6A powder. The ORAC value of each modified Kamaboko product was increased to 376±24 μmol TE/100 g FW for the JBO powder and to 460±16 μmol TE/100 g FW for the FF+6A powder, respectively. We next created Kamaboko containing 9.0% JBO powder or 9.0% FF+6A powder and the ORAC values of the respective modified Kamaboko products was increased to 671±16 and 740±21 μmol TE/100 g FW, i.e., 4.1- and 4.5-times the value of plain Kamaboko. Consequently, taking into consideration the sensory evaluation regarding taste and appearance as well, the use of Kamaboko supplemented with 4.8% FF+6A powder is recommended. PMID:24648948

  13. Studies on the Analgesic Potential of leaf Extracts of Allium humile on Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kamini Singh; Raveesh Kumar Gangwar; Garima Singh; Vikash S. Jadon; Shashi Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Allium humile is a medicinal plant found at the Alpine Himalayas of Uttarakhand at altitute of 2500-3000 meters height of sea level. In India, Allium humile, is used by local people as a spice and in ethano-medicine. In the present study, Allium humile leaves were explored for their analgesic potential on experimental model and compared to standard drugs. Allium humile at the doses of 100 mg/kg and aspirin 25 mg/kg exhibited significant (p>0.05) inhibition of the control writhes at the rate o...

  14. Antioxidant Action and Therapeutic Efficacy of Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Capasso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum (L. is rich in antioxidants which help destroy free radicals particles that can damage cell membranes and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause over time. The antioxidant activity of fresh Allium sativum L. (garlic is well known and is mainly due to unstable and irritating organosulphur compounds. Fresh garlic extracted over a prolonged period (up to 20 months produces odourless aged garlic extract (AGE containing stable and water soluble organosulphur compounds that prevent oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals. The aim of this review was to understand the mechanism of antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of garlic.

  15. Antioxidant activity of ultrasonic extracts of leek Allium porrum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović Jelena D.; Mašković Pavle Z.; Pavlović Radoš M.; Radovanović Blaga C.; Aćamović-Đoković Gordana; Cvijović Milica S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity and efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the ultrasonic extracts of leek Allium porrum L. Ethanolic (50%; v/v) extracts of edible leek parts (stem and leaf) were prepared by ultrasound-assisted extraction, which was followed by evaluation of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Total phenols were determined using the modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by scavenging the stable free ...

  16. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Allium Ursinum in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    F Fallahi; M. Roghani; M Khalilzad

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Allium ursinum(AU) were investigated in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus, invitro. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control, AU-treated control, diabetic glibenclamide-treated, and AU-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozocin(STZ) was intraperitoneally administered(60 mg/Kg). AU-treated groups received AU mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 1% for 2 months. Serum glucose ...

  17. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER SLAVONIAN GARLIC (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Parađiković; Tomislav Vinković; Ivna Štolfa; Monika Tkalec; Elizabeta Has-Schön; Iva Andračić; Lea Parađiković; Jasna Kraljičak

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted on garlic (Allium sativum L.), have proved the presence of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, sulfur compounds and several vitamins. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the content of total phenols, ascorbic acid; total antioxidant activities of four winter Slavonian garlic cultivars, as well as establishment of correlations between these parameters. The total antioxidant activity and the content of ascorbic acid and total phenols in four cult...

  18. Garlic (Allium sativum L.): A review of potential therapeutic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae), one of the best-researched herbal remedies, is frequently used as a food and a spice. Garlic contains enzymes (e.g., allinase), sulphur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin). Conventionally, it has been used to treat infections, wounds, diarrhoea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes and many other disorders. Experimental studies have demonstrated that garlic exhibits antibacter...

  19. Antimycobacterial and antibacterial activity of Allium sativum bulbs

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, V.; Phadatare, A. G.; Alka Mukne

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various b...

  20. Investigaciones actuales del empleo de Allium sativum en medicina

    OpenAIRE

    Eslhey María Sánchez Dominguez; Sahily Rojas Pérez; Nilvia Norma Agüero Batista

    2016-01-01

    Desde tiempos ancestrales el ajo Allium sativum ha sido utilizado por sus propiedades medicinales, ampliamente conocidas. Posee múltiples efectos beneficiosos; tales como: antimicrobiano, hipolipidémico, antitrombótico, actividad antitumoral, antihipertensivo, entre otras. Los compuestos sulfurados presentes en el mismo, principalmente alicina y ajoene, constituyen los principios activos responsables de las actividades biológicas referidas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los ...

  1. Identification of Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Compounds from Allium gramineum Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Lasha Mskhiladze; David Chincharadze; Monique Tits; Jean-Noël Wauters; Akeila Bellahcène; Vincent Castronovo; Ange Mouithys-Mickalad; Thierry Franck; Michel Frédérich

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates the in vitro anticancer, antiplasmodial and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic crude extract from the flowers of Allium gramineum growing in Georgia and of one flavonol and two steroidal glycosides which were isolated from this plant. The flowers were extracted with ethanol and this total extract was subjected to successive bioguided fractionations to provide glycosides 1-3. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS spectrometric data in co...

  2. Allium vegetables and organosulfur compounds: do they help prevent cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    F. Bianchini; Vainio, H.

    2001-01-01

    Allium vegetables have been shown to have beneficial effects against several diseases, including cancer. Garlic, onions, leeks, and chives have been reported to protect against stomach and colorectal cancers, although evidence for a protective effect against cancer at other sites, including the breast, is still insufficient. The protective effect appears to be related to the presence of organosulfur compounds and mainly allyl derivatives, which inhibit carcinogenesis in the forestomach, esoph...

  3. Polyploid induction of Allium ascalonicum L. by colchicine

    OpenAIRE

    SUMINAH; SUTARNO; AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2002-01-01

    The low production rate of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) in Indonesia could be caused by rarely excellent cultivars. Colchicine was one of the mutation agents frequently used in plant breeding in order to get polyploidy of cultivars. The aim of this research was to find out the differentiation of morphometric evidences and ploidy of shallot chromosomes induced by colchicines 1%. Preparation was made by squash method and stained by acetocarmine. The results indicated that the amount, length ...

  4. Tolerance to heavymetals by hydroponically cultivated chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Makhmudova, M.; Barazani, O.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Golan-Goldhirsh, A.

    Pisa: CNR Research Campus, 2005. s. 49. [Phytotechnologies to promote sustainable land use and improve food safety . Scientific Workshop and Management Committee Meeting /1./. 14.06.2005-16.06.2005, Pisa] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/04/0135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : heavy metals * Allium schoenoprasum L. * uptake Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  5. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do alho (Allium sativum Liliaceae e de seu extrato aquoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do alho (Allium sativum Liliaceae, in natura, e do extrato aquoso, frente à Candida albicans (Ca e a Estreptococos do grupo B (EGB. O alho in natura e os extratos aquosos 30% e 170%, foram submetidos à avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana usando os métodos de Difusão em Ágar pela técnica do disco e do poço. Os resultados mostraram que o alho, in natura, apresentou halo de inibição de 55,3 ± 2,6 milímetros (mm frente a Ca e de 27,1 ± 2,6 mm frente à EGB, enquanto o halo de inibição do miconazol foi de 24 ± 0,5 mm e o da Penicilina G de 29,8 ± 0,3 mm. O extrato aquoso de alho a 30% não apresentou atividade antimicrobiana frente à Ca e à EGB Já o extrato aquoso de alho a 170% apresentou halo de inibição frente a Ca, de 11,3 ± 0,7 mm na técnica do disco e de 14,5 ± 0,9 mm na técnica do poço, porém não inibiu o crescimento da EGB Conclui-se que o alho in natura apresentou melhor efeito inibitório frente às cepas de Ca e de EGB

  6. Aislamiento e identificación de patógenos de la estirpe silvestre del ajo (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Astorga-Quirós

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del ajo (Allium sativum L. en Costa Rica se podría convertir en una alternativa rentable para la producción y diversificación de los agricultores de hortalizas. Sin embargo, el tipo de reproducción vegetativa que presenta facilita la transmisión y diseminación de enfermedades, lo que provoca un debilitamiento progresivo de los bulbos. Actualmente, se buscan alternativas de manejo diferentes al control químico, para disminuir el impacto ecológico y ambiental de los patógenos que lo afectan. El control biológico es una de ellas, pero presenta dificultades para el aislamiento y la identificación certera de patógenos asociados a pudriciones que se dan en el suelo. Por lo anterior, el objetivo general de esta investigación consistió en aislar e identificar a nivel de especie cepas de Pseudomonas marginalis, Penicillium sp. y Sclerotium cepivorum a partir de material vegetativo de ajo en campo, para su utilización en futuros trabajos de control biológico de estas enfermedades. La metodología seguida permitió aislar e identificar con un alto porcentaje de certeza a P. marginalis, así como obtener cultivos monospóricos de Penicillium sp. y cultivos puros de S. cepivorum. Las técnicas descritas constituyen la base para futuros trabajos relacionados con las fitopatologías en el cultivo del ajo.

  7. Resistance to Penicillium allii in accessions from a National Plant Germplasm System Allium collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accessions of Allium sativum (garlic), A. ampeloprasum (elephant garlic) and A. acuminatum, A. aflatunense, A. atroviolaceum, A. canadense, A. longicuspis, A. moly, A. ponticum, A. roseum, A. scorodoprasum, A. senescens, A. stipitatum, and Allium sp. (wild or ornamental species) were screened for re...

  8. Tubulin cytoskeleton during microsporogenesis in the male-sterile genotype of Allium sativum and fertile Allium ampeloprasum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Tchórzewska, Dorota; Deryło, Kamil; Błaszczyk, Lidia; Winiarczyk, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Key message Microsporogenesis in garlic. Abstract The male-sterile Allium sativum (garlic) reproduces exclusively in the vegetative mode, and anthropogenic factors seem to be the cause of the loss of sexual reproduction capability. There are many different hypotheses concerning the causes of male sterility in A. sativum; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been comprehensively elucidated. Numerous attempts have been undertaken to understand the causes of male sterility...

  9. Tracking Environmental Crime Through CEPA: Canada's Environment Cops or Industry's Best Friend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April L. Girard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines shifts in the regulation and governance of environmental crime over the twenty-year period since the passage of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA in 1988, tracing its history, policies, and enforcement record from 1989–2008. Documents assessed include Environment Canada’s enforcement data, Annual Reports, reports on its Plans and Priorities,the Senate and House of Commons five-year reviews of CEPA 1988 and CEPA 1999 and the government’s response to these reviews. The purpose of the paperis to document the process and compromises that have shaped federal environmental protection, and explore the policy paralysis this has produced.

  10. Cepas nativas del bacterioneuston marino y su actividad inhibitoria de bacterias ictiopatógenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En la literatura científica, las bacterias marinas han sido consideradas con frecuencia como productores de sustancias antibacterianas. En este estudio, se investigó el potencial de actividad antibiótica in vitro de cepas nativas de bacterioneuston marino aisladas de las pozas intermareales de Montemar, Bahía de Valparaiso, Chile. Se aislaron 71 cepas neustónicas antagonistas a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 11632. Veinticinco de ellas, productoras de sustancias fuertemente inhibitorias, fueron evaluadas por su antagonismo frente a una colección de 15 bacterias ictiopatógenas. Aplicando métodos clásicos para bacterias marinas, se caracterizaron fenotípicamente orientados a la identificación. Los resultados de antibiosis indican que la totalidad cle las ictiopatógenas en prueba son susceptibles a la actividad inhibitoria de las cepas neustónicas, siendo V anguillarum NCMB 2133, V ordalii 84/2559 y V tubiashii EX1 las más sensibles. Entre las cepas aisladas del neuston se identificaron miembros de los géneros Vibrio spp. (28%, Flavobacterium spp. (12%, Alteromonas-Marinomonas (12%, Pseudomonas spp (8% y Micrococcus spp, (4%. Nueve cepas (36% no fueron identificadas. Los resultados de actividades inhibitorias frente a ictiopatógenos sugieren que dichas cepas o sus productos pudieran ser útiles en actividades de cultivos intensivos de maricultura de peces, moluscos y crustáceos.

  11. Compatibilidad entre nueve cepas de Biomphalaria glabrata de áreas endémicas y no endémicas y una cepa de Schistosoma mansoni venezolanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Luz A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se infectaron experimentalmente 9 lotes de 32 caracoles B. glabrata (de 5 a 7mm de diámetro con miracidios de la cepa C5 de Schistosoma mansoni a razón de 5 miracidios por caracol, pertenecientes a las siguientes cepas: En el área endémica de transmisión de Esquistosomiasis mansoni a Sector Puerta Negra, Lago Valencia, b Cagua c Ingenio Bolívar (Estado Aragua d Mariara e Caserío El 25 f Güigüe (Estado Carabobo. Fuera del área endémica de transmisión g Anzoátegui (Estado Lara, h Chabasquén (Estado Portuguesa, i Sector La Elvira, Caripe (Estado Monagas. El período prepatente intramolusco, osciló entre 23 y 25 días, para las 9 cepas evaluadas. La duración total de la infección fue muy variable desde 20 días para la cepa Chabasquén, hasta 93 días para la de Güigüe.La producción total promedio de cercarias al tercer día de iniciada la emisión varió desde X = 74,4 para la cepa de Mariara, hasta X = 591,7 para la cepa de Chabasquén. Se evidenció la existencia de diferencias estadísticamente significativas (H = 97,4, P < 0,05 en la producción total de cercarias al tercer día de iniciada la emisión, detectándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas para casi todas las 36 combinaciones, excepto para las cuatro siguientes: Mariara/Ingenio Bolívar, Cagua/Caserío El 25, Lago de Valencia/Güigüe y Güigüe/Caripe.En lo que respecta al porcentaje de caracoles que presentaron cura espontánea, los valores mas elevados se obtuvieron en las cepas del Lago de Valencia (88,8%, Cagua (85,2%, Chabasquén (82,6%, Caripe (82,6% y Anzoátegui (80%. Mientras que el porcentaje mas bajo se obtuvo para la cepa de Güigüe (21,4%.

  12. Polyploid induction of Allium ascalonicum L. by colchicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUMINAH

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The low production rate of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L. in Indonesia could be caused by rarely excellent cultivars. Colchicine was one of the mutation agents frequently used in plant breeding in order to get polyploidy of cultivars. The aim of this research was to find out the differentiation of morphometric evidences and ploidy of shallot chromosomes induced by colchicines 1%. Preparation was made by squash method and stained by acetocarmine. The results indicated that the amount, length and shape of chromosomes altered by the application of the agent. The polyploids produced could be grouped into tetraploids, pentaploids, hexaploids, octaploids, and nonaploids.

  13. Infectividad de Metarhizium anisopliae en contra de cepas de garrapata Boophilus microplus sensible y resistente a los organofosforados

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Fernández-Ruvalcaba; Elyes Zhioua; Zeferino García-Vázquez

    2005-01-01

    La infectividad del hongo entomopatogénico Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) fue probada en contra de una cepa de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) sensible, y otra resistente a los organofosforados, por medio de un ensayo in vitro con hembras ingurgitadas de B. microplus recién desprendidas del bovino, utilizando la cepa ECS1 de M. anisopliae. El micromiceto M. anisopliae demostró ser altamente infectivo, tanto para la cepa sensible como para la resistente a los organofosforados a la conc...

  14. Presencia de Virus en el Cultivo de Ajo (Allium sativum L.) en Zacatecas, México

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Velásquez-Valle; Yasmín Ileana Chew-Madinaveitia; Mario Domingo Amador-Ramírez; Manuel Reveles-Hernández

    2010-01-01

    El cultivo del ajo en Zacatecas, México se enfrenta a diversas enfermedades como las provocadas por virus. Acerca de este tipo de enfermedades existe poca información en el estado, consecuentemente, el objetivo del trabajo consistió en identificar los virus presentes en las parcelas comerciales o experimentales de ajo en Zacatecas. Durante los ciclos 2007 - 2008 y 2008 - 2009 se identificaron el Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV, virus del enanismo amarillo de la cebolla), Garlic common latent v...

  15. Herança de coloração de bulbos em cebola (Allium cepa L.) com resistência a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Inheritace of bulb color in onion (Alllum cepa L.) resitant to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    OpenAIRE

    A.I.I. Cardoso; P.T. Della Vecchia; L.P. Faria

    1995-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a herança de coloração de bulbos de cebola a partir do cruzamento de bulbos brancos com resistência a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Mal de 7 voltas) segregantes da população Roxa do Barreiro com bulbos amarelos de linhagens endogâmicas obtidas das variedades Super Precoce e Pira Ouro. Para tal obtiveram-se as gerações F1 e F2 entre (Super Precoce x Barreiro "Branca") e entre (Pira Ouro x Barreiro "Branca"). Nas gerações F1 obtiveram-se apenas bulbos ...

  16. Bio-indication-based estimates as an integral part of the environment quality assessment on an example of allium-test application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human nuclear and industrial activities can substantially increase environmental exposure levels. Concerns about the damaging effect of ionizing radiation have led to the establishment of radioprotection norms by ICRP and national regulatory authorities. A great deal of research has been carried out to specify and justify constraints for radionuclide discharges and safety levels, and regulatory decision making strategies are still an important topic for radiation protection of the environment and the public. Contamination of territories through human civil and military activities such as nuclear facilities operation, mining, nuclear weapon testing involves, however, a complex impact so that a mixture of radionuclides is often supplemented by other potentially hazardous substances (e.g. heavy or alkali metals). There is still a large lack of knowledge on actual hazard of such combined contamination and a need to fill the gap between an acquisition of spectrum and levels of environmental pollutants to possible adverse effects to biota and human health. A study was aimed at developing a complex approach for the environment health assessment integrating information on contaminants levels registered with routine techniques and bio indication-based estimates of adverse effects of their combination.Findings from two studies carried out in sites with different scenarios of long-term impact caused by human industrial activity are presented. In both studies, samples of water and/or soil were taken, and their cyto- and genotoxicity was tested with Allium cepa plant system to assess a hazardous potential of complex contamination.The present work and our previous investigations (Evseeva et al., 2005; Geraskin et al., 2005) demonstrate that an adequate environment quality assessment cannot relies only on information about pollutants concentrations. Unfortunately, limited lists of toxicants are adopted to control the levels of man-made stress to the environment. Furthermore

  17. Bio-indication-based estimates as an integral part of the environment quality assessment on an example of allium-test application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Dikarev, V.; Dikareva, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Michalik, B.; Chalupnik, S.; Wysocka, M. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland); Evseeva, T. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Kozmin, G. [State Technical University of Atomic Energy, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Human nuclear and industrial activities can substantially increase environmental exposure levels. Concerns about the damaging effect of ionizing radiation have led to the establishment of radioprotection norms by ICRP and national regulatory authorities. A great deal of research has been carried out to specify and justify constraints for radionuclide discharges and safety levels, and regulatory decision making strategies are still an important topic for radiation protection of the environment and the public. Contamination of territories through human civil and military activities such as nuclear facilities operation, mining, nuclear weapon testing involves, however, a complex impact so that a mixture of radionuclides is often supplemented by other potentially hazardous substances (e.g. heavy or alkali metals). There is still a large lack of knowledge on actual hazard of such combined contamination and a need to fill the gap between an acquisition of spectrum and levels of environmental pollutants to possible adverse effects to biota and human health. A study was aimed at developing a complex approach for the environment health assessment integrating information on contaminants levels registered with routine techniques and bio indication-based estimates of adverse effects of their combination.Findings from two studies carried out in sites with different scenarios of long-term impact caused by human industrial activity are presented. In both studies, samples of water and/or soil were taken, and their cyto- and genotoxicity was tested with Allium cepa plant system to assess a hazardous potential of complex contamination.The present work and our previous investigations (Evseeva et al., 2005; Geraskin et al., 2005) demonstrate that an adequate environment quality assessment cannot relies only on information about pollutants concentrations. Unfortunately, limited lists of toxicants are adopted to control the levels of man-made stress to the environment. Furthermore

  18. Effect of sowing dates and planting density on the infestation of onion maggot (Delia alliaria fonseca) in onion (Allium cepa L.) crops

    OpenAIRE

    Feryal B. Hermize

    2015-01-01

    Onion maggot (Delia alliaria Fonseca) is an important pest of onion in Iraq, it is responsible for causing serious quantitative and qualitative losses to the onion crops. Nursery and field studies were conducted at college of Agriculture, Abu Ghraib, Iraq to evaluate the effects of sowing date and plant density on onion infestation with onion maggot. Onion seeds were sowing in nursery at three dates viz 5th & 20th September and 3rd October, 2010 with two plants density i.e. 10seed...

  19. Treatment Effects of Onion (Allium cepa) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Sexual Behavior of Rat after Inducing an Antiepileptic Drug (lamotrigine)

    OpenAIRE

    Khaki, Arash; Farnam, Alireza; Badie, Arash Davatgar; Nikniaz, Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial degree of sexual behavior in male rats after inducement of onion and ginger in lamotrigine receiving groups. Material and Methods: Wistar rats (n=70) (male=35, female=35) were allocated so that males were divided into seven groups: control (n=5) and test groups (n=35). Control group used normal Saline (3 cc for each rat). Lamotrigine group were given Lamotrigine (10 mg/kg). Onion group used onion fresh juice (3 ...

  20. Effect of sowing dates and planting density on the infestation of onion maggot (Delia alliaria fonseca in onion (Allium cepa L. crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feryal B. Hermize

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Onion maggot (Delia alliaria Fonseca is an important pest of onion in Iraq, it is responsible for causing serious quantitative and qualitative losses to the onion crops. Nursery and field studies were conducted at college of Agriculture, Abu Ghraib, Iraq to evaluate the effects of sowing date and plant density on onion infestation with onion maggot. Onion seeds were sowing in nursery at three dates viz 5th & 20th September and 3rd October, 2010 with two plants density i.e. 10seed/2m² and 15 seeds /2m². From Nursery, the plants were transplanted to the field at three dates viz 14th & 24th December, 2010 and 3rd January, 2011 with two density i.e. 10seed/2m² and 15 seeds /2m2 with 10 cm and 6 cm plant spacing. Result of the study showed that the lowest infestation of onion maggot was manifested at the lower plants density and first date of cultivation at both nursery and field level. At nursery level 6.16, 6.83 and 7.50 % infestation was reported for three dates of showing respectively at 10g seeds / 2 m² while this infestation was 8.61, 7.50 and 11.5 % respectively for the three sowing dates at 15 g/2 m² densities. Similar types of results were reported in the field study but with slightly higher infestation, here 8.81, 12.54 and 14.04 % infestation was reported on the three plantings dates at 10 cm plant spacing respectively while this infestation was much higher 12.13, 16.81 and 19.04 % respectively for three sowing dates on the 6 cm plant spacing. Higher yield was obtained from the plants of the 1st date of sowing for both the plant densities with best quality. The mean bulb weights were 252.90, 228.30 and 172.00g for the plants growing at 10 cm spacing while this weights was 213.5 , 167.0 and 153.7 g for the plants growing at 6 cm spacing for all the three dates of cultivation respectively. Results of the study revealed that cultivation onion at early date with suitable spaces between the plants may be promising to manage the infestation with onion maggot

  1. Effects of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Extract Administration on Intestinal α-Glucosidases Activities and Spikes in Postprandial Blood Glucose Levels in SD Rats Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sun-Ho Kim; Sung-Hoon Jo; Young-In Kwon; Jae-Kwan Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibi...

  2. Changes in flavonoids of sliced and fried yellow onions (allium cepa L. var. zittauer) during storage at different atmospheric, temperature and light conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islek, Merve; Nilufer-Erdil, Dilara; Knuthsen, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoid changes in sliced and fried onions which were packed and stored at different atmospheric conditions (air, nitrogen and vacuum), temperatures (ambient, +5 and -18C) and light (dark or light) were investigated. Flavonoids were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and analyzed...

  3. 洋葱单倍体培养研究进展%Research Progress in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Haploid Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰江; 缪军; 王伟; 张中宁; 杨妍妍; 张一卉; 吴雄

    2010-01-01

    从雄核发育和雌核发育途径介绍了诱导洋葱单倍体的方法,对影响雌核发育途径诱导单倍体频率的因素进行了讨论,同时对再生植株的倍性鉴定方法和染色体加倍技术做了概述,并对洋葱单倍体的应用前景进行了展望.

  4. Effects of water soluble oncostatic fraction from Rheum officinale Baill. rhizomes on Allium cepa root meristem. II. Meristem length and mitotic activity distribution

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dawidowicz-Grzegorzewska

    2015-01-01

    Incubation in 5 and 12.5 per cent extract from Rheum officinale rhizomes causes disturbance of the dynamic equilibrium between the number of dividing cells and the number of those passing to the elongation zone. The zone of meristematic cells is shortened to 2/3 and the zone of mitoses to 1/2 after 24-h incubation in 5 per cent extract. 12-h incubation in 12.5 per cent extract does not reduce the zone of meristematic cells, although it shortens the mitosis zone to 1/5. This suggests that a hi...

  5. Evaluation Effects of Different Planting Systems on Water Use Efficiency, Relative Water Content and some Plant Growth Parameters in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa IZADKHAH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different sowing methods on water use efficiency, relative water content and some vegetative growth parameters of onion a study was carried out in the Agriculturalr research Center of East Azarbayjan in 2007-2008 cropping season. The experiment was a factorial by using the randomized complete block design with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The first factor was consistting of two sowing methods, dirct sowing (DS and the transplanting method (TM, the second factor was including two onion cultivars �Azarshahr� (red hull and later maturing and �Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan� (bright-red, early maturing. Analysis of variance for the measured traits indicated that except for the relative water content (RWC, other traits were significant influenced by the sowing methods. TM had higher values of water use efficiency (WUE, bulbing ratio (BR, aerial leaves length (ALL, leaf area (LA, leaf area index (LAI, leaves dry weight (LDW, leaves fresh weight (LFW and leaves saturation weight (LSW than the DS methods. Maximum WUE (6.07 kg m3 and minimum WU (9381 m3 ha-1 were obtained in TM. However, the lowest WUE (4.19 kg m3 and the highest WU (115921 m3 ha-1 was obtained with DS. In other words, in TM water economizing was 1.5 tim, amount of yield was increased up 15% (in comparison with DS. Also among the cultivars except for the RWC, WUE and BR other traits were significantly. The sowing method x cultivar interaction were not significant. For the studied traits, TM and red �Azarshahr� cv. were better than the DS and �Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan�, thus thy were identified the best treatments for experiment therefore it is recommended for the places with the same environmental conditions of this experiment.

  6. Transmission of Pantoea ananatis and P. agglomerans, causal agents of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) through feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, B; Barman, A K; Srinivasan, R; Avci, U; Ullman, D E; Langston, D B; Gitaitis, R D

    2014-08-01

    Frankliniella fusca, the tobacco thrips, has been shown to acquire and transmit Pantoea ananatis, one of the causal agents of the center rot of onion. Although Thrips tabaci, the onion thrips, is a common pest of onions, its role as a vector of P. ananatis has been unknown. The bacterium, P. agglomerans, is also associated with the center rot of onion, but its transmission by thrips has not been previously investigated. In this study, we investigated the relationship of T. tabaci with P. ananatis and P. agglomerans. Surface-sterilized T. tabaci were provided with various acquisition access periods (AAP) on onion leaves inoculated with either P. ananatis or P. agglomerans. A positive exponential relationship was observed between thrips AAP duration and P. ananatis (R² = 0.967; P = 0.023) or P. agglomerans acquisition (R² = 0.958; P = 0.017). Transmission experiments conducted with T. tabaci adults indicated that 70% of the seedlings developed center rot symptoms 15 days after inoculation. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to P. ananatis revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut of T. tabaci adults. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates alone produced center rot but not with salivary secretions. Together these results suggested that T. tabaci could efficiently transmit P. ananatis and P. agglomerans. PMID:24548212

  7. CEPA calculations on open-shell molecules. Pt. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab initio calculations at SCF and CEPA levels using large Gaussian basis sets have been performed for the two lowest electronic states, X2Σ+ and A2Π, of HeAr+. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects have been added using a semiempirical treatment. The resulting potential curves for the three states X, A1, and A2 have been used to evaluate molecular constants such as vibrational intervals ΔG(υ+1/2) and rotational constants Bυ as well as - by means of a Dunham expansion - equilibrium constants such as Re, ωe, Be etc. Comparison with the experimental data from UV emission spectroscopy shows that the calculated potential curves are slightly too shallow and have too large equilibrium distances: De=242 cm-1 and Re=2.66 A compared to the experimental values of 262 cm-1 and 2.585 A, respectively, for the X2Σ+ ground state. However, the ab initio calculations yield more bound vibrational levels than observed experimentally and allow for a more complete Dunham analysis, in particular for the A2 state. The experimental value of 154 cm-1 for the dissociation energy De of this state is certainly too low; our best estimate is 180±5 cm-1. For the A1 state our calculations are predictions since this state has not yet been observed experimentally. (orig.)

  8. Biological effects of 12C6+ heavy ions irradiation on Allium fistulosum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study biological effects of 12C6+ heavy ions irradiation on Allium fistulosum L., the dry seeds were treated by 12C6+ heavy ion beam with different doses. Obvious 'parabola' trends were observed in the characteristics of germination rate and height of Allium fistulosum L. seedling when irradiated doses increased. With irradiation of an appropriate dose of 12C6+ heavy ion beam, 30Gy, the germination rate of Allium fistulosum L. is increased and the seedlings can resist drought and lodging, and grow better than the control. At the same time, the formation frequency of micronucleus and chromosomal aberration were surveyed in root-tip cells. The highest formation frequency of micronucleus and chromosomal aberration treated with 180Gy could reach to 9.09% and 10.03% respectively. This study laid the basis for further work on breeding and improvement of Allium fistulosum L. irradiated by 12C6+ heavy ion beam. (authors)

  9. IDENTIFICACIÓN PRELIMINAR IN VITRO DE PROPIEDADES PROBIÓTICAS EN CEPAS DE S. cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Poutou P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar preliminarmente in vitro algunas propiedades probióticas de dos cepas nativas de S.cerevisiae. Materiales y métodos. Las cepas fueron utilizadas en ensayos de tolerancia a sales biliares, pH, temperatura, adherencia a Salmonella spp., E.coli y Shigella spp., y antagonismo. Se realizó un diseño factorial 33 x 3, con tres niveles de cada factor (cepa, pH y concentración inicial de sustrato por triplicado, para establecer las condiciones de cultivo de cada cepa. Como control se empleó una cepa comercial (B. La cepa seleccionada se empleó para la producción en biorreactor de 2L; la biomasa fue sometida a secado por temperatura; al producto resultante se le determinó concentración de N2 y la viabilidad celular. Resultados. La cepa A (obtenida de caña de azúcar, toleró pH 3 ± 0.2, 0.3% (p/v de sales biliares y 42oC. El ANOVA del diseño factorial reportó diferencias significativas entre los 27 ensayos (p£0.05, el análisis de superficies reportó que la interacción entre los factores cepa y Sustrato (S0 son significativos, sugiriendo para la optimización la cepa A y concentraciones crecientes de S0. Los resultados se reprodujeron en biorreactor con mx 0.31h-1, td 2.18h y Y(x/s 0.126g/g; la biomasa seca obtenida fue viable y reportó entre 6.3 y 6.9% N2/g. Conclusiones. Se identificaron levaduras nativas con propiedades probióticas como tolerancia a pH, sales biliares, temperatura y adherencia a Salmonella spp., E.coli y Shigella spp.

  10. Effect of Media on Gynogenesis Induction in Leek (allium ampeloprasum L.) Breeding Materials

    OpenAIRE

    A. KASKA; F. CELEBI TOPRAK; A. R. ALAN

    2014-01-01

    Leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.) is one of the economically important members of the genus Allium (family:Alliaceae). It is a self-compatible, outbreeding, tetraploid (2n=4X= 32) crop species that is very difficult to improve through traditional breeding strategies. Entegration of doubled haploid (DH) techniques such as gynogenesis into the leek breeding programs may speed up the variety development. In order to optimize a gynogenesis induction protocol for leek, we carried out experiments by cu...

  11. Histo-Anatomical Studies in Allium saxatile, a Specie with Ornamental Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia DRAGHIA; Lăcrămioara IVĂNESCU; Elena-Liliana CHELARIU; Monica BOSCAIU; Nicoleta Luminiţa PARASCHIV

    2013-01-01

    The current paper presents some characteristics of the anatomy of vegetative organs (adventive root and leaf) of Allium saxatile M. Bieb., a species rare in the Romanian flora, which have not been described before in the literature. Histo-anatomical studies performed on Allium saxatile plants sampled from three local populations identified in the Dobrogea area, complete already existing data from other species of this genus, and represent the beginning of future studies on ecological anatomy,...

  12. Preclinical Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Deodelsy Bermúdez Toledo:; María Boffill Cárdenas; Emoe Betancourt Morgado; Raylen Escobar Román; Ignacio Igualada Correa; Bennia Alonso Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Background: finding natural treatments designed to protect the liver from the damaging effects of hepatotoxins is an important topic in medical and pharmaceutical research. Objective: to pre-clinically evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. in an animal model of acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Methods: a preclinical pharmacological study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium ...

  13. Protective Effect of Allium sativum against Liver Injury Induced by Anti-Tubercular Drugs in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, B; A.M. Wudil

    2012-01-01

    Allium sativum has been reported to have a lot of therapeutic potentials such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial and hypocholesterolemic. This study has investigated its effect on anti-tubercular drugs hepatotoxicity. Wistar albino rats were pretreated and co-administered orally with aqueous solution of Allium sativum. Eighteen rats were divided into six groups of three rats each. Group 1 were normal, while Group 2 were test control administered with anti-tubercular drugs; isoniazid (27 mg/kg...

  14. The organisation and evolution of a repeated DNA sequence family in related Allium species

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Ian Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    A large proportion of the genomes of species belonging to the genus Allium comprises repetitive sequence DNA, a component implicated as a cause of the large variation in C-values between even closely related species. The work presented here represents part of the first phase in the characterisation of some of these repetitive sequences in a number of Allium species. One repetitive DNA sequence family, BIOOO, isolated from the genome of A. sativum, has been characterised with respect to the...

  15. Aislamiento e identificación de una cepa de levadura con efecto killer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La Colección de Microorganismos ICIDCA brinda, entre otros, servicios de aislamiento, identificación y guardería de cepas de interés industrial. La carencia de sistemas de enfriamientos en la mayoría de las destilerías cubanas y las elevadas temperaturas impuestas por nuestro clima tropical, aumentan el interés por la utilización de cepas de naturaleza termófila, de mayor viabilidad bajo estas condiciones. Se aisló, a partir de un cultivo de cachaza a 50 °C, una cepa de levadura termófila identificada como Saccharomyces cerevisiae la cual fue nombrada XI. Se realizaron corridas, a escala de banco, para la producción de etanol a partir de miel clarificada con la cepa aislada. Se obtuvieron valores de 5.4 y 5.0 % de etanol, rendimientos del 43.5 y 42 % y eficiencia de 67.4 y 65.0 %, a 37 y 40 °C respectivamente. Estos resultados se comparan con los reportados por nuestras destilerías. Otro aspecto importante que presenta esta cepa es el carácter killer, factor que puede ser de interés en la fermentación alcohólica ya que impediría el desarrollo de microorganismos no deseados en dicho proceso.

  16. Protective effect of allium sativum ethanol extract on cultured human lymphocytes against electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radioprotective agent has been the subject of intense research because exposure to ionizing radiation causes DNA damage which may cause mutation and ultimately leads to cancer, on the other hand radiotherapy has become an integral part in treatment of cancer which uses ionizing radiations like X rays, gamma rays to kill the cancer cells. Amifostine is a well-known radioprotector which is clinically approved. There are many other radioprotectors like cysteine, cystamine, serotine but they are not used because of its normal tissue toxicity. Allium sativum is commonly known as garlic which has already been reported for its medicinal properties. In this study we evaluated radioprotection property of Allium sativum on DNA damage caused by electron beam radiation in cultured human lymphocytes. Allium sativum ethanol extract was used for this study. Cell viability was performed by MTT assay. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The cultured lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations 10, 50 and 100 μg/mL of Allium sativum extracts for 2, 4, 6 and 24 hour time intervals. Treatment of lymphocytes with various concentration of Allium sativum extract resulted in significant decrease in the level of DNA damage (Percentage tail DNA 6%) and increase in cell viability 93% (p>0.05) compare to the radiation control group. Results of this study revealed that Allium sativum protects cultured lymphocytes when exposed to electron beam radiation at its sub lethal dose. (author)

  17. A descriptive mutagenicity assessment of tretinoin in Allium sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is primarily designed to assess the mutagenicity of tretinoin by applying the Allium test. Furthermore, it has the following objectives: to evaluate the macroscopic abnormalities caused by tretinoin based on root length and root form parameters; to investigate whether tretinoin can induce aberrances in cell division such as the formation of micronucleus, anaphase bridges, early anaphase, C-metaphase, sticky chromosome, stretched chromosome, vagrant chromosome and precocious chromosome; to determine the variation in the aberrations in the different concentration of tretinoin. Procedure: eight hundred equal-sized garlic bulbs were immersed in various concentrations of tretinoin and in tap water as control. These were divided into two groups. Six hundred bulbs were evaluated for macroscopic parameters while the remaining two hundred bulbs were fixed for microscopic observations. The Allium test set-ups were placed in the plant laboratory of UP-Manila. The were harvested on the third and on the fifth day. The fixed roots were examined in the Cytogenetics Laboratory of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The data gathered for macroscopic parameter was statistically tested using Complete Randomized Design and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference. The microscopic abnormalities were determined descriptively for every concentration. Findings: analysis of macroscopic and microscopic parameters showed that: according to the analyses of variances, the number of roots, the root length and the number of root forms such as straight, bent, bulbous and tapered were not equal in all concentrations. However, the difference in the number of curled roots was not significant.; the root length distinctly showed the toxicity effect of tretinoin. The growth or the length of roots decreases as the tretinoin concentration increases; the mitotic abnormalities observed in the garlic cells include micronucleus, anaphase bridges, early anaphase. C-metaphase, sticky

  18. Biodegradación de DDT por dos cepas nativas de hongos de la podredumbre blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmel Domínguez

    2010-01-01

    Trametes maxima MUCL 44155, las cuales producen elevados niveles de las enzimas lacasa y MnP en el medio Kimura suplementado con diferentes concentraciones de DDT (5, 10 and 15 mg.L-1. El hecho de que nuestras cepas excreten estas enzimas es un resultado importante dado que las mismas presentan una estrecha relación con la degradación de DDT. La cromatografía gaseosa realizada a las muestras de DDT tratadas con ambas cepas confirmó la transformación del DDT y la aparición de productos de degradación en el tratamiento con la cepa B-18.

  19. Enterotoxigenicidade de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes pontos do fluxograma de abate bovino

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Júnior O.D.; Amaral L.A.; Nader Filho A; Schocken-Iturrino R.P.

    2001-01-01

    Com o objetivo de verificar a capacidade enterotoxigênica de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes produtos e locais no fluxograma de abate bovino, foram testadas 102 cepas (18 da espécie A. hydrophila, 65 da espécie A. caviae e 19 atípicas) ante os testes de inoculação intragástrica em camundongo lactente e em alça intestinal ligada de coelho. Revelaram-se como produtoras de enterotoxinas três (16,7%) cepas da espécie A. hydrophila, originárias das mãos do manipulador antes que ele i...

  20. Utilization of Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) for inulinase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Algur, Omer Faruk

    2015-08-18

    Inulinase production by Rhodotorula glutinis was carried out in this study, using leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) as an alternative carbon source due to its high inulin content and easy availability. Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE) was used to optimize fermentation conditions. For this purpose, five influential factors (leek concentration, pH, incubation temperature, agitation speed, and fermentation time) related to inulinase production were selected at four convenient levels. The results showed that maximum inulinase activity was obtained as 30.89 U/mL, which was close to the predicted result (30.24 U/mL). To validate the obtained results, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed. Consequently, leek has a great potential as an effective and economical carbon source for inulinase production, and the use of Taguchi DOE enhanced enzyme activity about 2.87-fold when compared with the unoptimized condition. PMID:25036570

  1. Activity of selected hydrolytic enzymes in Allium sativum L. anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Gębura, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine enzymatic activity in sterile Allium sativum anthers in the final stages of male gametophyte development (the stages of tetrads and free microspores). The analysed enzymes were shown to occur in the form of numerous isoforms. In the tetrad stage, esterase activity was predominant, which was manifested by the greater number of isoforms of the enzyme. In turn, in the microspore stage, higher numbers of isoforms of acid phosphatases and proteases were detected. The development of sterile pollen grains in garlic is associated with a high level of protease and acid phosphatase activity and lower level of esterase activities in the anther locule. Probably this is the first description of the enzymes activity (ACPH, EST, PRO) in the consecutives stages of cell wall formation which is considered to be one of the causes of male sterility in flowering plant. PMID:26901781

  2. Garlic (Allium sativum L.: A review of potential therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae, one of the best-researched herbal remedies, is frequently used as a food and a spice. Garlic contains enzymes (e.g., allinase, sulphur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin. Conventionally, it has been used to treat infections, wounds, diarrhoea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes and many other disorders. Experimental studies have demonstrated that garlic exhibits antibacterial, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, antilipidaemic, anticarcinogenic, immunostimulant and hypoglycaemic properties. Clinically, garlic has been investigated for a variety of indications, namely, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic reviews are available for the possible antilipidaemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.

  3. In vitro micropropagation of chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Lubomski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on micropropagation of Allium schoenoprasum embraced shoot formation from cultured shoot tips, shoot multiplication, root formations, and cold storage of rooted plants. All explants were cultured on modified Murashige-Skoog medium. Surface disinfection of shoots derived from stock plants was not necessary to obtain no infection culture. The highest shoot multiplication was obtained on medium with 20 g l-1 sucrose and 1.0 mg 1-1 6-benzylo-arninopurine (BA. Root formation was observed in both indoleacetic acid (IAA and indolebutyric acid (IBA. Rooted plants were successfully kept in cold storage (5°C ± 1°C darkness. Only 20% of plants died after 6 months of storage.

  4. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3. PMID:23179713

  5. Evaluación en modelos animales de cepas vivas atenuadas de vibrio cholerae O139

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talena Ledón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available CRC3222 y CRC3241 son mutantes mshA derivados de una cepa salvaje de Vibrio cholerae O139, estos fueron obtenidos mediante una serie de modificaciones genéticas que incluyó la deleción de los genes del fago CTXfi. Dichos clones además están marcados con el gen heterólogo celA, el cual se insertó en el locus de hapA. Estudios previos han demostrado que estas cepas poseen características adecuadas para ser empleadas como vacunas vivas contra cólera; la virulencia y capacidad colonizadora de CRC3222 y CRC3241 fueron estudiadas en el modelo de ratón lactante. En este trabajo se evalúa su desempeño en el modelo de conejo adulto, el cual se utilizó para estudiar el potencial inmunogénico de estas cepas. Luego de la inoculación intraduodenal con una simple dosis de 109 UFC de CRC3222, CRC3241 y sus cepas parentales, se determinó tanto el título de anticuerpos IgG anti-LPS O139, como el de anticuerpos con actividad vibriocida presentes en el suero de los conejos inmunizados. Estos estudios indicaron que ambas cepas generaron una buena respuesta inmune, ya que se detectó un incremento de más de cuatro veces en los títulos de anticuerpos bactericidas de todos los conejos vacunados, con relación al suero pre-inmune. No se detectaron diferencias significativas en la respuesta de los mutantes mshA, con relación a sus cepas parentales, independientemente de su fenotipo de motilidad. Este experimento demostró que CRC3222 y CRC3241 son potenciales candidatos vacunales contra la infección con Vibrio cholerae O139.

  6. The cepa project: a new model for community-based program planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, D; Apostol, E; Balfour, D; Claudio, C; Marinoff, J; O'Hare, N; Rodriguez, M; Santiago, C

    1993-01-01

    The article describes a new model of community-based program planning developed by the Centro de Educacion, Prevencion y Accion (CEPA) project, an HIV prevention program for Puerto Ricans located in Holyoke, Massachusetts. Based on models of critical thinking, empowerment and participatory education, the basic philosophy of the CEPA project is to narrow the gap between program developers and program recipients to the greatest extent possible. The article discusses the successes and challenges encountered in approaching this ideal. The article concludes with recommendations for public health professionals considering the use of community-based approaches to address public health issues. PMID:20841236

  7. ОЦЕНКА ЧУВСТВИТЕЛЬНОСТИ ALLIUM СЕРА И LEPIDIUM SATIVUM С ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕМ КСЕНОБИОТИКОВ АДАМАНТАНОВОГО РЯДА

    OpenAIRE

    Шутова, Юлия

    2010-01-01

    В данной статье проанализирована сравнительная чувствительность двух растительных тест-объектов: Allium cepa и Lepidium sativum по оценке токсического воздействия ксенобиотиков адамантанового ряда. Выявлено, что Allium cepa является более предпочтительным тест-объектом для оценки токсичности антропогенных ксенобиотиков....

  8. Establishing an efficient explant superficial sterilization protocol for in vitro micropropagation of bear’s garlic (Allium ursinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska-Sowa Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Allium ursinum L. has a commercial value due to its high contents of bio-active compounds and mild, garlic-like taste. In vitro culture played an important role in obtaining Allium species with the desired characteristics and in the production of healthy reproductive material.

  9. Indicadores fisiológicos de la respuesta al estrés en cepas Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcholeras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno de tolerancia cruzada en levaduras se ha propuesto como indicador fisiológico útil en estudios de selección de cepas S. cerevisiae para la obtención de etanol. Se evalúa para cinco cepas de esta especie la relación entre resistencia a H2O2 3,2 M y a presiones hidrostáticas de 200 MPa durante 30 minutos y la actividad enzimática alcohol deshidrogenasa (ADH en presencia de etanol y glucosa. Solo el mutante auxótrofo XA3-1 no muestra un crecimiento apreciable ante el estrés oxidativo. Su cepa salvaje A3 es la única capaz de crecer hasta la mayor dilución a altas presiones hidrostáticas. Las cepas CM y 373 muestran patrones similares de actividad ADH en presencia de glucosa o etanol, mientras que las cepas A3 y su mutante presentan niveles de ADH superiores en presencia de 5% (v/v de etanol. Los resultados indican una estrecha vinculación entre la resistencia a estreses no necesariamente propios de la fermentación alcohólica y el comportamiento fermentativo en cepas S. cerevisiae, lo cual abre la posibilidad de emplear estos criterios para estudios de selección de cepas alcoholeras dirigidos a futuras estrategias de mejoramiento genético.

  10. Preclinical Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodelsy Bermúdez Toledo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: finding natural treatments designed to protect the liver from the damaging effects of hepatotoxins is an important topic in medical and pharmaceutical research. Objective: to pre-clinically evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. in an animal model of acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Methods: a preclinical pharmacological study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. against acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Adult male NMRI mice were used. They were orally administered soft extracts of the plants at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg for three consecutive days before inducing hepatotoxicity. Clinical signs of toxicity and hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated; in addition, the morphological analysis of the liver was performed. Results: the biochemical parameters showed highly significant differences, but only three groups had results similar to the untreated control group. No macroscopic changes in the liver were confirmed. Microscopically, the absence of histopathological changes prevailed in the groups treated with Ocimum basilicum L. at both doses and Allium sativum L. at 200mg/kg; slight damage was observed by administering 400mg/kg of Allium sativum L., with significant differences from the untreated control group. Conclusions: soft extracts of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. at a dose of 200mg/kg have greater hepatoprotective activity against the toxic action of acetaminophen.

  11. Resistencia a penicilina G y oxacilina, de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus aisladas de mastitis bovina subclínica

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Zschöck; Amr El-Sayed; Nawara Eissa; Christoph Lämmler; Hugo Castañeda-Vazquez

    2011-01-01

    De 530 diferentes cepas de S. aureus aisladas de casos de mastitis subclínica bovina, se seleccionaron 68 cepas de S. aureus procedentes de Alemania (n = 26), Indonesia (n = 16), México (n = 16) y Brasil (n = 10), para estudiarlas en la presente investigación. Las cepas fueron analizadas fenotípica y genotípicamente para observar su resistencia a penicilina G y oxacilina. Para una identificación inicial se utilizó el sistema Api 32 Staph y la prueba de coagulasa. El resultado se confirmó por ...

  12. Identificación de la cepa vacunal Brucella abortus S19 en muestras de leche de vaca

    OpenAIRE

    Luary Carolina Martínez Chavarría; Antonio Verdugo Rodríguez; Rigoberto Hernández Castro

    2006-01-01

    La brucelosis es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa de origen bacteriano que afecta tanto al humano como a diferentes especies animales domésticas y silvestres. En la década pasada, la vacuna que se usaba ampliamente en los bovinos era la cepa vacunal B. abortus S19, que tiene una deleción en dos de los genes del operón ery que participa en el catabolismo del eritritol. En México, desde 1997 se aprobó la cepa B. abortus RB51 como vacuna para el ganado. Esta cepa presenta una secuencia de inserc...

  13. Alternativas de control en la pudrición radical de cebolla para el Valle de la Trinidad, Baja California Control Alternatives for Onion root rot in the Trinity Valley, Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Pulido-Herrera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La pudrición radical en cebolla es la enfermedad más importante en el Valle de la Trinidad, Baja California, México. Con el propósito de evaluar estrategias de control para la enfermedad se realizaron tres experimentos durante 2007, 2008 y 2009. En el experimento I (2007 los tratamientos fueron: 1 Tiofanato metílico; 2 Smicobac (Trichoderma + Bacillus sp. + Azospirillum sp. + Pseudomonas sp.; 3 estiércol de bovino (EB; 4 residuos de cebolla (RC; 5 solarización plástico transparente (SPT, 6 solarización plástico negro (SPN; 7 SPT + EB; 8 SPT + RC; 9 SPN + EB; 10 SPN + RC; 11 Trichodef (Trichoderma harzianum;y 12testigo. En el experimento II (2008, los tratamientos fueron los mismos excepto el tratamiento 2, sustituido porprotector (extractos vegetales; y en el experimento III (2009 los tratamientos fueron: 1 SPT + estiércol de ovino (EO; 2 SPN + EO; 3 SPT; 4 SPN; 5 control biológico (Trichoderma spp.; y 6 control químico (2- (tiocianometiltio benzotiazol 30%. Los resultados indicaron que los tratamientos solarización plástico transparente con o sin enmiendas orgánicas, presentaron incrementos significativos (p≤ 0.05 de 22 a 34% en el rendimiento y diámetro del bulbo con respecto al control biológico y químico; sin embargo, en estos dos últimos tratamientos la incidencia y severidad se redujo significativamente (p≤ 0.05, por lo que la solarización con plástico transparente y el control biológico, son alternativas viables para el control de la pudrición radical en cultivos de cebolla en Baja California, México.Onion's root rot is the most important disease in the Trinidad Valle, Baja California, Mexico. In orderto evaluate strategies to control this disease, three experiments were conducted during 2007, 2008 and 2009. In experiment I (2007 the treatments were: 1 Thiophanate methyl; 2 Smicobac (Trichoderma+Bacillus sp. + Azospirillum sp. + Pseudomonas sp.; 3 cattle manure (EB; 4 waste of onion (RC; 5 clear plastic

  14. Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados y organofosforados en el cultivo de cebolla en la depresión de Quíbor, Venezuela Residues of organochlorines and organophosphorus pesticides in onion crop in Quibor depression, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Francis

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se evaluó el manejo de plaguicidas y la acumulación de residuos organoclorados (OC y organofosforados (OF en cebolla cultivada en sistemas de producción que utilizaron control químico de plagas en la depresión de Quíbor, estado Lara, Venezuela. Se seleccionaron tres sistemas representativos y se realizó un seguimiento durante el ciclo de cultivo para conocer el manejo de los plaguicidas empleados. Posteriormente, se recolectaron muestras de la cebolla cosechada para consumo y se analizaron mediante cromatografía de gases para determinar la presencia de residuos de OC y OF. Los resultados indican que en todos los sistemas se registró una prevalencia del uso de fungicidas sobre otros tipos de plaguicidas, así como el uso de insecticidas OC y OF altamente tóxicos, y sobredosificación y alto número de aplicaciones. En dos de los sistemas de producción evaluados se detectaron residuos del herbicida OC butaclor en un rango de 0,86 a 1,80 mg·kg-1, valores considerados inaceptables. Se encontraron residuos del insecticida OF clorpirifos con valores promedio de 0,01 a 0,02 mg·kg-1 en los tres sistemas, aunque no superaron los límites máximos establecidos por la FAO y la EPA. En uno de los sistemas se detectaron 0,02 mg·kg-1 de residuos del insecticida dimetoato, aunque también por debajo de los límites máximos según FAO. En el estudio se concluye que existe una relación entre el uso inadecuado de plaguicidas y la acumulación de residuos en el cultivo de cebollaABSTRACT The accumulation in onion crops of organophosphorus (OF and organochlorines (OC pesticide residues in production systems that used pest chemical control in Quíbor Depression, Lara State, Venezuela, was evaluated. Three representative onion production systems were selected, registering all types of pesticides used during the crop cycle. At the end of crop cycle, samples of onion were taken and analyzed by gas chromatography to determinate levels of OF and

  15. Histo-Anatomical Studies in Allium saxatile, a Specie with Ornamental Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia DRAGHIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents some characteristics of the anatomy of vegetative organs (adventive root and leaf of Allium saxatile M. Bieb., a species rare in the Romanian flora, which have not been described before in the literature. Histo-anatomical studies performed on Allium saxatile plants sampled from three local populations identified in the Dobrogea area, complete already existing data from other species of this genus, and represent the beginning of future studies on ecological anatomy, taxonomy and ex situ conservation strategies. Some of the obtained results confirm data from literature, but additional observations have been made that show features not reported previously for any specie of the Allium genus, such as the presence of colenchymatized cells in the internal mesophyll at the lamina level; or the presence, at sheath level, of epidermal cells with uniformly lignified and thick walls.

  16. Wild Allium species (Alliaceae used in folk medicine of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbonova Parvina A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto available sources from literature mentioned several wild growing Allium species as "edible" or "medicinally used" but without any further specification. Methods New data were gained during recent research missions: Allium plants were collected and shown to the local population which was asked for names and usage of these plants. Results Information was collected about current medical applications of sixteen wild species, nine of which belong to different sections of Allium subgenus Melanocrommyum. These plants are used against headache, cold, and stomach problems, and are mostly applied fresh or after boiling. Conclusion Close taxonomic relatives of the common onion were used similar to cultivated onion species, but medical use like garlic was mostly reported for species taxonomically not related to garlic.

  17. Analysis of Chromosome Number in Some Allium and Silene Wild Species with Ornamental Use

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    Lucia DRAGHIA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyses the number of somatic chromosomes in plant species with ornamental value, in Romanian indigenous flora, Allium (A. flavum L., A. saxatile Bieb. and Silene (S. compacta Fischer., S. supina M.Bieb.. The biological material was identified and harvested in the South-Eastern part of Dobrogea (Tulcea and Constanţa counties, area in the South-Eastern part of Romania, situated between the Danube and the Black Sea. Individuals from two populations of Allium flavum and Allium saxatile, respectively from Tulcea county (Turcoaia town and Constanţa county (from Cheile Dobrogei were analyzed. In the case of Silene compacta and Silene supina, plants of one population in Tulcea county, Turcoaia town, were used. The aim of the analysis was the quantification and comparison of the somatic chromosomes of plants from the same species but different populations, as is the case of the two Allium species, but also to relate them to results from specialty literature, reported by others. The chromosome number was determined in the roots of the small plants that were obtained from seeds collected in their natural habitat. Except the case of Silene supina species, where only diploid forms were identified (2n=24, when in specific literature tetraploid forms are mentioned (2n=48, found in other areas, all other analyzed taxa register similar data to that reported in other geographic regions. Respectively, 2n= 16 in the case of Allium flavum and Allium saxatile and 2n= 24 in the case of Silene compacta.

  18. Antioxidant activity of ultrasonic extracts of leek Allium porrum L.

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    Mladenović Jelena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity and efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the ultrasonic extracts of leek Allium porrum L. Ethanolic (50%; v/v extracts of edible leek parts (stem and leaf were prepared by ultrasound-assisted extraction, which was followed by evaluation of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Total phenols were determined using the modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by scavenging the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. The results of antioxidant activity were compared with control antioxidants: vitamin C and BHT. The higher content of phenols (69.46 mg GAE/g dry extract and flavonoids (33.53 mg CE/g dry extract was found in the ethanolic extract of leek stem. The measured values of IC50 were 98.90 g/ml and 61.05 g/ml for the ethanolic extract of leek leaf and stem, respectively.

  19. Antimycobacterial and antibacterial activity of Allium sativum bulbs

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    V. Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. Studies on the mitotic chromosome scaffold of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJIAN; SHAOBOJIN; 等

    1995-01-01

    An argentophilic structure is present in the metaphase chromosomes of garlic(Allium sativum),Cytochemical studies indicate that the main component of the structure is non-histone proteins(NHPs).The results of light and electron microscopic observations reveal that the chromosme NHP scaffold is a network which is composed of fibres and granules and distributed throughout the chromosomes.In the NHP network,there are many condensed regions that are connected by redlatively looser regions.The distribution of the condensed regions varies in individual chromosomes.In some of the chromosomes the condensed regions are lognitudinally situsted in the central part of a chromatid while in others these regions appear as coillike transverse bands.At early metaphase.scaffolds of the sister chromatids of a chromosome are linked to each other in the centromeric region,meanwhile,they are connected by scafold materials along the whole length of the chromosome.At late metaphase,however,the connective scaffold materials between the two sister chromatids disappear gradually and the chromatids begin to separate from one another at their ends.but the chromatids are linked together in the centromeric region until anaphase.This connection seems to be related to the special structure of the NHP scaffold formed in the centromeric region.The morphological features and dynamic changes of the chromosome scaffold are discussed.

  1. Investigaciones actuales del empleo de Allium sativum en medicina

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    Eslhey María Sánchez Dominguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Desde tiempos ancestrales el ajo Allium sativum ha sido utilizado por sus propiedades medicinales, ampliamente conocidas. Posee múltiples efectos beneficiosos; tales como: antimicrobiano, hipolipidémico, antitrombótico, actividad antitumoral, antihipertensivo, entre otras. Los compuestos sulfurados presentes en el mismo, principalmente alicina y ajoene, constituyen los principios activos responsables de las actividades biológicas referidas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed, específicamente Ebsco, PubMed, Hinari y SciELO, a través de los cuales se accedieron a las bases de datos: Medline, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews y MedicLatina, para revisar el estado actual de las investigaciones del ajo en medicina. Existen evidencias científicas que avalan su uso, comprobando los efectos antes referidos. En los últimos años predominan artículos que se centran en el estudio de diferentes formulaciones del ajo: extracto añejo, extracto acuoso, aceite, ajo crudo. En algunas de las referencias consultadas se reconocen limitaciones metodológicas en estas investigaciones. Es consenso que las diferentes formulaciones elaboradas a partir el ajo deben utilizarse como tratamiento complementario.

  2. Cytogenetics of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in vitro culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants obtained from the culture of meristem tips, flower heads and/or basal plates showed no deviations in phenotype and chromosome number. Regenerants from meristem culture comprised solid tetraploids alongside diploids and mixoploids after colchicine treatment. Karyological instability was observed in the course of callus induction and long-term culture. Polyploid cells originated de novo in the in vitro culture. The final chromosomal constitution was dependent on the genotype of the donor plant, the type of the initial explant and the hormonal composition of the nutrient media. Garlic plants regenerated via callus cultures were phenotypically and karyologically variable, but even some regenerants with the unchanged karyotype showed differences in the phenotype. The nutrient medium induced neither mitotic aberrations in the Allium test nor point mutations in the Tradescantia test. The method of differential staining of sister chromatids in callus cells represents a novel approach to the study of in vitro plant genome instability. Higher sister-chromatid exchange frequencies and different cell-replication patterns in garlic callus were observed as compared to the intact meristem. (author)

  3. Uji Efek Repellent Nabati Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium sativum L.) Terhadap Tikus Putih Jantan Galur Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Hutagaol, Yanti

    2016-01-01

    Repellent is a substance used as a repellent or insect or other pest deterrent. Repellent is one part of the pesticide.Pesticides are chemical substances used to kill or control pests. In fact, the use of chemical pesticides that are not rational cause negative effects in terms of the environment, especially in terms of human health. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a natural substance that has many benefits and rewards. Bulb of garlic (Allium sativum L.) contain substances that are toxic to ins...

  4. Efecto de la inoculación en maíz con cepas nativas de Azospirillum sp

    OpenAIRE

    L. Villa-Castro; N Mayek-Pérez; J. G. García-Olivares; J. L. Hernández-Mendoza

    2014-01-01

    En condiciones de invernadero se evaluó el efecto de tres cepas de Azospirillum sp (Patrón 9, IPN-33, IPN-35) aisladas de suelos cultivados con sorgo, en el norte de Tamaulipas; en el crecimiento de híbridos de maíz (30P49® y 30F52®). Las cepas de Azospirillum mostraron efectos diferentes en la producción de biomasa, así como también el testigo. La cepa Patrón 9 incrementó significativamente el peso seco de la planta. Dicha cepa, Patrón 9, muestra potencial para utilizarse como inoculante en ...

  5. Produtividade e armazenamento de cebola (Allium cepa L. submetida a doses de nitrogênio e potássio via fertirrigação em cultivo de verão Yield and storage of onion (Allium cepa L. submitted to nitrogen and potassium levels through fertirrigation in summer planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Milanez de Resende

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no período de agosto de 2001 a março de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de doses de nitrogênio (N e potássio (K aplicadas via fertirrigação sobre o rendimento e armazenamento da cebola. Utilizou-se a cultivar Alfa Tropical, no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 3, compreendendo quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 60, 120 e 180 kg/ha e três doses de potássio (0, 90 e 180 kg/ha de K2O, com três repetições. A produtividade comercial apresentou efeito linear quando se aplicou 90,0 kg/ha de K2O e efeitos quadráticos na ausência da adubação potássica com máxima produtividade na dose de 96,5 kg/ha e mínima produtividade na dose de 136,5 kg/ha de nitrogênio na dose de 180,0 kg/ha de K2O. O incremento das doses de N reduziu a produtividade não comercial (refugos de forma linear. A massa fresca dos bulbos evidenciou efeitos lineares com o incremento das doses de N. Não se constataram efeitos significativos aos 40 dias, após cura, para perda de massa, evidenciando-se efeito significativo apenas aos 80 dias, após cura, com a aplicação de N e K.This study was carried out from August 2001 to March 2002 to evaluate the influence of nitrogen (N and potassium (K levels through fertirrigation on yield and post-harvest storage of onion bulbs. Cultivar Alfa Tropical was used in a randomized complete block design, in a 4 x 3 factorial arrangement, with four nitrogen levels (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg/ha and three potassium levels (0, 90, and 180 kg/ha K2O with three replications. The commercial yield showed linear effect in the doses of 90 kg/ha K2O and quadratic effect in the absence of potassium fertilization, with maximum yield with the level of 96.5 kg/ha nitrogen and minimum yield with the level of 136.5 kg/ha nitrogen with the dose of 180 kg/ha K2O. The increment of the levels of N reduced the non-commercial yield (culls in a linear way. Linear effects were observed with the increase of N doses for bulb fresh mass. There were no significant effects at 40 days of curing for mass loss, however, at 80 days of curing, significant effect was evidenced with the application of N and K.

  6. Avaliação de herbicidas aplicados em pré e pós-emergência na cultura da cebola (Allium cepa L. Herbicides applied in pre and pos-emergence on transplanted onion crop (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Ferreira

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos em áreas de agricultores do Projeto de Irrigação de Bebedouro, no município de Petrolina, PE, dois experimentos de campo, onde estudouse o comportamento de diferentes herbicidas, no controle de plantas daninhas e na tolerância da cultura da cebola transpl antada. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso com três repetições, em um Latossolo Amarelo, fase arenosa, com baixos teores de argila e matéria orgânica. No experimento I aplicaram- se oxadiazon 1,00, pentimethalin 1,25 e napropamide 1,50 kg/ha em pré-emergência, dois dias após o transplante; oxifluorfen 0,24 e 0,48 kg/ha em pós-emergência precoce, dez dias após o transplante; oxadiazon 1,00, oxadiazon 1,00 + sulfato de amônio 5,00, bentazon 0,72, acifluorfen sódico 0,32, dinoseb acetato 1,50, sethodydim 0,23, alloxydim-sodium 1,12, diclofop -metil 0,72 e bentazon 0,72 + sethoxydim 0,23 kg/ha em pós -emergência, 14 dias após o transplante. No experimento II aplicaram-se oxadiazon 1,00, oxifluorfen 0,48 e 0,96 napropamide 1,50 e 3,00 kg/ha, aos dois dias após o transplante; oxifluorfen 0,48 e 0,96, bentazon 0,72 e 1,44, acifluorfen sódico 0,27 e 0,54, dinoseb acetato 1,50 3,00 e bentazon 0,72 + sethoxydim 0,23 kg/ha , aos 14 dias após o transplante. Em avaliações realizadas aos 20 e34 dias após o transplante da cultura, respectivamente nos experimentos I e II, constataramse altos índices de controle da comunidade daninha pelos herbicidas oxadiazon e oxifluorfen. Entre os outros tratamentos, destacaram-se o acifluorfen sódico no controle de folhas largas e sethoxydim, alloxydim, napropamide, pendi methalin e a mistura bentazon + sethoxyadim no controle de gramíneas.No experimento II, dinoseb acetato e principal mente napropamide afetaram o desenvolvimento da cultu ra e comprometeram a produtividade.Two field experiments were carried out in grower's fields of the Bebedouro Irrigation Project, in Petrolina, PE, in order to study the performance of several herbicides in controlling weeds on transplanted onion crop and the crop tolerance. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications, in a sandy red -yellow Latosol, of low clay and organic matter values. In the experiment I, oxadiazon (1.00 kg/h a, pent imethalin (1.25 kg/h a and napropamide (1.50 kg/ ha were applied in pre -emergence, two days aft er transplanting; oxyfluorfen (0.24 and 0.48 kg/h a in early post emergence, ten days after transplanting; oxadiazon (1.00 kg/ha, oxadiazon (1.00 kg/h a + ammonium sulphat e (5.00 kg/h a, bentazon (0,72 kg/h a, acifluorfen-sodium (0.32 kg/h a, dinoseb acetate (1.50 kg/h a, setoxydim (0.23 kg/ ha, alloxydim -sodium (1.12kg/ha , diclofop-methyl (0.72 kg/h a , and bentazon (0.72 kg/ha + sethoxydim (0.23 kg/h a, 14 days after transplanting. In the experiment II, oxadiazon (1.00 kg/h a, oxyfluorfen (0.48 and 0.96 kg/h a, and napropamide (1.50 and 3,00 kg/h a were applied two days after transplanting; oxyf luorfen (0.48 and 0.96 kg/h a, bentazon (0.72 and 1.44 kg/h a, acifluorfen-sodium (0.27 and 0.54 kg/h a, dinoseb acetate (1.50 and 3.00 kg/h a, and bentazon (0.72 kg/h a + sethoxydim (0.23 kg/h a, 14 days after transplanting. In evaluations made 20 and 34 days after transplanting, respectively in the experiment I and II, high levels of weed control by oxadiazon and oxyflurfen herbicides were observed. Among other treat ments, acifluorfen -sodium was outs tanding in controlling broad leave weeds and sethoxydin, alloxydim-sodium, napropamide, pendimethalin and bentazon + sethoxydim mixture in grass control. In experiment II, dinoseb and mainly napropamide affected the develop ment of the onion crop and caused yield reductions.

  7. Avaliação de herbicidas aplicados em pré e pós-emergência na cultura da cebola (Allium cepa L.) Herbicides applied in pre and pos-emergence on transplanted onion crop (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Foram conduzidos em áreas de agricultores do Projeto de Irrigação de Bebedouro, no município de Petrolina, PE, dois experimentos de campo, onde estudouse o comportamento de diferentes herbicidas, no controle de plantas daninhas e na tolerância da cultura da cebola transpl antada. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso com três repetições, em um Latossolo Amarelo, fase arenosa, com baixos teores de argila e matéria orgânica. No experimento I aplicaram- se oxadiazon 1,00, pentimet...

  8. Pruebas de sensibilidad frente a agentes antimicrobianos en cepas de brachyspira pilosicoli aisladas a partir de ponedoras comerciales en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Mira, Diana Marcela; Pulido Landinez, Martha; Figueroa Ramìrez, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Las espiroquetas intestinales del género Brachyspira ocasionan enfermedades importantes en porcinos y aves. Se ha evidenciado un problema de incremento en la presentación de cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos utilizados normalmente para tratar las espiroquetosis intestinales en porcinos, y esto podría ser aplicable a los aislamientos de aves. Hay muy pocos reportes de sensibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de cepas de Brachyspira spp. Aisladas en aves. En este estudio se evaluó la sensibil...

  9. Prevalência de sorotipos e resistência antimicrobiana de cepas invasivas do Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantese Orlando C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil de sorotipos e a susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae obtidas em espécimes clínicos de pacientes com doença invasiva, bem como suas implicações na formulação de vacinas pneumocócicas. MÉTODOS: Cepas de pneumococo isoladas no Laboratório de Análises Clínicas do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia a partir de amostras clínicas de pacientes com doença invasiva foram identificadas e enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo para confirmação da identificação, sorotipagem e determinação da susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: De abril de 1999 a março de 2003, foram isoladas 148 cepas invasivas de pneumococo, sendo 84 (56,7% provenientes de pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade variou de um dia a 88,83 anos, com média de 21,33+25,82 anos e mediana de 4,42 anos. Os diagnósticos clínicos mais comuns foram pneumonia (91 casos; 61,4%, meningite (32 casos; 21,6% e bacteremia sem foco evidente (15 casos; 10,1%. As principais fontes de recuperação foram sangue (76 amostras; 51,3%, líquido pleural (39; 26,3% e liquor (30; 20,2%. No total, foram identificados 23 diferentes sorotipos entre 143 amostras testadas, sendo os mais comuns os seguintes: 14, 3, 1, 5, 6A, 6B e 18C. Dentre 30 (20,2% cepas oxacilina-resistentes, 23 (15,5% confirmaram a resistência à penicilina (12,8% com nível intermediário e 2,7%, com nível pleno, que esteve restrita aos sorotipos 14, 23F, 19A e 6B, predominando em indivíduos com até dois anos de idade (p = 0,0008. Foi detectada susceptibilidade diminuída ao cotrimoxazol (63,4%, à eritromicina (8,3%, à clindamicina (8,7% e à ofloxacina (0,8%. A resistência à cefotaxima foi detectada em três das 30 cepas testadas (2% das 148, todas elas com resistência confirmada à penicilina. Não foi observada resistência a cloranfenicol, rifampicina ou vancomicina. CONCLUSÕES: A resistência

  10. Identification of Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Compounds from Allium gramineum Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasha Mskhiladze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the in vitro anticancer, antiplasmodial and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic crude extract from the flowers of Allium gramineum growing in Georgia and of one flavonol and two steroidal glycosides which were isolated from this plant. The flowers were extracted with ethanol and this total extract was subjected to successive bioguided fractionations to provide glycosides 1-3. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS spectrometric data in comparison with the existing literature and have been identified as: isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1, diosgenin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucopyranoside (Prosapogenin A of dioscin (2, diosgenin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4-]-β-D-glucopyranoside (Deltonine (3. The ethanolic extract has been shown to strongly inhibit the growth of breast adenocarcinoma cell lines, with an IC50 of 4.5 ± 0.7μg/mL for MDAMB-231 and 4.8 ± 0.9μg/mL for MCF-7 cells. The cytotoxic activity was related to 2 and 3 which exhibited potent cytotoxicity, with an IC50 of ± 3μM. Concerning antiplasmodial activities, only weak activities were observed using the ethanolic extract and the two saponins. The flavonoid was almost inactive. Finally, the radical-scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was tested in presence of ABTS•+ solution. A decrease of the absorbance intensity was observed, with an IC50 value of 22.1 ± 0.6μg/mLwhile trolox, used as Standard drug, showed a pronounced activity (IC50 = 12.7±0.5μM. The glycoside 1 showed the lowest IC50 value of 20.1 ± 0.8μM while both 2 and 3 exhibited very weak radical scavenging activity.

  11. Suscetibilidade de biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a diferentes cepas de schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Candido de Souza Dias

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Em condições experimentais foi estudada a suscetibilidade de Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a quatro linhagens humanas (MAP, PTH, UPH, e OuH e duas de roedores silvestres (PTR e VPR do Schistosoma mansoni. Grupos de 50 moluscos foram expostos individualmente a 10 miracídios e observados durante 70 dias. Avaliou-se a suscetibilidade dos moluscos ao parasito por meio da % de animais com esporocistos, % de moluscos que eliminavam cercárias e mortalidade conjunta dos animais expostos e infectados. Exemplares de B. glabrata mineira infectaram-se com cepa simpátrica (MAP e com 5 alopátricas do Estado de São Paulo (PTH, VPH, OuH, PTR e VPR. B. glabrata paulista mostrou altas taxas de infecção com as cepas MAP, VPR e OuH do trematódeo. Quatro % dos exemplares B. straminea de São Paulo eliminavam cercárias de cepas simpátricas; com cepa mineira apenas 4% apresentaram esporocistos na vigência de 20 miracídios por molusco; as menores taxas de mortalidade foram registradas com essa espécie de molusco, não sendo maior do que 20%. B. tenagophila paulista foi suscetível apenas às linhagens simpáticas sendo 6% a maior taxa de moluscos que eliminaram cercárias. Os resultados indicam que os movimentos populacionais humanos dentro do território paulista e para fora dele são importantes na disseminação da esquistossomose mansônica.

  12. El consumo de oxigeno de cepas de uta y espundia (Leishmania) con monosacáridos

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Aurazo R.; Inés Gárate C.; César Náquira V

    2014-01-01

    Se ha realizado un estudio comparativo de la respiración, y la acción de los monosacáridos (glucosa, fructosa, galactosa y manosa) sobre el consumo de oxigeno entre dos cepas de Leishmania provenientes de casos clínicos de leishmaniosis cutánea pura (uta) y de leishmaniosis cutáneo-mucosa (espundia) del Perú.

  13. Allium test peculiarities for toxicity assessment of water and soil samples from radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of allium test application for toxicity estimation of water and soil samples from Semipalatinsk Experimental Test Site (SET) are presented. Comparative analysis of water and soil samples cyto- and genotoxicyty from SET areas, contrasting on radionuclide composition, was carried out. The analysis results has shown the need of the biotesting modification for taking into account external gamma-irradiations in sampling area

  14. Studies on the Analgesic Potential of leaf Extracts of Allium humile on Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium humile is a medicinal plant found at the Alpine Himalayas of Uttarakhand at altitute of 2500-3000 meters height of sea level. In India, Allium humile, is used by local people as a spice and in ethano-medicine. In the present study, Allium humile leaves were explored for their analgesic potential on experimental model and compared to standard drugs. Allium humile at the doses of 100 mg/kg and aspirin 25 mg/kg exhibited significant (p>0.05 inhibition of the control writhes at the rate of 64.25%, 44.54%, 44.54% and 59.89% respectively when compared to that of control. Thus, methanolic extract of the plant can be fully explored for its analgesic potential which has not been reported so far. The plant extract showed a relative low toxicity hence justifies the folkloric use of plant by the local people in Western Himalayan region for curing inflammation and painful conditions.

  15. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its wild relatives from Central Asia: evaluation for fertility potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenetsky, R.; London Safir, I.; Baizerman, M.; Khassanov, F.; Kik, C.; Rabinowitch, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) a popular condiment, is completely sterile, and thus is propagated only vegetatively. According to modern taxonomy, A. sativum and its closest wild relative A. longicuspis form a species complex. The collection of a large number of accessions of these taxa is the only mean

  16. Antifungal activity in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma after intravenous administration of Allium sativum.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, L E; Shen, J K; Cai, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Commercial Allium sativum (garlic) extract was given intravenously to two patients with cryptococcal meningitis and three patients with other types of meningitis. Plasma titers of anti-Cryptococcus neoformans activity rose twofold over preinfusion titers. Anti-C. neoformans activity was detected in four of five cerebrospinal fluid samples but not in pooled normal cerebrospinal fluid.

  17. Genotoxicity of hydrated sulfur dioxide on root tips of Allium sativum and Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Huilan; Meng, Ziqiang

    2003-05-01

    Genotoxicity of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and its hydrates (bisulfite and sulfite) in human lymphocytes and other mammalian cells have been found earlier in our laboratory. In the present studies, we used Allium stavium and Vicia faba cytogenetic tests, which are the highly sensitive and simple plant bioassays. A mixture of sodium bisulfite and sodium sulfite (1:3), at various concentrations from 1 x 10(-4) to 2 x 10(-3)M was used for the treatment. Genotoxicity was expressed in terms of anaphase aberration (AA) frequencies in the Vicia-AA test and in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequencies in both Vicia-MCN test and Alllium-MCN test. On average, the results showed a 1.7-3.9-fold increase of AA frequencies and a 3.5-4.5-fold increase of MCN frequencies in Vicia root tips as compared with the negative control. Similarly, results of Allium-MCN test also showed a significant increase in MCN frequencies in the treated samples. In addition, pycnotic cells (PNC) appeared in Allium root tips of treated groups. The frequencies of MCN, AA and PNC increased dose-dependently and the cell cycle delayed at the same time in bisulfite treated samples. Results of the present study suggest that the Vicia and Allium cytogenetic bioassays are efficient, simple and reproducible in genotoxicity studies of bisulfite. PMID:12742512

  18. Biomonitoring of low levels of mercurial derivatives in water and soil by Allium micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S; Panda, K K; Panda, B B

    1988-02-01

    The Allium micronucleus (MNC) assay was developed to monitor low levels of mercury in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Four mercurial derivatives namely mercuric chloride (MC), methyl mercuric chloride (MMC), phenyl mercuric acetate (PMA) and a methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride based fungicide, Emisan-6, were tested to assess the sensitivity and versatility of the Allium MNC assay. Allium bulbs were set directly on water and soil contaminated with known levels of mercurial derivatives (0.0001-10.00 ppm). On the 5th day the endpoints measured were root length, mitoses with spindle abnormality and cells with MNC in root meristems. The effective concentrations of the test chemicals that cause 50% of root length as compared to control (EC50) were determined from dose-response curves so obtained. The lowest effective concentration tested (LECT) and highest ineffective concentration tested (HICT) for each of the mercurial derivatives for the induction of spindle malfunction and MNC were determined. It was found that EC50, LECT and HICT values for mercurial derivatives in soil were higher than those in water. The frequencies of cells with MNC and mitoses with spindle abnormality were highly correlated indicating that MNC is a good parameter of spindle malfunction. The present approach increased the sensitivity of the Allium assay by 10-fold, the detection limit being 0.001-0.1 ppm and 0.1-1.0 ppm in aquatic and terrestrial environments respectively, depending on the species of mercury. PMID:3340089

  19. Allium telomeres unmasked: the unusual telomeric sequence (CTCGGTTATGGG)(n) is synthesized by telomerase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajkus, Petr; Peška, Vratislav; Sitová, Z.; Fulnečková, Jana; Dvořáčková, Martina; Gogola, M.; Sýkorová, Eva; Hapala, J.; Fajkus, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2016), s. 337-347. ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-10948P Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Allium * unusual telomere * telomerase Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.972, year: 2014

  20. Diploidni kariotipovi vrste Allium subhirsutum L. u hrvatsko-jadranskim populacijama

    OpenAIRE

    Pejčinović, Mira

    1993-01-01

    Izvršena je kariotipska analiza populacija vrste Allium subhirsutum L. sekcije Molinm G. Don ex Koch s jadranskog obalnog područja u Hrvatskoj. U svim slučajevima dobiven je diploidni broj kromosoma, 2n = 14 s kariotipskom formulom 12 m + 2 sm ili lom + 4 sm kromosoma koji u regularnoj mejozi formiraju bivalente, n = 7.

  1. First Report of Garlic Rust Caused by Puccinia allii on Allium sativum in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    In July 2010, Allium sativum, cultivar German Extra Hardy Porcelain plants showing foliar symptoms typical of rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial grower from Fillmore county Minnesota. Infected leaves showed circular to oblong lesio...

  2. EVALUACIÓN DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL UTILIZANDO CEPAS RECOMBINANTES DE Saccharomyces cerevisiae A PARTIR DE MELAZA DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA PEÑA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de etanol, el crecimiento celular y el consumo de sustrato de tres cepas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae: CBS8066 (control y dos recombinantes desarrolladas en la Unidad de Biotecnología Vegetal de CIB, GG570-CIBI y GG570-CIBII. Dichas cepas estuvieron bajo el efecto de dos concentraciones de sacarosa (170 y 250g/L y dos sustratos (industrial con melaza caña azúcar y sintético con sacarosa. Durante la fermentación en sustrato industrial se obtuvo mayor producción de etanol a concentración de 250g sacarosa/L. Bajo estas condiciones, la cepa GG570-CIBII produjo en promedio 2,34g etanol/L mas con respecto a la cepa control y en adición, a las 10h, produjo 8,02g/L por encima de la cepa control. Por otro lado, la cepa GG570- CIBI produjo 3,46g etanol/L menos que la cepa control. De esta forma, se encontró que la cepa GG570-CIBII es tolerante a alta concentración de sacarosa, y además, es capaz de producir una concentración mayor de etanol con respecto a la cepa control en melaza caña azúcar con 250g/L sacarosa.

  3. Plasmidotipia y evaluación in vitro de la virulencia de cepas de Salmonella enteritidis de origen aviar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Darío Toro

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar a nivel biológico y molecular cepas de Salmonella entérica, subespecie entérica serotipo Enteritidis (Salmonella enteritidis se obtuvieron y confirmaron bioquímica y serológicamente treinta cepas aisladas de aves clínicamente sanas. Las cepas fueron evaluadas mediante plasmidotipia y determinación de virulencia in vitro evaluando susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, actividad hemaglutinante manosa resistente y manosa sensible como indicativo de la presencia de adhesinas fimbriales y capacidad de sobrevivencia en el interior de macrófagos. La extracción de plásmidos se realizó por la técnica de lisis alcalina. Se obtuvieron perfiles de restricción con las enzimas PstI y SmaI. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se determinó por la prueba de difusión de disco en agar. La actividad hemaglutinante en presencia y en ausencia de manosa fue evaluada frente a glóbulos rojos de ave, bovino, equino, humano (A+ y ovino. La capacidad de sobrevivencia en el interior de macrófagos se determinó valorando la viabilidad de las cepas 24 horas después de la ingestión por macrófagos de línea de origen murino. Veintinueve cepas (96.6% mostraron un plasmido cuyo tamaño corresponde al plasmido de virulencia asociado a serotipo. Veintisiete cepas (90% mostraron dos o más plasmidos. Perfiles de restricción realizados con las enzimas Pst I y Sma I permitieron establecer una alta asociación entre las cepas. Se determinó resistencia a uno o más antimicrobianos en catorce cepas de S. enteritidis (46.6%, se observó resistencia a oxitetraciclina, sulfatrimetroprim, estreptomicina y cloranfenicol. Ninguna cepa mostró resistencia a gentamicina y kanamicina. Se detectó actividad hemaglutinante manosa sensible como indicativo de adhesinas fimbriales tipo I en once cepas (36.6% de las treinta evaluadas. La totalidad de las cepas sobrevivieron en el interior de macrófagos de línea J774A.1 y fueron viables 24 horas después de la

  4. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Taji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic.Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-month-old Allium sativum was prepared and their antioxidant activities were assessed in linoleic acid and β-carotene linoleate system. The amount of phenolic compounds was measured by Folin-Ciocalteumethod, based on gallic acid; the amount of flavonol and flavonoid compounds by aluminum chloride base on rutin base; and the amount of allicinby spectrophotometry method. SPSS-15 Software and t-statistic tests were used to analyze the mean difference between the results of two groups and p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The efficiency of fresh garlic (35.36 in inhibiting the oxidation was higher (p<0.05 comparing to three-month dated Allium sativum (10.2. Phenolic compounds of the fresh garlic (12.61mg/g were more than the three-month dated Allium sativum (2.89mg/g. The amount of allicin was respectively 15 µg/ml and 8 µg/ml in the fresh and three-month dated Allium sativum (p<0.05.Conclusion: The fresh garlic contains more useful substances and it is recommended to be used in its fresh estate.

  5. Role of Bioinoculant (AM Fungi) Increasing in Growth, Flavor Content and Yield in Allium sativum L. under Field Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh BORDE; Mayura DUDHANE; Paramjit Kaur JITE

    2009-01-01

    Present investigation deals with the beneficial effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) fungal species Glomus fasciculatum on growth performance of Allium sativum under field condition. In AM inoculated garlic plant showed significant increase in plant growth parameters like plant height, total biomass and bulb diameters, bulb weight, and yield. There was 21.10 % increment in yield of Allium bulb as compared to non AM inoculated garlic plant. Percentage of AM colonization occurred at all samplin...

  6. Pengaruh Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium sativum) Terhadap Kadar Kolesterol Mencit (Mus Musculus L. Strain DDW) yang Diinduksi Alloxan

    OpenAIRE

    Borhan, Siti Nabilah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes changes in glucose homeostasis above normal. Diabetes causes various metabolic complication such as hyperlipidemia. So for the management is not for hyperglycemia but also for hyperlipidemia. One alternative by herbal remedy for treating diabetes is garlic (Allium Sativum.) Aim of Study:This study is about the effect of garlic (Allium Sativum) on cholesterol levels in Alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Metode: T...

  7. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum on Lead-induced Biochemical changes in Soft tissues of Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Arti Sharma; Veena Sharma; Leena Kansal

    2009-01-01

    Allium sativum (Meaning pungent) belongs to the Alliaceae family and genus Allium, is generally known in the developing world for its characteristic flavor, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. Besides, the plant is reported to have various biological activities including hypocholesterolemic, antiatherosclerotic, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor agent; used for treating various disease such as inflammation, cardiovascular and liver diseases. The ...

  8. Proteasas alcalinas de una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp Alcalofílico Proteasas alcalinas de una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp Alcalofílico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sáez Vega

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de cuatro fuentes de nitrógeno sobre la actividad enzimática de proteasas alcalinas, secretadas por una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp Alcalofílico, cultivada a diferentes concentraciones de LMF (Licor de Maíz Fermentado. El crecimiento de la cepa no es afectado por los pH de inoculación de 7,0; 8,5 y 9,5; en contraste con la actividad enzimática y producción de proteína verdadera, que tuvieron sus mejores resultados a pH inicial de 8,5. A este pH se evaluaron dos fuentes de nitrógeno orgánico (extracto de levadura y peptona y dos inorgánicos (NH4Cl y NaNO3The effect of four nitrogen sources on the enzymatic activity of alkaline proteases from a wild strain of Alkalophilic Bacillus sp cultivated to different concentrations from CSL (Corn Steep Liquor. was evaluated. The growth of the strain is not affected by pH of inoculation of 7,0, 8,5 and 9,5, in contrast to the enzymatic activity and true protein production, that had their better results to initial pH of 8,5. To this initial pH of 8,5; two organic nitrogen sources (yeast extract and peptone and two inorganic ones were evaluated (NH4Cl and NaNO3. With peptone the best enzymatic activity to a relation appeared to molar C/N between 1 and 2 was found. For the studied interval of % CSL (0,5 to 2% p/v the concentration of the CSL does not affect the enzymatic activity.

  9. Report on the CEPA activities [Consorcio Educativo para la Proteccion Ambiental/Educational Consortium for Environmental Preservation] [Final report of activities from 1998 to 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Miriam

    2003-02-01

    This report compiles the instances of scientific, educational, and institutional cooperation on environmental issues and other activities in which CEPA was engaged during the past five years, and includes several annual reports and meeting summaries. CEPA is a collaborative international consortium that brings together higher education institutions with governmental agencies, research laboratories, and private sector entities. CEPA's mission is to strengthen the technical, professional, and educational environmental infrastructure in the United States and Latin America. The CEPA program includes curriculum development, student exchange, faculty development, and creation of educational materials, joint research, and other cooperative activities. CEPA's goals are accomplished by actively working with Hispanic-serving institutions of higher education in the United States, in collaboration with institutions of higher education in Latin America and other Consortium members to deliver competitive environmental programs.

  10. Caracterización de un pigmento naranja producido por una cepa nativa de bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Gómez-Marín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando la riqueza de especies y variedades microbianas de ciertos países, la búsqueda de cepas nativas con posible potencial biotecnológico y que produzcan compuestos de interés industrial es una forma de impulsar avances científicos, económicos y sociales dentro de las regiones. En este estudio se selecciona e identifica, morfológica y bioquímicamente mediante el juego de reactivos API CHB, una cepa nativa bacteriana del género Bacillus spp., la cual produce un pigmento naranja que es aislado, purificado y caracterizado utilizando diferentes pruebas físicas, químicas y espectrofotométricas. Los resultados indican que la cepa nativa se comporta como un Bacillus subtilis, probablemente el denominado Bacillus globigii según recientes reportes basados en técnicas de identificación molecular. El pigmento naranja producido fue caracterizado, parcialmente, como una melanina, más específicamente una alomelanina, dado su origen microbiano. Debe tenerse en cuenta que la clasificación de un material dentro de esta familia es difícil y ambigua. Se ha denominado melaninas a un conjunto de compuestos biológicos que poseen una serie de características comunes. No existe un método o análisis químico o físico satisfactorio que permita decidir claramente si una sustancia particular pertenece o no a este grupo; sin embargo, existen diferentes pruebas no definitivas, aunque algunas excluyentes, que permiten sospechar si un material bajo estudio puede pertenecer a esta familia de pigmentos. Estas sustancias poseen interesantes propiedades físicas y químicas que las convierte en materiales con potenciales aplicaciones tecnológicas.

  11. EFECTO PROMOTOR DEL CRECIMIENTO VEGETAL DE CEPAS DE Azospirillum sp. EN EL CULTIVO DEL ARROZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Acebo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El arroz es fuente de alimento y empleo para una gran parte de la población mundial. Como parte de la estrategia de agricultura sostenible para aumentar el rendimiento y sustituir los fertilizantes químicos, son utilizados actualmente inoculantes microbianos elaborados a partir de rizobacterias. En particular, el género Azospirillum ha sido utilizado como agente promotor del crecimiento vegetal, debido a su capacidad para fijar nitrógeno atmosférico y producir auxinas del tipo ácido indolacético. Se emplearon cepas nativas aisladas y de referencia, a las que se les determinó su capacidad de producir compuestos indólicos mediante la técnica colorimétrica derivada de Salkowski y la capacidad de fijación de nitrógeno, mediante el ensayo de reducción de acetileno. Se obtuvieron resultados positivos para todas las cepas, que resultaron productoras de compuestos indólicos en un rango de 2,75-8.6 ¿g.mL-1 y con una capacidad de fijar nitrógeno de 164.17-384.9 nmol.h-1·5 mL-1. Se llevó a cabo además un bioensayo destinado a evaluar la aplicación de estas cepas, como agentes promotores del crecimiento vegetal en el cultivo del arroz (variedad J-104. Se obtuvo un incremento notable en los parámetros de crecimiento de la planta con respecto al control.

  12. Propiedades hemaglutinantes de cepas de Escherichia coli aisladas de corderos diarreicos y su relación con su toxicidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ZAMORA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examinó el contenido intestinal de 107 corderos neonatos muertos con el objeto de aislar cepas de E. coli productoras de toxina termoestable (ST y verotoxina (VT y también comprobar su capacidad hemaglutinante. Se aislaron 84 (78.5% cepas de E. coli, 70 (83.3% de ellas fueron hemaglutinantes de eritrocitos de diversas especies de animales, preferentemente de gallina, la mayoría de las cuales resultaron ser manosa resistentes (HAMR. A su vez, se logró el aislamiento de 18 cepas elaboradoras de ST y de 11 de VT, todas ellas con capacidad hemaglutinante, predominando las de tipo HAMR. Se recomienda hacer la prueba de hemaglutinación y posteriormente pesquisar la estructura antigénica y capacidad enterotóxicas de las cepas aisladas, particularmente cuando se analiza un gran número de cepas, con la finalidad de disminuir los costos de diagnóstico, logrando una información preliminar de cepas presumiblemente patógenasThe intestinal content of 107 neonatal dead lambs was examined in order to isolate producers of thermostable toxin (ST and verotoxin (VT E. coli strains. Besides, the hemagglutinating properties were also tested. Eighty four (78.5% strains of E. coli were isolated, 70 (83.3% of which were hemagglutinating to red blood cells of different animal species, mainly hen; most of them proved mannose resistent (MRHA. Also, 18 strains ST producers and 11 VT producers were isolated, all of them with agglutinating activity; the MRHA type predominating. It is recommended to run the hemagglutination test and secondly to study the antigenic structure and enterotoxic capacity of the isolated strain, particulary when a big number of strains is analized, in order to decrease the diagnostic costs and to obtain preliminary information on presumably, pathogenous strains

  13. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-aminohippuric acid and inulin were measured. Results: The K2Cr2O7 caused significant renal dysfunction, but A. sativum extract prevented this condition by improving all measured biomarkers. Conclusions: A single injection of K2Cr2O7 induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but the supply of an Allium sativum aqueous extract prevented the disorders caused by this metal.

  14. Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration of garlic (Allium sativum) immature leaf tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenel, Fernand; Eady, Colin; Brinch, Sheree

    2010-03-01

    Transgenic garlic (Allium sativum) plants have been recovered directly from immature leaf material by selective culture following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This method involved the use of a binary vector containing the mgfp-ER reporter gene and hpt selectable marker, and followed a similar protocol developed previously for the transformation of immature onion embryos. The choice of tissue and post-transformation selection procedure resulted in a large increase in recovery of transgenic plants compared with previously confirmed allium transformation protocols. The presence of transgenes in the genome of the plants was confirmed using Southern analysis. This improvement in frequency and the use of clonal commercial "Printanor" germplasm now makes possible the integration of useful agronomic and quality traits into this crop. PMID:20099065

  15. Tipificación de cepas de Mycobacterium bovis. Revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalinda Acosta-Salinas; Ciro Estrada-Chávez; Feliciano Milián-Suazo

    2009-01-01

    La tuberculosis bovina es una zoonosis que produce grandes pérdidas a la economía de muchos países y constituye un problema de salud pública. Su epidemiología resulta muy compleja debido a que se trata de una bacteria de lento crecimiento, que puede permanecer de forma latente y afectar a diversas especies animales, incluyendo fauna silvestre que funge como reservorio. Por este motivo en todo el mundo existe la necesidad de genotipificar de manera precisa las cepas de M. bovis y rastrear el o...

  16. Screening antibiotics : industrial research by CEPA and Merck in the 1950s

    OpenAIRE

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2011-01-01

    This article is an account of a screening programme in search of new antibiotics established by CEPA (Compañia Española de Penicilinas y Antibióticos) and Merck in Madrid in 1954. An exploration of the genealogy for such a programme, its narratives and practices, shows that the main inspiration for this programme was the factory system of production, on the one hand, and Selman Waksman’s research agenda on microorganisms of the soil, on the other. In this article, the relationship between ind...

  17. Riesgo de aparición de cepas Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina en pacientes hospitalarios de un hospital del Perú, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giancarlo Alvarado-Gamarra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el riesgo de aparición de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina (VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA y cepas de Enterococcus resistente a vancomicina (VRE. Diseño: Análisis bivariado de datos de un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo. Lugar: Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue de Lima-Perú. Participantes: pacientes hospitalizados durante el año 2008. Intervenciones: Formato de registro del laboratorio del hospital. Principales medidas de resultados: Frecuencias relativas y absolutas para variables cualitativos, y medianas para variables cuantitativos, grado de asociación evaluado con odds ratio (OR con un intervalo de confianza al 95%. Resultados: Se encontró un 82,8% de cepas MRSA, mientras que en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI se encontró un 92,1% de ellas. No se que halló cepas VRSA. El aislamiento de cepas MRSA se asoció con la procedencia de la UTI (OR=3,38, con la procedencia de Neonatología (OR=0,19, con ser paciente adulto (OR=2,87 y con la muestra de tipo sanguinea (OR=0,35. El tiempo de permanencia de los pacientes con aislamientos de cepas MRSA fue mayor que en los pacientes con cepas sensibles (p<0,007. Conclusiones: No existe riesgo de aparición de cepas VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas MRSA y VRE en los pacientes hospitalarios de este nosocomio.

  18. Transmisión de cepas atenuadas de babesia bigemina y babesia bovis por garrapatas rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo E. Rojas Ramírez; Juan J. Mosqueda Gualito; Jesús A. Álvarez Martínez; Rubén Hernández Ortíz; Juan A. Ramos Aragón; Carmen Rojas Martínez; Germinal J. Cantó Alarcón; Carlos A. Vega y Murguía; Julio V. Figueroa Millán

    2011-01-01

    Para evaluar la transmisión por garrapatas Rhipicephalus microplus (R. microplus) de una clona atenuada de Babesia bovis (BOR) y una cepa atenuada de Babesia bigemina (BIS), doce bovinos se dividieron en cuatro grupos e infestados de forma escalonada con larvas de R. microplus libres de Babesia spp. Un becerro de cada grupo se inoculó con 1x108 eritrocitos infectados (EI) con BIS, BOR, y cepas virulentas de B. bigemina y B. bovis, respectivamente. Se realizaron dos inoculaciones seriadas adic...

  19. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen, van, A.G.J.M.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has proved to be effective in controlling the nematodes. Due to a high incidence of infected stocks of bulbs a study was conducted to establish if the efficacy of the treatment could be improved by alterin...

  20. Novel strategies for optimized delivery of select components of Allium sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash G Phadatare; Vivek Viswanathan; Alka Mukne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Garlic (Allium sativum) has been known to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities which are attributed mainly to the organosulfur compounds present in it. Allicin and garlic oil, components obtained from garlic, have been explored and found to be biologically active on various fronts. Allicin is known to have major stability issues due to rapid degradation even at low temperatures, whereas garlic oil, being lipophilic, shows poor bioavailability after oral administratio...

  1. Phenolic compounds from allium schoenoprasum, tragopogon pratensis and rumex acetosa and their antiproliferative effects

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Saha; Otakar Rop; Pavel Valasek; Petr Humpolicek; Jiri Mlcek; Zdenka Kucekova

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that phenolic compounds have antiproliferative and tumour arresting effects. The aim of this original study was to investigate the content of phenolic compounds (PhC) in flowers of Allium schoenoprasum (chive), Tragopogon pratensis (meadow salsify) and Rumex acetosa (common sorrel) and their effect on proliferation of HaCaT cells. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated in vitro using the following concentrations of phenolic compounds in cultivation medium: 10...

  2. Heavy metal uptake and stress responses of hydroponically cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Soudek, P. (Petr); Petrová, Š. (Šárka); Vaněk, T. (Tomáš)

    2011-01-01

    The accumulation of toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cu and Ni) by Allium sativum plants was followed under hydroponic conditions. The toxic metals were applied at two concentrations (0.05 and 0.25 mM). The effects of heavy metals on chlorophyll and carotenoid content, root length and amino acid exudation were examined to evaluate the impact of heavy metal accumulation on plant growth and development. A significant hyperaccumulation of cadmium by garlic roots was observed. Cobalt stimulated carotenoid p...

  3. Efficient transient expression of the $\\beta$-glucuronidase reporter gene in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Esther; Linares, Concha; González, Juan,

    2000-01-01

    International audience A biolistic particle delivery system was used to introduce DNA containing a $\\beta$-glucuronidase (gus) reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in three different garlic (Allium sativum L.) tissues: embryogenic calli, leaves and basal plate discs. Expression of the reporter gene was assayed histochemically and fluorimetrically when the tissues were bombarded with 1 $\\mu$m diameter gold particles coated with DNA, at a distance of 3 cm from the stopping...

  4. In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Three Varieties of Allium sativum L. Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Narendhirakannan, R. T.; K.Rajeswari

    2010-01-01

    Many herbs possess antioxidant ingredients that provide efficacy by additive or synergistic activities. Allium sativum L. is a strong astringent, used for the treatment of liver and spleen diseases, rheumatism and tumors. The antioxidant activities of different concentrations of ethanolic extracts of garlic bulb of three varieties were determined by the four assays i.e. DPPH radical scavenging assay, reducing power ability, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and total antioxidant capacity. Du...

  5. In-vitro Sensitivity of Selected Enteric Bacteria to Extracts of Allium sativum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Musa O. AREKEMASE; David O. ADETITUN; Ganiyu P. OYEYIOLA

    2013-01-01

    Garlic has been used throughout all of recorded history for culinary and medicinal reasons. The portion of the plant most often consumed is an underground storage structure called a head. The antimicrobial effects of Allium sativum (garlic) against some bacterial isolates were investigated using the agar diffusion well method. Standard methods were used to carry out the investigation. Photochemical analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of many secondary metabolites such as sa...

  6. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic) Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Taji; Hedayatollah Shirzad; Kurosh Ashrafi; Neda Parvin; Soleiman Kheiri; Abdolrasul Namjoo; Azam Asgari; Roya Ansari; Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic).Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-mon...

  7. Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestion of garlic (Allium sativum).

    OpenAIRE

    Caporaso, N; Smith, S M; Eng, R H

    1983-01-01

    A fresh extract of garlic (Allium sativum) was administered orally to human volunteers. At intervals, serum and urine were collected and assayed for antifungal activity. The maximum tolerable dose was determined to be 25 ml of garlic extract. Larger amounts caused severe burning sensations in the esophagus and the stomach and vomiting. After oral ingestion of 25 ml of the extract, anticandidal and anticryptococcal activities were detected in undiluted serum 0.5 and 1 h after ingestion. No det...

  8. The relaxant effect induced by Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract on rat isolated trachea

    OpenAIRE

    Badreddine Fehri; Mueen Ahmed, K.K.; Jean-Marc Aiache

    2011-01-01

    Background: Garlic plays an important role in complementary and alternative medicine. Most people believe in and use herbal products even when they have not been as thoroughly researched as garlic. Garlic is also known for its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Materials and Methods: The relaxant effect of Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract (ASBAE) containing 0.06%-0.10% of allicin was studied on isolated smooth muscle of trachea of rats precontracted using acetylcholine (10...

  9. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its wild relatives from Central Asia: evaluation for fertility potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kamenetsky, R.; London Safir, I.; Baizerman, M.; Khassanov, F.; Kik, C.; Rabinowitch, H. D.

    2004-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) a popular condiment, is completely sterile, and thus is propagated only vegetatively. According to modern taxonomy, A. sativum and its closest wild relative A. longicuspis form a species complex. The collection of a large number of accessions of these taxa is the only means available for expansion of the genetic variability with regard to yield, quality, tolerance to biotic and abiotic traits, as well as flowering and possibly fertility restoration. A large number o...

  10. ALCOHOLIC TINCTURE OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) ON GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOPARASITES OF SHEEP- SHORT COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Carlini Cunha Santos; Neventon Ubirajara Moreira Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The continuous and indiscriminate use of anthelmintic drugs has caused a growing problem of parasite resistance to conventional treatments. In this context, plant essential oils and active components can be used as alternatives or in association with current anthel¬mintic treatment. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a herbal medicine with various therapeutic properties: immunostimulating, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic. The aim of this experiment w...

  11. Combined acoustic-mechanical analysis during storage of scallion (Allium fistulosum) minimally processed

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea González; Gabriela Cáez; Fabián Moreno; Natalia Rodríguez; Indira Sotelo

    2012-01-01

    Scallion (Allium fistulosum) is a highly perishable green vegetable due to its moisture content, its high metabolic rate and their poor conditions of post-harvest during to harvest and transport. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between visual deterioration´s product and changes generated in the mechanical and acoustic properties of the same. The scallion grown in Aquitania, Boyacá Colombia was stored under different conditions of storing: vacuum pa...

  12. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM HIRTIFOLIUM ESSENTIAL OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaddese Mahboubi; Nastaran Kazempour

    2014-01-01

    Allium hirtifolium belongs to Alliaceae family is traditionally used as flavoring agent and as natural remedy for treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, we analyzed A. hirtifolium essential oil by GC and GC-MS; the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. hirtifolium essential oil were evaluated in vitro condition. 5-chloroorcylaldehyde (55.1%), methyl methylthiomethyl disulfide (24.6%) were the major components of oil. The antioxidant activity of oil (IC50 = 1.59%) wer...

  13. Allium sativum L.: the anti-immature leech (Limnatis nilotica) activity compared to Niclosomide

    OpenAIRE

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Javad; Mohsenzadegan, Ava; Sadeghian, Sirous; Ahangaran, Majid Gholami

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Allium sativum L. on Limnatis nilotica compared with Niclosomide. In this experimental study in September 2010, a number of leeches (70 in total) from the southern area of Ilam province were prepared, and the effects of methanolic extract of A. sativum L. with Niclosomide as the control drug were compared and distilled water was evaluated as the placebo group which investigated L. nilotica using anti-leech assay. Th...

  14. Biological activities of Allium sativum essential oil against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaubey Mukesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil from Allium sativum was isolated and investigated for its repellent, insecticidal, ovipositional and egg hatching inhibition activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). A. sativum essential oil repelled bruchid adults at a very low concentration in choice oviposition assay. A. sativum essential oil caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults in a concentration dependent manner. Oviposition potency of C. chinensis adults...

  15. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa-Leon Rubi; Vera-Ku Marina; Peraza-Sanchez Sergio R.; Ku-Chulim Carlos; Horta-Baas Aurelio; Rosado-Vallado Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP) using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo...

  16. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin—a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 1...

  17. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres; César Soria-Fregozo; Fernando Jaramillo-Juárez; José L. Moreno-Hernández-Duque

    2014-01-01

    Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-...

  18. Allium sativum L. Improves Visual Memory and Attention in Healthy Human Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Tasnim; Parsa Sanjana Haque; Md. Sazzadul Bari; Md Monir Hossain; Sardar Mohd. Ashraful Islam; Mohammad Shahriar; Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan; Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subje...

  19. Purification and Properties of Superoxide Dismutase(SOD) in Allium Sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Li-rong; WANG Ya-jun; WU Min; HONG Shui-sheng; CHEN Jia; Meng Qing-fan; LIU Lan-ying

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases(SODs) were purified to homogeneity from Allium Sativum by means of ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography with DEAE-cellulose(DE52) and Sephadex G-75. Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-AGE), Allium Sativum is predicted to contain four SODs. The molecular weights of the native SODs are 41.3 kD, 37.0 kD, 35.2 kD and 31.0 kD, which consist of subunits of 20.7 kD, 18.4 kD, 17.7 kD and 15.4 kD respectively. Because of their specific sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, cyanogens potassium and chloroform-alcohol, the SODs in Allium Sativum appear to be Cu, Zn-SOD isoenzymes. The isoelectric analysis indicates that three of the four isoenzymes are acidic proteins with isoelectric points at pH 3.5, 3.7 and 4.0, respectively, and the fourth one is a basic protein with isoeletric point at pH 8.5.

  20. Cytological damage and molecular biology effect of 12C6+ heavy ions on allium fistulosum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Allium fistulosum L. seeds were irradiated by 12C6+ heavy ions to the dosages of 30, 90, 180 Gy, the mutagenic effect in the aspect of the cell level and the agronomy was studied and the RAPD analysis was carried out. Comparison with the conclusion of M1 generation indicates that the Cytological damage, micronucleus and chromosomal aberration caused by radiation formed in the cells of Allium fistulosum L., and this kind of effect still existed in the M2 generation. There is a negative correlation between some of the growth indexes such as plant height, diameter of onion white and irradiation dosage to a certain extent, the growth indexes in the 30 Gy dosage exposure group are better than those in control group. The Allium fistulosum L. nutrients, including the total water-soluble protein and the Vitamin C content are the highest for the 30 Gy group and the lowest in 90 Gy group. Consistent with the M1 generation, the chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus and the DNA polymorphism rate by RAPD analysis are still positive correlations with the radiation dose in M2 generation respectively. However, the overall rates decline. The result indicated that the DNA variation induced by the high energy heavy ion exposure is repaired and eliminated to a certain extent in the M2 generation. (authors)

  1. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antifungal Activity Screening of the Allium ursinum L. (Liliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Vasile Bagiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to summarize the methods for isolating and identifying natural sulfur compounds from Allium ursinum (ramson and to discuss the active constituents with regard to antifungal action. Using chromatographic techniques, the active constituents were isolated and subsequently identified. Analyses by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC suggested that these compounds were sulfur constituents, with a characteristic absorbance at 250 nm. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses allowed the chemical structures of the isolated constituents to be postulated. We adopted the same methods to identify the health-giving profiling of ramsons and the effects are thought to be primarily derived from the presence and breakdown of the alk(enylcysteine sulphoxide, alliin and its subsequent breakdown to allicin (sulfur-compounds of ramson in connection with antifungal action. The aim of the study was the characterization of the chemical composition of ramsons and the testing of the action of the in vitro extracts, on different strains of Candida albicans. The main goal was to highlight the most efficient extracts of Allium ursinum that can provide long-term antifungal activity without remissions. The extracts from Allium ursinum plants, inhibited growth of Candida spp. cells at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, while that of adherent cells at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to > 4.0 mg/mL, depending on the yeast and plant species.

  2. The analysis of genetic relationship among some Allium cultivars determined by RAPD markers%利用RAPD技术对葱属品种遗传关系的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥栋; 马红; 张卫华

    1998-01-01

    利用随机扩增多态性DNA(RAPD)技术分析了我国栽培的几个主要葱属品种.所用的20个引物,有11个能扩增出重现性好且稳定的谱带,10个品种共扩增出102条带,其中68条具多态性.根据DNA谱带计算的10个品种相似系数范围为0.571~0.947.对10个品种的UPGMA聚类分析表明,章丘大葱(Allium fistulosum var.gigantum cv.Zhangqiu Welsh onion)、天津五叶齐(A.fistulosum var.gigantum cv.Tianjin Wuyeqi Welsh onion)、上海分葱(A.fistulosum var.caepitosum cv.Shanghi Springonion)、南京冬葱(A.fistulosum var.caepitosum cv.Nanjing Winter onion)和韩国大葱(A.fistulosumvar.gigantum cv.Korea Welsh onion)关系较近.根据聚类结果,将章丘大葱、天津五叶齐、上海分葱、南京冬葱、韩国大葱、细香葱(A.schoenoprasum)以及楼葱(A.fistulosum var.viviparum)归为葱组;而将胡葱(A.ascalonicum)、洋葱(A.cepa)及洋葱和大葱的杂交种归为洋葱组.最后根据RAPD标记,讨论了各品种之间的亲缘关系.

  3. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae procesadas en el instituto nacional de salud, Lima, Perú. 1998-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Portilla C

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de susceptibilidad y resistencia in vitro de cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, aisladas en el Laboratorio de Bacterias de Transmisión Sexual del Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú, frente a los antimicrobianos de uso actual en el tratamiento de la infección por el gonococo; asimismo, conocer la frecuencia con que se presentan las cepas de N. gonorrhoeae productoras de beta-lactamasas. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo. En el Laboratorio de Bacterias de Transmisión Sexual del Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú, se recibieron 130 cepas de N. gonorrhoeae (49 en 1998 y 81 en 1999, procedentes de diferentes localidades del país para confirmación bacteriológica. El método de estudio de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana usado fue el de Concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM frente a la penicilina, espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima, ciprofloxacina y azitromicina. Resultados: La frecuencia de la resistencia de las cepas de N. gonorrhoeae in vitro a la penicilina fue en 15/49 cepas en el año 1998 y 15/81 cepas en el año 1999. Asimismo, la resistencia a la tetraciclina fue en 31/49 cepas en el año 1998 y 51/81 cepas en 1999. El 100% de las cepas estudiadas fueron sensibles a la espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima y ciprofloxacina. En el país, se reporta en 9/81 cepas de N. gonorrhoeae de susceptibilidad disminuida a la azitromicina. Entre los años 1998 y 1999, se reportaron 21/52 y 6/85, respectivamente de cepas de N. gonorrhoeae productoras de beta-lactamasas. Conclusiones: Se encontró resistencia in vitro de cepas de N. gonorrhoeae frente a la penicilina y tetraciclina. Los antibióticos que se deben usar para el tratamiento de la infección son: espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima y ciprofloxacina. Por primer vez se reporta en el país, cepas de susceptibilidad disminuida a la azitromicina.

  4. Thin layer convective air drying of wild edible plant (Allium roseum) leaves: experimental kinetics, modeling and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Haj Said, Leila; Najjaa, Hanen; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Neffati, Mohamed; Bellagha, Sihem

    2015-06-01

    The present study deals with the valorization of an edible spontaneous plant of the Tunisian arid areas: Allium roseum. This plant is traditionally used for therapeutic and culinary uses. Thin-layer drying behavior of Allium roseum leaves was investigated at 40, 50 and 60 °C drying air temperatures and 1 and l.5 m/s air velocity, in a convective dryer. The increase in air temperature significantly affected the moisture loss and reduced the drying time while air velocity was an insignificant factor during drying of Allium roseum leaves. Five models selected from the literature were found to satisfactorily describe drying kinetics of Allium roseum leaves for all tested drying conditions. Drying data were analyzed to obtain moisture diffusivity values. During the falling rate-drying period, moisture transfer from Allium roseum leaves was described by applying the Fick's diffusion model. Moisture diffusivity varied from 2.55 × 10(-12) to 8.83 × 10(-12) m(2)/s and increased with air temperature. Activation energy during convective drying was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation and ranged between 46.80 and 52.68 kJ/mol. All sulfur compounds detected in the fresh leaves were detected in the dried leaves. Convective air drying preserved the sulfur compounds potential formation. PMID:26028758

  5. Comportamento da cepa LE de Schistosoma mansoni, após passagem em hospedeiro humano infectado acidentalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Araújo

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma auxiliar de laboratório infectou-se acidentalmente, com cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni, cepa LE, mantida rotineiramente em nossos laboratórios. Decorridos 5 meses, o exame parasitológico de fezes revelou 108 ovos/g . A pacientefoi tratada com oxamniquine, porém a infecção continuou ativa (6 ovos/g. Foi então obtido o isolado SSF mantido no modelo Biomphalaria glabrata - camundongo albino. Os resultados obtidos no estudo comparativo, entre o isolado SSF e a cepa LE, que lhe deu origem, mostraram que a duração do período pré-patente e o índice de infectividade em camundongos, bem como a resposta aos agentes esquistossomicidas (hycanthone, oxamniquine epraziquantel não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Por outro lado, o número de miracídios obtidos dos intestinos e fígados dos camundongos infectados foi o dobro com a cepa LE, quando comparados com aquele do isolado SSF. Também a variação do peso dos animais foi bastante diferente. Concluiu-se que apenas uma passagem pelo hospedeiro humano não mudou substancialmente as características da cepa estudada.

  6. Caracterización fisiológica y molecular de cepas vínicas Saccharomyces sp. Influencia en su comportamiento durante la vinificación.

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzuarregui Miró, Aurora

    2005-01-01

    RESUMEN La transformación del mosto de uva en vino es un proceso microbiológico complejo aunque la fermentación alcohólica es llevada a cabo generalmente por cepas de Saccharomyces. El uso de inóculos de cepas preseleccionadas es frecuente en bodega dado que la cepa iniciadora se impone sobre las indígenas proporcionando ventajas encaminadas a una mayor producción y a una mejora de la calidad. El empleo de cultivos iniciadores hace necesario el establecimiento de criterios de selecci...

  7. Nuevas cepas de duganella aisladas de la rizosfera de olivo silvestre y cultivado y su uso en la producción de violaceína

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Blanca B.; Aranda Ocampo, Sergio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Castillo, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    [ES] La presente invención se refiere a unas cepas bacterianas de Duganella spp. obtenidas de la rizosfera de olivos silvestres y cultivados. Preferentemente las cepas son CECT 7779, CECT 7780 y CECT 7781 y más preferentemente la cepa bacteriana es CECT 7780. Además, la presente invención se refiere a sus combinaciones con otros microorganismos y a las composiciones que comprenden los productos anteriores, así como a un procedimiento para la producción de violaceína y a la violaceína produ...

  8. Nuevas cepas de duganella aisladas de la rizosfera de olivo silvestre y cultivado y su uso en la producción de violaceína

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Blanca B.; Aranda Ocampo, Sergio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Castillo Castillo, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere a unas cepas bacterianas de Duganella spp. obtenidas de la rizosfera de olivos silvestres y cultivados. Preferentemente las cepas son CECT 7779, CECT 7780 y CECT 7781 y más preferentemente la cepa bacteriana es CECT 7780. Además, la presente invención se refiere a sus combinaciones con otros microorganismos y a las composiciones que comprenden los productos anteriores, así como a un procedimiento para la producción de violaceína y a la violaceína producida par...

  9. Selección de cepas de hongos entomopatógenos para el manejo de anastrepha obliqua (macquart, 1835) (diptera: tephritidae) en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio-Fajardo, Armando; Nelson A Canal

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluaron 15 cepas de los hongos entomopatógenos Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae sobre adultos de un día de edad de la mosca de la fruta Anastrepha obliqua. El trabajo se realizó con el fin de seleccionar las cepas más virulentas al insecto y estudiar el efecto sobre los adultos jóvenes cuando el hongo era aplicado antes de la emergencia. Mediante un screening con una concentración de 1x107 conidias/mL se seleccionaron las tres cepas más virulentas, siendo dos de ellas de Beauv...

  10. Avaliação in vitro de uma cepa de campo de Boophilus microplus (Acari : Ixodidae resistente à amitraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría Vargas Minerva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso dos acaricidas químicos ainda se constitui no principal instrumento de controle do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus. No sul do Brasil, o amitraz aplicado por imersão e aspersão é o ingrediente ativo mais utilizado, nos últimos anos, contra as cepas de carrapatos resistentes aos organofosforados (OF e piretróides sintéticos (PS. Em conseqüência, torna-se importante a realização de investigações que possam contribuir para prolongar a vida útil desse ixodicida. No presente estudo, foi analisado o comportamento toxicológico de uma cepa de B. microplus colhida na localidade de Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, usando-se químicos da família dos OF, PS, misturas OF/PS, além do amitraz. Os resultados indicaram que a cepa denominada "Santa Luiza" apresentou fatores de resistência (FR que variaram entre 2,3 e 3,95 para OF, 23,3 e 147,56 para PS e de 3,76 a 21.57 para amitraz em testes realizados com larvas de carrapatos. A caracterização e purificação de uma cepa de B. microplus resistente ao amitraz permitem seu uso como cepa de referência para a avaliação biológica de ixodicidas alternativos, além de padronizar e validar métodos de diagnósticos toxicológicos que possam detectar resistência frente a esse acaricida.

  11. A Study of the Shrinkage Changes and Mathematical Modeling of Garlic (Allium sativumL.) During Convective Drying

    OpenAIRE

    M Rasouli; S Seiiedlou

    2012-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativumL.) is one of the most important Allium spice. From an economic point of view, the dried garlic slices are valuable products. In this research, garlic slices as a thin layer were dried in a laboratory scale hot-air dryer, under air flow of 1.5 m/s, air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70˚C and slice thicknesses of 2, 3 and 4 mm. The mean values of shrinkage of garlic slices obtained 69.8%. In addition, the effects of the drying variables on the shrinkage of dried garlic were e...

  12. Establecimiento de un medio de cultivo sumergido para una cepa nativa de un hongo poliporal

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Serna Carolina; Sierra Cadavid Andrea; Sáez Vega Alex Armando; Rojano Benjamín Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de dos velocidades de agitación (80 y 100 rpm), dos fuentes de carbono (glucosa y sacarosa) y tres pH iniciales (5.5, 6.0 y 6.5) sobre la producción de fenoles totales, la actividad antioxidante, el crecimiento micelial y el consumo de sustrato de una cepa nativa de un hongo perteneciente al orden Poliporal en cultivo sumergido.El mayor crecimiento micelial se obtuvo al día 3 con un valor de 10 g/L a una velocidad de agitación de 80 rpm, sacarosa como fuente de carbono y p...

  13. Effect of Media on Gynogenesis Induction in Leek (allium ampeloprasum L. Breeding Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KASKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leek (Allium ampeloprasum L. is one of the economically important members of the genus Allium (family:Alliaceae. It is a self-compatible, outbreeding, tetraploid (2n=4X= 32 crop species that is very difficult to improve through traditional breeding strategies. Entegration of doubled haploid (DH techniques such as gynogenesis into the leek breeding programs may speed up the variety development. In order to optimize a gynogenesis induction protocol for leek, we carried out experiments by culturing immature flower buds on various tissue culture media. Among the media tested, BDS and MS-based media with various combinations of plant growth regulators provided gynogenic embryos. Frequencies of gynogenic plantlet development were generally low and plantlets were obtained from almost all media included in the experiments. A total of 48 gynogenic plants were produced from approximately 30 thousand immature flower buds from six donor materials included in the experiments. In the DNA amount measurements performed with flow cytometry, it was found that gynogenic A. ampeloprasum plants were mostly diploid (55.56 % and the others were tetraploid (44.44 %. Diploid and tetraploid gynogenic plants were transferred to in vivo for further evaluation and grown in a greenhouse to produce selfed seed. Our studies with leek and several other Alliums indicate that gynogenesis induction frequencies are generally low due to genotypic effect. In order to obtain sufficient numbers of gynogenic lines from leek breeding populations, high numbers of immature flowers should be cultured on gynogenesis induction media. We suggest use of large size flower buds collected several days prior to anthesis while establishing gynogenesis induction cultures in leek. BDS medium that is commonly used in onion gynogenesis studies can also be used for the production of gynogenic leek lines.

  14. Resistencia a drogas de segunda línea en cepas peruanas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrogorresistentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Barletta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar los perfiles de resistencia de las quinolonas; ciprofloxacina (Cpx, ofloxacina (Ofx, gatifloxacina (Gfx y moxifloxacina (Mfx, y de los inyectables; kanamicina (Km, amikacina (Am y capreomicina (Cm en cepas multidrogorresistente (MDR. Se buscó la presencia de mutaciones en los genes rrs,tlyA y gyrA/B, y su posible asociación con la resistencia a inyectables y quinolonas. Materiales y métodos. En este estudio piloto descriptivo se seleccionaron cepas MDR aisladas durante junio a diciembre de 2004, que fueron criopreservadas en el banco de muestras del Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Alexander von Humboldt" en Lima, Perú. Se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI para Cpx, Ofx, Gfx, Mfx, Km, Am y Cm. Se investigó las mutaciones presentes en los genes rrs, tlyA y gyrA/B a través de un PCR convencional y posterior secuenciamiento de los productos obtenidos. Resultados. Cuatro de los once aislados presentaron resistencia contra los inyectables y en todas se observó una alta CMI; >120 μg/mL para Km y >160 μg/mL para Am y Cm. Solo dos aislados presentaron resistencia a Ofx con un CMI = 4 μg/mL. Los resultados de secuenciamiento sugirieron que la mutación A1401T en rrs podría ser la causa molecular de resistencia a los inyectables; mientras que en este estudio no se halló ninguna mutación en tlyA ni en gyrA/B asociada a resistencia. Conclusiones. Este estudio sugiere una posible asociación entre la mutación en A1401G y la resistencia a los antibióticos inyectables.

  15. Resistencia a drogas de segunda línea en cepas peruanas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrogorresistentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Barletta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar los perfiles de resistencia de las quinolonas; ciprofloxacina (Cpx, ofloxacina (Ofx, gatifloxacina (Gfx y moxifloxacina (Mfx, y de los inyectables; kanamicina (Km, amikacina (Am y capreomicina (Cm en cepas multidrogorresistente (MDR. Se buscó la presencia de mutaciones en los genes rrs,tlyA y gyrA/B, y su posible asociación con la resistencia a inyectables y quinolonas. Materiales y métodos. En este estudio piloto descriptivo se seleccionaron cepas MDR aisladas durante junio a diciembre de 2004, que fueron criopreservadas en el banco de muestras del Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Alexander von Humboldt" en Lima, Perú. Se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI para Cpx, Ofx, Gfx, Mfx, Km, Am y Cm. Se investigó las mutaciones presentes en los genes rrs, tlyA y gyrA/B a través de un PCR convencional y posterior secuenciamiento de los productos obtenidos. Resultados. Cuatro de los once aislados presentaron resistencia contra los inyectables y en todas se observó una alta CMI; >120 μg/mL para Km y >160 μg/mL para Am y Cm. Solo dos aislados presentaron resistencia a Ofx con un CMI = 4 μg/mL. Los resultados de secuenciamiento sugirieron que la mutación A1401T en rrs podría ser la causa molecular de resistencia a los inyectables; mientras que en este estudio no se halló ninguna mutación en tlyA ni en gyrA/B asociada a resistencia. Conclusiones. Este estudio sugiere una posible asociación entre la mutación en A1401G y la resistencia a los antibióticos inyectables.

  16. Cepas de Campylobacter jejuni resistentes a quinolonas aisladas de humanos, gallinas y pollos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Notario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon 8 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni provenientes de humanos con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con 23 aislamientos de cloaca de gallinas y pollos obtenidos de zonas próximas a la ciudad de Rosario, todos resistentes a la ciprofloxacina. Las muestras se sembraron en agar selectivo y se incubaron en microaerofilia a 42 °C. Las colonias se identificaron con el método tradicional. Los aislamientos se conservaron a -70 °C en caldo cerebro corazón con 17% v/v de glicerina. La clonalidad se determinó por RAPD-PCR, utilizando el primer 1254 (Stern NJ. Se interpretaron los aislamientos como clones distintos cuando diferían en una banda de amplificación. Se obtuvieron 5 clones diferentes. Los patrones I, II y V fueron aislados en criaderos industriales de pollos y en humanos (el II también en un establecimiento de gallinas ponedoras de huevos. En un gallinero familiar se obtuvo el patrón I. El patrón III sólo se obtuvo de humanos. El patrón IV se halló en uno de los criaderos pero no en humanos. Se pudo determinar que 93.5% de las cepas se aislaron tanto de animales como de humanos, por lo que se considera posible que la colonización de criaderos con cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos pudiera ser el origen de la infección de humanos.

  17. The effectiveness of garlic extract (Allium sativum linn) in controlling aflatoxicosis in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Romsyah Maryam; Yulvian Sani; Siti Juariah; Rachmat Firmansyah; Miharja .

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis is a disease generated as the consequence of aflatoxin contamination in foods and feeds. Garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), a natural spice known to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins in poultry. Twenty five laying hens were used to study the effectiveness of garlic extract in reducing aflatoxicosis. The animals were divided into 5 groups i.e (1) control group, (2) group treated with 0.4 mg/kg BH, (3) group treated with 0.4 mg/kg BH and 4% garlic extract in feed, (4) group treated wi...

  18. Amelioration of lead induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arti; Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena

    2010-01-01

    Lead is a blue-gray and highly toxic divalent metal that occurs naturally in the earth’s crust and is spread throughout the environment by various human activities. The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) to reduce hepatotoxicity induced by lead nitrate was evaluated experimentally in male mice. Oral treatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 40 days (1/45 of LD50) induced a significant increase in the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase, alanine am...

  19. Cyclic sulfoxides-garlicnins K1, K2, and H1-extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komota, Yusuke; Kondo, Yoshihiko; Saku, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Koki; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takeya, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Newly identified cyclic sulfoxides-garlicnins K1 (1), K2 (2), and H1 (3)-were isolated from the acetone extracts of the bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum. Garlicnin H1 (3) demonstrated potential to suppress tumor cell proliferation by regulating macrophage activation. The structures of garlicnins K1 and K2, 3,4-dimethyl-5-allyl-tetrahydrothiophen-2-one-S-oxides, and the structure of garlicnin H1, 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-5-allylsulfoxide-tetrahydrothiophen-2-(ethane-1,2-diol)-S-oxide were characterized by spectroscopic analysis. PMID:25748782

  20. Multiplication vegetative et conservation in vitro chez le poireau (Allium porrum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Dore, Claire

    1988-01-01

    La multiplication végétative est nécessaire pour répondre à des objectifs de production de semences chez plusieurs Allium cultivés. Le clonage in vitro apporte une solution intéressante mais l’effectif obtenu à partir de la plante mère est insuffisant. La méthode de multiplication par cycles successifs mise au point chez le poireau consiste à stimuler l’activité les méristèmes latents du plateau basal des plantules. La conservation in vitro permet de différer le repiquage en terre jusqu’...

  1. Cytological Effects of Irradiated Guayabano Fruit Juice on Native Onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Milagros Serrana; Adoracion Arañez

    1993-01-01

    Thirty bottles of guayabano fruit juice were exposed to gamma ray doses of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy. These bottles were then stored for 0, 4 and 8 days and used for treatment of Allium fistulosum L. root meristems. For each treatment, 2000 cells were scored to obtain data on mitotic index and types and frequency of cytological aberrations. The newly irradiated juice did not inhibit mitosis but storage showed marked effects on the mitotic index. Both irradiated or unirradiated juice stored for 8 d...

  2. Combined effects of ionising gamma radiation and some chemical substances on the Allium sativum growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co 60 - gamma ionising radiations act in different doses and flows on Allium sativum. They accelerate the germination of bulblets with a couple of days by comparison with the sample. The 10 Gy dose stimulates the plants growth. The 30 Gy dose or 'shock dose' related to the radiation flow and with chemicals used in the treatment, produces strong decays or raises of biological parameter values. The growth region which is implied in growing regulators synthesis is perturbed. The calculation of nuclear and cytoplasmic volumes of nucleus-cytoplasm ratio confirms the perturbation at this level. (Author)

  3. The role of crop waste and soil in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar porri infection of leek (Allium porrum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Koenraadt, H.; Visser, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri, the causal agent of bacterial blight of leek, is a current threat for leek (Allium porrum) production in the Netherlands. The roles of post-harvest crop waste and plant invasion from soil in leek plant infection was investigated with the purpose to gain better underst

  4. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  5. Histopathological, oxidative damage, biochemical, and genotoxicity alterations in hepatic rats exposed to deltamethrin: modulatory effects of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncir, Marwa; Ben Salah, Ghada; Kamoun, Hassen; Makni Ayadi, Fatma; Khabir, Abdelmajid; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Saoudi, Mongi

    2016-06-01

    Deltamethrin is a pesticide widely used as a synthetic pyrethroid. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of deltamethrin to induce oxidative stress and changes in biochemical parameters, hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in female rats following a short-term (30 days) oral exposure and attenuation of these effects by Allium sativum extract. Indeed, Allium sativum is known to be a good antioxidant food resource which helps destroy free radical particles. Our results showed that deltamethrin treatment caused an increase in liver enzyme activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. However, it induced a decrease in activities of hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (p < 0.01). Allium sativum extract normalized significantly (p < 0.01) the mentioned parameters in deltamethrin-treated rats. For genotoxic evaluation, deltamethrin treatment showed a significant increase in frequencies of micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. Micronucleus formation is an indicator of chromosomal damage which has been increasingly used to detect the genotoxic potential of environmental pests. The present study showed that Allium sativum diminished the adverse effects induced by this synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. PMID:26974685

  6. GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava S; Pathak P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae) (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE)) was studied on free amino acids (FAA) level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P

  7. A new autumn-flowering species of Allium (Liliaceae) from the island of Sifnos (Cyclades, Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, B.; Tan, Kit; Tzanoudakis, D.

    2006-01-01

    Allium apolloniensis is described as a species new to science, illustrated and compared with related species of A. sect. Codonoprasum. It is apparently restricted to the Cyclades in the central Aegean and of particular interest for the phylogeny of the genus because it is tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32)....

  8. Antigenos "particulares" a cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi: demonstracao por imunoeletroforese bidimensional Antigens particular to strains of Trypanosoma cruzi: demonstration by bidimensional immunoelectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Gonçalves Morgado

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available Os extratos solúveis das cepas Y, São Felipe e Colombiana do Trypanosoma cruzi foram analisados contra seus antissoros homólogos e heterólogos por imunoeletroforese bidimensional e imunoeletroforese bidimensional com gel intermediário. Os resultados revelaram a existência de pelo menos 35 linhas de precipitação na cepa Y (32 de migração anódica e três de migração catódica, 24 linhas de precipitação anódica na cepa São Felipe e 22 na cepa Colombiana. Estas duas últimas cepas não apresentaram antígenos de migração catódica. Estes antígenos de migração catódica foram considerados "particulares" a cepa Y uma vez que quando testados contra antissoros heterólogos não observamos linhas de precipitação. Através do uso da imunoeletroforese bidimensional com gel intermediário foram evidenciados cinco antígenos particulares à cepa Y quando comparada à São Felipe e oito quando comparada à cepa Colombiana. A cepa São Felipe mostrou um único antígeno particular quando comparada à cepa Colombiana porém, não se evidenciou nenhum antígeno particular quando a cepa São Felipe foi analisada contra o antissoro da cepa Y. A cepa Colombiana não demonstrou nenhum antígeno particular nem quando comparada à cepa Y nem à São Felipe. Nossos resultados revelam que cepas pertencentes a diferentes tipos quanto ao comportamento morfobiológico e histopatológico também demonstram uma acentuada diferença quanto a seus componentes antigênicos.Soluble extracts of Y, São Felipe and Colombian strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were analyzed against their homologous and heterologous antisera by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and crossed immunoelectrophoresis with intermediate gel. In the homologous system, the results showed 35 precipitin lines for Y strain (32 anodic, 3 cathodic, 24 precipitin lines for SãoFelipe strain and 22 for Colombian strain. No cathodic antigen was observed for these last two strains which were consequently

  9. Effect of Cardioactive Principle of Methanolic Extract of Allium Humile Leaves on Global Ischaemic Rat Heart

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    Yogita Dobhal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In present study efficacy of active principle (AH-1 of Methanolic extract of Allium humile leaves has been evaluated to limit myocardial injury in ischaemic rat heart. Material and Methods: Various extracts of A. humile leaves were prepared using solvents of increasing polarity. Methanolic extract among all other extracts further purified using chromatographic technique results four major fractions A1, A2, A3, and A4. Cardioprotective potentials. Among these fractions A4 was found to be active fraction. AH-1 (active principle was isolated from the fraction A4 using column chromatography technique and evaluated for Cardioprotective effect. Results: The Methanolic extract of A. humile leaves and further fraction A4 of Methanolic extract significantly prevented myocardial infarct size as compared with that of standard Ramipril in the study. From fraction A4 of Methanolic extract, the isolated active principle AH-1 showing cardio protective effect at dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: The study suggests that AH-1 is active Cardioprotective principle of Methanolic extract of Allium humile leaves and was found significant (p<0.05.

  10. Jack bean urease inhibition by crude juices of Allium and Brassica plants. Determination of thiosulfinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olech, Zofia; Zaborska, Wiesława; Kot, Mirosława

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was the elucidation of the inhibitory influence of Allium (garlic, onion, leek) and Brassica (cabbage, Brussels sprouts) plants juices, on jack bean urease activity. Concentrations of thiosulfinates, the compounds responsible for the inhibition, were determined in studied materials. The kinetics and mechanism of the inhibitions were investigated. Biphasic, time-dependent courses of the inhibition reactions were observed for all tested Allium and Brussels sprouts from Brassica. The cabbage material caused the monophasic course of the inhibition. In the presence of dithiothreitol, a total reactivation of the inhibited urease proceeded for the tested plants except for the onion. The onion juice modified urease, regained only half of the initial activity. The irreversible contribution was related to the presence of 1-propanethial-S-oxide, cepaenes and zwiebelanes formed in the onion juice. It was found that the thermal processing of the plant juices, results in the decrease of thiosulfinates concentration, as well as the efficiency of urease inhibition. PMID:24128461

  11. Evaluation of Cytogenetic Effects of Isoproturon on the Root Meristem Cells of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To validate the use of Allium sativum as a reliable test model for genotoxicity, isoproturon, a substituted phenylalkylurea herbicide, was evaluated on the root meristem cells by this plant system. Method Test concentrations were selected by determining EC50 and root tips were exposed to various concentrations for 6 or 24 hr. EC50 concentration was calculated to be 70.8 ppm for the root growth. In addition to root growth retardation exposure to isoproturon induced morpholoogical changes like discolouration and stiffness of roots. Results Exposure to various experimental concentrations of isoproturon (35-280 ppm), including EC50, significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the mitotic index and induced chromosome breaks/mitotic aberrations at 6 or 24 hr. Conclusion The frequency of aberrations was found to be decreased in a dose dependant manner at 24 or 48 hr post exposure, however in comparison of control cells the frequency of aberrations was considerably high which indicates genotoxicity potentials of isoproturon. Further, present study also suggests that Allium sativum is a sensitive, efficient, and reliable test system for measuring the genotoxicity potential of environmental chemicals.

  12. Evaluation of Cytogenetic Effects of Isoproturon on the Root Meristem Cells of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.K.S.ChAUHAN; P.N.SAXENA; 等

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To validate the use of Allium sativum sativum as a reliable test model for gentoxicity,isoproturon,a substituted phenylalkylures herbicide,was evaluated on the root meristem cells by this plant system.ethod :Test concentrations were selected by determining EC50 and root tips were exposed to various concentrations for 6 or 24hr.EC50 concentration was calculated to be 70.8ppm for the root growth.In addition on root growth retardation exposure to isoproturon induced morpholoogical changes like discoloruation and stiffness of roots.Results:Exposure to various experimental concentrations of isoproturon(35-280ppm),including EC50,significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the mitotic index and induced chromosome breaks/mitotic aberrations at 6 or 24 hr.Conclusion:The frequency of aberrations was found to be decreased in a dose dependant manner at 24 or 48hr post exposure.howerver in comparison of control cells the frequency of aberrations was considerably high which indicates genotoxicity potentials of isoproturon.Further,present study also suggests that Allium satiuvum is a sensitive,efficient,and reliable test system for measuring the genotoxicity potential of environmental chemicals.

  13. Protective effects of five allium derived organosulfur compounds against mutation and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Kwang; Chen, Tai-Yuan; Lin, Jou-Hsing; Wang, Chen-Ya; Wang, Bor-Sen

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we examined the ability of five allium-derived organosulfur compounds to protect cells against mutation and oxidation. The compounds tested were 1-propylmercaptan (PM), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), propyl disulfide (PDS), and 2,5-dimethylthiophene (DMT). Our results showed that when used at concentrations of 100-400 μmol/l, the five compounds inhibited the mutagenicity of 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, a direct mutagen, and benzo[a]pyrene, an indirect mutagen, toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. Furthermore, at these concentrations, all five of the compounds protected HepG2 cells against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative cytotoxicity. The compounds likely enhanced cell viability by suppressing the formation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of glutathione depletion in cells. DMT and PM inhibited mutation and oxidation to a greater extent than DMDS, DADS, and PDS. These results demonstrate for the first time that DMT and PM can contribute to the antimutagenic and the antioxidative property of Allium vegetables. PMID:26617023

  14. Evaluation of the anti-alternaria solani activity of allium hirtifolium boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of 100 plant species from 45 plant families were investigated on mycelial growth of Alternaria solani, the cause of early blight of tomatoes, based on paper disc diffusion method. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. The results showed that methanolic extracts of 21 species exhibited measurable inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of A. solani. The stongest inhibitory effect was obtained for the extracts of Allium hirtifolium and Teucrium chamaedrys with radius inhibitory zones of 19.08 mm +- 0.48 and 15.58 mm +- 0.48, respectively. Furthermore, an experiment was performed to investigate synergistic effect of A. hirtifolium, Ferula assa-foetida and Artemisia sieberi separately and in combinations with each other based on agar dilution method on the growth of A. solani. Results indicated that a mixture of Allium hirtifolium and F. assa-foetida extracts caused complete mycelial growth inhibition of A. solani. The IC50 and IC95 values for A. hirtifolium bulbs were equal to 78 and 946 ppm, respectively. Moreover, methanolic extract of A. hirtifolium bulb significantly showed the highest inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of A. solani when compared with other plant parts. The results of inhibitory effect of fractions obtained by thin layer chromatography of A. hirtifolium bulbs showed that one band with Rf= 0.41 had an inhibitory effect against A. solani. (author)

  15. In-vitro Sensitivity of Selected Enteric Bacteria to Extracts of Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa O. AREKEMASE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has been used throughout all of recorded history for culinary and medicinal reasons. The portion of the plant most often consumed is an underground storage structure called a head. The antimicrobial effects of Allium sativum (garlic against some bacterial isolates were investigated using the agar diffusion well method. Standard methods were used to carry out the investigation. Photochemical analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of many secondary metabolites such as saponins, tannins, alkaloid steroids and glycosides. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the agent (garlic was determined for both the aqueous and ethanolic extract. The ethanolic extract was more effective than the aqueous extract, inhibiting all the test organisms. While the aqueous extracts was effective against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Garlic extracts are strictly broad-spectrum with immune boosting phytonutrients from Allium ‘family’. Further research will need to be done to carry out the purification of the active ingredients which have potential for combating human disease. Also, toxicological studies need to be evaluated.

  16. Cytological effects and RAPD analysis of Allium fistulosum L. irradiated by 12C6+ heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytological effects and RAPD analysis of root-tip cells of Allium fistulosum L., the dry seeds were irradiated by 12 C6+ heavy ions, were studied. Micronucleus and chromosomal aberration observed in the root-tip cells showed that obvious 'linear rise' trend was in the frequency of micronucleus, multi-micronucleus and total chromosomal aberration. But a 'U- formed' trend was observed only in the chromosomal aberration frequency. At the same time, RAPD analysis revealed 12C6+ heavy ions exerted great effect on DNA variation of Allium fistulosum L.. Flawing bands, increasing bands and the ones with different transport ratios were observed in amplified bands of 28 selected primers. The DNA variation rate for 30, 90 and 180Gy treatments was 29.91%, 41.05% and 22.14%, respectively. This study also found that high micronucleus frequency and chromosomal variation lead to high lethality, resulting in low DNA variation rate in the survived plants which seeds were irradiated with high doses. (authors)

  17. In Vivo Antinociceptive Effects of Persian Shallot (Allium hirtifolium in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The tendency toward using herbal plants instead of synthetic drugs is increasing in recent years because of their lower adverse effects and high varieties of efficient components. Objectives In this investigation, analgesic effects of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Allium hirtifolium were studied in male rats. Materials and Methods A total of 48 adult male rats were divided eight groups: control, intraperitoneal 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of extract, 200 mg/kg of A. hirtifolium extract plus aspirin, aspirin (1 mg/kg, morphine (1 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg of A. hirtifolium extract plus naloxone (1 mg/kg. The analgesic effects of A. hirtifolium were assessed with writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests. The data were compared with control by one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. Results Alliumhirtifolium extract at (200 mg/kg dosage, alone and in combination with aspirin, had shown antinociceptive effect in writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests (P < 0.01. Allium hirtifolium extract (at 100 mg/kg dosage had just shown analgesic effects on tail-flick and formalin (chronic phase tests. Conclusions It looks that A. hirtifolium has antinociceptive effects that might be due to flavonoids and saponins in plant the analgesic effect of which was demonstrated previously.

  18. Seleccion de cepas de rizobios en suelos promisorios para el cultivo de la soya (Glycine max (L Merril en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Bradley Rosemary

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available En el invernadero se evaluó la efectividad de las cepas preseleccionadas de B. japonicum (CIAT 199,209,3778,3874 y 3876 de la recomendada (CIAT51 y una de Rhizobium spp (CIAT 3779. En el suelo Fluventic Haplustoll, de reacción casi neutra, se presentó respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación. El tratamiento fertilizado con 150 kg de N/ha produjo el mayor rendimiento de N. Las cepas más efectivas fueron CIAT 3778 y 51, que también presentaron el mayor indice de efectividad a la inoculación (IEI. En el suelo Typic Pellustert,de reacción alcalina, se presentó respuesta significativa a la inoculación. El mayor rendimiento de N se obtuvo con las cepas CIAT 3778 y 51, que fueron además estadísticamente iguales a las cepas CIAT 199 y 3876 en cuanto al IEI. En el suelo Arenic Haplustalf, de reacción ligeramente ácida, hubo respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación y la cepa más efectiva fue la CJAT 199. En el suelo Fluventic Ustropept, de reacci6n ligeramente ácida, se presentaron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos inoculados. El mayor rendimiento de N se presentó en el tratamiento fertilizado con N. Las mejores cepas fueron CIAT 3778,3779 y 209. En el suelo Vertic Ustropept, de reacción alcalina, se presentó respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación. En cuanto al rendimiento de N no se encontraron diferencias entre el tratamiento fertilizado con N y las cepas CIAT 51, 209 y CIAT 3778, siendo también las más efectivas en cuanto al IEI, junto oon la cepa CIAT 199. En los suelos Tropentic Haplorthox y Typic Tropudult no se enoontró respuesta a la inoculación.Screening of Rhizobium strains in soils apt for soybean (Glycine max (L Merril cultivation in Colombia. Under greenhouse conditions were evaluated the effectivity of the preselected strains of the preselected strains of B. japonicum (CIAT 199, 209, 3778, 3874 and 3876, in addition to the recommended strain (CIAT 51 and one of

  19. Lesões cardíacas em ratos wistar inoculados com diferentes cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chapadeiro

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available Ratos albinos Wistar infectados com diferentes inóculos das cepas Y, Colombiana (COL e São Felipe (12SF do Trypanosoma cruzi desenvolveram parasitemia elevada entre 14e21 dias, a qual tomou-se desprezível ou desapareceu completamente ao final da 4ª semana. As lesões do coração foram avaliadas, semiquantitativamente, pelo sistema de "scores", conforme a intensidade e a extensão da inflamação, nas diferentes estruturas do órgão, tendo sido observado que: a na fase inicial (aguda da infecção, os animais mortos espontaneamente ou em conseqüência de acidente anestésico apresentaram cardite de intensidade moderada à acentuada, não havendo diferença em relação às cepas utilizadas; as diferentes estruturas do coração estavam uniformemente comprometidas; b na fase crônica da infecção observou-se cardite degrau leve a moderado e as lesões foram mais freqüentes e intensas quanto maior o inoculo empregado; no entanto, inóculos baixos só produziram lesões quando a cepa utilizada foi a Colombiana. Trombose mural nos átrios e dilatação da ponta do ventrículo esquerdo foram observadas em 20% dos animais, independentemente da cepa. Na fase crônica 15% dos animais apresentaram miocardite crônica com fibrose, associada à hipertrofia das miocélulas. Os AA confirmam ser o rato albino suscetível à infecção chagásica e, portanto, um modelo útil no estudo das manifestações cardíacas da Doença de Chagas.

  20. AISLAMIENTO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE CEPAS DE Staphylococcus ENTEROTOXIGÉNICOS AISLADOS DE QUESOS EN BOGOTA

    OpenAIRE

    María Vanegas L; Lina González G; Aida Martínez L; Francisco Buitrago

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo. Caracterizar cepas de Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxigénicos provenientes de quesos distribuidos en supermercados, tiendas y en ventas callejeras en la ciudad de Bogota, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se ecolectaron muestras de quesos provenientes de tiendas, supermercados y ventas callejeras. Se detectó la presencia del gen para enterotoxina A usando un set de primers reportado en estudios previos. Un total de 50 quesos fueron analizados, 13 comercializados en tien...

  1. A escola de qualidade para todos: abrindo as camadas da cebola La escuela de calidad para todos: abriendo las cáscaras de la cebolla Qualified school for all: opening the peels of the onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candido Alberto Gomes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa educacional apresenta hoje abundantes constatações sobre como construir uma escola de qualidade para todos. Este trabalho se concentra em aspectos selecionados das diferenças entre escolas e dentro das escolas, com base na literatura nacional e internacional, embora mencionando a importância das origens sociais dos alunos, gestão educacional, avaliação e trajetórias curriculares. A estrutura peculiar dos sistemas educacionais se assemelha a uma cebola, com sucessivas camadas que influenciam a aprendizagem. Assim, se destacam despesas, instalações, tempo letivo, professores, clima e gestão escolares, efeitos dos colegas, alocação da matrícula e do espaço, ações que contribuem para a efetividade na sala de aula e a formação de turmas. Portanto, é possível atuar sobre os fatores intra-escolares, no seu âmbito de influência, que têm papel mais amplo nos países em desenvolvimento.La investigación educativa presenta hoy una gran cantidad de resultados capaces de orientar la construcción de una escuela de calidad para todos. Este trabajo hace la reseña de factores seleccionados de las diferencias entre las escuelas y en el interior de ellas, según la literatura nacional y internacional. Aunque reconozca la importancia de los orígenes sociales de los estudiantes, de la gestión de los sistemas educativos, de la evaluación y de las diferentes trayectorias curriculares, este trabajo considera la estructura particular de los sistemas, semejante a una cebolla, con sus successivas cáscaras y sus relaciones con el aprendizaje. De este modo, destaca los gastos, instalaciones y recursos, tiempo, magistério, clima y gestión de las escuelas, efectos de los compañeros, administración de la matrícula y de las relaciones espaciales y agrupamiento de secciones. Así, es posible actuar sobre los factores internos de la escuela, que tiene un rol más influyente en los países en desarrollo.Educational research presents

  2. Caracterización de las glicoproteínas de una cepa de virus respiratorio sincicial aislada en Cali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Parra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se empleó un aislado de virus respiratorio sincicial de un niño de dos meses de edad que presentó el primer episodio de infección aguda en un estudio longitudinal efectuado en Cali (1986-1990, para caracterizar molecular y antigénicamente las glicoproteínas virales que son importantes en los mecanismos de inmunopatogénesis en la infección respiratoria aguda generada por este tipo de virus. La caracterización electroforética de proteínas radiomarcadas in vitro con [3H]-Glucosamina permitió evidenciar las bandas de 98, 70, 30 kd como glicoproteínas que hacen parte de la envoltura del virus. La gp 70 es importante en la inmunopatogénesis porque aparece como efecto de protección de tipo IgG transmitida pasivamente por la madre. Se pudieron localizar dos sitios para la proteasa V8 en la gp70 aislada de ambas cepas. La F1 es una de las subunidades comprometidas en la generación de una respuesta inmune de tipo neutralizante determinada en sueros de la fase aguda y en hiperinmunes de conejo. Se demostró la similitud antigénica y estructural de la cepa Cali-0015 con la cepa de referencia Long.

  3. Actividad "In Vitro" del Propoaromiel contra Cepas Aisladas de Muestras Clínicas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Echemendía Arana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia de los microorganismos a los antibacterianos es un problema mundial de salud, por lo que se hace necesario la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas terapéuticas las cuales van encaminadas a las fuentes naturales.El Propoaromiel (PAM, es una formulación que se obtiene mediante la unión de miel, propóleos y aceites esenciales. Nuestro trabajo nos propusimos demostrar, la actividad antibacteriana ¿in vitro¿ del PAM frente a 239 microorganismos de muestras clínicas: S. aureus (N= 53; S. pneumoniae (N = 37 y S. B. hemoliticcus (N = 49 N. meningitidis (N= 42; M. catarrhalis (N=5. P.aeruginosa (N= 37; E. coli (N=5; Salmonella sp (N=8; Proteus sp (N=2; Hafnia (N=1. Se utilizó el método de dilución en agar según las normas establecidas por el Comité Nacional de Estándares para Laboratorios Clínicos (NCCLS. Todas las suspensiones de los microorganismos fueron ajustados a un patrón de turbidez 0.5 MacFarland. Se prepararon diluciones dobles del PMA desde 5.07 a 650 mg/mL para determinar la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI capaz de inhibir el crecimiento bacteriano. Se utilizó Agar Mueller- Hinton suplementado con sangre de carnero desfibrinada al 5%. Las placas se incubaron a 37 OC y atmósfera húmeda de CO2 al 5 %. La lectura se realizó a las 24 horas de incubación. Las cepas con mayor susceptibilidad al PAM fueron las de N. meningitidis y S. pneumoniae (CMI90 30,4 mg/mL mientras que el S.aureus (CMI90 243,7 mg/mL. y los bacilos Gram negativos (CMI90 243,7mg/mL fueron más resistentes a la acción del PAM. El propoaromiel fue capaz de inhibir todas las cepas estudiadas.

  4. La cepa de yogur en leche de vaca y cabra como suplemento en corderos de levante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia E. Flechas-F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La  obtención de  productos pecuarios  inocuos para la salud humana cobra cada vez más fuerza. Por esta razón surge la tendencia al empleo de probióticos  que  administrados  a  los  animales provocan  efectos  benéficos  mediante modificaciones en  la población microbiana de su tracto digestivo. Se realizó un estudio con 25 corderos en etapa de  levante, con el  fin de evaluar el  efecto  de  el  uso  de  la  cepa  de  yogur (Lactobacillus  bulgaricus  y  Streptococcus thermophylus  preparado  en  leche  de  vaca  y leche de cabra sobre el crecimiento y  la ganancia de peso, con una duración de 30 días, la dieta estuvo  conformada  por  forraje  a  voluntad  y suplementación  con maíz  y  concentrado.  Los tratamientos  fueron:  yogur a base de  leche de vaca, dosis de 10 y 20 cm3; yogur a base de  leche de cabra, dosis 10 y 20 cm3 y control agua como placebo, 10 cm3. Se suministro  la cepa cada 3 días  y  se  pesaron  los  animales  una  vez  por semana, se realizó química sanguínea al inicio y al  final del ensayo. El peso para  los diferentes

  5. A methodology for determining environmental threshold quantities for substances covered by CEPA's Environmental Emergency Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sections 199 and 200 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) 1999 oblige persons who own or manage specified toxic and hazardous substances to develop and implement environmental emergency plans. This paper discussed the methodology for determining how a chemical is assessed for recommending an environmental emergency plan. For Section 199, once substances are declared toxic, each chemical is assessed to determine whether it requires a plan or not. For Section 200, any chemical can be added under the E2 regulations, as long as it can be ascertained that the substance is toxic according to the following criteria: it has an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity; it constitutes a danger to the environment on which human life depends; and/or it constitutes a danger in Canada to human life or health. An overview of the risk evaluation framework was provided, including details of the pre-assessment filter. Summaries of trigger criteria were presented, as well as environmental hazard ratings and details of persistence of organic chemicals in the environment and bioaccumulation. Aquatic toxicity and ingestion toxicity details were also provided. Human hazard ratings included carcinogenicity, inhalation toxicity, dermal toxicity, rabbit and rat toxicity and corrosion and skin irritation ratings. Issues concerning vapour cloud explosions were examined. A reactivity table was presented with hazard descriptions. European Union Threshold quantities were examined, as well as a list of comparisons of selected substances of CEPA with the European Union. It was concluded that the Environmental Emergency Branch (EEB) has created environmental thresholds by first examining how other countries have protected the environment. Substance thresholds for the United States have focused on protecting humans, while Europe has established threshold quantities that work for their countries. The EEB has selected classification tables

  6. Role of Topical Cream Extract Garlic (Allium sativum) in Wound Healing Fibroblasts Judging from the Strain Wistar Rats with Acute Injury Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zaenal Zaenal; Suryani As???ad; Veni Hadju; Agussalim Bukhari

    2016-01-01

    Wound will cause problems if handled poorly, causing chronic wounds. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a typical plant of the tropics, including Indonesia, the tubers are often used in traditional medicine, among them to heal wound. This laboratory experimental study using randomized designs Post Test Control Group aims to determine the effect of the use of Topical Cream Extract garlic (Allium sativum) on wound healing in topical administration, with a view histopathologic consisting of fibroblasts...

  7. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF EXTRACT OF BULB OF ALLIUM SATIVUM LINN. USING DPPH AND FRAP ASSAYS WITH EVALUATION OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT

    OpenAIRE

    Manorma Kumari*; Navi Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    The methanolic extracts of Allium sativum were investigated for its antioxidant activity by using 1,1-diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. This study indicated that Allium sativum L. exhibited the high antioxidant activity and phenolic contents and can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidant. Due to its natural o...

  8. Study on bacteriostasis and thermal stability of Allium cepa L.ethanol extract%洋葱醇提物抑菌效果及其热稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺菊萍; 隋玉杰; 陈学红; 刘晓庆

    2010-01-01

    采用最低抑菌浓度(MIC)和滤纸片法研究了洋葱乙醇提取物对枯草芽孢杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、黑曲霉和酵母菌的抑制作用,同时研究了洋葱醇提物(OEE)的抑菌持久性及温度对它的影响.结果表明,OEE时各实验菌种均有一定的抑制作用,其中对酵母菌的抑制作用尤其显著,最低抑菌浓度达到3.2g/mL;OEE对各实验菌株具有较好的抑菌持久性,并且在一定范围内,温度对它有显著影响.

  9. HPLC法测定宁夏红葱中槲皮素与山奈酚的含量%HPLC Determination of Quercetin and Kaempferol in Allium cepa var. Proliferum from Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧燕; 方海田; 张光弟; 史娟; 张永健

    2015-01-01

    The determination method and extracting conditions of flavonoids in two types of red onions from Ningxia were mainly investigated, and compared with those of Chinese onions in our study. Taking Tongxin red onions, Yanchi red onions and Chinese onions as the research objects, extract of quercetin and kaempferol were extracted with methanol+ultrasonic extraction methods from three different samples , and the extraction conditions was optimized by the orthogonal experimental design methods. Then the contents of quercetin and kaempferol in three different samples were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the determination conditions were optimized. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were:ultrasonic temperature 60℃, ultrasonic time 50 min, methanol concentration 75%. The optimal determination conditions were Agilent XDB-C18 column (250 mm ×4.6 mm, 5 μm), the column temperature was 30 ℃, mobile phase was methanol:0.5%acetic acid=30:70, the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, the detection wavelength was 290 nm. As the comparative analysis, the contents of quercetin and kaempferol in two red onions were significantly higher than those of Chinese onions, and the contents of quercetin and kaempferol in Yanchi red onions were obviously higher than those of Tongxin red onions.%以宁夏同心红葱、盐池红葱以及市售白葱为材料,采用甲醇+超声波提取法对样品中的槲皮素与山奈酚进行了提取,并根据正交试验设计确定最佳提取条件.用高效液相色谱法,以保留时间定性、外标法定量,研究葱样中槲皮素和山奈酚的含量,对色谱条件进行优化,并比较分析了两个地区红葱与市售白葱中的槲皮素和山奈酚含量差异.结果表明,方差分析可知槲皮素与山奈酚的最佳提取条件为:超声温度为60℃、时间为50 min、甲醇浓度为75%;最佳色谱条件为:色谱柱XDB-C18(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),柱温为30℃,流动相为甲醇0.5%冰醋酸(30:70),流速1.0 mL/min,检测波长为290 nm.通过比较分析可知,红葱中槲皮素与山奈酚含量均明显高于市售白葱,而盐池红葱中槲皮素与山奈酚含量也均明显高于同心红葱.

  10. Control of Hyperhydric Seeding in in vitro Culture of Potato Onion(Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum G.Don)%分蘖洋葱离体培养过程中超度含水态苗的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐启江; 吴姝菊; 陈典

    2008-01-01

    探讨培养基成分和容器通气性影响脱毒苗超度含水态苗率的结果表明:MS培养基组成减半(1/2MS培养基)可改善芽质体超度含水态分蘖洋葱苗的形成,MS基本培养基中添加0.4mg·L-1BA后,培养30 d的每个外植体可获得3.2个芽体,超度含水态苗率仅为9.7%,优于加激动素(Kin)的.培养基中琼脂(8 g-L-1)或蔗糖浓度(40 g-L-1)的提高和容器通透性的改善均可减少超度含水态苗的发生.

  11. 引发剂、杀真菌剂和生物制剂对洋葱种子的抑菌作用%Effects of priming,fungicide and biological treatments on onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫亚红; Dorna H

    2006-01-01

    以洋葱种子"Wolska"为材料,研究了在10 ℃时杀真菌剂、生物制剂、PEG 8000和水引发单独处理及复合处理对洋葱种子的抑菌效果.结果表明,未处理的对照种子主要受青霉菌感染;杀真菌剂(单独处理)在很大程度上可减少青霉菌的感染率;而生物制剂(Biozym生物合剂,Promot助长剂分别单独处理)未能很好地控制青霉菌的感染;水引发剂处理后,种子青霉菌的感染率极显著地低于未处理的对照种子;在杀真菌剂与PEG 8000同时处理种子和杀真菌剂先于水引发剂处理种子的2种复合处理中,可检测到高比例的未染菌种子.%Health tests were performed at 10 ℃ for untreated onion "Wolska" seeds,surface sterilized seeds,treated with fungicides and biological preparations (Biozym,Promot),osmoprimed and hydroprimed onion seeds.These tests were also carried out on seeds treated with fungicides and biological preparations in combination with osmo- and hydropriming.Untreated seeds were infested mainly with Penicillium spp.Fungicides alone reduced the incidence of Penicillium spp.on seeds to the large extent,whereas Biozym and Promot did not control these fungi.The percentage of seeds colonised by Penicillium spp.after hydropriming was significantly lower than that of untreated seeds,while after osmopriming was slightly higher.The considerable increase in inner infection by Penicillium spp.was observed after osmopriming.Among combined treatments the highest percentages of healthy seeds were observed when fungicides were applied during osmopriming or before hydropriming.

  12. Biomphalaria straminea no Peru e sua suscetibilidade a cepas brasileiras de Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Cuba Cuba

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Maio de 1973, um dos autores (C.A.C. coletou na localidade de Imacita, Província de Bagua, Departamento de Amazonas, vários espécimes de Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848, uma espécie que, até então, não havia sido assinalada no Peru. Descendentes destes indivíduos foram submetidos a provas de suscetibilidade às cepas BH e SJ de Schistosoma mansoni que, em condições naturais, evoluem em B. glabrata de Belo Horizonte e B. tenagophila de São José dos Campos, respectivamente. Oitenta espécimens foram expostos à cepa BH dos quais em 13 ou 16,2% a infecção evoluiu caracteristicamente até a formação de esporocistos secundários sem haver, contudo, eliminação de cercárias, mesmo no indivíduo que apresentou uma sobrevivência de 88 dias após a exposição. Não se verificou cura espontânea neste lote. Entre as 40 B. straminea expostas à cepa SJ 9 ou 22,5% infectaram-se, sendo que apenas duas eliminaram poucas cercárias aos 57 e 77 dias após a exposição, por dois dias consecutivos, tendo uma morrido e uma se curado espontaneamente. A cura espontânea do parasitismo foi notado em mais dois indivíduos, nos quais a infecção foi observada através da concha. Cortes histológicos seriados de 9 caramujos, expostos individualmente a 50 miracídios da cepa BH e fixados entre 6 e 120 horas após a exposição, mostraram esporocistos em desenvolvimento e esporocistos invadidos por amebócitos, sem formação de granulomas por parte do hospedeiro, fato assinalado em caramujos suscetíveis. A população estudada comportou-se experimentalmente de modo semelhante a outras populações de B. straminea testadas em laboratório, isto é, com baixa suscetibilidade, embora tal comportamento não afaste a possibilidade dela vir a manter o ciclo do parasita em sua área de distribuição.In May 1973 one of the Authors (C.A.C. collected specimens of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker 1848 at imacita, Bagua Province, Amazonas, Pem. This

  13. Screening antibiotics: industrial research by CEPA and Merck in the 1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesús Santesmases, María

    2011-01-01

    This article is an account of a screening programme in search of new antibiotics established by CEPA (Comparñia Española de Penicilinas y Antibióticos) and Merck in Madrid in 1954. An exploration of the genealogy for such a programme, its narratives and practices, shows that the main inspiration for this programme was the factory system of production, on the one hand, and Selman Waksman's research agenda on microorganisms of the soil, on the other. In this article, the relationship between industrial production of antibiotics and the research program aimed at identifying new candidate drugs is examined. I suggest that this screening program in search of new antibiotics was organised like industrial manufacturing. The research objects and tools came, both materially and conceptually, from industrial production: a line of artisanship put together in order to obtain a product with the collaboration of every member of the production line. Following the style developed by Selman Waksman in Rutgers, the screening program evaluated samples manually, and the microbiological skills were enhanced with every test. The Madrid team's practice of applying instructions for use led to circulation of knowledge and practices, including research material and microbiological methods. PMID:22332466

  14. Conservación de cepas de Candida utilis en agua destilada estéril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidín Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Algunos métodos han sido utilizados para el mantenimiento de la colección de levaduras. La elección de uno u otro tiene como objetivo garantizar la estabilidad de los cultivos; teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones y posibilidades económicas de la colección. En este trabajo se empleó la preservación de levaduras en agua destilada estéril por ser un método sencillo, económico, seguro y, capaz de garantizar la viabilidad de los cultivos por un período prolongado. Se conservaron 8 cepas de Candida utilis y se aseguró el 100% de supervivencia de las mismas en dicho sustrato durante tres años, a la vez que no se observaron cambios en las características fisiológicas y morfológicas de los cultivos. Palabras clave: preservación, levaduras, agua destilada.

  15. Establecimiento de un medio de cultivo sumergido para una cepa nativa de un hongo Poliporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Serna Carolina

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de dos velocidades de agitación (80 y 100 rpm, dos fuentes de carbono (glucosa y sacarosa y tres pH iniciales (5.5, 6.0 y 6.5 sobre la producción de fenoles totales, la actividad antioxidante, el crecimiento micelial y el consumo de sustrato de una cepa nativa de un hongo perteneciente al orden Poliporal en cultivo sumergido.El mayor crecimiento micelial se obtuvo al día 3 con un valor de 10 g/L a una velocidad de agitación de 80 rpm, sacarosa como fuente de carbono y pH inicial 5.5. La máxima producción de fenoles y actividad antioxidante se presentó este mismo día, alcanzando valores de 0.18 g GAE/L y 0.28 TEAC (mM/mL, respectivamente, para cualquiera de las dos velocidades de agitación evaluadas, con glucosa como fuente de carbono y con pH inicial 6.0 y/o 6.5 para fenoles y pH inicial 5.5 para actividad antioxidante.Palabras claves: actividad antioxidante, crecimiento micelial, cultivo sumergido, fenoles.

  16. Viabilidad y colonización de la Cepa Vacunal Vibrio Cholerae 638 liofilizada en dos formulaciones y almacenada a diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Delgado

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Una vacuna efectiva contra el cólera debe ser suministrada por vía oral. En este tipo de vacunas es muy importante conservar el microorganismo a concentraciones conocidas por períodos prolongados. La liofilización es el método ideal para lograr este objetivo, sin embargo, durante este proceso ocurren pérdidas considerables en la viabilidad de los microorganismos, por lo que se deben utilizar sustancias lioprotectoras que minimicen estas pérdidas. La viabilidad de la cepa vacunal y su capacidad de colonización son aspectos importantes para lograr la inmunogenicidad y por tanto la eficacia de la vacuna. Para la realización de este trabajo utilizamos la cepa vacunal 638, Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor Ogawa, liofilizada en las formulaciones F1 (lactosa, peptona, sorbitol y F9 (leche descremada, peptona, sorbitol. Se estudiaron muestras de lotes liofilizados y almacenados a 8 y -20ºC por períodos de tiempo de 6 meses y 1 año. Al cabo de dichos tiempos, se evaluó la pérdida de viabilidad y la capacidad de colonización de dicha cepa. También se analizó la actividad celulolítica (celA de los productos liofilizados. La viabilidad de la cepa liofilizada en F9 y almacenada a las diferentes temperaturas y tiempos fue ligeramente menor que en la F1. La actividad celA de la cepa vacunal, conservada y almacenada en estas condiciones, fue detectada en el 100% de las colonias analizadas. La cepa 638 colonizó el intestino de la mayoría de los ratones al cabo de las 24h de inoculados, excepto cuando se utilizó la cepa liofilizada en F9 y almacenada a 8ºC durante 1 año. No obstante, a las 120h se alcanzaron los niveles máximos de colonización observados para esta cepa en estudios previos sin liofilizar. Teniendo en cuenta todo lo anterior, ambas formulaciones mantienen, en niveles aceptables, la viabilidad, y la capacidad colonizadora de la cepa vacunal 638, almacenada hasta 1 año.

  17. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis procedentes de regiones endémicas de la Enfermedad de Carrión en EL Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Mendoza-Mujica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro a cloranfenicol (CHL y ciprofloxacino (CIP de cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis procedentes de áreas endémicas de la enfermedad de Carrión (EC en el Perú, mediante tres métodos de laboratorio. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a CHL y CIP de 100 cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis, los aislamientos procedieron de pacientes de los departamentos de Ancash, Cusco, Cajamarca, Lima y La Libertad; las cepas se evaluaron mediante: disco difusión, E-Test y dilución en agar. Resultados. El 26% de las cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis evaluadas, presentaron resistencia a CIP y 1% a CHL. Se obtuvieron patrones similares de sensibilidad/resistencia antimicrobiana en los tres métodos utilizados. Conclusiones. Las cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis circulantes en el Perú, presentan elevados niveles de resistencia in vitro a CIP, por lo que se recomienda ampliar la investigación sobre la utilización del fármaco en los esquemas de tratamiento de la EC. Los métodos de E-test y disco difusión resultaron más convenientes para la evaluación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro del microorganismo

  18. Composition of the essential oil of leaves and roots of Allium schoenoprasum L. (Alliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis BUITRAGO DÍAZ; Janne ROJAS VERA; Luís ROJAS FERMÍN; Antonio MORALES MÉNDEZ; Rosa APARICIO ZAMBRANO; Luís RODRÍGUEZ CONTRERAS

    2011-01-01

    Los aceites esenciales de hojas y raíces de Allium schoenoprasum L. (Alliaceae fueron analizados por CG/EM. La extracción por hidrodestilación mostró un rendimiento de 0.02% y 0.03% para las hojas y raíces, respectivamente. Cinco (99.12 % hojas) y cuatro (98.32 % raíces) compuestos fueron identificados siendo el bis-(2-sulfidietil)-disulfuro (72.06 % hojas, 56.47 % raíces) el compuesto mayoritario en los dos aceites mientras que 2,4,5-tritiahexano (5.45 % hojas, 15.90 % raíces) y tris (metilt...

  19. Subcellular localization of Cd in the root cells of Allium sativum by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Donghua Liu; Ingrid Kottke

    2003-06-01

    The ultrastructural investigation of the root cells of Allium sativum L. exposed to three different concentrations of Cd (100 M, 1 mM and 10 mM) for 9 days was carried out. The results showed that Cd induced several significant ultrastructural changes – high vacuolization in cytoplasm, deposition of electron-dense material in vacuoles and nucleoli and increment of disintegrated organelles. Data from electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) revealed that Cd was localized in the electron-dense precipitates in the root cells treated with 10 mM Cd. High amounts of Cd were mainly accumulated in the vacuoles and nucleoli of cortical cells in differentiating and mature root tissues. The mechanisms of detoxification and tolerance of Cd are briefly explained.

  20. A Comprehensive Review on Nickel (II And Chromium VI Toxicities - Possible Antioxidant (Allium Sativum Linn Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusal K.Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity associated with nickel (II and chromium (VI is mainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS with subsequent oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules. Both nickel and chromium can generate free radicals (FR directly from molecular oxygen in a two step process to produce superoxide anion and in continued process, produce highly toxic hydroxyl radical. The pro-oxidative effects are compounded by fact that they also inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione. Garlic (Allium sativum has played an important dietary and medicinal role throughout the history of mankind. Garlic has the potential to enhance the endogenous antioxidant status in nickel as well as hexavalent chromium induced lipid peroxidation in normal and diabetic rats.